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1

Adolescents' perceptions of Canadian cigarette package warning labels: investigating the effects of message framing.  

PubMed

This study investigates gain-framed and loss-framed messages on graphic cigarette warning labels and their effects on adolescents' smoking-related attitudes and behaviors. Canadian cigarette warning labels emphasizing health consequences of smoking (loss-framed) were digitally manipulated into gain-framed versions. High school students (N = 210) completed a questionnaire measuring attitudes, perceptions of the warnings, and behavioral intentions. The study used a posttest-only comparison group design with random assignment. The independent variable was message framing (loss-framed, gain-framed avoidance, gain-framed benefits), and the dependent variables were (a) attitudes toward the warning, (b) attitudes toward smoking, (c) effectiveness in reducing smoking levels, (d) intentions to smoke, (e) effectiveness in improving one's ability to quit, and (f) effectiveness in increasing the likelihood of a smoker quitting. Results indicate that adolescents had more favorable attitudes toward the loss-framed warnings and perceived them as more effective than the gain-framed warnings. Further, smokers exposed to the loss-framed version featuring decaying teeth had significantly lower intentions to smoke in the future. Loss-framed warning labels appear to have a positive influence on adolescents' smoking-related attitudes and behavioral intentions. PMID:18443999

Goodall, Catherine; Appiah, Osei

2008-01-01

2

Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels: examining the impact of graphics, message framing, and temporal framing.  

PubMed

This study examines the effectiveness of cigarette warning labels, with a specific focus on the impact of graphics, message framing (gain vs. loss), and temporal framing (present-oriented vs. future-oriented) among nonsmokers in the United States. A controlled experiment (N = 253) revealed that graphic warning labels were perceived as more effective, stronger in argument strength, and were generally liked more compared to text-only labels. In addition, loss-framed labels, compared to their gain-framed counterparts, were rated higher in perceived effectiveness, argument strength, and liking. No significant difference was observed between the present- and future-oriented frames on any of the dependent variables. Implications of the findings for antismoking communication efforts are discussed. PMID:24628288

Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Yang, Bo; Iles, Irina

2015-01-01

3

Linguistic and Location Effects in Compliance with Pesticide Warning Labels for Amateur and Professional Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies explored amateur and professional users' compliance with pesticide warning labels. Professionals were classified as people working in a profession in which the use of pesticides is a necessary part of their job. Amateurs used pesticides only in their leisure time. The first study showed that the wording used affected perception of the appropriateness of hazard statements, one of

Judy Edworthy; Elizabeth Hellier; Nicola Morley; Clare Grey; Kirsteen Aldrich; Andrew Lee

2004-01-01

4

Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (?2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention. PMID:22704744

Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

2012-01-01

5

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2014-07-01

6

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2010-07-01

7

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2012-07-01

8

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2013-07-01

9

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2011-07-01

10

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD...affix warning labels to all containers of beryllium, beryllium compounds, or...

2011-01-01

11

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD...affix warning labels to all containers of beryllium, beryllium compounds, or...

2010-01-01

12

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD...affix warning labels to all containers of beryllium, beryllium compounds, or...

2014-01-01

13

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD...affix warning labels to all containers of beryllium, beryllium compounds, or...

2013-01-01

14

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD...affix warning labels to all containers of beryllium, beryllium compounds, or...

2012-01-01

15

40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section 82.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning...

2010-07-01

16

Are heat warning systems effective?  

PubMed

Heatwaves are associated with significant health risks particularly among vulnerable groups. To minimize these risks, heat warning systems have been implemented. The question therefore is how effective these systems are in saving lives and reducing heat-related harm. We systematically searched and reviewed 15 studies which examined this. Six studies asserted that fewer people died of excessive heat after the implementation of heat warning systems. Demand for ambulance decreased following the implementation of these systems. One study also estimated the costs of running heat warning systems at US$210,000 compared to the US$468 million benefits of saving 117 lives. The remaining eight studies investigated people's response to heat warning systems and taking appropriate actions against heat harms. Perceived threat of heat dangers emerged as the main factor related to heeding the warnings and taking proper actions. However, barriers, such as costs of running air-conditioners, were of significant concern, particularly to the poor. The weight of the evidence suggests that heat warning systems are effective in reducing mortality and, potentially, morbidity. However, their effectiveness may be mediated by cognitive, emotive and socio-demographic characteristics. More research is urgently required into the cost-effectiveness of heat warning systems' measures and improving the utilization of the services. PMID:23561265

Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Fitzgerald, Gerard; Aitken, Peter; Verrall, Kenneth; Tong, Shilu

2013-01-01

17

Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label.  

PubMed

The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli. PMID:23688859

Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J

2013-09-01

18

History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.  

PubMed

There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products. PMID:24518387

Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

2014-04-01

19

The evolution of health warning labels on cigarette packs: the role of precedents, and tobacco industry strategies to block diffusion  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyse the evolution and diffusion of health warnings on cigarette packs around the world, including tobacco industry attempts to block this diffusion. Methods We analysed tobacco industry documents and public sources to construct a database on the global evolution and diffusion of health warning labels from 1966 to 2012, and also analysed industry strategies. Results Health warning labels, especially labels with graphic elements, threaten the tobacco industry because they are a low-cost, effective measure to reduce smoking. Multinational tobacco companies did not object to voluntary innocuous warnings with ambiguous health messages, in part because they saw them as offering protection from lawsuits and local packaging regulations. The companies worked systematically at the international level to block or weaken warnings once stronger more specific warnings began to appear in the 1970s. Since 1985 in Iceland, the tobacco industry has been aware of the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GWHL). The industry launched an all-out attack in the early 1990s to prevent GHWLs, and was successful in delaying GHWLs internationally for nearly 10 years. Conclusions Beginning in 2005, as a result of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), GHWLs began to spread. Effective implementation of FCTC labelling provisions has stimulated diffusion of strong health warning labels despite industry opposition. PMID:23092884

Hiilamo, Heikki; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

2013-01-01

20

Implementation of effective cigarette health warning labels among low and middle income countries: State capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity.  

PubMed

We investigates the effects of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FTCT), state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity on the implementation of effective health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packs among low and middle income countries (LMIC). Using logistic regression in separate analyses for FCTC Article 11 compliant HWLs and graphic HWLs (GHWL), we found that the odds of FCTC compliance increased by a factor of 1.31 for each year after FCTC entered into force in the country (p < 0.01). The odds of passing GHWLs increased by a factor of 1.46 (p < 0.05) per year after FCTC entered into force. The weaker the capacity of the states were, the less likely they were to have implemented FCTC compliant HWLs (p < 0.05). The countries with voluntary HWLs in 1992 were less likely (OR = 0.19, p < 0.01) to comply with FCTC 21 years later (in 2013). The FCTC has promoted HWL policies among LMICs. Public health regulations require investments in broader state capacity. As the theory of path-dependency predicts voluntary agreements have long lasting influence on the direction of tobacco control in a country. Adopting voluntary HWL policies reduced likelihood of having FCTC compliant HWLs decades later. The fact that voluntary agreements delayed effective tobacco regulations suggests that policymakers must be careful of accepting industry efforts for voluntary agreements in other areas of public health as well, such as alcohol and junk food. PMID:25462428

Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

2015-01-01

21

EFFECT OF THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL AND VOLUNTARY INDUSTRY HEALTH WARNING LABELS ON PASSAGE OF MANDATED CIGARETTE WARNING LABELS 1965 TO 2012: TRANSITION PROBABILITY AND EVENT HISTORY ANALYSES  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper quantifies the pattern and rate of passage of HWLs on cigarette packages, including the effect of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and HWLs voluntarily implemented by tobacco companies. Methods Transition probability matrices were used to describe the pattern of HWL passage and rate of change in four time periods. Event history analysis was used to estimate the effect of the FCTC on adoption and to compare that effect between countries with voluntary HWLs and those with mandatory HWLs. Results The number of HWLs passed during each time period accelerated, from a transition rate among countries that changed from 2.42/year in 1965–1977 to 6.71/year in 1977–1984, 8.42/year in 1984–2003, and 22.33/year in 2003–2012. The FCTC significantly accelerated passage of FCTC compliant HWLs for countries with initially mandatory policies with a hazard of 1.27/year (95% CI=1.11–1.45), but only marginally increased the hazard for countries that had an industry voluntary HWL 1.68/year (.95–2.97). Conclusions Passage of HWLs is accelerating, with the FCTC being associated with further acceleration of the passage of HWLS. Industry voluntary HWLs slowed mandated HWLs. PMID:24028248

Sanders-Jackson, Ashley N.; Song, Anna V.; Hillamo, Heikki

2013-01-01

22

16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.  

...Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. 1205.6 Section 1205.6...REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General....

2014-01-01

23

16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. 1205.6 Section 1205.6...REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General....

2010-01-01

24

16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. 1205.6 Section 1205.6...REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General....

2013-01-01

25

16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. 1205.6 Section 1205.6...REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General....

2011-01-01

26

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2010-07-01

27

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2011-07-01

28

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2013-07-01

29

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2014-07-01

30

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2012-07-01

31

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inches in size, containing the following legend in black or white lettering of a conspicuous...omit the last three lines of the above legend from the warning label but if not omitted...be conspicuous and containing the same legend as the labels, shall be used in...

2010-04-01

32

Impact of Tobacco-Related Health Warning Labels across Socioeconomic, Race and Ethnic Groups: Results from a Randomized Web-Based Experiment  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. Methods/Findings Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n?=?3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b?=?0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b?=?0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR?=?1.41, 95% CI?=?1.22?1.62), and intention to quit (OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.10?1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p?=?0.057). Conclusions Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities across groups. Policies that establish strong pictorial warning labels on tobacco packaging may be instrumental in reducing the toll of the tobacco epidemic, particularly within vulnerable communities. PMID:23341895

Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Thrasher, James F.; Nagler, Rebekah H.; Feirman, Shari P.; Muenz, Larry R.; He, David Y.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

33

The Impact of Cigarette Pack Design, Descriptors, and Warning Labels on Risk Perception in the U.S  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., limited evidence exists on the impact of colors and brand imagery used in cigarette pack design. Purpose This study examined the impact of pack design, product descriptors, and health warnings on risk perception and brand appeal. Methods A cross-sectional mall-intercept study was conducted with 197 adult smokers and 200 nonsmokers in Buffalo, NY from June to July 2009 (data analysis from July 2009 to December 2010). Participants were shown 12 sets of packs randomly; each set varied by a particular design feature (color, descriptor) or warning label style (text vs graphic, size, attribution, message framing). Packs were rated on criteria including risk perceptions, quit motivation, and purchase interest. Results Participants selected larger, pictorial, and loss-framed warning labels as more likely to attract attention, encourage thoughts about health risks, motivate quitting, and most effective. Participants were more likely to select packs with lighter color shading and descriptors such as light, silver, and smooth as delivering less tar, smoother taste, and lower health risk, compared to darker-shaded or full flavor packs. Additionally, participants were more likely to select the branded compared to plain white pack when asked which delivered the most tar, smoothest taste, was more attractive, appealed to youth aged <18 years, and contained cigarettes of better quality. Conclusions The findings support larger, graphic health warnings that convey loss-framed messages as most effective in communicating health risks to U.S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features. PMID:21565661

Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Smith, Philip; Cummings, K. Michael

2011-01-01

34

Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Strasser, Andrew A; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Langleben, Daniel D

2015-03-01

35

A qualitative content analysis of cigarette health warning labels in australia, Canada, the United kingdom, and the United States.  

PubMed

The legislation of health warning labels on cigarette packaging is a major focus for tobacco control internationally and is a key component of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This population-level intervention is broadly supported as a vital measure for warning people about the health consequences of smoking. However, some components of this approach warrant close critical inspection. Through a qualitative content analysis of the imagery used on health warning labels from 4 countries, we consider how this imagery depicts people that smoke. By critically analyzing this aspect of the visual culture of tobacco control, we argue that this imagery has the potential for unintended consequences, and obscures the social and embodied contexts in which smoking is experienced. PMID:25521883

Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone

2015-02-01

36

Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

2014-01-01

37

Is the Effectiveness of Tobacco Image-Based Warning Labels Likely to Vary by Socio-Demographic Variable? Findings from an Online Survey of 19,000 Members of the UK Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Smoking continues to be a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. Countries have increasingly adopted the use of images as warnings on cigarette packs. We aimed to investigate the likely differential impact of varied images and messages on sub-groups of the United Kingdom (UK) smoking population. Methods: Forty two images…

Styles, Maggie; Williams, Brian; Humphris, Gerry

2013-01-01

38

Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels.  

PubMed

In the evolving landscape of tobacco use, it remains unclear how tobacco control efforts should be designed and promoted for maximum impact. The current study links the identification of latent classes of young adult combustible tobacco users with anticipated responses to graphic health warning labels (HWLs). Data were collected in January 2012 using an online address-based panel as part of the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study, and analyses were conducted in 2013. Latent class analyses identified five groups of tobacco users in a national sample of 4,236 young adults aged 18-34years: (1) little cigar/cigarillo/bidi (LCC) and hookah users (4%); (2) nonusers, open to smoking (3%); (3) daily smokers who self-identify as "smokers" (11%); (4) nondaily, light smokers who self-identify as "social or occasional smokers" (9%); and (5) nonusers closed to smoking (73%). Of the nonusers closed to smoking, 23% may be better characterized as at risk for tobacco initiation. Results indicate differences in the potential effectiveness of HWLs across classes. Compared to the daily "smokers," LCC and hookah users (RRR=2.35) and nonusers closed to smoking (RRR=2.33) were more than twice as likely to report that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking. This study supports the potential of graphic HWLs to prevent young nonusers from using tobacco products. It suggests that the extension of prominent HWLs to other tobacco products, including LCCs and hookah tobacco, may also serve a prevention function. PMID:25437268

Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

2015-03-01

39

Effects of Single versus Multiple Warnings on Driver Performance  

E-print Network

Objective: To explore how a single master alarm system affects drivers’ responses when compared to multiple, distinct warnings. Background: Advanced driver warning systems are intended to improve safety, yet inappropriate ...

Cummings, M. L.

2007-01-01

40

The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

2011-01-01

41

Adolescents' Attention to Traditional and Graphic Tobacco Warning Labels: An Eye-Tracking Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would 1) increase visual…

Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin

2010-01-01

42

When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus  

PubMed Central

In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

2014-01-01

43

The Impact of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels and Smoke-Free Law on Health Awareness and Thoughts of Quitting in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the impact of Taiwan's graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on awareness of the health hazards of smoking and thoughts of quitting smoking. National representative samples of 1074 and 1094 people, respectively, were conducted successfully by telephone in July 2008 (pre-law) and March 2009 (post-law).…

Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-yu

2011-01-01

44

Off-Label Prescribing, Polypharmacy, and Black-Box Warnings: A Primer for School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychotropic medications are increasingly used to treat children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Between the years 1994 and 2001, there was a 191.7% increase in number of office visits resulting in a psychotropic medication prescription among children and adolescents. Many drugs are prescribed to children "off-label", whereby they…

Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

45

Art and the Craft of Avoidance: Toxic Art Supplies Lack Warnings Despite Federal Labeling Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite federal law requiring that art and craft materials be labeled, many products continue to be sold without adequate identification of their contents. This report summarizes the findings of the U.S. Public Interest Research Group (PIRG) which conducted an investigation in June and July 1991 to determine how art and craft manufacturers comply…

Sikes, Lucinda

46

Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.

Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

1980-01-01

47

The effect of warnings on false memories in young and older adults.  

PubMed

In the present experiments, we examined adult age differences in the ability to suppress false memories, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Participants studied lists of words (e.g., bed, rest, awake, etc.), each related to a nonpresented critical lure word (e.g., sleep). Typically, recognition tests reveal false alarms to critical lures at rates comparable to those for hits for studied words. In two experiments, separate groups of young and older adults were unwarned about the false memory effect, warned before studying the lists, or warned after study and before test. Lists were presented at either a slow rate (4 sec/word) or a faster rate (2 sec/word). Young adults were better able to discriminate between studied words and critical lures when warned about the DRM effect either before study or after study but before retrieval, and their performance improved with a slower presentation rate. Older adults were able to discriminate between studied words and critical lures when given warnings before study, but not when given warnings after study but before retrieval. Performance on a working memory capacity measure predicted false recognition following study and retrieval warnings. The results suggest that effective use of warnings to reduce false memories is contingent on the quality and type of encoded information, as well as on whether that information is accessed at retrieval. Furthermore, discriminating between similar sources of activation is dependent on working memory capacity, which declines with advancing age. PMID:12507371

McCabe, David P; Smith, Anderson D

2002-10-01

48

Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

2015-02-01

49

Effect of Directional Speech Warnings on Road Hazard Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the last 2 decades, cognitive science and the transportation psychology field have dedicated a lot of effort to designing advanced driver support systems. Verbal warning systems are increasingly being implemented in modern automobiles in an effort to increase road safety.Objective: The study presented here investigated the impact of directional speech alert messages on the participants’ speed to judge

Jesús Serrano; Leandro L. Di Stasi; Alberto MegíAs; Andrés Catena

2011-01-01

50

Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs  

PubMed Central

Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n?=?338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n?=?63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change. PMID:23977223

Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

2013-01-01

51

Labelling effects in clinical judgments of psychopathology.  

PubMed

This study utilized a model of inferential accuracy to study the effects of deviant labels on clinical judgments. It was hypothesized that labels would lower both treshold and sensitivity, the key components of the model. Analyses of variance yielded significant effects for labels and specific patterns of psychopathology suggested that labels have differential effects on inferences drawn with regard to various types of psychological disorders. Evidence in support of the generalizability of sensitivity and treshold also was obtained. PMID:833285

Paquin, M J; Jackson, D N

1977-01-01

52

Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

2012-01-01

53

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2013-04-01

54

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2014-04-01

55

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2012-04-01

56

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2011-04-01

57

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2010-04-01

58

Effects of an In-Vehicle Collision Avoidance Warning System on Short and Long-Term Driving Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many new in-vehicle systems focus on accident prevention by facilitating the driving task. One such driving aid is an in-vehicle collision avoidance warning system (IVCAWS), used to alert the driver to an impending collision. Our study evaluated the effects of an imperfect IVCAWS both on driver headway maintenance and on driver behavior in response to warning system errors. Our results

Avner Ben-Yaacov; Masha Maltz; David Shinar

2002-01-01

59

The effect of colored borders and age on the conspicuity of warning signs in a complex visual environment  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF COLORED BORDERS AND AGE ON THE CONSPICUITY OF WARNING SIGNS IN A COMPLEX VISUAL ENVIRONMENT A Thesis by JOSHUA TURNER CHARD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1993 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering THE EFFECT OF COLORED BORDERS AND AGE ON THE CONSPICUITY OF WARNING SIGNS IN A COMPLEX VISUAL ENVIRONMENT A Thesis by JOSHUA TURNER CHARD Submitted...

Chard, Joshua Turner

2012-06-07

60

Solar Max: Storm Warning - Effects on the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a promotional folder for Sun-Earth Days 2013, containing images and illustrations of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System. Also included is information about the period known as solar maximum, as well as links to Sun-Earth Day resources and the Space Weather Action Center.

61

Memory Saves Lives: Inter-generational Warnings Effectiveness - 13556  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami was a world-class natural disaster. It has been described as the most powerful earthquake ever in Japan, and as one of the most powerful earthquakes ever noted in the world. The toll in terms of human lives lost and property destruction was unimaginable. Even the word 'horrible' is inadequate to describe the suffering and misery that resulted. Nations with nuclear power programs are engaged in, or at least planning to become engaged in, arranging to eventually dispose of their higher-level radioactive waste materials in deep geologic repositories. Geologic repositories are passive safety systems, and if undisturbed isolate these dangerous materials form the biosphere for extremely long times. The key words, however, are 'if undisturbed'. To assure that future generations do not inadvertently drill into repositories, national programs, and the international community (the Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) preservation project of the Nuclear Energy Agency, for example), are proposing to place markers and/or monuments on closed repository sites that say 'do not drill here, and this is why' in various sophisticated ways. Such markers or monuments are attempts at providing passive institutional controls. The effectiveness of messages from past generations to a present generation may give an indication of how effective such passive institutional controls may be. (authors)

Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Shafer, David [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States); Klein, Thomas [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

2013-07-01

62

The effects of noise on speech and warning signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the effects of noise on speech communication it is necessary to examine certain characteristics of the speech signal. Speech level can be measured by a variety of methods, none of which has yet been standardized, and it should be kept in mind that vocal effort increases with background noise level and with different types of activity. Noise and filtering commonly degrade the speech signal, especially as it is transmitted through communications systems. Intelligibility is also adversely affected by distance, reverberation, and monaural listening. Communication systems currently in use may cause strain and delays on the part of the listener, but there are many possibilities for improvement. Individuals who need to communicate in noise may be subject to voice disorders. Shouted speech becomes progressively less intelligible at high voice levels, but improvements can be realized when talkers use clear speech. Tolerable listening levels are lower for negative than for positive S/Ns, and comfortable listening levels should be at a S/N of at least 5 dB, and preferably above 10 dB. Popular methods to predict speech intelligibility in noise include the Articulation Index, Speech Interference Level, Speech Transmission Index, and the sound level meter's A-weighting network. This report describes these methods, discussing certain advantages and disadvantages of each, and shows their interrelations.

Suter, Alice H.

1989-06-01

63

Abandoning a label doesn’t make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects  

PubMed Central

Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed. PMID:23105148

Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

2012-01-01

64

Neural biomarkers for assessing different types of imagery in pictorial health warning labels for cigarette packaging: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective Countries around the world have increasingly adopted pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) for tobacco packages to warn consumers about smoking-related risks. Research on how pictorial HWLs work has primarily analysed self-reported responses to HWLs; studies at the neural level comparing the brain's response to different types of HWLs may provide an important complement to prior studies, especially if self-reported responses are systematically biased. In this study we characterise the brain's response to three types of pictorial HWLs for which prior self-report studies indicated different levels of efficacy. Methods Current smokers rated pictorial HWLs and then observed the same HWLs during functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Fifty 18–50-year-old current adult smokers who were free from neurological disorders were recruited from the general population and participated in the study. Demographics, smoking-related behaviours and self-reported ratings of pictorial HWL stimuli were obtained prior to scanning. Brain responses to HWLs were assessed using fMRI, focusing on a priori regions of interest. Results Pictorial HWL stimuli elicited activation in a broad network of brain areas associated with visual processing and emotion. Participants who rated the stimuli as more emotionally arousing also showed greater neural responses at these sites. Conclusions Self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs are correlated with neural responses in brain areas associated with visual and emotional processing. Study results cross-validate self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs and provide insights into how pictorial HWLs are processed. PMID:25552613

Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Thrasher, James F; Fridriksson, Johann; Brixius, William; Froeliger, Brett; Hammond, David; Cummings, Michael K

2014-01-01

65

Effects of different chelates and labeling media on platelet labeling with In111  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, many variations of In-111 platelet labeling have been introduced with no consistent method currently being used. In an effort to determine optimal In-111 labeling conditions. The authors have studied the effects of different chelates and labeling media on In-111 platelet labeling efficiency (LE). Labeling of human platelets in plasma with In-111-oxine, resulted in a mean LE of 27% at

R. L. Hill-Zobel; S. Gannon; B. McCandless; M. F. Tsan

1985-01-01

66

21 CFR 510.410 - Corticosteroids for oral, injectable, and ophthalmic use in animals; warnings and labeling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) The Food and Drug Administration has received reports of side effects associated with the...corticosteroid animal drugs. The use of these drugs...potentially serious side effects, the Food and Drug Administration has...

2012-04-01

67

21 CFR 510.410 - Corticosteroids for oral, injectable, and ophthalmic use in animals; warnings and labeling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) The Food and Drug Administration has received reports of side effects associated with the...corticosteroid animal drugs. The use of these drugs...potentially serious side effects, the Food and Drug Administration has...

2013-04-01

68

21 CFR 510.410 - Corticosteroids for oral, injectable, and ophthalmic use in animals; warnings and labeling...  

... (a) The Food and Drug Administration has received reports of side effects associated with the...corticosteroid animal drugs. The use of these drugs...potentially serious side effects, the Food and Drug Administration has...

2014-04-01

69

21 CFR 510.410 - Corticosteroids for oral, injectable, and ophthalmic use in animals; warnings and labeling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) The Food and Drug Administration has received reports of side effects associated with the...corticosteroid animal drugs. The use of these drugs...potentially serious side effects, the Food and Drug Administration has...

2011-04-01

70

21 CFR 510.410 - Corticosteroids for oral, injectable, and ophthalmic use in animals; warnings and labeling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) The Food and Drug Administration has received reports of side effects associated with the...corticosteroid animal drugs. The use of these drugs...potentially serious side effects, the Food and Drug Administration has...

2010-04-01

71

The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

72

40 CFR 82.106 - Warning statement requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Warning statement requirements. 82.106 Section 82.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.106 Warning statement requirements. (a)...

2010-07-01

73

40 CFR 82.108 - Placement of warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Placement of warning statement. 82.108 Section 82.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.108 Placement of warning statement....

2010-07-01

74

Systematic review of the effect of pictorial warnings on cigarette packages in smoking behavior.  

PubMed

We used a structured approach to assess whether active smokers presented with pictorial warnings on cigarette packages (PWCP) had a higher probability of quitting, reducing, and attempting to quit smoking than did unexposed smokers. We identified 21 articles from among nearly 2500 published between 1993 and 2013, prioritizing coverage over relevance or quality because we expected to find only a few studies with behavioral outcomes. We found very large heterogeneity across studies, poor or very poor methodological quality, and generally null or conflicting findings for any explored outcome. The evidence for or against the use of PWCP is insufficient, suggesting that any effect of PWCP on behavior would be modest. Determining the single impact of PWCP on behavior requires studies with strong methodological designs and longer follow-up periods. PMID:25122019

Monárrez-Espino, Joel; Liu, Bojing; Greiner, Felix; Bremberg, Sven; Galanti, Rosaria

2014-10-01

75

The Effects of Truncated Dome Detectable Warnings on Travelers Negotiating Curb Ramps in Wheelchairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truncated domes on curb ramps benefit travelers with visual impairments. However, concerns associated with the safety and negotiability of such detectable warnings for other travelers have resulted in much controversy. The findings of the study presented here indicate that detectable warnings did not adversely affect the negotiability of ramps by…

Lee, Helen

2011-01-01

76

Analysis on Time-effectiveness of Early Warning System of Combine Harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jam fault of combine harvester is a typical failure, which often leads to damages of mechanical transmission system. Jam fault alarm system has been used as an assistant means to warn the operator in traditional way, but the jam fault has always occurred while alarming. The ideal solution to jam fault, thus, is early warning so that proper operation can

Song Shoupeng; Yi Lidan; Li Pingping

2010-01-01

77

Using fear appeals in warning labels to promote responsible gambling among VLT players: the key role of depth of information processing.  

PubMed

Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous. Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was used to test our model based on both Elaboration Likelihood Model and Protection Motivation Theory. 258 VLT adult players (58% males, 42% females) with various degrees of problem gambling were exposed to three threat levels (plus a control condition) from two different sources (i.e., either a medical source or a source related to the provider of VLT's). Our results show that both higher threat warnings and the medical source of warnings enhance Depth of Information Processing. It was also found that Depth of Information Processing affects positively attitude change and compliance intentions. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. PMID:20217197

Munoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Suissa, Jacob Amnon

2010-12-01

78

Using Fear Appeals in Warning Labels to Promote Responsible Gambling Among VLT Players: The Key Role of Depth of Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous.\\u000a Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The\\u000a present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial\\u000a design experiment was used

Yaromir Munoz; Jean-Charles Chebat; Jacob Amnon Suissa

2010-01-01

79

The objective of this research was to determine whether the presence of transverse rumble strips is an effective warning device for drivers  

E-print Network

is an effective warning device for drivers approaching rural stop-controlled intersections. Rural highways,491 fatalities occurred in 2002, and exces- sive speed was the primary contributing factor in 31% (11 control device that can mitigate the number and severity of crashes by warning drivers of upcoming

Burris, Mark W.

80

21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements for devices...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements...Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.63 Medical devices; warning statements for...

2013-04-01

81

21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements for devices...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements...Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.63 Medical devices; warning statements for...

2011-04-01

82

21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements for devices...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements...Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.63 Medical devices; warning statements for...

2012-04-01

83

21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements for devices...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements...Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.63 Medical devices; warning statements for...

2014-04-01

84

24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

2010-04-01

85

The effects of prior warning and lifting-induced fatigue on trunk muscle and postural responses to sudden loading during manual handling.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of warning and lifting-induced fatigue on trunk muscle activity and postural responses to sudden loading. Thirty-one male subjects were subjected to sudden loading of a hand-held box with and without prior warning, before and after either lifting-induced fatigue or light callisthenic exercises. Results showed that warning did not alter the level of trunk muscle activity prior to sudden loading. Following warning, there was a reduction in all muscle and joint onset latencies and the magnitude of hip and knee flexion. Although fatigue did not influence muscle and joint initiation, it did negate the effects that warning had on reducing joint displacement. These findings indicate that warning prior to sudden loading may enhance postural responses, reduce ranges of joint motion and increase stability. However, the benefits of prior warning for reducing ranges of joint motion may not be present when a person is fatigued. Sudden unexpected loading and fatigue arising from manual handling practices in the workplace have been identified as contributing factors to the risk of low back injury. Findings from this study provide information that is important for the design of interventions intended to reduce the incidence of manual handling-related back injuries. PMID:17852372

Mawston, G A; McNair, P J; Boocock, M G

2007-12-01

86

Warnings from the Trenches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, as a retired high school teacher, has some bad news for college professors. In case, they do not already see what is happening. The author wants to warn them of what to expect from the students who will be arriving in one's classroom even if they teach in a highly selective institution. No Child Left Behind went into effect for the…

Bernstein, Kenneth

2013-01-01

87

Effects of in-vehicle warning information displays with or without spatial compatibility on driving behaviors and response performance.  

PubMed

A driving simulator study was conducted to evaluate the effects of five in-vehicle warning information displays upon drivers' emergent response and decision performance. These displays include visual display, auditory displays with and without spatial compatibility, hybrid displays in both visual and auditory format with and without spatial compatibility. Thirty volunteer drivers were recruited to perform various tasks that involved driving, stimulus-response, divided attention and stress rating. Results show that for displays of single-modality, drivers benefited more when coping with visual display of warning information than auditory display with or without spatial compatibility. However, auditory display with spatial compatibility significantly improved drivers' performance in reacting to the divided attention task and making accurate S-R task decision. Drivers' best performance results were obtained for hybrid display with spatial compatibility. Hybrid displays enabled drivers to respond the fastest and achieve the best accuracy in both S-R and divided attention tasks. PMID:22103964

Liu, Yung-Ching; Jhuang, Jing-Wun

2012-07-01

88

Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy.  

PubMed

An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification. PMID:20523852

Stevens, Catherine J; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare

2009-01-01

89

Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy  

PubMed Central

An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification. PMID:20523852

Stevens, Catherine J.; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare

2009-01-01

90

The Effectiveness of Reverse Telephon Emergency Warning Systems in the October 2007 San Diego Wildfires  

SciTech Connect

Late in October, 2007, fast-moving wildfires fueled by extreme Santa Ana winds threatened residents and their properties in San Diego County, California. The impacted area also included the City of San Diego within the County s boundaries. It turns out the San Diego firestorms would be the biggest in the County's history, surpassing the devastating 2003 firestorms in intensity, duration, and impacted populations. Both San Diego County and the City of San Diego have installed telephone reverse call-down emergency warning systems. A telephone survey of 1200 households located in areas identified by emergency officials as the evacuation zones for the 2007 fires was conducted in late March and early April 2008 using a random telephone dialing process to determine if people responded to the reverse telephone warning systems calls. Findings indicate that those who received a reverse emergency warning call were much more likely to evacuate than those who did not receive a call. The telephone calls were also the most likely source of first warning.

Sorensen, John H [ORNL; Sorensen, Barbara Vogt [ORNL

2009-01-01

91

Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor  

PubMed Central

The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles. PMID:24566631

Yan, Xuedong; Xue, Qingwan; Ma, Lu; Xu, Yongcun

2014-01-01

92

International cigarette labelling practices  

PubMed Central

DESIGN—Cross-sectional study.?PARTICIPANTS—Members of GLOBALink (www.globalink.org), an internet listserve for tobacco activists with members in 56 countries, who were asked to provide specific information on cigarette warning requirements in their countries.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Presence of specific warning labels, overall content score (based on a 0-10 scale with a point for each specific warning mentioned), size of warning label, location of warning label.?RESULTS—Forty-five countries (80%) responded; 40 had mandatory labelling requirements, three had voluntary agreements with the industry and two had no requirements. In general, American companies did no more in foreign countries than required by local law. The average developing country content score was 1.6, compared with 5.0 in developed countries (p = 0.0003). Forty-two per cent of countries either had no warning requirement or had only a very general health warning. The most common warning was for heart disease (49% of countries) and the least common was for addiction (14%). All warnings were more common in developed than developing countries. Warnings in developed country were on average 27% larger than those in developing countries (p = 0.325). Seventy-three per cent of labels in developing countries appeared only on the side of the pack, whereas 78% of labels in developed countries appeared on the front and back (p = 0.003).?CONCLUSIONS—In almost every respect measured, residents in developing countries are receiving inferior information about the hazards of smoking than residents of developed countries. Laws should be promulgated in importing and exporting countries to ensure that, where their labelling laws differ, companies would be required to provide the more comprehensive labelling.???Keywords: health warnings; cigarette pack labelling; legislation PMID:10629241

Aftab, M.; Kolben, D.; Lurie, P.

1999-01-01

93

A cross-sectional survey investigating the desensitisation of graphic health warning labels and their impact on smokers, non-smokers and patients with COPD in a London cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GHWL) in different individuals, including patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Investigating knowledge and attitudes may allow better implementation of future public health policies. We hypothesised that differences in the impact of GHWL exist between non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD, with decreased efficacy in those groups who are longer and more frequently exposed to them. Participants and setting 163 participants (54% male, aged 21–80) including 60 non-smokers, 53 smokers and 50 patients with COPD (Gold stage II–IV), attending London respiratory outpatient clinics, participated in case-controlled surveys (50 items). Outcome measures Ten different GHWL were shown and demographics, smoking history, plans to quit, smoking-risk awareness, emotional response, processing and impact of GHWL on behaviour were recorded. Patients were further asked to prioritise the hypothetical treatment or prevention of five specific smoking-related diseases. Results Smokers, in particular those with COPD, were less susceptible to GHWL than non-smokers; 53.4% of all participants expressed fear when looking at GHWL, non-smokers (71.9%) more so than smokers (39.8%, p<0.001). COPD participants were less aware of the consequences than non-COPD participants (p<0.001), including an awareness of lung cancer (p=0.001). Lung cancer (95%), oral cancer (90.2%), heart disease (84.7%) and stroke (71.2%) were correctly associated with smoking, whereas blindness was least associated (23.9%). However, blindness was prioritised over oral cancer, stroke and in patients with COPD also over heart disease when participants were asked about hypothetical treatment or prevention. Conclusions GHWL are most effective in non-smokers and a desensitisation effect was observed in smokers and patients with COPD. As a consequence, a tailored and concerted public health approach to use such messages is required and ‘blindness’ deserves to be mentioned in this context because of an unexpectedly high-deterring impact. PMID:24996914

Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Chisnall, Ben; Drakatos, Panagis; Sivakumar, Sukhanthan; Sivakumar, Bairavie; Barrecheguren, Miriam; Douiri, Abdel; Steier, Joerg

2014-01-01

94

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

95

The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

1981-07-01

96

Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. Study design A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Methods Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. Results An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) <100 lifetime cigarettes smoked; 3) gaze position successfully tracked for > 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p < 0.001). There was no evidence that this effect varied based on the type of warning label (black & white text vs. colour text vs. colour image & text; interaction p = 0.295). Conclusions During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. PMID:25542740

Shankleman, M.; Sykes, C.; Mandeville, K.L.; Di Costa, S.; Yarrow, K.

2015-01-01

97

Airburst warning and response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is virtually certain (probability>99%) that the next destructive NEO event will be an airburst. Planetary defense is usually assumed to have the primary goal of maximizing the number of lives saved, but it can be argued that more emphasis should be placed on maximizing the probability of saving lives. For the latter goal, it is far more effective to create an early warning and civil defense plan than a mitigation plan that involves deflecting a large NEO. Because early warning and civil defense will almost certainly be needed long before the first deflection is ever required, the credibility of the planetary defense community and its recommendations will be put to its first serious test by an airburst. Successful response to an airburst event will make it much more likely that recommendations for mitigation by deflection will be accepted by decision makers and the public. Focusing more attention on the second goal will, as a side effect, benefit the primary goal.

Boslough, Mark

2014-10-01

98

Framing unauthorized immigrants: the effects of labels on evaluations.  

PubMed

In the U.S. media, unauthorized immigrants are often interchangeably referred to as "illegal aliens," "illegal immigrants," and undocumented immigrants." In spite of formal equivalence, these terms carry different connotations, but the effects of these labels on people's attitudes toward immigrants are not well documented. In this replication study, 274 undergraduate students in psychology responded to one of three randomly distributed versions of a 20-item scale measuring attitudes toward unauthorized immigration. The items in the three scale versions varyingly referred to immigrants using the three terms. Results showed differences in attitudes toward unauthorized immigration between all experimental conditions. The label "illegal immigrants" yielded significantly less positive attitudes compared to the label "undocumented immigrants," and respondents exposed to the label "illegal aliens" showed the most positive attitudes. Furthermore, the effects of the experimental conditions were not moderated by the respondents' patriotism, sex, or own immigrant background. PMID:24897900

Ommundsen, Reidar; Van der Veer, Kees; Larsen, Knud S; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

2014-04-01

99

A Study on Estimation on Flood Warning Trigger Rainfall in medium and small Stream Affected by Urban Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As extreme floods occur frequently in recent years due to global climate changes, an in sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration is becoming the significant danger and loss of life and property in the Korean Peninsula as well as most parts of the world. The desire for living without hazardous damages grows these days, the city strategy to make the safer community has become an issue. Previously most of flood prevention efforts have been made for relatively large watersheds near to channel flow. However, as economical development and the expansion of city near medium and small stream, human casualty and property by flood occurs frequently. Therefore, to reduce the damage of human lives and property by flood, we develop an assessment method for flood warning trigger rainfall considering urban effect. Considering complex land use, HEC-HMS is used for rural area and SWMM is adopted for sewer networks runoff. And relationship between runoff and stream water level, HEC-RAS is accompanied with runoff results. Proposed flood warning trigger rainfall assessment method shows good agreement with gauged data and could be used for another case to mitigate damage. Acknowledgement: "This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-NH-2011-45] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea." Keyword: HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, critical precipitation, medium and small stream

Youngseok, Song; Moojong, Park; JungHo, Lee; HeeSup, Lee

2013-04-01

100

Warning systems and public warning response  

SciTech Connect

This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

Sorensen, J.H.

1993-09-01

101

Desire versus Efficacy in Smokers’ Paradoxical Reactions to Pictorial Health Warnings for Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model) that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N?=?3297) to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model’s prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker’s self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser) quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease) intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit. PMID:23383006

Romer, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Langleben, Daniel

2013-01-01

102

Modeling the Effects of Flow Dispersion in Arterial Spin Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experimental results have shown that effects such as dispersion and cardiac pulsation have a significant effect on the arterial spin labeling (ASL) signal. These have not been incorporated into the existing ASL models potentially leading to inaccuracies in flow calculation. In this study, we develop a new model, based on physical principles, to model the transit of the ASL

Samira M. Kazan; Michael A. Chappell; Stephen J. Payne

2009-01-01

103

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

104

Effect of time window length for maximum amplitude estimation on P wave magnitude: application for Earthquake Early Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake early warning, EEW, aims at issuing the warning of strong ground shaking before its arrival by analyzing seismic waveform data obtained near the hypocenter. Rapid estimation is important as well as precise anticipation of strong shaking. At present, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) anticipates the strong shaking using magnitude, attenuation relation and site amplification factors, and the anticipation is performed

M. Hoshiba; K. Iwakiri; K. Ohtake

2009-01-01

105

Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.  

PubMed

In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. PMID:24161300

Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

2014-09-01

106

40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard...hazard warning. (a) Each pesticide product must bear on...demonstrate that the likelihood of exposure of children to the pesticide during distribution,...

2011-07-01

107

40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard...hazard warning. (a) Each pesticide product must bear on...demonstrate that the likelihood of exposure of children to the pesticide during distribution,...

2013-07-01

108

40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.  

... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard...hazard warning. (a) Each pesticide product must bear on...demonstrate that the likelihood of exposure of children to the pesticide during distribution,...

2014-07-01

109

40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard...hazard warning. (a) Each pesticide product must bear on...demonstrate that the likelihood of exposure of children to the pesticide during distribution,...

2010-07-01

110

40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard...hazard warning. (a) Each pesticide product must bear on...demonstrate that the likelihood of exposure of children to the pesticide during distribution,...

2012-07-01

111

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2014-04-01

112

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2012-04-01

113

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2013-04-01

114

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2010-04-01

115

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2011-04-01

116

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug products must bear a warning that...is especially important not to use” (select “aspirin” or “carbaspirin calcium,” as...

2010-04-01

117

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

...The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug products must bear a warning that...is especially important not to use” (select “aspirin” or “carbaspirin calcium,” as...

2014-04-01

118

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug products must bear a warning that...is especially important not to use” (select “aspirin” or “carbaspirin calcium,” as...

2013-04-01

119

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug products must bear a warning that...is especially important not to use” (select “aspirin” or “carbaspirin calcium,” as...

2012-04-01

120

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug products must bear a warning that...is especially important not to use” (select “aspirin” or “carbaspirin calcium,” as...

2011-04-01

121

Use of an auditory signal in a rear-end collision warning system: effects on braking force and reaction time  

E-print Network

in repetition rate; 3) a sound that increased in frequency; and, 4) a sound that increased in intensity. Results suggested that an auditory warning signal would decrease reaction time and increase maximum braking force applied. The sound that increased...

Hopkins, Jennifer Susan

1995-01-01

122

77 FR 39710 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Organ-Specific Warnings: Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...enforcement discretion with regard to the liver warning required in the labeling. DATES...products to inform consumers about the risk of liver injury when using acetaminophen and the...adults only, must include the following liver warning: Liver warning: This...

2012-07-05

123

The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

Silvey, Brian A.

2009-01-01

124

Multitasking in academia: Effective combinations of research, education and public outreach illustrated by a volcanic ash warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science permeates our society. Its role and its perceived importance evolves with time. Scientists today are highly specialized, yet society demands they master a variety of skills requiring not only a number of different competencies but also a broad mindset. Scientists are subjected to a meritocracy in terms of having to produce scientific papers. Peer-reviewed scientific publications used to be sufficient to meet the various laws and regulations with respect to dissemination of scientific results. This has dramatically changed; both expressed directly through public voices (such as in the climate change discourses), but also by politicians and policy makers. In some countries research funding now comes with specific requirements concerning public outreach that go way beyond peer-reviewed publications and presentation at scientific conferences. Science policies encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and scientific questions themselves often cannot be answered without knowledge and information from several scientific areas. Scientists increasingly need to communicate knowledge and results in more general terms as well as educating future generations. A huge challenge lies in developing the knowledge, human capacity and mindset that will allow an individual academician to contribute to education, communicate across scientific fields and sectors in multidisciplinary cross sectoral cooperations and also reach out to the general public while succeeding within the scientific meritocracy. We demonstrate how research, education and communication within and outside academia can effectively be combined through a presentation of the International Airways Volcano Watch that encompasses an operational volcanic ash warning system for the aviation industry. This presentation will show the role of science throughout the information flow, from basic science to the pilots' decision-making. Furthermore, it will illustrate how one can connect specific scientific topics to societal issues such as security and economy. Skills, knowledge and mindset must be developed and nurtured through university curricula and reflected in career awards and other professional appreciations. By using concrete examples of geoscience in practice, such as the volcanic ash warning system, different aspects of science, it's role in society and economic impact is being communicated across sectors and taught simultaneously. The very same information is relevant and appropriate for society at large and thus time saving for academicians. It also serves as a recruiting strategy.

Bye, B. L.; Plag, H.

2011-12-01

125

Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age  

PubMed Central

AIM The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of children <2 years in Italy and the Netherlands was carried out. Age and country specific prescription prevalence rates were calculated for the period 2005–08. Comparisons of prescription rates in 2005 (pre) and 2008 (post) warnings were done by means of a chi-square test. RESULTS The cohort consisted of 99 176 children <2 years of age. After international warnings, overall prescription rates for CCMs decreased slightly from 83 to 77/1000 person years (P = 0.05) in Italy and increased in the Netherlands from 74 to 92/1000 children per year. Despite the international warnings, prescription rates for nasal sympathomimetics and opium alkaloids increased in the Netherlands (P < 0.01). In Italy a significant decrease in the prescription rates of opium alkaloids and other cough suppressants (P < 0.01) was observed, and also a significant reduction in use of combinations of nasal sympathomimetics. CONCLUSION Despite the international safety warnings and negative benefit-risk profiles, prescription rates of cough and cold medicines remain substantial and were hardly affected by the warnings, especially in the Netherlands where no warning was issued. The hazards of use of these medicines in young children should be explicitly stipulated by the European Medicines Agency and all national agencies, in order to increase awareness amongst physicians and caretakers and reduce heterogeneity across the EU. PMID:21564162

Sen, E Fatma; Verhamme, Katia M C; Felisi, Mariagrazia; 't Jong, Geert W; Giaquinto, Carlo; Picelli, Gino; Ceci, Adriana; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

2011-01-01

126

Tobacco health warning messages on plain cigarette packs and in television campaigns: a qualitative study with Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.  

PubMed

Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health risk and cessation benefit messages. Six focus groups were conducted over September 2012-April 2013 with adult clients of welfare organizations in regional New South Wales, Australia who were current smokers (n = 51). Participants discussed HWLs, plain packaging and anti-smoking television advertisements. Discussions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Highly emotive warnings delivering messages of negative health effects were most likely to capture the attention of the study participants; however, these warning messages did not prompt quit attempts and participants were sceptical about the effectiveness of cessation programmes such as telephone quitlines. Active avoidance of health warning messages was common, and many expressed false and self-exempting beliefs towards the harms of tobacco. Careful consideration of message content and medium is required to communicate the anti-smoking message to disadvantaged smokers who consider themselves desensitized to warnings. Health communication strategies should continue to address false beliefs about smoking and educate on cessation services that are currently underutilized. PMID:24966335

Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

2015-02-01

127

Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

2013-12-01

128

Timely Warning Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complaint received by the Department of Education alleged that Virginia Tech violated the "timely warning" requirements of the Clery Act on April 16, 2007, by not issuing specific campus-wide alerts once senior officials knew of the immediate threat to health and safety. The complaint also alleged that the University's timely warning policy, as…

Stafford, Dolores

2011-01-01

129

Warning about warnings: weighing risk and benefit when information is in a state of flux.  

PubMed

In 2010, new data about the safety of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) resulted in warnings and subsequent pronouncements by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and its European counterpart [the European Medicines Agency (EMA)] regarding its use in children and adolescents as an elective treatment for short stature. However, opinions about these new data are divergent: the FDA did not change the label of the drug and experts have argued for further research on the safety of rhGH. In this situation of an evolving scientific controversy, it is unclear how questions about benefit and risk are communicated to patients and their parents. Social biases and misperceptions about the deleterious effects of short stature and the benefits of added height influence decisions to prescribe rhGH and may affect discussions of the warnings by regulators. Fully supporting a model of shared decision-making involving children and adolescents requires sharing risk-benefit information, including evolving information from drug regulators, with patients and parents. PMID:23364202

Laventhal, Naomi T; Shuchman, Miriam; Sandberg, David E

2013-01-01

130

21 CFR 349.70 - Labeling of ophthalmic hypertonicity drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The labeling of the product states, under the heading “Indications,” the following phrase: “For the temporary relief of corneal edema.” (c) Warnings. In addition to the warnings in § 349.50, the labeling of the product contains the...

2010-04-01

131

A 10-Year Analysis of the Effects of Media Coverage of Regulatory Warnings on Antidepressant Use in The Netherlands and UK  

PubMed Central

Background In 2003–2004 and 2007–2008, the regulatory banning of SSRI use in pediatrics and young adults due to concerns regarding suicidality risk coincided with negative media coverage. SSRI use trends were analyzed from 2000–2010 in the Netherlands (NL) and the UK, and whether trend changes might be associated with media coverage of regulatory warnings. Methods Monthly SSRIs sales were presented as DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day. SSRI-use trends were studied using time-series segmented regression analyses. Timing of trend changes was compared with two periods of media coverage of warnings. Annual Dutch SSRI prescription data were analyzed by age group. Results Trend changes in SSRI use largely corroborated with the periods of media coverage of warnings. British SSRI use declined from 3.9 to 0.7 DDDs/month (95%CI 3.3;4.5 & 0.5;0.9, respectively) before the first warning period (2003–2004). A small decrease of ?0.6 DDDs/month (?1.2; ?0.05) was observed in Dutch SSRI use shortly after 2003–2004. From 2007–2008, British SSRI use stabilized, whilst Dutch SSRI use diminished to ?0.04 DDDs/month (?0.4;0.3). Stratified analyses showed a rapid decrease of ?1.2 DDDs/month (?2.1; ?1.7) in UK paroxetine use before 2003–2004, but only a minimal change in Dutch paroxetine use (?0.3 DDDs/month ?0.8;0.2). Other SSRI use, especially (es)citalopram, increased during 2003–2004 in both countries. Significant reductions in Dutch paroxetine use were observed in pediatrics, adolescents, and young adults after 2003–2004. Conclusion Changes in SSRI use (NL & UK) were associated with the timing of the combined effect of media coverage and regulatory warnings. Our long-term assessment illustrates that changes in SSRI use were temporal, drug-specific and more pronounced in pediatrics and young adults. The twofold increase in SSRI use over one decade indicates that regulatory warnings and media coverage may come and go, but they do not have a significant impact on the overall upward trend of SSRI use as a class in both countries. PMID:23029065

Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; van Thiel, Ghislaine J. M. W.; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Warmerdam, Jan; de Valk, Vincent; Raaijmakers, Jan A. M.; Pieters, Toine

2012-01-01

132

The Incomplete Shield: The Distant Early Warning Line and the Struggle for Effective Continental Air Defense, 1950-1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Distant Early Warning Line was a chain of radar stations built by the United States along the north shore of North America. The DEW Line was the result of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's 1952 Lincoln Laboratory Summer Study Group, which first conceived of the DEW Line as a radar detection and tracking system designed to help protect the

Samuel Edward Twitchell

2011-01-01

133

Alarm effectiveness in driver-centred collision-warning R. PARASURAMAN, P. A. HANCOCK and O. OLOFINBOBA  

E-print Network

rate and experience with other technologies con® rms driver aversion to false warnings. Although sensitive alarm systems with high detection rates and low false alarm rates have been developed, the posterior probability of a collision given an alarm can be quite low because of the low base rate

Parasuraman, Raja

134

Why People Don't Listen to Warnings: With Discussion of Implications for Futurists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document reviews recent literature on warning processes, evaluates the effectiveness of warnings in changing public policy and personal behavior, and applies warning literature to specific problem areas. Warning is interpreted to include a statement of the problem and a proposed course of action. The document is presented in six parts. Part…

Koster, Fran

135

To label or not to label, the GMO food paradox Is labeling of foods containing GMOs a consumer right? Or does labeling of GMO  

E-print Network

To label or not to label, the GMO food paradox Is labeling of foods containing GMOs a consumer right? Or does labeling of GMO foods create a false warning? Are voluntary initiatives sufficient and government agencies? As States and the nation grapple with the GMO labeling paradox, the Finding Common

Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

136

21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...This warning is to be used in place of the warning in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.) (ii) “Do not use for diaper rash.” (d) Directions. The labeling of the product contains the following statements under the heading...

2012-04-01

137

21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...This warning is to be used in place of the warning in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.) (ii) “Do not use for diaper rash.” (d) Directions. The labeling of the product contains the following statements under the heading...

2011-04-01

138

21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...This warning is to be used in place of the warning in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.) (ii) “Do not use for diaper rash.” (d) Directions. The labeling of the product contains the following statements under the heading...

2013-04-01

139

27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.21 Mandatory label information...General, women should not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy because of the...

2010-04-01

140

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Paroo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

141

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Noosa River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

142

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Barron River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

143

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Norman River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

144

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Bulloo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

145

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nerang River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

146

Laser threat warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military lasers against which threat warning systems are most urgently required are comparatively low in energy and primarily employed in association with a conventional weapon system for rangefinding and fire control. The detection of laser illumination will therefore indicate the imminent arrival of a shell or missile. Attention is presently given to imaging, nonimaging, interferometric, and scatter detector devices that can be used in this role and integrated with other threat warning devices for input to data coprocessing systems yielding threat characterizations.

Coleman, C. I.

147

The Effect of Labeling on Preschool Children's Performance in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that experimenter-induced labeling of test cards improves preschoolers' performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS), a measure of flexible rule use. Three experiments attempted to further clarify how labeling aids performance on the DCCS. Experiment 1 examined the nature of the labeling effect but failed…

Muller, Ulrich; Zelazo, Philip D.; Lurye, Leah E.; Liebermann, Dana P.

2008-01-01

148

Developing an effective tsunami warning system: Lessons from the 1960 Chile earthquake tsunami for New Zealand coastal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude 9.5 earthquake on 22 May 1960 in southern Chile was the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in the 20th century. It generated a tsunami that swept the shores of Chile and radiated out across the Pacific, with the major loss of life in Chile and, despite warnings being issued, in both Hawai'i and Japan. The absence of a Pacific?wide

David Johnston; Rylee Pettersson; Gaye Downes; Douglas Paton; Graham Leonard; Katharine Pishief; Rob Bell

2008-01-01

149

Effect of ADP on the orientation of spin-labeled myosin heads in muscle fibers: A high-resolution study with deuterated spin labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the effects of ADP on the orientational distribution of nitroxide spin labels attached to myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. To maximize the specificity of labeling, we spin-labeled isolated myosin heads (subfragment 1) on a single reactive thiol (SH1) and diffused them into unlabeled muscle fibers. To maximize spectral

Piotr G. Fajer; Elizabeth A. Fajer; John J. Matta; David D. Thomas

1990-01-01

150

Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

2006-01-01

151

Modeling warning times for the Israel's earthquake early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2012, the Israeli government approved the offer of the creation of an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) that would provide timely alarms for schools and colleges in Israel. A network configuration was chosen, consisting of a staggered line of ˜100 stations along the main regional faults: the Dead Sea fault and the Carmel fault, and an additional ˜40 stations spread more or less evenly over the country. A hybrid approach to the EEWS alarm was suggested, where a P-wave-based system will be combined with the S-threshold method. The former utilizes first arrivals to several stations closest to the event for prompt location and determination of the earthquake's magnitude from the first 3 s of the waveform data. The latter issues alarms, when the acceleration of the surface movement exceeds a threshold for at least two neighboring stations. The threshold will be chosen to be a peak acceleration level corresponding to a magnitude 5 earthquake at a short distance range (5-10 km). The warning times or lead times, i.e., times between the alarm signal arrival and arrival of the damaging S-waves, are considered for the P, S, and hybrid EEWS methods. For each of the approaches, the P- and the S-wave travel times and the alarm times were calculated using a standard 1D velocity model and some assumptions regarding the EEWS data latencies. Then, a definition of alarm effectiveness was introduced as a measure of the trade-off between the warning time and the shaking intensity. A number of strong earthquake scenarios, together with anticipated shaking intensities at important targets, namely cities with high populations, are considered. The scenarios demonstrated in probabilistic terms how the alarm effectiveness varies depending on the target distance from the epicenter and event magnitude.

Pinsky, Vladimir

2015-01-01

152

Effect of labeling and teacher behavior on children's attitudes.  

PubMed

Seventy-eight fourth-grade subjects from a rural school containing an integrated special-education program viewed one of two videotapes that depicted a child demonstrating various kinds of academic and social behavior. On one tape, the teacher reacted positively to the child's behavior; on the other, negatively. The subjects were told that the child on the tape was either a "normal," mentally retarded, or learning-disabled fourth grader. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two teacher conditions (positive or negative) and one of three labeling conditions. After viewing the videotape, the subjects filled out a peer-acceptance questionnaire concerning the child on the videotape. Results indicated that across all labeling conditions the subjects rated the child higher on the questionnaire when the child was reacted to positively by the teacher and, further, that the "mentally retarded" label led to significantly higher peer-acceptance ratings than did the "normal" or "learning-disabled" label. PMID:420261

Foley, J M

1979-01-01

153

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Johnstone River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

154

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Flinders River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

155

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Proserpine River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

156

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Maroochy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

157

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GILBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GILBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Gilbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

158

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Herbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

159

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Daintree River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

160

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mooloolah River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

161

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burdekin River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

162

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Haughton River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

163

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Leichhardt River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

164

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burnett River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

165

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Fitzroy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

166

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Diamantina River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

167

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nicholson River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

168

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Warrego River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

169

An analysis of legal warnings after drug approval in Thailand.  

PubMed

Drug risk management has many tools for minimizing risk and black-boxed warnings (BBWs) are one of those tools. Some serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) emerge only after a drug is marketed and used in a larger population. In Thailand, additional legal warnings after drug approval, in the form of black-boxed warnings, may be applied. Review of their characteristics can assist in the development of effective risk mitigation. This study was a cross sectional review of all legal warnings imposed in Thailand after drug approval (2003-2012). Any boxed warnings for biological products and revised warnings which were not related to safety were excluded. Nine legal warnings were evaluated. Seven related to drugs classes and two to individual drugs. The warnings involved four main types of predictable ADRs: drug-disease interactions, side effects, overdose and drug-drug interactions. The average time from first ADRs reported to legal warnings implementation was 12years. The triggers were from both safety signals in Thailand and regulatory measures in other countries outside Thailand. PMID:25445000

Sriphiromya, Pakawadee; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai

2015-02-01

170

SUBJECT: Timely Warning Trigger Warning: This warning addresses a report of sexual misconduct. Resources are  

E-print Network

affirmative consent from your partner. Someone incapacitated due to alcohol or drugs cannot consent to sexualSUBJECT: Timely Warning Trigger Warning: This warning addresses a report of sexual misconduct to the safety of students or employees. [INSERT INCIDENT DETAILS HERE] The only person responsible for sexual

171

Communicating with whom? The effectiveness of appliance energy labels in the U.S. and Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of household appliances is a global energy problem, and this comparative study of appliance energy labeling in the US and Thailand offers opportunities to learn from the implementation of programs in countries with different income levels and cultural and political climates. In the US, the author conducted participant observation in an appliance store and interviewed 16 policymakers, 14 salespeople, and 100 consumers. In Thailand, he interviewed 11 policymakers, 53 salespeople, and 62 consumers, and carried out a national survey of 971 consumers. This study is the first time that energy labels have been examined primarily as a problem of consumer cognition in context--that is, how consumers read, interpret, and think about energy labels in the retail environment. After just three years of implementation, the Thai appliance labeling program is having a significantly greater impact on the consumer appliance market than is the 20-year-old US program. While Thai salespeople report that more than 60% of consumers ask about or look at the label, the corresponding number for the US is just 20%. Energy efficiency was reported among the top-three purchase priorities by 28% of Thai appliance consumers, compared to just 11% of US consumers. In his in-store tests of label cognition, the US EnergyGuide label fared poorly, and the Thai appliance label was more effective at helping consumers to identify efficient models. Yet both labels suffer from the problem of too much detailed product information, which hinders label comprehension.

Pont, P. du

1998-07-01

172

Longer term impact of cigarette package warnings in Australia compared with the United Kingdom and Canada.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK warnings was higher than the Australian and Canadian pictorial warnings, this did not lead to greater levels of cognitive reactions, forgoing or avoiding. There was no difference in ratings between the Australian and UK warnings for cognitive responses and forgoing, but the Canadian warnings were responded to more strongly. Avoidance of the Australian warnings was greater than to UK ones, but less than to the Canadian warnings. The impact of warnings declined over time in all three countries. Declines were comparable between Australia and the United Kingdom on all measures except avoiding, where Australia had a greater rate of decline; and for salience where the decline was slower in Canada. Having two rotating sets of warnings does not appear to reduce wear-out over a single set of warnings. Warning size may be more important than warning type in preventing wear-out, although both probably contribute interactively. PMID:25492056

Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M; Thrasher, James F; Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

2015-02-01

173

Monitoring and early warning for internet worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Code Red incident in 2001 and the SQL Slammer in January 2003, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet, infects most vulnerable computers before people can take effective countermeasures. The fast spreading nature of worms calls for a worm monitoring and early warning system. In this paper, we propose effective algorithms

Cliff Changchun Zou; Lixin Gao; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

2003-01-01

174

Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1  

E-print Network

Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1 and Alberto Michelini2] Effective tsunami early warning for coastlines near a tsunamigenic earthquake requires notification within 5, greater than about 50 s. Here we show that T0 gives more information on tsunami importance than moment

Rawlinson, Nick

175

The Unintended Effects of Interactive Objects and Labels in the Science Museum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What effects do different setups of museum exhibits have on visitors' conversations and interactions? The study reported here is an investigation of the role that labels and associated materials play in visitors' conversations and interactions at a heat camera exhibit. After we introduced a label to help visitors explore the insulating properties…

Atkins, Leslie J.; Velez, Lisanne; Goudy, David; Dunbar, Kevin N.

2009-01-01

176

How Public Relations Professionals Can Use Food Labels as Effective Communication Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizes a panel of graphic arts education experts to review suggested Food and Drug Administration label guidelines--if the participants thought that "graphic problems" existed in the guidelines, they were asked to make suggestions to indicate how food labels could be prepared more effectively, at no additional cost. (PA)

Somerick, Nancy; Weir, Lee

1998-01-01

177

Effect of preparation procedures on intensity of radioautographic labeling is studied  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of tissue preparation and extractive procedures on the intensity of radioautographic labeling are presented in terms of mean grain count per cell in cells labeled with tritiated precursors of proteins or nucleic acids. This information would be of interest to medical researchers and cytologists.

Baserga, R.; Kisieleski, W. E.

1967-01-01

178

The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

1994-01-01

179

30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...labels. 47.41 Section 47.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41...

2010-07-01

180

30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...labels. 47.41 Section 47.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41...

2012-07-01

181

30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...labels. 47.41 Section 47.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41...

2013-07-01

182

30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...labels. 47.41 Section 47.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41...

2011-07-01

183

30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.  

...labels. 47.41 Section 47.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41...

2014-07-01

184

Identification of gustatory-olfactory flavor mixtures: effects of linguistic labeling.  

PubMed

Two experiments, using different ranges and numbers of stimuli, examined how linguistic labels affect the identification of flavor mixtures containing different proportions of sucrose (gustatory flavorant) and citral (olfactory flavorant). Both experiments asked subjects to identify each stimulus as having either "mostly sugar" or "mostly citrus." In one condition, no labels preceded the flavor stimuli. In another condition, each flavor stimulus followed a label, either SUGAR or CITRUS, which, the subjects were informed, usually though not always named the stronger flavor component; that is, the labels were probabilistically valid. The results of both experiments showed that the labels systematically modified the identification responses: Subjects responded "sugar" or "citrus" more often when the flavor stimulus followed the corresponding label, SUGAR or CITRUS. But the labels hardly affected overall accuracy of identification. Accuracy was possibly limited, however, by both the confusability of the flavor stimuli per se and the way that confusability could limit the opportunity to discern the probabilistic associations between labels and individual flavor stimuli. We describe the results in terms of a decision-theoretic model, in which labels induce shifts in response criteria governing the identification responses, or possibly effect changes in the sensory representations of the flavorants themselves. PMID:23329730

Brewer, Jennifer M; Shavit, Adam Y; Shepard, Timothy G; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Parikh, Roshan; Marks, Lawrence E

2013-05-01

185

Prescribing pattern of glucose lowering drugs in the United Kingdom in the last decade: a focus on the effects of safety warnings about rosiglitazone  

PubMed Central

Aim In the last decade, new glucose lowering drugs (GLDs) have been launched, and also several warnings regarding their safety. The cardiovascular safety of thiazolidinediones (TZD) has been questioned. We analyzed the prescription pattern of GLDs from 2000 to November 2009 in the United Kingdom (UK) using the THIN database with special focus on the effects of the safety warnings about rosiglitazone issued in May 2007 and January 2008. Methods Annual prevalence and incidence of GLD prescriptions were measured. For TZD, the monthly prevalence and incidence of prescription were calculated from May 2006 to January 2009. The switching pattern around the FDA alert and the characteristics of subjects starting treatment with TZD before and after the alerts were observed. Results The prevalence of prescriptions of GLDs increased during the 10?year period, metformin increasing more than three times. Rosiglitazone prevalence showed an increased trend until May 2007, (2.3/1000 person?years) and decreased thereafter (January 2009: 1.1/1000 person?years). The use of pioglitazone increased surpassing rosiglitazone from April 2008 onwards. The incidence of rosiglitazone use decreased sharply after May 2007 (0.8/1000 person?years). The prevalence of use of other therapies remained rather stable from 2000 to 2007 but increased afterwards. After May 2007, rosiglitazone users were increasingly switched to pioglitazone. There was an increased proportion of new users of pioglitazone with cardiovascular risk after the alerts. Conclusions The prescription of GLDs in the UK has increased in the last decade. For TZDs, it changed after May 2007 as well as the characteristics of the subjects treated with them. PMID:22845019

Leal, Ingrid; Romio, Silvana A.; Schuemie, Martijn; Oteri, Alessandro; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Trifirò, Gianluca

2013-01-01

186

Evaluating Warning Sound Urgency with Reaction Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well-established that subjective judgments of perceived urgency of alarm sounds can be affected by acoustic parameters. In this study, the authors investigated an objective measurement, the reaction time (RT), to test the effectiveness of temporal parameters of sounds in the context of warning sounds. Three experiments were performed using a…

Suied, Clara; Susini, Patrick; McAdams, Stephen

2008-01-01

187

Methods for nanoparticle labeling of ricin and effect on toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique optical properties associated with nanostructured materials that support the excitation of surface plasmons offer many new opportunities for the enhanced optical investigation of biological materials that pose a security threat. In particular, ricin is considered a significant bioterrorism risk due to its high toxicity combined with its ready availability as a byproduct in castor oil production. Therefore, the development of optical techniques capable of rapid on-site toxin detection with high molecular specificity and sensitivity continues to be of significant importance. Furthermore, understanding of the ricin cell entry and intracellular pathways remains poor due to a lack of suitable bioanalytical techniques. Initial work aimed at simultaneously tackling both these issues is described where different approaches for the nanoparticle labeling of ricin are investigated along with changes in ricin toxicity associated with the labeling process.

Wark, Alastair W.; Yu, Jun; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Nativo, Paola; Graham, Duncan

2009-09-01

188

A SDMS Model: Early Warning Coordination Centres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the tsunami disaster in 2004, the General Secretary of the United Nations (UN) Kofi Annan called for a global early warning system for all hazards and for all communities. He also requested the ISDR (International Strategy fort Disaster Reduction) and its UN partners to conduct a global survey of capacities, gaps and opportunities in relation to early warning systems. The produced report, "Global survey of Early Warning Systems", concluded that there are many gaps and shortcomings and that much progress has been made on early warning systems and great capabilities are available around the world. However, it may be argued that an early warning system (EWS) may not be enough to prevent fatalities due to a natural hazard; i.e., it should be seen as part of a ‘wider' or total system. Furthermore, an EWS may work very well when assessed individually but it is not clear whether it will contribute to accomplish the purpose of the ‘total disaster management system'; i.e., to prevent fatalities. For instance, a regional EWS may only work if it is well co-ordinated with the local warning and emergency response systems that ensure that the warning is received, communicated and acted upon by the potentially affected communities. It may be argued that without these local measures being in place, a regional EWS will have little impact in saving lives. Researchers argued that unless people are warned in remote areas, the technology is useless; for instance McGuire [5] argues that: "I have no doubt that the technical element of the warning system will work very well,"…"But there has to be an effective and efficient communications cascade from the warning centre to the fisherman on the beach and his family and the bar owners." Similarly, McFadden [6] states that: "There's no point in spending all the money on a fancy monitoring and a fancy analysis system unless we can make sure the infrastructure for the broadcast system is there,"… "That's going to require a lot of work. If it's a tsunami, you've got to get it down to the last Joe on the beach. This is the stuff that is really very hard." Given the above, the paper argues that there is a need for a systemic approach to early warning centres. Systemic means looking upon things as a system; systemic means seeing pattern and inter-relationship within a complex whole; i.e., to see events as products of the working of a system. System may be defined as a whole which is made of parts and relationships. Given this, ‘failure' may be seen as the product of a system and, within that, see death/injury/property loss etc. as results of the working of systems. This paper proposes a preliminary model of ‘early warning coordination centres' (EWCC); it should be highlighted that an EWCC is a subsystem of the Systemic Disaster Management System (SDMS) model.

Santos-Reyes, Jaime

2010-05-01

189

42 CFR 84.257 - Labeling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Special Use Respirators § 84.257 Labeling requirements. (a) A warning shall...

2011-10-01

190

30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42...

2013-07-01

191

30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42...

2012-07-01

192

30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42...

2011-07-01

193

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2013-07-01

194

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2010-07-01

195

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2011-07-01

196

30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42...

2010-07-01

197

30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.  

...contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42...

2014-07-01

198

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2014-07-01

199

30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43...

2012-07-01

200

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2013-04-01

201

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2014-04-01

202

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2011-04-01

203

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2010-04-01

204

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2012-04-01

205

Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature  

PubMed Central

Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator–prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, ‘what makes an effective warning signal?’, and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation. PMID:22113031

Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D.

2012-01-01

206

The Effects of Symptom Recognition and Diagnostic Labels on Public Beliefs, Emotional Reactions, and Stigmas Associated with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Labels are firmly rejected by the disability rights movement, yet the complex effects of labeling on lay beliefs are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of labeling on the general public's reactions to people with intellectual disabilities. A sample of 1,233 adult members of the UK general population were randomly presented with…

Scior, Katrina; Connolly, Theresa; Williams, Janice

2013-01-01

207

30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57...Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2014-07-01

208

30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56...Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2012-07-01

209

30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57...Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2013-07-01

210

30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56...Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2010-07-01

211

30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56...Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2013-07-01

212

30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57...Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2011-07-01

213

30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56...Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2011-07-01

214

30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57...Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2012-07-01

215

30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56...Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2014-07-01

216

30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57...Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains approach...

2010-07-01

217

Can serving-size labels reduce the portion-size effect? A pilot study.  

PubMed

Research has shown that the bigger the portion that people are served, the more food they eat; this phenomenon is referred to as the portion-size effect. Providing objective serving-size information on food products has been shown to reduce the influence of external food cues on people's eating behavior. The current study examined whether providing objective serving-size information would also reduce the portion-size effect. 100 female participants were served either a small or large portion of pizza in the context of a taste test. The large portion was either unlabeled, labeled as "Contains 2 servings," or labeled as "Contains 4 servings." Food intake was lower when the large portion was labeled "Contains 4 servings" compared to when it was labeled "Contains 2 servings." Moreover, participants' intake in the large portion/4 servings condition was statistically similar to the intake of participants in the small portion condition. Thus, the standard portion-size effect was observed when the large portion was unlabeled or was labeled as "Contains 2 servings," but not when the large portion was labeled as "Contains 4 servings". These findings suggest that providing serving-size information can reduce the portion-size effect, but that the specific content (and not just the presence) of serving-size information is important in determining food intake. PMID:25464065

Spanos, Samantha; Kenda, Andree S; Vartanian, Lenny R

2015-01-01

218

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2012-04-01

219

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2013-04-01

220

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2014-04-01

221

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2010-04-01

222

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2011-04-01

223

Effects of intra-brand competition between private labels and manufacturer brands: Empirical results from the Italian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proliferation of private labels in European food retailing has been evident for several years now. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of competition between manufacturer brands and private labels on assortment and pricing practices by Italian grocery retailers. Previous studies emphasized both pro-competitive and anti-competitive effects of private label development. In this study, within an

Edoardo Fornari; Sebastiano Grandi; Daniele Fornari

2011-01-01

224

Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug’s efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File – Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug interaction claims linked to the Drug Interactions section for a drug were potentially novel. The baseline performance characteristics of the proof-of-concept will enable further technical and user-centered research on robust methods for scaling the approach to the many thousands of product labels currently on the market. PMID:23351881

2013-01-01

225

Reactions to graphic health warnings in the United States.  

PubMed

This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24 and (iii) youth aged 13-17 who are current smokers or who may be susceptible to initiation of smoking. Participants were randomly assigned to be exposed to a pack of cigarettes with one of nine graphic health warnings or with a text-only warning statement. All three age groups had overall strong negative emotional (ß = 4.7, P < 0.001 for adults; ß = 4.6, P < 0.001 for young adults and ß = 4.0, P < 0.001 for youth) and cognitive (ß = 2.4, P < 0.001 for adults; ß = 3.0, P < 0.001 for young adults and ß = 4.6, P < 0.001 for youth) reactions to the proposed labels. The strong negative emotional and cognitive reactions following a single exposure to the graphic health warnings suggest that, with repeated exposures over time, graphic health warnings may influence smokers' beliefs, intentions and behaviors. PMID:24974219

Nonnemaker, James M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C

2015-02-01

226

GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

2013-04-01

227

Effect of Fluorescently Labeling Protein Probes on Kinetics of Protein-Ligand Reactions  

PubMed Central

We studied the effect of fluorescently labeling proteins on protein-ligand reactions. Un-labeled ligands (streptavidin-binding peptides and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) as antigen targets) are immobilized on epoxy-functionalized glass slides. Unlabeled and Cy3-labeled protein probes from the same batch (streptavidin and goat antibodies) subsequently react with the surface-immobilized targets. By monitoring in situ the surface mass density change using an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference scanning microscope (a label-free detector), we measured kon and koff for streptavidin-peptide reactions and antibody-antigen reaction. We found that (1) equilibrium dissociation constants, defined as KD = koff/kon, for streptavidin-peptide reactions increases by a factor of 3 ~ 4 when the solution-phase streptavidin is labeled with Cy3 dye; and (2) KD for reactions of solution-phase goat anti-rabbit antibodies with rabbit IgG targets also change significantly when the goat antibodies are labeled with Cy3 dye. PMID:18991423

Sun, Y.S.; Landry, J.P.; Fei, Y.Y.; Luo, J.T.; Wang, X.B.; Lam, K.S.

2009-01-01

228

Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

2006-01-01

229

Warning! Swallowed Magnets Are Dangerous  

MedlinePLUS

Warning! SWALLOWED MAGNETS ARE DANGEROUS Powerful, rare earth (neodymium) magnets are widely available in consumer and industrial products o Desk or ... o If your toddler or child swallows these magnets, immediately call your doctor or go to the ...

230

Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events were confirmed by using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and then were further explored for label-free DNA detection at picomolar to micromolar concentrations. We have also observed a strong effect of DNA counterions on the electronic response, thus suggesting a charge-based mechanism of DNA detection using NTNFET devices. Implementation of label-free electronic detection assays using NTNFETs constitutes an important step toward low-cost, low-complexity, highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostics. hemochromatosis | SNP | biosensor

Star, Alexander; Tu, Eugene; Niemann, Joseph; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P.; Joiner, C. Steve; Valcke, Christian

2006-01-01

231

Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors  

PubMed Central

We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events were confirmed by using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and then were further explored for label-free DNA detection at picomolar to micromolar concentrations. We have also observed a strong effect of DNA counterions on the electronic response, thus suggesting a charge-based mechanism of DNA detection using NTNFET devices. Implementation of label-free electronic detection assays using NTNFETs constitutes an important step toward low-cost, low-complexity, highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostics. PMID:16418278

Star, Alexander; Tu, Eugene; Niemann, Joseph; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P.; Joiner, C. Steve; Valcke, Christian

2006-01-01

232

LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean floor events, and ground displacements. Based on the upstream information flow DEWS focuses on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Multiple telecommunication channels will be used for the dissemination of warning messages. Wherever possible, existing standards have been integrated. The Command and Control User Interface (CCUI), a rich client application based on Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform) [4] and the open source GIS uDig [5], integrates various OGC services. Using WMS (Web Map Service) [6] and WFS (Web Feature Service) [7] spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture and to integrate a simulation system via WPS (Web Processing Service) [8] to identify affected areas. Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS [9] CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) [10] standard together with addressing information defined via EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element) [11]. Internal interfaces are realized with SOAP [12] web services. Based on results of GITEWS [13] - in particular the GITEWS Tsunami Service Bus [14] - the DEWS approach provides an implementation for tsunami early warning systems. The introductory part of the demonstration briefly explains the DEWS project, the CCUI in conjunction with operators’ workflow, the system architecture, details of information logistics and the virtual scenario of live demonstration. The live demonstration exhibits the CCUI on screen and the service environment of DEWS working in the background. The demonstration runs through a virtual Tsunami threat located in the Andaman Sea in front of Thailand; Beginning with the detection of an earthquake of critical magnitude and the calculation of early Tsunami predictions; Continuing with sea level measurements and the refinement of Tsunami predictions; Finally reaching the dissemination of warning messages via SMS, mail and other channels. REFERENCES [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the reconstruction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Wächter, J.

2009-12-01

233

Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise

V. Wepener; J. H. J. van Vuren; F. P. Chatiza; Z. Mbizi; L. Slabbert; B. Masola

2005-01-01

234

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

235

The corrective effects of warning on false memories in the DRM paradigm are limited to full attention conditions.  

PubMed

Effects of attention control and forewarning on the activation and monitoring of experimentally induced false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated in a young adult sample (N=77). We found that reducing the degree of attention during encoding led to a decrease in veridical recall and an increase in non-presented critical lure intrusions. This effect could not be counteracted by a forewarning instruction. However, these findings did not emerge in a (retrieval supportive) recognition task. It seems that divided attention increases false recall when attention control and forewarning have to compete for limited cognitive resources in a generative free recall as opposed to a retrieval supportive recognition task. Forewarning instructions do not always protect young adults against experimentally induced false memories. PMID:18804192

Peters, Maarten J V; Jelicic, Marko; Gorski, Benny; Sijstermans, Kevin; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

2008-10-01

236

An advanced missile warning processing suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective missile warning and countermeasures remain an unfulfilled goal for the Air Force and others in the DOD community. To make the expectations a reality, newer sensors exhibiting the required sensitivity, field of regard, and spatial resolution are being developed and transitioned. The largest concern is in the first stage of a missile warning system: detection, in which all targets need to be detected with a high confidence and with very few false alarms. Typical fielded sensors are limited in their detection capability by either lack of sensitivity or by the presence of heavy background clutter, sun glints, and inherent sensor noise. Many threat environments include false alarm sources like burning fuels, flares, exploding ordinance, arc welders, and industrial emitters. Multicolor discrimination has been shown as one of the effective ways to improve the performance of missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. Its utility has been demonstrated in multiple demonstration and fielded systems. New exploitations of background and clutter spectral contents, coupled with advanced spatial and temporal filtering techniques, have resulted in a need to have a new baseline algorithm on which future processing advances may be judged against. This paper describes the AFRL Suite IIIc algorithm chain and its performance against long-range dim targets in clutter.

Montgomery, Joel B.; Sanderson, Richard B.; McCalmont, John F.; Johnson, R. S.; McDermott, D. J.; Taylor, M. J.

2008-04-01

237

‘Traffic-light’ nutrition labelling and ‘junk-food’ tax: a modelled comparison of cost-effectiveness for obesity prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:Cost-effectiveness analyses are important tools in efforts to prioritise interventions for obesity prevention. Modelling facilitates evaluation of multiple scenarios with varying assumptions. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of conservative scenarios for two commonly proposed policy-based interventions: front-of-pack ‘traffic-light’ nutrition labelling (traffic-light labelling) and a tax on unhealthy foods (‘junk-food’ tax).Methods:For traffic-light labelling, estimates of changes in energy intake were based

G Sacks; J L Veerman; M Moodie; B Swinburn

2011-01-01

238

The Effects of Alternative Study Guide Labels on Testing in Developmental Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods and teaching tools have been researched to determine if they prove to be successful in effectively teaching the underprepared. This study was conducted to compare the differences in the utilization of alternative labeling on study guides to determine if the usage affects the outcome on participant's test scores. A quasi-experimental…

Buckley, Shellie Calhoun

2012-01-01

239

Effects of chelates and incubation media on platelet labeling with indium-111  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of various (¹¹¹In)chelates and incubation media on labeling efficiency (LE) and in vivo survival of platelets. High LE of human and rabbit platelets in plasma were obtained with (¹¹¹In)tropolone and (¹¹¹In)mercaptopyridine-N-oxide. Indium-¹¹¹ oxine in plasma resulted in a moderate LE and required a longer incubation time, while (¹¹¹In)oxine sulfate had low LE and inconsistent labeling. High

R. L. Hill-Zobel; S. Gannon; B. McCandless; M. F. Tsan

1987-01-01

240

Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical contamination would be useful. Based on the individual biomarker results’ contributing towards the distinct groupings it is possible to conclude that Site 1 is subjected to organic pollutants, whereas Sites 2 and 3 undergo a combination of metallic and organic pollutant stress. However, it is essential that a rapid and sensitive biomarker that is representative of the responses of a suite of biomarkers be tested before ABM can be implemented as a routine biomonitoring practice in water resource management.

Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

241

Effects of different discount levels on healthy products coupled with a healthy choice label, special offer label or both: results from a web-based supermarket experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Two strategies commonly recommended to improve population diets include food labels and food taxes/subsidies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both strategies separately and in combination. Findings An experiment with a 3x3 factorial design was conducted, including: three levels of price reduction (10%; 25%; and 50%) x three labels (‘special offer’, ‘healthy choice’ and ‘special offer & healthy choice’) on healthy foods defined following the Choices front-of-pack nutrition label. N?=?109 participants completed the experiment by conducting a typical weekly shop for their household at a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance. Participants receiving a 50% price discount purchased significantly more healthy foods for their household in a typical weekly shop than the 10% discount (+8.7 items; 95%CI?=?3.8-13.6) and the 25% discount group (+7.7 items; 95%CI?=?2.74 – 12.6). However, the proportion of healthy foods was not significantly higher and the discounts lead to an increased amount of energy purchased. No significant effects of the labels were found. Conclusion This study brings some relevant insights into the effects of price discounts on healthier foods coupled with different labels and shows that price effects over shadowed food labels. However, price discounts seem to have ambiguous effects; they do encourage the purchase of healthy products, but also lead to increased energy purchases. More research is needed to examine how pricing strategies can work in directing consumers towards interchanging unhealthier options for healthier alternatives. PMID:23680347

2013-01-01

242

Effect of fluorescently labeling protein probes on kinetics of protein-ligand reactions.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of fluorescently labeling proteins on protein-ligand reactions. Unlabeled ligands (streptavidin-binding peptides and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) as antigen targets) are immobilized on epoxy-functionalized glass slides. Unlabeled and Cy3-labeled protein probes from the same batch (streptavidin and goat antibodies) subsequently react with the surface-immobilized targets. By monitoring in situ the surface mass density change using an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference scanning microscope (a label-free detector), we measured k(on) and k(off) for streptavidin-peptide reactions and antibody-antigen reaction. We found that (1) equilibrium dissociation constants, defined as K(D) = k(off)/k(on), for streptavidin-peptide reactions increases by a factor of 3-4 when the solution-phase streptavidin is labeled with Cy3 dye and (2) K(D) for reactions of solution-phase goat anti-rabbit antibodies with rabbit IgG targets also change significantly when the goat antibodies are labeled with Cy3 dye. PMID:18991423

Sun, Y S; Landry, J P; Fei, Y Y; Zhu, X D; Luo, J T; Wang, X B; Lam, K S

2008-12-01

243

Front-of-pack nutrition labels. Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints.  

PubMed

Although front-of-pack nutrition labeling can help consumers make healthier food choices, lack of attention to these labels limits their effectiveness. This study examines consumer attention to and use of three different nutrition labeling schemes (logo, multiple traffic-light label, and nutrition table) when they face different goals and resource constraints. To understand attention and processing of labels, various measures are used including self-reported use, recognition, and eye-tracking measures. Results of two experiments in different countries show that although consumers evaluate the nutrition table most positively, it receives little attention and does not stimulate healthy choices. Traffic-light labels and especially logos enhance healthy product choice, even when consumers are put under time pressure. Additionally, health goals of consumers increase attention to and use of nutrition labels, especially when these health goals concern specific nutrients. PMID:21554909

van Herpen, Erica; Trijp, Hans C M van

2011-08-01

244

Benchmark of Romanian Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep earthquakes generated in Vrancea area are particularly of interest for many countries in Europe since they cause destructive effects at large distances from Moscow to Roma. Main courses for specific actions to mitigate the seismic risks given by strong deep Vrancea earthquakes should be considered as key for development actions and one of them is Early Warning System (EWS) for industrial facilities and other installations of national interest. The early warning system developed at National Institute for Earth Physics from Bucharest, Romania is a tool to shut down the dangerous industrial processes before strong earthquakes arrives. The early warning software permits us to minimize communication latencies present in other communication protocols and allows us a rapid magnitude determination for strong Vrancea earthquakes. This software was developed by us and is running in present at our institute. Our purpose was to rapidly avoid false alarms and to estimate earthquake magnitude in the first seconds after detection, taking into account a warning time around 25 seconds for Bucharest capital city. A modified STA/LTA detector and a voting scheme were used in the detection phase. The software was tested on nearly 3000 events recorded in the epicentre area at Muntele Rosu (MLR), Vrancioaia (VRI) and Plostina (PLOR) stations. The events that we used are all available events with magnitude ranging from Mw=1.9 and Mw=6.0. Also a simulation with continuous data recorded at the same stations since 2004 was carried out using the real time software modules. We obtained a relation between maximum acceleration of the P wave and magnitude which can be used in Vrancea to estimate rapidly the magnitude of earthquakes.

Marmureanu, A.; Ionescu, C.; Marmureanu, Gh.

2009-04-01

245

Epidural steroid warning controversy still dogging FDA.  

PubMed

On April 23, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a letter of warning that injection of corticosteroids into the epidural space of the spine may result in rare, but serious adverse events, including "loss of vision, stroke, paralysis, and death." The advisory also advocated that patients should discuss the benefits and risks of epidural corticosteroid injections with their health care professionals, along with the benefits and risks associated with other possible treatments. In addition, the FDA stated that the effectiveness and safety of the corticosteroids for epidural use have not been established, and the FDA has not approved corticosteroids for such use. To raise awareness of the risks of epidural corticosteroid injections in the medical community, the FDA's Safe Use Initiative convened a panel of experts including pain management experts to help define the techniques for such injections with the aim of reducing preventable harm. The panel was unable to reach an agreement on 20 proposed items related to technical aspects of performing epidural injections. Subsequently, the FDA issued the above referenced warning and a notice that a panel will be convened in November 2014. This review assesses the inaccuracies of the warning and critically analyzes the available literature. The literature has been assessed in reference to alternate techniques and an understanding of the risk factors when performing transforaminal epidural injections in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions, ultimately resulting in improved safety. The results of this review show the efficacy of epidural injections, with or without steroids, in a multitude of spinal ailments utilizing caudal, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar interlaminar approaches as well as lumbar transforaminal epidural injections . The evidence also shows the superiority of steroids in managing lumbar disc herniation utilizing caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches without any significant difference as compared to transforaminal approaches, either with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids combined. In conclusion, the authors request that the FDA modify the warning based on the evidence. PMID:25054397

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Singh, Vijay; Gharibo, Christopher G; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Grider, Jay S; Diwan, Sudhir; Hirsch, Joshua A

2014-01-01

246

Directing gaze: The effect of disclaimer labels on women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements.  

PubMed

In an effort to combat the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal images, there is increasing worldwide pressure on fashion, media and advertising industries to disclose when images have been digitally altered. The current study used eye tracking technology to investigate experimentally how digital alteration disclaimer labels impact women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 60 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a specific more detailed disclaimer. It was established that women did attend to the disclaimers. The nature of the disclaimer had no effect on time spent looking at particular body parts, but did affect the direction of gaze following reading of the disclaimer. This latter effect was found to be greater for women high on trait appearance comparison. Further research is paramount in guiding effective policy around the use of disclaimer labels. PMID:24997284

Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

2014-09-01

247

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required...

2014-04-01

248

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required...

2012-04-01

249

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required...

2013-04-01

250

Real-time Tsunami Warning Operations at the NOAA West Coast\\/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Coast\\/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, provide tsunami warning services for a large portion of the world's coasts. The WCATWC has primary responsibility for providing tsunami detection, warnings, and forecasts to Canada, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and all U.S. States except Hawaii. WCATWC also acts

P. Whitmore; P. Huang; H. Crowley; J. Ferris; D. Hale; W. Knight; A. Medbery; D. Nyland; C. Preller; B. Turner; G. Urban

2007-01-01

251

Effects of alcohol intoxication and gender on cerebral perfusion: an arterial spin labeling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of studies use functional MRI (fMRI) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal to investigate the neurofunctional basis of acute alcohol effects on the brain. However, the BOLD signal reflects neural activity only indirectly as it depends on regional hemodynamic changes and is therefore sensitive to vasoactive substances, such as alcohol. We used MRI-based pulsed arterial spin labeling

Elizabeth Rickenbacher; Douglas N. Greve; Sheeva Azma; Josef Pfeuffer; Ksenija Marinkovic

252

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER  

E-print Network

was completed in 1974, only minor to moderate flooding had been recorded before December 2010. In January 2013/2014 #12;These include the Councils, Police, and State Emergency Services in the local area. Internet/World Wide Web Flood Warnings, River Height Bulletins and other weather related data is available

Greenslade, Diana

253

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The reprinted position statement warns that Earth has a limited capacity to provide for the human race. If we want to avoid our own demise, we urgently need to: clean up our air and land, better manage our water and forestry resources, protect endangered and threatened species, avoid human overpopulation, and help developing nations create environmental policies.

Union of Concerned Scientists (Union of Concerned Scientists; )

1992-11-01

254

Airborne Turbulence Warning System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a system by which aircraft pilots will be warned of turbulence. This networked system of in situ sensors will be mounted on various aircraft all of which are linked through a ground based parabolic antenna. As its end result, this system will attempt to reduce the number of accidents arising from turbulence.

Bogue, Rod

2003-01-01

255

Early Warning of Network Catastrophes  

E-print Network

to other systems of national importance, e.g., computational clouds, cyber- physical systems, smart power #12;August 28, 2014 Early Warning of Network Catastrophes 7 Like Physical Systems, Networks Exhibit in space and time o Spreading process modeled as percolation from statistical physics o Near a critical

256

People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and their immediate response on how to act in case of emergency. Hence early warning systems have to be regarded in the context of an integrated and holistic risk management. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures include people-centred, timely and understandable warning. Further responsible authorities have to be identified in advance and standards for risk communication have to be established. Up to now, hazard and risk assessment for geohazards focuses on the development of inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. But often, especially in Europe, there are no institutional structures for managing geohazards and in addition there is a lack of an authority that is legally obliged to alarm on landslides at national or regional level. One of the main characteristics within the warning process for natural hazards e.g. in Germany is the split of responsibility between scientific authorities (wissenschaftliche Fachbehörde) and enforcement authorities (Vollzugsbehörde). The scientific authority provides the experts who define the methods and measures for monitoring and evaluate the hazard level. The main focus is the acquisition and evaluation of data and subsequently the distribution of information. The enforcement authority issues official warnings about dangerous natural phenomena. Hence the information chain in the context of early warning ranges over two different institutions, the forecast service and the warning service. But there doesn't exist a framework for warning processes in terms of landslides as yet. The concept for managing natural disasters is often reduced to hazard assessment and emergency response. Great importance is attached to the scientific understanding of hazards and protective structures, while analysis of socio-economic impacts and risk assessment are not considered enough. The reduction of vulnerability has to be taken into greater account. Also the information needs of different stakeholders have to be identified at an early stage and should be integrated in the development of early warning systems. The content of the warning message must be simple, understandable and should cover instructions on how to react. Further the timeliness of the messages has to be guarented. In this context the aim of the landslide monitoring and early warning system SLEWS (Sensor Based Landslide Early Warning System) is to integrate the above mentioned aspects of a holistic disaster and risk management. The technology of spatial data infrastructures and web services provides the use of multiple communication channels within an early warning system. Thus people-centred early warning messages and information about slope stability can be sent in nearly real-time. It has to be underlined that the technological information process is just one element of an effective warning system. Moreover the warning system has also to be considered as a social system and has to make allowance to socio-economic and gender aspects : «[...] Develop early warning systems that are people centered, in particular systems whose warnings are timely and understandable to those at risk, which take into account the demographic, gender, cultural and livelihood characteristics of the target audiences, including guidance on how to act upon warnings, and that support effective operations by disaster managers and other decision makers » (Hyogo Framework, 2005) References : UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION SECRETARIAT (UNISDR) (2006): Developing early warning systems: a checklist, Third international conference on early warning (EWC III): from concept to action: 27-29 March 2006, Bonn, Germany. Geneva, Switzerland: International Strate

Haß, S.; Asch, K.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Arnhardt, C.

2009-04-01

257

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Ross, Bohle and Black Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

258

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burrum and Cherwell Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

259

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Logan and Albert Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

260

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Macintyre and Weir Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

261

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Tully-Murray Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

262

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Pine and Caboolture Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

263

On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning context has been worked out. The generated results contribute significantly in the fields of (1) warning decision and warning levels, (2) warning dissemination and warning message content, (3) early warning chain planning, (4) increasing response capabilities and protective systems, (5) emergency relief and (6) enhancing communities' awareness and preparedness towards tsunami threats. Additionally examples will be given on the potentials of an operational use of risk information in early warning systems as first experiences exist for the tsunami early warning center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Beside this the importance of linking national level early warning information with tsunami risk information available at the local level (e.g. linking warning message information on expected intensity with respective tsunami hazard zone maps at community level for effective evacuation) will be demonstrated through experiences gained in three pilot areas in Indonesia. The presentation seeks to provide new insights on benefits using risk information in early warning and will provide further evidence that practical use of risk information is an important and indispensable component of end-to-end early warning.

Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

2010-05-01

264

Effect of histocompatibility factors on pulmonary retention of indium-111-labeled granulocytes  

SciTech Connect

Granulocyte transfusions are associated with a number of side effects including febrile transfusion reactions and occasionally pulmonary infiltrates. There is evidence that the presence of preformed antibodies may be a cause of these complications. In this study, allogeneic 111Indium-labeled granulocytes were used to evaluate the pulmonary retention of radioactivity in alloimmunized and non-alloimmunized patients in an attempt to assess antibody effect on granulocyte migration. After injection of labeled allogeneic granulocytes into neutropenic patients, the ratios of lung to heart activity were calculated for the first 30 min of scanning. There was significantly greater retention of radioactivity from cells in the lungs of patients who were alloimmunized, having both lymphocytotoxic (anti-HLA) and leuko-agglutinating antibodies, compared to the activity in the lungs of non-alloimmunized patients (P less than .001) or of patients receiving autologous granulocytes (P less than .001). This study demonstrates that labeled, mismatched granulocytes may be retained in the lungs for a significantly longer time in patients with preformed antibodies. This implies that transfusion of large numbers of such mismatched granulocytes, i.e., granulocyte transfusions, may also be retained in the lungs of alloimmunized patients, which could lead to pulmonary compromise. Therefore, granulocyte transfusions from random donors should not be given to alloimmunized patients.

Dutcher, J.P.; Riggs, C. Jr.; Fox, J.J.; Johnston, G.S.; Norris, D.; Wiernik, P.H.; Schiffer, C.A. (Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (USA))

1990-04-01

265

The Effect of Peptide Identification Search Algorithms on MS2-Based Label-Free Protein Quantification  

PubMed Central

Abstract Several approaches exist for the quantification of proteins in complex samples processed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by fragmentation analysis (MS2). One of these approaches is label-free MS2-based quantification, which takes advantage of the information computed from MS2 spectrum observations to estimate the abundance of a protein in a sample. As a first step in this approach, fragmentation spectra are typically matched to the peptides that generated them by a search algorithm. Because different search algorithms identify overlapping but non-identical sets of peptides, here we investigate whether these differences in peptide identification have an impact on the quantification of the proteins in the sample. We therefore evaluated the effect of using different search algorithms by examining the reproducibility of protein quantification in technical repeat measurements of the same sample. From our results, it is clear that a search engine effect does exist for MS2-based label-free protein quantification methods. As a general conclusion, it is recommended to address the overall possibility of search engine-induced bias in the protein quantification results of label-free MS2-based methods by performing the analysis with two or more distinct search engines. PMID:22804230

Degroeve, Sven; Staes, An; De Bock, Pieter-Jan

2012-01-01

266

Two-step OFFGEL approach for effective peptide separation compatible with iTRAQ labeling.  

PubMed

Shotgun proteomic analyses are increasingly becoming methods of choice for complex samples. The development of effective methods for fractionating peptides to reduce the complexity of the sample before mass analysis is a key point in this strategy. The OFFGEL technology has recently become a tool of choice in proteomic analysis at peptide level. This OFFGEL electrophoresis (OGE) approach allows the in-solution separation of peptides from various biological sources by isoelectric focusing in highly resolved 24 fractions. It was also demonstrated that OGE technology is a filtering tool for pI-based validation of peptide identification. As peptide OGE is compatible with iTRAQ labeling, OGE is finding valuable applications in quantitative proteomics as well. The aim of this study is to explain a new 2D-OGE approach that improves the proteomic coverage of complex mixtures such as colorectal cell line lysates, and which is compatible with iTRAQ labeling. PMID:24115339

Rideau, Alexis; Besson, Damien; Boissard, Alice; Coqueret, Olivier; Guette, Catherine

2013-11-01

267

Rooting out institutional corruption to manage inappropriate off-label drug use.  

PubMed

Prescribing drugs for uses that the FDA has not approved - off-label drug use - can sometimes be justified but is typically not supported by substantial evidence of effectiveness. At the root of inappropriate off-label drug use lie perverse incentives for pharmaceutical firms and flawed oversight of prescribing physicians. Typical reform proposals such as increased sanctions for manufacturers might reduce the incidence of unjustified off-label use, but they do not remove the source of the problem. Public policy should address the cause and control the practice. To manage inappropriate off-label drug use, off-label prescriptions must be tracked in order to monitor the risks and benefits and the manufacturers' conduct. Even more important, reimbursement rules should be changed so that manufacturers cannot profit from off-label sales. When off-label sales pass a critical threshold, manufacturers should also be required to pay for independent testing of the safety and effectiveness of off-label drug uses and for the FDA to review the evidence. Manufacturers should also finance, under FDA supervision, programs designed to warn physicians and the public about the risks of off-label drug use. PMID:24088156

Rodwin, Marc A

2013-01-01

268

Radar-based rainfall thresholds for debris flow warning: A review of opportunities, effect of estimation uncertainties, and assessment of key challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing availability of weather radar precipitation products provides new opportunities to improve upon existing methods for debris flow warning. The aim of this work is to examine how different characteristics of precipitation products, derived either from raingauges or from weather radar, may impact on the identification and use of precipitation thresholds that are used for debris flow warning. Precipitation exhibits space and time variability at all scales leading to high uncertainty in raingauge-based rain estimation. One distinct feature of the precipitation estimation problem for raingauge-based threshold relationship identification and use, is that the triggering precipitation to be estimated at the debris flow location exceeds an actual threshold which is likely not to be exceeded at the measuring raingauges. Recent results has shown that these characteristics may lead to biased precipitation threshold identification and low warning efficiency. Weather radar monitoring represent an interesting alternative for precipitation threshold identification, overcoming the sampling problem of point measurements. However, despite long-standing efforts, radar derived estimates are still affected by considerable uncertainties, particularly in the rough topography terrain typical of debris flows. It is therefore important to understand how uncertainties due to either rainfall sampling (typical of raingauges) or to rainfall estimation (typical of weather radar) propagates through the precipitation threshold identification methodology. Results are presented for a set of 10 high intensity debris-flow triggering storms that impacted the Southern Tyrol Region (Eastern Italian Alps) during the last decade. The region is characterized by rough orography, with elevation ranging from 300 to 4000 m asl, and it is monitored by a raingauge network with an average density of 1/70 km2 and a well calibrated and maintained C-band Doppler radar. High quality radar rainfall estimations are obtained taking into account both vertical (VPR) and radial (attenuation, screening) sources of error, and are adjusted with raingauges to provide reference rainfall estimates at the ground. Radar- and raingauge- based precipitation thresholds are identified and are compared, showing that a bias arises when using raingauge measurements for threshold assessment. The bias is related to the spatial variability characteristics of the considered storms and to the relative geometry of raingauges and debris flows. Even though the weather radar estimation uncertainty also impact the precipitation threshold identification methodology, no bias is reported for this last case. This provides a basis to identify opportunities in the use of radar-based estimates for debris flow warning in alpine regions. Key challenges are also identified, including the requirement for high quality, high resolution radar-based precipitation reanalyses and problems in areas with mixed or poor radar-coverage.

Marra, F.; Nikolopoulos, E.; Borga, M.; Creutin, J. D.

2013-12-01

269

Evaluation of the effect of the modified early warning system on the nurse-led activation of the rapid response system.  

PubMed

The modified early warning system (MEWS) is a scoring rubric used to detect the earliest signs of a change in a patient's condition. This mixed-methods study used pre- and postintervention data to describe the impact of the MEWS on the frequency of rapid response system activations and cardiopulmonary arrests among patients admitted to medical-surgical units. Focus groups of nursing staff provided insight into the factors that influence how nurses use the MEWS at the bedside as a framework to identify, intervene, and manage patients in need of an advanced level of care. PMID:24859890

Stewart, Jacqueline; Carman, Margaret; Spegman, Adele; Sabol, Valerie K

2014-01-01

270

Comparison of several indium-111 ligands in labeling blood cells: effect of diethylpyrocarbonate and CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

The effect of oxine sulfate, oxine sulfonate, tropolone, and Merc (2 mercaptopyridine-1-oxide) were compared with oxine, with respect to their capability of labeling blood cells when complexed to indium-111 (/sup 111/In). Indium-111 oxine sulfate performed similarly to (/sup 111/In)oxine with regard to cell labeling capability. Indium-111 oxine sulfonate had no labeling ability. Indium-111 tropolone and Merc were not superior to (/sup 111/In)oxine as cell labeling agents. Carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and a CO/sub 2/ generating compound, diethyl pyrocarbonate, dramatically improved the cell labeling ability in plasma of (/sup 111/In)tropolone and Merc. In the case of oxine, this improvement was less distinct. Theoretical aspects of the CO/sub 2/ cell labeling stimulating effect are discussed in terms of intra- and extracellular transferrin and lactoferrin iron (indium) binding capacity. Indium-111 tropolone behaved favorably with respect to inhibition of leukocyte migration, compared with oxine and Merc. Combined with the property of easy cell labeling and good solubility in water, also in the complexed state, tropolone must be regarded as the most suitable cell labeling ligand.

Goedemans, W.T.; de Jong, M.M.

1987-06-01

271

Canine mesenchymal stem cells are effectively labeled with silica nanoparticles and unambiguously visualized in highly autofluorescent tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Development of a method for long-term labeling of cells is critical to elucidate transplanted cell fate and migration as well as the contribution to tissue regeneration. Silica nanoparticles have been recently developed and demonstrated to be biocompatible with a high labeling capacity. Thus, our study was designed to assess the suitability of silica nanoparticles for labeling canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the fluorescence afficiency in highly autofluorescent tissue. Results We examined the effect of silica nanoparticle labeling on stem cell morphology, viability and differentiation as compared with those of unlabeled control cells. After 4?h of incubation with silica nanoparticles, they were internalized by canine MSCs without a change in the morphology of cells compared with that of control cells. The viability and proliferation of MSCs labeled with silica nanoparticles were evaluated by a WST-1 assay and trypan blue exclusion. No effects on cell viability were observed, and the proliferation of canine MSCs was not inhibited during culture with silica nanoparticles. Furthermore, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of silica nanoparticle-labeled canine MSCs was at a similar level compared with that of unlabeled cells, indicating that silica nanoparticle labeling did not alter the differentiation capacity of canine MSCs. Silica nanoparticle-labeled canine MSCs were injected into the kidneys of BALB/c mice after celiotomy, and then the mice were sacrificed after 2 or 3?weeks. The localization of injected MSCs was closely examined in highly autofluorescent renal tissues. Histologically, canine MSCs were uniformly and completely labeled with silica nanoparticles, and were unambiguously imaged in histological sections. Conclusions The results of the current study showed that silica nanoparticles are useful as an effective labeling marker for MSCs, which can elucidate the distribution and fate of transplanted MSCs. PMID:22920604

2012-01-01

272

Towards a nationwide Early Warning System in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to use early warning methods to reduce natural risks in modern societies is related to their unprecedented dependence upon technology. The strong deep events originating from Vrancea-Romania (Mw =7.5) area and shallow events originating from Banat-Romania or Shabla-Bulgaria areas can generate destructive effects in Romania and neighbor countries, and may seriously affect high risk manmade structures. EWS for deep Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. For the shallow events several methodologies to rapidly estimate earthquake magnitude are under testing. NIEP developed an early warning system that is able to evaluate rapidly earthquake magnitude after detection in the epicenter. In the last years, NIEP upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. The early warning system consists of seismic stations that allow rapid communication of data, several software modules developed at NIEP and a communication network. The system allows estimation of earthquake magnitude and permits to send earthquake alarm very fast to users. The early warning software modules minimize communication latencies present in other communication protocols in order to have a rapid magnitude determination. This software was developed by NIEP and is running in present at our institute in real time.

Marmureanu, A.; Ionescu, C.; Manea, L.

2012-04-01

273

The Emotional Impact and Ease of Recall of Warning Signs for Suicide: A Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of concerns about potential iatrogenic effects of information about suicide, in the current study we examined the emotional impact of reading a list of warning signs for suicide in comparison to comparable lists for heart attacks and diabetes. All participants read two sets of warning signs, with the experimental group reading the suicide…

Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Berman, Alan L.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Hollar, Daniel

2006-01-01

274

21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of this section. (3) In the case of products packaged in glass containers, the word “break” may be substituted for the word...following products: (i) Products expelled in the form of a foam or cream, which contain less than 10 percent propellant...

2010-04-01

275

Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan is located in one of the most tectonically active region in the world. We have suffered from many disasters brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. Significant efforts to mitigate disasters have been made as one of the most important national programs. Considering the difficulty of the earthquake prediction in time, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) considers it is important to issue the early warning immediately when the large earthquake occurs. JMA has been developing the "Earthquake Early Warning(EEW)" as a countermeasure to strong motion. JMA's EEW estimates hypocenter and magnitude using initial seismic waveform observed at the stations close to the epicenter, and issues estimated seismic intensity before the strong motion arrival. It also enables prompter issuance of the tsunami warning. We adopt a step-by-step method to improve the accuracy and reliance of the estimated focal parameters as the available data increases as the time lapse, ensuring the promptness of the first estimation at the same time. We estimate the hypocenter using Single Station Method and Network Method. Single Station Method is fitting simple function (Bt*exp(-At)) to the absolute value of acceleration waveform envelope of the first two seconds from the P onset by the cooperative study with Railway Technical Research Institute(RTRI). Network Method is using "territory" and "grid search" in combination. In addition to this procedure, we use the result of "Not Yet Arrived Data Method", a kind of grid search method, from June 2005. This method is developed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention(NIED). After the hypocenter is determined, we estimate the magnitude by using hypocentral distance and maximum displacement amplitudes (Dmax) updated every second and the formula is as follows: M = log (Dmax) + logR + a1*R + a2 (R: Hypocentral distance (km)) We can calculate each site of Seismic Intensity estimation by using up-to-date hypocenter and magnitude in addition. JMA has started test distribution of EEW in Feb. 2004 to specific users to fieldtest the effectiveness of the warning, for the events that occur in the region where JMA has integrated data processing functions at the seismic stations. EEW issued 245 times from Feb. 25th 2004 to Aug 31st 2005 (including 22 times of false alarm almost due to initial artificial mistakes). We will discuss the detail of EEW distribution at the session.

Kiyomoto, M.; Tsukada, S.; Ohtake, K.; Shiozu, Y.; Morimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Sekita, Y.; Doi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Odaka, T.; Ashiya, K.; Horiuchi, S.

2005-12-01

276

A Simple Procedure for Effective Quenching of Trypsin Activity and Prevention of 18O-Labeling Back-Exchange  

PubMed Central

Trypsin-catalyzed stable isotope 16O/18O-labeling of the C-terminal carboxyl groups of peptides is increasingly used in shotgun proteomics for relative peptide/protein quantitation. However, precise quantitative measurements are often complicated by residual trypsin that can catalyze the back-exchange of 18O with 16O after labeling. Here, we demonstrate through a detailed evaluation that boiling the peptide sample for 10 minutes provides a simple means for completely quenching residual trypsin activity and preventing oxygen back-exchange in 18O-labeled samples. We also observed that the presence of organic solvents such as acetonitrile made quenching trypsin activity less efficient. Finally, current 18O-labeling methods that typically employ immobilized trypsin result in significant sample losses due to non-specific binding of peptides on the resin, making their application toward smaller biological samples increasingly impractical. We present here an improved 18O-labeling protocol that is more applicable to microscale biological samples by using solution-phase trypsin instead of immobilized trypsin to overcome the non-specific sample loss issue encountered with the use of immobilized trypsin. The ability to generate stably 18O-labeled samples without back-exchange should enable more effective applications of 18O-labeled toward large-scale biomarker discovery and validations where an 18O-labeled sample can be used as a common reference for quantitation. PMID:19222237

Petritis, Brianne O.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

2009-01-01

277

Near-infrared-labeled tetracycline derivative is an effective marker of bone deposition in mice.  

PubMed

Bone-specific compounds have been used effectively for the detection of bone mineralization, growth, and morphological changes. These agents typically contain iminodiacetic acid groups that can form complexes with apatite and fluoresce in the visible spectrum. We exploited a subset of these chemical chelators to produce a near-infrared (NIR) optical bone marker for preclinical animal imaging. By conjugating target compounds to IRDye 800CW, we extended the effective fluorescence signal detection to the NIR region without affecting the compound's ability to function as a marker of the mineralization process. Calcein and a tetracycline derivative (BoneTag agent [BT]) bound specifically to differentiated mineralized osteoblast cultures, with the latter exhibiting 6-fold higher signal intensities. Subsequent in vivo testing demonstrated effective skeletal labeling with IRDye 800CW BT. We were able to identify a changing mineralization front in bone sections from (i) normal growing mice injected with IRDye 800CW BT 6weeks prior to the administration of IRDye 680 BT and (ii) an osteoporosis mouse model comparing cortical bone in sham-treated and ovariectomized mice. These results provide evidence that the NIR-labeled BT is effective as a general marker of skeletal features and an indicator of the bone mineralization and remodeling processes. PMID:21645491

Kovar, Joy L; Xu, Xinshe; Draney, Dan; Cupp, Andrea; Simpson, Melanie A; Olive, D Michael

2011-09-15

278

Human factors research problems in electronic voice warning system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The speech messages issued by voice warning systems must be carefully designed in accordance with general principles of human decision making processes, human speech comprehension, and the conditions in which the warnings can occur. The operator's effectiveness must not be degraded by messages that are either inappropriate or difficult to comprehend. Important experimental variables include message content, linguistic redundancy, signal/noise ratio, interference with concurrent tasks, and listener expectations generated by the pragmatic or real world context in which the messages are presented.

Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

1975-01-01

279

Estimating the average treatment effects of nutritional label use using subclassification with regression adjustment.  

PubMed

Propensity score methods are common for estimating a binary treatment effect when treatment assignment is not randomized. When exposure is measured on an ordinal scale (i.e. low-medium-high), however, propensity score inference requires extensions which have received limited attention. Estimands of possible interest with an ordinal exposure are the average treatment effects between each pair of exposure levels. Using these estimands, it is possible to determine an optimal exposure level. Traditional methods, including dichotomization of the exposure or a series of binary propensity score comparisons across exposure pairs, are generally inadequate for identification of optimal levels. We combine subclassification with regression adjustment to estimate transitive, unbiased average causal effects across an ordered exposure, and apply our method on the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate the effects of nutritional label use on body mass index. PMID:25432690

Lopez, Michael J; Gutman, Roee

2014-11-28

280

Dynamic vibrotactile warning signals for frontal collision avoidance: towards the torso versus towards the head.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of dynamic vibrotactile warning signals with different spatial patterns and to compare dynamic towards-torso and towards-head vibrotactile warnings in a simulated driving task. The results revealed that embedding additional stimuli between the participant's hands and waist in the towards-torso cues (Experiment 1) and increasing the spatial distance between adjacent stimuli in the towards-head cues (Experiment 2) did not result in any further benefits in braking response times (BRTs). The triple towards-head cues resulting from the sequential operation of three pairs of stimuli on the torso gave rise to a significant advantage over the static cues; however, it did not outperform the dynamic towards-torso cues with just two pairs of stimuli. Taken together, these results demonstrated the promise of dynamic vibrotactile warnings (especially, the towards-torso warnings) in terms of the future design of more effective rear-end collision warnings. PMID:25374255

Meng, Fanxing; Ho, Cristy; Gray, Rob; Spence, Charles

2015-03-01

281

The speeding of voluntary reaction by a warning signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warning signals can shorten reaction time (RT) via either a top-down mechanism, temporal attention, or a bottom-up one, phasic arousal. The goal of this review article is to identify the locus at which these processes influence RT. Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence indicate that the chronometric locus for both modulatory effects lies mainly within a narrow window at the center of

Steven A. Hackley

2009-01-01

282

Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to potentially affected groups, and how mitigation strategies can be taken in response. This paper presents an outline of the protocol that was developed in the DEWFORA project, outlining the complementary roles of science, policy and societal uptake in effective drought forecasting and warning. A consensus on the need to emphasise the social component of early warning was reached when testing the DEWFORA early warning system protocol among experts from 18 countries.

Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

2014-05-01

283

Effects of different fixative solutions on labeling of Concanavalin-A receptor sites in human T-lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of several fixative solutions on the number of Concanavalin-A·(Con-A) receptor sites of human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. Cells treated with different fixative solutions (glutaraldehyde (G); formaldehyde (F);G+F; osmium tetroxide (Os); Os+G; Os+F; and Os+G+F) were labeled with a Con-A gold labeled horseradish peroxidase (HRP) complex and the number of gold particles on the lymphocytic surface was

J. Renau-Piqueras; E. Knecht; J. Hernández-Yago

1981-01-01

284

33 CFR 127.1207 - Warning alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1207 Warning...

2010-07-01

285

33 CFR 127.1207 - Warning alarms.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1207 Warning...

2014-07-01

286

33 CFR 127.1207 - Warning alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1207 Warning...

2013-07-01

287

33 CFR 127.1207 - Warning alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1207 Warning...

2012-07-01

288

33 CFR 127.1207 - Warning alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1207 Warning...

2011-07-01

289

Inconsistent labeling of food effect for oral agents across therapeutic areas: differences between oncology and non-oncology products  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several recent oral oncology drug labels were labeled to be administered in fasted states despite the fact that food increases their bioavailability. Since this was inconsistent with principles of oral drug delivery, we hypothesized that there were inconsistencies across therapeutic areas. Experimental Design Oral agents approved by US FDA from January 2000 to May 2009 were included in our study. Comparison of the food labeling patterns between oncology and non-oncology drugs was made using Fisher's exact test. Results Of 99 drugs evaluated, 34 showed significant food effects on bioavailability. When food markedly enhanced bioavailability, 8 out of 9 non-oncology drugs were labeled “fed” to take advantage of the food-drug interaction while all oncology drugs (n=3) were labeled to be administered in “fasted” states (Fisher's exact; p= 0.01). Conclusions Drug labeling pattern with respect to food-drug interactions observed with oncology drugs is in contradiction to fundamental pharmacological principles, as exemplified in the labeling of non-oncology drugs. PMID:20736327

Kang, Soonmo Peter; Ratain, Mark J.

2010-01-01

290

Labeling with Indium-111 has detrimental effects on human lymphocytes: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

When lymphocytes from human peripheral blood were labeled with In-111 oxinate, several of their properties appeared to be affected. The spontaneous release of the radionuclide was found to be relatively high. Labeled lymphocytes showed a decreased proliferative capacity, dependent on the dose of the label. Cytogenetic studies revealed that In-111 oxinate induces severe chromosomal aberrations. These results emphasize the need for great caution in the use of the In-111 label for studies on lymphocyte traffic in humans.

ten Berge, R.J.M.; (Central Lab. of the Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Amsterdam); Natarajan, A.T.; Hardeman, M.R.; van Royen, E.A.; Schellekens, P.T.A.

1983-07-01

291

A Personal Storm Warning Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although lightning detection systems operated by government agencies, utilities and other businesses provide storm warnings, this information often does not reach the public until some time after the observations have been made. A low-cost personal lightning detector offers a significant safety advantage to private flyers, boaters, golfers and others. Developed by Airborne Research Associates, the detectors originated in Space Shuttle tests of an optical lightning detection technique. The commercial device is pointed toward a cloud to detect invisible intracloud lightning by sensing subtle changes in light presence. The majority of the sales have been to golf courses. Additional products and more advanced applications are in progress.

1994-01-01

292

ReWarn: An opportunistic relay scheme for cooperative collision warning in VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present ReWarn, an opportunistic relay scheme for cooperative collision warning in VANET, which helps to mitigate the impact of package loss caused by shadow fading. When safety messages in VANET, e.g., collision warning messages, are broadcast in air, a vehicle may detect collision risks both of its own and of its neighbors'. If a vehicle has

Chung-Ming Huang; Lai Tu; Chih-Hsun Chou

2009-01-01

293

Label free sensing platform for amyloid fibrils effect on living cells.  

PubMed

This study presents a multiparametric label-free analysis gathering surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for monitoring the progress of a model epithelial cell culture (Madin Darbey Canine Kidney - MDCK) exposed to a peptide with high bio-medical relevance, amyloid ? (A?42). The approach surpasses the limitations in using the SPR angle for analyzing confluent cell monolayers and proposes a novel quantitative analysis of the SPR dip combined with advanced EIS as a tool for dynamic cell assessment. Long, up to 48h time series of EIS and SPR data reveal a biphasic cellular response upon A?42 exposure corresponding to changes in cell-substrate adherence, cell-cell tightening or cytoskeletal remodeling. The equivalent circuit used for fitting the EIS spectra provided substantiation of SPR analysis on the progress of cell adhesion as well as insight on dynamics of cell-cell junction. Complementary endpoint assays: western blot analysis and atomic force microscopy experiments have been performed for validation. The proposed label free sensing of nonlethal effect of model amyloid protein at cellular level provides enhanced resolution on cell-surface and cell-cell interactions modulated by membrane related protein apparatus, applicable as well to other adherent cell types and amyloid compounds. PMID:24035851

Gheorghiu, Mihaela; David, Sorin; Polonschii, Cristina; Olaru, Andreea; Gaspar, Szilveszter; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Bogdan O; Gheorghiu, Eugen

2014-02-15

294

16 CFR 1203.6 - Labeling and instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be visible to the user. This label shall...A warning to the user that the helmet can be damaged by contact with common substances...be visible to the user. This label shall...care and cleaning information. (6) Signal...

2010-01-01

295

14 CFR 121.289 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 121...Airworthiness Requirements § 121.289 Landing gear: Aural warning device. ...1992, each airplane must have a landing gear aural warning device that...

2011-01-01

296

14 CFR 121.289 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 121...Airworthiness Requirements § 121.289 Landing gear: Aural warning device. ...1992, each airplane must have a landing gear aural warning device that...

2010-01-01

297

14 CFR 125.187 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 125...Airworthiness Requirements § 125.187 Landing gear: Aural warning device. ...1992, each airplane must have a landing gear aural warning device that...

2011-01-01

298

14 CFR 125.187 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 125...Airworthiness Requirements § 125.187 Landing gear: Aural warning device. ...1992, each airplane must have a landing gear aural warning device that...

2010-01-01

299

14 CFR 23.207 - Stall warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stall warning. 23.207 Section 23.207 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.207 Stall warning. (a) There must be a clear and...

2013-01-01

300

14 CFR 23.207 - Stall warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stall warning. 23.207 Section 23.207 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.207 Stall warning. (a) There must be a clear and...

2012-01-01

301

14 CFR 23.207 - Stall warning.  

...Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stall warning. 23.207 Section 23.207 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.207 Stall warning. (a) There must be a clear and...

2014-01-01

302

14 CFR 23.207 - Stall warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stall warning. 23.207 Section 23.207 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.207 Stall warning. (a) There must be a clear and...

2011-01-01

303

14 CFR 23.207 - Stall warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stall warning. 23.207 Section 23.207 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.207 Stall warning. (a) There must be a clear and...

2010-01-01

304

A National Implementation Panel for Detectable Warnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes meetings by a panel of travel, access, and public transit professionals to discuss detectable warning systems (devices to notify individuals with visual impairments of hazards along their path of travel). Recommendations of the panel for universal design standards and educating communities about detectable warning systems are…

Joffee, E.

1996-01-01

305

Effects of an Insulin Infusion Pump and the Label “Diabetes” on Observers' Judgments of an Individual's Personality and Social Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of labeling an individual as diabetic and the effects of wearing an insulin infusion pump (IIP) on observers' perceptions of such individuals' personality characteristics. Thirty female and 30 male college students were asked to view a photograph of a female and to speculate on the personality characteristics, social skills,

Cynthia H. Pollans; Ira Daniel Turkat

1984-01-01

306

Direct in vivo characterization of delta 5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: Effect of insulin  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DHLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) was compared in normal subjects and diabetic patients before and after treatment with insulin. The kinetics of the incorporation of deuterium-labeled DHLA and its conversion product, deuterium-labeled AA, was determined in plasma triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, and platelet lipids of subjects after ingestion of 2 g of the labeled precursor. Analysis was performed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using multiple ion detection. In normal subjects, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration rose to 24 to 69 mg/L in plasma triglycerides four to nine hours after ingestion and to 20 to 34 mg/L in plasma phospholipids about four hours later. Deuterium-labeled AA appeared at 12 hours, rose to 2.4 to 3.8 mg/L between 48 and 72 hours in plasma phospholipids, but remained at the limit of detection in plasma triglycerides and was undetectable in platelet lipids. In diabetic patients both before and after insulin treatment, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration in plasma triglycerides and in plasma phospholipids followed the same pattern as in normal subjects. However, the deuterium-labeled arachidonic acid concentration was below 1 mg/L in plasma phospholipids before insulin. After insulin treatment the patients recovered normal DHLA metabolism because deuterium-labeled AA rose in phospholipids to a mean value of 3.5 mg/L, which is in the same range as that observed in normal subjects (3.2 mg/L). The present data provide direct evidence for the conversion of DHLA into AA in humans. The effect of insulin and the data from the literature of animal studies suggest insulin dependence of delta 5 desaturase in humans.

el Boustani, S.; Causse, J.E.; Descomps, B.; Monnier, L.; Mendy, F.; Crastes de Paulet, A.

1989-04-01

307

Effect of labeling with iron oxide particles or nanodiamonds on the functionality of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (~0.9 µm) fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green) superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles); and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ~0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo. PMID:23301012

Blaber, Sinead P; Hill, Cameron J; Webster, Rebecca A; Say, Jana M; Brown, Louise J; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vesey, Graham; Herbert, Benjamin Ross

2013-01-01

308

Effect of Labeling with Iron Oxide Particles or Nanodiamonds on the Functionality of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (?0.9 µm) fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green) superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles); and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ?0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo. PMID:23301012

Blaber, Sinead P.; Hill, Cameron J.; Webster, Rebecca A.; Say, Jana M.; Brown, Louise J.; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vesey, Graham; Herbert, Benjamin Ross

2013-01-01

309

30 CFR 75.1103-5 - Automatic fire warning devices; actions and response.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...million above the established ambient level at any sensor location, automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall provide an effective...A map or schematic that shows the locations of sensors, and the intended air flow direction at...

2011-07-01

310

30 CFR 75.1103-5 - Automatic fire warning devices; actions and response.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...million above the established ambient level at any sensor location, automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall provide an effective...A map or schematic that shows the locations of sensors, and the intended air flow direction at...

2013-07-01

311

30 CFR 75.1103-5 - Automatic fire warning devices; actions and response.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...million above the established ambient level at any sensor location, automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall provide an effective...A map or schematic that shows the locations of sensors, and the intended air flow direction at...

2012-07-01

312

Brand proneness versus experiential effect? Explaining consumer preferences towards labeled food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' fears and anxiousness, triggered by recent food scares and crises, and technological developments such as GMOs, have led to serious concerns about food safety, ever-increasing demands for quality assurance, more information about product origin food labels, and more particularly designation-of-origin labels, such as PDO (protected designation of origin) and PGI (protected geographic indication). Region of origin food labels have

Imene Trabelsi Trigui; Georges Giraud

2012-01-01

313

Investigating drug repositioning opportunities in FDA drug labels through topic modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Drug repositioning offers an opportunity to revitalize the slowing drug discovery pipeline by finding new uses for currently existing drugs. Our hypothesis is that drugs sharing similar side effect profiles are likely to be effective for the same disease, and thus repositioning opportunities can be identified by finding drug pairs with similar side effects documented in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug labels. The safety information in the drug labels is usually obtained in the clinical trial and augmented with the observations in the post-market use of the drug. Therefore, our drug repositioning approach can take the advantage of more comprehensive safety information comparing with conventional de novo approach. Method A probabilistic topic model was constructed based on the terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) that appeared in the Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions, and Adverse Reactions sections of the labels of 870 drugs. Fifty-two unique topics, each containing a set of terms, were identified by using topic modeling. The resulting probabilistic topic associations were used to measure the distance (similarity) between drugs. The success of the proposed model was evaluated by comparing a drug and its nearest neighbor (i.e., a drug pair) for common indications found in the Indications and Usage Section of the drug labels. Results Given a drug with more than three indications, the model yielded a 75% recall, meaning 75% of drug pairs shared one or more common indications. This is significantly higher than the 22% recall rate achieved by random selection. Additionally, the recall rate grows rapidly as the number of drug indications increases and reaches 84% for drugs with 11 indications. The analysis also demonstrated that 65 drugs with a Boxed Warning, which indicates significant risk of serious and possibly life-threatening adverse effects, might be replaced with safer alternatives that do not have a Boxed Warning. In addition, we identified two therapeutic groups of drugs (Musculo-skeletal system and Anti-infective for systemic use) where over 80% of the drugs have a potential replacement with high significance. Conclusion Topic modeling can be a powerful tool for the identification of repositioning opportunities by examining the adverse event terms in FDA approved drug labels. The proposed framework not only suggests drugs that can be repurposed, but also provides insight into the safety of repositioned drugs. PMID:23046522

2012-01-01

314

Human factors field evaluation of automotive headway maintenance/collision warning devices.  

PubMed

Three on-road studies were conducted to determine how headway maintenance and collision warning displays influence driver behavior. Visual perspective, visual perspective with a pointer, visual perspective combined with an auditory warning, discrete visual warning, and discrete auditory warning were assessed during both coupled headway and deceleration events. Results indicate that when drivers are provided with salient visual information regarding safe headways, they utilize the information and increase their headway when appropriate. Auditory warnings were less effective than visual warnings for increasing headways but may be helpful for improving reaction time during events that require deceleration. Drivers were somewhat insensitive to false alarm rates, at least during short-term use. Finally, and most important, driver headway maintenance increased by as much as 0.5 s when the appropriate visual display was used. However, a study to investigate the longterm effects of such displays on behavior is strongly recommended prior to mass marketing of headway maintenance/collision warning devices. PMID:9302889

Dingus, T A; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N; Jahns, S K; Carney, C; Hankey, J M

1997-06-01

315

21 CFR 349.55 - Labeling of ophthalmic astringent drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER...Labeling of ophthalmic astringent drug products. (a) Statement...contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product... (c) Warnings. In addition to the warnings in §...

2010-04-01

316

A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform forming the upstream information flow, the DEWS project focused on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Based on these results, TRIDEC continues this task focusing on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data.

Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

2012-04-01

317

Graphic gambling warnings: how they affect emotions, cognitive responses and attitude change.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the effects of graphic warnings related to excessive gambling. It is based upon a theoretical model derived from both the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). We focus on video lottery terminal (VLT), one of the most hazardous format in the gaming industry. Our cohort consisted of 103 actual gamblers who reported previous gambling activity on VLT's on a regular basis. We assess the effectiveness of graphic warnings vs. text-only warnings and the effectiveness of two major arguments (i.e., family vs. financial disruption). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test the direct and combined effects of two variables (i.e., warning content and presence vs. absence of a graphic). It was found that the presence of a graphic enhances both cognitive appraisal and fear, and has positive effects on the Depth of Information Processing. In addition, graphic content combined with family disruptions is more effective for changing attitudes and complying with the warning than other combinations of the manipulated variables. It is proposed that ELM and PMT complement each other to explain the effects of warnings. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22648580

Muñoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Borges, Adilson

2013-09-01

318

Isotope effect in negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry of deuterium labelled lormetazepam.  

PubMed

This study identified the reason for the poor quantification of lormetazepam-TMS (1) using negative ion chemical ionization with lormetazepam-1,1,1-2H3-TMS (2) as an internal standard. Mass spectra of lormetazepam and its deuterium labelled compounds determined at various ion source temperatures (100-250 degrees C) gave almost the same behaviour for 1 and lormetazepam-3',4',5',6'-2H4-TMS (3) but a different one for 2, suggesting that the poor quantification was due to an isotope effect. This was confirmed by the findings that the ratios of ion currents of the base peaks of 1 and 3 were independent of the ion source temperature but those of 1 and 2 varied markedly with it. This phenomenon was also observed in the mass fragmentography of the molecular ion, although to a lesser degree than that of the above fragment. In both positive ion chemical ionization and electron impact ionization modes, no isotope effect arose because there was no corresponding fragment to cause the isotope effect. PMID:2955830

Takahashi, S

1987-06-01

319

Automaticity of Basic-Level Categorization Accounts for Labeling Effects in Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are there consequences of calling objects by their names? Lupyan (2008) suggested that overtly labeling objects impairs subsequent recognition memory because labeling shifts stored memory representations of objects toward the category prototype (representational shift hypothesis). In Experiment 1, we show that processing objects at the basic…

Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

320

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2011-01-01

321

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2012-01-01

322

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2014-01-01

323

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2010-01-01

324

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2013-01-01

325

The effects of individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study.  

PubMed

Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individually determined using the alpha peak frequency as an anchor point. 20 ADHD children underwent 18 training sessions. Clinical and neurophysiological variables were measured pre- and post-training. EEG was recorded pre- and post-training, and pre- and post-training trials within each session, in both eyes closed resting state and eyes open task-related activity. A power EEG analysis assessed long-term and within-session effects, in the trained parameter and in all the sensors in the (1-30) Hz spectral range. Learning curves over sessions were assessed as well. Parents rated a clinical improvement in children regarding inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Neurophysiological tests showed an improvement in working memory, concentration and impulsivity (decreased number of commission errors in a continuous performance test). Relative and absolute upper alpha power showed long-term enhancement in task-related activity, and a positive learning curve over sessions. The analysis of within-session effects showed a power decrease ("rebound" effect) in task-related activity, with no significant effects during training trials. We conclude that the enhancement of the individual upper alpha power is effective in improving several measures of clinical outcome and cognitive performance in ADHD. This is the first NF study evaluating such a protocol in ADHD. A controlled evaluation seems warranted due to the positive results obtained in the current study. PMID:25199660

Escolano, C; Navarro-Gil, M; Garcia-Campayo, J; Congedo, M; Minguez, J

2014-12-01

326

21 CFR 333.160 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.  

...indication: “First aid for the temporary relief of” (select one of the following: “pain,” “discomfort,” “pain or discomfort” or “pain and itching”) “in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns.” (c) Warnings. The labeling...

2014-04-01

327

21 CFR 333.160 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...indication: “First aid for the temporary relief of” (select one of the following: “pain,” “discomfort,” “pain or discomfort” or “pain and itching”) “in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns.” (c) Warnings. The labeling...

2011-04-01

328

21 CFR 333.160 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indication: “First aid for the temporary relief of” (select one of the following: “pain,” “discomfort,” “pain or discomfort” or “pain and itching”) “in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns.” (c) Warnings. The labeling...

2010-04-01

329

21 CFR 333.160 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...indication: “First aid for the temporary relief of” (select one of the following: “pain,” “discomfort,” “pain or discomfort” or “pain and itching”) “in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns.” (c) Warnings. The labeling...

2012-04-01

330

21 CFR 333.160 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...indication: “First aid for the temporary relief of” (select one of the following: “pain,” “discomfort,” “pain or discomfort” or “pain and itching”) “in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns.” (c) Warnings. The labeling...

2013-04-01

331

78 FR 67985 - Supplemental Applications Proposing Labeling Changes for Approved Drugs and Biological Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Supreme Court considered the issue of whether Federal law preempts State law tort claims against pharmaceutical manufacturers for failing...whether Federal labeling requirements preempt State law failure-to-warn claims. In Wyeth v....

2013-11-13

332

Inserting GM Products into the Food Chain: The Market and Welfare Effects of Different Labeling and Regulatory Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine the system-wide effects of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products with and without labeling and to compare these two regimes to a third regime where GM products are not present either because they have not yet been developed or because they have been banned. For each regime, the decisions and welfare

Murray Fulton; Konstantinos Giannakas

2004-01-01

333

Demonstrating adequacy of railroad warnings: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequently a jury is asked to evaluate a claim that a device provided adequate warning of a hazardous condition. Although there is extensive research on which basis an expert may evaluate such claim, the layman is unprepared to integrate such information into a decision. Previous attempts to produce courtroom demonstrations of warnings have been easily challenged by opposing experts. In a recent case involving a pedestrian accident on a railroad right-of-way we produced a jury demonstration that was accepted by the court, was not challenged effectively by opposing counsel, and communicated effectively with the jury. This paper describes a demonstration that incorporated binaural recording and presentation with a synchronized video orientation and simulation. We will present an excerpt of the demonstration.

Erdreich, John; Difrancesco, Victor

2005-09-01

334

Effect of plasmapheresis on the liver uptake of ApoB-lipoproteins labeled with technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

To study liver low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor activity before and after plasmapheresis, ({sup 99m}Tc) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was used. Autologous VLDL was labeled, sterilized by filtration, and administered intravenously to patients under a gamma camera. The uptake of lipoproteins in the liver was measured by scintiscanning. Liver activity curves were generated for each patient. The liver activity in patients with the heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis (SA) without hereditary deficit of LDL receptors was reduced as compared to healthy people. Plasmapheresis enhanced the liver uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled lipoproteins in atherosclerotic patients. Thus, labeled metabolites could presumably be of use in assessing the effect of plasmapheresis on liver function.

Anisimova, O.Ju.; Konovalov, G.A.; Agapov, I.I.; Fuki, I.V.; Sergienko, V.B.; Repin, V.S.; Kukharchuk, V.V. (USSR Cardiology Research Center, Moscow (USSR))

1989-12-01

335

Genes, manganese, and zinc in formation of otoconia: labeling, recovery, and maternal effects.  

PubMed

Published studies indicate that genes and dietary manganese deficiency cause vestibular defects and ataxic behaviors. Manganese deficiency during development causes otoconial defects in mice, rats, guinea pigs, and chicks. Mutant genes cause otoconial defects in mice, mink, and poultry. Manganese supplementation prevents the otoconial defects in some mutant mice and mink. Manganese is essential, before crystallization of the otoconia, for synthesis of mucopolysaccharides and otoconial matrix. Such defects can be induced, after otoconia are crystallized during fetal development, by dietary zinc deficiency and sulfonamide treatment (inhibits carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-requiring enzyme). Manganese and/or zinc supplementation ameliorates otoconial defects in pallid and lethal-milk (zinc-deficient) mice. Studies herein show that: Developing otoconia can be quantitatively labeled with 45 Ca. This may provide a means for studying calcium metabolism in otoconia over a prolonged period of time and for determining the possible effects of diet, drugs, and other factors on otoconia. Otoconial defects, induced after otoconia form in the fetus, were observed in newborn mice, but disappeared by two days after birth. Conditions of the inner ear may contribute to the calcification of otoconia. Manganese and zinc supplementation of pallid mice via acidified drinking water is more effective than dietary supplementation in preventing otoconial defects. The effectiveness of zinc but not of manganese is related to maternal genotype (+/pa vs. pa/pa). The effect of supplementation of the dams with zinc but not with manganese increases over successive litters. These studies indicate the potential for interaction of genes and trace minerals on otoconial formation and maintenance. PMID:3810031

Erway, L C; Purichia, N A; Netzler, E R; D'Amore, M A; Esses, D; Levine, M

1986-01-01

336

49 CFR 393.87 - Warning flags on projecting loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning flags on projecting loads. 393.87 Section...and Accessories § 393.87 Warning flags on projecting loads. (a) Any...with red or orange fluorescent warning flags. Each warning flag must be at least...

2010-10-01

337

Policy on Student Travel to Countries with a State Department Travel Warning Boston University School of Medicine  

E-print Network

demonstrated that there are a number of factors mitigating the risk that such travel would otherwise entailPolicy on Student Travel to Countries with a State Department Travel Warning Boston University student in a country where a Department of State Travel Warning is in effect. Should a student wish

Spence, Harlan Ernest

338

GEOFON and the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004, which generated a tsunami that effected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230,000 fatalities, the German government funded the so- called German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project. The GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was selected to develop and implement its seismological component. In this presentation we

T. Kraft; J. Saul; W. Hanka

2007-01-01

339

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2013-10-01

340

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2010-10-01

341

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2012-10-01

342

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2011-10-01

343

FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims  

MedlinePLUS

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Search the Consumer Updates Section Researchers hope ... forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

344

Early Warnings for Local Labor Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This articles summarizes the National Planning Association's (NPA) experience in its initial efforts to develop an early warning system to anticipate job openings generated in local communities by large Federal procurement contracts. (WL)

Matland, Marc A.

1976-01-01

345

The research on training risk early-warning of chain clothing stores based on BSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzed training risk early-warning of chain clothing stores based on BSC in four aspects of financial, customer, internal processes and learning and growth, making comprehensive utilization of monitoring in financial indicators of risk and non-financial indicators, using research methods of qualitative and quantitative fuzzy evaluation method. This thesis analyzes training risk early-warning of chain stores of clothing effectively9ÿ

Wei Guo; Liu Yang

2011-01-01

346

Pressure effect on the membrane action of a nerve-blocking spin label.  

PubMed

A reversible nerve-blocking spin label, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) was used to study the nature of anesthetic-binding sites in nerve membranes as a function of pressure. The nerve-blocking effect of TEMPO is enhanced under pressure. At atmospheric pressure, TEMPO blocks nerve conduction by solubilizing in the apolar region of the nerve membrane. However, the nerve-conduction-block by TEMPO at 150 atm of helium was related to the binding of TEMPO to a pressure-induced high-affinity polar site in the nerve membrane. The new TEMPO-binding site could not be detected in lipid model membranes and, thus, the involvement of membrane protein in the new site was inferred. Pressure may induce a nerve membrane conformation change in the presence of TEMPO. The observation that under different pressure, a single anesthetic, i.e., TEMPO, was capable of blocking nerve conduction by binding to two different sites within the nerve membrane, supports the view that there are multiple anesthetic receptor sites, which differ in chemical composition and location within the nerve membrane. These sites, when occupied by different classes of anesthetics, produce the general phenomenon of nerve-conduction block. The enhancement of nerve-conduction block by pressure may be due to the increased concentration of TEMPO in the new site in the nerve membrane under pressure. PMID:4361681

Hsia, J C; Boggs, J M

1973-11-01

347

Pressure Effect on the Membrane Action of a Nerve-Blocking Spin Label  

PubMed Central

A reversible nerve-blocking spin label, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) was used to study the nature of anesthetic-binding sites in nerve membranes as a function of pressure. The nerve-blocking effect of TEMPO is enhanced under pressure. At atmospheric pressure, TEMPO blocks nerve conduction by solubilizing in the apolar region of the nerve membrane. However, the nerve-conduction-block by TEMPO at 150 atm of helium was related to the binding of TEMPO to a pressure-induced high-affinity polar site in the nerve membrane. The new TEMPO-binding site could not be detected in lipid model membranes and, thus, the involvement of membrane protein in the new site was inferred. Pressure may induce a nerve membrane conformation change in the presence of TEMPO. The observation that under different pressure, a single anesthetic, i.e., TEMPO, was capable of blocking nerve conduction by binding to two different sites within the nerve membrane, supports the view that there are multiple anesthetic receptor sites, which differ in chemical composition and location within the nerve membrane. These sites, when occupied by different classes of anesthetics, produce the general phenomenon of nerve-conduction block. The enhancement of nerve-conduction block by pressure may be due to the increased concentration of TEMPO in the new site in the nerve membrane under pressure. PMID:4361681

Hsia, J. C.; Boggs, J. M.

1973-01-01

348

Label-free field-effect-based single-molecule detection of DNA hybridization kinetics  

PubMed Central

Probing biomolecules at the single-molecule level can provide useful information about molecular interactions, kinetics and motions that is usually hidden in ensemble measurements. Techniques with improved sensitivity and time resolution are required to explore fast biomolecular dynamics. Here, we report the first observation of DNA hybridization at the single-molecule level using a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. By covalently attaching a single-stranded probe DNA sequence to a point defect in a carbon nanotube, we are able to measure two-level fluctuations in the nanotube conductance due to reversible hybridizing and melting of a complementary DNA target. The kinetics are studied as a function of temperature, allowing the measurement of rate constants, melting curves and activation energies for different sequences and target concentrations. The kinetics show non-Arrhenius behavior, in agreement with DNA hybridization experiments using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. This technique is label-free and has the potential for studying single-molecule dynamics at sub-microsecond time-scales. PMID:21258331

Sorgenfrei, Sebastian; Chiu, Chien-yang; Gonzalez, Ruben L.; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Shepard, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

349

Kinetic isotope effects significantly influence intracellular metabolite [superscript 13]C labeling patterns and flux determination  

E-print Network

Rigorous mathematical modeling of carbon-labeling experiments allows estimation of fluxes through the pathways of central carbon metabolism, yielding powerful information for basic scientific studies as well as for a wide ...

Stephanopoulos, Gregory

350

Bayesian networks for tsunami early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various uncertainties in the earthquake-triggered tsunami threat assessment are difficult to quantify and/or integrate into the tsunami early warning process. Uncertainties in the (seismic) input parameters and the lack of knowledge about the earthquake slip distribution contribute most to the total uncertainty in real-time evaluated tsunami assessment. We present a method how to integrate and quantify these uncertainties in the warning process by evaluating a tsunami warning level probability distribution with a Bayesian network (BN) approach. As soon as an earthquake is detected, the seismic source parameter estimates are evaluated and a probabilistic overview on different tsunami warning levels is provided, feasible to support a decision maker at a warning center with important additional data. A BN system has been developed exemplarily for the region Sumatra. In this paper, we describe the method of BN generation by ancestral sampling, we critically analyse the assumptions made and weight the pro and cons of the BN approach. A case study demonstrates the workflow of the BN system in real-time and reveals the promising power of a BN analysis in the framework of early warning.

Blaser, L.; Ohrnberger, M.; Riggelsen, C.; Babeyko, A.; Scherbaum, F.

2011-06-01

351

Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings  

PubMed Central

Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests that Australian prescribers may have acted in response to scientific evidence or international safety warnings (EMA, FDA), prior to the response of the TGA. Minor effects were observed after bladder cancer warnings on pioglitazone utilisation. PMID:24708579

2014-01-01

352

Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.  

PubMed

As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

2004-01-01

353

Methane production in ruminants: Its effect on the doubly labeled water method  

SciTech Connect

The doubly labeled water (DLW) technique for measuring CO2 production (rCO2) in free-living animals requires an assessment of the elimination of both 2H and 18O from the body over a long period of time. To calculate rCO2, it is necessary to calculate water turnover (rH2O) from the 2H flux rate. In ruminant animals, the accuracy of this calculation is affected by the loss of 2H in methane. We have quantified the effect of methane production (rCH4) on the 2H flux rate, determined in four sheep given 2H2O. The methane produced was depleted in 2H relative to the urine. A relationship between the enrichment of the methane and urine was established. The ratio of urine to methane enrichment was found on average to be 0.6536, and this value was unaffected by the level of rCH4 but showed some dependence on the absolute concentration of 2H in urine. For this reason, the ratio value obtained from four sheep not given 2H2O was different, a mean of 0.6886 was measured, this ratio was unaffected by changes in the diet supplied to the animals. Computer modeling was used to illustrate the dependence of the isotopically derived value for rCO2 on not only rCH4 but also the magnitude of rCO2 itself. The effect of rCH4 on the DLW method can be predicted from the observed ratio of rCO2 to rCH4 and the value of 0.6536 obtained for the ratio of methane to urine enrichment. With the use of data from several studies at this Institute, a limited range of 10 to 20 was found for rCO2/rCH4 in animals fed at or above maintenance.

Midwood, A.J.; Haggarty, P.; McGaw, B.A.; Robinson, J.J. (Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland (England))

1989-12-01

354

Triple isotopic labeling and kinetic isotope effects: Exposing H-transfer steps in enzymatic systems†  

PubMed Central

Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) studies can provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of specific chemical steps in complex catalytic cascades. Recent results from hydrogen KIE measurements have examined correlations between enzyme dynamics and catalytic function, leading to a surge of studies in this area. Unfortunately, most enzymatic H-transfer reactions are not rate-limiting and the observed KIEs do not reliably reflect the intrinsic KIEs on the chemical step of interest. Given their importance to understanding the chemical step under study, accurate determination of the intrinsic KIE from the observed data is essential. In 1975, Northrop developed an elegant method to assess intrinsic KIEs from their observed values [Northrop, D. B. (1975) Steady-state analysis of kinetic isotope effects in enzymic reactions, Biochemistry, 14, 2644–2651]. The Northrop method involves KIE measurements using all three hydrogen isotopes, where one of them serves as the reference isotope. This method has been successfully used with different combinations of observed KIEs over the years but criteria for a rational choice of reference isotope have never before been experimentally determined. Here we compare different reference isotopes (and hence distinct experimental designs) using the reduction of dihydrofolate and dihydrobiopterin by two dissimilar enzymes as model reactions. A number of isotopic labeling patterns have been applied to facilitate the comparative study of reference isotopes. The results demonstrate the versatility of the Northrop method, and that such experiments are limited only by synthetic techniques, availability of starting materials, and the experimental error associated with the use of distinct combinations of isotopologues. PMID:21688781

Sen, Arundhuti; Yahashiri, Atsushi; Kohen, Amnon

2011-01-01

355

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

PubMed

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

356

Saturation transfer electron spin resonance of Ca2(+)-ATPase covalently spin-labeled with beta-substituted vinyl ketone- and maleimide-nitroxide derivatives. Effects of segmental motion and labeling levels.  

PubMed Central

The Ca2(+)-ATPase in native sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes was selectively spin-labeled for saturation transfer electron spin resonance (ESR) studies by prelabeling with N-ethylmaleimide and by using low label/protein ratios. Results with the nitroxide derivative of the standard sulphydryl-modifying reagent, maleimide, were compared with a series of six novel nitroxide beta-substituted vinyl aryl ketone derivatives which differed (with two exceptions) in the substituent at the ketone position. The two exceptions had a different electron withdrawing group at the alpha-carbon, to enhance further the electrophilic character of the beta-carbon. Although differing in their reactivity, all the conjugated unsaturated ketone nitroxide derivatives displayed saturation transfer ESR spectra indicative of much slower motion than did the maleimide derivative. The saturation transfer ESR spectra of maleimide-labeled Ca2(+)-ATPase therefore most likely contain substantial contributions from segmental motion of the labeled group. The effects of the level of spin labeling were also investigated. With increasing degree of spin label incorporation, the linewidths of the conventional ESR spectrum progressively increased and the intensity of the saturation transfer spectrum dropped dramatically, as a result of increasing spin-spin interactions. The hyperfine splittings of the conventional spectrum and the outer lineheight ratios of the saturation transfer spectrum remained relatively unchanged. Extrapolation back to zero labeling level yielded comparable values for the effective rotational correlation times deduced from the saturation transfer spectrum intensities and from the lineheight ratios, for the vinyl ketone label. For the maleimide label the extrapolated values from the integral are significantly lower than those from the lineheight ratios, probably because of the segmental motion. Comparison is made of the effective rotational correlation time for the vinyl ketone label with the predictions of hydrodynamic models for the protein diffusion, in a discussion of the aggregation state of the Ca2(+)-ATPase in the native sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. The implications for the study of protein rotational diffusion and segmental motion, and of the proximity relationships between labeled groups, using saturation transfer ESR spectroscopy are discussed. PMID:2166598

Horváth, L I; Dux, L; Hankovszky, H O; Hideg, K; Marsh, D

1990-01-01

357

The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling.

Tang, Kevin S.; Hashmi, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Erik M.

2013-03-01

358

Biodistribution of Fluorescently Labeled PAMAM Dendrimers in Neonatal Rabbits: Effect of Neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Dendrimers are being explored in many preclinical studies as drug, gene, and imaging agent delivery systems. Understanding their detailed organ, tissue, cellular uptake, and retention can provide valuable insights into their effectiveness as delivery vehicles and the associated toxicity. This work explores a fluorescence-quantification based assay that enables simultaneous quantitative biodistribution and imaging of dendrimers with a single agent. We have labeled an ethylenediamine-core generation-4 hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer using the fluorescent photostable, near-IR cyanine dye (Cy5) and performed quantitative and qualitative biodistribution of the dendrimer-Cy5 conjugates (D-Cy5) in healthy neonatal rabbits and neonatal rabbits with cerebral palsy (CP). The biodistribution of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 dye was evaluated in newborn rabbits, based on the developed quantification methods using fluorescence spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and supported by microscopic imaging. The uptake was assessed in the brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, blood serum, and urine. Results obtained based on these three independent methods are in good agreement and indicate the fast renal clearance of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 with relatively higher organs accumulation of the D-Cy5 conjugate. Following systemic administration, the D-Cy5 mainly accumulated in kidneys and bladder at 24 h. The quantitative biodistribution is in good agreement with previous studies based on radiolabeling. These methods for dendrimers quantification are easier and more practical, provide excellent sensitivity (reaching 0.1 ng per gram of tissue), and allow for quantification of dendrimers in different organs over longer time periods without concerns for radioactive decay, while also enabling tissue and cellular imaging in the same animal. In kits with fetal-neuroinflammation induced CP, there was a significantly higher uptake of D-Cy5 in the brain, while biodistribution in other organs was similar to that of healthy kits. PMID:24116950

Lesniak, Wojciech G.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Jyoti, Amar; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Zhang, Fan; Nance, Elizabeth; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

2014-01-01

359

Early warning and crop condition assessment research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Early Warning Crop Condition Assessment Project of AgRISTARS was a multiagency and multidisciplinary effort. Its mission and objectives were centered around development and testing of remote-sensing techniques that enhance operational methodologies for global crop-condition assessments. The project developed crop stress indicators models that provide data filter and alert capabilities for monitoring global agricultural conditions. The project developed a technique for using NOAA-n satellite advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for operational crop-condition assessments. This technology was transferred to the Foreign Agricultural Service of the USDA. The project developed a U.S. Great Plains data base that contains various meteorological parameters and vegetative index numbers (VIN) derived from AVHRR satellite data. It developed cloud screening techniques and scan angle correction models for AVHRR data. It also developed technology for using remotely acquired thermal data for crop water stress indicator modeling. The project provided basic technology including spectral characteristics of soils, water, stressed and nonstressed crop and range vegetation, solar zenith angle, and atmospheric and canopy structure effects.

Boatwright, G. O.; Whitehead, V. S.

1986-01-01

360

Assessment of flash flood warning procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of four alternate flash flood warning procedures was conducted to ascertain their suitability for forecast operations using radar-rainfall imagery. The procedures include (1) areal mean basin effective rainfall, (2) unit hydrograph, (3) time-area, and (4) 2-D numerical modeling. The Buffalo Creek flash flood of July 12, 1996, was used as a case study for application of each of the procedures. A significant feature of the Buffalo Creek event was a forest fire that occurred a few months before the flood and significantly affected watershed runoff characteristics. Objectives were to assess the applicability of the procedures for watersheds having spatial and temporal scale similarities to Buffalo Creek, to compare their technical characteristics, and to consider forecaster usability. Geographic information system techniques for hydrologic database development and flash flood potential computations are illustrated. Generalizations of the case study results are offered relative to their suitability for flash flood forecasting operations. Although all four methods have relative advantages, their application to the Buffalo Creek event resulted in mixed performance. Failure of any method was due primarily to uncertainties of the land surface response (i.e., burn area imperviousness). Results underscore the need for model calibration; a difficult requirement for real-time forecasting.

Johnson, Lynn E.

2000-01-01

361

Nutrition Labels and Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) imposed significant changes in the information about calories and nutrients that manufacturers of packaged foods must provide to consumers. This paper tests whether the release of this information impacted body weight and obesity among American adults. We estimate the effect of the new label using a difference-in-differences method. We compare the change before

Jayachandran N. Variyam; John Cawley

2006-01-01

362

A framework for drought early warning systems in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework for drought warning and mitigation in Africa is proposed to assist in establishing policy priorities based on scientific evidence. Overall, a science-based approach is a useful guideline, but a number of challenges are recognized. Risk-based approaches to preparing for drought are focused on acquiring accurate probabilistic information about the events themselves. When this is not possible, the strategy fails. In contrast, understanding and reducing vulnerability does not demand accurate predictions of the incidence of extreme drought. Nevertheless, if may be politically difficult to justify drought vulnerability reduction on economic grounds. The evidence-based approach responds to four major questions: First, what is the science available? We evaluate the detection of the signs of impending drought. Second, what are the societal capacities? We evaluating the institutional framework that enables policy development. Third, how can science be translated into policy? We propose a framework for linking science indicators into definition of risk levels and analysing the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. Here we also respond to the question: Can policy be enforced? Evaluation of policy implementation and giving effect to early warning. Finally, how can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating the provision of information to potentially affected groups. Here we also answer: What should society do with the warnings? In this final step we link the science indicators the actions/interventions that society needs to implement.

Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis

2013-04-01

363

Cytotoxic effects and specific gene expression alterations induced by I-125-labeled triplex-forming oligonucleotides  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFO) bind to the DNA double helix in a sequence-specific manner. Therefore, TFO seem to be a suitable carrier for Auger electron emitters to damage exclusively targeted DNA sequences, e.g., in tumor cells. We studied the influence of I-125 labeled TFO with regard to cell survival and induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) using TFO with different genomic targets and target numbers. Furthermore, the ability of TFO to alter the gene expression of targeted genes was examined. Materials and methods: TFO were labeled with I-125 using the primer extension method. DNA triplex formation and sequence-specific DSB were demonstrated in vitro. Cell survival was analyzed by colony-forming assay and DNA damage was assessed by microscopic quantification of protein 53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) foci in the human squamous carcinoma cell line II (SCL-II). Quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to analyze gene expression alterations. Results: The sequence-specific induction of a single DSB in a 1695 bp long DNA double stranded fragment was demonstrated in vitro. I-125-labeled TFO binding to single and multiple targets were shown to induce a pronounced decrease in cell survival and an increase of DSB. TFO targeting multiple sites differing in the total target number showed a significant different cell killing per decay that is also in good accordance with the observed induction of DSB. Single gene targeting I-125-labeled TFO significantly decreased cell survival and altered gene expression in the targeted gene. Conclusions: I-125-labeled TFO enable specific targeting of DNA in vitro as well as in a cellular environment and thus induce sequence-specific complex DNA lesions. Therefore I-125-labeled TFO might be a very useful tool for basic DNA repair research. PMID:22694342

2012-01-01

364

Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. METHODS: To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast

Lisa J Harnack; Simone A French; J Michael Oakes; Mary T Story; Robert W Jeffery; Sarah A Rydell

2008-01-01

365

The physical and psychological experience of pain: the effects of labeling and cold pressor temperature on three pain measures in college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the cold pressor test, three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water temperature and labeling on three dependent measures in college women: behavioral pain tolerance (BPT), a sensory rating of the pain experience (SR) and a parallel affective rating of the experience (AR). Temperature of the cold pressor was varied as the physical factor; labels (discomfort, pain,

Michele S Hirsch; Robert M Liebert

1998-01-01

366

A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and capabilities of different dissemination channels such as SMS, email and television, have bearing on the information processing required for delivery and consumption of a DEWS EDXL-DE/CAP message over each dissemination channel. These messages may include additional information in the form of maps, graphs, documents, sensor observations, etc. Therefore, the generated messages are pre-processed by channel adaptors in the information dissemination services converting it into a format that is suitable for end-to-end delivery over the dissemination channels without any semantic distortion. The approach followed by DEWS for disseminating warnings not only relies on traditional communication ways used by the already established early warnings such as the delivery of faxes and phone calls but takes into consideration the use of other broadly used communication channels such as SMS, email, narrowcast and broadcast television, instant messaging, Voice over IP, and radio. It also takes advantage of social media channels like RSS feeds, Facebook, Twitter, etc., enabling a multiplier effect, like in the case of radio and television, and thus allowing to create mash-ups by aggregating other sources of information to the original message. Finally, status information is also important in order to assess and understand whether the process of disseminating the warning to the message consumers has been successfully completed or the process failed at some point of the dissemination chain. To that end, CAP-based messages generated within the information dissemination services provide the semantics for those fields that are of interest within the context of reporting the warning dissemination status in DEWS.

Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

2012-04-01

367

Verbal behavior and problem solving: Some effects of labeling in a functional fixedness problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 differently labeled illustrations of Duncker's candle problem were exposed to Ss as they worked on that problem. In the 1st of 3 experiments, the picture which elicited the name of the functionally fixed object also elicited correct initial solutions in a verbal form of the problem. In Exp. II and III, Ss were given manipulative forms of the same

Sam Glucksberg; Robert W. Weisberg

1966-01-01

368

Effects of laser labeling on the quality of tangerines during storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Etching the required information on fruit and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser etches the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for pathogen entry. Studies were conducted to measur...

369

Effect of number of labels on the accuracy of function approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approximation problem of any nonlinear map using a fuzzy basis function is discussed. This fuzzy basis function (FBF) has the capability of combining both numerical data and linguistic information. The main design objective is to construct an output error for which the number of labels can be varied. In this work, an optimal fuzzy approach is proposed which is

I. H. Khalifa; A. H. El-Assal; M. H. Saleh

1998-01-01

370

Natural risk warning: comparison of two methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian network of "Centri Funzionali" is now reaching operational status both in hydro-meteorological risk forecasting and support to the decision making of administrations that issue natural risk warning. Each centre operates for its district of influence. In order to have a nationwide common standard the National Civil Protection Department proposed a quantitative warning methodology based on the definition of rainfall thresholds correlated to historical damages. In the first phase the thresholds have been defined using two studies that cover all Italy: the VAPI (statistics of extreme rainfall and discharges, see reference) and the AVI (database of historical flood and landslide events and reported damages, see reference). This work presents one year back analysis that compares the new methodology and the one that has been usied since 2000 by the Liguria Region Meteorological Centre with regard to flood warning, pinpointing the performance differences in terms of false and missed alerts.

Cavallo, A.; Giannoni, F.

2005-05-01

371

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

372

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

DOEpatents

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

Schiffbauer, William H. (Connellsville, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01

373

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

DOEpatents

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

1999-08-17

374

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

SciTech Connect

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

1996-12-31

375

Health warnings on tobacco products: international practices.  

PubMed

Health warnings on tobacco products have emerged as a prominent area of tobacco control policy. Regulatory practice has rapidly evolved over the past decade to the point where health warnings on tobacco products continue to set international precedents for their size and comprehensiveness. The current paper provides a general review of current regulatory practices, including physical design features (such as size and location), message content (pictorial vs. text and content themes), and regulatory considerations such as rotation period and other novel practices. PMID:22689165

Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

2012-06-01

376

Impurity effects of lysozyme molecules specifically labeled with a fluorescent reagent on the crystallization of tetragonal and monoclinic lysozyme crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effects of impure proteins, i.e. proteins with heterogeneous features that are minor constituents within "purified" protein solutions, on the crystallization of target proteins, and in particular the effects of such impurities on intermolecular contacts, we modified only the ?-amino group of the N-terminal lysine of hen egg-white lysozyme with a fluorescent reagent, tetramethylrhodamine-5-isothiocyanate (5-TRITC), which has a high detection sensitivity. We then investigated the effects of the fluorescent-labeled lysozyme (F-lysozyme) on the nucleation and growth of tetragonal and monoclinic lysozyme crystals. In the tetragonal and monoclinic crystals, the fluorescent labels were located at molecular surfaces of lysozyme inside and outside of the intermolecular contact areas, respectively. We found that addition of a low concentration (0.02 mg/ml) of F-lysozyme significantly suppressed nucleation of the tetragonal crystals but had no effect on that of the monoclinic crystals. In contrast, addition of a higher concentration (0.05 mg/ml) of F-lysozyme significantly promoted the heterogeneous nucleation of both polymorphs. In addition, the decrease in the growth rate of the tetragonal crystal by F-lysozyme was much more significant than that of the monoclinic one, although the effective distribution coefficients of F-lysozyme for the tetragonal and monoclinic crystals were similar (2.9 and 3.2, respectively). These results clearly indicate that inhibiting the formation of specific intermolecular contacts plays a crucial role in the effects of impure proteins.

Matsui, Takuro; Sazaki, Gen; Hondoh, Hironori; Matsuura, Yoshiki; Nakada, Toshitaka; Nakajima, Kazuo

2006-08-01

377

Nutrition label  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This label shows that there are some nutrients that should be limited in the diet of humans and there are others that humans need to intake on a daily basis to stay healthy. These labels show the percent daily value that the food provides for each nutrient.

N/A N/A (FDA; )

2007-09-27

378

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2011-10-01

379

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2010-10-01

380

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2012-10-01

381

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2013-10-01

382

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2010-01-01

383

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2011-01-01

384

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2013-01-01

385

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

... 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2014-01-01

386

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

2012-01-01

387

14 CFR 135.154 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01...2014-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...154 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...135.154 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2014-01-01

388

14 CFR 121.354 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01...2014-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...354 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...121.354 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2014-01-01

389

Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

390

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

391

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

392

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

393

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

394

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

395

Integrating automobile multiple intelligent warning systems : performance and policy implications  

E-print Network

Intelligent driver warning systems can be found in many high-end vehicles on the road today, which will likely rapidly increase as they become standard equipment. However, introducing multiple warning systems into vehicles ...

Ho, Angela Wei Ling

2006-01-01

396

Acute effects of radiation therapy on indium-111-labeled leukocyte uptake in bone marrow  

SciTech Connect

We recently performed ({sup 99m}Tc)MDP bone and {sup 111}In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy on a patient receiving radiation therapy to the lower cervical and upper thoracic spine. While the bone images revealed only minimally increased activity in the radiation port, leukocyte images revealed diffuse, intensely increased uptake in this same region. Radiation therapy should be included in the differential diagnosis of increased bone marrow activity on {sup 111}In leukocyte images.

Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Vega, A.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Andre Meyer Department of Physics-Nuclear Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1989-11-01

397

Cytotoxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles and implications for safety in cell labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro labelling of cultured cells with iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is a frequent practice in biomedical research. To date, the potential cytotoxicity of these particles remains an issue of debate. In the present study, 4 different NP types (dextran-coated Endorem, carboxydextran-coated Resovist, lipid-coated magnetoliposomes (MLs) and citrate-coated very small iron oxide particles (VSOP)) are tested on a variety

Stefaan J. H. Soenen; Uwe Himmelreich; Nele Nuytten; Marcel De Cuyper

2011-01-01

398

Synthesis and characterisation of fluorescent oligonucleotides. Effect of internal labelling on protein recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescently labelled 42 base pair DNA duplexes were synthesised to examine the interaction between the TyrR repressor protein ofEscherichia coli and its DNA recognition sequence. An Fmoc-protectec 5-(3-aminoprop-1-yn-1-yl)-2?-deoxyuridine phosphoramidite was synthesised and incorporated into oligonucleotides using standard ?-cyanoethyl phosphoramidite chemistry. Oligonucleotides containing the 3-aminopropynyl nucleotide at internal positions were reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate to generate fluorescent DNA molecules useful for

Per Hagmar; Michael Bailey; Glenn Tong; Jim Haralambidis; William H. Sawyer; Barrie E. Davidson

1995-01-01

399

21 CFR 1141.12 - Incorporation by reference of required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS; (Eff. 9-22-12) Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings...of required warnings. “Cigarette Required Warnings” Edition...June 2011), consisting of electronic files, U.S....

2012-04-01

400

Monitoring and Early Warning for Internet Worms  

E-print Network

1 Monitoring and Early Warning for Internet Worms Cliff C. Zou, Lixin Gao, Weibo Gong, Don Towsley Technical Report: TR-CSE-03-01 Abstract After the Code Red incident in 2001 and the recent SQL worm in January 2003, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet

Xu, Shouhuai

401

Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich  

E-print Network

Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich School of EECS University of Central Florida Orlando Ithaca, NY 14853 Email: mainak@csl.cornell.edu Abstract-- Ocean is a popular program from the SPLASH-2 parallel benchmark suite. A complete application, as opposed to a computational kernel, Ocean is often used

Heinrich, Mark

402

Impact Warning Times for Earth Crossing Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the ~ 100 numbered Earth crossing asteroids (ECAs), none is predicted to impact the Earth within the next 200 years. It is more difficult to make definitive predictions for unnumbered ECAs because their orbits are not accurately known. In addition, a large fraction of the ECA population has yet to be discovered. What would the warning time be for

P. W. Chodas; D. K. Yeomans

1997-01-01

403

LPI-radar for helicopter obstacle warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing the frequency range of maximum atmospheric attenuation around 60 GHz, a short range obstacle warning radar for helicopters was developed which can be operated under low probability of intercept conditions. Test flights with this noncoherent solid state radar showed that power cables as well as tall trees can be detected, even under adverse weather conditions. System considerations and test

H. Meinel; H. G. Wippich; B. Rembold; W. F. X. Frank

1984-01-01

404

Global Emergency Observation, Warning and Relief Network  

SciTech Connect

The decade of the 1990`s has been proclaimed by the United Nations to be the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). There exists a documented need for improved communications and information distribution to provide adequate warning in the face of impending disasters and facilitate the response after a disaster has occurred. The Global Emergency Observation Warning and Relief Network (GEOWARN) is proposed as a system that can potentially fill the existing gaps in the disaster management capabilities by providing a mechanism for the timely processing of information both before and after an event has occurred. A system design is proposed that would utilize existing remote sensing resources augmented by additional satellites and airborne sensor platforms linked together via a computer network. This network would be configured around five control centers called Multi-National Centers which would host an extensive Geographical Information System to perform the task of providing global disaster warning and relief support. To support the potential development of GEOWARN, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center performed a study to assess concept feasibility. This study has resulted in several recommended modifications to the ISU system concept. It was concluded that a system design which optimizes the use of existing resources can result in significant improvements in disaster warning and management capabilities for most of the world. This paper presents the results of the feasibility study, including a general overview of the GEOWARN concept and the elements comprising the system.

Bukley, A.P.; Mulqueen, J.A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States)

1995-12-31

405

Safety early warning research for highway construction based on case-based reasoning and variable fuzzy sets.  

PubMed

As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established. PMID:24191134

Liu, Yan; Yi, Ting-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Jun

2013-01-01

406

Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets  

PubMed Central

As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established. PMID:24191134

Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhen-Jun

2013-01-01

407

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2011-04-01

408

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2010-04-01

409

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2014-04-01

410

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2013-04-01

411

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2012-04-01

412

76 FR 36627 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...images in making selection decisions in order...final set of required warnings...indicates that a factor analysis...the authors making subjective and undisclosed decisions about how...proposed required warnings...files for the required warnings...document. A key factor in our decision is that...

2011-06-22

413

University of Michigan University Travel Warning and Travel Restriction Destinations  

E-print Network

Country Travel Warning Significant level of risk Travel Restriction Extreme level of risk Additional Travel Warning Significant level of risk Travel Restriction Extreme level of risk Additional InformationUniversity of Michigan University Travel Warning and Travel Restriction Destinations As-of Date

Awtar, Shorya

414

One-Year-Olds Warn Others about Negative Action Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Warning others is a paradigm case of communicative helping and prospective action understanding. The current study addressed the ontogeny of warning in infants' gestural communication. We found that 12- and 18-month-olds ("n" = 84) spontaneously warned an adult by pointing out to her an aversive object hidden in her way…

Knudsen, Birgit; Liszkowski, Ulf

2013-01-01

415

Tsunami warning system for the pacific coast of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tsunami Warning System for the Pacific Coast of Canada, which is part of the International Tsunami Warning System for the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed and major problems are identified. The efficiency of the present warning system is examined in view of the prediction by the international seismological community that major earthquakes are likely to occur in various seismic gaps

W. J. Rapatz; T. S. Murty

1987-01-01

416

Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings -an exploration  

E-print Network

Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings - an exploration H. Bloemink De Bilt, 2013 | Internal report; IR 2013-01 #12;#12;Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings - an exploration Version 1.0 Date January 2013 Status Final #12;#12;Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings

Haak, Hein

417

¹³C labelled internal standards--a solution to minimize ion suppression effects in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of drugs in biological samples?  

PubMed

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is frequently used to identify and quantify drugs in human biological samples due to the high selectivity and sensitivity of this technique. However, ion suppression effects caused by co-eluting compounds: drugs, metabolites, matrix components, impurities and degradation products, are a major concern. Stable isotope labelled internal standards (SIL ISs), usually deuterium ((2)H) labelled, are often used to compensate for these effects. In many LC separations the retention times of (2)H labelled ISs and their analogues will differ. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is increasingly being used for bio-analysis. With the better chromatographic resolution provided with sub 2 ?m particles, larger separation between analytes and their (2)H labelled analogues can be expected, which might reduce the benefits of the SIL IS. There is a greater difference in physico-chemical properties between hydrogen isotopes than between isotopes of other elements. (13)C, (15)N and (18)O labelled ISs are more similar to their analytes than (2)H labelled ISs and thereby expected to behave more similarly in chromatographic separations. In this study we have investigated the use of (13)C and (2)H labelled ISs for the determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine by UPLC-MS/MS. The (13)C labelled ISs were co eluting with their analytes under different chromatographic conditions while the (2)H labelled ISs and their analytes were slightly separated. An improved ability to compensate for ion suppression effects were observed when the (13)C labelled ISs were used. Furthermore, an UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine in urine using (13)C labelled ISs has been developed and validated. Unfortunately, there are few (13)C labelled ISs commercial available today. If more (13)C labelled ISs become commercial available they may well be the coming solution to minimize ion suppression/enhancement effects in LC-MS/MS analyses of drugs in biological samples. PMID:22119139

Berg, Thomas; Strand, Dag Helge

2011-12-30

418

Study on warning radius of diffuse reflection laser warning based on fish-eye lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse reflection type of omni-directional laser warning based on fish-eye lens is becoming more and more important. As one of the key parameters of warning system, the warning radius should be put into investigation emphatically. The paper firstly theoretically analyzes the energy detected by single pixel of FPA detector in the system under complicated environment. Then the least energy detectable by each single pixel of the system is computed in terms of detector sensitivity, system noise, and minimum SNR. Subsequently, by comparison between the energy detected by single pixel and the least detectable energy, the warning radius is deduced from Torrance-Sparrow five-parameter semiempirical statistic model. Finally, a field experiment was developed to validate the computational results. It has been found that the warning radius has a close relationship with BRDF parameters of the irradiated target, propagation distance, angle of incidence, and detector sensitivity, etc. Furthermore, an important fact is shown that the experimental values of warning radius are always less than that of theoretical ones, due to such factors as the optical aberration of fish-eye lens, the transmissivity of narrowband filter, and the packing ratio of detector.

Chen, Bolin; Zhang, Weian

2013-09-01

419

Trends in use of antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia: impact of national safety warnings  

PubMed Central

Based on evidence of an increased risk of death, drug agencies issued safety warnings about the use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the elderly with dementia in 2004. This warning was extended to all antipsychotics in 2008. Little is known about the impact of these warnings on use. We conducted a quasi-experimental study (interrupted time-series) in France, for 2003–2011, including subjects aged ?65 with dementia and subjects aged ?65 without dementia in the EGB database (1/97th representative random sample of claims from the main Health Insurance scheme). Outcomes were monthly rates of use of antipsychotics (by class and agent) and of 5 comparison drug classes (antidepressants, benzodiazepines, dermatologicals, antidiabetics, antiasthmatics). Trends were analyzed by joinpoint regression, impact of warnings by linear segmented regression. In patients with dementia (n=7169), there was a 40% reduction in antipsychotic use from 14.2% in 2003 to 10.2% in 2011. The reduction began before 2004 and was unaffected by the warnings. Use of first generation antipsychotics declined over the period, while use of SGAs increased and leveled off from 2007. Use of the 5 comparison drug classes increased on the period. In subjects without dementia (n=91942), rates of overall antipsychotic use decreased from 2.3% in 2003 to 1.8% in 2011 with no effect of the warnings. Meanwhile, use of SGAs continuously increased from 0.37% to 0.64%. Antipsychotic use decreased in the elderly between 2003 and 2011, especially in dementia. The timing of the decrease, however, did not coincide with safety warnings. PMID:24126116

Gallini, Adeline; Andrieu, Sandrine; Donohue, Julie M; Oumouhou, Naïma; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gardette, Virginie

2014-01-01

420

A SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE OF WARN ON FORECAST: IDEAL TORNADO WARNING LEAD TIME AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC'S PERCEPTIONS OF WEATHER RISKS  

E-print Network

A SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE OF WARN ON FORECAST: IDEAL TORNADO WARNING LEAD TIME AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC. They seemed to be familiar with tornado seasons, however, they were not aware of the relative number to pinpoint the ideal tornado warning lead-time for the general public, which was found to be 33.5 minutes

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

421

Cost–Effective Prediction of Gender-Labeling Errors and Estimation of Gender-Labeling Error Rates in Candidate-Gene Association Studies  

PubMed Central

We describe a statistical approach to predict gender-labeling errors in candidate-gene association studies, when Y-chromosome markers have not been included in the genotyping set. The approach adds value to methods that consider only the heterozygosity of X-chromosome SNPs, by incorporating available information about the intensity of X-chromosome SNPs in candidate genes relative to autosomal SNPs from the same individual. To our knowledge, no published methods formalize a framework in which heterozygosity and relative intensity are simultaneously taken into account. Our method offers the advantage that, in the genotyping set, no additional space is required beyond that already assigned to X-chromosome SNPs in the candidate genes. We also show how the predictions can be used in a two-phase sampling design to estimate the gender-labeling error rates for an entire study, at a fraction of the cost of a conventional design. PMID:22303327

Qu, Conghui; Schuetz, Johanna M.; Min, Jeong Eun; Leach, Stephen; Daley, Denise; Spinelli, John J.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Graham, Jinko

2011-01-01

422

Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen.  

PubMed

Healthier meal selections at restaurants and canteens are often limited and not actively promoted. In this Danish study the effectiveness of a healthy labelling certification program in improving dietary intake and influencing edible plate waste was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study design. Employees from an intervention worksite canteen and a matched control canteen were included in the study at baseline (February 2012), after completing the certification process (end-point) and six month from end-point (follow-up) (total n=270). In order to estimate nutrient composition of the consumed lunch meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (P<0.001). No significant changes were seen with regard to food satisfaction and plate waste. In the control canteen no positive nutritional effects were observed. The results of the study highlight the potential of using healthy labelling certification programs as a possible driver for increasing both the availability and awareness of healthy meal choices, thereby improving dietary intake when eating out. PMID:24373732

Lassen, A D; Beck, A; Leedo, E; Andersen, E W; Christensen, T; Mejborn, H; Thorsen, A V; Tetens, I

2014-04-01

423

Effects of ancillary ligands on selectivity of protein labeling with platinum(II) chloro complexes  

SciTech Connect

Potassium (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylato)chloroplatinate(II) was synthesized. The molecular structure of the complex in (n-Bu){sub 4}N(Pt(dipic)Cl){center dot}0.5H{sub 2}O was determined by x-ray crystallography. The (Pt(dipic)Cl){sup {minus}} is essentially planar and contains a Pt(II) atom, a tridentate dipicolinate dianion ligand, and a unidentate Cl{sup {minus}} ligand. The bis(bidentate) complex trans-(Pt(dipic){sub 2}){sup 2{minus}} was also observed by {sup 1}H NMR. A red gel-like substance was observed when the yellow aqueous solution of K(Pt(dipic)Cl) was cooled or concentrated. The K(Pt(dipic)Cl) molecules form stacks in the solid state and gel-like substance but remain monomeric over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. The reactivity and selectivity of(Pt(dipic)Cl){sup {minus}} toward cytochromes c from horse and tuna were studied. The new transition-metal reagent is specific for methionine residues. Di(2-pyridyl-{beta}-ethyl)sulfidochloroplatinum(II) chloride dihydrate was also synthesized. This complex labels histidine and methionine residues in cytochrome c. The ancillary ligands in these platinum(II) complexes clearly determine the selectivity of protein labeling. 106 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Zhou, Xia-Ying.

1990-02-01

424

Effect of diabetes on in vivo metabolism of (/sup 35/S)-labeled glomerular basement membrane  

SciTech Connect

Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of (/sup 35/S)-sulfate into normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the GBM was determined from the specific activity of (/sup 35/S) after pronase digestion of basement membranes purified from glomeruli isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radiolabeling of both normal and diabetic GBM occurred 24 h after injection and, when corrected for differences in serum sulfate specific activities, was less in diabetic than in normal samples. The specific activity of GBM sulfate, expressed as cpm/microgram uronic acid, progressively diminished over the ensuing period of study in both normal and diabetic samples. The rate of decrease in specific activity of (/sup 35/S)-labeled GBM was not significantly different in diabetic preparations compared with that in normal controls. The findings are compatible with diminished sulfation and/or production but normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans in the renal GBM in experimental diabetes.

Cohen, M.P.; Surma, M.L.

1984-01-01

425

21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.  

...font]), decreases the risk of skin cancer and early skin aging caused by the sun...sunscreen reduces the risk of or prevents skin cancer or early skin aging will cause the product...heading “Warnings” states “Skin Cancer/Skin Aging Alert [in bold...

2014-04-01

426

HRAS: a webserver for early warning of human health risk brought by aflatoxin.  

PubMed

Most people are aware that outdoor air pollution can damage their health, but many do not know that indoor air pollution can also exhibit significant negative health effects. Fungi parasitizing in air conditioning and ventilation systems can be one of indoor air pollution sources. Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) became a central focus of indoor air pollution, especially in farmer markets. Therefore we developed an early warning system, Health Risk Assessment System, to estimate the growth rate of A. flavus, predict the amount of aflatoxin and provide early warning information. Firstly, the growth of A. flavus and the production of aflatoxin under different conditions were widely obtained through a comprehensive literature review. Secondly, three mathematical models were established to predict the A. flavus colony growth rate, lag phase duration and aflatoxin content, as functions of temperature and water activity based on present studies. Finally, all the results were evaluated by the user-supplied data using PHP programming language. We utilized the web page to show the results and display warning information. The JpGraph library was used to create a dynamic line chart, refreshing the warning information dynamically in real-time. The HARS provides accurate information for early warning purposes to let us take timely steps to protect ourselves. PMID:23076528

Hu, Ruifeng; Zeng, Xu; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Qian; Liu, Zhihua

2013-02-01

427

Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

2015-01-01

428

Carbon Nanostructure-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Label-Free Chemical/Biological Sensors  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structure, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability, carbon nanotube and graphene based electrical devices have been widely developed for high performance label-free chemical/biological sensors. Here, we review the latest developments of carbon nanostructure-based transistor sensors in ultrasensitive detection of chemical/biological entities, such as poisonous gases, nucleic acids, proteins and cells. PMID:22399927

Hu, PingAn; Zhang, Jia; Li, Le; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William; Estrela, Pedro

2010-01-01

429

Effectiveness of the Food Guide Pyramid, the Nutrition Facts Food Label, and Work Site Wellness Program in the Task of Making Healthy Food Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the effectiveness of the Food Guide Pyramid, the Nutrition Facts Food Label and work-site Wellness Programs in teaching consumers to make healthy food choices.The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of participation in work-site Wellness Programs and awareness of and knowledge of the Food Guide Pyramid and the Nutrition Facts Food Label to

NT Sheehan; ES Parham

1997-01-01

430

LF broadcasting monitor - space weather warning system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of time measurement using GPS allows measure the carrier wave of commercial LF/MF broadcasting station. Analysis of these measurements allows to study the changes of lower ionosphere. Due to frequency stability of the transmitter only few LF station can be used for the experiment. This method can be used both for monitoring changes in the level of ionization in layer D as well as to warn against sudden changes caused by flares on the Sun. Changes of the ionosphere can be noticed within tens of seconds, and can serve to generate rapid warnings. This method is tested in SRC in order to shorten the reaction time to events associated with space weather.

Pozoga, Mariusz

431

Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology  

SciTech Connect

Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

432

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

Almut Gerhardt

1996-01-01

433

Dose dependent side effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle labeling on cell motility in two fetal stem cell populations.  

PubMed

Multipotent stem cells (SCs) could substitute damaged cells and also rescue degeneration through the secretion of trophic factors able to activate the endogenous SC compartment. Therefore, fetal SCs, characterized by high proliferation rate and devoid of ethical concern, appear promising candidate, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide nanoparticles (SPIOn), routinely used for pre-clinical cell imaging and already approved for clinical practice, allow tracking of transplanted SCs and characterization of their fate within the host tissue, when combined with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In this work we investigated how SPIOn could influence cell migration after internalization in two fetal SC populations: human amniotic fluid and chorial villi SCs were labeled with SPIOn and their motility was evaluated. We found that SPIOn loading significantly reduced SC movements without increasing production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Moreover, motility impairment was directly proportional to the amount of loaded SPIOn while a chemoattractant-induced recovery was obtained by increasing serum levels. Interestingly, the migration rate of SPIOn labeled cells was also significantly influenced by a degenerative surrounding. In conclusion, this work highlights how SPIOn labeling affects SC motility in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, shedding the light on an important parameter for the creation of clinical protocols. Establishment of an optimal SPIOn dose that enables both a good visualization of grafted cells by MRI and the physiological migration rate is a main step in order to maximize the effects of SC therapy in both animal models of neurodegeneration and clinical studies. PMID:24244310

Diana, Valentina; Bossolasco, Patrizia; Moscatelli, Davide; Silani, Vincenzo; Cova, Lidia

2013-01-01

434

Dose Dependent Side Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Labeling on Cell Motility in Two Fetal Stem Cell Populations  

PubMed Central

Multipotent stem cells (SCs) could substitute damaged cells and also rescue degeneration through the secretion of trophic factors able to activate the endogenous SC compartment. Therefore, fetal SCs, characterized by high proliferation rate and devoid of ethical concern, appear promising candidate, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide nanoparticles (SPIOn), routinely used for pre-clinical cell imaging and already approved for clinical practice, allow tracking of transplanted SCs and characterization of their fate within the host tissue, when combined with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In this work we investigated how SPIOn could influence cell migration after internalization in two fetal SC populations: human amniotic fluid and chorial villi SCs were labeled with SPIOn and their motility was evaluated. We found that SPIOn loading significantly reduced SC movements without increasing production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Moreover, motility impairment was directly proportional to the amount of loaded SPIOn while a chemoattractant-induced recovery was obtained by increasing serum levels. Interestingly, the migration rate of SPIOn labeled cells was also significantly influenced by a degenerative surrounding. In conclusion, this work highlights how SPIOn labeling affects SC motility in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, shedding the light on an important parameter for the creation of clinical protocols. Establishment of an optimal SPIOn dose that enables both a good visualization of grafted cells by MRI and the physiological migration rate is a main step in order to maximize the effects of SC therapy in both animal models of neurodegeneration and clinical studies. PMID:24244310

Diana, Valentina; Bossolasco, Patrizia; Moscatelli, Davide; Silani, Vincenzo; Cova, Lidia

2013-01-01

435

The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations  

SciTech Connect

Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically.

NA

2005-01-04

436

Early warning tools for ecotoxicity assessment based on Phaeodactylum tricornutum.  

PubMed

Phaeodactylum tricornutum was exposed to various toxic substances (zinc, copper or dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt) in accordance with the AlgalToxkit(®) protocol based on the UNI EN ISO 10253 method in order to quantitatively compare the responses obtained by traditional growth-rate inhibition tests with morphological (biovolume) and physiological (chlorophyll-a, phaeophytin ratio) endpoints. A novel approach is proposed for detecting early and sub-lethal effects based on biovolume quantification using confocal microscopy coupled with an image analysis system. The results showed that effects on both biovolume and the photosynthetic complex are sensitive and powerful early warning tools for evaluating sub-lethal effects of exposure. Specifically, biovolume showed significant sensitive and early responses for the tested surfactant. Qualitatively, we also observed structural anomalies and effects on natural auto-fluorescence in exposed cells that also represent potentially useful tools for ecotoxicological studies. PMID:24838657

Renzi, Monia; Roselli, Leonilde; Giovani, Andrea; Focardi, Silvano E; Basset, Alberto

2014-08-01

437

Implementation and Challenges of the Tsunami Warning System in the Western Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT) has been in operation since 2012. It is contributing to the North-eastern and Mediterranean (NEAM) tsunami warning and mitigation system coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, and benefits from data exchange with several foreign institutes. This center is supported by the French Government and provides French civil-protection authorities and member states of the NEAM region with relevant messages for assessing potential tsunami risk when an earthquake has occurred in the Western Mediterranean sea or the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean. To achieve its objectives, CENALT has developed a series of innovative techniques based on recent research results in seismology for early tsunami warning, monitoring of sea level variations and detection capability, and effective numerical computation of ongoing tsunamis.

Schindelé, F.; Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Gutierrez, E.; Monnier, A.; Roudil, P.; Reymond, D.; Rivera, L.

2014-12-01

438

Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.  

PubMed

To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. PMID:25218457

Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

2014-11-01

439

Advanced Caution and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current focus of ACAWS is on the needs of the flight controllers. The onboard crew in low-Earth orbit has some of those same needs. Moreover, for future deep-space missions, the crew will need to accomplish many tasks autonomously due to communication time delays. Although we are focusing on flight controller needs, ACAWS technologies can be reused for on-board application, perhaps with a different level of detail and different display formats or interaction methods. We expect that providing similar tools to the flight controllers and the crew could enable more effective and efficient collaboration as well as heightened situational awareness.

Spirkovska, Lilly; Robinson, Peter I.; Liolios, Sotirios; Lee, Charles; Ossenfort, John P.

2013-01-01

440

Tactile warning signals for in-vehicle systems.  

PubMed

The last few years have seen growing interest in the design of tactile warning signals to direct driver attention to potentially dangerous road situations (e.g. an impending crash) so that they can initiate an avoidance maneuver in a timely manner. In this review, we highlight the potential uses of such warning signals for future collision warning systems and compare them with more traditional visual and auditory warnings. Basic tactile warning signals are capable of promoting driver alertness, which has been demonstrated to be beneficial for forward collision avoidance (when compared to a no warning baseline condition). However, beyond their basic alerting function, directional tactile warning signals are now increasingly being utilized to shift the attention of the driver toward locations of interest, and thus to further facilitate their speeded responses to potential collision events. Currently, many researchers are focusing their efforts on the development of meaningful (iconic) tactile warning signals. For instance, dynamic tactile warnings (varying in their intensity and/or location) can potentially be used to convey meaningful information to drivers. Finally, we highlight the future research that will be needed in order to explore how to present multiple directional warnings using dynamic tactile cues, thus forming an integrated collision avoidance system for future in-vehicle use. PMID:25569607

Meng, Fanxing; Spence, Charles

2015-02-01

441

The spatial effect of protein deuteration on nitroxide spin-label relaxation: Implications for EPR distance measurement  

PubMed Central

Pulsed electron–electron double resonance (PELDOR) coupled with site-directed spin labeling is a powerful technique for the elucidation of protein or nucleic acid, macromolecular structure and interactions. The intrinsic high sensitivity of electron paramagnetic resonance enables measurement on small quantities of bio-macromolecules, however short relaxation times impose a limit on the sensitivity and size of distances that can be measured using this technique. The persistence of the electron spin-echo, in the PELDOR experiment, is one of the most crucial limitations to distance measurement. At a temperature of around 50 K one of the predominant factors affecting persistence of an echo, and as such, the sensitivity and measurable distance between spin labels, is the electron spin echo dephasing time (Tm). It has become normal practice to use deuterated solvents to extend Tm and recently it has been demonstrated that deuteration of the underlying protein significantly extends Tm. Here we examine the spatial effect of segmental deuteration of the underlying protein, and also explore the concentration and temperature dependence of highly deuterated systems. PMID:25310878

El Mkami, Hassane; Ward, Richard; Bowman, Andrew; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Norman, David G.

2014-01-01

442

The spatial effect of protein deuteration on nitroxide spin-label relaxation: Implications for EPR distance measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) coupled with site-directed spin labeling is a powerful technique for the elucidation of protein or nucleic acid, macromolecular structure and interactions. The intrinsic high sensitivity of electron paramagnetic resonance enables measurement on small quantities of bio-macromolecules, however short relaxation times impose a limit on the sensitivity and size of distances that can be measured using this technique. The persistence of the electron spin-echo, in the PELDOR experiment, is one of the most crucial limitations to distance measurement. At a temperature of around 50 K one of the predominant factors affecting persistence of an echo, and as such, the sensitivity and measurable distance between spin labels, is the electron spin echo dephasing time (Tm). It has become normal practice to use deuterated solvents to extend Tm and recently it has been demonstrated that deuteration of the underlying protein significantly extends Tm. Here we examine the spatial effect of segmental deuteration of the underlying protein, and also explore the concentration and temperature dependence of highly deuterated systems.

El Mkami, Hassane; Ward, Richard; Bowman, Andrew; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Norman, David G.

2014-11-01

443

Effect of interdome spacing on the resonance properties of plasmonic nanodome arrays for label-free optical sensing.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report on experimental and theoretical studies that investigate how the structural properties of plasmonic nanodome array devices determine their optical properties and sensing performance. We examined the effect of the interdome gap spacing within the plasmonic array structures on the performance for detection of change in local refractive index environment for label-free capture affinity biosensing applications. Optical sensing properties were characterized for nanodome array devices with interdome spacings of 14 nm, 40 nm, and 79 nm, as well as for a device where adjacent domes are in contact. For each interdome spacing, the extinction spectrum was measured using a broadband reflection instrumentation, and finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulation was used to model the local electric field distribution associated with the resonances. Based on these studies, we predict that nanodome array devices with gap between 14 nm to 20 nm provide optimal label-free capture affinity biosensing performances, where the dipole resonance mode exhibits the highest overall surface sensitivity, as well as the lowest limit of detection. PMID:24514341

Choi, Charles J; Semancik, Steve

2013-11-18

444

How do consumers use nutrition label information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown high levels of self-reported nutrition label use, yet when tested consumers have difficulty in using label information effectively. Using verbal protocol analysis, this study explored nutrition label use directly, identifying the tasks consumers actually undertake, and how these are used to inform choice. The implications of the findings for labelling policy and nutrition education are discussed.

C. S. Higginson; T. R. Kirk; M. J. Rayner; S. Draper

2002-01-01

445

Effects of Chelator Modifications on 68Ga-Labeled [Tyr3]Octreotide Conjugates  

PubMed Central

Purpose Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) have been reported as promising targets for imaging agents for cancer. Recently, 68Ga-DOTATOC-based PET imaging has been used successfully for diagnosis and management of SSTR-expressing tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of chelator modifications and charge on 68Ga-labeled peptide conjugates. Procedures We have synthesized a series of [Tyr3]octreotide conjugates that consisted of different NOTA-based chelators with two to five carboxylate moieties, and compared our results with 68Ga-DOTATOC in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Results With the exception of 68Ga-1 (three carboxylates), the increased number of carboxylates on the NOTA-based chelators resulted in a reduced binding affinity and internalization. Additionally, the tumor uptake for 68Ga-2 (four carboxylates) and 68Ga-3 (five carboxylates) was reduced compared to that of 68Ga-DOTATOC (three carboxylates) and 68Ga-NO2ATOC (two carboxylates) and 68Ga-1 (three carboxylates) at 2 h p.i. suggesting the presence of an optimal charge for this compound. Conclusions Chelator modifications can lead to the altered pharmacokinetics. These results may impact further design considerations for peptide-based imaging agents. PMID:23529373

Lin, Mai; Welch, Michael J.; Lapi, Suzanne E.

2015-01-01

446

Earthquake Early Warning and Public Policy: Opportunities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of an earthquake early warning capability and pilot project were objectives of TriNet, a 5-year (1997-2001) FEMA-funded project to develop a state-of-the-art digital seismic network in southern California. In parallel with research to assemble a protocol for rapid analysis of earthquake data and transmission of a signal by TriNet scientists and engineers, the public policy, communication and educational issues inherent in implementation of an earthquake early warning system were addressed by TriNet's outreach component. These studies included: 1) a survey that identified potential users of an earthquake early warning system and how an earthquake early warning might be used in responding to an event, 2) a review of warning systems and communication issues associated with other natural hazards and how lessons learned might be applied to an alerting system for earthquakes, 3) an analysis of organization, management and public policy issues that must be addressed if a broad-based warning system is to be developed and 4) a plan to provide earthquake early warnings to a small number of organizations in southern California as an experimental prototype. These studies provided needed insights into the social and cultural environment in which this new technology will be introduced, an environment with opportunities to enhance our response capabilities but also an environment with significant barriers to overcome to achieve a system that can be sustained and supported. In this presentation we will address the main public policy issues that were subjects of analysis in these studies. They include a discussion of the possible division of functions among organizations likely to be the principle partners in the management of an earthquake early warning system. Drawing on lessons learned from warning systems for other hazards, we will review the potential impacts of false alarms and missed events on warning system credibility, the acceptability of fully automated warning systems and equity issues associated with possible differential access to warnings. Finally, we will review the status of legal authorities and liabilities faced by organizations that assume various warning system roles and possible approaches to setting up a pilot project to introduce early warning. Our presentation will suggest that introducing an early warning system requires multi-disciplinary and multi-agency cooperation and thoughtful discussion among organizations likely to be providers and participants in an early warning system. Recalling our experience with earthquake prediction, we will look at early warning as a promising but unproven technology and recommend moving forward with caution and patience.

Goltz, J. D.; Bourque, L.; Tierney, K.; Riopelle, D.; Shoaf, K.; Seligson, H.; Flores, P.

2003-12-01

447

Imperfect In-Vehicle Collision Avoidance Warning Systems Can Aid Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an in-vehicle collision avoidance warning system (IVCAWS) on driver performance. A driving simulator was driven by 135 licensed drivers. Of these, 120 received alerts from the IVCAWS when their headway to a lead car was less than 2 s, and the other 15 (the control group) received no alerts. Drivers received

Masha Maltz; David Shinar

2004-01-01

448

77 FR 72868 - Compliance Guidance for Small Business Entities on Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...effectiveness testing. The effectiveness testing consists of a sun protection factor (SPF) Test and a Broad Spectrum (ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) protection) Test. In addition, a test demonstrating water resistance that accompanies the...

2012-12-06

449

Effects of Add-on Ramelteon on Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Schizophrenia: An Open-label Pilot Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective This open-label study examined the effects of ramelteon on cognitive functions in 10 outpatients with schizophrenia. Methods Ramelteon (8 mg/day) was administered to 10 patients with schizophrenia for six months. The verbal fluency test, Trail-Making Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Stroop Test, the Digit Span Distraction Test, Iowa Gambling Task, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after treatment with ramelteon. Results Ramelteon improved significantly the scores of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Additionally, ramelteon exerted improvements in the verbal fluency and Iowa Gambling Task in 4 patients. Conclusion Ramelteon could be a potential therapeutic drug, in adjunctive treatment of learning and memory deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25598825

Takahashi, Michio; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Tsuruoka, Yoshiaki; Sato, Koichi

2014-01-01

450

Real-time earthquake warning for astronomical observatories  

E-print Network

Early earthquake warning is a rapidly developing capability that has significant ramifications for many fields, including astronomical observatories. In this work, we describe the susceptibility of astronomical facilities to seismic events, including large telescopes as well as second-generation ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers. We describe the potential warning times for observatories from current seismic networks and propose locations for future seismometers to maximize warning times.

Coughlin, Michael; Barrientos, Sergio; Claver, Chuck; Harms, Jan; Smith, Christopher; Warner, Michael

2014-01-01

451

A tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is an abstract. Using tidal gauge data from the time of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the authors were able to reconstruct the height and speed of the waves and the time it took them to reach coastal regions. Readings from the tidal gauges could have given advance warning to some areas hit by the tsunami, had a warning system been in place. Suggestions for creating a tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean region are given.

Merrifield et al.

452

Cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: progress and obstacles  

PubMed Central

Objetive To describe cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean as of August 2010. Material and Methods Review of tobacco control legislation of all 33 countries of the region; analysis of British American Tobacco (BAT)’s corporate social reports; analysis of information from cigarette packages collected in 27 countries. Results In 2002, Brazil became the first country in the region to implement pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages. Since then, six more countries adopted pictorial labels. The message content and the picture style vary across countries. Thirteen countries have banned brand descriptors and nine require a qualitative label with information on constituents and emissions. Tobacco companies are using strategies commonly used around the world to block the effective implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)’s Article 11. Conclusions Since 2002, important progress has been achieved in the region. However, countries that have ratified the FCTC have not yet implemented all the recommendations of Article 11 Guidelines. PMID:21243194

Sebrié, Ernesto M; Blanco, Adriana; Glantz, Stanton A

2011-01-01

453

How soon is too soon? When to cancel a warning after a damaging tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following an earthquake a tsunami warning center (TWC) must determine if a coastal evacuation is necessary and must do so fast enough for the warning to be useful to affected coastlines. Once a damaging tsunami has arrived, the TWC must decide when to cancel its warning, a task often more challenging than the initial hazard assessment. Here we demonstrate the difficulties by investigating the impact of the Tohoku tsunami of 11 March 2011 on the State of Hawaii, which relies on the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) for tsunami hazard guidance. PTWC issued a Tsunami Watch for Hawaii at 10 March 1956 HST (10 minutes after the earthquake) and upgraded to a Tsunami Warning at 2131 HST. The tsunami arrived in Hawaii just before 0300 HST the next day, reached a maximum runup of over 5 m, and did roughly $50 million in damage throughout the state. PTWC downgraded the Warning to an Advisory at 0730 HST, and canceled the Advisory at 1140 HST. The timing of the downgrade was appropriate—by then it was safe for coastal residents to re-enter the evacuation zone but not to enter the water—but in retrospect PTWC cancelled its Advisory too early. By late morning tide gauges throughout the state had all registered maximum wave heights of 30 cm or less for a couple of hours, so PTWC cancelled. The Center was unaware, however, of ocean behavior at locations without instruments. At Ma'alaea Harbor on the Island of Maui, for example, sea level oscillations exposed the harbor bottom every 20 minutes for several hours after the cancellation. At Waikiki on Oahu, lifeguards rescued 25 swimmers (who had either ignored or were unaware of the cancellation message's caution about hazardous currents) in the hours after the cancellation and performed CPR on one near-drowning victim. Fortunately, there were no deaths. Because of dangerous surges, ocean safety officials closed Hanauma Bay, a popular snorkeling spot on Oahu, for a full day after the tsunami hit. They reassessed the bay the following morning just as waves reflected from South America started to arrive (36 hours after the earthquake), and prudently chose to keep the bay closed for two further days. The Tohoku tsunami showed that resonances and trapped waves in shallow water can last for many hours and that energy reflected from distant shorelines can rejuvenate them. PTWC's real-time simulation of the tsunami, including animation of its propagation, now helps to identify which reflections will be most troublesome and should permit the Center to specify in advance how long a Warning should remain in effect. The current open-ended warnings, which specify when the tsunami will arrive but not how long the Warning should last, should be replaced with warnings active for a specified time ("until 3 a.m. tomorrow"), with PTWC adjusting the projected cancellation time based on coastal sea-level observations. Such warnings should greatly reduce public misconceptions and state and local government expectations about how long the hazard will last. The National Weather Service, parent agency of the US TWCs, already issues weather Warnings and Advisories active for specific durations, so this message format is already familiar to both the public and emergency managers.

Fryer, G. J.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Weinstein, S.; Richards, K.

2012-12-01

454

49 CFR 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS ...hazard warning signal operating unit on each commercial motor vehicle shall operate...

2011-10-01

455

49 CFR 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.  

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS ...hazard warning signal operating unit on each commercial motor vehicle shall operate...

2014-10-01

456

49 CFR 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS ...hazard warning signal operating unit on each commercial motor vehicle shall operate...

2010-10-01

457

49 CFR 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS ...hazard warning signal operating unit on each commercial motor vehicle shall operate...

2013-10-01

458

49 CFR 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS ...hazard warning signal operating unit on each commercial motor vehicle shall operate...

2012-10-01

459

Calorie labeling and food choices: a first look at the effects on low-income people in New York City.  

PubMed

We examined the influence of menu calorie labels on fast food choices in the wake of New York City's labeling mandate. Receipts and survey responses were collected from 1,156 adults at fast-food restaurants in low-income, minority New York communities. These were compared to a sample in Newark, New Jersey, a city that had not introduced menu labeling. We found that 27.7 percent who saw calorie labeling in New York said the information influenced their choices. However, we did not detect a change in calories purchased after the introduction of calorie labeling. We encourage more research on menu labeling and greater attention to evaluating and implementing other obesity-related policies. PMID:19808705

Elbel, Brian; Kersh, Rogan; Brescoll, Victoria L; Dixon, L Beth

2009-01-01

460

Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a pure agricultural vulnerability and (ii) a systemic vulnerability. The first considers the agricultural potential of terrains, the diversity of cultivated crops and the percentage of irrigated area as main driving factors. The second vulnerability aspect consists of geographic units in which a set of socio-economic factors are modeled geographically on the basis of the physical accessibility to market centers in one case, and according to a spatial gravity model of market areas in another case. Results of the model applied to a case study (Niger) and evaluated with food insecurity data, are presented.

Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

2014-05-01

461

Development of a Multimedia-Based Vehicle Lane Departure Warning, Forward Collision Warning and Event Video Recorder Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents how an intelligent multimedia- based vehicle warning device is developed. The focal device incorporates the lane departure warning (LDW) function, the forward collision warning (FCW) function, and the event vide-recorder (EVR) function with a charged-coupled-diode (CCD) camera as the means to capture image. The LDW component uses a median filter, an edge-enhancement filter and the Hough Transform

Che-Chung Lin; His-Wen Hsieh; Dau-Chen Huang; Chi-Wei Lin; Yung-Sheng Liao; Yung-Hsin Chen

2007-01-01

462

Characterizing Pleiotropic Effects of Glucocorticoids in Mice Using Heavy Water Labeling and Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

as Cushing’s syndrome (Besser and Edwards, 1972; Stanburyand Edwards, C.R.W. (1972). Cushing's syndrome. Clinics insyndrome, which is characterized by the aforementioned negative effects of GCs (Besser and Edwards,

Roohk, Donald Jason

2011-01-01

463

Modelling driver behaviour towards innovative warning devices at railway level crossings.  

PubMed

Improving safety at railway level crossings is costly and as funds are often limited, it is important to search for cost-effective, evidence-based solutions. The effect that the many existing alternative systems have on driver behaviour is not always known. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) at railway level crossings with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign). Regression models were developed to reflect driver's responses towards the four different types of devices based on data collected from a driving simulation experiment. The regression models include a binary choice model for predicting the probability of a driver stopping or driving through a railway crossing, as well as mixed regression models for predicting the moment at which a driver will produce specific behavioural responses before stopping at a crossing (e.g. initiation of accelerator release and application of foot-pedal brake). Violation results indicated the active systems produced much higher levels of driver compliance than passive devices. Contributing factors, such as age, gender, speed and types of warning devices were found significant at different approach stages to the level crossings. With the application of such behavioural models and traffic conflict techniques in microscopic simulation tools, traffic safety indicators, such as collision likelihood and time-to-collision can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived. PMID:23207839

Tey, Li-Sian; Wallis, Guy; Cloete, Steven; Ferreira, Luis

2013-03-01

464

Definition of rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide early warning in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme rainfall is the main cause of shallow landslides. For risk mitigation, landslide early warning systems can be implemented, on the basis of rainfall monitoring and forecasting, and the use of a landslide triggering model. Several empirical, also referred to as statistical, rainfall-landslide triggering models have been proposed in the scientific literature, and used for early warning systems activated worldwide. Nonetheless, it is not clear how effective are landslide warning systems, and it is difficult to quantify the induced benefits for the implemented ones. Many rainfall thresholds have been determined through the statistical analysis of the rainfall events that have been the cause of past landslides only, thus neglecting the cases of true negatives and false positives, with negative effects on the robustness of the proposed threshold and, probably, on the effectiveness of the warning system. In the present work we address the issue of establishing warning thresholds, which, although in an approximate way, account for the related benefits. We propose the maximization of an objective function, that measures the trade-off between true and false warning issues. A ratio between the disadvantages of false positive and false negatives, not greater than one, is introduced in the function. The effect of this ratio on the determination of the thresholds is analysed. The proposed method is based on the availability of a continuous rainfall time series. In Italy, continuous rainfall time series are available from the 1920s, but practical difficulties arise for using them, as they are not published in the Hydrological Annual Reports, by the Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale (National Hydrologic and Oceanographic Service), the manager of the most important rainfall monitoring network in Italy. However, it is possible to have a good approximation of the most intense rainfall events, in terms total rainfall, by using the data of annual maxima of precipitation for given durations, which are available in those Reports. The National Research Council's AVI database, the most complete systematic inventory of landslides events occurred in the past century in Italy, can be exploited to determine the thresholds. Hence the method has applicability for whole Italy, and uses large datasets of easy availability. As the method is based on the analysis of subdaily data, it is reliable for shallow landslides, for which low influence of antecedent precipitation on landslide triggering can be supposed. The method is illustrated through its application to case study areas in Sicily, for which there is high interest for activating early warning systems, after that the 1st October 2009 debris flow caused the loss of 37 lives and severe damage to nearby urban areas in the Peloritan Mountains.

Cancelliere, A.; Peres, D. J.

2011-12-01

465

A Hole in the Weather Warning System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

lack of text information. These problems had forced deaf and hard of hearing people to rely on looking at the sky or having hearing people alert them as their primary methods of receiving emergency information. These problems are documented through the use of a survey of 277 deaf and hard of hearing people in Minnesota and Oklahoma as well as specific examples.During the last two years, some progress has been made to "close this hole" in the weather warning system. The Federal Communications Commission has approved new rules, requiring that all audio emergency information provided by television stations, satellite, and cable operators must also be provided visually. In addition, the use of new technology such as pager systems, weather radios adapted for use by those with special needs, the Internet, and satellite warning systems have allowed deaf and hard of hearing people to have more access to emergency information.In this article, these improvements are documented but continuing problems and possible solutions are also listed.

Wood, Vincent T.; Weisman, Robert A.

2003-02-01

466

Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

2011-05-01

467

ADHD Medication Use Following FDA Risk Warnings  

PubMed Central

Background In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated cardiac and psychiatric risks associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication use. Aims of the Study To examine how disclosure of safety risks affected pediatric ADHD use, and to assess news media coverage of the issue to better understand trends in treatment patterns. Methods We used the AHRQ’s Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative household panel survey, to calculate unadjusted rates of pediatric ADHD use from 2002 to 2008 overall and by parents’ education. We examined whether children (ages 0 to 20) filled a prescription for any ADHD medication during the calendar year. Next, we used content analysis methods to analyze news coverage of the issue in 10 high-circulation newspapers, the 3 major television networks and a major cable news network in the U.S. We examined 6 measures capturing information conveyed on risk and benefits of ADHD medication use. Results No declines in medication use following FDA safety warnings overall or by parental education level were observed. News media coverage was relatively balanced in its portrayal of the risks and benefits of ADHD medication use by children. Discussion ADHD risk warnings were not associated with large declines in medication use, and balanced news coverage may have contributed to the treatment patterns observed. Self-reported surveys like the MEPS rely on the recall of respondents and may be subject to reporting bias. However, the validity of these data is supported by their consistency with other data on drug use from other sources. Implications for Health Care Provision and Use These findings are in direct contrast to the substantial declines in use observed after pediatric antidepressant risk warnings in the context of a news media environment that emphasized risks over benefits. Implications for Health Policies Our findings are relevant to the ongoing discussion about improving the FDA’s ability to monitor drug safety. Safety warnings occur amid ongoing concern that the agency has insufficient authority and resources to fulfill its mission to protect the public’s health. Efforts to bolster the FDA’s postmarketing surveillance system have the potential to incorporate more data in decision making to allow for earlier detection of health risks. Implications for Further Research Further research is needed to assess whether other treatment changes occurred following risk warnings. For example, it is important to determine whether an increase in cardiac screening prior to medication initiation occurred. Likewise, the FDA advises that children experiencing hallucinations or other psychiatric responses to medication be discontinued from drug treatment. If it is determined that instead of being discontinued from medication treatment, children experiencing hallucinations are put on additional medication (e.g., antipsychotics), additional efforts by the FDA to better inform the public are warranted. PMID:23001280

Barry, Colleen L.; Martin, Andres; Busch, Susan H.

2013-01-01

468

Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

469

Calorie Labeling And Food Choices: A First Look At The Effects On Low-Income People In New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calorie information on menus appears to increase awareness of calorie content, but not necessarily the number of calories people purchase. by Brian Elbel, Rogan Kersh, Victoria L. Brescoll, and L. Beth Dixon ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of menu calorie labels on fast food choices in the wake of New York City's labeling mandate. Receipts and survey responses were collected

Brian Elbel; R. Kersh; V. L. Brescoll; L. B. Dixon

2009-01-01

470

The Effect of Prior Intervention to Establish Generalized Requesting on the Acquisition of Object Labels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One member from each of two object pairs was assigned as a reinforcer during a generalized requesting intervention using manual signs or graphic symbols with two severely handicapped learners (age 18). Prior generalized request training and reinforcer use did not influence effectiveness of later instruction in acquisition and generalized use of…

Reichle, Joe; And Others

1987-01-01

471

Cost-effective production of 13C, 15N stable isotope-labelled biomass from phototrophic microalgae for various biotechnological applications.  

PubMed

The present study outlines a process for the cost-effective production of 13C/15N-labelled biomass of microalgae on a commercial scale. The core of the process is a bubble column photobioreactor with exhaust gas recirculation by means of a low-pressure compressor. To avoid accumulation of dissolved oxygen in the culture, the exhaust gas is bubbled through a sodium sulphite solution prior to its return to the reactor. The engineered system can be used for the production of 13C, 15N, and 13C-15N stable isotope-labelled biomass as required. To produce 13C-labelled biomass, 13CO2 is injected on demand for pH control and carbon supply, whereas for 15N-labelled biomass Na15NO3 is supplied as nitrogen source at the stochiometric concentration. The reactor is operated in semicontinuous mode at different biomass concentrations, yielding a maximum mean biomass productivity of 0.3 gL(-1) day(-1). In order to maximize the uptake efficiency of the labelled substrates, the inorganic carbon is recovered from the supernatant by acidification/desorption processes, while the nitrate is delivered at stochiometric concentration and the harvesting of biomass is performed when the 15NO3- is depleted. In these conditions, elemental analysis of both biomass and supernatant shows that 89.2% of the injected carbon is assimilated into the biomass and 6.9% remains in the supernatant. Based on elemental analysis, 97.8% of the supplied nitrogen is assimilated into the biomass and 1.3% remains in the supernatant. Stable isotope-labelling enrichment has been analysed by GC-MS results showing that the biomass is highly labelled. All the fatty acids are labelled; more than 96% of the carbon present in these fatty acids is 13C. The engineered system was stably operated for 3 months, producing over 160 g of 13C and/or 15N-labelled biomass. The engineered bioreactor can be applied for the labelling of various microalgae. PMID:16257578

Acién Fernández, F G; Fernández Sevilla, J M; Egorova-Zachernyuk, T A; Molina Grima, E

2005-12-01

472

Linker Effects on Biological Properties of 111In-Labeled DTPA Conjugates of a Cyclic RGDfK Dimer  

PubMed Central

In this report, we present in vitro and in vivo evaluation of three 111In-labeled DTPA conjugates of a cyclic RGDfK dimer: DTPA-Bn-SU016 (SU016 = E[c(RGDfK)]2; DTPA-Bn = 2-(p-isothiocyanobenzyl)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), DTPA-Bn-E-SU016 (E = glutamic acid) and DTPA-Bn-Cys-SU016 (Cys = cysteic acid). The integrin ?v?3 binding affinities of SU016, DTPA-Bn-SU016, DTPA-Bn-E-SU016 and DTPA-Bn-Cys-SU016 were determined to be 5.0 ± 0.7 nM, 7.9 ± 0.6 nM, 5.8 ± 0.6 nM and 6.9 ± 0.9 nM, respectively, against 125I-c(RGDyK) in binding to integrin ?v?3, suggesting that E or Cys residue has little effect on the integrin ?v?3 affinity of E[c(RGDfK)]2. It was also found that the 111In-labeling efficiency of DTPA-Bn-SU016 and DTPA-Bn-E-SU016 is 3–5 times better than that of DOTA analogs due to fast chelation kinetics and high-yield 111In-labeling under mild conditions (e.g. room temperature). Biodistribution studies were performed using BALB/c nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts. 111In-DTPA-Bn-SU016, 111In-DTPA-Bn-E-SU016 and 111In-DTPA-Bn-Cys-SU016 all displayed a rapid blood clearance. Their tumor uptake was comparable between 0.5 h and 4 h postinjection (p.i.) within experimental error. 111In-DTPA-Bn-E-SU016 had a significantly lower (p < 0.01) kidney uptake than 111In-DTPA-Bn-SU016 and 111In-DTPA-Bn-Cys-SU016. The liver uptake of 111In-DTPA-Bn-SU016 was 1.69 ± 0.18 %ID/g at 24 h p.i. while the liver uptake of 111In-DTPA-Bn-E-SU016 and 111In-DTPA-Bn-Cys-SU016 was 0.55 ± 0.11 %ID/g and 0.79 ± 0.15 %ID/g at 24 h p.i., respectively. Among the three 111In radiotracers evaluated in this study, 111In-DTPA-Bn-E-SU016 has the lowest liver and kidney uptake and the best tumor/liver and tumor/kidney ratios. Results from metabolism studies indicated that there is little (<10%) metabolism for three 111In radiotracers at 1 h p.i. Imaging data showed that tumors can be clearly visualized at 4 h p.i. with good contrast in the tumor-bearing mice administered with 111In-DTPA-Bn-E-SU016. It is concluded that using a glutamic acid linker can significantly improve excretion kinetics of the 111In-labeled E[c(RGDfK)]2 from liver and kidneys. PMID:18069778

Jia, Bing; Liu, Zhaofei; Shi, Jiyun; Yu, Zilin; Yang, Zhi; Zhao, Huiyun; He, Zhengjie; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Fan

2008-01-01

473

Comparison of three acute care pediatric early warning scoring tools.  

PubMed

Pediatric Early Warning (PEW) scoring tools effectively identify hospitalized children at risk for clinical deterioration. The study compared the predictability of three previously validated PEW scoring tools. A retrospective case-control design was used that identified the PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) as a stronger predictor of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) than either the PEW Tool (C. Haines, M. Perrott, & P. Weir, 2006) or the Bedside PEW System Score (C. Parshuram, J. Hutchison, & K. Middaugh, 2009). The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) demonstrated a greater sensitivity (86.6%) and specificity (72.9%) at a score of five. The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) could benefit healthcare providers in potentially averting CPA. PMID:23276507

Robson, Mary-Ann J; Cooper, Carole L; Medicus, Lori A; Quintero, Mary J; Zuniga, Stephen A

2013-01-01

474

30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.  

...2014-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements...Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems...

2014-07-01

475

30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements...Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems...

2011-07-01

476

30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements...Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems...

2012-07-01

477

30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements...Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems...

2013-07-01

478

30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements...Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems...

2010-07-01

479

21 CFR 1141.12 - Incorporation by reference of required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS Cigarette Package and Advertising...required warnings. “Cigarette Required Warnings” Edition...June 2011), consisting of electronic files, U.S....

2013-04-01

480

21 CFR 1141.12 - Incorporation by reference of required warnings.  

...CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS Cigarette Package and Advertising...required warnings. “Cigarette Required Warnings” Edition...June 2011), consisting of electronic files, U.S....

2014-04-01

481

78 FR 6056 - Smokeless Tobacco Product Warning Statements; Request for Comments and Scientific Evidence  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...product can cause mouth cancer.'' ``WARNING: This product can cause gum disease and tooth loss.'' ``WARNING: This product is not a safe alternative to cigarettes.'' ``WARNING: Smokeless tobacco is addictive.'' (15...

2013-01-29

482

30 CFR 77.1102 - Warning signs; smoking and open flame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Warning signs; smoking and open flame. 77.1102 Section 77...Protection § 77.1102 Warning signs; smoking and open flame. Signs warning against smoking and open flames shall be posted so they...

2011-07-01

483

30 CFR 77.1102 - Warning signs; smoking and open flame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Warning signs; smoking and open flame. 77.1102 Section 77...Protection § 77.1102 Warning signs; smoking and open flame. Signs warning against smoking and open flames shall be posted so they...

2010-07-01

484

77 FR 6785 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Feedback Survey for Annual Tsunami Warning...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Feedback Survey for Annual Tsunami Warning Communications Tests AGENCY...This information collection supports the Tsunami Warning and Education Act, Public Law...National Weather Service's (NWS) Tsunami Warning System, this survey is...

2012-02-09

485

The interface of oxytocin-labeled cells and serotonin transporter-containing fibers in the primate hypothalamus: a substrate for SSRIs therapeutic effects?  

PubMed

Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide synthesized in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) in the hypothalamus. Although OT is more commonly known for its role in the milk-ejection reflex, in recent years research has indicated that OT participates in the expression of social behavior, memory processing, modulation of fear, and stress responses. The demonstration that OT influences affiliative behaviors, such as parental care and reproduction, and decreases anxiety has lead to speculations that it may have a role in mood disorders. Evidence from pharmacologic studies, pointing out the modulation of the OT system by serotonin, has argued in favor of OT as a mediator of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressant properties. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and overlap of OT-labeled cells and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) immunoreactive (IR) fibers in the Macaque hypothalamus, utilizing immunocytochemical and double-immunofluorescent techniques. Consistent with previous reports, the distribution of OT-labeled cells in the hypothalamus is confined to the PVN and SON. In these nuclei, we demonstrate that the distribution of 5-HTT-labeled fibers follows the distribution of OT-labeled cells. Overlap of OT-labeled neurons and 5-HTT-IR fibers occurs in the parvicellular, magnocellular, dorsal, and posterior subdivisions of the PVN. In the SON, 5-HTT-labeled fibers and OT-labeled cells overlap in the ventromedial subdivision and in the 'capsular' part of the dorsolateral SON. These findings provide neuroanatomic support for the idea that SSRIs' therapeutic effects on social affiliation and anxiety may be mediated in part through components of the OT system. PMID:17035935

Emiliano, Ana B F; Cruz, Thomaz; Pannoni, Valerie; Fudge, Julie L

2007-05-01

486

The Predictive Validity of the Early Warning System Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Warning System is a tool developed by the National High School Center to collect data on indicators including attendance, grade point average, course failures, and credits earned. These indicators have been found to be highly predictive of a student's likelihood of dropping out of high school in large, urban areas. The Early Warning

Johnson, Evelyn; Semmelroth, Carrie

2010-01-01

487

46 CFR 98.30-35 - Warning sign at gangway.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...product with a flashpoint of less than 300 °F unless the person in charge displays at each gangway or access that is open for use a warning placard containing the following in letters 2 inches in height or larger: WARNING No open lights No...

2011-10-01

488

Mercury warning given to north state anglers By Ryan Sabalow  

E-print Network

Mercury warning given to north state anglers By Ryan Sabalow Monday, June 7, 2010 A new study the highest levels of mercury contamination in the state. Although anglers arent being warned to wean,905 fish in 272 of Californias popular lakes and reservoirs for mercury, PCBs, DDT and other contaminants

489

University of Michigan University Travel Warning and Travel Restriction Destinations  

E-print Network

Country Travel Warning Significant level of risk Travel Restriction Extreme level of risk Additional Significant level of risk Travel Restriction Extreme level of risk Additional Information 12/17/12 IndonesiaUniversity of Michigan University Travel Warning and Travel Restriction Destinations As-of Date

Eustice, Ryan

490

Elizabeth Hunke--Piloting polar warning of climate change  

E-print Network

- 1 - Elizabeth Hunke--Piloting polar warning of climate change March 20, 2014 Piloting polar warning of climate change Modeling sea ice phenomena can be very difficult. But Elizabeth Hunke makes advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in climate change and projecting

491

32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4 National Defense...RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display, as a...

2010-07-01

492

32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4 National Defense...RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display, as a...

2012-07-01

493

32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4 National Defense...RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display, as a...

2013-07-01

494

32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4 National Defense...RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display, as a...

2014-07-01

495

49 CFR 214.339 - Audible warning from trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Audible warning from trains. 214.339 Section 214.339 Transportation...Protection § 214.339 Audible warning from trains. Each railroad shall require that...and the locomotive bell be rung, by trains approaching roadway workers on or...

2012-10-01

496

49 CFR 214.339 - Audible warning from trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Audible warning from trains. 214.339 Section 214.339 Transportation...Protection § 214.339 Audible warning from trains. Each railroad shall require that...and the locomotive bell be rung, by trains approaching roadway workers on or...

2010-10-01

497

49 CFR 214.339 - Audible warning from trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Audible warning from trains. 214.339 Section 214.339 Transportation...Protection § 214.339 Audible warning from trains. Each railroad shall require that...and the locomotive bell be rung, by trains approaching roadway workers on or...

2011-10-01

498

49 CFR 214.339 - Audible warning from trains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Audible warning from trains. 214.339 Section 214.339 Transportation...Protection § 214.339 Audible warning from trains. Each railroad shall require that...and the locomotive bell be rung, by trains approaching roadway workers on or...

2013-10-01

499

Demonstrating adequacy of railroad warnings: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequently a jury is asked to evaluate a claim that a device provided adequate warning of a hazardous condition. Although there is extensive research on which basis an expert may evaluate such claim, the layman is unprepared to integrate such information into a decision. Previous attempts to produce courtroom demonstrations of warnings have been easily challenged by opposing experts. In

John Erdreich; Victor Difrancesco

2005-01-01