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Sample records for effective venous thromboembolism

  1. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  2. Occupational effect on the occurrence of idiopathic venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Randall J; Jankosky, Christopher; Olsen, Cara H; Mallon, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Few studies have explored the effects of various occupations on venous thromboembolism occurrence. We examined idiopathic venous thromboembolism (IVTE) occurrence by occupation, body size, and age in the U.S. military. To capture idiopathic cases, exclusion criteria included recognized venous thromboembolism risk factors. Each case was matched to three controls on branch of service, sex, rank/grade, race, and education level. Body mass index, age, and occupation were analyzed with chi2 and logistic regression. Of 2,167 cases, most were male (87%), white (69%), enlisted (78%), averaging 36 years old. IVTE odds increased with age (p < 0.001). Every occupation showed greater odds than pilots/aircrew (p < 0.001), especially infantry/artillery/combat arms, which showed twice the odds, followed by health care workers. Normal weight was protective, especially in pilots/aircrew (OR 0.52, p = 0.03) and repair/engineering (OR 0.72, p < 0.001). Our analysis found a lower risk of IVTE among pilots and aircrew compared to other military occupations. Body size had less impact than expected in aircraft and vehicle operators. Greater odds in health care workers and infantry/artillery/combat arms than in pilots/aircrew and armor/motor transport occupational groups may reflect prolonged standing. Limitations include potential miscoding of health records and potential misclassification. Future IVTE research should explore job functions and worker characteristics. PMID:23113451

  3. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and—in women—pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing. PMID:26076949

  4. [Thromboprophylaxis of venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-07-01

    Recently in Japan, venous thromboembolism (VTE) [deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE)] has increased with the Westernization of eating habits and the aging of society. In the West, prophylactic guidelines have been discussed for many years, and, unfortunately, Japan falls far behind the West in this area. We developed Japanese Guidelines for VTE prophylaxis based on the 6th ACCP guidelines in 2004. The incidence of perioperative PTE in Japan has been investigated by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists since 2002. The rate of perioperative PTE was estimated to be 4.76 per 10,000 operations in 2003. As we expected, it significantly decreased after the guidelines for thromboprophylaxis were issued and the management fee for PTE prophylaxis was covered by health insurance in April 2004. However, mechanical prophylaxis is not sufficient to prevent mortality rates, and advanced prophylaxis by anticoagulants, such as low-molecular-weight heparin/Xa inhibitors along with unfractionated heparin/vitamin K antagonists will be essential. As a result of use of anticoagulants, mortality rates have been significantly decreased recently. PMID:25163326

  5. Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes Claire M. Hull and Julia A. Harris ... general adult population are indisputable. However, for the marathon athlete who trains intensively and for long periods ...

  6. Management of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Finks, Shannon W.; Trujillo, Toby C.; Dobesh, Paul P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review clinical data on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) used in the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as well as practical considerations when using these products. Data Sources: Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for VTE, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and relevant drug international nonproprietary names were conducted. Additional online searches were conducted for prescribing information. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Relevant articles on dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban for the management of VTE compared with oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs; published between 1966 and December 2015) were reviewed and summarized, together with information on dosing, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, and drug-drug interactions. Data Synthesis: The DOACs have the potential to circumvent many of the disadvantages of VKAs. At a minimum, they greatly increase the available therapeutic options, thus providing a greater opportunity for clinicians to select a management option that best fits the needs of individual patients. Despite the significant advance that DOACs represent, they are not without risk and require careful consideration of a number of clinical issues to optimize safety and efficacy. Conclusions: The emergence of DOACs for the management of thromboembolic disorders represents a paradigm shift from oral VKAs. The DOACs provide similar efficacy and improved safety in selected patients as compared with VKAs. Clinicians treating VTE need to be familiar with the intricacies involved in using these agents, including the appropriate dose selection for the relevant indication, avoidance of drug-drug and drug-disease interactions, and consideration of dose adjustments in specific clinical situations, such as organ dysfunction. PMID:26917821

  7. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  8. Cost-effective prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total joint arthroplasty: warfarin versus aspirin.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi Tabatabaee, Reza; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-02-01

    Although recent guidelines suggest aspirin for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in low risk patients following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there are no cost-effectiveness studies comparing aspirin and warfarin. In a Markov cohort cost-effectiveness analysis, we found that aspirin cost less and saved more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) than warfarin in all age groups. Cost per QALY gained by aspirin was $24,506.20 at age of 55 and $47,148.10 at the age of 85 following THA and $15,117.20 and $24,458.10 after TKA, which were greater than warfarin. In patients undergoing THA/TKA without prior VTE, aspirin is more cost-effective prophylactic agent than warfarin. Warfarin might be a better prophylaxis in TKA patients with high probability of VTE and very low probability of bleeding. PMID:25534862

  9. Statins and prevention of venous thromboembolism: Myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Sébastien; Cordeanu, Eléna-Mihaela; Nouri, Salah; Mirea, Corina; Stephan, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The pleiotropic effects of statins, beyond their cholesterol-lowering properties, are much debated. In primary prevention, several observational cohort and case-control studies appear to show that statins reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism by about 30%. In a single randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial (JUPITER), which included 17,000 patients, rosuvastatin 20mg/day reduced the risk of venous thromboembolism by 43%. However, these patients were at low risk of venous thromboembolism, and the frequency of the event was, in principle, low. In secondary prevention, several observational studies and post-hoc analyses of randomized clinical trials have suggested that statins may prevent recurrence of venous thromboembolism. However, none of these studies had enough scientific weight to form the basis of a recommendation to use statins for secondary prevention. The putative preventive effect of statins appears to be independent of plasma cholesterol concentration and could be a pharmacological property of the statin class, although a dose-effect relationship has not been demonstrated. The mechanism through which statins might prevent venous thrombosis is thought to involve their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects or perhaps a more specific action, by blocking the degradation of antithrombotic proteins. A mechanism involving the action of statins on interactions between risk factors for atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism is supported by some studies, but not all. In the absence of firm evidence, statins cannot currently be recommended for primary or secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26778087

  10. The Role of Platelets in Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Montoro-García, Silvia; Schindewolf, Marc; Stanford, Sophia; Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Thiele, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Platelets have attracted much interest in arterial cardiovascular disease, whereas their role in VTE has received much less attention. Recent evidence suggests that platelets may play a more important role in VTE than previously anticipated. This review discusses the mechanisms that link platelets with venous thrombotic disease and their potential applications as novel risk factors for VTE. In addition, animal studies and randomized clinical trials that highlight the potential effect of antiplatelet therapy in venous thrombosis are evaluated to assess the role of platelets in VTE. The clinical significance of platelets for VTE risk assessment in specific patient cohorts and their role as a suitable therapeutic target for VTE prevention is acknowledged. The role of platelets in VTE is a promising field for future research. PMID:26926584

  11. Topical issues in venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Abad Rico, José Ignacio; Llau Pitarch, Juan Vicente; Páramo Fernández, José Antonio

    2010-12-14

    Despite clear guidelines and the availability of effective treatments, venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains relatively common, particularly in the hospital setting. This paper reviews topical issues in VTE, in terms of treatments, data and guidelines. Existing anticoagulants have several limitations. Bleeding risk is a concern with all anticoagulants. Vitamin K antagonists are the mainstay of oral anticoagulant therapy, but they are limited by the need for frequent monitoring. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is limited by an inconvenient route of administration (continuous intravenous infusion) and a higher risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and bleeding compared with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). LMWH have a more predictable pharmacokinetic profile and greater bioavailability than UFH, which permits weight-adjusted LMWH dosing without the need for monitoring in most patients. LMWH also have a more convenient dosing strategy than UFH (once-daily subcutaneous injection). Fondaparinux is a selective inhibitor of factor Xa and, like LMWH, does not require monitoring. The efficacy of fondaparinux in long-term VTE treatment remains to be established. The optimal time to initiate thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery remains controversial. Initiating thromboprophylaxis just before or soon after surgery (the 'just-in-time' strategy) achieves better thromboprophylaxis but could increase the risk of bleeding complications. Balancing the need for extended thromboprophylaxis after major surgery with the need to minimize bleeding remains an important consideration. Despite clear guidelines, thromboprophylaxis is widely underused, particularly in medical patients, in whom rates as low as 28% have been reported. Electronic alert systems may be of value for increasing the use of adequate thromboprophylaxis. The use of different definitions of VTE and bleeding in clinical trials, together with missing venography data, conflicting guidelines in

  12. Effect of Statins on Venous Thromboembolic Events: A Meta-analysis of Published and Unpublished Evidence from Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Kazem; Bhala, Neeraj; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Emberson, Jonathan; Biere-Rafi, Sara; Krane, Vera; Robertson, Michele; Wikstrand, John; McMurray, John

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that statins substantially reduce the risk of venous thromboembolic events. We sought to test this hypothesis by performing a meta-analysis of both published and unpublished results from randomised trials of statins. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL up to March 2012 for randomised controlled trials comparing statin with no statin, or comparing high dose versus standard dose statin, with 100 or more randomised participants and at least 6 months' follow-up. Investigators were contacted for unpublished information about venous thromboembolic events during follow-up. Twenty-two trials of statin versus control (105,759 participants) and seven trials of an intensive versus a standard dose statin regimen (40,594 participants) were included. In trials of statin versus control, allocation to statin therapy did not significantly reduce the risk of venous thromboembolic events (465 [0.9%] statin versus 521 [1.0%] control, odds ratio [OR] = 0.89, 95% CI 0.78–1.01, p = 0.08) with no evidence of heterogeneity between effects on deep vein thrombosis (266 versus 311, OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.01) and effects on pulmonary embolism (205 versus 222, OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.76–1.12). Exclusion of the trial result that provided the motivation for our meta-analysis (JUPITER) had little impact on the findings for venous thromboembolic events (431 [0.9%] versus 461 [1.0%], OR = 0.93 [95% CI 0.82–1.07], p = 0.32 among the other 21 trials). There was no evidence that higher dose statin therapy reduced the risk of venous thromboembolic events compared with standard dose statin therapy (198 [1.0%] versus 202 [1.0%], OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.80–1.20, p = 0.87). Risk of bias overall was small but a certain degree of effect underestimation due to random error cannot be ruled out. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. Conclusions The findings from this meta-analysis do not support the

  13. Increased thromboxane production in women with a history of venous thromboembolic event: effect of heparins.

    PubMed

    Kaaja, R; Pettilä, V; Leinonen, P; Ylikorkala, O

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the production of prostacyclin and thromboxane in pregnant women with a previous venous thromboembolic event before, during and after the use of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin). Twenty women were studied before starting heparin prophylaxis (before 20 weeks of gestation), during heparin prophylaxis (at 30 weeks of gestation) and after heparin prophylaxis (16 weeks after delivery). Ten pregnant women with no history of thromboembolism were studied as the control group. Urinary output of the stable metabolite of prostacyclin (2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1alpha) and that of thromboxane A2 (2,3-dinor-TxB2), as well as a number of markers of thrombophilia were measured and expressed as mean (+/-SEM). Women with a history of thromboembolism were characterized by normal prostacyclin production but elevated thromboxane production (44.0 +/- 4.1 versus 19.0 +/- 3.6 ng/mmol creatinine, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks of pregnancy. Heparin prophylaxis (regardless of the type) had abolished elevated thromboxane concentrations at 30 weeks of gestation. Four months after delivery, thromboxane dominance had returned (25.2 +/- 3.5 versus 13.6 +/- 2.1 ng/mmol creatinine, P < 0.01). The presence of hereditary thrombophilia (9/20) was not associated with any changes in prostanoid concentrations. Thus, women with a history of venous thromboembolic events have thromboxane dominance during and after pregnancy, but this dominance can be eliminated through the use of heparins. PMID:11552994

  14. [Management of venous thromboembolism: A 2015 update].

    PubMed

    Galanaud, J-P; Messas, E; Blanchet-Deverly, A; Quéré, I; Wahl, D; Pernod, G

    2015-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) constitute venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). Venous thromboembolic disease is a common, serious, and multifactorial disease, the incidence of which increases with age. Risk factors, whether transient (surgery, plaster immobilization, bed rest/hospitalization) or chronic/persistent (age, cancer, clinical or biological thrombophilia, etc.), modulate the duration of treatment. In the absence of pathognomonic clinical sign or symptom, diagnostic management relies in the evaluation of the clinical pre-test probability followed by a laboratory or an imaging testing. So far, compression ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography angiography are the best diagnostic tests to make a positive diagnosis of DVT or PE, respectively. Anticoagulants at therapeutic dose for at least 3months constitute the cornerstone of VTE management. Availability of new direct oral anticoagulants, which have recently been shown to be as effective and as safe as vitamin K antagonist in clinical trials, should facilitate ambulatory management of VTE and favour extended treatments for individuals with unprovoked VTE or VTE provoked by a chronic/persistent risk factor. PMID:26235049

  15. Edoxaban in venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention: an appraisal.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Marco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Oral anticoagulation is the therapeutic cornerstone in preventing thromboembolic risk in both atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). After decades of the sole therapeutic oral anticoagulation option being warfarin, the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants has heralded a new era. Edoxaban is the latest addition to these available for clinical use. Edoxaban was as effective and safer than warfarin in preventing thromboembolic risk in AF patients. Similarly, edoxaban effectiveness and safety was evident when treating VTE patients to prevent recurrent VTE or VTE-related death. Therefore, edoxaban represents a valuable alternative in treating thromboembolic risk for AF and VTE patients. PMID:27013883

  16. Edoxaban in venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention: an appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Marco; Lip, Gregory YH

    2016-01-01

    Oral anticoagulation is the therapeutic cornerstone in preventing thromboembolic risk in both atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). After decades of the sole therapeutic oral anticoagulation option being warfarin, the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants has heralded a new era. Edoxaban is the latest addition to these available for clinical use. Edoxaban was as effective and safer than warfarin in preventing thromboembolic risk in AF patients. Similarly, edoxaban effectiveness and safety was evident when treating VTE patients to prevent recurrent VTE or VTE-related death. Therefore, edoxaban represents a valuable alternative in treating thromboembolic risk for AF and VTE patients. PMID:27013883

  17. Investigational treatments of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulos, Alex C

    2007-04-01

    The antithrombotic management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has gone through major developments. Indirect inhibitors such as low molecular weight heparin and the pentasaccharide fondaparinux represent improvements over traditional drugs such as unfractionated heparin for acute treatment of VTE with more targeted approaches, predictable pharmacokinetic profiles and lack of need for monitoring. Vitamin K antagonists, with inherent limitations of multiple food and drug interactions and frequent need for monitoring, remain the only oral anticoagulants approved for long-term secondary thromboprophylaxis in VTE with the removal of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran from the world market due to safety concerns. Newer anticoagulant drugs such as parenteral pentasaccharides (idraparinux and SSR-126517-E), oral direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran), oral direct Factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, YM-150 and DU-176b) and tissue factor-Factor VIIa complex inhibitors (NAPc2) are tailor-made to target specific procoagulant complexes and have the potential to greatly expand our antithrombotic armamentarium for both acute and long-term treatment of VTE, especially as non-monitored parenteral and oral anticoagulants with a wide therapeutic window and a predictable anticoagulant response. PMID:17371192

  18. Menopausal hormone therapy and venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is the most effective method of treating vasomotor symptoms and other climacteric symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in peri- and postmenopausal period. In addition to estrogen replacement, women with preserved uterus require the addition of progestagen in order to ensure endometrial safety. One of rare but severe complications of MHT is venous thromboembolism (VTE). The incidence of VTE rises in parallel to women's age and body weight. The condition is also linked to hereditary and acquired risk factors. Oral estrogens increase the risk of venous thromboembolic complications to varying extents, probably depending on their type and dose used. Observational studies have not found an association between an increased risk of VTE and transdermal estrogen treatment regardless of women's age and body mass index (BMI). Micronized progesterone and pregnanes, including dydrogesterone, have no effect on the risk of VTE, whereas norpregnane progestagens cause an additional increase in risk. Among hormonal preparations which are commercially available in Poland, the combination of transdermal estradiol with oral dydrogesterone appears to be the optimum choice, as it does not elevate the risk of VTE (compared to patients not using MHT), and dydrogesterone seems to be the progestagen of choice. PMID:26327865

  19. Effective management of venous thromboembolism in the community: non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is essential for the effective treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). For many years, anticoagulation for acute VTE was limited to the use of initial parenteral heparin, overlapping with and followed by a vitamin K antagonist. Although highly effective, this regimen has several limitations and is particularly challenging when given in an ambulatory setting. Current treatment pathways for most patients with deep-vein thrombosis typically involve initial hospital or community-based ambulatory care with subsequent follow-up in a secondary care setting. With the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) into routine clinical practice, it is now possible for the initial acute management of patients with deep-vein thrombosis to be undertaken by primary care. As hospital admissions associated with VTE become shorter, primary care will play an increasingly important role in the long-term management of these patients. Although the NOACs can potentially simplify patient management and improve clinical outcomes, primary care physicians may be less familiar with these new treatments compared with traditional therapy. To assist primary care physicians in further understanding the role of the NOACs, this article outlines the main differences between NOACs and traditional anticoagulation therapy and discusses the benefit–risk profile of the different NOACs in the treatment and secondary prevention of recurrent VTE. Key considerations for the use of NOACs in the primary care setting are highlighted, including dose transition, risk assessment and follow-up, duration of anticoagulant therapy, how to minimize bleeding risks, and the importance of patient education and counseling. PMID:27217793

  20. PROPHYLAXIS OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM IN ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez; Sguizzatto, Guilherme Turolla

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and its complications in orthopedic surgery is increasingly significant. This review discusses the pathophysiology of thrombus formation in general and orthopedic surgery, its incidence, predisposing factors and complications. It also presents an updated presentation and critique of prophylaxis currently available in our environment. PMID:27047885

  1. Microparticles as biomarkers of venous thromboembolic events.

    PubMed

    Campello, Elena; Spiezia, Luca; Radu, Claudia M; Simioni, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small (0.1-1.0 μm) membrane vesicles constitutively released from the surface of cells after activation and apoptosis. The clinical research on MPs is hampered by the limitations of the currently available detection methods. A correlation between MPs and venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been observed. The effects of MPs on thrombogenesis involve the exposure of phosphatidylserine, the vehiculation of tissue factor, and MP-induced intercellular cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation. This review will focus on the potential role of plasma MPs as biomarkers in detecting acute unprovoked VTE, predicting VTE occurrence in high-risk situations (mainly cancer), and ultimately, we will discuss currently available studies on the prognostic role of MPs to guide primary and secondary VTE prevention protocols. PMID:27338783

  2. Controversies in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, G; Righini, M

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decades, important advances have been made in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Current diagnostic strategies rely on the sequential use of non-invasive diagnostic tests, based on the pretest clinical probability of disease. Diagnostic tests include D-dimer measurement, leg vein compression ultrasonography, chest computed tomography pulmonary angiography, or ventilation perfusion (V/Q) lung scan. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these strategies have been extensively validated. They have been widely implemented in clinical practice and have replaced the historical gold standard diagnostic tests (venography and pulmonary angiography). However, new challenges arise, including a lower clinical suspicion threshold and concerns on potential over-diagnosis of VTE. Moreover, the diagnostic management remains suboptimal in many subgroups of patients with suspected VTE: patients with prior VTE, pregnant women, or elderly patients. PMID:26149033

  3. Chemoprophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Prevention: Concerns Regarding Efficacy and Ethics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Chemoprophylaxis has been recommended for plastic surgery patients judged to be at increased risk for venous thromboembolism. Several investigators have encountered this complication in patients despite anticoagulation therapy. An increased rate of complications related to postoperative bleeding has been reported. This article examines the efficacy and safety of this intervention, along with ethical considerations, in an attempt to determine whether any benefits of chemoprophylaxis justify the additional risks. The statistical methods and conclusion of the Venous Thromboembolism Prevention Study are challenged. Other preventative measures that do not cause negative side effects are discussed as safer alternatives. PMID:25289217

  4. New anticoagulants: focus on venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Lecumberri, Ramón; Pozo, Carmen; Rocha, Eduardo

    2009-07-01

    Anticoagulation is recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and/or arterial thromboembolism. The therapeutic arsenal of anticoagulants available to clinicians is mainly composed by unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux and oral vitamin K antagonists (VKA) (i.e. warfarin and acenocumarol). These anticoagulants are effective, but they require parenteral administration (UFH, LMWH, fondaparinux) and/or frequent anticoagulant monitoring (intravenous UFH, oral VKA). Novel anticoagulants in clinical testing include orally active direct factor II inhibitors [dabigatran etexilate (BIBR 1048), AZD0837)], parenteral direct factor II inhibitors (flovagatran sodium), orally active direct factor X inhibitors [rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939), apixaban, betrixaban, YM150, DU-176b, LY-517717, GW813893, TAK-442, PD 0348292] and new parenteral FXa inhibitors [idraparinux, idrabiotaparinux (biotinilated idraparinux; SSR 126517), ultra-low-molecular-weight heparins (ULMWH: AVE5026, RO-14)]. These new compounds have the potential to complement heparins and fondaparinux for short-term anticoagulation and/or to replace VKA for long-term anticoagulation in most patients. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban have been the firsts of the new oral anticoagulants to be licensed for the prevention of VTE after hip and knee replacement surgery. In the present review, we discuss the pharmacology of new anticoagulants, the key points necessary for interpreting the results of studies on VTE prophylaxis and treatment, the results of clinical trials testing these new compounds and their potential advantages and drawbacks over existing therapies. PMID:19601856

  5. Fish Intake and Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Diet plays an important role in modulating the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. Several lines of evidence attest that consumption of fish and its compounds, especially omega-3 fatty acids, may be effective to decrease the cardiovascular risk. Since the pathogenesis of arterial and venous thrombosis share some common aspects, we performed a systematic review of published clinical studies that investigated the association between fish intake and venous thrombosis. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science using the key words "fish" OR "seafood" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism", with no language or date restriction. Overall, 6 studies (5 prospective and 1 case-control) were finally identified. In only 1 small case-control study, a larger intake of total fish was found to be negatively associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism. No association was found in 4 large prospective studies, whereas a positive association was observed in the remaining. No substantial difference was also noticed between intake of fatty or lean fish. Taken together, the current epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of a significant effect of total fish consumption on the risk of venous thromboembolism. PMID:25962392

  6. Effectiveness of D-Dimer as a Screening Test for Venous Thromboembolism: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Pulivarthi, Swaroopa; Gurram, Murali Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. We searched the PubMed database and reviewed the articles published until June 2011. Articles related to the D-dimer and VTE were considered to write this paper. Many factors play a key role in changing the sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer testing, including the extent of thrombosis and fibrinolytic activity, duration of symptoms, anticoagulant therapy, comorbidity due to surgical or medical illnesses, inflammatory diseases, cancer, elderly age, pregnancy and the postpartum period, and previous VTE. Many previous studies have shown that the D-dimer test is highly sensitive (>95%) in acute deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, usually with a cut-off value of 500 μg FEU/l, which reasonably rules out acute VTE, particularly in patients with low clinical probability (LCP) or intermediate clinical probability. Patients with high D-dimer levels upon presentation may prompt a more intense diagnostic approach, irrespective of pretest probability. Studies performed after a negative D-dimer for 3 months proved the high negative predictive value (NPV) of D-dimer testing together with LCP in patients with suspected VTE. Among oncology patients, D-dimer testing has the highest sensitivity and NPV in excluding VTE. The new cutoff values of D-dimer testing were analyzed in a recent prospective study of pregnant women; they are 286 ng DDU/ml, 457 ng DDU/ml, and 644 ng DDU/ml for the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. PMID:25489560

  7. Effectiveness of d-dimer as a screening test for venous thromboembolism: an update.

    PubMed

    Pulivarthi, Swaroopa; Gurram, Murali Krishna

    2014-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. We searched the PubMed database and reviewed the articles published until June 2011. Articles related to the D-dimer and VTE were considered to write this paper. Many factors play a key role in changing the sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer testing, including the extent of thrombosis and fibrinolytic activity, duration of symptoms, anticoagulant therapy, comorbidity due to surgical or medical illnesses, inflammatory diseases, cancer, elderly age, pregnancy and the postpartum period, and previous VTE. Many previous studies have shown that the D-dimer test is highly sensitive (>95%) in acute deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, usually with a cut-off value of 500 μg FEU/l, which reasonably rules out acute VTE, particularly in patients with low clinical probability (LCP) or intermediate clinical probability. Patients with high D-dimer levels upon presentation may prompt a more intense diagnostic approach, irrespective of pretest probability. Studies performed after a negative D-dimer for 3 months proved the high negative predictive value (NPV) of D-dimer testing together with LCP in patients with suspected VTE. Among oncology patients, D-dimer testing has the highest sensitivity and NPV in excluding VTE. The new cutoff values of D-dimer testing were analyzed in a recent prospective study of pregnant women; they are 286 ng DDU/ml, 457 ng DDU/ml, and 644 ng DDU/ml for the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. PMID:25489560

  8. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: risk assessment, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Tukaye, Deepali N; Brink, Heidi; Baliga, Ragavendra

    2016-03-01

    Thrombosis and thromboembolic events contribute to significant morbidity in cancer patients. Venous thrombosis embolism (which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) accounts for a large percentage of thromboembolic events. Appropriate identification of cancer patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism and management of thromboembolic event is crucial in improving the quality of care for cancer patients. However, thromboembolism in cancer patients is a complex problem and the management has to be tailored to each individual. The focus of this review is to understand the complex pathology, physiology and risk factors that drive the process of venous thrombosis and embolism in cancer patients and the current guidelines in management. PMID:26919091

  9. Secular trends in occurrence of acute venous thromboembolism: the Worcester venous thromboembolism study (1985 to 2009)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Goldberg, Robert J.; Anderson, Frederick A.; Kiefe, Catarina I; Spencer, Frederick A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The clinical epidemiology of venous thromboembolism has changed recently due to advances in identification, prophylaxis, and treatment. We sought to describe secular trends in occurrence of venous thromboembolism among residents of the Worcester, Massachusetts, metropolitan statistical area (WMSA). METHODS Population-based methods were used to monitor trends in event rates of first-time or recurrent venous thromboembolism in 5025 WMSA residents diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism and/or lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis during 9 annual periods between 1985 and 2009. Medical records were reviewed by abstractors and validated by clinicians. RESULTS Age- and sex-adjusted annual event rates for first-time venous thromboembolism increased from 73 (95% CI 64–82) per 100,000 in 1985/1986 to 133 (122–143) in 2009, due mostly to an increase in pulmonary embolism. The rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism decreased from 39 (32–45) in 1985/1986 to 19 (15–23) in 2003, and then increased to 35 (29–40) in 2009. There was an increasing trend in using non-invasive diagnostic testing, with about half of tests being invasive in 1985/1986 and almost all non-invasive by 2009. CONCLUSIONS Despite advances in identification, prophylaxis, and treatment between 1985 and 2009, the annual event rate of venous thromboembolism has increased and remains high. While these increases may be partially due to increased sensitivity of diagnostic methods, especially for pulmonary embolism, it may also imply that current prevention and treatment strategies are less than optimal. PMID:24813864

  10. Direct oral anticoagulants and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), consisting of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major clinical concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of management of VTE is anticoagulation, and traditional anticoagulants include parenteral heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists. Recently, new oral anticoagulant drugs have been developed and licensed, including direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran etexilate). This narrative review focusses on the characteristics of these direct anticoagulants and the main results of published clinical studies on their use in the prevention and treatment of VTE. PMID:27581829

  11. Chronic kidney disease and venous thromboembolism: epidemiology and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wattanakit, Keattiyoat; Cushman, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review An estimated 13% of Americans have kidney disease. We sought to describe the association of kidney disease with risk of venous thromboembolism and discuss possible mechanisms explaining this association. Recent findings All severities of kidney disease appear to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. In the general population the risk associated with mild to moderate kidney disease is 1.3–2-fold increased, and present even for microalbuminuria, although stage 1 chronic kidney disease itself has not been studied. End-stage renal disease is also associated with a 2.3-fold increased risk, compared to the general population. Although data are limited, risk increases after kidney transplant and with nephrotic syndrome as well. Summary Rates of kidney disease are increasing rapidly in the population and kidney disease is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. An improved understanding of mechanisms linking kidney disease with venous thromboembolism will allow further study of best prevention efforts. PMID:19561505

  12. Massachusetts Health Reform was Cost Saving for Individuals with New Venous Thromboembolism: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Alok; Shaffer, Nicholas; Hanchate, Amresh; Roberts, Mark; Smith, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) require access to comprehensive physician and pharmacy benefits to prevent recurrence and hemorrhage. Prior to 2006, Massachusetts provided these benefits through a program restricted to safety net hospitals called Free Care. Providing portable health insurance through Massachusetts health reform could improve outcomes for uninsured with VTE but its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods and Results We constructed a Markov decision analysis model comparing our conceptualization of the Massachusetts health reform (“health reform strategy”) to no health reform strategy for a patient beginning warfarin for new episode of VTE. In the model, a patient may develop recurrent VTE or develop hemorrhage or stop warfarin after 6 months if no event occurs. To measure effectiveness, we analyzed laboratory data from Boston Medical Center, the largest safety net hospital in Massachusetts. Specifically, we measured the probability of having a subtherapeutic warfarin level for patients newly insured compared to those on Free Care pre-reform adjusting for secular trends. To calculate inpatient costs, we used the Health Care Utilization Project (HCUP). We then calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the health reform strategy adjusted to 2014 USD per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and performed sensitivity analyses. The health reform strategy cost less and gained more QALYS than the no health reform strategy. Our result was most sensitive to the odds that Health Reform protected against a subtherapeutic warfarin level, the cost of Health Reform, and the percentage of total health care costs attributable to VTE in Massachusetts. Conclusions The health reform strategy cost less and was more effective than the no health reform strategy for patients with VTE. PMID:26908086

  13. Alcohol consumption and venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A light to moderate consumption of certain types of alcoholic beverages may exert a favorable effect on cardiovascular risk, but no conclusive information is available on the putative relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed an electronic search on Medline and Scopus, using the keywords "venous thromboembolism", "venous thrombosis" and "alcohol", to identify clinical studies linking alcohol intake and VTE risk. The literature search generated 16 studies, 4 of which are case-control, 1 cross-sectional and 11 prospective. Significant reduction of VTE associated with alcohol intake is observed in only 4/16 studies, and in all these the association is only meaningful for a moderate amount of alcohol (i.e., 2-4 glasses). Unlike these trials, two other studies observe that alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of VTE, whereas the association is insignificant in the remainder. Binge drinking increases the VTE risk in one study but not in another. The consumption of beer is associated with a decreased VTE risk in one study but not in two others. We hence conclude that the relationship between intake of alcoholic beverages and increased or decreased risk of VTE is largely elusive. PMID:26446524

  14. New anticoagulants for treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Gross, Peter L; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2008-03-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is the cornerstone of treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Such treatment is divided into 2 stages: Rapid initial anticoagulation is given to minimize the risk of thrombus extension and fatal pulmonary embolism, whereas extended anticoagulation is aimed at preventing recurrent VTE, thereby reducing the risk of postphlebitic syndrome. With currently available drugs, immediate anticoagulation can only be achieved with parenteral agents, such as heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, or fondaparinux. Extended treatment usually involves the administration of vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin. Emerging anticoagulants have the potential to streamline VTE treatment. These agents include idraparinux, a long-acting synthetic pentasaccharide that is given subcutaneously on a once-weekly basis, and new oral anticoagulants that target thrombin or factor Xa. This article (1) reviews the pharmacology of these agents, (2) outlines their potential strengths and weaknesses, (3) describes the results of clinical trials with these new drugs, and (4) identifies the evolving role of new anticoagulants in the management of VTE. PMID:18296593

  15. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Bever, Katherine M; Masha, Luke I; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C; Sloan, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60-11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  16. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bever, Katherine M.; Masha, Luke I.; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C.; Sloan, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60–11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  17. Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolic Disease, Version 1.2015.

    PubMed

    Streiff, Michael B; Holmstrom, Bjorn; Ashrani, Aneel; Bockenstedt, Paula L; Chesney, Carolyn; Eby, Charles; Fanikos, John; Fenninger, Randolph B; Fogerty, Annemarie E; Gao, Shuwei; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hendrie, Paul; Kuderer, Nicole; Lee, Alfred; Lee, Jason T; Lovrincevic, Mirjana; Millenson, Michael M; Neff, Anne T; Ortel, Thomas L; Paschal, Rita; Shattil, Sanford; Siddiqi, Tanya; Smock, Kristi J; Soff, Gerald; Wang, Tzu-Fei; Yee, Gary C; Zakarija, Anaadriana; McMillian, Nicole; Engh, Anita M

    2015-09-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolic Disease outline strategies for treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adult patients with a diagnosis of cancer or for whom cancer is clinically suspected. VTE is a common complication in patients with cancer, which places them at greater risk for morbidity and mortality. Therefore, risk-appropriate prophylaxis is an essential component for the optimal care of inpatients and outpatients with cancer. Critical to meeting this goal is ensuring that patients get the most effective medication in the correct dose. Body weight has a significant impact on blood volume and drug clearance. Because obesity is a common health problem in industrialized societies, cancer care providers are increasingly likely to treat obese patients in their practice. Obesity is a risk factor common to VTE and many cancers, and may also impact the anticoagulant dose needed for safe and effective prophylaxis. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the data supporting new dosing recommendations for VTE prophylaxis in obese patients with cancer. PMID:26358792

  18. New anticoagulants for the prevention of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Becattini, Cecilia; Lignani, Alessandra; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    Anticoagulant drugs have an essential role in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Currently available anticoagulants substantially reduce the incidence of thromboembolic events in a number of clinical conditions. However, these agents have limitations that strengthen the case for the development of new anticoagulants. An ideal anticoagulant should be at least as effective as those currently in use, as well as safe, simple to use, and widely applicable. The majority of new anticoagulants currently under investigation are small molecules with a selective and direct anti-Xa or antithrombin action, allowing oral administration in fixed doses. These new agents are in different phases of clinical development. The anti-Xa agent rivaroxaban and the antithrombin agent dabigatran are already available for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in some countries. Apixaban is in an advanced phase of clinical development and several anti-Xa agents are currently approaching phase III clinical trials. Promising results in terms of efficacy and safety profiles have been obtained with these agents in different clinical conditions. Differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics could offer the potential for individualized anticoagulant therapies in the near future. PMID:20531960

  19. SP-05VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM AND GLIOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Mandel, Jacob; Ying, Yuan; Wu, Jimin; Courtney, C.; Ladha, Harshad; Pawar, Tushar; Gilbert, Mark; Armstrong, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is very high for patients with brain tumors; Glioblastoma (GB) specifically is one of the most at risk cancers. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency and identify potential risk factors of GB patients developing VTE during adjuvant chemotherapy and to test if the Khorana scale accurately predicts the risk of VTE among this patient population. We retrospectively reviewed patients with GB treated at MD Anderson during the years 2005-2011. The target population of our study was patients who developed VTE after starting adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were excluded if they did not start treatment with the established standard of care, had less than 6 months follow up or if they developed VTE before starting adjuvant treatment. The study sample included 440 patients. 64 (14.5%) of them developed VTE. The median time to develop VTE was 6.5 months. On multivariate analysis male sex, BMI≥ 35, KPS ≤80, history of VTE and steroid therapy were significantly associated with the development of VTE. We also found that in this patient sample, the Khorana scale was not a valid predictive model in GB patients due to very poor specificity. Of the 64 patients who developed a VTE, 36 were treated with anticoagulation, 2 with an IVC filter, and 21 with both. Complications secondary to anticoagulation were reported in 16% (n = 10) of patients. The complications included intracranial hemorrhage, bleeding to other organs and thrombocytopenia. VTE is very common in patients with GB. Currently, we are lacking a scale that accurately predicts the risk of VTE among GB patients. Predictive scales used for other cancers do not seem valid for GB due to the unique nature of the disease. Future studies are needed to create an accurate predictive model for VTE in GB patients.

  20. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria M; Hogue, Susan; Preblick, Ronald; Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent literature to provide updated cost estimates on VTE management. Methods Literature search strategies were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, Health Economic Evaluations Database, EconLit, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 2003–2014. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications. Results Eighteen studies were identified and are summarized in this review; of these, 13 reported data from the USA, four from Europe, and one from Canada. Three main cost estimations were identified: cost per VTE hospitalization or per VTE readmission; cost for VTE management, usually reported annually or during a specific period; and annual all-cause costs in patients with VTE, which included the treatment of complications and comorbidities. Cost estimates per VTE hospitalization were generally similar across the US studies, with a trend toward an increase over time. Cost per pulmonary embolism hospitalization increased from $5,198–$6,928 in 2000 to $8,764 in 2010. Readmission for recurrent VTE was generally more costly than the initial index event admission. Annual health plan payments for services related to VTE also increased from $10,804–$16,644 during the 1998–2004 period to an estimated average of $15,123 for a VTE event from 2008 to 2011. Lower costs for VTE hospitalizations and annualized all-cause costs were estimated in European countries and Canada. Conclusion Costs for VTE treatment are considerable and increasing faster than general inflation for medical care services, with hospitalization costs being the primary cost driver. Readmissions for VTE are generally more costly than the initial VTE admission. Further studies evaluating the economic impact of new

  1. [Prevention of venous thromboembolism: generally accepted guidelines].

    PubMed

    Gumulec, J; Penka, M; Bezdĕk, R; Wróbel, M; Kessler, P; Brejcha, M; Klodová, D; Sumná, E; Králová, S

    2006-03-01

    This article summarizes the published data on the prevention of venous thromboembolism. Routine thromboprophylaxis is the best way to lower the risk. It is recommended to sort patients according the thrombosis risk and to make use of the standard prophylactic modes. In low risk patients, no specific thromboprophylaxis is needed. Patients with moderate risk levels are candidates for administration of subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at doses under 3 400 anti-Xa units a day and patients with increased risk at doses higher than 3400 anti-Xa units a day during the period of higher risk. In order to decrease the risk of bleeding, a half dose 2 hours prior or 4-6 hours after the operation can be administered. Under the highest risk conditions, there is a recommendation to combine LMWH over 3 400 anti-Xa units with elastic panty-hose or, alternatively, with intermittent pneumatic compression. At moderate risk levels, subcutaneous administration of unfractionated heparin at the doses of 5 000 units twice a day is also possible and at increased risk levels, a TID administration over the increased risk period. In patients with a significant bleeding risk, the physical method of thromboprophylaxis can be used and pharmacological prophylaxis can set in after the risk of bleeding has passed. Fondaparinux is the alternative to LMWH in people after major orthopaedic surgeries and with a history of heparin induced thrombocytopenia over the past three months. An alternative to the administration of LMWH even after the end of the hospitalization can be warfarin in certain situations. The sole use of acetylsalicylic acid or Rheodextran is not recommended. While undertaking epidural anaesthesia or analgesia, it is necessary to follow strictly the guidelines of the use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. PMID:16637444

  2. Management of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, J S; Bates, S M

    2003-07-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) probably increases 2-4-fold in pregnancy and is higher after a caesarean section than after vaginal delivery. Management of VTE in pregnancy is challenging. Many diagnostic tests are less accurate in pregnant than in non-pregnant patients and some radiologic procedures expose the fetus to ionizing radiation, although this can be reduced by taking appropriate precautions. Compression ultrasonography (CUS) is the test of choice for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), whereas for PE, V/Q lung scan is the first-line test, followed by CUS if the results are non-diagnostic. Anticoagulants that have been evaluated for the prevention and treatment of VTE in pregnancy include heparin and heparin compounds, and coumarin derivatives. When determining the optimal treatment regimens, it is important to consider: (i) the safety of the drug for the fetus and mother; (ii) the efficacy of the regimen; and (iii) the dose regimens for acute and secondary treatment, and during delivery and postpartum. Heparins are safer than coumarins for the fetus, as they do not cross the placental barrier. Heparins, particularly unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) tend also to be safer for the mother than other compounds. Of the two, LMWHs, although more expensive, are associated with lower rates of bleeding complications, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and osteoporosis, than UFH, and should therefore be the treatment of choice in VTE during pregnancy. Patients with prior VTE or a hypercoagulable state have an increased risk of VTE during pregnancy. Depending on the presence of one or both of these factors, clinical surveillance, with anticoagulant treatment where necessary, is recommended. PMID:12871278

  3. Management of venous thrombo-embolism: an update.

    PubMed

    Konstantinides, Stavros; Torbicki, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Venous thrombo-embolism is the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome after myocardial infarction and stroke. Recently published landmark trials paved the way for significant progress in the management of the disease and provided the evidence for the ESC Pulmonary Embolism (PE) Guidelines 2014 update. Risk stratification strategies for non-high-risk PE continue to evolve, with an increasing emphasis on clinical prediction rules and right ventricular (RV) assessment on computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. In the field of anticoagulation treatment, pharmacogenetic testing for vitamin K antagonists on top of clinical parameters was not found to offer a significant benefit during the initiation phase; on the other hand, dosing based on the patient's clinical data seems superior to fixed loading regimens. The phase 3 trial programme of new oral anticoagulants in the treatment of venous thrombo-embolism has been completed, and the results indicate that these agents are at least as effective and probably cause less major bleeding than currently standard treatment. A multicentre prospective phase 4 trial will determine whether early discharge and out-of-hospital treatment of low-risk PE with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is feasible, effective, and safe. For intermediate-risk PE defined on the basis of imaging tests and laboratory biomarkers, the bleeding risks of full-dose thrombolytic treatment appear too high to justify its use, unless clinical signs of haemodynamic decompensation appear. Patients in whom PE has resulted in chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension and who are not suitable for pulmonary endarterectomy, may be expected to benefit from emerging pharmaceutical and interventional treatment options. PMID:25179762

  4. Sulodexide for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Bignamini, Angelo A.; Davì, Giovanni; Palareti, Gualtiero; Matuška, Jiří; Holý, Martin; Pawlaczyk-Gabriel, Katarzyna; Džupina, Andrej; Sokurenko, German Y.; Didenko, Yury P.; Andrei, Laurentia D.; Lessiani, Gianfranco; Visonà, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background— Patients with a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism have a high risk of recurrence after discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy. Extending anticoagulation reduces the risk of recurrence but is associated with increased bleeding. Sulodexide, a glycosaminoglycan, exerts antithrombotic and profibrinolytic actions with a low bleeding risk when administered orally, but its benefit for preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism is not well known. Methods and Results— In this multicenter, double-blind study, 615 patients with first-ever unprovoked venous thromboembolism who had completed 3 to 12 months of oral anticoagulant treatment were randomly assigned to sulodexide 500 lipasemic units twice daily or placebo for 2 years, in addition to elastic stockings. The primary efficacy outcome was recurrence of venous thromboembolism. Major or clinically relevant bleeding was the primary safety outcome. Venous thromboembolism recurred in 15 of the 307 patients who received sulodexide and in 30 of the 308 patients who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27–0.92; P=0.02). The analysis in which lost to follow-up was assigned to failure yielded a risk ratio among treated versus control subjects of 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.35–0.85; P=0.009). No major bleeding episodes occurred; 2 patients in each treatment group had a clinically relevant bleeding episode. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups. Conclusion— Sulodexide given after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment reduced the risk of recurrence in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism, with no apparent increase of bleeding risk. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/. Identifier: EudraCT number 2009-016923-77. PMID:26408273

  5. Preventing and recognizing venous thromboembolism after obstetric and gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Deedra

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a hypercoagulable disorder that is associated with two potential significant complications-deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE). During pregnancy and the postpartum period, the risk for VTE is increased. Prevention is optimal, but early detection and treatment of VTE in women after obstetric and gynecologic surgery is imperative, as DVT is often asymptomatic and, in many patients, clinical presentation only occurs after a fatal PE occurs. PMID:23957798

  6. Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    This is a literature review of the frequency of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with cancer and of the available evidence supporting the use of thromboprophylaxis. Patients with cancer are at particularly high risk of venous thromboembolism and account for almost 20% of patients in the population. Hospitalization is an important risk factor in patients with cancer, with rates reported between 0.6% and 7.8%. The incidence has been increasing over the past decade. Three randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses indicate that prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, heparin, or fondaparinux significantly reduces the rate of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized medical patients who are at high risk. Patients with cancer were included in these studies, but prospective trials specifically focused on patients with cancer are not available. Evidence indicates that appropriate thromboprophylaxis is provided to a minority of hospitalized patients with cancer and that targeted educational efforts and computerized prompt systems can increase appropriate use. Guidelines developed by both oncology and thrombosis organizations support the use of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with cancer. In conclusion, most patients hospitalized with cancer are at high risk of venous thromboembolism, and thromboprophylaxis should be provided in the absence of active bleeding or a high bleeding risk. PMID:19704060

  7. National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus Bundle on Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    D'Alton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M; Smiley, Richard M; Montgomery, Douglas M; Paidas, Michael J; D'Oria, Robyn; Frost, Jennifer L; Hameed, Afshan B; Karsnitz, Deborah; Levy, Barbara S; Clark, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Obstetric venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Maternal death from thromboembolism is amenable to prevention, and thromboprophylaxis is the most readily implementable means of systematically reducing the maternal death rate. Observational data support the benefit of risk-factor-based prophylaxis in reducing obstetric thromboembolism. This bundle, developed by a multidisciplinary working group and published by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care, supports routine thromboembolism risk assessment for obstetric patients, with appropriate use of pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis. Safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. The safety bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. PMID:27619099

  8. Rivaroxaban in preventing venous thromboembolism after arthroplastic surgery in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yun-Chuan; Chen, Shih-Tse; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Gan, Kim-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the severe complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The incidence of VTE could be reduced if preventive antithrombotic medicines are used; however, the incidence of bleeding may increase. Rivaroxaban is a factor Xa inhibitor that prevents VTE after THA or TKA. This study is designed to confirm the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in Taiwan. This is a retrospective database study based on the data of 6996 patients provided by the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2008 to 2012. The data included the number of prescription, the cost of prescription, and case number for patients treated with antithrombotic agents for the prevention or treatment of joint arthroplasty complications (including THA, TKA, partial hip arthroplasty, revision THA and TKA), and the incidence of thrombosis and hemorrhage from year 2008 to 2012. The overall postoperative VTE rate was 0.49%. Compared with other antithrombotic drugs, rivaroxaban and heparin analogs can reduce the percentage of thrombosis. We also found that the expenditure and hospitalization was less in the rivaroxaban group than in the heparin analogs group. Because some benefits of rivaroxaban were found in our study, further cost-effective and drug safety studies are warranted. It is important to consider the cost-effective principle for the use of antithrombotic drugs in preventing thromboembolic complications after total joint arthroplasty. PMID:26520693

  9. Venous Thromboembolism Following Colorectal Surgery for Suspected or Confirmed Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Brenton; Hitos, Kerry; Fletcher, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Surgery for colorectal cancer conveys a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The effect of thromboprophylactic regimens of varying duration on the incidence of VTE was assessed in 417 patients undergoing surgery between 2005 and 2009 for colorectal cancer. Low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) was used in 52.7% of patients, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in 35.3%, and 10.7% received LDUH followed by LMWH. Pharmacological prophylaxis was continued after hospitalisation in 31.6%. Major bleeding occurred in 4% of patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.9%. The incidence of symptomatic VTE from hospital admission for surgery to 12 months after was 2.4%. There were no in-hospital VTE events. The majority of events occurred in the three-month period after discharge, but there were VTE events up to 12 months, especially in patients with more advanced cancer and multiple comorbidities. PMID:22084669

  10. Drug Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Boey, Jir Ping; Gallus, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Half of all patients with acute venous thromboembolism are aged over 70 years; they then face the added hazard of an age-related increase in the incidence of major bleeding. This makes it even more important to weigh the balance of benefit and risk when considering anticoagulant treatment and treatment duration. Traditional treatment with a heparin (usually low molecular weight) followed by a vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin is effective but is often complicated, especially in the elderly. The direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), i.e. the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, are given in fixed doses, do not need laboratory monitoring, have fewer drug-drug interactions and are therefore much easier to take. Randomised trials, their meta-analyses and 'real-world' data indicate the DOACs are no less effective than warfarin (are non-inferior) and probably cause less major bleeding (especially intracranial). It seems the relative safety of DOACs extends to age above 65 or 70 years, although bleeding becomes more likely regardless of the chosen anticoagulant. Renal impairment, comorbidities (especially cancer) and interventions are special hazards. Ways to minimise bleeding include patient selection and follow-up, education about venous thromboembolism, anticoagulants, drug interactions, regular checks on adherence and avoiding needlessly prolonged treatment. The relatively short circulating half-lives of DOACs mean that time, local measures and supportive care are the main response to major bleeding. They also simplify the management of invasive interventions. An antidote for dabigatran, idarucizumab, was recently approved by regulators, and a general antidote for factor Xa inhibitors is in advanced development. PMID:27255713

  11. Characterizing the Risk Factors Associated With Venous Thromboembolism in Pediatric Patients After Central Venous Line Placement

    PubMed Central

    Eades, Shannan; Turiy, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the apparent increase in venous thromboembolism noted in the pediatric population, it is important to define which children are at risk for clots and to determine optimal preventative therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for venous thromboembolism in pediatric patients with central venous line placement. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, case-control study. Control subjects were patients aged 0 to 18 years who had a central venous line placed. Case subjects had a central line and a radiographically confirmed diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were included in the study. Presence of multiple comorbidities, particularly the presence of a congenital heart defect (34.7% case vs. 14.7% control; p < 0.005), was found to put pediatric patients at increased risk for thrombosis. Additionally, the administration of parenteral nutrition through the central line (34.7% case vs. 18.7% control; p = 0.03) and location of the line increased the risk for clot formation. CONCLUSIONS: With increased awareness of central venous line–related thromboembolism, measures should be taken to reduce the number and duration of central line placements, and further studies addressing the need for thromboprophylaxis should be conducted. PMID:26472949

  12. A Randomized Trial of Rosuvastatin in the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism: the JUPITER Trial

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Robert J.; Danielson, Eleanor; Fonseca, Francisco AH; Genest, Jacques; Gotto, Antonio M.; Kastelein, John JP; Koenig, Wolfgang; Libby, Peter; Lorenzatti, Alberto J.; MacFadyen, Jean G.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Shepherd, James; Willerson, James T.; Ridker, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Background Controversies persist on whether arterial and venous thrombosis share common pathways and whether treatments of known efficacy for one disease process have consistent benefits for the other. Observational studies have yielded variable estimates of the effect of statin therapy on risk of venous thromboembolism, and randomized evidence is lacking. Methods Symptomatic venous thromboembolism was a pre-specified endpoint of Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER). We randomly assigned 17,802 apparently healthy men and women with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of less than 130 mg/dL and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels of 2.0 mg/L or higher to rosuvastatin, 20 mg/d, or placebo. Intention-to-treat analyses followed participants for the first occurrence of pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis. Results During a median follow-up of 1.9 years (maximum 5.0), symptomatic venous thromboembolism occurred in 94 participants, 34 in the rosuvastatin group and 60 in the placebo group. The rates of venous thromboembolism were 0.18 and 0.32 per 100 person-years of follow-up in the rosuvastatin and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio for rosuvastatin 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.86; P=0.007), with corresponding rates of 0.10 and 0.17 for unprovoked venous thromboembolism (hazard ratio 0.61; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.09; P=0.089) and 0.08 and 0.16 for provoked venous thromboembolism (hazard ratio 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.96; P=0.033). Corresponding rates of pulmonary embolism were 0.09 and 0.12 (hazard ratio 0.77; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.45; P=0.42), whereas rates of deep vein thrombosis only were 0.09 and 0.20 (hazard ratio 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.79; P=0.004). Consistent effects were observed in all subgroups examined. No differences were seen between treatment groups in rates of bleeding. Conclusions In this trial of apparently healthy persons, rosuvastatin

  13. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Plastic Surgery: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sergio; Valdes, Jorge; Salama, Moises

    2016-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health concern because it increases morbidity and mortality after a surgical procedure. A number of well-defined, evidence-based guidelines are available delineating suitable use of prophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite the available literature, there are clear gaps between recommendations and clinical practice, affecting the incidence of VTE. Plastic surgeons underuse the substantiated literature and risk stratification tools that are available to decrease the incidence of VTE in the office-based surgical setting because of fear of bleeding or hematoma complications postoperatively. Venous thromboembolism creates an economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system. The intent of this literature review is to determine existing VTE risk using assessment models available to aid in the implementation of protocols for VTE prevention, specifically for high-risk cosmetic surgical patients in office-based settings. PMID:27501651

  14. [New anticoagulants in the treatment of venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Bura-Rivière, Alessandra

    2013-09-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is the cornerstone of treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The treatment needs rapid initial anticoagulaton to minimize the risk of thrombus extension and fata pulmonary embolism, followed by an extended anticoagulation, aimed at preventing recurrent VTE. Till very recently, immediate anticoagulation can only be achieved with parenteral agents, such as heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, or fondaparinux. Extended treatment usually involves the administration of vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin. Emerging direct oral anticoagulants have the potential to streamline VTE treatment. These agents include oral anticoagulants that target thrombin or factor Xa. This article reviews the characteristics of these agents, describes the results of clinical trials in venous thromboembolic disease and outlines their strengths and weakness. PMID:24167902

  15. [Duration of antivitamin K therapy in venous thromboembolic disease].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, E; Baudouy, M; Morand, P

    1995-12-01

    The necessity for anticoagulant treatment after pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis has been demonstrated. The modalities of this treatment have been established, especially the value of initial heparin relayed by oral antivitamin K therapy with a target INR value between 2 and 3. The last question remaining in this protocol is that of the duration of anticoagulant treatment. The choice of duration of anticoagulation should take into consideration two potential complications: haemorrhage due to over-anticoagulation and excessive duration of therapy, and recurrent thromboembolism which could result from an inadequate duration of therapy. Several trials have addressed this question and have led to a consensus of opinion: therefore, secondary venous thrombo-embolic disease, occurring under known, special circumstances, the cause of which has been treated, should be given 4 to 6 weeks anticoagulant therapy. In the other cases, so-called idiopathic venous thromboembolism (the proportion of which is on the increase), recent studies are inadequate to reach a consensus. These "idiopathic" forms are characterised by a higher incidence of recurrent thromboembolism of "secondary" cancer and coagulation abnormalities. The search for the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy in these forms requires prospective trials taking their features into account and should lead to further therapeutic options. The evaluation of longer treatment protocols with less intensive degrees of anticoagulation and of alternatives to oral vitamin K antagonists is justified. PMID:8729371

  16. Low-molecular-weight heparins in the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Ageno , Walter; Huisman, Menno V

    2000-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common disease that is associated with considerable morbidity if left untreated. Recently, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been evaluated for use in acute treatment of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Randomized studies have shown that LMWHs are as effective as unfractionated heparin in the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism, and are as safe with respect to the occurrence of major bleeding. A pooled analysis did not show substantial differences among different LMWH compounds used, but no direct comparison of the different LMWHs is currently available. Finally, in patients with pulmonary embolism, there is a relative lack of large studies of daily practice. It could be argued that large prospective studies, in patients who were treated with LMWHs from the moment of diagnosis, are needed. PMID:11714421

  17. New anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar dos Santos; Júnior, José Leonidas Alves; Gavilanes, Francisca; Prada, Luis Felipe; Morinaga, Luciana Kato; Souza, Rogerio

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is among the leading causes of death from cardiovascular disease, surpassed only by acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The spectrum of VTE presentations ranges, by degree of severity, from deep vein thrombosis to acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Treatment is based on full anticoagulation of the patients. For many decades, it has been known that anticoagulation directly affects the mortality associated with VTE. Until the beginning of this century, anticoagulant therapy was based on the use of unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists, warfarin in particular. Over the past decades, new classes of anticoagulants have been developed, such as factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors, which significantly changed the therapeutic arsenal against VTE, due to their efficacy and safety when compared with the conventional treatment. The focus of this review was on evaluating the role of these new anticoagulants in this clinical context. PMID:27167437

  18. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism during HRT: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rott, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    Many large trials in the past 15 years have proven an increased risk of vascular complications in women using oral, mostly non-bioidentical, hormone therapy. The risk of vascular complications depends on the route of administration (oral versus transdermal), age, duration of administration, and type of hormones (bioidentical versus non-bioidentical). Acquired and/or hereditary thrombophilias (eg, factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutation G20210A, and others) lead to a further increase of risk for venous thromboembolism, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Therefore, bioidentical hormone therapy via the transdermal route seems to be the safest opportunity for hormone replacement therapy, although large trials for bioidentical hormone therapy are needed. PMID:25210472

  19. Prothrombotic Risk Factors and Preventive Strategies in Adolescent Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Srivaths, Lakshmi; Dietrich, Jennifer E

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adolescents is a serious condition that requires prompt recognition and optimal management to prevent mortality and long-term morbidity. Adolescents account for a large proportion of cases of VTE in children. As teenagers transition from childhood to adulthood, they are at risk of developing medical conditions and exposure to risky habits that predispose them to VTE. This review focuses on the variety of risk factors and comorbidities seen in adolescent VTE and takes a quick look into risk-based preventive strategies for primary and secondary prevention. PMID:26883917

  20. Progress in research into the genes associated with venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lian-xing; Liu, Bo; Li, Chun-sheng

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a common, lethal disorder that affects hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. This study aimed to review the progress in the research into VTE. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed the studies about VTE and verified different genetic polymoriphisms of VTE. RESULTS: The pathogenesis of VTE involves hereditary and acquired factors. Many studies indicated that the disorder of coagulation and fibirnolytic system is of utmost importance to this disease. Genetic polymoriphism-related VTE demonstrated significant differences among geographies and ethnicities. CONCLUSION: VTE has many risk factors, but genetic factors play an important role. PMID:26056539

  1. [Actual questions about the prevention of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Losonczy, Hajna; Nagy, Ágnes; Tar, Attila

    2016-02-01

    Cancer patients have a 2-7 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism compared with the general population and, since 1990, this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes the current knowledge on venous thromboembolism and cancer. Notably, the risk of venous thromboembolism varies depending on the type and stage of cancer. For instance, pancreatic and brain cancer patients have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism than breast and prostate cancer patients. Moreover, patients with metastatic disease have a higher risk than those with localized tumors. Tumor-derived procoagulant factors, cytokines and growth factors may directly and indirectly enhance venous thromboembolism. Chemotherapy produces ~6,5 fold increase in venous thromboembolism incidence in cancer patients compared to the general population. Prevention of this complication is challenging. The authors review the development of guidelines concerning venous thromboembolism prevention in hospitalized and also in ambulatory cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Current guidelines recommend the use of low-molecular-weight heparin. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may allow the development of new therapies to safely prevent venous thromboembolism in cancer patients. PMID:27120721

  2. A Rare Occurrence of Simultaneous Venous and Arterial Thromboembolic Events – Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism as Initial Presentation in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kutiyal, Aditya S.; Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kataria, Babita; Garg, Abhilasha

    2016-01-01

    The development of acute myeloid leukemia has been attributed to various factors, including hereditary, radiation, drugs, and certain occupational exposures. The association between malignancy and venous thromboembolism events is well established. Here, we present a case of a 70-year-old Indian man who had presented with arterial and venous thrombosis, and the patient was later diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In our case, the patient presented with right lower limb deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism four months prior to the diagnosis of APL. Although thromboembolic event subsequent to the diagnosis of malignancy, and especially during the chemotherapy has been widely reported, this prior presentation with simultaneous occurrence of both venous and arterial thromboembolism has rarely been reported. We take this opportunity to state the significance of a complete medical evaluation in cases of recurrent or unusual thrombotic events. PMID:26949347

  3. Biochemical markers for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism: the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2010-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism represent two expressions of a similar clinical pathological process traditionally referred to as venous thromboembolism. Several population studies evidence venous thromboembolism as a leading healthcare problem worldwide, highlighting the need for early and reliable diagnosis to enable appropriate triage of affected patients and to optimize outcome. There is still debate, however, on which thrombotic markers to use, as well as their most suitable position within diagnostic algorithms. This article aims to review the pathophysiology and clinical usefulness of past, present and future markers of thrombosis, including soluble fibrin monomers, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasmin-antiplasmin complex, fibrinopeptide A and B, prothrombin fragments 1 + 2, thrombus precursor protein, D-dimer, activated protein C-protein C inhibitor complex, myeloperoxidase, thrombin generation assays and proteomic analysis. Several lines of evidence now attest that the global diagnostic performances of some D-dimer assays largely outperform those of any other coagulation or fibrinolytic marker proposed thus far, and a "negative" D-dimer measured with rapid enzyme linked fluorescent immunoassay is now considered the biochemical gold standard for ruling out an acute episode of venous thromboembolism in a patient with a low pretest probability for venous thromboembolism, so that additional testing can be safely omitted. However, to further improve clinical outcomes, the diagnostic efficiency of combining D-dimer testing with other markers covering different pathophysiological aspects of thrombosis such as continuous and progressive thrombin generation (e.g., activated protein C-protein C inhibitor complex) or neutrophil activation (i.e., myeloperoxidase) merits further investigation. Proteomic analysis, which would help to characterize the structure and function of each protein and the complexities of

  4. Effect of information on the perception of users and prospective users of combined oral contraceptives regarding the risk of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Morimoto, Mariana; Santana, Narayana; Arruda, Lívia Fernandes; Bernardes, Carine Rejane; de Souza, Isadora Matias

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated patients' knowledge on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and their perception of this risk when it is presented as a relative risk (RR), absolute risk (AbR) or attributable risk (AR). This was a cross-sectional study involving 159 users or potential users of COCs. The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire in which the risk of VTE associated with COCs was presented as RR, AbR and AR. The degree of concern expressed regarding this risk and the women's changes of opinion when the information was communicated through a different risk model were evaluated. Most of the women (67.9%) expressed concern when the risk was presented as an RR. Conversely, they showed no concern when the risk was presented as an AbR (14.5%) or AR (10.7%). A significant number of women changed their opinion regarding their level of concern when the risk was presented as an AbR or AR (p < 0.001). In conclusion, concerns about thrombotic complications from the use of combined hormonal contraception is reduced when incidence rather than relative risk is presented. Presentation of thrombosis complications in terms of incidence rather than RR may improve communication of side effects during counseling for combined hormonal contraception initiation. PMID:25095700

  5. Venous thromboembolism in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, S; Neff, A; Nagler, A; Savani, U; Mohty, M; Savani, B N

    2016-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an increasingly recognized problem in the post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) setting, with a lack of high-quality evidence-based data to recommend best practices. Few patients with hematologic malignancies and even fewer post-HSCT patients were included in randomized trials of VTE prophylaxis and treatment. Prior VTE, GVHD, infections and indwelling venous catheters are risk factors for thrombosis. The increasing use of post-transplant maintenance therapy with lenalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma adds to this risk after autologous HSCT. These patients are also at high risk of bleeding complications because of prolonged thrombocytopenia and managing the competing risks of bleeding and thrombosis can be challenging. This review aims to provide a practical, clinician-focused approach to the prevention and treatment of VTE in the post-HSCT setting. PMID:26691425

  6. Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection as a Cause of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Francesca; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Mojoli, Francesco; Baldanti, Fausto; Brunetti, Enrico; Pascarella, Michela; Giordani, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Acute Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an unusual cause of venous thromboembolism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Thrombus formation can occur at the onset of the disease or later during the recovery and may also occur in the absence of acute HCMV hepatitis. It is likely due to both vascular endothelium damage caused by HCMV and impairment of the clotting balance caused by the virus itself. Here we report on two immunocompetent women with splanchnic thrombosis that occurred during the course of acute HCMV infection. Although the prevalence of venous thrombosis in patients with acute HCMV infection is unknown, physicians should be aware of its occurrence, particularly in immunocompetent patients presenting with fever and unexplained abdominal pain. PMID:24959338

  7. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care.

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America. PMID:26872082

  8. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America. PMID:26872082

  9. Venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: diagnosis, management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Chunilal, Sanjeev D; Bates, Shannon M

    2009-03-01

    A pregnant woman has a two- to five-fold higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than a non-pregnant woman of the same age and, in developed countries, she is more likely to die from fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) than from obstetric haemorrhage. The increased VTE risk is mediated through normal physiological changes of pregnancy including alterations in haemostasis that favour coagulation, reduced fibrinolysis and pooling and stasis of blood in the lower limbs. Thrombophilia, smoking, obesity, immobility and postpartum factors such as infection, bleeding and emergency surgery (including emergency caesarian section) also increase the risk of pregnancy-related VTE. The diagnosis of VTE can be safely established with acceptable radiation exposure to the fetus using readily available imaging modalities such as ultrasound, ventilation perfusion lung scanning and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. However, the optimal diagnostic strategies still remain to be determined. If there is no contraindication to anticoagulation, commencing treatment prior to objective confirmation should be strongly considered. For the mother and fetus, effective and safe treatment is readily available with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), but optimal dosing of these agents in pregnancy remains controversial. Emerging data support antepartum LMWH prophylaxis for women with previous VTE if the event was unprovoked or in the presence of thrombophilia. On the other hand, women with prior provoked VTE and no thrombophilia or women with asymptomatic thrombophilia (but a family history of VTE) can safely be managed with antepartum surveillance. Postpartum prophylaxis is recommended for women with prior VTE or thrombophilia (and a family history of VTE). PMID:19277402

  10. Postsurgical Inflammation as a Causative Mechanism of Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Albayati, Mostafa A; Grover, Steven P; Saha, Prakash; Lwaleed, Bashir A; Modarai, Bijan; Smith, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Although the current treatment regiments such as mechanical manipulation and administration of pharmacological prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of postsurgical VTE, they remain a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of venous thrombosis traditionally emphasizes the series of factors that constitute Virchow triad of factors. However, inflammation can also be a part of this by giving rise to a hypercoagulable state and endothelial damage. The inflammatory response after surgery, which is initiated by a cytokine "storm" and occurs within hours of surgery, creates a prothrombotic environment that is further accentuated by several cellular processes including neutrophil extracellular traps formation, platelet activation, and the generation of tissue factor-bearing microparticles. Although such inflammatory markers are elevated in undergoing surgery, the precise mechanism by which they give rise to venous thrombosis is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential mechanisms linking inflammation to thrombosis, and highlight strategies that may minimize surgical inflammation and reduce the incidence of postoperative VTE. PMID:26276933

  11. Venous thromboembolism and sarcoidosis: co-incidence or coexistence?

    PubMed Central

    Geremek, Marcin; Puscinska, Elzbieta; Sliwinski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The association between venous thromboembolism (VTE) and sarcoidosis has been reported recently, nevertheless the true incidence of co-incident sarcoidosis and VTE is unknown. Sarcoidosis as a chronic disease of immune dysregulation might be associated with an increased risk of VTE. The mechanisms responsible for VTE development are not clear and may be influenced by several factors: activity of inflammation, clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis and comorbidities. Pulmonary embolism (PE) as a potentially fatal condition should be considered in all of the patients with sarcoidosis in whom worsening of the respiratory status is diagnosed. A high plasma D-dimers (DD) level may be suggestive of VTE, nevertheless elevated plasma DD should be interpreted with caution, in the context of the active inflammatory process. If sarcoidosis appears to be one of risk factors for VTE development, further investigations are needed to define the pro-thrombotic phenotype of this disease. PMID:26862313

  12. Predictors of recurrent venous thromboembolism and bleeding on anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Menapace, Laurel A; McCrae, Keith R; Khorana, Alok A

    2016-04-01

    The impact of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the cancer population remains substantial despite significant advances in detecting and treating thrombotic events. While there is extensive literature regarding predictors of first VTE event in cancer patients as well as a validated predictive score, less data exist regarding recurrent VTE in cancer cohorts and associated predictive variables. A similar paucity of data in regard to bleeding events in cancer patients receiving anticoagulation has been observed. This review article will highlight clinical risk factors as well as predictive biomarkers associated with recurrent VTE and bleeding in cancer patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. Predictive risk assessment models for cancer-associated recurrent VTE and bleeding are also discussed. PMID:27067987

  13. Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Secondary Polycythemia

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Omar; Gui, Jiang; Ornstein, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate an association between secondary polycythemia and venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk, we performed a case–control study to compare the prevalence of VTE in participants with secondary polycythemia due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; N = 86) to that in age- and sex-matched controls with COPD without secondary polycythemia (N = 86). Although there was a significant difference in mean hematocrit between cases and controls (53.5% vs 43.6%, respectively; P < .005), we identified no difference in the number of total or idiopathic VTE events in the 2 groups. Patients with VTE, however, had a significantly higher body mass index than patients without VTE. Our findings suggest that secondary polycythemia alone may not be a significant risk factor for VTE but that VTE risk in this population may be related to known risk factors such as obesity. The role of phlebotomy for VTE risk reduction secondary polycythemia is therefore questionable. PMID:23007895

  14. [Duration of anticoagulant therapy in venous thromboembolic complications].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, M R; Leontyev, S G; Neskhodimov, L A; Tolstikhin, V Yu; Khotinskiy, A A

    2016-01-01

    Adequate anticoagulant therapy is a general approach to treatment of deep vein thrombosis. However, the duration of anticoagulant therapy is not strictly specified in everyday clinical practice. The present article deals with various approaches to selecting the duration of therapy with anticoagulants based on the findings of studies, national and foreign clinical guidelines. The minimal duration of therapy for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism amounts to 3 months in accordance with the national and American recommendations. For some cohorts of patients, continuation of therapy above 3 months is considered: patients with idiopathic thrombosis (the recommended duration of therapy of not less than 6 months), patients having persisting risk factor for relapse of thrombosis on termination of the main therapeutic course, oncological patients (6 month therapy followed by assessing the risk and benefit of continuing therapy with anticoagulants). Prolonged therapy of venous thromboembolism using unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin followed by changing over to vitamin K antagonists is associated with decreased risk for thrombosis relapse approximately by 90%, however increasing the risk of haemorrhage. Currently, as an alternative, it is possible to consider administration of novel oral anticoagulants (rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban) which beside high efficacy are associated with less risk of bleeding. The route of administration, no necessity to control the INR, and the minimal number of drug and food interactions make administration of new oral anticoagulants an attractive alternative to therapy with heparins and vitamin K antagonists. PMID:27100556

  15. CDC Grand Rounds: preventing hospital-associated venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Streiff, Michael B; Brady, Jeffrey P; Grant, Althea M; Grosse, Scott D; Wong, Betty; Popovic, Tanja

    2014-03-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in a large vein, usually in the leg or pelvis. Sometimes a DVT detaches from the site of formation and becomes mobile in the blood stream. If the circulating clot moves through the heart to the lungs it can block an artery supplying blood to the lungs. This condition is called pulmonary embolism. The disease process that includes DVT and/or pulmonary embolism is called venous thromboembolism (VTE). Each year in the United States, an estimated 350,000-900,000 persons develop incident VTE, of whom approximately 100,000 die, mostly as sudden deaths, the cause of which often goes unrecognized. In addition, 30%-50% of persons with lower-extremity DVT develop postthrombotic syndrome (a long-term complication that causes swelling, pain, discoloration, and, in severe cases, ulcers in the affected limb). Finally, 10%-30% of persons who survive the first occurrence of VTE develop another VTE within 5 years. PMID:24598595

  16. Limited evidence on persistence with anticoagulants, and its effect on the risk of recurrence of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Pareen; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Suzart, Kiliana; Persson Brobert, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence is high following an initial VTE event, and it persists over time. This recurrence risk decreases rapidly after starting with anticoagulation treatment and reduces by ~80%–90% with prolonged anticoagulation. Nonpersistence with anticoagulants could lead to increased risk of VTE recurrence. This systematic review aimed to estimate persistence at 3, 6, and 12 months with anticoagulants in patients with VTE, and to evaluate the risk of VTE recurrence in nonpersistent patients. Methods PubMed and Embase® were searched up to May 3, 2014 and the search results updated to May 31, 2015. Studies involving patients with VTE aged ≥18 years, treatment with anticoagulants intended for at least 3 months or more, and reporting data for persistence were included. Proportions were transformed using Freeman–Tukey double arcsine transformation and pooled using the DerSimonian–Laird random-effects approach. Results In total, 12 observational studies (7/12 conference abstracts) were included in the review. All 12 studies either reported or provided data for persistence. The total number of patients meta-analyzed to estimate persistence at 3, 6, and 12 months was 71,969 patients, 58,940 patients, and 68,235 patients, respectively. The estimated persistence for 3, 6, and 12 months of therapy was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78–87; I2=99.3%), 62% (95% CI, 58–66; I2=98.1%), and 31% (95% CI, 22–40; I2=99.8%), respectively. Only two studies reported the risk of VTE recurrence based on nonpersistence – one at 3 months and the other at 12 months. Conclusion Limited evidence showed that persistence was suboptimal with an estimated 17% patients being nonpersistent with anticoagulants in the crucial first 3 months. Persistence declined over 6 and 12 months. Observational data on persistence with anticoagulation treatment, especially direct oral anticoagulants, in patients with VTE and its effect on risk of VTE

  17. Thrombophilia in Korean patients with arterial or venous thromboembolisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungbae; Song, Incheol; Huh, Seung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of thrombophilia in Korean patients with an arterial thromboembolism (ATE) or a venous thromboembolism (VTE), and to evaluate the characteristic of VTE in patients with thrombophilia. Methods Hospital records of 294 patients (228 with VTE, 66 with ATE) including two foreign ones (mean age, 51.4 years) who underwent thrombophilia testing between August 2006 and March 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. In general, such screening was performed according to the guidelines of the international consensus statement for VTE. Thrombophilia testing included evaluations of the factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations, levels of proteins C and S and antithrombin, and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS). Results A factor V Leiden mutation was not found in the 292 Korean patients. A prothrombin G21210A mutation was investigated in 33 patients but none was found. Among 226 Korean patients with VTE, 130 demonstrated no thrombophilia and 55 patients did after exclusion of 41 patients without confirmatory test. The most common form was protein S deficiency (31 of 55, 56%) followed by protein C deficiency, antithrombin deficiency, and APLS. When comparing patients with a VTE or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) according to the presence of thrombophilia, thrombophilia was associated with younger age (P = 0.001 for VTE; P < 0.001 for DVT) and a family history (P < 0.001 for VTE and DVT). Conclusion We did not find any factor V Leiden mutation in Korean subjects at high risk for thrombophilia. Therefore, this testing is not warranted. Thrombophilia was associated with VTE in younger age and a family history. PMID:27274510

  18. Impact of venous thromboembolism on clinical management and therapy after hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William D

    2011-10-01

    Postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs most often in the large veins of the legs in patients undergoing major joint arthroplasty and major surgical procedures. These patients remain at high risk for venous thromboembolic events. In patients undergoing total hip or total knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA, respectively), different patterns of altered venous hemodynamics and hypercoagulability have been found, thus the rate of distal DVT is higher than that of proximal DVT after TKA. In addition, symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs earlier after TKA than THA; however, most of those events occur after hospital discharge. Consequently, extended thromboprophylaxis after discharge should be considered and is particularly important after THA owing to the prolonged risk period for VTE. Evidence-based guideline recommendations for the prevention of VTE in these patients have not been fully implemented. This is partly owing to the limitations of traditional anticoagulants, such as the parenteral route of administration or frequent coagulation monitoring and dose adjustment, as well as concerns about bleeding risks. The introduction of new oral agents (e.g., dabigatran etexilate and rivaroxaban) may facilitate guideline adherence, particularly in the outpatient setting, owing to their oral administration without the need for routine coagulation monitoring. Furthermore, the direct Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban has been shown to be more effective than enoxaparin in preventing VTE. PMID:21774881

  19. Venous Thromboembolism After Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Tanaka, Osamu; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of new or recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) after retrieval of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters and risk factors associated with such recurrence. Between March 2001 and September 2008, at our institution, implanted retrievable vena cava filters were retrieved in 76 patients. The incidence of new or recurrent VTE after retrieval was reviewed and numerous variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for redevelopment of VTE after filter retrieval. In 5 (6.6%) of the 76 patients, redevelopment or worsening of VTE was seen after retrieval of the filter. Three patients (4.0%) had recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities and 2 (2.6%) had development of pulmonary embolism, resulting in death. Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of new or recurrent VTE related to any risk factor investigated, a tendency for development of VTE after filter retrieval was higher in patients in whom DVT in the lower extremities had been so severe during filter implantation that interventional radiological therapies in addition to traditional anticoagulation therapies were required (40% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 23% in those without VTE; p = 0.5866 according to Fisher's exact probability test) and in patients in whom DVT remained at the time of filter retrieval (60% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 37% in those without VTE; p = 0.3637). In conclusion, new or recurrent VTE was rare after retrieval of IVC filters but was most likely to occur in patients who had severe DVT during filter implantation and/or in patients with a DVT that remained at the time of filter retrieval. We must point out that the fatality rate from PE after filter removal was high (2.6%).

  20. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism after spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Takao; Tanabe, Fumito; Kawamura, Ichiro; Tsuneyoshi, Yasuhiro; Kawabata, Naoya; Nagano, Satoshi; Abematsu, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Takuya; Yone, Kazunori; Komiya, Setsuro

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of chemical prophylaxis to prevent the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following spine surgery are controversial because of the possibility of epidural hematoma formation. Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after spine surgery occurs at a frequency similar to that seen after joint operations, so it is important to identify the risk factors for VTE formation following spine surgery. We therefore retrospectively studied data from patients who had undergone spinal surgery and developed postoperative VTE to identify those risk factors. We conducted a retrospective clinical study with logistic regression analysis of a group of 80 patients who had undergone spine surgery at our institution from June 2012 to August 2013. All patients had been screened by ultrasonography for DVT in the lower extremities. Parameters of the patients with VTE were compared with those without VTE using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher exact probability test. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors associated with VTE. A value of P < 0.05 was used to denote statistical significance. The prevalence of VTE was 25.0% (20/80 patients). One patient had sensed some incongruity in the chest area, but the vital signs of all patients were stable. VTEs had developed in the pulmonary artery in one patient, in the superficial femoral vein in one patient, in the popliteal vein in two patients, and in the soleal vein in 18 patients. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher exact probability test showed that, except for preoperative walking disability, none of the parameters showed a significant difference between patients with and without VTE. Risk factors identified in the multivariate logistic regression analysis were preoperative walking disability and age. The prevalence of VTE after spine surgery was relatively high. The most important risk factor for developing postoperative VTE was preoperative walking

  1. Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Body Contouring Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo-Alvarez, Julio A.; Pannucci, Christopher J.; Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Wilkins, Edwin G.; Rubin, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been identified as a major public health issue. Postbariatric body contouring surgery represents a major challenge for VTE prophylaxis due to the presence of multiple risk factors and broad areas of dissection that potentially increase the risk of postoperative bleeding. Aim To define current VTE prophylaxis practices among surgeons of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, performing postbariatric body contouring surgery in the United States. Material and Methods A total of 4081 surveys were sent to registered members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons by e-mail. We received 596 (14.6%) responses. Results A total of 596 surgeons returned completed surveys, with 83% of respondents in private practice and 17% in academic practice. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was reported by 40% surgeons, pulmonary embolism (PE) by 34%, and 7% had at least 1 patient having died of a postoperative PE. About 39% to 48% participant surgeons reported providing no chemoprophylaxis to their postbariatric body contouring patients. The most common reason for not using routine prophylaxis was the concern for bleeding (84%), followed by lack of evidence specific to plastic surgery practice (50%). Academic surgeons were more likely to provide chemoprophylaxis when compared with those in nonacademic practice (P < 0.05). Conclusion For postbariatric body contouring surgery, DVT has occurred in over one-third of plastic surgeons’ practices with 7% of surgeons reporting a patient death from PE. A substantial proportion of surgeons performing postbariatric body contouring are not using chemoprophylaxis due to bleeding risk and perceived lack of evidence. VTE prophylaxis in postbariatric body contouring remains a topic that deserves further study. PMID:21200311

  2. Methods and Guidelines for Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in Polytrauma Patients with Pelvic and Acetabular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chana-Rodríguez, Francisco; Mañanes, Rubén Pérez; Rojo-Manaute, José; Haro, José Antonio Calvo; Vaquero-Martín, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sequential compression devices and chemical prophylaxis are the standard venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention for trauma patients with acetabular and pelvic fractures. Current chemical pharmacological contemplates the use of heparins or fondaparinux. Other anticoagulants include coumarins and aspirin, however these oral agents can be challenging to administer and may need monitoring. When contraindications to anticoagulation in high-risk patients are present, prophylactic inferior vena cava filters can be an option to prevent pulmonary emboli. Unfortunately strong evidence about the most effective method, and the timing of their commencement, in patients with pelvic and acetabular fractures remains controversial. PMID:26312115

  3. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in elderly patients with multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Maura; Iorio, Alfonso; Nobili, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Mauro; Pasina, Luca; Djade, Codjo Djignefa; Marengoni, Alessandra; Salerno, Francesco; Corrao, Salvatore; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (TP) is known to reduce venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical inpatients, but the criteria for risk-driven prescription, safety and impact on mortality are still debated. We analyze data on elderly patients with multimorbidities admitted in the year 2010 to the Italian internal medicine wards participating in the REPOSI registry to investigate the rate of TP during the hospital stay, and analyze the factors that are related to its prescription. Multivariate logistic regression, area under the ROC curve and CART analysis were performed to look for independent predictors of TP prescription. Association between TP and VTE, bleeding and death in hospital and during the 3-month post-discharge follow-up were explored by logistic regression and propensity score analysis. Among the 1,380 patients enrolled, 171 (15.2 %) were on TP during the hospital stay (162 on low molecular weight heparins, 9 on fondaparinux). The disability Barthel index was the main independent predictor of TP prescription. Rate of fatal and non-fatal VTE and bleeding during and after hospitalization did not differ between TP and non-TP patients. In-hospital and post-discharge mortality was significantly higher in patients on TP, that however was not an independent predictor of mortality. Among elderly medical patients there was a relatively low rate of TP, that was more frequently prescribed to patients with a higher degree of disability and who had an overall higher mortality. PMID:23653407

  4. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in the elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Tincani, Enrico; Crowther, Mark A; Turrini, Fabrizio; Prisco, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication among hospitalized patients. Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis has emerged as the cornerstone for VTE prevention. As trials on thromboprophylaxis in medical patients have proven the efficacy of both low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) and unfractionated heparin (UFH), all acutely medical ill patients should be considered for pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. Unlike in the surgical setting where the risk of associated VTE attributable to surgery is well recognized, and where widespread use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis and early mobilization has resulted in significant reductions in the risk of VTE, appropriate VTE prophylaxis is under-used in medical patients. Many reasons for this under-use have been identified, including low perceived risk of VTE in medical patients, absence of optimal tools for risk assessment, heterogeneity of patients and their diseases, and fear of bleeding complications. A consistent group among hospitalized medical patients is composed of elderly patients with impaired renal function, a condition potentially associated with bleeding. How these patients should be managed is discussed in this review. Particular attention is devoted to LMWHs and fondaparinux and to measures to improve the safety and the efficacy of their use. PMID:18044139

  5. Recent advances in the management of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a spectrum of diseases that includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Anticoagulant treatment is the mainstay of therapy for VTE. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) followed by vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice for most patients with VTE, with the aim to prevent thrombus extension or embolization and recurrent VTE. Fondaparinux, a selective, indirect, parenteral factor Xa inhibitor, is now also approved for the initial treatment of VTE and represents an important alternative to UFH or LMWH. Secondary prevention of VTE with vitamin K antagonists is usually prescribed for a minimum of three months, with the duration of treatment based on the presence or absence of major identifiable risk factors for the index event. Patients with permanent risk factors or patients with recurrent DVT or PE require life long secondary prevention. Over the last years, new oral anticoagulant agents have been developed and are now undergoing extensive clinical evaluation in several settings, including the treatment of VTE. New oral anticoagulants include selective, direct thrombin inhibitors, such as dabigatran etexilate, and selective, direct factor Xa inhibitos, such as rivaroxaban, apixaban or edoxaban. All these drugs are admistered at fixed daily doses and do not require laboratory monitoring. The positive results of the first completed clinical trials suggest that a new era in the management of VTE is about to begin. PMID:21120157

  6. Does thromboprophylaxis prevent venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery?*,**

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Evrim Eylem; Hosgün, Derya; Akan, Burak; Ates, Can; Gülhan, Meral

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and factors influencing the development of VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery in a university hospital. METHODS: Patients who underwent major orthopedic surgery (hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, or femur fracture repair) between February of 2006 and June of 2012 were retrospectively included in the study. The incidences of PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were evaluated, as were the factors influencing their development, such as type of operation, age, and comorbidities. RESULTS: We reviewed the medical records of 1,306 patients. The proportions of knee arthroplasty, hip arthroplasty, and femur fracture repair were 63.4%, 29.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of PE and DVT in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery was 1.99% and 2.22%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with PE and DVT (61.5% and 72.4%, respectively) within the first 72 h after surgery. Patients undergoing femur fracture repair, those aged ≥ 65 years, and bedridden patients were at a higher risk for developing VTE. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that VTE was a significant complication of major orthopedic surgery, despite the use of thromboprophylaxis. Clinicians should be aware of VTE, especially during the perioperative period and in bedridden, elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age). PMID:23857692

  7. Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Victor; Goel, Nishant; Gangar, Jinal; Zhao, Huaqing; Ciccolella, David E.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Criner, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background COPD patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE however remains under-diagnosed in this population and the clinical profile of VTE in COPD is unclear. Methods Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages II-IV participants in the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene) study were divided into 2 groups: VTE+, those who reported a history of VTE by questionnaire, and VTE−, those who did not. We compared variables in these 2 groups with either t-test or chi-squared test for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. We performed a univariate logistic regression for VTE, and then a multivariate logistic regression using the significant predictors of interest in the univariate analysis to ascertain the determinants of VTE. Results The VTE+ group was older, more likely to be Caucasian, had a higher body mass index (BMI), smoking history, used oxygen, had a lower 6-minute walk distance, worse quality of life scores, and more dyspnea and respiratory exacerbations than the VTE− group. Lung function was not different between groups. A greater percentage of the VTE+ group described multiple medical comorbidities. On multivariate analysis, BMI, 6-minute walk distance, pneumothorax, peripheral vascular disease, and congestive heart failure significantly increased the odds for VTE by history. Conclusions BMI, exercise capacity, and medical comorbidities were significantly associated with VTE in moderate to severe COPD. Clinicians should suspect VTE in patients who present with dyspnea and should consider possibilities other than infection as causes of COPD exacerbation. PMID:25844397

  8. Medical rota changes and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in orthopaedic patients.

    PubMed

    Bohler, Iain; George Mackenzie Jardine, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of clinical guidelines to improve patient care is highly dependent on the ability of hospital teams to interpret and implement advised standards of care. Trimester and bi-annual rotation changes often see transference and loss of acquired experience and knowledge from wards with ensuing shortfalls in patient safety and care quality. Such shortfalls were noticed in the ability of our unit to adhere to national venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis measures. A prospective quality improvement audit was embarked upon to address this. An initial audit of VTE prophylaxis in 112 patients demonstrated just 71% compliance with suggested measures. Errors were predominantly medical in origin and secondary to poor understanding, interpretation, and knowledge of VTE guidelines. Errors were also noted in nursing and patient compliance to measures. Repeated re-auditing demonstrated increased error (following initial improvement post audit) after periods of medical staff rotation. Through education of junior medical and nursing staff, and of patients, the unit was able to achieve 100% compliance. Rota changes often induce conflict of interest between maintaining adequate services and high levels of patient care or providing suitable and informed induction programmes for new medical staff. Emphasised education of VTE prophylaxis guidelines has now become part of induction of junior medical staff, whilst ward based measures ensure daily compliance. The success of the audit strategy has led to its use throughout other surgical units within the hospital. PMID:26734265

  9. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Parunov, Leonid A; Soshitova, Natalia P; Ovanesov, Mikhail V; Panteleev, Mikhail A; Serebriyskiy, Ilya I

    2015-09-01

    This review is focused on the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), associated with pregnancy. Superficial vein thrombosis, a less hazardous and less studied type of thrombosis in pregnant women, is beyond the scope of this review. This study discusses the VTE incidence rate in women from developed countries for both antepartum and postpartum periods and for subpopulations of women affected by additional risk factors, such as thrombophilias, circulatory diseases, preeclampsia of varying degrees of severity, and Caesarean section. To minimize bias due to historical changes in medical and obstetric practices, lifestyle, diet, etc., this review is generally limited to relatively recent studies, i.e., those that cover the last 35 years. The absolute risk or incidence rate was used to ascertain risk of VTE associated with pregnancy. For the studies where the direct incidence rates of VTE were not reported, we calculated an estimate of the observed but not reported absolute incidence rates using the data presented in respective articles. PMID:26406886

  10. Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism With New Anticoagulant Agents.

    PubMed

    Becattini, Cecilia; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-26

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease associated with high risk for recurrences, death, and late sequelae, accounting for substantial health care costs. Anticoagulant agents are the mainstay of treatment for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The recent availability of oral anticoagulant agents that can be administered in fixed doses, without laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment, is a landmark change in the treatment of VTE. In Phase III trials, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban (antifactor Xa agents), and dabigatran (an antithrombin agent) were noninferior and probably safer than conventional anticoagulation therapy (low-molecular-weight heparin followed by vitamin K antagonists). These favorable results were confirmed in specific patient subgroups, such as the elderly and fragile. However, some patients, such as those with cancer or with intermediate- to high-risk pulmonary embolism, were underrepresented in the Phase III trials. Further clinical research is required before new oral anticoagulant agents can be considered standard of care for the full spectrum of patients with VTE. PMID:27102510

  11. Decisions to Withhold Diagnostic Investigations in Nursing Home Patients with a Clinical Suspicion of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Henrike J.; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Kruisman-Ebbers, Marije; Geersing, Geert-Jan; Oudega, Ruud; Kars, Marijke C.; Moons, Karel G. M.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to gather insights in physicians' considerations for decisions to either refer for- or to withhold additional diagnostic investigations in nursing home patients with a suspicion of venous thromboembolism. Methods Our study was nested in an observational study on diagnostic strategies for suspected venous thromboembolism in nursing home patients. Patient characteristics, bleeding-complications and mortality were related to the decision to withhold investigations. For a better understanding of the physicians' decisions, 21 individual face-to-face in-depth interviews were performed and analysed using the grounded theory approach. Results Referal for additional diagnostic investigations was forgone in 126/322 (39.1%) patients with an indication for diagnostic work-up. ‘Blind’ anticoagulant treatment was initiated in 95 (75.4%) of these patients. The 3month mortality rates were higher for patients in whom investigations were withheld than in the referred patients, irrespective of anticoagulant treatment (odds ratio 2.45; 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 4.29) but when adjusted for the probability of being referred (i.e. the propensity score), there was no relation of non-diagnosis decisions to mortality (odds ratio 1.75; 0.98 to 3.11). In their decisions to forgo diagnostic investigations, physicians incorporated the estimated relative impact of the potential disease; the potential net-benefits of diagnostic investigations and whether performing investigations agreed with established management goals in advance care planning. Conclusion Referral for additional diagnostic investigations is withheld in almost 40% of Dutch nursing home patients with suspected venous thromboembolism and an indication for diagnostic work-up. We propose that, given the complexity of these decisions and the uncertainty regarding their indirect effects on patient outcome, more attention should be focused on the decision to either use or withhold additional

  12. Venous thromboembolism has the same risk factors as atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Yuhong; Yan, Shufeng; Lu, Yanhui; Liang, Ying; Li, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous studies have shown that idiopathic pulmonary embolism is positively associated with other cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, suggesting a potentially important association between atherosclerosis risk factors and venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between risk factors for atherosclerosis and VTE. Methods: In December 2014, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies evaluating the associations between VTE and risk factors for atherosclerosis and pooled outcome data using random-effects meta-analysis. In addition, we analyzed publication bias. Results: Thirty-three case-control and cohort studies with a total of 185,124 patients met the inclusion criteria. We found that participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 had a significantly higher prevalence of VTE than those with BMI <30 kg/m2 in both case-control studies (odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78–3.35) and cohort studies (relative risk [RR] = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.79–3.17). VTE was more prevalent in patients with hypertension than without hypertension (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.11–1.67). The findings were similar for VTE prevalence between patients with and without diabetes (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.17–2.69; RR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.20–1.66). Current smoking was significantly associated with VTE prevalence in case-control studies (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01–1.77), but not in cohort studies (RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.96–1.72). In addition, we found that total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in patients with VTE than without VTE (weighted mean differences [WMD] = 8.94 mg/dL, 95% CI: 3.52–14.35 mg/dL, and WMD = 14.00 mg/dL, 95% CI: 8.85–19.16 mg/dL, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in patients with VTE

  13. Recurrence risk after anticoagulant treatment of limited duration for late, second venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    van der Hulle, Tom; Tan, Melanie; den Exter, Paul L.; van Roosmalen, Mark J.G.; van der Meer, Felix J.M.; Eikenboom, Jeroen; Huisman, Menno V.; Klok, Frederikus A.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a second venous thromboembolism generally receive anticoagulant treatment indefinitely, although it is known that the recurrence risk diminishes over time while the risk of hemorrhage persists with continued anticoagulation and increases with age. Based on these arguments and limited evidence for indefinitely prolonged treatment, the Dutch guidelines recommend considering treatment of a limited duration (i.e. 12 months) for a ‘late’ second venous thromboembolism, defined by a second venous thromboembolism diagnosed more than 1 year after discontinuing treatment for a first event. It is hypothesized that the risk of continued anticoagulation might outweigh the benefits in such circumstances. We evaluated this management in daily practice. Since 2003, limited duration of treatment was systematically considered at our hospital in consecutive patients, in whom we determined the recurrence risk. Of 131 patients with late second venous thromboembolism, 77 were treated for a limited duration, of whom 26 developed a symptomatic third venous thromboembolism thereafter during a cumulative follow-up of 277 years, resulting in an incidence rate of 9.4/100 patient-years (95% confidence interval: 6.1–14). The incidence rates in patients with unprovoked and provoked venous thromboembolism were 12/100 patient-years (95% confidence interval: 7.4–19) and 5.6/100 patient-years (95% confidence interval: 2.2–12), respectively [adjusted hazard ratio 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.1–7.2)]. The recurrence risk after treatment of limited duration for ‘late’ second venous thromboembolism exceeded the risk of hemorrhage associated with extended anticoagulation. Most patients may, therefore, be better served by treatment of indefinite duration, although the risk-benefit ratio of extended anticoagulation should be weighed for every patient. PMID:25261098

  14. [Advancement of prophylaxis and therapy for venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2008-07-01

    Recently in Japan, venous thromboembolism (VTE) [deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE)] has increased with the Westernization of eating habits and aging of society. In the West, the prophylaxis guidelines have been discussed for many years. Unfortunately, Japan falls far behind the West in this area. Therefore, the necessity of thromboprophylaxis in Japanese people should be emphasized based on reliable VTE studies in Japan. In orthopedic surgery, prospective multicenter studies in Japan indicate that the incidence of DVT/PTE in total hip or knee replacement surgery and hip fracture surgery were almost equal to those in Western people. Furthermore, a multi-center, prospective epidemiological study in Japan revealed that the incidence of VTE following major abdominal surgery was 24.3%. We developed Japanese Guidelines for VTE prophylaxis based on the 6th ACCP guideline in 2004. The incidence of perioperative PTE in Japan has been investigated by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists since 2002. The rate of perioperative PTE was estimated to be 4.41 per 10,000 operations in 2002, and 4.76 in 2003; however, it decreased to 3.61 immediately after the guideline for thromboprophylaxis was issued and the management fee for PTE prophylaxis became covered by health insurance in April 2004. Furthermore, it markedly decreased in 2005. However, mechanical prophylaxis is not sufficient to prevent PTE, and advanced prophylaxis by anticoagulants, such as low-molecular-weight heparin/selective Xa inhibitor along with unfractionated heparin (UFH)/vitamin K antagonists (VKA) will be essential. The advanced revised guidelines for VTE prophylaxis based on our clinical evidence will be established in the near future. As for treatment for VTE, anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies are essential. In cases with VTE, UFH followed by VKA (INR: 1.5-2.5) is standard. In cases of PTE with shock, thrombolytic therapy such as tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase

  15. Extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery: the current state of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Chandra, Raaj; Moore, James W

    2016-07-01

    There is level one evidence to support combined mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis for 7-10 days after colorectal cancer surgery, but there remains a paucity of data to support extended prophylaxis after discharge. The aim of this clinical review is to summarise the currently available evidence for extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Clinical review of the major clinical guidelines and published clinical data evaluating extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Five major guideline recommendations are outlined, and the results of the five published randomised controlled trials are summarised and reviewed with a specific focus on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of extended heparin prophylaxis to prevent clinically relevant post-operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after colorectal cancer surgery. Extended VTE prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery reduces the incidence of asymptomatic screen detected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) only, with no demonstrable reduction in symptomatic DVT, symptomatic PE, or VTE related death. Evidence for cost-effectiveness is limited. As the incidence of clinical VTE is very low in this patient subgroup overall, future research should be focused on higher risk patient subgroups in whom a reduction in VTE may be both more demonstrable and clinically relevant. PMID:26590997

  16. The Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 on Soluble P-Selectin and hs-CRP Level in Patients With Venous Thromboembolism: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Kheirollah; Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Entezari-Maleki, Taher; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Dousti, Samaneh; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Maleki, Saleh

    2016-07-01

    High plasma level of P-selectin is associated with the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D could decrease thrombotic events. Hence, this study was designed to examine whether the administration of vitamin D can influence the plasma level of P-selectin in patients with VTE. In the randomized controlled trial, 60 patients with confirmed acute deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) were randomized into the intervention (n = 20) and control (n = 40) groups. The intervention arm was given an intramuscular single dose of 300 000 IU vitamin D3 Plasma level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D, P-selectin, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured at baseline and 4 weeks after. The plasma level of P-selectin (95% confidence interval = -5.99 to -1.63, P = .022) and hs-CRP (P = .024) significantly declined in vitamin D-treated group, while only hs-CRP was significantly decreased in the control group (P = .011). However, the magnitude of these reductions was not statistically significant. This study could not support the potential benefit of the high-dose vitamin D on plasma level of P-selectin and hs-CRP in patients with VTE. PMID:25601896

  17. Arrive: A retrospective registry of Indian patients with venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Kamerkar, Dhanesh R.; John, M. Joseph; Desai, Sanjay C.; Dsilva, Liesel C.; Joglekar, Sadhna J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: There is lack of substantial Indian data on venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to provide real-world information on patient characteristics, management strategies, clinical outcomes, and temporal trends in VTE. Subjects and Methods: Multicentre retrospective registry involving 549 medical records of patients with confirmed diagnosis of VTE (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography; pulmonary embolism [PE] by computed tomography, pulmonary angiography and/or V/Q scan) from 2006 to 2010 at three Indian tertiary care hospitals. Results: Acute DVT without PE, acute DVT with PE, and PE alone were reported in 64% (352/549), 23% (124/549), and 13% (73/549) patients, respectively. Mean age was 47 (±16) years, and 70% were males. H/o DVT (34%), surgery including orthopedic surgery (28%), trauma (16%), and immobilization >3 days (14%) were the most common risk factors for VTE. Hypertension (25%), diabetes (19%), and neurological disease (other than stroke) (8%) were the most common co-morbidities. Most (94%) were treated with heparin alone (82%) or fondaparinux (2%) for initial anticoagulation; low molecular weight heparin alone (5%) or warfarin/acenocoumarol (76%) for long-term anticoagulation. Anticoagulant treatment was stopped because of bleeding in 2% (9/515) patients. Mortality was 7% among patients diagnosed with VTE during hospital stay versus 1% in those hospitalized with diagnosed VTE. The annual incidence of DVT (±PE) increased from 2006 to 2010. Conclusion: Acute DVT alone was responsible for the substantial burden of VTE in Indian patients. Bleeding was not the limiting factor for anticoagulant treatment in most patients. PMID:27076726

  18. Novel genetic predictors of venous thromboembolism risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wenndy; Gamazon, Eric R.; Smithberger, Erin; O’Brien, Travis J.; Harralson, Arthur F.; Tuck, Matthew; Barbour, April; Kittles, Rick A.; Cavallari, Larisa H.

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common life-threatening cardiovascular condition in the United States, with African Americans (AAs) having a 30% to 60% higher incidence compared with other ethnicities. The mechanisms underlying population differences in the risk of VTE are poorly understood. We conducted the first genome-wide association study in AAs, comprising 578 subjects, followed by replication of highly significant findings in an independent cohort of 159 AA subjects. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between genetic variants and VTE risk. Through bioinformatics analysis of the top signals, we identified expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in whole blood and investigated the messenger RNA expression differences in VTE cases and controls. We identified and replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 20 (rs2144940, rs2567617, and rs1998081) that increased risk of VTE by 2.3-fold (P < 6 × 10−7). These risk variants were found in higher frequency among populations of African descent (>20%) compared with other ethnic groups (<10%). We demonstrate that SNPs on chromosome 20 are cis-eQTLs for thrombomodulin (THBD), and the expression of THBD is lower among VTE cases compared with controls (P = 9.87 × 10−6). We have identified novel polymorphisms associated with increased risk of VTE in AAs. These polymorphisms are predominantly found among populations of African descent and are associated with THBD gene expression. Our findings provide new molecular insight into a mechanism regulating VTE susceptibility and identify common genetic variants that increase the risk of VTE in AAs, a population disproportionately affected by this disease. PMID:26888256

  19. HIV infection is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Copur, A Sinan; Smith, Peter R; Gomez, Victor; Bergman, Michael; Homel, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The reported incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has ranged from 0.25 to 0.96% in clinical studies, but up to 17% at autopsy. A preliminary analysis at our hospital suggested that the frequency of VTE among HIV-positive individuals might be higher than previously reported. To further evaluate this issue, we performed a retrospective study of patients with a diagnosis of VTE and/or HIV infection discharged from our hospital between July 1, 1998 and June 30, 1999. A total of 13,496 patients were discharged during the year of the study. There were 244 patients with VTE and 362 who were HIV-positive. Ten of the 244 patients with VTE were HIV-positive (4.1%). The frequency of VTE among HIV-positive individuals was 10/362 (2.8%) compared to 234/13134 (1.8%) in the non-HIV-positive group, but the difference is not statistically significant. However, in patients under age 50, the frequencies were significantly different: 10/302 (3.31%) versus 35/6594 (0.53%), respectively (p < 0.0001). The frequency of VTE in HIV-positive patients less than 50 years old (3.31%) was greater than in HIV-positive patients over 50 years of age (0/60), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, in the non-HIV-positive group, VTE was significantly more frequent in those 50 and older compared to younger patients (3.04% versus 0.53%, p = 0.0001). Statistical analysis indicated that the direction of association between age and diagnosis of VTE differed for HIV-positive patients versus non-HIV-positive patients. Our results suggest that HIV-positive patients under age 50 are at increased risk for VTE compared with non-HIV-positive individuals. PMID:12055028

  20. Alcohol use disorders are associated with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Zöller, Bengt; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-08-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to protect against venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, it is not known how alcohol abuse and its associated somatic complications affect the risk of VTE. The present study determined the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in Sweden. All inpatients with AUDs in 2002-2010 without a previous VTE event (72,024 patients) were matched to five controls without AUD and followed until the end of follow-up (December 31, 2010), death, emigration or a VTE event. Cox regression was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE. AUD patients were further divided into those without alcohol-related somatic complications (AUD-) and those with alcohol-related somatic complications (AUD+, i.e., encephalopathy, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, myopathy, cardiomyopathy, gastritis, liver disease, acute pancreatitis, and chronic pancreatitis). The adjusted HR for VTE was significantly increased for both AUD- (HR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.55-1.87) and AUD+ (HR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.37-2.19) patients. The risk of DVT was increased in both AUD+ and AUD- patients (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.45-1.83 and HR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.53-2.59, respectively). However, the risk of PE was only significantly increased in AUD- patients (HR 1.87, 95 % 1.59-1.20) and not in AUD+ patients (HR 1.16, 95 % 0.70-1.91). In conclusion, the present study shows that AUD increases the risk of VTE, even in the absence of alcohol-related somatic complications. Our findings suggest that severe alcohol abuse increases the risk of VTE. PMID:25605687

  1. Physician Alerts to Prevent Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Gregory; Rosenbaum, Erin J.; Pendergast, William; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Pendleton, Robert C.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Elliott, C. Gregory; Stevens, Scott M.; Patton, William F.; Dabbagh, Ousama; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Catapane, Elaine; Li, Zhongzhen; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis remains underutilized among hospitalized patients. We designed and carried out a large multicenter randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that an alert from a hospital staff member to the Attending Physician will reduce the rate of symptomatic VTE among high-risk patients not receiving prophylaxis. Methods and Results We enrolled patients using a validated point score system to detect hospitalized patients at high risk for symptomatic VTE who were not receiving prophylaxis. 2,493 patients (82% on Medical Services) from 25 study sites were randomized to the intervention group (n=1,238), in which the responsible physician was alerted by another hospital staff member, versus the control group (n=1,255), in which no alert was issued. The primary end point was symptomatic, objectively confirmed VTE within 90 days. Patients whose physicians were alerted were more than twice as likely to receive VTE prophylaxis as controls (46.0% versus 20.6%, p<0.0001). The symptomatic VTE rate was lower in the intervention group (2.7% versus 3.4%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.25), but the difference did not achieve statistical significance. The rate of major bleeding at 30 days in the alert group was similar to the control group (2.1% versus 2.3%, p=0.68). Conclusions A strategy of direct staff member to physician notification increases prophylaxis utilization and leads toward reducing the rate of symptomatic VTE in hospitalized patients. However, VTE prophylaxis continues to be underutilized even after physician notification, especially among Medical Service patients. PMID:19364975

  2. Sex Differences in Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Enea, Iolanda; Gadelha, Telma; Tufano, Antonella; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Bounameaux, Henri; González, José; Villalta, Jaume; Monreal, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), the outcome during the course of anticoagulant therapy may differ according to the patient’s sex. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) database to compare the rate of VTE recurrences, major bleeding, and mortality due to these events according to sex. As of August 2013, 47,499 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 24,280 (51%) were women. Women were older, more likely presented with pulmonary embolism (PE), and were more likely to have recent immobilization but less likely to have cancer than men. During the course of anticoagulation (mean duration: 253 d), 659 patients developed recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 576 recurrent PE, 1368 bled, and 4506 died. Compared with men, women had a lower rate of DVT recurrences (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.91), a similar rate of PE recurrences (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.83–1.15), a higher rate of major bleeding (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35), and higher mortality due to PE (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04–1.47). On multivariable analysis, any influence of sex on the risk for recurrent DVT (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.75–1.03), major bleeding (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.98–1.24), or fatal PE (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.84–1.22) was no longer statistically significant. In conclusion, women had fewer DVT recurrences and more bleeds than men during the course of anticoagulation. These differences were not due to sex, but very likely to other patient characteristics more common in female patients and differences in treatment choice. PMID:25398066

  3. Molecular assay optimized by Taguchi experimental design method for venous thromboembolism investigation.

    PubMed

    Celani de Souza, Helder Jose; Moyses, Cinthia B; Pontes, Fabrício J; Duarte, Roberto N; Sanches da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Alberto, Fernando Lopes; Ferreira, Ubirajara R; Silva, Messias Borges

    2011-01-01

    Two mutations - Factor V Leiden (1691G > A) and the 20210G > A on the Prothrombin gene - are key risk factors for a frequent and potentially fatal disorder called Venous Thromboembolism. These molecular alterations can be investigated using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) probes and distinct DNA pools for both factors. The objective of this paper is to present an application of Taguchi Experimental Design Method to determine the best parameters adjustment of a Molecular Assays Process in order to obtain the best diagnostic result for Venous Thromboembolism investigation. The complete process contains six three-level factors which usually demands 729 experiments to obtain the final result, if using a Full Factorial Array. In this research, a Taguchi L27 Orthogonal Array is chosen to optimize the analysis and reduce the number of experiments to 27 without degrading the final result accuracy. The application of this method can lessen the time and cost necessary to achieve the best operation condition for a required performance. The results is proven in practice and confirmed that the Taguchi method can really offer a good approach for clinical assay efficiency and effectiveness improvement even though the clinical diagnostics can be based on the use of qualitative techniques. PMID:21867748

  4. Risk factors predictive of occult cancer detection in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Ihaddadene, Ryma; Corsi, Daniel J.; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Shivakumar, Sudeep; Zarychanski, Ryan; Tagalakis, Vicky; Solymoss, Susan; Routhier, Nathalie; Douketis, James; Le Gal, Gregoire

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors predictive of occult cancer detection in patients with a first unprovoked symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) are unknown. Cox proportional hazard models and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of specific risk factors on occult cancer detection within 1 year of a diagnosis of unprovoked VTE in patients randomized in the Screening for Occult Malignancy in Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism (SOME) trial. A total of 33 (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.8%-5.4%) out of the 854 included patients received a new diagnosis of cancer at 1-year follow-up. Age ≥ 60 years (hazard ratio [HR], 3.11; 95% CI, 1.41-6.89; P = .005), previous provoked VTE (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.19-8.62; P = .022), and current smoker status (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.24-6.33; P = .014) were associated with occult cancer detection. Age, prior provoked VTE, and smoking status may be important predictors of occult cancer detection in patients with first unprovoked VTE. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00773448. PMID:26817957

  5. Risk factors predictive of occult cancer detection in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Ihaddadene, Ryma; Corsi, Daniel J; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Shivakumar, Sudeep; Zarychanski, Ryan; Tagalakis, Vicky; Solymoss, Susan; Routhier, Nathalie; Douketis, James; Le Gal, Gregoire; Carrier, Marc

    2016-04-21

    Risk factors predictive of occult cancer detection in patients with a first unprovoked symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) are unknown. Cox proportional hazard models and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of specific risk factors on occult cancer detection within 1 year of a diagnosis of unprovoked VTE in patients randomized in the Screening for Occult Malignancy in Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism (SOME) trial. A total of 33 (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.8%-5.4%) out of the 854 included patients received a new diagnosis of cancer at 1-year follow-up. Age ≥ 60 years (hazard ratio [HR], 3.11; 95% CI, 1.41-6.89; ITALIC! P= .005), previous provoked VTE (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.19-8.62; ITALIC! P= .022), and current smoker status (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.24-6.33; ITALIC! P= .014) were associated with occult cancer detection. Age, prior provoked VTE, and smoking status may be important predictors of occult cancer detection in patients with first unprovoked VTE. This trial was registered atwww.clinicaltrials.govas #NCT00773448. PMID:26817957

  6. Preventing venous thromboembolic events after total hip arthroplasty: new developments in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Deitelzweig, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a frequently performed orthopedic surgical procedure, and the number of these surgeries is expected to increase significantly over the coming years. Patients undergoing joint arthroplasty are at a particularly high risk for developing venous thromboembolic events (eg, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). Prevention of postoperative complications is an important responsibility not only for orthopedic surgeons, but also for other clinicians involved in patients' care. Effective thromboprophylaxis is crucial to reduce the risk of developing venous thromboembolism following total hip arthroplasty and is an important goal of therapy. In response to some of the practical limitations of traditional anticoagulants, a new generation of oral anticoagulants has been developed. These agents include the selective factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban, and the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate. The objective of this review article is to update hospitalists on the trial data and clinical considerations surrounding the new anticoagulants. Hospitalists play a key role in caring for surgical patients either in a consultative role or in conjunction with surgical teams. Thus, a practical knowledge of recent developments in thromboprophylaxis is essential for providing high-quality, evidence-based care. PMID:22615082

  7. The thrombophilic pattern of different clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism: a survey of 443 cases of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Elisa; Marcucci, Rossella; Ciuti, Gabriele; Cenci, Caterina; Poli, Daniela; Mannini, Lucia; Liotta, Agatina Alessandrello; Miniati, Massimo; Abbate, Rosanna; Prisco, Domenico

    2012-03-01

    Although pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) share many risk factors, it is uncertain whether thrombophilic abnormalities may impact differently on the development of these two clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE). To give further insight into this issue, we estimated the association of PE with different types of thrombophilia and evaluated whether these abnormalities have a different prevalence in patients presenting with PE, alone or associated with DVT, as compared with those with isolated DVT. In this study 443 consecutive patients with a first episode of VTE and 304 matched healthy controls underwent laboratory screening for thrombophilia, including natural anticoagulants, factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms, antiphospholipid antibodies, homocysteine, factor VIII, and lipoprotein(a). Of the 443 patients, 224 patients had isolated DVT, 144 had combined DVT/PE, and 75 had isolated PE. At least one thrombophilic abnormality was detected in 72.8% of DVT, 66% of DVT/EP, and 60% of isolated PE patients. A high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated lipoprotein(a) levels was found in all patients with no significant differences among the three groups. The prevalence of prothrombin G20210A polymorphism and of elevated factor VIII levels was significantly higher in patients with DVT and DVT/PE than in controls, but not in those with isolated PE, whereas factor V Leiden polymorphism was associated with isolated DVT but not with DVT/PE or isolated PE. In conclusion, the thrombophilic burden seems different in isolated PE versus DVT with or without PE, suggesting that PE may encompass a different pathophysiological process of thrombosis to DVT. PMID:22422337

  8. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism: similarities with atherothrombosis and the role of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Riva, Nicoletta; Donadini, Marco P; Ageno, Walter

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease. Major provoking factors (e. g. surgery, cancer, major trauma, and immobilisation) are identified in 50-60 % of patients, while the remaining cases are classified as unprovoked. However, minor predisposing conditions may be detectable in these patients, possibly concurring to the pathophysiology of the disease, especially when co-existing. In recent years, the role of chronic inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases and traditional cardiovascular risk factors has been extensively investigated. Inflammation, with its underlying prothrombotic state, could be the potential link between these risk factors, as well as the explanation for the reported association between arterial and venous thromboembolic events. PMID:25472800

  9. A Comprehensive Overview of Direct Oral Anticoagulants for the Management of Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Comerota, Anthony J; Ramacciotti, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a prevalent, potentially fatal health problem. Although standard anticoagulant therapy is effective when compared with the newer direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), it has disadvantages. Heparin and its derivatives must be administered parenterally, whereas use of oral vitamin K antagonists is complicated by unpredictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, drug-food and drug-drug interactions and the requirement for frequent laboratory monitoring. Randomized phase 3 trials have demonstrated that patients receive similarly effective anticoagulation with the DOACs dabigatran, edoxaban, rivaroxaban and apixaban when compared with warfarin, with similar or reduced risk of bleeding. Extended therapy trials have consistently demonstrated superior effectiveness for DOAC treatment when compared with placebo in preventing VTE recurrence. This article presents a comprehensive review of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and accumulated clinical trial evidence for each DOAC for short-term, long-term and extended VTE therapy, and it considers the potential implications these agents have for the clinical management of VTE. PMID:27432042

  10. Implementation of vertical clinical pharmacist service on venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Celina Setsuko; Mancio, Cassio Massashi; Pioner, Micheline da Costa; Alves, Fabricia Aparecida de Lima; Lira, Andreia Ramos; da Silva, João Severino; Ferracini, Fábio Teixeira; Borges, Wladimir Mendes; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos; Laselva, Claudia Regina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the vertical clinical pharmacist service's interventions in prevention of venous thromboembolism. Methods: This prospective study was done at a private hospital. From January to May 2012, the clinical pharmacist evaluated medical patients without prophylaxis for thromboembolism. If the patient fulfilled criteria for thromboembolism and did not have contraindications, the clinical pharmacist suggested inclusion of pharmacologic agents and/or mechanical methods for venous thromboembolism prevention. In addition, the appropriate dose, route of administration, duplicity and replacement of the drug were suggested. Results: We evaluated 9,000 hospitalized medical patients and carried out 77 pharmaceutical interventions. A total of 71 cases (92.21%) adhered to treatment so that non-adherence occurred in 6 cases (7.79%). In 25 cases pharmacologic agents were included and in 20 cases mechanical prophylaxis. Dose adjustments, route, frequency, duplicity and replacement made up 32 cases. Conclusion: The vertical clinical pharmacist service included the prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism and promotion of appropriate use of medicines in the hospital. PMID:24728242

  11. Oral factor Xa inhibitors for venous thromboembolism prevention in major orthopedic surgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Imberti, Davide; Prisco, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, and routine thromboprophylaxis has been the standard of care over the last 20 years. Currently available options for the prevention of VTE in major orthopedic surgery include low-molecular-weight heparins, vitamin K antagonists and, more recently, the synthetic pentasaccharide fondaparinux. Although effective, these drugs have several limitations, and new oral antithrombotics offering predictable, effective and safe anticoagulation are strongly needed. This overview focuses on the most advanced oral direct inhibitors of factor Xa, rivaroxaban, apixaban, LY517717, YM150 and betrixaban. Specifically, the results of phase II and III studies and the designs of ongoing clinical trials in patients undergoing elective hip and knee replacement are reviewed. PMID:19996630

  12. Preventing Venous Thromboembolism with Use of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression after Total Hip Arthroplasty in Korean Patients.

    PubMed

    Jo, Woo-Lam; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Kyung-Min; Kang, Bun-Jung; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2016-08-01

    Intermittent Pneumatic Compression (IPC) device has been used to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study investigated the effectiveness of IPC device. We evaluated incidences of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients after use of IPC device, and compared with historical incidences from our institution. We applied IPC device in 741 patients who underwent 870 elective primary THAs from January 2010 to December 2013, DVT was detected in 3 patients (0.3%) by sonography, and one (0.1%) of them was symptomatic. Symptomatic PE occurred in 1 patient (0.1%) and there were no cases of fatal PE. The incidence of symptomatic DVT was significantly lower than the historical control (P = 0.042). The IPC is a safe and effective prophylaxis of VTE after primary THA in Korea. PMID:27478345

  13. Preventing Venous Thromboembolism with Use of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression after Total Hip Arthroplasty in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent Pneumatic Compression (IPC) device has been used to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study investigated the effectiveness of IPC device. We evaluated incidences of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients after use of IPC device, and compared with historical incidences from our institution. We applied IPC device in 741 patients who underwent 870 elective primary THAs from January 2010 to December 2013, DVT was detected in 3 patients (0.3%) by sonography, and one (0.1%) of them was symptomatic. Symptomatic PE occurred in 1 patient (0.1%) and there were no cases of fatal PE. The incidence of symptomatic DVT was significantly lower than the historical control (P = 0.042). The IPC is a safe and effective prophylaxis of VTE after primary THA in Korea. PMID:27478345

  14. Clinical experience with the new oral anticoagulants for treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Bacchus, Farzana; Schulman, Sam

    2015-03-01

    Four non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban, have been evaluated in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism, and all except edoxaban have also been studied for extended secondary prophylaxis after venous thromboembolism. Rivaroxaban, and recently also dabigatran, has been approved for this indication, and it is therefore timely to review the characteristics, efficacy, and safety of these drugs with emphasis on patients with venous thromboembolism. This review focuses on the clinical results from the phase III trials, separately for each of the drugs as compared with vitamin K antagonists. We also address the results from meta-analyses that were published recently. Finally, the results in some special groups of interest-renal impairment, elderly patients, and patients with cancer-are reviewed, although they only comprised small minorities of the study populations. All 4 drugs demonstrated noninferiority against vitamin K antagonists in the acute treatment and clear superiority against placebo in the extended treatment (not performed with edoxaban). The risk of bleeding was generally lower with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, and the reduction of risk of intracranial hemorrhage seems to mirror the experience from atrial fibrillation trials. In conclusion, during the past 30 years we have moved from a week of hospitalization and intravenous heparin therapy, via low-molecular-weight heparin injections subcutaneously and early discharge from the hospital, to the possibility of only oral outpatient therapy without coagulation monitoring, yet safe for patients with acute venous thromboembolism. PMID:25717178

  15. Venous thromboembolism knowledge among older post-hip fracture patients and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Donaldson, Jill; Drake, Diane; Johnson, Linda; van Servellen, Gwen; Reed, Preston L.; Mulnard, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Patient education about venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention is needed to prevent complications and costly re-hospitalization. Nurses are uniquely positioned to provide vital education as patients transition from the inpatient setting to after discharge. Still, little is known about patient knowledge deficits and those of their caregivers. The purpose of this study was to explore VTE prevention knowledge in a sample of older hip fracture patients and family caregivers. At the time of hospital discharge, surveys were completed by hip fracture surgery patients (≥65; n=30) and family caregivers (n=30). Participants reported needs for more prophylactic anticoagulation and side effects education. Mean education satisfaction was 3.49 out of 5 among patients and 3.83 among caregivers. Focused patient education regarding the wisdom of VTE prevention, potential risks involved, and patient and care giver roles in advocating for better prevention measures is needed for these patients at risk for hospital readmission secondary to VTE. PMID:25012989

  16. Risk of venous thromboembolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based matched cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Steven T.; Hartzema, Abraham G.; Brophy, James M.; Etminan, Mahyar; Delaney, Joseph A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is an increased risk of venous thromboembolism among women taking oral contraceptives. However, whether there is an additional risk among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown. Methods: We developed a population-based cohort from the IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database, which includes managed care organizations in the United States. Women aged 18–46 years taking combined oral contraceptives and who had a claim for PCOS (n = 43 506) were matched, based on a propensity score, to control women (n = 43 506) taking oral contraceptives. Venous thromboembolism was defined using administrative coding and use of anticoagulation. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relative risk (RR) of venous thromboembolism among users of combined oral contraceptives with and without PCOS. Results: The incidence of venous thromboembolism among women with PCOS was 23.7/10 000 person-years, while that for matched controls was 10.9/10 000 person-years. Women with PCOS taking combined oral contraceptives had an RR for venous thromboembolism of 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41–3.24) compared with other contraceptive users. The incidence of venous thromboembolism was 6.3/10 000 person-years among women with PCOS not taking oral contraceptives; the incidence was 4.1/10 000 person-years among matched controls. The RR of venous thromboembolism among women with PCOS not taking oral contraceptives was 1.55 (95% CI 1.10–2.19). Interpretation: We found a 2-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism among women with PCOS who were taking combined oral contraceptives and a 1.5-fold increased risk among women with PCOS not taking oral contraceptives. Physicians should consider the increased risk of venous thromboembolism when prescribing contraceptive therapy to women with PCOS. PMID:23209115

  17. Risk impact of edoxaban in the management of stroke and venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Katherine V; O’Callaghan, John Matthew; Handa, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of target-specific oral anticoagulants is being prescribed for increasing numbers of patients at risk of stroke or venous thromboembolism (VTE). These drugs offer valuable benefits due to fast onset anticoagulation, a fixed anticoagulation effect (allowing administration of specified doses), and no requirement for routine monitoring. Edoxaban is a fast-acting oral anticoagulant, approved for use in the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the treatment of acute VTE. Like many of the new oral anticoagulants, it selectively inhibits factor Xa, in a concentration-dependent manner. Multiple Phase II clinical trials have shown edoxaban to be noninferior to vitamin K antagonists in the prevention of stroke and VTE, with a good safety profile. To date, the pivotal studies to endorse edoxaban’s clinical use have been ENGAGE AF-TIMI and Hokusai-VTE, both of which have compared its efficacy to standard warfarin treatment. This paper aims at reviewing the use of edoxaban in the management of stroke and thromboembolic disease, highlighting the key study results that have led to its current license. PMID:27563246

  18. Risk impact of edoxaban in the management of stroke and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Katherine V; O'Callaghan, John Matthew; Handa, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of target-specific oral anticoagulants is being prescribed for increasing numbers of patients at risk of stroke or venous thromboembolism (VTE). These drugs offer valuable benefits due to fast onset anticoagulation, a fixed anticoagulation effect (allowing administration of specified doses), and no requirement for routine monitoring. Edoxaban is a fast-acting oral anticoagulant, approved for use in the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the treatment of acute VTE. Like many of the new oral anticoagulants, it selectively inhibits factor Xa, in a concentration-dependent manner. Multiple Phase II clinical trials have shown edoxaban to be noninferior to vitamin K antagonists in the prevention of stroke and VTE, with a good safety profile. To date, the pivotal studies to endorse edoxaban's clinical use have been ENGAGE AF-TIMI and Hokusai-VTE, both of which have compared its efficacy to standard warfarin treatment. This paper aims at reviewing the use of edoxaban in the management of stroke and thromboembolic disease, highlighting the key study results that have led to its current license. PMID:27563246

  19. Symptomatic and Incidental Venous Thromboembolic Disease Are Both Associated with Mortality in Patients with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Shruti; Sidana, Surbhi; Elson, Paul; Khorana, Alok A.; McCrae, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The association between malignancy and venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) is well established. The independent impact of VTE, both symptomatic and incidental, on survival in patients with prostate cancer is not known. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the effect of VTE of survival in prostate cancer. Methods Data regarding clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of 453 consecutive prostate cancer patients were collected. Fisher exact (categorical variables) and t-test (continuous variables) were utilized to test associations with VTE and mortality. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan Meier method. A Cox regression model was used to model the mortality hazard ratio (HR). Results At diagnosis, 358 (83%) patients had early stage disease, 43 (10%) had locally advanced disease and 32 (7%) had metastatic disease. During the follow up period, 122 (27%) patients died and 41 (9%) developed VTE (33 deep vein thrombosis, 5 pulmonary embolism, and 3 patients with both DVT and PE). Twenty-five VTE events were symptomatic and 16 were incidentally diagnosed on CT scans obtained for other reasons. VTE was associated with increased mortality [HR 6.89 (4.29–11.08), p<0.001] in a multivariable analysis adjusted for cancer stage, performance status, treatments and co-morbidities. There was no difference in survival between patients who had symptomatic and incidental VTE. Conclusion Venous thromboembolic disease, both symptomatic and incidental, is a predictor of poor survival in patients with prostate cancer, especially those with advanced disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation in this population. PMID:25126949

  20. Bleeding events with dabigatran or warfarin in patients with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Ammar; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay; Kearon, Clive; Eriksson, Henry; Kreuzer, Jörg; Feuring, Martin; Hantel, Stephan; Friedman, Jeffrey; Schellong, Sebastian; Schulman, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Dabigatran was as effective as warfarin for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism in the RE-COVER and RE-COVER II trials. We compared the incidence of bleeding with dabigatran versus warfarin in pooled data from these studies. The localisation, bleeding severity, and the impact of key factors on the incidence of bleeding, were compared between the dabigatran and warfarin treatment group. Altogether, 2553 patients received dabigatran and 2554 warfarin, each for a mean of 164 days. The incidence of any bleeding event was significantly lower with dabigatran (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.79), as was the incidence of the composite of MBEs and clinically relevant non-major bleeding events (HR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.76). The incidence of major bleeding events (MBEs) was also significantly lower with dabigatran in the double-dummy phase (HR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.36-0.99) but not statistically different between the two treatment arms when the entire treatment period is considered (HR 0.73 95% CI, 0.48-1.11). Increasing age, reduced renal function, Asian ethnicity, and concomitant antiplatelet therapy were associated with higher bleeding rates in both treatment groups. The reduction in bleeding with dabigatran compared to warfarin was consistent among the subgroups and with a similar pattern for intracranial, and urogenital major bleeding. In conclusion, treatment of venous thromboembolism with dabigatran is associated with a lower risk of bleeding compared to warfarin. This reduction did not differ with respect to the location of bleeding or among predefined subgroups. PMID:26403199

  1. Benchmark for Time in Therapeutic Range in Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erkens, Petra M. G.; ten Cate, Hugo; Büller, Harry R.; Prins, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The percentage of time within the target INR range 2.0 to 3.0 (TTR) in patients treated with vitamin K antagonists varies considerably among efficacy-studies of novel anticoagulants. In order to properly asses the quality of anticoagulant control in upcoming cost-effectiveness studies and real life registries this systematic review reports a benchmark of TTR for different treatment durations in patients with venous thromboembolism and discusses ways to calculate TTR. Methods Medline and Embase were searched for studies published between January 1990 and May 2012. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies reporting the TTR in patients with objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) were eligible. Duplicate reports, studies only reporting INR during initial treatment or with VKA treatment less than 3 months were excluded. Three authors assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data independently. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion between the reviewers. A meta-analysis was performed by calculating a weighted mean, based on the number of participants in each included study, for each time-period in which the TTR was measured since the confirmation of the diagnosis of VTE. Results Forty studies were included (26064 patients). The weighted means of TTR were 54.0% in the first month since the start of treatment, 55.6% in months 1 to 3, 60.0% in months 2 to 3, 60.0% in the months1 to 6+ and 75.2% in months 4 to 12+. Five studies reported TTR in classes. The INR in these studies was ≥67% of time in therapeutic range in 72.0% of the patients. Conclusion Reported quality of VKA treatment is highly dependent on the time-period since the start of treatment, with TTR ranging from approximately 56% in studies including the 1st month to 75% in studies excluding the first 3 months. PMID:23049730

  2. Venous Thromboembolism Risk and Adequacy of Prophylaxis in High Risk Pregnancy in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Alsayegh, Faisal; Al-Jassar, Waleed; Wani, Salima; Tahlak, Muna; Al-Bahar, Awatef; Al-Kharusi, Lamya; Al-Tamimi, Halima; El-Taher, Faten; Mahmood, Naeema; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy and the proportion of pregnancies at risk of VTE that received the recommended prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 published guidelines in antenatal clinics in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: The evaluation of venous thromboembolism (EVE)-Risk project was a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre, multi-national study of all eligible pregnant women (≥17 years) screened during antenatal clinics from 7 centres in the Arabian Gulf countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). Pregnant women were recruited during a 3-month period between September and December 2012. Results: Of 4,131 screened pregnant women, 32% (n=1,337) had ≥1 risk factors for VTE. Common VTE risk factors included obesity (76%), multiparity (33%), recurrent miscarriages (9.1%), varicose veins (6.9%), thrombophilia (2.6%), immobilization (2.0%), sickle cell disease (2.8%) and previous VTE (1.6%). Only 8.3% (n=111) of the high risk patients were on the recommended VTE prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was used in 80% (n=89) of the cases followed by tinzaparin (4%; n=4). Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 11% (n=149) of pregnant women. Of those on anticoagulants (n=111), 59% (n=66) were also co-prescribed antiplatelet agents. Side effects (mainly local bruising at the injection site) were reported in 12% (n=13) of the cases. Conclusion: A large proportion of pregnant women in the Arabian Gulf countries have ≥1 VTE risk factor with even a smaller fraction on prophylaxis. VTE risk assessment must be adopted to identify those at risk who would need VTE prophylaxis.

  3. Association between particulate air pollution and venous thromboembolism: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Cruciani, Mario; Bonfanti, Carlo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading global problem for public health. A number of ambient pollutants have been involved, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM). Although exposure to PM has been linked to a wide array of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, its effect on venous thrombotic disorders is still uncertain. To elucidate this issue, we have performed a systematic review on the existing literature on the association between PM and venous thromboembolism (VTE), using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane electronic databases. Of the 158 reviewed studies, 11 of them (3 case-crossover studies, 2 time-series studies, 2 case-control studies, 2 prospective cohort studies, 2 retrospective studies) involving more than 500,000 events fulfilled the inclusion criteria and results are presented here. Because there was substantial heterogeneity in study design, duration of follow-up, statistical measure of effects, clinical outcomes and threshold, we refrained to perform a quantitative analysis of the available data and carried out only a systematic review. Overall, the literature data suggest a link between PM and VTE, but further trials on larger populations of patients with homogeneous study designs and outcomes are warranted. PMID:26639051

  4. Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer: An Update of Treatment and Prevention in the Era of Newer Anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Waqas; Ali, Zeeshan; Amjad, Waseem; Alirhayim, Zaid; Farooq, Hina; Qadir, Shayan; Khalid, Fatima; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer patients are at major risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), resulting in increased morbidity and economic burden. While a number of theories try to explain its pathophysiology, its risk stratification can be broadly done in cancer-related, treatment–related, and patient-related factors. Studies report the prophylactic use of thrombolytic agents to be safe and effective in decreasing VTE-related mortality/morbidity especially in postoperative cancer patients. Recent data also suggest the prophylactic use of low molecular weight Heparins (LMWHs) and Warfarin to be effective in reducing VTEs related to long-term central venous catheter use. In a double-blind, multicenter trial, a new ultra-LMWH Semuloparin has shown to be efficacious in preventing chemotherapy-associated VTE’s along with other drugs, such as Certoparin and Nadoparin. LMWHs are reported to be very useful in preventing recurrent VTEs in advanced cancers and should be preferred over full dose Warfarin. However, their long-term safety beyond 6 months has not been established yet. Furthermore, this paper discusses the safety and efficacy of different drugs used in the treatment and prevention of recurrent VTEs, including Bemiparin, Semuloparin, oral direct thrombin inhibitors, parenteral and direct oral factor Xa inhibitors. PMID:27517038

  5. Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer: An Update of Treatment and Prevention in the Era of Newer Anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Waqas; Ali, Zeeshan; Amjad, Waseem; Alirhayim, Zaid; Farooq, Hina; Qadir, Shayan; Khalid, Fatima; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2016-01-01

    Cancer patients are at major risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), resulting in increased morbidity and economic burden. While a number of theories try to explain its pathophysiology, its risk stratification can be broadly done in cancer-related, treatment-related, and patient-related factors. Studies report the prophylactic use of thrombolytic agents to be safe and effective in decreasing VTE-related mortality/morbidity especially in postoperative cancer patients. Recent data also suggest the prophylactic use of low molecular weight Heparins (LMWHs) and Warfarin to be effective in reducing VTEs related to long-term central venous catheter use. In a double-blind, multicenter trial, a new ultra-LMWH Semuloparin has shown to be efficacious in preventing chemotherapy-associated VTE's along with other drugs, such as Certoparin and Nadoparin. LMWHs are reported to be very useful in preventing recurrent VTEs in advanced cancers and should be preferred over full dose Warfarin. However, their long-term safety beyond 6 months has not been established yet. Furthermore, this paper discusses the safety and efficacy of different drugs used in the treatment and prevention of recurrent VTEs, including Bemiparin, Semuloparin, oral direct thrombin inhibitors, parenteral and direct oral factor Xa inhibitors. PMID:27517038

  6. Venous thromboembolism in the elderly: efficacy and safety of non-VKA oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Increasing age and renal impairment are risk factors for venous thrombosis but also for anticoagulant-induced bleeding. In large-scale phase III trials, non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were at least as effective and safe for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism as warfarin. Here, we review the efficacy and safety of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban in the subgroups of elderly patients (≥75 years) and patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance ≤50 ml/min). In all phase III trials, the efficacy of NOACs in the prevention of recurrent VTE was conserved both in the elderly subgroup and in the subgroup with impaired renal function. In a meta-analysis of the pooled results, NOACs reduced VTE recurrence compared with warfarin in elderly patients. In elderly patients and patients with impaired renal function, the safety of NOACs was in line with the results of the overall study. NOACs may offer an effective, safer and more convenient alternative for VKAs also in the elderly. However, the efficacy/safety profile of NOACs in the aged population needs to be confirmed in real-life. PMID:25650285

  7. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip or knee arthroplasty: a survey of Canadian orthopedic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Michael; Anderson, David R.; Nagpal, Seema; O’Brien, Bernie

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the pharmacologic and physical modalities used by orthopedic surgeons in Canada to prevent venous thromboembolism (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Design Mail survey sent to all members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association. Setting A nation-wide study. Methods A total of 828 questionnaires, designed to identify the type and frequency of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism that were used after hip and knee arthroplasty were mailed to orthopedic surgeons. Outcome measures Demographic data and the frequency and type of thromboprophylaxis. Results Of the 828 surveys mailed 445 (54%) were returned, and 397 were included in this analysis. Of the respondents, 97% used prophylaxis routinely for patients who undergo total hip or knee arthroplasty. Three of the 397 (0.8%) did not use any method of prophylaxis. Warfarin was the most common agent used (46%), followed by low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (36%). Combination therapy with both mechanical and pharmacologic methods were used in 39% of patients. Objective screening tests were not frequently performed before discharge. Extended prophylaxis beyond the duration of hospitalization was used by 36% of physicians. Conclusion Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism with warfarin or LMWH has become standard care after total hip or knee arthroplasty in Canada. PMID:10593248

  8. Venous thromboembolism following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Murad, M Hassan; Litzow, Mark R; Hogan, William J; Patnaik, Mrinal S; Khorana, Alok; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is another complication of HSCT that may modify the risk of VTE. Our objective was to explore the incidence of VTE (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) following HSCT and to evaluate its association with GVHD. A comprehensive search of Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus was conducted to search for both retrospective and prospective HSCT studies which had reported VTE. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool incidence rates. We included 17 studies reporting on allogeneic- and 10 on autologous-HSCT; enrolling 6693 patients; of which 5 were randomized. The overall incidence of VTE after HSCT was 5 % (4-7 %). Incidence in allogeneic-HSCT was 4 % (2-6 %) and in autologous-HSCT was 4 % (1-15 %). Eleven and nine studies reported data on acute and chronic GVHD, respectively. The incidence of VTE in chronic GVHD was 35 % (20-54 %), whereas in acute GVHD it was 47 % (32-62 %). Based on the results of this meta-analysis, VTE is a fairly common complication after HSCT, emphasizing the importance of assimilating guidelines for both treatment and prophylaxis in this patient population. PMID:27103008

  9. Hyperhomocysteinemia and venous thromboembolism: a risk factor more prevalent in the elderly and in idiopathic cases.

    PubMed

    Hainaut, Philippe; Jaumotte, Carine; Verhelst, David; Wallemacq, Pierre; Gala, Jean-Luc; Lavenne, Edith; Heusterspreute, Michel; Zech, Francis; Moriau, Maurice

    2002-04-15

    Fasting plasma homocysteine level and the related clinical findings were analysed in 240 consecutive patients with venous thromboembolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia, defined as a plasma level above 20 micromol/l (corresponding to the percentile 95th in the controls), was present in 11.2% of the patients. Plasma homocysteine level was similar in patients presenting with either deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or both conditions. It was significantly higher in patients with primary (unprovoked) VTE than in patients with secondary disease (associated with at least one risk factor): 12.3 vs. 9.55 micromol/l (p < 0.005). Mean homocysteine was higher in male than in female patients (14.51 vs. 12.9 micromol/l, p < 0.05) and increased significantly with age. Hyperhomocysteinemia was more frequent in patients with relapsing disease (14 of 76, 18.4%) than in those presenting with a single episode (13 of 164, 7.9%) (p = 0.034). Furthermore, hyperhomocysteinemia was correlated with reduced protein C level (p = 0.013). In a multivariate analysis, two factors were significantly associated with hyperhomocysteinemia: older age (p < 0.0001) and idiopathic occurrence (p < 0.02). Since the frequency of homozygous MTHFR thermolabile variant was rather similar in patients and controls, testing for C677T mutation was not helpful in screening VTE patients. However, the homozygous mutation was significantly more prevalent among hyperhomocysteinemia patients, confirming its role in the genesis of hyperhomocysteinemia. According to its prevalence, to the putative role in venous and arterial disease and the availability of an effective and low-cost corrective therapy, hyperhomocysteinemia deserves interest, especially in the elderly and in the patients with idiopathic VTE disease. PMID:12182910

  10. Comparative risk impact of edoxaban in the management of stroke and venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Tellor, Katie B; Van Tuyl, Joseph S; Armbruster, Anastasia L

    2016-01-01

    Edoxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2015 for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and treatment of venous thromboembolism. It is the fourth target-specific oral anticoagulant to be approved. Edoxaban is noninferior for efficacy compared to warfarin for both approved indications. Edoxaban is superior to warfarin for the first major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event in venous thromboembolism and major bleeding in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Edoxaban is dosed once daily for both indications and requires dose adjustment for renal function. In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, use is not recommended in patients with a creatinine clearance greater than 95 mL/min due to reduced efficacy. Edoxaban offers a new therapeutic alternative to the currently available options in the market. PMID:27217759

  11. Initial management and outcomes after superficial thrombophlebitis: The Cardiovascular Research Network Venous Thromboembolism study.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Bethany; Go, Alan S; Sung, Sue Hee; Fan, Dongjie; Fang, Margaret C

    2016-06-01

    Although superficial thrombophlebitis (SVTE) is generally considered a benign, self-limited disease, accumulating evidence suggests that it often leads to more serious forms of venous thromboembolism. We reviewed the medical charts of 329 subjects with SVTE from the Cardiovascular Research Network Venous Thromboembolism cohort study to collect information on the acute treatment of SVTE and subsequent diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis within 1 year. All participants received care within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large, integrated healthcare delivery system. Fourteen (4.3%) subjects with SVTE received anticoagulants, 148 (45.0%) were recommended antiplatelet agents or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and in 167 (50.8%) there was no documented antithrombotic therapy. In the year after SVTE diagnosis, 19 (5.8%) patients had a subsequent diagnosis of a deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. In conclusion, clinically significant venous thrombosis within a year after SVTE was uncommon in our study despite infrequent use of antithrombotic therapy. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:432-434. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. PMID:27253585

  12. Standard of care and guidelines in prevention and diagnosis of venous thromboembolism: medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Vassalini, Marzia; Verzeletti, Andrea; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Concerning recent Italian laws and jurisprudential statements, guidelines application involves several difficulties in clinical practice, regarding prevention, diagnosis and therapy of venous thromboembolism. International scientific community systematically developed statements about this disease in order to optimize the available resources in prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy. Incongruous prevention, missed or delayed diagnosis and/or inadequate treatment of this disease can frequently give rise to medico-legal litigation. PMID:27374034

  13. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism following prolonged air travel. Coach class thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Arfvidsson, B; Eklof, B; Kistner, R L; Masuda, E M; Sato, D T

    2000-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in legs and lungs is a potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence of VTE associated with air travel is still unknown, but it may have increased. Most travelers who develop symptoms do so within 24 hours after their flight takes off. Predisposing risk factors may be divided into patient-related and cabin-related factors, both of which are described. It is emphasized that better information and better inflight precautions can minimize these risk factors. PMID:10806562

  14. Gene microarray analyses for potential biomarkers of single and recurrent venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, WUGANG; ZHANG, KE; CHEN, DONGRUI; GAO, PINGJIN; WANG, QIAO

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. The present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms and potential biomarkers of single venous thromboembolism (SVTE) and recurrent venous thromboembolism (RVTE). The microarray dataset GSE19151 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, which contained data from whole blood samples from 63 healthy controls, 32 SVTE and 38 RVTE patients. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the SVTE and RVTE groups compared with those in the controls were identified using the t-test, followed by clustering analysis of DEGs and samples. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs in patients with RVTE and SVTE, as well as specific DEGs in patients with RVTE. The identified 42 DEGs in RVTE were mainly enriched in biological processes of cellular protein metabolism, gene expression and translational elongation as well as in pathways associated with ribosomes, Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation. In SVTE, 20 DEGs were identified, which were mainly involved in biological processes of biopolymer biosynthesis, translational elongation and cellular protein metabolism as well as pathways associated with ribosomes and cardiac muscle contraction. In RVTE, 22 specific DEGs were mainly involved in translational elongation, negative regulation of the force of heart contraction by chemical signals, cell proliferation, ribosomal pathways and protein export. The identified DEGs of SVTE, including COX7C and UQCRQ, may be potential biomarkers for SVTE, and the specific DEGs of RVTE, including ADRBK1, NDUFA5 and ATP5O, may be potential biomarkers for RVTE. PMID:26397997

  15. [Successful treatment of venous thromboembolism with a Factor Xa inhibitor, edoxaban, in patients with lenalidomide-treated multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Masato; Uchimura, Norio; Okuda, Yuko; Konuma, Satomi; Nehashi, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Two multiple myeloma (MM) patients developed venous thromboembolism (VTE) while being treated with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone. Aspirin is recommended for VTE prophylaxis when using lenalidomide/dexamethasone for MM patients with a standard risk of VTE. Despite aspirin administration, however, these two patients experienced VTE. Following VTE development, warfarin and then a Factor Xa inhibitor, edoxaban, were administered. The edoxaban treatment, especially, resulted in favorable and effective control of VTE. Considering these observations, Factor Xa inhibitors may in future become a preferred option for prevention and treatment of VTE when managing MM patients. PMID:26345573

  16. Venous thromboembolism risk associated with protracted work- and computer-related seated immobility: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Bridget; Cameron, Laird; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility. Design A case-control study. Participants and setting Cases were 200 patients attending venous thromboembolism clinics with a history of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism in the past six months, and controls were 200 patients treated in fracture clinic for an upper limb injury in the past six months. Main outcome measures Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility in the 28 days before the index event. Prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility was defined firstly as a categorical variable with at least 10 h seated in a 24-h period, including at least 2 h without getting up; and secondly as the actual time spent seated in a 24-h period. Results Prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility (categorical variable) was present in 36 (18%) cases and 31 (15.5%) controls. In multivariate analysis, there was no significant association between prolonged seated immobility and venous thromboembolism, odds ratio 1.18 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.48), P = 0.67. For the mean and maximum number of hours seated in a 24-h period, the odds ratios for the association per additional hour seated with venous thromboembolism were 1.08 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.6), P = 0.02 and 1.04 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.09), P = 0.08, respectively. Conclusion This study found a weak association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility, with increasing mean hours seated associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism. PMID:27540486

  17. Venous thromboembolism secondary to uterine fibroids: a case of phlegmasia cerulea dolens and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael B; Woo, Karen; Weaver, Fred A

    2015-02-01

    Uterine fibroids are usually benign soft tissue tumors, however, when they become large, they can cause external venous compression. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with phlegmasia cerulea dolens from a large uterine fibroid. She was successfully treated with hysterectomy, venous thrombectomy, and fasciotomy. We review the literature for previous reports of venous thromboembolism resulting from uterine fibroids. The patient characteristics, thrombotic complications, and treatment modalities are reviewed. PMID:25463329

  18. Potential role of new anticoagulants for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Suárez-Gea, M Luisa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Terleira-Fernández, Ana Isabel; Vargas-Castrillón, Emilio; Rocha, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Low molecular weight heparins are the preferred option for anticoagulation in cancer patients according to current clinical practice guidelines. Fondaparinux may also have a place in prevention of VTE in hospitalized cancer patients with additional risk factors and for initial treatment of VTE. Although low molecular weight heparins and fondaparinux are effective and safe, they require daily subcutaneous administration, which may be problematic for many patients, particularly if long-term treatment is needed. Studying anticoagulant therapy in oncology patients is challenging because this patient group has an increased risk of VTE and bleeding during anticoagulant therapy compared with the population without cancer. Risk factors for increased VTE and bleeding risk in these patients include concomitant treatments (surgery, chemotherapy, placement of central venous catheters, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, angiogenesis inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs), supportive therapies (ie, steroids, blood transfusion, white blood cell growth factors, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents), and tumor-related factors (local vessel damage and invasion, abnormalities in platelet function, and number). New anticoagulants in development for prophylaxis and treatment of VTE include parenteral compounds for once-daily administration (ie, semuloparin) or once-weekly dosing (ie, idraparinux and idrabiotaparinux), as well as orally active compounds (ie, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban). In the present review, we discuss the pharmacology of the new anticoagulants, the results of clinical trials testing these new compounds in VTE, with special emphasis on studies that included cancer patients, and their potential advantages and drawbacks compared with existing therapies. PMID:23674896

  19. Profile of betrixaban and its potential in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Noel C; Bhagirath, Vinai; Eikelboom, John W

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common and potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and warfarin have been the cornerstone of VTE prevention and treatment but are being replaced by recently approved non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs): dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. The NOACs are at least as effective and as safe as heparins and warfarin for VTE prevention and treatment and are more convenient because they have a low propensity for food and drug interactions and are given in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring. The remaining limitations of currently available NOACs include their dependence on renal and hepatic function for clearance, and the lack of an approved antidote. Betrixaban is a new NOAC with distinct pharmacological characteristics: minimal renal clearance, minimal hepatic metabolism, and long half-life. It has undergone successful Phase II studies in orthopedic thromboprophylaxis, and in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Currently, it is being evaluated in a Phase III trial of extended thromboprophylaxis in medical patients (APEX study). In this article, we describe the development of betrixaban, review its pharmacological profile, discuss the results of clinical trials, and examine its potential for VTE prevention and treatment. PMID:26170684

  20. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in medically ill patients: a clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Turpie, Alexander G G; Leizorovicz, Alain

    2006-01-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalised medically ill patients is often underestimated, despite the fact that it remains a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in this group. It is not well recognised that the risk of VTE in many hospitalised medically ill patients is at least as high as in populations after surgery. This may partly be attributed to the clinically silent nature of VTE in many patients, and the difficulty in predicting which patients might develop symptoms or fatal pulmonary embolism. Two large studies, Prospective Evaluation of Dalteparin Efficacy for Prevention of VTE in Immobilized Patients Trial and prophylaxis in MEDical patients with ENOXaparin, have shown that low‐molecular‐weight heparins provide effective thromboprophylaxis in medically ill patients, without increasing bleeding risk. Recent guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians recommend that acutely medically ill patients admitted with congestive heart failure or severe respiratory disease, or those who are confined to bed and have at least one additional risk factor for VTE, should receive thromboprophylaxis. PMID:17148703

  1. Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism: a great global divide between expert guidelines and clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Bikdeli, Behnood; Sharif-Kashani, Babak

    2012-03-01

    Our understanding of development and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has improved dramatically since Virchow described the triad of stasis, hypercoagulability, and endothelial dysfunction during the mid-1800s. A full arsenal of effective pharmacological and mechanical methods can help prevent VTE and many professional organizations have provided extensive evidence-based statements for VTE prophylaxis. Disappointingly, however, VTE has remained the major preventable cause of hospital death. Adherence rate to clinical guidelines is undesirably low. Many real-world patients have also been excluded from VTE prevention trials and hence practice guidelines recommendations. The comprehensive and repetitious formats of many available guidelines also limit their readability and applicability by nonthrombosis specialists. Moreover, some patients suffer from VTE despite complying with the contemporary prophylaxis regimens. Besides, significant heterogeneity exists in thromboprophylaxis practice and pitfalls between different countries. Last but not the least; although many at-risk patients are underprophylaxed, there is evidence to suggest that overprophylaxis (i.e., prescription of thromboprophylaxis in low-risk patients) comprises another important problem. We review the thromboprophylaxis practice and pitfalls around the world and provide recommendations on how the major obstacles can be overcome. PMID:22422329

  2. Acute phase treatment of venous thromboembolism: advanced therapy. Systemic fibrinolysis and pharmacomechanical therapy.

    PubMed

    Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wärntges, Simone

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism, which encompasses deep-vein thrombosis and acute pulmonary embolism (PE), represents a major contributor to global disease burden worldwide. For patients who present with cardiogenic shock or persistent hypotension (acute high-risk PE), there is consensus that immediate reperfusion treatment applying systemic fibrinolysis or, in the case of a high bleeding risk, surgical or catheter-directed techniques, is indicated. On the other hand, for the large, heterogeneous group of patients presenting without overt haemodynamic instability, the indications for advanced therapy are less clear. The recently updated guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology emphasise the importance of clinical prediction rules in combination with imaging procedures (assessment of right ventricular function) and laboratory biomarkers (indicative of myocardial stress or injury) for distinguishing between an intermediate and a low risk for an adverse early outcome. In intermediate-high-risk PE defined by the presence of both right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography (or computed tomography) and a positive troponin (or natriuretic peptide) test, the bleeding risks of full-dose fibrinolytic treatment have been shown to outweigh its potential clinical benefits unless clinical signs of haemodynamic decompensation appear (rescue fibrinolysis). Recently published trials suggest that catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted, low-dose local fibrinolysis may provide an effective and particularly safe treatment option for some of these patients. PMID:25789580

  3. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with acute venous thrombo-embolism: the SWIss Venous ThromboEmbolism Registry (SWIVTER)

    PubMed Central

    Spirk, David; Husmann, Marc; Hayoz, Daniel; Baldi, Thomas; Frauchiger, Beat; Engelberger, Rolf; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice; Baumgartner, Iris; Kucher, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Aims Although acute venous thrombo-embolism (VTE) often afflicts patients with advanced age, the predictors of in-hospital mortality for elderly VTE patients are unknown. Methods and results Among 1247 consecutive patients with acute VTE from the prospective SWIss Venous ThromboEmbolism Registry (SWIVTER), 644 (52%) were elderly (≥65 years of age). In comparison to younger patients, the elderly more often had pulmonary embolism (PE) (60 vs. 42%; P< 0.001), cancer (30 vs. 20%; P< 0.001), chronic lung disease (14 vs. 8%; P= 0.001), and congestive heart failure (12 vs. 2%; P< 0.001). Elderly VTE patients were more often hospitalized (75 vs. 52%; P< 0.001), and there was no difference in the use of thrombolysis, catheter intervention, or surgical embolectomy between the elderly and younger PE patients (5 vs. 6%; P= 0.54), despite a trend towards a higher rate of massive PE in the elderly (8 vs. 4%; P= 0.07). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 6.6% in the elderly vs. 3.2% in the younger VTE patients (P= 0.033). Cancer was associated with in-hospital death both in the elderly [hazard ratio (HR) 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.32–10.38; P< 0.001] and in the younger patients (HR 4.90, 95% CI 1.37–17.59; P= 0.015); massive PE was a predictor of in-hospital death in the elderly only (HR 3.77, 95% CI 1.63–8.74; P= 0.002). Conclusion Elderly patients had more serious VTE than younger patients, and massive PE was particularly life-threatening in the elderly. PMID:22036872

  4. Controversies in venous thromboembolism: the unique case of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Porfidia, Angelo; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Bonadia, Nicola; Pola, Roberto; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, and it is the main cause of preventable mortality in hospitalized patients. Among VTE, there is the unique case of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT), which still lacks an agreement in terms of optimal therapeutic strategy. Although most IDDVTs are self-limiting and associated with a very low risk of embolic complications, still not all IDDVTs can be safely identified as stable. Lack of strong scientific evidence, fear of thromboembolic complications, and risk of bleeding upon initiation of anticoagulant treatment result in very heterogeneous therapeutic strategies among physicians. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature, highlight the many controversial issues regarding IDDVTs, and call for a consensus of experts aimed to shed new light on the gray areas of IDDVT management and therapy. PMID:27126683

  5. Diagnosis, treatment and management of venous thromboembolism: recent developments relevant to biomedical scientists.

    PubMed

    Blann, A D

    2007-01-01

    Three documents from government-sponsored bodies have recently provided new guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and management of venous thromboembolism. The Report of the Independent Expert Working Group to the Chief Medical Officer makes recommendations on general administrative arrangements, and provides a strategy for thromboprophylaxis. Among the recommendations of Guideline 46 from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence are that all patients about to undergo surgery should be assessed to identify their risk factors for developing veno-thromboembolic disease, and be offered graduated compression/anti-embolism stockings and/or pharmacoprophylaxis. The National Patient Safety Agency document focuses principally on the management of, and education in, the use of oral anticoagulants. The impact and implications of these three documents for haematology-based biomedical scientists, such as in leading a thrombosis team, directing clinical management, training of healthcare professions, and in patient education, will be discussed. PMID:17910287

  6. The Efficacy of Low Molecular Weight Heparin for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism after Hip Fracture Surgery in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Kyoun; Won, Ye-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in Korean patients who underwent hip fracture surgery (HFS). Materials and Methods Prospectively, a total 181 cases were classified into the LMWH user group (116 cases) and LMWH non-user group (65 cases). Each group was sub-classified according to fracture types as follows: 81 cases of intertrochanteric fracture (group A: 49, group B: 32) and 100 cases of neck fracture (group C: 67, group D: 33). We compared the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) according to LMWH use. Results Of the 181 cases, four DVTs were found in the LMWH user groups (1 in group A, and 3 in group C). One case of PE was found in LMWH non-user group D. The incidences of DVT and PE showed no statistically significant differences between the LMWH user and non-user groups (p=0.298 and 0.359, respectively). In subgroup analysis, no statistically significant differences were found between groups A and B and between groups C and D. Conclusion The administration of LMWH was not effective in the prevention of venous thromboembolism and PE in the Korean patients who underwent HFS. PMID:27401653

  7. Edoxaban: A Novel Factor Xa Inhibitor for the Management of Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation and Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Kubli, Kara A; Snead, Jessica A; Cheng-Lai, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin has been a highly prevalent agent for over 70 years; however, its use has been limited by drug-drug interactions, adverse events, and the need for frequent monitoring. To minimize these complications, several non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants have been approved, including the latest agent, edoxaban. Edoxaban is a factor Xa inhibitor approved for the prevention of stroke/systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Edoxaban was largely studied in the Edoxaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48) and Edoxaban versus Warfarin for the Treatment of Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism (Hokusai-VTE) trials, both showing noninferiority when compared with warfarin. Similar to other oral anticoagulants, the most serious adverse effects of edoxaban are related to bleeding. However, there are currently no approved reversal agents. Andexanet alfa and ciraparantag are the latest agents being studied for reversal. This article provides an overview of the safety and efficacy along with the advantages and disadvantages of edoxaban. PMID:26991962

  8. Incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism and of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients after a first episode of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Poli, Daniela; Grifoni, Elisa; Antonucci, Emilia; Arcangeli, Chiara; Prisco, Domenico; Abbate, Rosanna; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-10-01

    After a first episode of pulmonary embolism (PE), two major problems need to be considered: risk of recurrence when anticoagulation is stopped, and risk of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). We followed prospectively consecutive patients who survived a first episode of PE, with or without deep vein thrombosis, to assess the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrences and of symptomatic and asymptomatic CTPH. After 3-6 months of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography for measuring transtricuspid (rV-rA) gradient. When rV-rA gradient was >35 mmHg further evaluations were performed to rule in or out CTPH. During follow-up patients who developed persistent dyspnea were re-evaluated. In patients who underwent OAT withdrawal D-dimer (DD), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and thrombophilia were evaluated one month after warfarin discontinuation. Overall, 239 patients, 118 males, median age 59(16-89) years, were followed up for a median time of 36(9-192) months. Nine patients had rV-rA gradient >30 mmHg and ≤35 mmHg, and one of 37 mmHg. Among patients with normal rV-rA gradient, one developed persistent dyspnea 55 months after the first event and CPTH was confirmed. Among 206 patients who stopped OAT, 23(11.2%) had VTE recurrence, 11 PE(48%). Elevated DD and F1 + 2 levels after stopping OAT were significantly associated with recurrence. None of patients with recurrent VTE had elevated rV-rA gradient. In our series the incidence of CTPH after a first episode of PE was 0.4%. VTE recurrence and elevated DD and F1 + 2 levels seemed not to be related to the development of CTPH. PMID:20157841

  9. Evidence-base for aspirin as venous thromboembolic prophylaxis following joint replacement

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, S. S.; Baker, P. N.; Deehan, D. J.; Port, A.; Reed, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has thus far relied on historical data and predominantly industry-sponsored trials to provide evidence for venous thromboembolic (VTE) prophylaxis in joint replacement patients. We argue that the NICE guidelines may be reliant on assumptions that are in need of revision. Following the publication of large scale, independent observational studies showing little difference between low-molecular-weight heparins and aspirin, and recent changes to the guidance provided by other international bodies, should NICE reconsider their recommendations? Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:146–9. PMID:24837005

  10. Medical Management of Tumor Lysis Syndrome, Postprocedural Pain, and Venous Thromboembolism Following Interventional Radiology Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzalian, Ali; Armitage, Keith B.; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of minimally invasive image-guided procedures has led to their extensive use in the interdisciplinary management of patients with vascular, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and oncologic diseases. Given the increased availability and breadth of these procedures, it is important for physicians to be aware of common complications and their management. In this article, the authors describe management of select common complications from interventional radiology procedures including tumor lysis syndrome, acute on chronic postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism. These complications are discussed in detail and their medical management is outlined according to generally accepted practice and evidence from the literature. PMID:26038627

  11. Conformance of clinical practice to established recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease: Robin revisited.

    PubMed

    White, T M; Kellis, D S; Hightower, S F

    1994-01-01

    Over a decade ago, Dr. Robin expressed concern regarding overdiagnosis and overtreatment of pulmonary embolism. Since that time, significant advances have been forthcoming in the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. Using Continuous Quality Improvement concepts, this study revisits Robin's concerns and assesses the conformance of clinical practice at one institution with established requirements for the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease to identify remaining opportunities to improve care. The study design is a retrospective chart review. Medical records of all patients (N = 63) discharged from a university-affiliated teaching hospital from 7/1/89 to 6/30/90 with a diagnosis of primary venous thromboembolic disease were studied. Requirements for the diagnosis and treatment were established through review of the medical literature. Conformance to these requirements was assessed and described. Descriptive statistics were used. Only 7 of 63 charts (11%) met all requirements for the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. Fifty-six charts (89%) failed to meet at least one criterion. There was no evidence of overdiagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease in patients with a discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (N = 17). Eight of 62 patients (13%) demonstrated potential overdiagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease involving the lower extremities. Nine of 60 (15%) heparin therapies demonstrated significant nonconformance to recommendations. Fifty-four of 59 (91%) warfarin therapies failed to conform to recommendations. Eighty-three percent of these warfarin errors were considered to be technical. However, 17% were determined to be clinically significant. Of 5 patients treated with a transvenous filter device, 1 failed to meet therapeutic requirements. No patients received thrombolytic therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7819822

  12. Unsuspected triggers of venous thromboembolism--trivial or not so trivial?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2009-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be considered a multifactorial disorder involving a variety of inherited and acquired prothrombotic conditions and events. Although greater emphasis has classically been given to traditional thrombophilic risk factors, there is increasing recognition of less typical precipitating conditions and events. Indeed, the list of plausible but unusual triggers of thrombosis includes sneezing and coughing attacks, eating, migraine, sexual intercourse, strenuous physical exercise, drug abuse, and defecation. Although it is difficult to assert conclusively the true contribution of such events to the etiology of acute episodes of venous thrombosis, it seems reasonable to conclude that the concomitant presence of such trivial elements with one or more additional risk factors for VTE might precipitate an acute thrombotic episode. PMID:20013526

  13. Thrombophilia and venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a meta-analysis of genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Ziakas, Panayiotis D; Poulou, Loukia S; Pavlou, Matthaios; Zintzaras, Elias

    2015-08-01

    Three common polymorphic variants, namely Factor V Leiden (FVL), Prothrombin G20210A (PT G20210A) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) C677T are candidate genes for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy. We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of pertinent genetic association studies (GAS) in pregnancy, to quantify the genetic risk of VTE in pregnancy. We used the model-free approach of generalized odds ratio (ORG) to estimate gene-to-disease association and explored the mode of inheritance using the degree of dominance h index. Twelve case-control GAS studies provided the full genotype distributions for at least one candidate gene to assess the genetic risk. FVL was associated with a significant risk of VTE in pregnancy (ORG 7.28; 95% confidence interval 5.53-9.58) and a dominant mode of inheritance (h=0.76), that is the effect of heterozygous carriers will lie close to the homozygous mutant genotype. PT G20210A mutation was also associated with a significant VTE risk (ORG 5.43; 95% CI 3.66-8.03) and had an over-dominant mode of inheritance (h=1.5), suggesting that the effect of heterozygous carriers may exceed that of homozygous mutant. MTHFR C677T had no association with VTE risk in pregnancy (ORG 1.24; 95% CI 0.88-1.73). Our analysis provided robust data on VTE in pregnancy, relative to FVL and PT G20210A status and suggested that the genetic effects of heterozygous over homozygous carriers do not justify stratification of heterozygous as "lower risk" over homozygous mutants. On clinical grounds this may impact decisions to preferentially exclude heterozygous from anticoagulation prophylaxis. PMID:26115054

  14. Graduated compression stockings to prevent venous thromboembolism in hospital: evidence from patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Kearon, Clive; O'Donnell, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is the most common preventable cause of death in hospital patients and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is cost-saving in high-risk patients. Low-dose anticoagulation is very effective at preventing VTE but increases bleeding. Graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices are also used to prevent VTE and do not increase bleeding, which makes their use appealing in patients who cannot tolerate bleeding, such as patients with acute stroke. Studies that evaluated mechanical methods of preventing VTE were small and mainly used asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), detected using screening tests, as the study outcome. The recently published CLOTS Trial 1 (Clots in Legs Or sTockings after Stroke) compared thigh-level compression stockings with no stockings in about 2500 patients with stroke and immobility, and found that thigh-level stockings were not effective. Indirectly, the findings of this study question the ability of stockings to prevent VTE in other patient groups, including those after surgery. CLOTS 1 compared thigh-level and below-knee stockings in about 3000 patients with acute stroke. Given that thigh-level stockings were ineffective in CLOTS 1, it is surprising that they were more effective than below-knee stockings in CLOTS Trial 2. A possible explanation is that below-knee stockings increase DVT, although this seems unlikely. CLOTS 1 and CLOTS 2 question whether graduated compression stockings prevent VTE and suggest the need for further trials evaluating their efficacy in medical and surgical patients. PMID:21346697

  15. Neutrophil extracellular traps form predominantly during the organizing stage of human venous thromboembolism development

    PubMed Central

    Savchenko, A. S.; Martinod, K.; Seidman, M. A.; Wong, S. L.; Borissoff, J. I.; Piazza, G.; Libby, P.; Goldhaber, S. Z.; Mitchell, R. N.; Wagner, D. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background A growing health problem, venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), requires refined diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Neutrophils contribute to thrombus initiation and development in experimental DVT. Recent animal studies recognized neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as an important scaffold supporting thrombus stability. However, the hypothesis that human venous thrombi involve NETs has not undergone rigorous testing. Objective To explore the cellular composition and the presence of NETs within human venous thrombi at different stages of development. Patients and Methods We examined sixteen thrombi obtained from 11 patients during surgery or at autopsy using histomorphological, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses. Results We classified thrombus regions as unorganized, organizing, and organized according to their morphological characteristics. We then evaluated them focusing on neutrophil and platelet deposition as well as micro-vascularization of the thrombus body. We observed evidence of NET accumulation, including the presence of citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit)-positive cells. NETs, defined as extracellular diffuse H3Cit areas associated with myeloperoxidase and DNA, localized predominantly during the phase of organization in human venous thrombi. Conclusions NETs are present in organizing thrombi in patients with VTE. They are associated with thrombus maturation in humans. Dissolution of NETs might thus facilitate thrombolysis. This finding provides new insights into the clinical development and pathology of thrombosis and provides new perspectives for therapeutic advances. PMID:24674135

  16. Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Their Use in Treatment and Secondary Prevention of Acute Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Granziera, Serena; Hasan, Arjumand; Cohen, Alexander Ander T

    2016-04-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been compared with standard therapy in large phase III studies to assess their safety and efficacy in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism and in the secondary prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. Although the mean population age and the gross inclusion and exclusion criteria were similar across these studies, they differed in other aspects such as overall study design and acute treatment strategies. The 4 DOACs examined in phase III trials (apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran) showed noninferiority compared with standard therapy for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism and for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. Furthermore, these DOACs exhibited a similar safety profile to standard therapy, with the risk of major bleeding significantly reduced in some of these studies. Rivaroxaban and apixaban were tested as a single-drug approach, whereas in the dabigatran and edoxaban studies, initial bridging with parenteral agents was employed. The purpose of this review is to compare the phase III studies of DOACs in this indication, to highlight the differences, and to discuss a series of clinically relevant issues, including the management of key patient subgroups (eg, fragile patients, those with cancer or renal impairment), extended treatment, use of comedications, heparin pretreatment versus a single-drug approach, and the bleeding profiles of the DOACs. PMID:26329910

  17. The Saudi Clinical Practice Guideline for the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Al-Momen, Abdulkarim M.; Algahtani, Farjah H.; Al-Zahrani, Hazzaa A.; Al-Saleh, Khalid A.; Al-Sheef, Mohammed A.; Owaidah, Tarek M.; Alhazzani, Waleed; Neumann, Ignacio; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Brozek, Jan; Schünemann, Holger; Akl, Elie A.

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. After diagnosis, its management frequently carries significant challenges to the clinical practitioner. Treatment of VTE with the inappropriate modality and/or in the inappropriate setting may lead to serious complications and have life-threatening consequences. As a result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo-Embolism (a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society) and the Saudi Scientific Hematology Society with the methodological support of the McMaster University Guideline working group, this clinical practice guideline was produced to assist health care providers in VTE management. Two questions were identified and were related to the inpatient versus outpatient treatment of acute DVT, and the early versus standard discharge from hospital for patients with acute PE. The corresponding recommendations were made following the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. PMID:26219456

  18. Primary venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Minh; John, Sonia; Casanegra, Ana I.; Rathbun, Suman; Mansfield, Aaron; Stoner, Julie A.; Tafur, Alfonso J.

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of death among outpatient chemotherapy patients. However the VTE preventive measures for outpatients are not widely advocated. We did a meta-analysis to evaluate the outpatient VTE prevention's effectiveness and safety. We searched electronic databases until the end of December 2012 and reviewed the abstracts and manuscripts following the PRISMA guidelines. Occurrence of first VTE event was the efficacy outcome. The safety end point was major bleeding. We calculated Q statistic and a homogeneity formal test. The odds ratio (OR) estimates were pooled by using the Mantel–Haenszel fixed-effects method in the absence of heterogeneity. Data were analyzed using the R META package). We identified 1,485 articles and reviewed 37 articles based on initial screening. The number of patients included in 11 selected trials was 7,805. The odds of VTE was lower in the prophylaxis group (OR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.45–0.71) and improved when heparin-based prevention was analyzed (OR 0.53; 95 % CI 0.41–0.70). We found strong prevention among patients with lung cancer (OR 0.46; 95 % CI 0.29–0.74) and pancreatic cancer (OR 0.33; 95 % CI 0.16–0.67). Major bleeding events were frequent in the intervention group (OR 1.65; 95 % CI 1.12–2.44). Thromboprophylaxis reduced VTE episodes. The VTE events were reduced by 47 % in heparin-based prophylaxis trials compared to placebo. The patients receiving heparin-based prophylaxis had a 60 % increase in bleeding events. Improving risk stratification tools to personalize prevention strategies may enhance the VTE prevention applicability in cancer patients. PMID:24233387

  19. Pharmacology of anticoagulants used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Nutescu, Edith A; Burnett, Allison; Fanikos, John; Spinler, Sarah; Wittkowsky, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulant drugs are the foundation of therapy for patients with VTE. While effective therapeutic agents, anticoagulants can also result in hemorrhage and other side effects. Thus, anticoagulant therapy selection should be guided by the risks, benefits and pharmacologic characteristics of each agent for each patient. Safe use of anticoagulants requires not only an in-depth knowledge of their pharmacologic properties but also a comprehensive approach to patient management and education. This paper will summarize the key pharmacologic properties of the anticoagulant agents used in the treatment of patients with VTE. PMID:26780737

  20. [The PROMET study: Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease in at-risk patients hospitalized in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Guermaz, R; Belhamidi, S; Amarni, A

    2015-07-01

    PROMET is an observational study aimed to assess the management of patients at venous thromboembolism risk in the Algerian hospitals and to evaluate the proportion of at-risk patients treated with an adequate prophylaxis. Following the ENDORSE study achieved five years before with a similar protocol, PROMET included 435hospitalized patients (229 in medical units and 206 in surgical units). Compared to the ENDORSE results, the PROMET data reflect progress in the management of venous thromboembolism: 73.3% of at-risk patients received prophylaxis (57.6% of medical patients and 90.8% of surgical patients). In 93.1% of cases, this prophylaxis was provided by a low molecular weight heparin, mainly at the dose of one injection per day. In medical population, the prescription was triggered by long-term immobilization (P=0.01; OR=5.8 95%CI [1.5-23.0]), associated risk factors (P=0.025; OR=4.13 [1.2-14.2]) and the cause of hospitalization (P=0.056). In surgical departments, the therapeutic decision depended on the nature of the surgical intervention and was influenced by the presence of a contraindication for prophylaxis (P<0.001; OR=0.02 [0.00-0.14]) or a high hemorrhagic risk (P<0.001; OR=0.02). The assessment and management of thromboembolic risk were in accordance with ACCP recommendations for surgical patients. However efforts are needed for medical patients for whom the risk is underestimated and insufficiently supported. Unlike surgery where procedures are well established, there are real difficulties in medicine to define the at-risk patients who will benefit from thromboprophylaxis. The process of preventive treatment (particularly the optimal duration) needs to be clarified. PMID:26051861

  1. Patient characteristics associated with venous thromboembolic events: a cohort study using pooled electronic health record data

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Wendy; Gilder, Jason; Love, Thomas E; Jain, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the potential of de-identified clinical data from multiple healthcare systems using different electronic health records (EHR) to be efficiently used for very large retrospective cohort studies. Materials and methods Data of 959 030 patients, pooled from multiple different healthcare systems with distinct EHR, were obtained. Data were standardized and normalized using common ontologies, searchable through a HIPAA-compliant, patient de-identified web application (Explore; Explorys Inc). Patients were 26 years or older seen in multiple healthcare systems from 1999 to 2011 with data from EHR. Results Comparing obese, tall subjects with normal body mass index, short subjects, the venous thromboembolic events (VTE) OR was 1.83 (95% CI 1.76 to 1.91) for women and 1.21 (1.10 to 1.32) for men. Weight had more effect then height on VTE. Compared with Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino subjects had a much lower risk of VTE (female OR 0.47, 0.41 to 0.55; male OR 0.24, 0.20 to 0.28) and African-Americans a substantially higher risk (female OR 1.83, 1.76 to 1.91; male OR 1.58, 1.50 to 1.66). This 13-year retrospective study of almost one million patients was performed over approximately 125 h in 11 weeks, part time by the five authors. Discussion As research informatics tools develop and more clinical data become available in EHR, it is important to study and understand unique opportunities for clinical research informatics to transform the scale and resources needed to perform certain types of clinical research. Conclusions With the right clinical research informatics tools and EHR data, some types of very large cohort studies can be completed with minimal resources. PMID:22759621

  2. Use of Provider-Level Dashboards and Pay-for-Performance in Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis*

    PubMed Central

    Michtalik, Henry J.; Carolan, Howard T.; Haut, Elliott R.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Streiff, Michael B.; Finkelstein, Joseph; Pronovost, Peter J.; Durkin, Nowella; Brotman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite safe and cost-effective venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention measures, VTE prophylaxis rates are often suboptimal. Healthcare reform efforts emphasize transparency through programs to report performance, and payment incentives through programs to pay-for-performance. Objective To sequentially examine an individualized physician dashboard and pay-for-performance program to improve VTE prophylaxis rates amongst hospitalists. Design Retrospective analysis of 3144 inpatient admissions. After a baseline observation period, VTE prophylaxis compliance was compared during both interventions. Setting 1060-bed tertiary care medical center. Participants 38 part- and full-time academic hospitalists. Interventions A Web-based hospitalist dashboard provided VTE prophylaxis feedback. After 6 months of feedback only, a pay-for-performance program was incorporated, with graduated payouts for compliance rates of 80-100%. Measurements Prescription of American College of Chest Physicians guideline-compliant VTE prophylaxis and subsequent pay-for-performance payments. Results Monthly VTE prophylaxis compliance rates were 86% (95% CI: 85, 88), 90% (95% CI: 88, 93), and 94% (95% CI: 93, 96) during the baseline, dashboard, and combined dashboard/pay-for-performance periods, respectively. Compliance significantly improved with the use of the dashboard (p=0.01) and addition of the pay-for-performance program (p=0.01). The highest rate of improvement occurred with the dashboard (1.58%/month; p=0.01). Annual individual physician performance payments ranged from $53 to $1244 (mean $633; SD ±350). Conclusions Direct feedback using dashboards was associated with significantly improved compliance, with further improvement after incorporating an individual physician pay-for-performance program. Real-time dashboards and physician-level incentives may assist hospitals in achieving higher safety and quality benchmarks. PMID:25545690

  3. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Ida; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A; Cohen, Alexander T; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S; Prins, Martin H

    2016-03-17

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation. Despite the absence of data, World Health Organization guidelines state that use of estrogen-containing contraceptives confers an "unacceptable health risk" during established anticoagulation for VTE. We compared the incidences of recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding with and without concomitant hormonal therapy in women aged <60 years who were receiving anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA for confirmed VTE. Incidence densities in percentage per year were computed for the on and off estrogen-containing or progestin-only therapy periods. Cox regression models were fitted, with hormonal therapy (on vs off) as a time-dependent variable to derive the hazard ratio (HR) for the effects on recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 1888 women were included. VTE incidence densities on and off hormonal therapy were 3.7%/year and 4.7%/year (adjusted HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.39), respectively, and were 3.7%/year and 3.8%/year, respectively, for estrogen-containing and progestin-only therapy. The adjusted HR for all abnormal uterine bleeding (on vs off hormonal therapy) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.57). Abnormal uterine bleeding occurred more frequently with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin/VKA (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89). Hormonal therapy was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE in women receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. The observed increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding with rivaroxaban needs further exploration. PMID:26696010

  4. Alcohol consumption, types of alcoholic beverages and risk of venous thromboembolism - the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Krone, Ida J; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Enga, Kristin F; Wilsgaard, Tom; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2011-08-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to protect against cardiovascular diseases. The association between alcohol consumption, especially types of alcoholic beverages, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is less well described. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of alcohol consumption and different alcoholic beverages on risk of VTE. Information on alcohol consumption was collected by a self-administrated questionnaire in 26,662 subjects, aged 25-97 years, who participated in the Tromsø Study, in 1994-1995. Subjects were followed through September 1, 2007 with incident VTE as the primary outcome. There were 460 incident VTE-events during a median of 12.5 years of follow-up. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with risk of incident VTE. However, subjects consuming ≥ 3 units of liquor per week had 53% increased risk of VTE compared to teetotalers in analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, cancer, previous cardiovascular disease, physical activity and higher education (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.33). Contrary, subjects with a wine intake of ≥ 3 units/week had 22% reduced risk of VTE (HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.30), further adjustment for liquor and beer intake strengthened the protective effect of wine (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.30-1.00). Frequent binge drinkers (≥ 1/week) had a 17% increased risk of VTE compared to teetotallers (HR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.66-2.09), and a 47% increased risk compared to non-binge drinkers (HR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.85-2.54). In conclusion, liquor consumption and binge drinking was associated with increased risk of VTE, whereas wine consumption was possibly associated with reduced risk of VTE. PMID:21614415

  5. Absence of venous thromboembolism risk following quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination, Vaccine Safety Datalink, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Naleway, Allison L.; Crane, Brad; Smith, Ning; Daley, Matthew F.; Donahue, James; Gee, Julianne; Greene, Sharon K.; Harrington, Theresa; Jackson, Lisa A.; Klein, Nicola P.; Tseng, Hung Fu; Vellozzi, Claudia; Weintraub, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate concerns about a potential association between quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination (HPV4) and venous thromboembolism (VTE), we conducted a self-controlled case series study in adolescents and young adults 9–26 years of age in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Methods We identified potential VTE cases diagnosed in 2008 through 2011 who had also received at least one HPV4 dose during that period. We confirmed each presumptive diagnosis by medical record review. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to estimate the risk in the 1–60 day period following HPV4 exposure and in subsets of that period. IRRs were stratified by age, gender, hormonal contraceptive use, and recent surgery or trauma. Results We identified 313 potential cases of VTE among HPV4 vaccinees, and 291 (93%) had sufficient medical records for review. Of these, we confirmed 156 (54%) cases. VTE was uncommon among males (n = 3) and 9–12 year olds (n = 4). Nearly all confirmed cases (97%) had at least one known risk factor for VTE, including hormonal contraceptive use, obesity, and hypercoagulability. Sixteen (10%) confirmed cases occurred in the 1–60 days following HPV4 exposure. The risk of VTE varied from 1.47 (95% CI: 0.47–4.64) in the 1–7 days following HPV4 exposure to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.54–1.57) in the 1–60 days following vaccination. It was not possible to calculate a stratified IRR for males due to small sample size; the other risk factors evaluated did not significantly affect the risk of VTE after HPV4 exposure. Conclusion The risk of developing VTE among 9- to 26-year-olds was not elevated following HPV4 exposure. Sample size limited our ability to rigorously evaluate potential effect modifiers, such as gender, through stratified analysis. PMID:26549361

  6. Current and emerging strategies in the management of venous thromboembolism: benefit–risk assessment of dabigatran

    PubMed Central

    Fanola, Christina L

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a disease state that carries significant morbidity and mortality, and is a known cause of preventable death in hospitalized and orthopedic surgical patients. There are many identifiable risk factors for VTE, yet up to half of VTE incident cases have no identifiable risk factor and carry a high likelihood of recurrence, which may warrant extended therapy. For many years, parenteral unfractionated heparin, low-molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux, and oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been the standard of care in VTE management. However, limitations in current drug therapy options have led to suboptimal treatment, so there has been a need for rapid-onset, fixed-dosing novel oral anticoagulants in both VTE treatment and prophylaxis. Oral VKAs have historically been challenging to use in clinical practice, with their narrow therapeutic range, unpredictable dose responsiveness, and many drug–drug and drug–food interactions. As such, there has also been a need for novel anticoagulant therapies with fewer limitations, which has recently been met. Dabigatran etexilate is a fixed-dose oral direct thrombin inhibitor available for use in acute and extended treatment of VTE, as well as prophylaxis in high-risk orthopedic surgical patients. In this review, the risks and overall benefits of dabigatran in VTE management are addressed, with special emphasis on clinical trial data and their application to general clinical practice and special patient populations. Current and emerging therapies in the management of VTE and monitoring of dabigatran anticoagulant-effect reversal are also discussed. PMID:26064057

  7. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use

    PubMed Central

    Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S.; Prins, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation. Despite the absence of data, World Health Organization guidelines state that use of estrogen-containing contraceptives confers an “unacceptable health risk” during established anticoagulation for VTE. We compared the incidences of recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding with and without concomitant hormonal therapy in women aged <60 years who were receiving anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA for confirmed VTE. Incidence densities in percentage per year were computed for the on and off estrogen-containing or progestin-only therapy periods. Cox regression models were fitted, with hormonal therapy (on vs off) as a time-dependent variable to derive the hazard ratio (HR) for the effects on recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 1888 women were included. VTE incidence densities on and off hormonal therapy were 3.7%/year and 4.7%/year (adjusted HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.39), respectively, and were 3.7%/year and 3.8%/year, respectively, for estrogen-containing and progestin-only therapy. The adjusted HR for all abnormal uterine bleeding (on vs off hormonal therapy) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.57). Abnormal uterine bleeding occurred more frequently with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin/VKA (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89). Hormonal therapy was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE in women receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. The observed increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding with rivaroxaban needs further exploration. PMID:26696010

  8. Perioperative Pharmacologic Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism in Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Steve; Meissner, Mark; Symons, Rebecca; Steele, Scott; Thirlby, Richard; Billingham, Rick; Flum, David

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine the effectiveness of pharmacologic prophylaxis on preventing clinically relevant venothromboembolic (VTE) events and deaths after surgery. Surgical Care Improvement Project recommends that VTE pharmacologic prophylaxis be given within 24 hours of the operation. The bulk of evidence supporting this recommendation uses radiographic endpoints. Study Design The Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) is a Washington State quality improvement initiative with data linked to hospital admission/discharge and vital status records. We compared the rates of death, clinically relevant VTE and a composite adverse event (CAE) in the 90-days after elective, colon/rectal resections, based on the receipt of pharmacologic prophylaxis (within 24 hours of surgery) at 36 SCOAP hospitals (2005-2009). Results Of 4,195 (61.1±15.6 yrs; 54.1% women) patients, 56.5% received pharmacologic prophylaxis. 90-day death (2.5% vs. 1.6%, p-value=0.03), VTE (1.8% vs. 1.1%, p-value=0.04), and CAE (4.2% vs. 2.5%, p-value=0.002) were lower in those who received pharmacologic prophylaxis. After adjustment for patient and procedure characteristics, the odds were 36% lower for CAE (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.93) with pharmacologic prophylaxis. In any given quarter, hospitals where patients more often received pharmacologic prophylaxis (highest tertile of use) had the lowest rates of CAE (2.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.05) compared to hospitals in the lowest tertile. Conclusions Using clinical endpoints this study demonstrates the effectiveness of VTE pharmacologic prophylaxis in patients having elective colorectal surgery. Hospitals that used pharmacologic prophylaxis more often had the lowest rates of adverse events. PMID:21871823

  9. The design and rationale for the Acute Medically Ill Venous Thromboembolism Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexander T; Harrington, Robert; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Gibson, C Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kitt, Michael M; Lorenz, Todd J

    2014-03-01

    Randomized clinical trials have identified a population of acute medically ill patients who remain at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond the standard duration of therapy and hospital discharge. The aim of the APEX study is to determine whether extended administration of oral betrixaban (35-42 days) is superior to a standard short course of prophylaxis with subcutaneous enoxaparin (10 ± 4 days followed by placebo) in patients with known risk factors for post-discharge VTE. Patients initially are randomized to receive either betrixaban or enoxaparin (and matching placebo) in a double dummy design. Following a standard duration period of enoxaparin treatment (with placebo tablets) or betrixaban (with placebo injections), patients receive only betrixaban (or alternative matching placebo). Patients are considered for enrollment if they are older than 40 years, have a specified medical illness, and restricted mobility. They must also meet the APEX criteria for increased VTE risk (aged ≥75 years, baseline D-Dimer ≥2× upper the limit of "normal", or 2 additional ancillary risk factors for VTE). The primary efficacy end point is the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, non-fatal (pulmonary embolus) pulmonary embolism, or VTE-related death through day 35. The primary safety outcome is the occurrence of major bleeding. We hypothesize that extended duration betrixaban VTE prophylaxis will be safe and more effective than standard short duration enoxaparin in preventing VTE in acute medically ill patients with known risk factors for post hospital discharge VTE. PMID:24576517

  10. Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with single and combined effects of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin 20210A and Methylenetethraydrofolate reductase C677T: a meta-analysis involving over 11,000 cases and 21,000 controls

    PubMed Central

    Simone, B; De Stefano, V; Leoncini, E; Zacho, J; Martinelli, I; Emmerich, J; Rossi, E; Folsom, AR; Almawi, WY; Scarabin, PY; den Heijer, M; Cushman, M; Penco, S; Vaya, A; Angchaisuksiri, P; Okumus, G; Gemmati, D; Cima, S; Akar, N; Oguzulgen, KI; Ducros, V; Lichy, C; Fernandez-Miranda, C; Szczeklik, A; Nieto, JA; Torres, JD; Le Cam-Duchez, V; Ivanov, P; Cantu, C; Shmeleva, VM; Stegnar, M; Ogunyemi, D; Eid, SS; Nicolotti, N; De Feo, E; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic and environmental factors interact in determining the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk associated with the polymorphic variants G1691A of factor V (Factor V Leiden,FVL), G20210A of prothrombin (PT20210A) and C677T of methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T MTHFR) genes has been investigated in many studies. METHODS We performed a pooled analysis of case-control and cohort studies investigating in adults the association between each variant and VTE, published on Pubmed, Embase or Google through January 2010. Authors of eligible papers, were invited to provide all available individual data for the pooling. The Odds Ratio (OR) for first VTE associated with each variant, individually and combined with the others, were calculated with a random effect model, in heterozygotes and homozygotes (dominant model for FVL and PT20210A; recessive for C677T MTHFR). RESULTS We analysed 31 databases, including 11,239 cases and 21,521 controls. No significant association with VTE was found for homozygous C677T MTHFR (OR: 1.38; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.98–1.93), whereas the risk was increased in carriers of either heterozygous FVL or PT20210 (OR=4.22; 95% CI: 3.35–5.32; and OR=2.79;95% CI: 2.25–3.46, respectively), in double hterozygotes (OR=3.42; 95%CI 1.64-7.13), and in homozygous FVL or PT20210A (OR=11.45; 95%CI: 6.79-19.29; and OR: 2.79; 95%CI: 2.25 – 3.46, respectively). The stratified analyses showed a stronger effect of FVL on individuals ≤45 years (p-value for interaction = 0.036) and of PT20210A in women using oral contraceptives (p-value for interaction = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS In this large pooled analysis, inclusive of large studies like MEGA, no effect was found for C677T MTHFR on VTE; FVL and PT20210A were confirmed to be moderate risk factors. Notably, double carriers of the two genetic variants produced an impact on VTE risk significantly increased but weaker than previously thought. PMID:23900608

  11. Impact of inherited thrombophilia on the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism onset in Georgian population.

    PubMed

    Pirtskhelani, N; Kochiashvili, N; Makhaldiani, L; Pargalava, N; Gaprindashvili, E; Kartvelishvili, K

    2014-02-01

    Inherited thrombophilia means a predisposition of an individual to thrombosis caused by genetic disorders of homeostasis system. Purpose of the conducted study was to establish the role of point mutations of prothrombin (PGM) - 20210G/A; Factor V Leiden (FVL) - 1691G/A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) - 677C/T genes, i.e. inherited thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of primary and recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients of the Georgian population. The above mentioned mutations were detected by PCR and single nucleotide primer extension reaction, followed by Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) in 93 patients with venous thromboembolism, out of which: 56 patients were diagnosed with unprovoked, primary thromboembolism confirmed by objective studies and 37 patients were diagnosed with recurrent thromboembolism. According to statistical analysis of the results, incidence of FVL mutation in the group of patients with recurrent thrombosis was significantly higher compared to patients with primary thrombosis - respectively 0.21 and 0.44 (p=0.0164<0.05). It should also be mentioned that homozygous carriage of FVL mutation was confirmed only with patients having recurrent thrombosis. Similar tendency was observed during study of prothrombin gene; however the difference was not statistically significant. Similar tendencies were not observed in case of homozygous carriage of MTHFR gene C677T mutation. Double and triple heterozygous/homozygous carriage of studied mutations (total of 20 cases) was observed in patients of both groups. Distribution of these genotypes in the recurrent thrombosis group was higher compared to patients with primary thrombosis - respectively 27% and 17.9%. Herewith, it should be mentioned that the patients with primary thrombosis were much younger than those with recurrent thrombosis and their age did not exceed 50 years. According to the results obtained by us, it is possible to consider Leiden mutation, especially its

  12. Deep venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing inguinal lymph node dissection for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Arbeit, J.M.; Lowry, S.F.; Line, B.R.

    1981-11-01

    Deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) was studied in 44 patients with clinical Stage I, II, and III melanoma undergoing staging and therapeutic inguinal lymph node dissection. The ability of two noninvasive methods of surveillance, the phleborheograph (PRG) and the /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan to detect deep venous thrombosis was determined by comparison with prospective bilateral lower extremity venograms. In addition, the therapeutic impact, both beneficial and detrimental, of low dose heparin, 5000 units administered subcutaneously two hours prior to and every eight hours after operation was determined in a double blind study. The sensitivity of the PRG and /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan were both 20%. There were five deep venous thrombi, and two pulmonary emboli for a combined incidence of DVT of 13.6% for the entire patient population. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT between the two groups. The heparin-treated patients had an increased total volume (796 +/- 516 versus 388 +/- 208 ml; p < 0.05), and duration of wound drainage (9 +/- 4 versus 13 +/- 6 days; p < 0.05).

  13. Deep venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing inguinal lymph node dissection for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Arbeit, J.M.; Lowry, S.F.; Line, B.R.; Jones, D.C.; Brennan, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) was studied in 44 patients with clinical Stage I, II, and III melanoma undergoing staging and therapeutic inguinal lymph node dissection. The ability of two noninvasive methods of surveillance, the phleborheograph (PRG) and the /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan to detect deep venous thrombosis was determined by comparison with prospective bilateral lower extremity venograms. In addition, the therapeutic impact, both beneficial and detrimental, of low dose heparin, 5000 units administered subcutaneously two hours prior to and every eight hours after operation was determined in a double blind study. The sensitivity of the PRG and /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan were both 20%. There were five deep venous thrombi, and two pulmonary emboli for a combined incidence of DVT of 13.6% for the entire patient population. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT between the two groups. The heparin-treated patients had an increased total volume (796 +/- 516 versus 388 +/- 208 ml; p less than 0.05), and duration of wound drainage (9 +/- 4 versus 13 +/- 6 days; p less than 0.05).

  14. Do medical patients need to receive pharmacologic prophylaxis for the prevention of venous thromboembolism?

    PubMed

    Ageno, Walter

    2012-10-01

    Acutely ill medical patients with reduced mobility are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which can occur during hospitalization or after discharge. A number of clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that pharmacologic prophylaxis with anticoagulant drugs in these patients significantly reduces the risk of fatal pulmonary embolism as compared to placebo or no treatment, without significant increase in the risk of major bleeding. Thus, the use of anticoagulant prophylaxis is recommended for all high risk medical patients during hospitalization. To identify these high risk patients, clinicians may use the inclusion criteria applied in the trials, with a selection that is mostly qualitative, or risk assessment models, with a selection that is both qualitative and quantitative. With both approaches, about 40 % of medical patients would be at increased risk of venous thrombosis. Because in the real world medical patients tend to be much older and with more comorbidities than in clinical trials, patient selection needs to also take into account risk factors for bleeding. Among others, estimation of creatinine clearance appears to be particularly important to prevent excessive exposure to anticoagulant drugs. Finally, although the risk of venous thrombosis may persist in some patients after hospital discharge, clinical trials assessing extended prophylaxis in this setting have failed to show a convincing clinical benefit with this approach. PMID:23073856

  15. Red meat, processed meat and the risk of venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2015-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide, which can be triggered by a combination of inherited and acquired risk factors, including diet. Several lines of evidence suggest that consumption of red and processed meat is associated with a significant risk of colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Therefore, an electronic search was conducted to identify clinical studies investigating the potential association between the risk of venous thrombosis and consumption of red or processed meat. Seven articles were finally included in this review, 6 prospective studies and 1 case-control investigation. Taken together, the evidence of the current scientific literature suggests that whether or not a pathophysiological link may exist between red or processed meat consumption and venous thrombosis, the association is definitely weak, since it was found to be non-statistically significant in four prospective cohort studies, marginally significant in one prospective cohort study and highly significant in the remaining prospective cohort study. In the single case-control study, the risk was also found to be non-statistically significant. Although further studies will be needed to definitely establish the existence of a thrombotic risk associated with different subtypes of red or processed meat, it seems premature to conclude that a reduced consumption of red and processed meat lowers the risk of VTE. PMID:25962721

  16. Enoxaparin Treatment Followed by Rivaroxaban for the Treatment of Acute Lower Limb Venous Thromboembolism: Initial Experience in a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Wolosker, Nelson; Varella, Andrea Y M; Fukuda, Juliana M; Teivelis, Marcelo; Kuzniec, Sergio; Krutman, Mariana; Guerra, João C de C; Ramacciotti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Rivaroxaban is a target-specific oral anticoagulant approved for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). On its major clinical trials, treatment was initiated directly with a 3-week dose of oral 15 mg twice daily followed by 20 mg every day for at least 3 months. We retrospectively evaluated an initial therapy for confirmed VTE with 1 to 18 days of enoxaparin (1 mg/kg twice daily parenteral) followed by oral rivaroxaban 20 mg every day. Of 49 patients, we found no symptomatic recurrence, no major bleeding, and only 1 clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. We concluded in this pilot study that it is safe and effective to treat patients with enoxaparin course followed directly by a dose of 20 mg of rivaroxaban. PMID:26739543

  17. The prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism with LMWHs and new anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Blann, Andrew D; Khoo, Chee W

    2009-01-01

    As the risk factors for thrombosis are becoming better understood, so is the need for anticoagulation. The inherent difficulties with warfarin are such that a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is often the key therapeutic. However, there are several different species of LMWH available to the practitioner, which leads to the need for an objective guide. New agents are coming onto the marketplace, and these may supersede both warfarin and the heparins. The current report will review the biochemistry and pharmacology of different LWMHs and identify which are more suitable for the different presentations of venous thromboembolism. It will conclude with a brief synopsis of new agents which may supersede warfarin and heparin. PMID:19707288

  18. Regulatory, policy and quality update for venous thromboembolism and stroke in United States hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Charles E

    2012-10-01

    Stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) have a large impact on the United States (US) healthcare system. It is estimated that up to 1.7million new and recurrent stroke and VTE events are occurring in the US on an annual basis with the combined cost approaching over $200billion per year. A significant amount of stroke and VTE are preventable from appropriate antithrombotic use in at-risk patients and the Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services, the Joint Commission, the National Quality Forum and other key quality and regulatory entities have prioritized minimizing the impact of morbidity, mortality and avoidable costs related to these diseases. This review provides a brief history, overview, and update for the development of quality measures, quality systems, and regulatory and policy changes as related to stroke and VTE within the US healthcare system. PMID:22841661

  19. A Novel Prioritization Method in Identifying Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ruiqiang; Chen, Binbin; Huang, Hao; Li, Yiran; He, Yuehan; Lv, Junjie; He, Weiming; Chen, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genes involved in venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence is important not only for understanding the pathogenesis but also for discovering the therapeutic targets. We proposed a novel prioritization method called Function-Interaction-Pearson (FIP) by creating gene-disease similarity scores to prioritize candidate genes underling VTE. The scores were calculated by integrating and optimizing three types of resources including gene expression, gene ontology and protein-protein interaction. As a result, 124 out of top 200 prioritized candidate genes had been confirmed in literature, among which there were 34 antithrombotic drug targets. Compared with two well-known gene prioritization tools Endeavour and ToppNet, FIP was shown to have better performance. The approach provides a valuable alternative for drug targets discovery and disease therapy. PMID:27050193

  20. Chemoprophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in traumatic brain injury: a review and evidence-based protocol.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Paul M; Schmalz, Philip G R; Griessenauer, Christoph J

    2014-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a recognized source of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). While traumatic brain injury is a recognized risk factor for the development of VTE, its presence complicates the decision to begin anticoagulation due to fear of exacerbating the intracranial hemorrhagic injury. The role of chemoprophylaxis in this setting is poorly defined, leading to a wide variability in clinical practice. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed in an effort to summarize relevant data and construct a chemoprophylaxis protocol to be implemented in a Level I Trauma Center. The review reveals robust evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of chemoprophylaxis in the setting of TBI following demonstration of a stable intracranial injury. In light of this data, a protocol is assembled that, in the absence of predetermined exclusion criteria, will initiate chemoprophylaxis within 24h after the demonstration of a stable intracranial injury by computed tomography (CT). PMID:25012022

  1. Direct Costs of Aspirin versus Warfarin for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Total Knee or Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Christina J; Zmistowski, Benjamin M; Lonner, Jess H; Purtill, James J; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-09-01

    Interest in aspirin as an alternative strategy for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after arthroplasty has grown, as studies have suggested improved clinical efficacy and lower complication rates with aspirin compared to warfarin. The goal of this study was to compare the direct costs of an episode of arthroplasty care, when using aspirin instead of warfarin. The charts of patients who either received aspirin or warfarin after arthroplasty from January 2008 to March 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Charges were recorded for their index admission, and for subsequent admissions related to either VTE or complications of prophylaxis. Multivariate analysis revealed that aspirin was an independent predictor of decreased cost of index hospitalization, and total episode of care charges, achieved largely through a shorter length of hospitalization. PMID:26073347

  2. A Novel Prioritization Method in Identifying Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Wan; Liang, Binhua; Xie, Ruiqiang; Chen, Binbin; Huang, Hao; Li, Yiran; He, Yuehan; Lv, Junjie; He, Weiming; Chen, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genes involved in venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence is important not only for understanding the pathogenesis but also for discovering the therapeutic targets. We proposed a novel prioritization method called Function-Interaction-Pearson (FIP) by creating gene-disease similarity scores to prioritize candidate genes underling VTE. The scores were calculated by integrating and optimizing three types of resources including gene expression, gene ontology and protein-protein interaction. As a result, 124 out of top 200 prioritized candidate genes had been confirmed in literature, among which there were 34 antithrombotic drug targets. Compared with two well-known gene prioritization tools Endeavour and ToppNet, FIP was shown to have better performance. The approach provides a valuable alternative for drug targets discovery and disease therapy. PMID:27050193

  3. Clinical utility of apixaban in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism: current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zalpour, Ali; Oo, Thein Hlaing

    2014-01-01

    Anticoagulation with heparin and vitamin K antagonist has been the mainstay of prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for many years. In recent years, novel oral anticoagulants such as dabigatran etexilate (a direct thrombin inhibitor) and rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban (a direct factor Xa inhibitor) have emerged for the prevention and treatment of VTE. Novel oral anticoagulants have been shown to be noninferior to vitamin K antagonist or heparin in the prevention and treatment of VTE. This review specifically examines the role of apixaban in the prevention and treatment of VTE based on the available literature. The management of apixaban in the perioperative setting is also explored because some patients on apixaban may require surgical intervention. Finally, we discuss the management of apixaban-induced major bleeding complications, the relevance of drug–drug interactions, and patient education. PMID:25395835

  4. Impact of Postoperative Venous Thromboembolism on Postoperative Morbidity, Mortality, and Resource Utilization after Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Newhook, Timothy E; LaPar, Damien J; Walters, Dustin M; Gupta, Shruti; Jolissaint, Joshua S; Adams, Reid B; Brayman, Kenneth L; Zaydfudim, Victor M; Bauer, Todd W

    2015-12-01

    The impact of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after hepatectomy on patient morbidity, mortality, and resource usage remains poorly defined. Better understanding of thromboembolic complications is needed to improve perioperative management and overall outcomes. About 3973 patients underwent hepatectomy within NSQIP between 2005 and 2008. Patient characteristics, operative features, and postoperative correlates of VTE were compared with identify risk factors for VTE and to assess its overall impact on postoperative outcomes. Overall incidence of postoperative VTE was 2.4 per cent. Risk factors for postoperative VTE included older age, male gender, compromised functional status, degree of intraoperative blood transfusion, preoperative albumin level (all P < 0.05), and extent of hepatectomy (P = 0.004). Importantly, major postoperative complications, including acute renal failure, pneumonia, sepsis, septic shock, reintubation, prolonged ventilation, cardiac arrest, and reoperation were all associated with higher rates of VTE (all P < 0.05). Operative mortality was increased among patients with VTE (6.5% vs 2.4%, P = 0.03), and patients with VTE had a 2-fold increase in hospital length of stay (12.0 vs 6.0 days, P < 0.001). Postoperative VTE remains a significant source of morbidity, mortality, and increased resource usage after hepatectomy in the United States. Routine aggressive VTE prophylaxis measures are imperative to avoid development of VTE among patients requiring hepatectomy. PMID:26736156

  5. Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism: What Is the Risk and How to Prevent It

    PubMed Central

    Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) that includes deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism is a frequent, severe, and potentially lethal disease. After a first episode, VTE has a strong tendency to recur. While VTE is an acute disease, it may have variable outcomes in early and late phases after initial presentation. Furthermore, the incidence of late, clinically important consequences (postthrombotic syndrome and/or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) increases in case of recurrent events. The aims of the present review are (i) to analyze the incidence and risk factors for recurrence of VTE (either those related to the type of first thrombotic event or to the patients), the risks associated with occurrence of recurrent events, and the problems linked to the diagnosis, not always easy, of recurrent events; (ii) to discuss whether or not it is possible to predict the individual risk of recurrence after a first event, by stratifying patients at high or low risk of recurrence, and how this can influence their treatment; (iii) to comment what the current guidelines and guidance suggest/recommend about anticoagulant treatment after a first VTE event and, finally, to propose practical indications on how to manage individual patients affected by VTE. PMID:24278687

  6. Venous thromboembolism and cancer: guidelines of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM).

    PubMed

    Mandalà, M; Falanga, A; Piccioli, A; Prandoni, P; Pogliani, E M; Labianca, R; Barni, S

    2006-09-01

    Thromboembolic complications represent one of the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Although several data have been published demonstrating the strong association between cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE), there is poor perception, among oncologists, of the level of risk of thrombosis and of relevance of managing VTE in these patients. The Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica (AIOM) has provided some recommendations to direct clinical practice according to evidence-based data concerning cancer and VTE. In fact, we conducted an extensive literature review (1996-2005) to produce evidence-based recommendations to improve perceptions of the magnitude of this risk among Italian medical and surgical oncologists and alert on the new approaches to prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in cancer patients. Levels of evidence are given according to a five-point rating system, and similarly for each key recommendation a five-point rating system suggests if the evidence is strong and indicate that the benefits do, or do not, outweigh risks and burden. PMID:16837209

  7. A case of unprovoked venous thromboembolism in a marathon athlete presenting atypical sequelae: What are the chances?

    PubMed

    Hull, C M; Hopkins, C L; Purdy, N J; Lloyd, R C; Harris, J A

    2015-10-01

    Marathon runners are exposed to multiple thrombogenic risk factors including dehydration and hemoconcentration, injury and inflammation, long-distance travel between events, and contraceptive usage. However, despite awareness about thromboembolism and several case reports detailing life-threatening hypercoagulopathies in athletes, the prevalence of venous thromboembolism in marathon runners remains uncharted. There is a lack of data and evidence-based guidelines for these athletes and for healthcare providers, including general medical practitioners and sports physicians. We present an episode of unprovoked deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in a female marathon athlete who presented with atypical sequelae over the course of 8 months, and identify some "easy-to-miss" warning signs and symptoms. Through dialogue with the patient regarding their personal questions and anxieties surrounding idiopathic DVT-PE, we identify a clear need for more accessible information and comprehensive research concerning the detection, prevalence, and long-term management of venous thromboembolism in athletes. We discuss the possibility that being an athlete might constitute a more significant risk factor for venous thromboembolism than is currently estimated by commonly used diagnostic protocols and conclude that there is quite possibly a need for more specific clinical guidelines for athletes in this area. PMID:24869910

  8. Occurrence and predictors of recurrence after a first episode of acute venous thromboembolism: population-based Worcester Venous Thromboembolism Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Goldberg, Robert J; Anderson, Frederick A; Cohen, Alexander T; Spencer, Frederick A

    2016-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has multiple risk factors and tends to recur. Despite the benefits of anticoagulation, the prevalence of, and case-fatality rate associated with, recurrent VTE remains a concern after an acute episode; it is particularly high during the acute treatment phase. We sought to quantify the magnitude, identify predictors, and develop risk score calculator of recurrence within 3 years after first-time VTE. This was a population-based surveillance study among residents of central Massachusetts (MA), USA, diagnosed with an acute first-time pulmonary embolism and/or lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis from 1999 to 2009 in hospital and ambulatory settings in all 12 central MA hospitals. Medical records were reviewed and validated. The 2989 study patients were followed for 5836 person-years [mean follow-up 23.4 (median 30) months]. Mean age was 64.3 years, 44 % were men, and 94 % were white. The cumulative incidence rate of recurrent VTE within 3 years after an index VTE was 15 % overall, and 25, 13, and 13 % among patients with active cancer, provoked, or unprovoked VTE, respectively. Multivariable regression indicated that active cancer, varicose vein stripping, and inferior vena cava filter placement were independent predictors of recurrence during both 3-month and 3-year follow-up. A risk score calculator was developed based on the 3-month prognostic model. In conclusion, the rate of VTE recurrence over 3 years of follow-up remained high. The risk score calculator may assist clinicians at the index encounter in determining the frequency of clinical surveillance and appropriate outpatient treatment of VTE during the acute treatment phase. PMID:26847621

  9. Colectomy is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Gilaad G; Lim, Allen; Seow, Cynthia H; Moran, Gordon W; Ghosh, Subrata; Leung, Yvette; Debruyn, Jennifer; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Hubbard, James; Panaccione, Remo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who respond to medical management to patients requiring colectomy. METHODS: Population-based surveillance from 1997 to 2009 was used to identify all adults admitted to hospital for a flare of UC and those patients who underwent colectomy. All medical charts were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and extract clinically relevant information. UC patients were stratified by: (1) responsive to inpatient medical therapy (n = 382); (2) medically refractory requiring emergent colectomy (n = 309); and (3) elective colectomy (n = 329). The primary outcome was the development of VTE during hospitalization or within 6 mo of discharge. Heparin prophylaxis to prevent VTE was assessed. Logistic regression analysis determined the effect of disease course (i.e., responsive to medical therapy, medically refractory, and elective colectomy) on VTE after adjusting for confounders including age, sex, smoking, disease activity, comorbidities, extent of disease, and IBD medications (i.e., corticosteroids, mesalamine, azathioprine, and infliximab). Point estimates were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95%CI. RESULTS: The prevalence of VTE among patients with UC who responded to medical therapy was 1.3% and only 16% of these patients received heparin prophylaxis. In contrast, VTE was higher among patients who underwent an emergent (8.7%) and elective (4.9%) colectomy, despite greater than 90% of patients receiving postoperative heparin prophylaxis. The most common site of VTE was intra-abdominal (45.8%) followed by lower extremity (19.6%). VTE was diagnosed after discharge from hospital in 16.7% of cases. Elective (adjusted OR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.30-10.44) and emergent colectomy (adjusted OR = 5.28; 95%CI: 1.93-14.45) were significant risk factors for VTE as compared to medically responsive UC patients. Furthermore, the odds of a VTE significantly increased across time (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1

  10. Improving venous thromboembolism risk assessment compliance using the electronic tool in admitted medical patients.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haytham; Raji, Salama J; Ellahham, Samer; Bashir, Nihal; Al Hanaee, Manar; Boharoon, Hessa; AlFalahi, May

    2015-01-01

    Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) in Abu Dhabi is the main tertiary care referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with 560 bed capacity that is fully occupied most of the time. SKMC senior management has made a commitment to make quality and patient safety a top priority. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment has been identified as a critical patient safety measure and key performance indicator. The electronic VTE risk assessment form a computerized decision support tool was introduced to improve adherence with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis recommendations. A multidisciplinary task force team was formed and led this quality improvement project. The purpose of this publication is to indicate the quality improvement interventions implemented to enhance compliance with VTE risk assessment and the outcomes of those interventions. We chose to conduct the pilot study in General Medicine as it is the busiest department in the hospital. The study period was from April 2014 till August 2015.The lessons learned were disseminated throughout the hospital. Our aim was to improve VTE risk assessment compliance by using the electronic form in order to ensure patient safety and reduce preventable harm. VTE risk assessment compliance improved in general medicine from 4% to 98%, and overall SKMC compliance from 21% to above 90%. PMID:26734399

  11. Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer: Focus on Drug Therapy.

    PubMed

    van Es, Nick; Bleker, Suzanne M; Wilts, Ineke T; Porreca, Ettore; Di Nisio, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication in patients with cancer and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of VTE in this population is challenging given the high risk of both recurrent VTE and bleeding complications. Thromboprophylaxis with subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is recommended in cancer patients hospitalized for an acute medical illness and in those undergoing major surgery. In ambulatory cancer patients with or without central venous catheters, routine thromboprophylaxis is not recommended because of the relatively low benefit-to-risk ratio. To identify cancer outpatients at very high risk of VTE who may benefit from thromboprophylaxis, VTE risk stratification tools based on tumour type, clinical parameters, or coagulation biomarkers have been proposed, but their clinical utility needs validation. The mainstay of treatment for cancer-associated VTE is LMWH for at least 6 months or longer in case of active disease. The same initial and long-term treatment for incidental VTE as for symptomatic VTE can be suggested while awaiting additional studies in this area. PMID:26729187

  12. Venous thromboembolism prevention during asparaginase-based therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sibai, H.; Seki, J.T.; Wang, T.Q.; Sakurai, N.; Atenafu, E.G.; Yee, K.W.L.; Schuh, A.C.; Gupta, V.; Minden, M.D.; Schimmer, A.D.; Brandwein, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (vte) is a recognized complication in patients treated with asparaginase-containing chemotherapy regimens; the optimal preventive strategy is unclear. We assessed the safety and efficacy of prophylaxis using low-dose low molecular weight heparin in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in complete remission treated with an asparaginase-based post-remission chemotherapy regimen. Methods As part of the intensification phase of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 91-01 regimen, asparaginase was administered weekly to 41 consecutive patients for 21–30 weeks; these patients also received prophylaxis with enoxaparin 40 mg daily (60 mg for patients ≥80 kg). Outcomes were assessed against outcomes in a comparable cohort of 99 patients who received the same chemotherapy regimen without anticoagulation prophylaxis. Results The overall rate of symptomatic venous thrombosis was not significantly different in the prophylaxis and non-prophylaxis cohorts (18.92% and 21.74% respectively). Among patients receiving prophylaxis, vte occurred in higher proportion in those who weighed at least 80 kg (42.86% vs. 4.35%, p = 0.0070). No major bleeding complications occurred in the prophylaxis group (minor bleeding: 8.1%). Conclusions Prophylaxis with low-dose enoxaparin during the intensification phase was safe, but was not associated with a lower overall proportion of vte. PMID:27536184

  13. Improving venous thromboembolism risk assessment compliance using the electronic tool in admitted medical patients

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Haytham; Raji, Salama J.; Ellahham, Samer; Bashir, Nihal; Al hanaee, Manar; Boharoon, Hessa; AlFalahi, May

    2015-01-01

    Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) in Abu Dhabi is the main tertiary care referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with 560 bed capacity that is fully occupied most of the time. SKMC senior management has made a commitment to make quality and patient safety a top priority. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment has been identified as a critical patient safety measure and key performance indicator. The electronic VTE risk assessment form a computerized decision support tool was introduced to improve adherence with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis recommendations. A multidisciplinary task force team was formed and led this quality improvement project. The purpose of this publication is to indicate the quality improvement interventions implemented to enhance compliance with VTE risk assessment and the outcomes of those interventions. We chose to conduct the pilot study in General Medicine as it is the busiest department in the hospital. The study period was from April 2014 till August 2015.The lessons learned were disseminated throughout the hospital. Our aim was to improve VTE risk assessment compliance by using the electronic form in order to ensure patient safety and reduce preventable harm. VTE risk assessment compliance improved in general medicine from 4% to 98%, and overall SKMC compliance from 21% to above 90%. PMID:26734399

  14. Venous Thromboembolism after Allogeneic Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Azık, Fatih; Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Tavil, Betül; Işık, Pamir; Tunç, Bahattin; Uçkan, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has high morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of VTE in allogeneic pediatric HSCT recipients and the contribution of pretransplant prothrombotic risk factors to thrombosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 92 patients between April 2010 and November 2012 undergoing allogeneic HSCT who had completed 100 days post-HSCT. Before HSCT, coagulation profiles; acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors including FV G1691A (factor V Leiden), prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and MTHFR A1298C mutations; and serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a), plasma antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S levels were obtained from all patients. Results: In the screening of thrombophilia, 8 patients (9%) were heterozygous for factor V Leiden, 5 (6%) were homozygous for MTHFR 677TT, 12 (14%) were homozygous for MTHFR 1298CC, and 2 (2%) were heterozygous for prothrombin G20210A mutation. We observed VTE in 5 patients (5.4%); a prothrombotic risk factor was found in 3 out of these 5 patients, while 4 out of 5 patients had central venous catheters. It was determined there was no significant relationship between VTE and inherited prothrombotic risk factors. Conclusion: VTE after HSCT seems to be a low-frequency event that may be due to low-dose, low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis, and the role of inherited prothrombotic risk factors cannot be entirely excluded without a prospective study. PMID:25912774

  15. Venous thromboembolism among patients with advanced lung cancer randomized to prinomastat or placebo, plus chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Carolyn E; Ruiz, Rolando B

    2003-10-01

    Two clinical trials have suggested that the combination of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor with chemotherapy is associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). This retrospective cohort study investigates whether a similar association exists when matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (prinomastat) is combined with chemotherapy. Patients (n=1,023) with stage IIIB, IV, or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were followed during 2 randomized, double-blind trials of prinomastat versus placebo orally bid, plus gemcitabine/cisplatin (GC) or paclitaxel/carboplatin (PC). VTE included deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) confirmed by imaging or autopsy. Risks identified in univariate analysis (incidence densities compared by t test) were confirmed in multivariate analysis (proportional hazards model). During 7,500.3 patient-months, 58 VTE (31 PE, 27 isolated DVT) were confirmed in 54 patients. On univariate analysis, VTE was associated with central venous catheter placed within 3 months, 15 mg prinomastat plus GC, and to a lesser extent, 15 mg prinomastat plus PC, baseline performance status, and histologic type. VTE incidence was not increased by 15 mg prinomastat alone (post-discontinuation of chemotherapy), by chemotherapy plus placebo, or by 5 or 10 mg prinomastat plus chemotherapy. On multivariate analysis,VTE hazards (95% confidence interval) were 5.69 (2.61, 12.40) with recently placed central catheter, 2.78 (1.42, 5.43) with 15 mg prinomastat plus GC, and 2.06 (0.98, 4.31) with 15 mg prinomastat plus PC; performance status and histology were nonsignificant. We can conclude that combined treatment with 15 mg prinomastat plus chemotherapy approximately doubles the hazard of VTE among patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:14515196

  16. The Mean Platelet Volume Is Decreased in Patients Diagnosed with Venous Thromboembolism in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2016-09-01

    Platelets are small corpuscular elements, which play an essential role in hemostasis and thrombosis. As active players in the thrombotic process, hyperactive platelets are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, the role of platelet size, as a biological marker of platelet activation, remains debated in the setting of venous thrombosis. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective case-control study to clarify the potential association between mean platelet volume (MPV) and newly diagnosed venous thromboembolism (VTE) by reviewing data of all consecutive patients receiving a diagnosis of VTE at the emergency department (ED) of the University Hospital of Parma (Italy) between January and December, 2014. The control population was represented by outpatients undergoing routine laboratory testing for health checkup at the phlebotomy center of the same University Hospital during the same period. MPV was found to be comparatively decreased in the entire cohort of patients with VTE compared with the outpatient population, as well as in those with isolated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). A decreased MPV value (i.e., < 10.8 fL) was found to be associated with an increased risk of diagnosing VTE (relative risk, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.28; p < 0.001), as well as of diagnosing isolated DVT (relative risk, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.31; p = 0.001) and isolated PE (relative risk, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.30; p = 0.007). A decreased MPV value in active cancer patients was associated with the highest risk of diagnosing thrombosis (relative risk, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.51; p = 0.002). These results support an inverse association between MPV and the risk of venous thrombosis at diagnosis. PMID:27074441

  17. [Assessment of bleeding risk in patients with venous thromboembolism: we are still a long way from home].

    PubMed

    Klok, F A; Huisman, M V

    2016-01-01

    Recent American, European and Dutch guidelines recommend lifelong anticoagulation after a diagnosis of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the absence of high bleeding risk. Major bleeding events may, however, be devastating, and are reported to have a higher case fatality rate than recurrent venous thromboembolism itself. Unfortunately, there are no validated risk assessment tools for major bleeding that help physicians determine the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy after VTE. Furthermore, the scarce studies on this subject have focused on vitamin K antagonist treatment regimens only, covering mainly the initial weeks and first month, during which period the level of anticoagulation is unstable. New studies focusing on bleeding risk during the 'chronic' treatment period with modern anticoagulants, i.e. the direct oral anticoagulants or 'DOACs', are urgently needed. Until these are available, the 2016 Dutch guideline on anticoagulation therapy provides a table with a summary of known individual risk factors that can be applied in clinical practice. PMID:27378261

  18. Characteristics of Venous Thromboembolism in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in East Asian Ethnics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Chan; Ro, Young Sun; Cho, Junhyeon; Park, Yohan; Lee, Ji Hye; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is known to be frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although treatment and prophylaxis strategies for VTE in PC patients were updated recently, these were mainly based on data from Western populations and were not verified in East Asian ethnic populations. We investigated the clinical characteristics of VTE in East Asian PC patients. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 1334 patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2010 at single tertiary hospital in Korea. All the patients with newly diagnosed VTE were classified by anatomical site and manifestation of symptoms. The primary outcomes of interest were 2-year cumulative incidence of VTE events. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associations between risk factors and clinical outcomes. A total of 1115 patients were eligible for enrollment. The 2-year cumulative VTE incidence was 9.2%. Major risk factors associated with VTE event were advanced cancer stage, major surgery, and poor performance status. Risk factors associated with mortality after PC diagnosis included advanced cancer stage, poor performance score, leukocytosis, and lower albumin level. The overall VTE did not affected mortality. However in subgroup analysis, symptomatic VTE and deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary thromboembolism (DVT/PTE) showed worse prognosis than incidental or intra-abdominal VTE. The overall incidence of VTE events in Korean PC patients was lower than previous studies. Advanced cancer stage was the most important factor for VTE event and mortality. Unlike Western population group, VTE event did not affect overall prognosis after PC diagnosis. However, symptomatic VTE and DVT/PTE showed higher mortality after VTE event. PMID:27124043

  19. Very early initiation of chemical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after blunt solid organ injury is safe

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Patrick B.; Sothilingam, Niroshan; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Batey, Brandon; Moffat, Brad; Gray, Daryl K.; Parry, Neil G.; Vogt, Kelly N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal timing of initiating low–molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in patients who have undergone nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt solid organ injuries (SOIs) remains controversial. We describe the safety of early initiation of chemical venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis among patients undergoing NOM of blunt SOIs. Methods We retrospectively studied severely injured adults who sustained blunt SOI without significant intracranial hemorrhage and underwent an initial NOM at a Canadian lead trauma hospital between 2010 and 2014. Safety was assessed based on failure of NOM, defined as the need for operative intervention, in patients who received early (< 48 h) or late LMWH (≥48 h, or early discharge [< 72 h] without LMWH). Results We included 162 patients in our analysis. Most were men (69%), and the average age was 42 ± 18 years. The median injury severity score was 17, and splenic injuries were most common (97 [60%], median grade 2), followed by liver (57 [35%], median grade 2) and kidney injuries (31 [19%], median grade 1). Combined injuries were present in 14% of patients. A total of 78 (48%) patients received early LMWH, while 84 (52%) received late LMWH. The groups differed only in percent of high-grade splenic injury (14% v. 32%). Overall 2% of patients failed NOM, none after receiving LMWH. Semielective angiography was performed in 23 (14%) patients. The overall rate of confirmed VTE on imaging was 1.9%. Conclusion Early initiation of medical thromboembolic prophylaxis appears safe in select patients with isolated SOI following blunt trauma. A prospective multicentre study is warranted. PMID:26820318

  20. Clinical conditions and patient factors significantly influence diagnostic utility of D-dimer in venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Asghar; Duggan, Mary; O'Connell, Niamh; O'Driscoll, Anne

    2009-06-01

    Determining D-dimer levels remains important in the diagnostic algorithms for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present study aimed to identify factors influencing D-dimer utility in diagnosing VTE. Consecutive symptomatic medical patients, who attended our emergency department from 1 November 2006 to 31 December 2006, had D-dimer levels measured as fibrinogen equivalent units (FEU), following clinical risk assessment. Diagnosis of VTE was established by venous compression ultrasonography and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. VTE-negative patients were followed for 2 months to detect future occurrence of thromboembolism. Impact of various factors on D-dimer levels was analyzed. Four thousand and twenty-six patients attended our emergency department, and 525 patients (median age 52 years) had D-dimer assessed. Final diagnosis of VTE was established in 25 (4.7%) patients on radiological investigations. Median D-dimer levels for VTE-negative patients less than 60 years old, with normal renal function and chest radiology were 0.38 microgFEU/ml (range 0.19-2.3), 0.39 microgFEU/ml (range 0.17-3.5) and 0.39 microgFEU/ml (range 0.1-4.3), respectively. Similar figures for those at least 60 years, with renal impairment and abnormal chest radiology, were 0.75 microgFEU/ml (range 0.22-4.3), 0.52 microgFEU/ml (range 0.17-4.4) and 0.92 microgFEU/ml (range 0.26-5.6), respectively. Factors including patient age, renal function and chest radiology had significant influence on D-dimer levels (P < 0.01). A triad of patient age at least 60 years, renal impairment (modification of diet in renal disease stage 2-5) and abnormal chest radiology had a false positive D-dimer in 96% of patients (n = 72). Use of D-dimer in patients with a triad of advanced age, renal impairment and abnormal chest radiology has no practical diagnostic value in VTE. PMID:19276796

  1. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jean-Francois; Cohen, Alexander T; Tapson, Victor F; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay K; Deslandes, Bruno; Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A

    2010-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE prophylaxis use in hospitalised medically ill patients. We analysed data from the global ENDORSE survey to evaluate VTE risk and prophylaxis use in this population according to diagnosis, baseline characteristics, and country. Data on patient characteristics, VTE risk, and prophylaxis use were abstracted from hospital charts. VTE risk and prophylaxis use were evaluated according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Data were evaluated for 37,356 hospitalised medical patients across 32 countries. VTE risk varied according to medical diagnosis, from 31.2% of patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases to 100% of patients with acute heart failure, active non-infectious respiratory disease, or pulmonary infection (global rate, 41.5%). Among those at risk for VTE, ACCP-recommended prophylaxis was used in 24.4% haemorrhagic stroke patients and 40-45% of cardiopulmonary disease patients (global rate, 39.5%). Large differences in prophylaxis use were observed among countries. Markers of disease severity, including central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, and admission to intensive care units, were strongly associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. In conclusion, VTE risk varies according to medical diagnosis. Less than 40% of at-risk hospitalised medical patients receive ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Prophylaxis use appears to be associated with disease severity rather than medical diagnosis. These data support the necessity to improve implementation of available guidelines for evaluating VTE risk and providing prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients. PMID:20135072

  2. Clinical factors associated with venous thromboembolism risk in patients undergoing craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Kimmell, Kristopher T; Jahromi, Babak S

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Patients undergoing craniotomy are at risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). The safety of anticoagulation in these patients is not clear. The authors sought to identify risk factors predictive of VTE in patients undergoing craniotomy. METHODS The authors reviewed a national surgical quality database, the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Craniotomy patients were identified by current procedural terminology code. Clinical factors were analyzed to identify associations with VTE. RESULTS Four thousand eight hundred forty-four adult patients who underwent craniotomy were identified. The rate of VTE in the cohort was 3.5%, including pulmonary embolism in 1.4% and deep venous thrombosis in 2.6%. A number of factors were found to be statistically significant in multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, including craniotomy for tumor, transfer from acute care hospital, age ≥ 60 years, dependent functional status, tumor involving the CNS, sepsis, emergency surgery, surgery time ≥ 4 hours, postoperative urinary tract infection, postoperative pneumonia, on ventilator ≥ 48 hours postoperatively, and return to the operating room. Patients were assigned a score based on how many of these factors they had (minimum score 0, maximum score 12). Increasing score was predictive of increased VTE incidence, as well as risk of mortality, and time from surgery to discharge. CONCLUSIONS Patients undergoing craniotomy are at low risk of developing VTE, but this risk is increased by preoperative medical comorbidities and postoperative complications. The presence of more of these clinical factors is associated with progressively increased VTE risk; patients possessing a VTE Risk Score of ≥ 5 had a greater than 20-fold increased risk of VTE compared with patients with a VTE score of 0. PMID:25495743

  3. Progressive Mobility Protocol Reduces Venous Thromboembolism Rate in Trauma Intensive Care Patients: A Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Booth, Kathryn; Rivet, Josh; Flici, Richelle; Harvey, Ellen; Hamill, Mark; Hundley, Douglas; Holland, Katelyn; Hubbard, Sandra; Trivedi, Apurva; Collier, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) trauma population is at high risk for complications associated with immobility. The purpose of this project was to compare ICU trauma patient outcomes before and after implementation of a structured progressive mobility (PM) protocol. Outcomes included hospital and ICU stays, ventilator days, falls, respiratory failure, pneumonia, or venous thromboembolism (VTE). In the preintervention cohort, physical therapy (PT) consults were placed 53% of the time. This rose to more than 90% during the postintervention period. PT consults seen within 24 hr rose from a baseline 23% pre- to 74%-94% in the 2 highest compliance postintervention months. On average, 40% of patients were daily determined to be too unstable for mobility per protocol guidelines-most often owing to elevated intracranial pressure. During PM sessions, there were no adverse events (i.e., extubation, hypoxia, fall). There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the 2 cohorts regarding hospital and ICU stays, average ventilator days, mortality, falls, respiratory failure, or pneumonia overall or within ventilated patients specifically. There was, however, a difference in the incidence of VTE between the preintervention cohort (21%) and postintervention cohort (7.5%) (p = .0004). A PM protocol for ICU trauma patients is safe and may reduce patient deconditioning and VTE complications in this high-risk population. Multidisciplinary commitment, daily protocol reinforcement, and active engagement of patients/families are the cornerstones to success in this ICU PM program. PMID:27618376

  4. Hypertension associated with venous thromboembolism in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhui; Yang, Yuanhua; Chen, Wenhui; Liang, Lirong; Zhai, Zhenguo; Guo, Lijuan; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Li; Xu, Qixia; Jiang, Luning; Zhang, Xinhong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with lung cancer that might help estimate an individual’s risk for VTE. A total of 632 unselected patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer were investigated for VTE within the three months prior to recruitment, and their major CVD risk factors were assessed at the baseline examination. Eighty-six of the 632 (13.6%) developed a VTE event. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, sex, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and white blood cell count, found that hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0–3.3) and leukocytosis (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5–4.8) were significantly associated with VTE in different tumor histology models and that hypertension (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1–3.4) and leukocytosis (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5–4.7) were also significantly associated with VTE in different tumor stage models. Leukocytosis was linearly associated with hypertension and VTE (P for trend = 0.006), and the ORs for VTE increased with leukocytosis (all P for trend <0.05). In conclusion, hypertension increased the risk of VTE in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer, which may be mediated by the presence of inflammation. PMID:26797411

  5. Estimated Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism in Iran: Prophylaxis Still an Unmet Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sharif-Kashani, Babak; Mohebi-Nejad, Azin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inappropriate thromboprophylaxis is a serious problem in Iran. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most important causes of morbidity in patients in surgical and obstetrics departments and intensive care units (ICUs). It is a leading preventable cause of mortality among in-patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of VTE and its epidemiology in an Iranian population for the first time. Materials and Methods: There is no national registry system for keeping VTE records in Iran. To statistically calculate the annual prevalence of VTE, we used the prevalence of VTE in presence of each VTE predisposing condition and the annual prevalence of each VTE predisposing condition in Iran. Results: The average annual number of total adult patients with predisposing conditions of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in Iran was 5,288,272 people. The mean annual prevalence of DVT in Iran was between 686,928 and 2,089,738 cases. The mean annual prevalence rate of DVT among the hospitalized Iranian adult patients with the risk of DVT was approximately between 129.90 and 395.16 cases per 1000 patients. Conclusion: The mean annual prevalence of DVT among the hospitalized Iranian adult patients not receiving prophylaxis is high. We also found that appropriate prophylaxis was provided for less than half the patients in need. PMID:26221149

  6. Pharmacologic Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Among Patients With Total Joint Replacement: An Electronic Medical Records Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Marc; Liu, Xianchen; Phatak, Hemant; Qi, Rong; Teal, Evgenia; Nisi, Daniel; Liu, Larry Z; Parr, J Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Patients who have total hip (THR) or knee (TKR) replacement have an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The American College of Chest Physicians guidelines recommend prophylactic anticoagulation. The aim of the study was to examine pharmacologic prophylaxis against VTE among patients with THR or TKR and to assess demographic and clinical correlates related to VTE prophylaxis. Using 15 years of data (1995-2009) from an electronic medical record system for an inner-city public hospital in the United States, we examined pharmacologic prophylaxis against VTE and associated factors in patients after THR (n = 242) and TKR (n = 317). Before the early 2000s, aspirin was the most common prophylaxis agent (THR, 61% and TKR, 65%), and 26% of patients with THR and 19% of patients with TKR did not receive prophylaxis. Enoxaparin use has increased since 2000, and warfarin is now the most common prophylaxis agent (THR, 70% and TKR, 61%). After controlling for time period, factors associated with prophylaxis pattern included obesity, hip fracture, and the surgeon's number of years in practice. VTE prophylaxis medications in patients with total joint replacement have changed over 15 years, in trends generally consistent with the evolution of guidelines. Obesity, history of hip fracture, and physician's experience are associated with the prescription of VTE prophylaxis medications. PMID:26736015

  7. Efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with apixaban in major orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Werth, Sebastian; Halbritter, Kai; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been accepted as the “gold standard” for pharmaceutical thromboprophylaxis in patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in most countries around the world. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS) represent a population with high risk of VTE, which may remain asymptomatic or become symptomatic as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Numerous trials have investigated LMWH thromboprophylaxis in this population and demonstrated high efficacy and safety of these substances. However, LMWHs have a number of disadvantages, which limit the acceptance of patients and physicians, especially in prolonged prophylaxis up to 35 days after MOS. Consequently, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were developed that are of synthetic origin and act as direct and very specific inhibitors of different factors in the coagulation cascade. The most developed NOACs are dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, all of which are approved for thromboprophylaxis in MOS in a number of countries around the world. This review is focused on the pharmacological characteristics of apixaban in comparison with other NOACs, on the impact of NOAC on VTE prophylaxis in daily care, and on the management of specific situations such as bleeding complications during NOAC therapy. PMID:22547932

  8. Evolving use of new oral anticoagulants for treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Calvin H.; Gross, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which include dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, are poised to replace warfarin for treatment of the majority of patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). With a rapid onset of action and the capacity to be administered in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring, NOACs streamline VTE treatment. In phase 3 trials in patients with acute symptomatic VTE, NOACs have been shown to be noninferior to conventional anticoagulant therapy for prevention of recurrence and are associated with less bleeding. Rivaroxaban and dabigatran are already licensed for VTE treatment in the United States, and apixaban and edoxaban are under regulatory consideration for this indication. As the number of approved drugs increases, clinicians will need to choose the right anticoagulant for the right VTE patient. To help with this decision, this review (1) compares the pharmacologic profiles of the NOACs, (2) outlines the unique design features of the phase 3 trials that evaluated the NOACs for VTE treatment, (3) reviews the results of these trials highlighting similarities and differences in the findings, (4) provides perspective about which VTE patients should receive conventional treatment or are candidates for NOACs, and (5) offers suggestions about how to choose among the NOACs. PMID:24923298

  9. Risks, dangers and competing clinical decisions on venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospital care.

    PubMed

    Boiko, Olga; Sheaff, Rod; Child, Susan; Gericke, Christian A

    2014-07-01

    Drawing on wider sociologies of risk, this article examines the complexity of clinical risks and their management, focusing on risk management systems, expert decision-making and safety standards in health care. At the time of this study preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) among in-patients was one of the top priorities for hospital safety in the English National Health Service (NHS). An analysis of 50 interviews examining hospital professionals' perceptions about VTE risks and prophylaxis illuminates how National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines influenced clinical decision-making in four hospitals in one NHS region. We examine four themes: the identification of new risks, the institutionalisation and management of risk, the relationship between risk and danger and the tensions between risk management systems and expert decision-making. The implementation of NICE guidelines for VTE prevention extended managerial control over risk management but some irreducible clinical dangers remained that were beyond the scope of the new VTE risk management systems. Linking sociologies of risk with the realities of hospital risk management reveals the capacity of these theories to illuminate both the possibilities and the limits of managerialism in health care. PMID:24635764

  10. Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Survey of Korean Knee Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Ki; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide information on the actual status and prevailing trend of prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in South Korea. Materials and Methods The Korean Knee Society (KKS) developed a questionnaire with 6 clinical questions on VTE. The questionnaire was distributed to all members of KKS by both postal and online mail. Participants were asked to supply details on their specialty and to select methods of prophylaxis they employ. Of the total members of KKS, 27.9% participated in the survey. Results The percentage of surgeons who routinely performed prophylaxis for VTE was 60.4%; 19.4% performed prophylaxis depending on the patient's health condition; and the remaining 20.2% never implemented prophylaxis after surgery. The common prophylactic methods among the responders were compression stocking (72.9%), pneumatic leg compression (63.3%), perioral direct factor Xa inhibitor (46.9%), and low-molecular-weight heparin (39.5%). For the respondents who did not perform prophylaxis, the main reason (51.5%) was the low risk of postoperative VTE considering the low incidences in Asians. Conclusions The present study involving members of the KKS will help to comprehend the actual status of VTE prevention in South Korea. The results of this study may be useful to design VTE guidelines appropriate for Koreans in the future. PMID:27595074

  11. Enoxaparin venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in bariatric surgery: A best evidence topic.

    PubMed

    Parker, S G; McGlone, E R; Knight, W R; Sufi, P; Khan, O A

    2015-11-01

    A best evidence topic in surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: which is the best regimen of enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis for patients undergoing bariatric surgery? One hundred and twenty-five papers were identified using the reported literature search, of which four represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, country and date of publication, patient groups, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. All four studies are non-randomized cohort studies examining venous thromboembolism rates and major postoperative bleeding following varying regimens of Enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis. There is no level 1 evidence which significantly favors any particular thromboprophylaxis regimen. There is some evidence that extended duration of treatment of ten days after discharge significantly reduces the incidence of VTE compared to in-hospital treatment only, and that a higher incidence of post-operative bleeding occurs with a regimen that includes a pre-operative dose of Enoxaparin. With regard to dosage, for in-hospital treatment the higher dosage of 40 mg twice daily as opposed to 30 mg seems to significantly reduce the incidence of VTE without significantly affecting bleeding rate. PMID:26394187

  12. Elevated risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients with inflammatory myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Michał; Królak-Nowak, Katarzyna; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Fichna, Jakub; Włodarczyk, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease manifesting as either deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Its prevalence makes VTE a significant issue for both the individual – as a negative factor influencing the quality of life and prognosis – and the society due to economic burden. VTE is the third most common vascular disorder in Western countries, after myocardial infarction and stroke, making it a major cause of in-hospital mortality, responsible for 5%–10% of hospital deaths. Despite many studies conducted, only 50%–60% provoking factors have been identified, while the remaining 40%–50% have been classified as idiopathic or unprovoked. Chronic inflammatory disorders, with their underlying prothrombotic state, reveal an increased risk of VTE (six to eight times) compared with the general population. Among the inflammatory disorders, we can identify inflammatory myopathies – a group of rare, chronic diseases featuring weakness and inflammation of muscles with periods of exacerbation and remission; their main classes are polymyositis and dermatomyositis. The objective of this review is to emphasize the need of VTE prophylaxis in individuals with inflammatory myopathies in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates among those patients and improve their quality of life and prognosis. PMID:27350751

  13. Primary prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolic events in patients with gastrointestinal cancers - Review.

    PubMed

    Riess, Hanno; Habbel, Piet; Jühling, Anja; Sinn, Marianne; Pelzer, Uwe

    2016-03-15

    Venous thromboembolism event (VTE) is a common and morbid complication in cancer patients. Patients with gastrointestinal cancers often suffer from symptomatic or incidental splanchnic vein thrombosis, impaired liver function and/or thrombocytopenia. These characteristics require a thorough risk/benefit evaluation for individual patients. Considering the risk factors for the development of VTE and bleeding events in addition to recent study results may be helpful for correct initiation of primary pharmacological prevention and treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), preferably with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). Whereas thromboprophylaxis is most often recommended in hospitalized surgical and non-surgical patients with malignancy, there is less agreement as to its duration. With regard to ambulatory cancer patients, the lack of robust data results in low grade recommendations against routine use of anticoagulant drugs. Anticoagulation with LMWH for the first months is the evidence-based treatment for acute CAT, but duration of secondary prevention and the drug of choice are unclear. Based on published guidelines and literature, this review will focus on prevention and treatment strategies of VTE in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:26989461

  14. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Bauersachs, Rupert

    2016-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with a risk of recurrence that depends on factors specific to index event and patient. A first unprovoked VTE increases the risk of a recurrent event, particularly during the first year after anticoagulation cessation. Determining a strategy for the long-term prevention of recurrent VTE poses challenges that stem from a lack of agreement on recommended therapy duration and varying treatment burden for the patient. Oral anticoagulants, including vitamin K antagonists and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), are the main treatment options for the long-term prevention of recurrent VTE. However, the risk of VTE recurrence must be balanced against the risk of bleeding in each patient. Phase III clinical trials have evaluated rivaroxaban, apixaban and dabigatran for extended treatment and prevention of VTE versus placebo, and versus warfarin in the case of dabigatran. Compared with placebo treatment, each NOAC showed superior efficacy together with an acceptable safety profile during extended treatment periods of 6-18months. Patients receiving long-term NOAC therapy will still require regular risk factor assessment, but these agents may permit longer treatment duration with an improved benefit-risk profile. PMID:27263046

  15. COPD and risk of venous thromboembolism and mortality in a general population.

    PubMed

    Børvik, Trond; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Enga, Kristin; Schirmer, Henrik; Brodin, Ellen E; Melbye, Hasse; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been scarcely studied in the general population. We aimed to investigate the association between COPD and risk of VTE and mortality in a population-based cohort.Spirometry was conducted in 8646 males and females, participating in the fifth (2001-02) and sixth (2007-08) surveys of the Tromsø Study. Incident VTE events during follow-up were registered from the date of inclusion to December 31, 2011. Cox-regression models with COPD stages and confounders as time varying covariates were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for VTE and all-cause mortality.During a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 215 subjects developed VTE. Subjects with COPD stage III/IV had a two-fold higher risk of secondary VTE compared to subjects with normal airflow (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.02-4.10). COPD patients, particularly those with stage III/IV disease, with VTE had a higher mortality rate than COPD patients without VTE (50.2% versus 5.6% per year).Our findings suggest that patients with severe COPD may have increased risk of secondary VTE, and that COPD patients with VTE have a higher mortality rate than COPD patients without VTE. PMID:26585434

  16. Guidance for the practical management of warfarin therapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Witt, Daniel M; Clark, Nathan P; Kaatz, Scott; Schnurr, Terri; Ansell, Jack E

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious and often fatal medical condition with an increasing incidence. The treatment of VTE is undergoing tremendous changes with the introduction of the new direct oral anticoagulants and clinicians need to understand new treatment paradigms. This article, initiated by the Anticoagulation Forum, provides clinical guidance based on existing guidelines and consensus expert opinion where guidelines are lacking. Well-managed warfarin therapy remains an important anticoagulant option and it is hoped that anticoagulation providers will find the guidance contained in this article increases their ability to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients with VTE Pivotal practical questions pertaining to this topic were developed by consensus of the authors and were derived from evidence-based consensus statements whenever possible. The medical literature was reviewed and summarized using guidance statements that reflect the consensus opinion(s) of all authors and the endorsement of the Anticoagulation Forum's Board of Directors. In an effort to provide practical and implementable information about VTE and its treatment, guidance statements pertaining to choosing good candidates for warfarin therapy, warfarin initiation, optimizing warfarin control, invasive procedure management, excessive anticoagulation, subtherapeutic anticoagulation, drug interactions, switching between anticoagulants, and care transitions are provided. PMID:26780746

  17. Risk-assessment algorithm and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in medical patients

    PubMed Central

    T Rocha, Ana; F Paiva, Edison; Lichtenstein, Arnaldo; Milani, Rodolfo; Cavalheiro-Filho, Cyrillo; H Maffei, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical patients is high, but risk assessment is rarely performed because there is not yet a good method to identify candidates for prophylaxis. Purpose To perform a systematic review about VTE risk factors (RFs) in hospitalized medical patients and generate recommendations (RECs) for prophylaxis that can be implemented into practice. Data sources A multidisciplinary group of experts from 12 Brazilian Medical Societies searched MEDLINE, Cochrane, and LILACS. Study selection Two experts independently classified the evidence for each RF by its scientific quality in a standardized manner. A risk-assessment algorithm was created based on the results of the review. Data synthesis Several VTE RFs have enough evidence to support RECs for prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients (eg, increasing age, heart failure, and stroke). Other factors are considered adjuncts of risk (eg, varices, obesity, and infections). According to the algorithm, hospitalized medical patients ≥40 years-old with decreased mobility, and ≥1 RFs should receive chemoprophylaxis with heparin, provided they don’t have contraindications. High prophylactic doses of unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight-heparin must be administered and maintained for 6–14 days. Conclusions A multidisciplinary group generated evidence-based RECs and an easy-to-use algorithm to facilitate VTE prophylaxis in medical patients. PMID:17969384

  18. The humanistic and economic burden of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Relakis, John; Mylonas, Charalambos; Kapaki, Vasiliki; Kontodimas, Stathis; Holm, Majbrit V; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present evidence on the epidemiology, health outcomes and economic burden of cancer-related venous thromboembolism (VTE). Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Econlit, Science Direct, JSTOR, Oxford Journals and Cambridge Journals were searched. The systematic literature search was limited to manuscripts published from January 2000 to December 2012. On the basis of the literature, cancer patients experience between two-fold and 20-fold higher risk of developing VTE than noncancer patients. They are more likely to experience a VTE event during the first 3-6 months after cancer diagnosis. In addition, an increased risk of VTE in patients with distant metastases and certain types of cancer (i.e. pancreatic or lung) was revealed. VTE was found to be a leading cause of mortality in cancer patients. The annual average total cost for cancer patients with VTE was found to be almost 50% higher than that of cancer patients without VTE. Inpatient care costs accounted for more than 60% of total cost. The existing evidence assessed in the present review demonstrated the significant health and economic consequences of cancer-related VTE, which make a strong case for the importance of its proper and efficient prevention and management. PMID:25202884

  19. Exploring sub-optimal use of an electronic risk assessment tool for venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Baysari, Melissa T; Jackson, Nicola; Ramasamy, Sheena; Santiago, Priscila; Xiong, Juan; Westbrook, Johanna; Omari, Abdullah; Day, Richard O

    2016-07-01

    International guidelines and consensus groups recommend using a risk assessment tool (RAT) to assess Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) risk prior to the prescription of prophylaxis. We set out to examine how an electronic RAT was being used (i.e. if by the right clinician, at the right time, for the right purpose) and to identify factors influencing utilization of the RAT. A sample of 112 risk assessments was audited and 12 prescribers were interviewed. The RAT was used as intended in only 40 (35.7%) cases (i.e. completed by a doctor within 24 h of admission, prior to the prescription of prophylaxis). We identified several reasons for sub-optimal use of the RAT, including beliefs about the need for a RAT, poor awareness of the tool, and poor RAT design. If a user-centred approach had been adopted, it is likely that a RAT would not have been implemented or that problematic design issues would have been identified. PMID:26995037

  20. Socioeconomic and occupational risk factors for venous thromboembolism in Sweden: a nationwide epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-05-01

    Our aims were to investigate possible associations between hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and socioeconomic and occupational factors. A nationwide database was constructed by linking Swedish census data to the Hospital Discharge Register (1990-2007). Hospital diagnoses of VTE were based on the International Classification of Diseases. Standardised incidence ratios were calculated for different socioeconomic and occupational groups. A total of 43063 individuals aged >20 years were hospitalised for VTE. Individuals with >12 years of education were at lower risk for VTE. Blue-collar workers, farmers, and non-employed individuals had higher risks for VTE, and white collar workers and professionals lower risks. In males and/or females, risks for VTE were increased for assistant nurses; farmers; miners and quarry workers; mechanics, iron and metalware workers; wood workers; food manufacture workers; packers; loaders and warehouse workers; public safety and protection workers; cooks and stewards; home helpers; building caretakers; and cleaners. Decreased risks were observed for technical, chemical, physical, and biological workers; physicians; dentists; nurses; other health and medical workers; teachers, religious, juridical, and other social science-related workers; artistic workers; clerical workers; sale agents; and fishermen, whalers and sealers. High educational level and several occupations requiring high levels of education were protective against VTE, while the risks for VTE were increased for farmers, blue-collar workers and non-employed individuals. The mechanisms are unknown but it might involve persistent psychosocial stress related to low socioeconomic and occupational status. PMID:21868069

  1. Hypertension associated with venous thromboembolism in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuhui; Yang, Yuanhua; Chen, Wenhui; Liang, Lirong; Zhai, Zhenguo; Guo, Lijuan; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with lung cancer that might help estimate an individual's risk for VTE. A total of 632 unselected patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer were investigated for VTE within the three months prior to recruitment, and their major CVD risk factors were assessed at the baseline examination. Eighty-six of the 632 (13.6%) developed a VTE event. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, sex, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and white blood cell count, found that hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.3) and leukocytosis (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5-4.8) were significantly associated with VTE in different tumor histology models and that hypertension (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.4) and leukocytosis (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5-4.7) were also significantly associated with VTE in different tumor stage models. Leukocytosis was linearly associated with hypertension and VTE (P for trend = 0.006), and the ORs for VTE increased with leukocytosis (all P for trend <0.05). In conclusion, hypertension increased the risk of VTE in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer, which may be mediated by the presence of inflammation. PMID:26797411

  2. Sirolimus use and incidence of venous thromboembolism in cardiac transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Mishkin, Joseph D; Patel, Parag C; Kaiser, Patricia A; Ayers, Colby R; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Ring, W Steves; Peltz, Matthias; Drazner, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosuppressive agent increasingly used in cardiac transplant recipients in the setting of allograft vasculopathy or worsening renal function. Recently, sirolimus has been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in lung transplant recipients. To investigate whether this association is also present in cardiac transplant recipients, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 67 cardiac transplant recipients whose immunosuppressive regimen included sirolimus and 134 matched cardiac transplant recipients whose regimen did not include sirolimus. Rates of VTE were compared. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models tested the association of sirolimus use with VTE. A higher incidence of VTE was seen in patients treated with vs. without sirolimus (8/67 [12%] vs. 9/134 [7%], log-rank statistic: 4.66, p=0.03). Lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol levels were also associated with VTE (p<0.05). The association of sirolimus with VTE persisted when adjusting for BMI (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.96 [1.13, 7.75], p=0.03) but not when adjusting for total cholesterol (p=0.08). These data suggest that sirolimus is associated with an increased risk of VTE in cardiac transplant recipients, a risk possibly mediated through comorbid conditions. Larger, more conclusive studies are needed. Until such studies are completed, a heightened level of awareness for VTE in cardiac transplant recipients treated with sirolimus appears warranted. PMID:22775970

  3. Management of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the role of the new oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Wharin, Caitlin; Tagalakis, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Most clinical guidelines agree that low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are the preferred anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of VTE in cancer patients. However, LMWHs require daily injections, weight-adjustment of dose, and can be associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; all of which are important considerations in managing cancer-associated VTE. Comparatively, the new oral anticoagulants offer a more attractive option because of their oral administration, fixed-dose, and lack of routine laboratory monitoring. The results of phase III trials support the efficacy and safety of the new oral anticoagulants in the management of VTE. However, generalizing these findings to cancer patients with VTE is difficult since very few cancer patients were included. In this comprehensive review, we provide an overview of the current treatment of VTE, explore anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory cancer patients, and summarize existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of the new oral anticoagulants for the management of VTE in both non-cancer and cancer populations. PMID:24360911

  4. Pharmacologic Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Critical Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite the frequency and morbidity of venous thromboembolism (VTE) development after traumatic brain injury (TBI), no national standard of care exists to guide TBI caregivers for the use of prophylactic anticoagulation. Fears of iatrogenic propagation of intracranial hemorrhage patterns have led to a dearth of research in this field, and it is only relatively recently that studies dedicated to this question have been performed. These have generally been limited to retrospective and/or observational studies in which patients are classified in a binary fashion as having the presence or absence of intracranial blood. This methodology does not account for the fact that smaller injury patterns stabilize more rapidly, and thus may be able to safely tolerate earlier initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation than larger injury patterns. This review seeks to critically assess the literature on this question by examining the existing evidence on the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis in the setting of elective craniotomy (as this is the closest model available from which to extrapolate) and after TBI. In doing so, we critique studies that approach TBI as a homogenous or a heterogenous study population. Finally, we propose our own theoretical protocol which stratifies patients into low, moderate, and high risk for the likelihood of natural progression of their hemorrhage pattern, and which allows one to tailor a unique VTE prophylaxis regimen to each individual arm. PMID:22651698

  5. Evidence-based guidance on venous thromboembolism in patients with solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Shea–Budgell, M.A.; Wu, C.M.J.; Easaw, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (vte) is a serious, life-threatening complication of cancer. Anticoagulation therapy such as low molecular weight heparin (lmwh) has been shown to treat and prevent vte. Cancer therapy is often complex and ongoing, making the management of vte less straightforward in patients with cancer. There are no published Canadian guidelines available to suggest appropriate strategies for the management of vte in patients with solid tumours. We therefore aimed to develop a clear, evidence-based guideline on this topic. A systematic review of clinical trials and meta-analyses published between 2002 and 2013 in PubMed was conducted. Reference lists were hand-searched for additional publications. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse was searched for relevant guidelines. Recommendations were developed based on the best available evidence. In patients with solid tumours, lmwh is recommended for those with established vte and for those without established vte but with a high risk for developing vte. Options for lmwh include dalteparin, enoxaparin, and tinzaparin. No one agent can be recommended over another, but in the setting of renal insufficiency, tinzaparin is preferred. Unfractionated heparin can be used under select circumstances only (that is, when rapid clearance of the anticoagulant is desired). The most common adverse event is bleeding, but major events are rare, and with appropriate follow-up care, bleeding can be monitored and appropriately managed. PMID:24940110

  6. Primary prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolic events in patients with gastrointestinal cancers - Review

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Hanno; Habbel, Piet; Jühling, Anja; Sinn, Marianne; Pelzer, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism event (VTE) is a common and morbid complication in cancer patients. Patients with gastrointestinal cancers often suffer from symptomatic or incidental splanchnic vein thrombosis, impaired liver function and/or thrombocytopenia. These characteristics require a thorough risk/benefit evaluation for individual patients. Considering the risk factors for the development of VTE and bleeding events in addition to recent study results may be helpful for correct initiation of primary pharmacological prevention and treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), preferably with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). Whereas thromboprophylaxis is most often recommended in hospitalized surgical and non-surgical patients with malignancy, there is less agreement as to its duration. With regard to ambulatory cancer patients, the lack of robust data results in low grade recommendations against routine use of anticoagulant drugs. Anticoagulation with LMWH for the first months is the evidence-based treatment for acute CAT, but duration of secondary prevention and the drug of choice are unclear. Based on published guidelines and literature, this review will focus on prevention and treatment strategies of VTE in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:26989461

  7. COPD disease severity and the risk of venous thromboembolic events: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Ann D; Herrett, Emily; De Stavola, Bianca L; Smeeth, Liam; Quint, Jennifer K

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of vascular disease, including venous thromboembolism (VTE). While it is plausible that the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events is greater still in certain subgroups of patients with COPD, such as those with more severe airflow limitation or more frequent exacerbations, these associations, in particular those between venous events and COPD severity or exacerbation frequency, remain largely untested in large population cohorts. Methods A total of 3,594 patients with COPD with a first VTE event recorded during January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, were identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink dataset and matched on age, sex, and general practitioner practice (1:3) to patients with COPD with no history of VTE (n=10,782). COPD severity was staged by degree of airflow limitation (ie, GOLD stage) and by COPD medication history. Frequent exacerbators were defined as patients with COPD with ≥ 2 exacerbations in the 12-month period prior to their VTE event (for cases) or their selection as a control (for controls). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between disease severity or exacerbation frequency and VTE. Results After additional adjustment for nonmatching confounders, including body mass index, smoking, and heart-related comorbidities, there was evidence for an association between increased disease severity and VTE when severity was measured either in terms of lung function impairment (odds ratio [OR]moderate:mild =1.16; 95% confidence intervals [CIs] =1.03, 1.32) or medication usage (ORsevere:mild/moderate =1.17; 95% CIs =1.06, 1.26). However, there was no evidence to suggest that frequent exacerbators were at greater risk of VTE compared with infrequent exacerbators (OR =1.06; 95% CIs =0.97, 1.15). Conclusion COPD severity defined by airflow limitation or medication usage, but not

  8. The New Oral Anticoagulants for the Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism: A New Paradigm Shift in Antithrombotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Taki; Keiffer, Gina; Merli, Geno

    2014-01-01

    Background Several novel oral anticoagulants have been studied for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in different patient populations. Clinicians will increasingly encounter scenarios in which they must choose among these and conventional anticoagulants for the treatment of this potentially fatal condition. Objective To review the results of Phase III clinical trials that investigated the novel oral anticoagulants for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Potential advantages and disadvantages of these anticoagulant agents with respect to each other and conventional therapy will also be explored through a case-based approach. Methods A literature search in PubMed was conducted that identified Phase III clinical trials investigating the novel oral anticoagulant agents for the treatment of VTE. Results The new oral anticoagulant agents have been shown to be as safe and effective for the treatment of VTE as conventional therapies. Conclusions These novel, oral anticoagulant agents are legitimate options for the treatment of VTE. A careful assessment of a patient׳s comorbidities, medication use, and laboratory results should be undertaken before prescribing the new oral anticoagulant agents for patients with VTE. PMID:25352938

  9. Pros and cons of new oral anticoagulants in the treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Verso, Melina; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Prandoni, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Patients with cancer account for 20 % of cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Cancer patients are at increased risk for VTE during the entire course of their disease, also in absence of traditional VTE risk factors. Furthermore, patients with VTE and cancer have an estimated risk of bleeding of 15-20 % per year while on anticoagulant treatment. For these reasons, treatment of acute VTE in patients with cancer remains a clinical challenge. In clinical studies, which included about 27,000 patients, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been shown to be as effective and safe as conventional anticoagulation (heparin given with and followed by vitamin K antagonists) for the treatment of VTE. In these studies, 1227 patients with active cancer were enrolled. Preliminary results of subgroup analyses and meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials suggest that NOACs could represent an alternative to conventional anticoagulation in patients with active cancer. Further "ad hoc" studies evaluating the clinical benefit of treatment with NOACs in patients with VTE and cancer are needed. PMID:25840679

  10. D-Dimer and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in urine and plasma in patients with clinically suspected venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Wexels, Fredrik; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Pripp, Are H; Dahl, Ola E

    2016-06-01

    Increased levels of urine prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 was recently reported to be associated with imaging-verified venous thromboembolism. In this study we evaluated the relationship between plasma D-dimer and plasma and urine prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in patients with suspected venous thromboembolism. Urine and blood samples were collected from patients with suspected pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis. The samples were analysed with commercially available ELISA kits. The diagnosis of venous thromboembolism was verified with contrast-enhanced computer tomography of the pulmonary arteries or lower extremity deep vein compression ultrasound and venography as appropriate. Venous thromboembolism was diagnosed in 150 of 720 patients. Significantly higher levels of plasma D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in plasma and urine were found in those with imaging-confirmed venous thromboembolism versus those without (P < 0.001). The correlation between the three biomarkers was statistically significant (range of rs values 0.45-0.65, P < 0.001). Plasma D-dimer had the highest diagnostic accuracy followed by prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in plasma. Further development of ELISA analyses for urine testing of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 may improve its diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26595215

  11. How to avoid venous thromboembolism in women at increased risk--with special focus on low-risk periods.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Pelle G; von Känel, Roland

    2015-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of mortality during Western women's fertile life. Although half of thromboembolic events occur during times of low-risk situations, almost all our knowledge is focused on medical thromboprophylaxis during high-risk situations. Thus, since we only use medical thromboprophylaxis at high-risk periods, lifestyle advice could be an attractive complement both during high- and low-risk situations. The knowledge of how lifestyle factors affect VTE risk has grown in recent years, and women at high risk are often highly motivated to make changes in order to reduce their risk. This review is focused on modifiable risk factors for VTE and advice that may be given to women at increased risk of VTE. PMID:26117664

  12. Is There an Association between Component Separation and Venous Thromboembolism? Analysis of the NSQIP

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kuylhee; Mella, Juan Rodolfo; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Koolen, Pieter G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing incisional/ventral hernia repair are at risk of developing several postoperative complications particularly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing incisional/ventral hernia repair and to determine the association between component separation and VTE. Methods: We reviewed the 2005–2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases to identify patients undergoing incisional/ventral hernia repair. Preoperative variables and postoperative outcomes were compared between a component separation group and a non–component separation group. The χ2 tests and Fisher’s exact test were used for categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine preoperative predictors for complications in both groups. Results: Thirty-four thousand five hundred forty-one patients were included in our study; 501 patients underwent a component separation procedure. A higher rate of wound complications, minor/major morbidity, mortality, and return to the operating room occurred in the component separation group. However, there was no statistically significant difference in deep vein thrombosis/thrombophlebitis and pulmonary embolism rates between the 2 groups (P = 0.780 and P = 0.591, respectively). Several risk factors were significantly associated with postoperative complications in both groups. Conclusions: Component separation is used for large and complex incisional/ventral hernia repairs to achieve tension-free midline closure. Although component separation hernia repair is associated with higher incidence of wound complication, morbidity, and mortality, perhaps because of the complexity of the defects, it does not seem to be associated with increased VTE rates. PMID:26180730

  13. Defining venous thromboembolism and measuring its incidence using Swedish health registries: a nationwide pregnancy cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Sultan, Alyshah; West, Joe; Stephansson, Olof; Grainge, Matthew J; Tata, Laila J; Fleming, Kate M; Humes, David; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2015-01-01

    Objective To accurately define venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the routinely collected Swedish health registers and quantify its incidence in and around pregnancy. Study design Cohort study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (MBR) linked to the National Patient Registry (NPR) and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (PDR). Setting Secondary care centres, Sweden. Participant 509 198 women aged 15–44 years who had one or more pregnancies resulting in a live birth or stillbirth between 2005 and 2011. Main outcome measure To estimate the incidence rate (IR) of VTE in and around pregnancy using various VTE definitions allowing direct comparison with other countries. Results The rate of VTE varied based on the VTE definition. We found that 43% of cases first recorded as outpatient were not accompanied by anticoagulant prescriptions, whereas this proportion was much lower than those cases first recorded in the inpatient register (9%). Using our most inclusive VTE definition, we observed higher rates of VTE compared with previously published data using similar methodology. These reduced by 31% (IR=142/100 000 person-years; 95% CI 132 to 153) and 22% (IR=331/100 000 person-years; 95% CI 304 to 361) during the antepartum and postpartum periods, respectively, using a restrictive VTE definition that required anticoagulant prescriptions associated with diagnosis, which were more in line with the existing literature. Conclusions We found that including VTE codes without treatment confirmation risks the inclusion of false-positive cases. When defining VTE using the NPR, anticoagulant prescription information should therefore be considered particularly for cases recorded in an outpatient setting. PMID:26560059

  14. Trends in venous thromboembolism among pregnancy-related hospitalizations, United States, 1994-2009

    PubMed Central

    Ghaji, Nafisa; Boulet, Sheree L.; Tepper, Naomi; Hooper, William C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate national trends in the rate of pregnancy-related hospitalizations for venous thromboembolism (VTE) from 1994-2009 and to estimate the prevalence of comorbid conditions among these hospitalizations. STUDY DESIGN An estimated 64,413,973 pregnancy-related hospitalizations among women 15-44 years old were identified in the 1994-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Trends in VTE-associated pregnancy hospitalizations were evaluated with the use of variance-weighted least squares regression. Chi-square tests were used to assess changes in prevalence of demographics and comorbid conditions, and multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the likelihood of VTE during the study period after adjustment for comorbid conditions. Antepartum, delivery, and postpartum hospitalizations were evaluated separately and reported in 4-year increments. RESULTS From 1994-2009, there was a 14% increase in the rate of overall VTE-associated pregnancy hospitalizations; antepartum and postpartum hospitalizations with VTE increased by 17% and 47%, respectively. Between 1994-1997 and 2006-2009, the prevalence of hypertension and obesity doubled among all VTE-associated pregnancy hospitalizations; significant increases in diabetes mellitus and heart disease were also noted. A temporal increase in the likelihood of a VTE diagnosis in pregnancy was observed for antepartum hospitalizations from 2006-2009 when compared with 1994-1997 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.48–1.78). CONCLUSION There has been an upward trend in VTE-associated pregnancy hospitalizations from 1994-2009 with concomitant increases in comorbid conditions. Clinicians should have a heightened awareness of the risk of VTE among pregnant women, particularly among those with comorbid conditions, and should have a low threshold for evaluation in women with symptoms or signs of VTE. PMID:23810274

  15. Patient Preferences for Receiving Education on Venous Thromboembolism Prevention – A Survey of Stakeholder Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Shihab, Hasan M.; Farrow, Norma E.; Shaffer, Dauryne L.; Hobson, Deborah B.; Kulik, Susan V.; Zaruba, Paul D.; Shermock, Kenneth M.; Kraus, Peggy S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Streiff, Michael B.; Haut, Elliott R.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients and is largely preventable. Strategies to decrease the burden of VTE have focused on improving clinicians’ prescribing of prophylaxis with relatively less emphasis on patient education. Objective To develop a patient-centered approach to education of patients and their families on VTE: including importance, risk factors, and benefit/harm of VTE prophylaxis in hospital settings. Design, Setting and Participants The objective of this study was to develop a patient-centered approach to education of patients and their families on VTE: including importance, risk factors, and benefit/harm of VTE prophylaxis in hospital settings. We implemented a three-phase, web-based survey (SurveyMonkey) between March 2014 and September 2014 and analyzed survey data using descriptive statistics. Four hundred twenty one members of several national stakeholder organizations and a single local patient and family advisory board were invited to participate via email. We assessed participants’ preferences for VTE education topics and methods of delivery. Participants wanted to learn about VTE symptoms, risk factors, prevention, and complications in a context that emphasized harm. Although participants were willing to learn using a variety of methods, most preferred to receive education in the context of a doctor-patient encounter. The next most common preferences were for video and paper educational materials. Conclusions Patients want to learn about the harm associated with VTE through a variety of methods. Efforts to improve VTE prophylaxis and decrease preventable harm from VTE should target the entire continuum of care and a variety of stakeholders including patients and their families. PMID:27031330

  16. Management of Venous Thromboembolisms: Part I. The Consensus for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kang-Ling; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Han; Pai, Pei-Ying; Lin, Pao-Yen; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chiu, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Chien-Lung; Lee, Chung-Yi; Lin, Yen-Hung; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Yeh, Hung-I; Chiang, Chern-En; Lin, Shing-Jong; Yeh, San-Jou

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a potentially catastrophic condition because thrombosis, left untreated, can result in detrimental pulmonary embolism. Yet in the absence of thrombosis, anticoagulation increases the risk of bleeding. In the existing literature, knowledge about the epidemiology of DVT is primarily based on investigations among Caucasian populations. There has been little information available about the epidemiology of DVT in Taiwan, and it is generally believed that DVT is less common in Asian patients than in Caucasian patients. However, DVT is a multifactorial disease that represents the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, and the majority of patients with incident DVT have either inherited thrombophilia or acquired risk factors. Furthermore, DVT is often overlooked. Although symptomatic DVT commonly presents with lower extremity pain, swelling and tenderness, diagnosing DVT is a clinical challenge for physicians. Such a diagnosis of DVT requires a timely systematic assessment, including the use of the Wells score and a D-dimer test to exclude low-risk patients, and imaging modalities to confirm DVT. Compression ultrasound with high sensitivity and specificity is the front-line imaging modality in the diagnostic process for patients with suspected DVT in addition to conventional invasive contrast venography. Most patients require anticoagulation therapy, which typically consists of parenteral heparin bridged to a vitamin K antagonist, with variable duration. The development of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants has revolutionized the landscape of venous thromboembolism treatment, with 4 agents available,including rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban. Presently, all 4 drugs have finished their large phase III clinical trial programs and come to the clinical uses in North America and Europe. It is encouraging to note that the published data to date regarding Asian patients indicates that such new therapies are safe and

  17. Prospective study of diet and venous thromboembolism in US women and men.

    PubMed

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Kabrhel, Christopher; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Rimm, Eric B; Camargo, Carlos A

    2012-01-15

    The authors investigated diet as a risk factor for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among 129,430 US women and men in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. There were 2,892 cases of VTE from 1984 through 2008. Information on participants' dietary intakes was collected every 2-4 years using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns (prudent vs. Western), food intakes (fruit, vegetables, fish, red and processed meats, and alcohol), and nutrient intakes (omega-3 fatty acids, trans fatty acids, total fiber, and vitamins K(1), B(6), B(12), and E) were categorized into quintiles, and the risk of VTE was compared among quintiles with the use of Cox proportional hazard models. After adjusting the results for 17 potential confounders, the authors found that adherence to the Western dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of VTE in men (for the highest quintile vs. the lowest, relative risk = 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.78; P for trend < 0.001) but not in women (relative risk = 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.42; P for trend = 0.09). Favorable associations were found in the pooled analysis for intakes of vitamins E and B(6) and fiber. For intakes of red and processed meat and trans fatty acids, no association was found in women, whereas a significant positive association was found in men. These results suggest a weak association between diet and the risk of VTE. PMID:22180874

  18. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients. PMID:27253153

  19. The geko™ electro-stimulation device for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: a NICE medical technology guidance.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jennifer A; Clinch, James; Radhakrishnan, Muralikrishnan; Healy, Andy; McMillan, Viktoria; Morris, Elizabeth; Rua, Tiago; Ofuya, Mercy; Wang, Yanzhong; Dimmock, Paul W; Lewis, Cornelius; Peacock, Janet L; Keevil, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    The geko™ device is a single-use, battery-powered, neuromuscular electrostimulation device that aims to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) selected the geko™ device for evaluation, and invited the manufacturer, Firstkind Ltd, to submit clinical and economic evidence. King's Technology Evaluation Centre, an External Assessment Centre (EAC) commissioned by the NICE, independently assessed the evidence submitted. The sponsor submitted evidence related to the geko™ device and, in addition, included studies of other related devices as further clinical evidence to support a link between increased blood flow and VTE prophylaxis. The EAC assessed this evidence, conducted its own systematic review and concluded that there is currently limited direct evidence that geko™ prevents VTE. The sponsor's cost model is based on the assumption that patients with an underlying VTE risk and subsequently treated with geko™ will experience a reduction in their baseline risk. The EAC assessed this cost model but questioned the validity of some model assumptions. Using the EACs revised cost model, the cost savings for geko™ prophylaxis against a 'no prophylaxis' strategy were estimated as £197 per patient. Following a second public consultation, taking into account a change in the original draft recommendations, the NICE medical technologies guidance MTG19 was issued in June 2014. This recommended the adoption of the geko™ for use in people with a high risk of VTE and when other mechanical/pharmacological methods of prophylaxis are impractical or contraindicated in selected patients within the National Health Service in England. PMID:25403719

  20. Safety of apixaban for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: the evidence to date

    PubMed Central

    Trkulja, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Apixaban, a direct orally active anticoagulant (selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor) is approved for (primary) prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing elective total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty, for acute treatment/prevention of recurrent events in patients with VTE, and extended prophylaxis in patients with a history of VTE. Another approved use is prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The present overview focuses on the safety of apixaban specifically in the VTE setting. Apixaban displays favorable pharmacokinetic properties: simple twice-daily dosing, low inter- and intrasubject variability, dose and time linearity, and multiple elimination pathways not critically dependent on either renal or metabolic mechanisms. An extensive nonclinical program and the overall clinical development program (all approved and tested indications) provided no signal that would indicate any particular specific safety concern related to apixaban apart from the increased risk of bleeding. With regard to the approved VTE indications, safety (and efficacy) was assessed in five large pivotal Phase III trials. In comparison to currently recommended standard treatments, apixaban shows superior efficacy, while at the same time no excess risk of bleeding in patients undergoing total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty. In treatment of VTE, apixaban shows noninferior efficacy and a reduced risk of bleeding, whereas in extended prophylaxis it reduced the risk of VTE/VTE-related deaths, with no increased risk of relevant bleedings in comparison to placebo. Documented clinical experience with apixaban in daily practice is currently sparse. However, its use is progressively increasing, and there has been no signal so far that would materially change the perception of its safety profile as defined in the premarketing trials. PMID:26937206

  1. Appropriate Enoxaparin Dose for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Patients with Extreme Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shelkrot, Max; Miraka, Jonida

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the appropriate dose of enoxaparin for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in patients with extreme obesity. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE (1950-April 2013) to analyze all English-language articles that evaluated incidence of VTE and/or anti-Xa levels with enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in patients with extreme obesity. Results: Eight studies were included in the analysis. Six of the studies were done in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mean body mass index ranged from 44.9 to 63.4 kg/m2 within studies. Studies done with bariatric surgery patients utilized doses of enoxaparin that ranged from the standard dose of 30 mg subcutaneous (SQ) every 12 hours to 60 mg SQ every 12 hours. Other studies evaluated doses ranging from 40 mg SQ every 24 hours to 0.5 mg/kg/day. Only 3 studies evaluated the incidence of VTE as the primary endpoint; the other studies evaluated anti-Xa levels. The studies showed that appropriate anti-Xa levels were achieved more often with higher than standard doses of enoxaparin. One study showed that enoxaparin 40 mg SQ every 12 hours decreased the incidence of VTE in patients undergoing bariatric surgery compared to standard doses. Overall risk of bleeding was similar between study groups. Conclusions: Higher than standard doses of enoxaparin may be needed for patients with extreme obesity. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery may benefit from enoxaparin 40 mg SQ every 12 hours. Additional large randomized, controlled trials are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of higher than standard doses of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis in patients with extreme obesity. PMID:25477599

  2. Biomarkers predictive of venous thromboembolism in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Johannes; Ay, Cihan; Kaider, Alexandra; Reitter, Eva-Maria; Haselböck, Johanna; Mannhalter, Christine; Zielinski, Christoph; Marosi, Christine; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are among the most prothrombotic of malignancies. Methods We performed a prospective study to investigate 11 potential biomarkers for prediction of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in newly diagnosed HGG patients who had undergone a neurosurgical intervention. In addition, we tested 2 VTE risk assessment models (RAMs). The strongest predictors of VTE, which were identified by statistical forward selection, were used for the first RAM. The parameters used for the second RAM were both predictive of VTE and available in routine clinical practice. Results One hundred forty-one HGG patients were included in this study, and 24 (17%) of them developed VTE during follow-up. An association with the risk of future VTE was found for the following parameters: leukocyte count, platelet count, sP-selectin, prothrombin-fragment 1 + 2, FVIII activity, and D-dimer. The first RAM included low platelet count (<25th percentile of the study population) and elevated sP-selectin (≥75th percentile). The cumulative VTE probability after 12 months was 9.7% for score 0 (n = 76), 18.9% for score 1 (n = 59), and 83.3% for score 2 (n = 6). The second RAM included low platelet count (<25th percentile), elevated leukocyte count, and elevated D-dimer (≥75th percentile). The probability of VTE was 3.3% for score 0 (n = 63), 23.0% for score 1 (n = 53), and 37.7% for score 2 (n = 22) or score 3 (n = 3). Conclusions We identified biomarkers suitable for assessing the VTE risk in newly diagnosed HGG patients. The application of 2 RAMs allowed identification of patients at high risk of developing VTE. We could also define patients at low risk of VTE, who would most probably not benefit from extended primary thromboprophylaxis. PMID:24987133

  3. Assessment of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Neurological Patients with Restricted Mobility – VTE-NEURO Study

    PubMed Central

    BAJENARU, Ovidiu; ANTOCHI, Florina; BALASA, Rodica; BURAGA, Ioan; PATRICHI, Sanda; SIMU, Mihaela; SZABOLCS, Szatmari; TIU, Cristina; ZAHARIA, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the data of a medical registry which evaluated if the physicians assess VTE risk in stroke patients, during hospitalization period and at hospital discharge and if the thromboprophylaxis is used according to National Guidelines for VTE Prophylaxis. 884 patients with acute ischemic stroke patients were enrolled between June 2010 and December 2011, from 62 centers, 51.4% male and 48.6% female with mean age 70.07 years (68.25 years in the male group and 71.92 years in the female one). There were two co-primary endpoints: the percentage of patients at risk for VTE at hospital admission assessed by the physician, and the percentage of patients with risk factors for VTE that persist at hospital discharge from the total number of patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke. The secondary endpoints were: the percentage of hospitalized patients receiving prophylaxis according to the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis from the total number of patients at risk of VTE, the percentage of hospitalized patients with VTE risk receiving recommendation for thromboprophylaxis at discharge, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized patients, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis at discharge. Results: 879 (99.4%) of the total number of patients at risk of VTE have received prophylaxis during hospitalization. The most frequently types of prophylaxis used during hospitalisation were LMWH in 96.3% of the patients and mechanic method in 16.6% that were in accordance with the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis recommendations. Conclusions: There is a clear improvement in both assessment and thromprophylaxis recommendation in acute stroke patients with restricted mobility at VTE risk and in our country. LMWH is preferred to unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in this high-risk patient population in view of its better clinical benefits to risk ratio and convenience of once daily administration. PMID:25553119

  4. Anticoagulation Management Practices and Outcomes in Elderly Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism: A Clinical Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Insam, Charlène; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Aschwanden, Markus; Banyai, Martin; Beer, Juerg- Hans; Bounameaux, Henri; Egloff, Michael; Frauchiger, Beat; Husmann, Marc; Kucher, Nils; Lämmle, Bernhard; Matter, Christian; Osterwalder, Joseph; Righini, Marc; Staub, Daniel; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Whether anticoagulation management practices are associated with improved outcomes in elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. Thus, we aimed to examine whether practices recommended by the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines are associated with outcomes in elderly patients with VTE. We studied 991 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE in a Swiss prospective multicenter cohort study and assessed the adherence to four management practices: parenteral anticoagulation ≥5 days, INR ≥2.0 for ≥24 hours before stopping parenteral anticoagulation, early start with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) ≤24 hours of VTE diagnosis, and the use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux. The outcomes were all-cause mortality, VTE recurrence, and major bleeding at 6 months, and the length of hospital stay (LOS). We used Cox regression and lognormal survival models, adjusting for patient characteristics. Overall, 9% of patients died, 3% had VTE recurrence, and 7% major bleeding. Early start with VKA was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.20–0.71). Early start with VKA (adjusted time ratio [TR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.86) and use of LMWH/fondaparinux (adjusted TR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78–0.97) were associated with a shorter LOS. An INR ≥2.0 for ≥24 hours before stopping parenteral anticoagulants was associated with a longer LOS (adjusted TR 1.2, 95% CI 1.08–1.33). In elderly patients with VTE, the adherence to recommended anticoagulation management practices showed mixed results. In conclusion, only early start with VKA and use of parenteral LMWH/fondaparinux were associated with better outcomes. PMID:26906217

  5. Evaluation of hospital nurses' perceived knowledge and practices of venous thromboembolism assessment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Grochow, Donna; Drake, Diane; Johnson, Linda; Reed, Preston; van Servellen, Gwen

    2014-03-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a preventable cause of hospital death. Bedside registered nurses (RNs) are a key group that can be the first to recognize risks of patients in acute care settings. The purpose of this study was to identify bedside hospital RNs' perceived knowledge of VTE, their assessment practices, their self-efficacy in conducting VTE prevention care, and their perceived barriers to performing VTE risk assessment. An anonymous web-based survey on VTE risk assessment and prevention was conducted with RNs who provided direct patient care at two hospitals. RNs who were not directly involved in bedside patient care such as managers and educators were excluded. A total of 221 RNs completed the survey. Most participants rated their overall knowledge of VTE risk assessment between "good" (44%) and "fair" (28%). VTE assessment frequencies performed by participants varied widely. Participants reported high confidence in their ability to educate patients and families about VTE symptoms, prevention, and treatments. Participants were least confident in their own ability to conduct a thorough VTE risk assessment. Greater self-reported VTE knowledge was associated with greater VTE assessment frequency and self-efficacy for VTE preventive care. The most common perceived barriers in performing VTE risk assessment were lack of knowledge (21%) and lack of time (21%). The findings demonstrate a substantial need for focused education about VTE prevention for hospital nurses and support for hospital systems to monitor VTE care. Despite the Joint Commission emphasis on VTE risk assessment in all hospitalized patients, there remains a gap between current, evidence-based recommendations for VTE prevention and reported nursing practices. PMID:24534084

  6. Thrombomodulin gene c.1418C>T polymorphism and risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Abrar; Sundquist, Kristina; Zöller, Bengt; Svensson, Peter J; Sundquist, Jan; Memon, Ashfaque A

    2016-07-01

    Thrombomodulin gene (THBD) is a critical cofactor in protein C anticoagulant system. THBD c.1418C>T polymorphism is reported to be associated with higher risk of primary venous thromboembolism (VTE) but its role in VTE recurrence is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of THBD polymorphism in VTE recurrence. THBD c.1418C>T polymorphism was genotyped by using Taqman polymerase chain reaction in a prospective population based study of 1465 consecutive objectively verified VTE patients. Uni- and multivariate Cox regression were performed for the risk assessment of VTE recurrence. Patients who had VTE before inclusion or had recurrence or died during anticoagulant treatment were excluded. Among the remaining (N = 1046) patients, 126 (12.05 %) had VTE recurrence during the follow up period (from 1998 to 2008). THBD polymorphism was not significantly associated with risk of VTE recurrence in the univariate [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.11, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.59, p = 0.55] as well as the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex and thrombophilia (HR 1.11, 95 % CI 0.78-1.59, p = 0.54). Similarly, in unprovoked first VTE (n = 614), no association was observed between THBD polymorphism and risk of VTE recurrence (HR 1.22 and 95 % CI 0.78-1.89, p = 0.38). In this prospective study, our results do not suggest a predictive role for THBD c.1418C>T polymorphism in VTE recurrence. PMID:26743062

  7. Differential co-expression analysis of venous thromboembolism based on gene expression profile data

    PubMed Central

    MING, ZHIBING; DING, WENBIN; YUAN, RUIFAN; JIN, JIE; LI, XIAOQIANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen differentially co-expressed genes and the involved transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in venous thromboembolism (VTE). Microarray data of GSE19151 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 70 patients with VTE and 63 healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using R software. Differential co-expression analysis was performed using R, followed by screening of modules using Cytoscape. Functional annotation was performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. Moreover, Fisher test was used to screen key TFs and miRNAs for the modules. PCA revealed the disease and healthy samples could not be distinguished at the gene expression level. A total of 4,796 upregulated differentially co-expressed genes (e.g. zinc finger protein 264, electron-transfer-flavoprotein, beta polypeptide and Janus kinase 2) and 3,629 downregulated differentially co-expressed genes (e.g. adenylate cyclase 7 and single-stranded DNA binding protein 2) were identified, which were further mined to obtain 17 and eight modules separately. Functional annotation revealed that the largest upregulated module was primarily associated with acetylation and the largest downregulated module was mainly involved in mitochondrion. Moreover, 48 TFs and 62 miRNA families were screened for the 17 upregulated modules, such as E2F transcription factor 4, miR-30 and miR-135 regulating the largest module. Conversely, 35 TFs and 18 miRNA families were identified for the 8 downregulated modules, including mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12 and miR-23 regulating the largest module. Differentially co-expressed genes regulated by TFs and miRNAs may jointly contribute to the abnormal acetylation and mitochondrion presentation in the progression of VTE. PMID:27284300

  8. Prospective Study on the Incidence of Postoperative Venous Thromboembolism in Korean Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunyoung; Kang, Sung-Bum; Choi, Sang Il; Chun, Eun Ju; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Duck-Woo; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Ihn, Myong Hoon; Kim, Jin Won; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Keun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is routinely recommended for Western cancer patients undergoing major surgery for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, it is uncertainwhetherroutine administration of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is necessary in all Asian surgical cancer patients. This prospective study was conducted to examine the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative VTE in Korean colorectal cancer (CRC) patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods This study comprised two cohorts, and none of patients received perioperative pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. In cohort A (n=400), patients were routinely screened for VTE using lower-extremity Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) on postoperative days 5-14. In cohort B (n=148), routine DUS was not performed, and imaging was only performed when there were symptoms or signs that were suspicious for VTE. The primary endpoint was the VTE incidence at 4 weeks postoperatively in cohort A. Results The postoperative incidence of VTE was 3.0% (n=12) in cohort A. Among the 12 patients, eight had distal calf vein thromboses and one had symptomatic thrombosis. Age ≥ 70 years (odds ratio [OR], 5.61), ≥ 2 comorbidities (OR, 13.42), and white blood cell counts of > 10,000/μL (OR, 17.43) were independent risk factors for postoperative VTE (p < 0.05). In cohort B, there was one case of VTE (0.7%). Conclusion The postoperative incidence of VTE, which included asymptomatic cases, was 3.0% in Korean CRC patients who did not receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. Perioperative pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis should be administered to Asian CRC patients on a risk-stratified basis. PMID:26582397

  9. Association of platelet activation markers with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Julia; Hell, Lena; Kaider, Alexandra; Koder, Silvia; Marosi, Christine; Zielinski, Christoph; Panzer, Simon; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication in cancer patients. Platelet activation is thought to be involved in cancer-associated VTE. Here, we determined the association between evolving markers of platelet activation (soluble P-selectin [sP-selectin], soluble CD40 ligand [sCD40L], thrombospondin-1 [TSP-1] and platelet factor-4 [PF-4]) and the development of cancer-associated VTE. A nested matched case-control study was applied within a cohort of 1779 patients with different types of cancer that had been included in the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS), a prospective, observational study on patients with newly diagnosed or progressive cancer after remission. Primary endpoint is symptomatic VTE during a maximum follow-up of 2 years. Cases (patients who developed VTE during follow-up) were matched in a 1:2 ratio to controls without VTE during follow-up with respect to tumor type, stage and time of observation in the study. In total, 131 VTE cases were compared to 262 controls. In logistic regression analysis, only sP-selectin was associated with risk of VTE. The odds ratios (OR) per double increase of sP-selectin, sCD40L, TSP-1 and PF-4 were 1.66 (95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.35, p = 0.005), 1.04 (0.89-1.21, p = 0.635), 1.09 (0.90-1.32, p = 0.360) and 1.03 (0.87-1.21, p = 0.737), respectively. In conclusion, sP-selectin, but not sCD40L, TSP-1 or PF-4 were associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients in this nested case-control study. PMID:25970326

  10. Menstrual Cycle Control in Female Astronauts and the Associated Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Varsha; Wotring, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and serious condition affecting approximately 1-2 per 1000 people in the USA every year. There have been no documented case reports of VTE in female astronauts during spaceflight in the published literature. Some female astronauts use hormonal contraception to control their menstrual cycles and it is currently unknown how this affects their risk of VTE. Current terrestrial risk prediction models do not account for the spaceflight environment and the physiological changes associated with it. We therefore aim to estimate a specific risk score for female astronauts who are taking hormonal contraception for menstrual cycle control, to deduce whether they are at an elevated risk of VTE. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in order to identify and quantify known terrestrial risk factors for VTE. Studies involving analogues for the female astronaut population were also reviewed, for example, military personnel who use the oral contraceptive pill for menstrual suppression. Well known terrestrial risk factors, for example, obesity or smoking would not be applicable to our study population as these candidates would have been excluded during astronaut selection processes. Other risk factors for VTE include hormonal therapy, lower limb paralysis, physical inactivity, hyperhomocysteinemia, low methylfolate levels and minor injuries, all of which potentially apply to crew members LSAH data will be assessed to identify which of these risk factors are applicable to our astronaut population. Using known terrestrial risk data, an overall estimated risk of VTE for female astronauts using menstrual cycle control methods will therefore be calculated. We predict this will be higher than the general population but not significantly higher requiring thromboprophylaxis. This study attempts to delineate what is assumed to be true of our astronaut population, for example, they are known to be a healthy fit cohort of individuals, and