Sample records for effective warning labels

  1. Low Literacy Impairs Comprehension of Prescription Drug Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C; Wolf, Michael S; Bass, Pat F; Middlebrooks, Mark; Kennen, Estela; Baker, David W; Bennett, Charles L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Bocchini, Anna; Savory, Stephanie; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients' literacy and their ability to understand medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue. OBJECTIVE To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret commonly used prescription medication warning labels. DESIGN In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment. SETTING Public hospital, primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS A total of 251 adult patients waiting for an appointment at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport (LSUHSC-S) Primary Care Clinic. MEASUREMENTS Correct interpretation, as determined by expert panel review of patients' verbatim responses, for each of 8 commonly used prescription medication warning labels. RESULTS Approximately one-third of patients (n=74) were reading at or below the 6th-grade level (low literacy). Patient comprehension of warning labels was associated with one's literacy level. Multistep instructions proved difficult for patients across all literacy levels. After controlling for relevant potential confounding variables, patients with low literacy were 3.4 times less likely to interpret prescription medication warning labels correctly (95% confidence interval: 2.3 to 4.9). CONCLUSIONS Patients with low literacy had difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels. Patients of all literacy levels had better understanding of warning labels that contained single-step versus multiple-step instructions. Warning labels should be developed with consumer participation, especially with lower literate populations, to ensure comprehension of short, concise messages created with familiar words and recognizable icons. PMID:16881945

  2. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning...large size or bright color, as follows: CAUTION: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER...

  3. Affective and Cognitive Mediators of the Impact of Cigarette Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to select graphic warning labels for cigarette packs has been challenged as inadequate for demonstrating effects on smokers’ beliefs about smoking. The present study tested the prediction that warnings alter risk perceptions and thoughts of quitting indirectly through a cognitive pathway (warning believability) and an affective pathway (worry about health), both of which are important for encouraging smokers to consider quitting. Methods: Using a national Internet panel, individuals who smoke were randomly assigned to view 1 of 3 types of warning labels: basic text only, graphic image with basic text, and graphic image with both basic and additional text elaborating on the reason for the health risk. Analyses were conducted to determine whether cognitive and affective reactions mediated effects on smoking-related outcomes. Results: Images influenced perceived risk, immediate desire to smoke, and feelings toward quitting indirectly through affective reactions; elaborated text influenced these outcomes through cognitive believability, with little evidence of direct effects. Believability also enhanced positive feelings toward quitting among smokers who were less worried about health risks due to smoking. Conclusions: The findings indicate that (a) many effects of warnings on smokers’ beliefs are mediated rather than direct, (b) both cognitive and affective responses are important mediators, and (c) elaborated text can help to increase effects of images through a cognitive pathway. Warning labels should be designed to maximize effects on these mediators in order to influence smoking outcomes. PMID:23946325

  4. Interpretations of cigarette advertisement warning labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nancy; Gilpin, Dawn R; Lenos, Melissa; Hobbs, Renee

    2011-09-01

    This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications regarding the possibility of wide variations in message interpretations and (b) support the call for public health messages to be carefully tested for effectiveness among different social groups. The article's focus on Puerto Ricans addresses the problem of misleading conclusions that can arise from aggregating all Latino subpopulations into one group. The use of a naturalistic setting to examine interpretations of messages about smoking departs from the experimental methods typically used for such research and provides new evidence that even a seemingly straightforward message can be interpreted in multiple ways. Understanding and addressing differences in message interpretation can guide public health campaigns aimed at reducing health disparities. PMID:21534024

  5. Perceptions of prescription warning labels within an underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Meyer, Brittney A.; Locke, Michelle R.; Wettergreen, Sara

    Objective To understand how underserved populations attend to prescription warning label (PWL) instructions, examine the importance of PWL instructions to participants and describe the challenges associated with interpreting the information on PWLs. Methods Adults from an underserved population (racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with low income, older adults) who had a history of prescription medication use and were able to understand English took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants were presented with eight different prescription bottles with an attached PWL. Participants were asked, “If this prescription was yours, what information would you need to know about the medicine?” The number of participants who attended to the warning labels was noted. Other questions assessed the importance of PWLs, the challenges with understanding PWLs, and ways a pharmacist could help participant understanding of the PWL. Results There were 103 participants. The mean age was 50.25 years (SD=18.05). Majority attended to the PWL. Participants not currently taking medications and who had limited health literacy were likely to overlook the warning labels. Majority rated the warning instructions to be extremely important (n=86, 83.5 %), wanted the pharmacist to help them understand PWLs by counseling them on the information on the label (n=63, 61.2%), and thought the graphics made the label information easy to understand. Conclusions PWLs are an important method of communicating medication information, as long as they are easily comprehensible to patients. In addition to placing PWLs on prescription bottles, health care providers need to counsel underserved populations on medication warnings, especially individuals with limited health literacy who are not currently using a prescription medication. PMID:24644523

  6. Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label.

    PubMed

    Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J

    2013-09-01

    The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli. PMID:23688859

  7. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

  8. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

  9. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

  10. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

  11. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

  12. Do Alcohol Warning Labels Influence Men’s and Women’s Attempts to Deter Others from Driving When Intoxicated?

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Tammy W.; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the federally mandated alcohol warning label has found mixed results, but some findings are consistent with a modest influence on precautionary behaviors to reduce drinkers’ self-reported drunk driving. We hypothesized that warnings would also influence the likelihood of intervening to deter other’s driving after drinking. Using data from 1376 adult drinkers in a US national survey, a conceptual model reflecting effects of exposure to the label’s drunk driving message on taking actions to avert another's driving under the influence was tested in a structural equation modeling framework. For males and females, in structural models with drinking and handling of alcoholic beverages potentially affecting both message recall and intervening, the predicted relationships were found between message recall and actions to deter another’s drinking driving. This finding suggests that an important preventive effect of the alcohol warning label may be to legitimate collateral’s attempts to avert another’s drunk driving. PMID:22473433

  13. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning statement. 82.110 Section 82.110 Protection...Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.110 Form of label bearing warning statement. (a) Conspicuousness and...

  14. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning statement. 82.110 Section 82.110 Protection...Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.110 Form of label bearing warning statement. (a) Conspicuousness and...

  15. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning statement. 82.110 Section 82.110 Protection...Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.110 Form of label bearing warning statement. (a) Conspicuousness and...

  16. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning statement. 82.110 Section 82.110 Protection...Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.110 Form of label bearing warning statement. (a) Conspicuousness and...

  17. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning statement. 82.110 Section 82.110 Protection...Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.110 Form of label bearing warning statement. (a) Conspicuousness and...

  18. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. 1205.6 Section 1205.6...REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General....

  19. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. 1205.6 Section 1205.6...REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General....

  20. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. 1205.6 Section 1205.6...REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General....

  1. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...assembly, with the warning label shown in Fig. 7. The label shall be at least 3...each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers...mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The...

  2. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...assembly, with the warning label shown in Fig. 7. The label shall be at least 3...each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers...mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The...

  3. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning...BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs...

  4. You've been warned: an empirical study of the effectiveness of web browser phishing warnings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Egelman; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Jason I. Hong

    2008-01-01

    Many popular web browsers now include active phishing warnings since research has shown that passive warnings are often ignored. In this laboratory study we examine the effectiveness of these warnings and examine if, how, and why they fail users. We simulated a spear phishing attack to expose users to browser warnings. We found that 97% of our sixty participants fell

  5. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...label may be used. A high visibility, pressure-sensitive warning label, whether as...When the packages are shipped in a railroad car the sealing of which is...

  6. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...label may be used. A high visibility, pressure-sensitive warning label, whether as...When the packages are shipped in a railroad car the sealing of which is...

  7. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...label may be used. A high visibility, pressure-sensitive warning label, whether as...When the packages are shipped in a railroad car the sealing of which is...

  8. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...label may be used. A high visibility, pressure-sensitive warning label, whether as...When the packages are shipped in a railroad car the sealing of which is...

  9. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...label may be used. A high visibility, pressure-sensitive warning label, whether as...When the packages are shipped in a railroad car the sealing of which is...

  10. Impact of Tobacco-Related Health Warning Labels across Socioeconomic, Race and Ethnic Groups: Results from a Randomized Web-Based Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Thrasher, James F.; Nagler, Rebekah H.; Feirman, Shari P.; Muenz, Larry R.; He, David Y.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. Methods/Findings Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n?=?3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b?=?0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b?=?0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR?=?1.41, 95% CI?=?1.22?1.62), and intention to quit (OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.10?1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p?=?0.057). Conclusions Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities across groups. Policies that establish strong pictorial warning labels on tobacco packaging may be instrumental in reducing the toll of the tobacco epidemic, particularly within vulnerable communities. PMID:23341895

  11. Cancer illustrations and warning labels on cigarette packs: perceptions of teenagers from high socioeconomic status in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Ahsen, Noor Fatima; Iqbal, Humaira

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is linked with adverse health outcomes and multi-organ diseases with six million deaths every year. The smoking population includes both genders and the habit is seen in minors as well. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore among teenagers belonging to high socioeconomic class. A sample of 191 students was recruited by convenience sampling. The teenagers were questioned on their perceptions relating to prohibition labels, factors that led them to smoke, and ideas to make health warnings more effective. Overall, 66(34.55%) teenagers were smokers, and of them, 50(75.75%) were boys and 16(24.24%) were girls. Besides, 25(37.9%) smokers were of the view that smoking is a bad habit; 40(60.6%) said prohibition labels would not change the mindset of the smoker; 35(53%)believed that a smoker is completely uninfluenced by prohibition labels. Results suggest that the warning labels on cigarette packs should be made more comprehensible and alarming for smokers. PMID:26060175

  12. Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rima Nakkash; Joanna Khalil

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundWaterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds.ObjectiveTo evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories.MethodsAll waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan,

  13. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: effects on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Bury, Belinda; Hawkins, Kimberley; Firth, Bonny

    2013-01-01

    Recent proposals across a number of Western countries have suggested that idealised media images should carry some sort of disclaimer informing readers when these images have been digitally enhanced. The present studies aimed to experimentally investigate the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of the addition of such warning labels to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 120 and 114 female undergraduate students in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 respectively. In both experiments, participants viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no warning label, a generic warning label, or a specific more detailed warning label. In neither experiment was there a significant effect of type of label. However, state appearance comparison was found to predict change in body dissatisfaction irrespective of condition. Unexpectedly, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of label on body dissatisfaction, such that for women high on trait appearance comparison, exposure to specific warning labels actually resulted in increased body dissatisfaction. In sum, the present results showed no benefit of warning labels in ameliorating the known negative effect of viewing thin-ideal media images, and even suggested that one form of warning (specific) might be harmful for some individuals. Accordingly, it was concluded that more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of disclaimer labels. PMID:22947622

  14. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  15. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental information to increase the public's understanding of earthquake shaking and protective behaviors.

  16. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by this paragraph (g) shall not apply to juice that is not for...

  17. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by this paragraph (g) shall not apply to juice that is not for...

  18. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by this paragraph (g) shall not apply to juice that is not for...

  19. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by this paragraph (g) shall not apply to juice that is not for...

  20. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by this paragraph (g) shall not apply to juice that is not for...

  1. The Effects of Warnings and Speeding on Scale Scores and Convergent Validity of Conscientiousness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chet Robie; Simon Taggar; Douglas J. Brown

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of warnings and speeding on scale scores and convergent validity of a measure of Conscientiousness in a faking context (N = 329). A completely crossed 2 × 2 experimental design was used in which instructions (no warning or a warning) and speeding (with or without a time limit) were manipulated. No statistically significant effects on scale

  2. The communication triangle: elements of an effective warning message

    SciTech Connect

    Vaught, C.; Brnich, M.J. Jr.; Mallett, L. [NIOSH-PRL (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The lack of good communication is a very real problem in mine emergencies. To counter communication breakdowns, researchers at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory developed the Emergency Communication Triangle. It is a training intervention designed to help those giving a warning to provide the right sort of information and those receiving a warning to ask the right questions. The Triangle has six ordered components with the first three considered most important. The Emergency Communication is packaged as a short safety talk to be given by supervisors at the start of a shift. It was first tested in 1998 with a group of 236 workers at an underground mine in Colorado, and proved effective. It was followed up in 2003 and again in 2004. Now, more than half the miners would report who was affected by an event, 60% would report in its severity, and 70% would say what had been done so far. 3 figs.

  3. Warning. Workers at Risk, Train Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmerling, George F.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Hazard Communication Rule, also known as the Federal "right-to-know" law, aimed specifically at the chemical industry. He discusses content of the law, the role of trainers, input of labor unions, the effectiveness of safety training programs, and prepackaged training…

  4. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  5. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  6. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    PubMed

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  7. Silent Warning: The FDA's Ban on Off-Label Speech: Is it Protecting our Safety?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Briana R. Barron

    2011-01-01

    The FDA’s regulation of off-label uses for drugs has been a hotly contested issue. While the FDA seeks to ensure compliance with the regulatory process, drug manufacturers argue that off-label prescribing is a well-regarded practice by physicians and that the regulations and the regulations are impermissible under the First Amendment. Recent cases court cases have ended without a clear resolution

  8. Off-Label Prescribing, Polypharmacy, and Black-Box Warnings: A Primer for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are increasingly used to treat children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Between the years 1994 and 2001, there was a 191.7% increase in number of office visits resulting in a psychotropic medication prescription among children and adolescents. Many drugs are prescribed to children "off-label", whereby they…

  9. Worth More Than a Thousand Words: Picture-Based Tobacco Warning Labels and Language Rights in the U.S.

    E-print Network

    Jaron Browne; Susana Hennessey-Lavery; Kim Rogers

    2007-01-01

    Warning: Cigarette Smoking causes LUNG CANCER AND EMPHYSE-of the cigarettes may induce cancer of the lungs” and failedcigarette packages and advertisements: • SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: Smoking Causes Lung Cancer,

  10. Effective Communication of Toxic Chemical Warnings to Anglers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted T. Cable; Edward Udd

    1990-01-01

    This study addresses the following questions: (1) How do anglers know if toxic chemicals are present? (2) What information sources do anglers rely on to get information about toxic chemical contamination? (3) Who do anglers believe is responsible for warning them about toxic contamination\\/ (4) What communication strategies do anglers believe should be used to warn anglers of toxic chemical

  11. An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemo?lu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging and, most recently, of a proposed rule that would assert FDA’s authority over tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Given the controversy over the FDA's approach to assessing net economic benefits in its proposed and final rules on GWLs and the importance of having economic impact analyses prepared in accordance with sound economic analysis, a group of prominent economists met in early 2014 to review that approach and, where indicated, to offer suggestions for an improved analysis. We concluded that the analysis of the impact of GWLs on smoking substantially underestimated the benefits and overestimated the costs, leading the FDA to substantially underestimate the net benefits of the GWLs. We hope that the FDA will find our evaluation useful in subsequent analyses, not only of GWLs but also of other regulations regarding tobacco products. Most of what we discuss applies to all instances of evaluating the costs and benefits of tobacco product regulation and, we believe, should be considered in FDA's future analyses of proposed rules. PMID:25550419

  12. Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: a longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Canada, Australia and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Osman, Amira; Moodie, Crawford; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Methods Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to maintain sample sizes of 1000 participants in each country at each wave. Country-stratified logistic Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of citing HWLs as a source of information on quitlines and cessation websites. GEE models also regressed having called the quitline, and having visited a cessation website, on awareness of these resources because of HWLs. Results At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about quitlines was highest in Canada, followed by Australia and Mexico (33%, 19% and 16%, respectively). Significant increases over time were only evident in Australia and Mexico. In all countries, citing HWLs as a source of quitline information was significantly associated with self-report of having called a quitline. At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was higher in Canada than in Australia (14% and 6%, respectively; Mexico was excluded because HWLs do not include website information), but no significant changes over time were found for either country. Citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was significantly associated with having visited a website in both Canada and Australia. Conclusions HWLs are an important source of cessation information. PMID:25052860

  13. Exposure to prescription drugs labeled for risk of adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Jill E; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L

    2012-10-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to administrative prescription data. Descriptive statistics illustrate utilization: 89 personnel had a prescription history, 35 filled at least one prescription labeled with a warning, 26 had antidepressants on hand at death, and 2 died by drug overdose. Most airmen were not exposed to any prescriptions labeled for risk of suicidal ideation or behavior prior to death by suicide. PMID:22934922

  14. Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.

  15. FDA boxed warnings: how to prescribe drugs safely.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Nina R

    2010-02-01

    Boxed warnings, commonly referred to as "black box" warnings, are issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and featured in the labeling of drugs associated with serious adverse reactions. These safety concerns are typically identified through the Adverse Event Reporting System and the Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, which evaluates postmarket safety findings. The most common type of warning is issued when there is a potentially serious adverse effect that must be carefully weighed against the potential benefit of the drug. Warnings are also issued to draw attention to dosing, monitoring requirements, and potential drug interactions. Boxed warnings have been issued recently for oral sodium phosphate bowel preparations, fluoroquinolone antibiotics, and salmeterol. Despite these highly publicized warnings, all of these medications remain viable treatment options with appropriate patient selection. Ultimately, physicians must decide whether to prescribe drugs with boxed warnings. PMID:20112888

  16. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  17. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Support the Kids Involved Be More Than a Bystander GET HELP NOW Home > Who is at Risk > Warning Signs WHO IS AT RISK Risk Factors Warning Signs Effects Considerations for Specific Groups LGBT Youth Youth With ...

  18. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  19. Bringing greater transparency to "black box" warnings.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Nick A; Rossi, Simone

    2011-07-01

    The number of drugs with boxed warnings and the detail in the box are much greater in the USA than Australia. US warnings are up to ten times longer and often include a great deal of detail and qualified advice. Australian warnings are usually just a few sentences long and the expected response unequivocal. Other details are relegated to the relevant section within the product information. The restriction of warnings such that they are succinct and used sparingly are explicitly highlighted in the guidelines for boxed warnings in Australia. In addition, the range of other risk management strategies used may be broader. Widespread prescription drug subsidies and mechanisms set up to implement the "Quality Use of Medicines" policy provide a complementary range of options. Withdrawal of registration, removal of subsidies for all or selected indications, changed product information and labels, consumer-targeted information, prescriber mail outs, education programmes, restriction to authorised prescribers, and changed pack size and packaging have all been applied at some time in response to safety concerns. The diversity of approaches around the world provides an opportunity for a systematic approach to look at the effects of boxed warnings on prescribing practices so that we might discover what works best. While there are many studies on the effect of warnings from the USA, there are few comparable studies done where different approaches are used. Further, it is not possible to easily examine the total number and purpose of boxed warnings via any government websites. If there were always explicit and potentially verifiable changes in practice as the stated goal for each boxed warning in each jurisdiction and a requirement that the effectiveness of the intervention was measured against these goals, then we might have the evidence base for better policy around boxed warnings. PMID:21824055

  20. The effects of the suicide awareness program in enhancing community volunteers' awareness of suicide warning signs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Pei; Lin, Long-Yau; Chang, Wen-Li; Chang, Hui-Chin; Chou, Ming-Chih

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the suicide awareness program (SAP) in enhancing community volunteers' awareness of suicide warning signs (SWSs). Seventy-six participants were recruited in this study to complete the Awareness of Suicide Warning Signs Questionnaire before and after they received a 90-minute SAP. After the educational intervention, the mean score of the participants on awareness of SWSs was elevated from 3.97 to 4.53. The percentage of SWSs perceived increased from 46.88% to 84.38%. This shows that the SAP for community volunteers is effective in promoting suicide awareness. PMID:20117690

  1. Synthesized speech rate and pitch effects on intelligibility of warning messages for pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Marchionda-Frost, K.

    1984-01-01

    In civilian and military operations, a future threat-warning system with a voice display could warn pilots of other traffic, obstacles in the flight path, and/or terrain during low-altitude helicopter flights. The present study was conducted to learn whether speech rate and voice pitch of phoneme-synthesized speech affects pilot accuracy and response time to typical threat-warning messages. Helicopter pilots engaged in an attention-demanding flying task and listened for voice threat warnings presented in a background of simulated helicopter cockpit noise. Performance was measured by flying-task performance, threat-warning intelligibility, and response time. Pilot ratings were elicited for the different voice pitches and speech rates. Significant effects were obtained only for response time and for pilot ratings, both as a function of speech rate. For the few cases when pilots forgot to respond to a voice message, they remembered 90 percent of the messages accurately when queried for their response 8 to 10 sec later.

  2. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

  3. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

  4. Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High Park Fire.

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    Page 1 Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High under Red Flag conditions. A type-2 incident management team has #12;Page 2 been ordered and should the type of resources that are available. Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today

  5. A SECOND LOOK AT THE SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    -1- A SECOND LOOK AT THE SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM in both directions of Interstate 5 near Myrtle Creek, Oregon. For the evaluation, two measures) the change in the speed distribution for passenger cars and trucks. The evaluation found that the Myrtle

  6. An early warning system for unrecognized drug side effects discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Wu; Hui Fang; Steven J. Stanhope

    2012-01-01

    Drugs can treat human diseases through chemical interactions between the ingredients and intended targets in the human body. However, the ingredients could unexpectedly interact with off-targets, which may cause adverse drug side effects. Notifying patients and physicians of potential drug effects is an important step in improving healthcare quality and delivery. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0 applications, more

  7. Use of an auditory signal in a rear-end collision warning system: effects on braking force and reaction time 

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, Jennifer Susan

    1995-01-01

    This simulator experiment is a preliminary study examining the effects of different auditory signals on braking force and reaction time in a rear-end collision warning system. A driving simulator was built in which subjects operated a computer...

  8. Effects of labeling on children's visual imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol T. Mowbray; Zella Luria

    1973-01-01

    Tested the visual imagery of kindergarten, 3rd, and 6th graders via a continuous visual recognition test in which Ss were to identify repeated pictures of familiar and nonsense objects. 3 labeling variations were employed: no label was given, the E said a label aloud, or the S was instructed to construct mentally his own label. Error scores on the unlabeled

  9. Memory Saves Lives: Inter-generational Warnings Effectiveness - 13556

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Shafer, David [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States); Klein, Thomas [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami was a world-class natural disaster. It has been described as the most powerful earthquake ever in Japan, and as one of the most powerful earthquakes ever noted in the world. The toll in terms of human lives lost and property destruction was unimaginable. Even the word 'horrible' is inadequate to describe the suffering and misery that resulted. Nations with nuclear power programs are engaged in, or at least planning to become engaged in, arranging to eventually dispose of their higher-level radioactive waste materials in deep geologic repositories. Geologic repositories are passive safety systems, and if undisturbed isolate these dangerous materials form the biosphere for extremely long times. The key words, however, are 'if undisturbed'. To assure that future generations do not inadvertently drill into repositories, national programs, and the international community (the Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) preservation project of the Nuclear Energy Agency, for example), are proposing to place markers and/or monuments on closed repository sites that say 'do not drill here, and this is why' in various sophisticated ways. Such markers or monuments are attempts at providing passive institutional controls. The effectiveness of messages from past generations to a present generation may give an indication of how effective such passive institutional controls may be. (authors)

  10. Effects of in-vehicle warning information on drivers’ decelerating and accelerating behaviors near an arch-shaped intersection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junyi Zhang; Koji Suto; Akimasa Fujiwara

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the effects of in-vehicle warning information on drivers’ decelerating and accelerating behavior when approaching an intersection near an arch-shaped bridge, where traffic accidents have often occurred due to poor visibility. The warning information was provided with images and\\/or voice, triggered by the actual presence of a stopped vehicle at the downhill road section of the

  11. Tobacco industry argues domestic trademark laws and international treaties preclude cigarette health warning labels, despite consistent legal advice that the argument is invalid

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the tobacco industry’s use of international trade agreements to oppose policies to strengthen health warning labels (HWLs). Design A review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation and international treaties. Results During the early 1990s, the tobacco industry became increasingly alarmed about the advancement of HWLs on cigarettes packages. In response, it requested legal opinions from British American Tobacco’s law firms in Australia and England, Britain’s Department of Trade and Industry and the World Intellectual Property Organisation on the legality of restricting and prohibiting the use of their trademarks, as embodied in cigarette packages. The consistent legal advice, privately submitted to the companies, was that international treaties do not shield trademark owners from government limitations (including prohibition) on the use of their trademarks. Despite receiving this legal advice, the companies publicly argued that requiring large HWLs compromised their trademark rights under international treaties. The companies successfully used these arguments as part of their successful effort to deter Canadian and Australian governments from enacting laws requiring the plan packaging of cigarettes, which helped delay large graphic HWLs, including ‘plain’ packaging, for over a decade. Conclusions Governments should not be intimidated by tobacco company threats and unsubstantiated claims, and carefully craft HWL laws to withstand the inevitable tobacco industry lawsuits with the knowledge that the companies’ own lawyers as well as authoritative bodies have told the companies that the rights they claim do not exist. PMID:23179728

  12. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    PubMed

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation. PMID:25795524

  13. Evaluation of a sudden brake warning system: effect on the response time of the following driver.

    PubMed

    Isler, Robert B; Starkey, Nicola J

    2010-07-01

    This study used a video-based braking simulation dual task to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the effect of a sudden brake warning system (SBWS) in a leading passenger vehicle on the response time of the following driver. The primary task required the participants (N=25, 16 females, full NZ license holders) to respond to sudden braking manoeuvres of a lead vehicle during day and night driving, wet and dry conditions and in rural and urban traffic, while concurrently performing a secondary tracking task using a computer mouse. The SBWS in the lead vehicle consisted of g-force controlled activation of the rear hazard lights (the rear indicators flashed), in addition to the standard brake lights. Overall, the results revealed that responses to the braking manoeuvres of the leading vehicles when the hazard lights were activated by the warning system were 0.34 s (19%) faster compared to the standard brake lights. The SBWS was particularly effective when the simulated braking scenario of the leading vehicle did not require an immediate and abrupt braking response. Given this, the SBWS may also be beneficial for allowing smoother deceleration, thus reducing fuel consumption. These preliminary findings justify a larger, more ecologically valid laboratory evaluation which may lead to a naturalistic study in order to test this new technology in 'real world' braking situations. PMID:20034608

  14. 21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements for devices...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements...Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.63 Medical devices; warning statements for...

  15. 21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements for devices...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements...Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.63 Medical devices; warning statements for...

  16. 21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements for devices...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements...Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.63 Medical devices; warning statements for...

  17. An evaluation of warning habits and beliefs across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Hancock, H E; Rogers, W A; Fisk, A D

    2001-01-01

    Beliefs about warnings and habits associated with reading them were assessed for 863 individuals of various ages. Information gathered for various common household products included (a) how frequently people attend to warning information, (b) the degree of risk they believe is involved during product usage, and (c) how important they believe warnings are for different product types. Also assessed were perceived helpfulness and comprehension for symbols commonly found on product labels or on signs in the environment. Respondents 55 years and older reported reading product warnings more frequently than did younger adults, although they generally perceived warnings as less important. However, no overall age-related differences were found for perceived level of risk involved in using different product types. Although older adults generally perceived symbols to be very helpful when using a particular product, their comprehension levels were poorer than those of younger adults for half of the symbols. Overall, these data suggest that adults of all ages do read warnings on a variety of product types and that they believe warning information is important. This research illustrates the importance of including older adults in usability studies during the development of warning systems, given age-related effects may be associated with some aspects of the warning processing but not others. PMID:11866191

  18. The Effects of Specifying Job Requirements and Using Explicit Warnings to Decrease Sex Discrimination in Employment Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, William D.

    1982-01-01

    To determine effectiveness of instructions designed to reduce sex discrimination in employment interviews, students were asked to rate resumes for a male and a female applicant under different instructional conditions. Results suggested that: legal warnings may bias ratings in favor of male applicants; and specifying job requirements reduces…

  19. Investigating the effects of repeated Miranda warnings: do they perform a curative function on common Miranda misconceptions?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Fiduccia, Chelsea E; Robinson, Emily V; Steadham, Jennifer A; Drogin, Eric Y

    2013-01-01

    In Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court of the United States required that custodial suspects be apprised of their Constitutional rights against self-incrimination. The Court could not have anticipated the rampant popularization of Miranda warnings in subsequent movies and television dramas. Influenced by public media, many arrestees assume that they already "know" their rights, with no awareness of their misconceptions. The current investigation examines whether repeated exposures to Miranda warnings performs any "curative" function (i.e., dispelling common Miranda misconceptions held by pretrial defendants). The accumulative effects of five different Miranda warnings were tested over a several-hour period on 260 detainees. For the nearly half (113 or 43.5%) with three or more misconceptions, improvement (i.e., ?2 fewer misconceptions) occurred for only 35 defendants. Predictably, this improved group also tended to display a better understanding of Miranda-relevant vocabulary words and a better recall of the administered Miranda warnings than their unimproved counterparts. On average, the improved group also performed better on general measures of intelligence, and listening and reading comprehension, while still evidencing substantial cognitive deficits. The curative function of Miranda advisements is considered in light of these findings. PMID:23670943

  20. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

  1. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

  2. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

  3. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

  4. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

  5. Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare

    2009-01-01

    An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification. PMID:20523852

  6. Initial impact of the new Australian tobacco health warnings on knowledge and beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Borland; D. Hill

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New health warnings and contents labelling on tobacco products were introduced in Australia in 1995. OBJECTIVE: To assess awareness of the new warnings at a time when a mix of packs with old and new warnings were being sold and on changes in relevant knowledge and attitudes from shortly before the implementation of the new warnings. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:

  7. Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Xue, Qingwan; Ma, Lu; Xu, Yongcun

    2014-01-01

    The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles. PMID:24566631

  8. Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia: Safety and Effectiveness in a 12-Week, Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pachas, Gladys N.; Cather, Corinne; Pratt, Sarah A.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Nino, Johanna; Carlini, Sara V.; Achtyes, Eric D.; Lando, Harry; Mueser, Kim T.; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Goff, Donald C.; Evins, A. Eden

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Varenicline was approved by the FDA in 2006. In 2009, based largely on case reports, the FDA issued a warning of possible adverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior for varenicline and bupropion. Prospective trials of varenicline have not reported increased incidence of psychiatric adverse events other than sleep disturbance, but smokers with major mental illness have been excluded from large prospective trials of varenicline to date. We sought to evaluate the effect of a standard open-label 12-week varenicline trial on prospectively assessed safety and smoking outcomes in stable, treated adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and nicotine dependence. Methods One-hundred-and-twelve stable outpatients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day participated in a 12-week, open-label, smoking cessation trial of varenicline and weekly group cognitive behavioral therapy. Participants took varenicline for 4 weeks before attempting cessation. Trained raters collected safety and smoking outcome data weekly. Results Participants demonstrated improved psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms and nicotine withdrawal symptoms from baseline to week 12 or early termination. At the end of 12 weeks open label treatment, the 14- and 28-day continuous abstinence rates were 47.3 and 34%, respectively. Expired CO declined significantly during treatment in those who did not achieve abstinence. Conclusions This prospective study suggests that varenicline may be well-tolerated and effective for smoking cessation in combination with group CBT in stable outpatients with schizophrenia, a group with high rates of smoking and smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality. PMID:22888309

  9. Flash Flood Early Warning System Reference Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2011-10-18

    The Flash Flood Warning System Reference Guide is intended to promote the implementation of flash flood early warning systems based upon proven and effective methods already in use in flash-flood prone nations around the world. Both governmental and non-governmental decision makers can use it to better understand flash floods and the elements that constitute a robust, end-to-end flash flood early warning system. The guide includes chapters on Flash Flood Science, Flash Flood Forecasting Methods, Monitoring Networks, Technology Infrastructure, Warning Dissemination and Notification, and Community-based Disaster Management, and offers several examples of warning systems.

  10. The effect of colored borders and age on the conspicuity of warning signs in a complex visual environment

    E-print Network

    Chard, Joshua Turner

    1993-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF COLORED BORDERS AND AGE ON THE CONSPICUITY OF WARNING SIGNS IN A COMPLEX VISUAL ENVIRONMENT A Thesis by JOSHUA TURNER CHARD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the reguirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: R. Dale Huchi son (Chair of Comm ttee) Rodger J Ko pa (Member) R Quinn Brackett...

  11. Facilitatory effects of an auditory warning stimulus in a visual location identification task and a visual shape identification task.

    PubMed

    Bueno, V F; Ribeiro-do-Valle, L E

    2012-11-01

    The occurrence of a weak auditory warning stimulus increases the speed of the response to a subsequent visual target stimulus that must be identified. This facilitatory effect has been attributed to the temporal expectancy automatically induced by the warning stimulus. It has not been determined whether this results from a modulation of the stimulus identification process, the response selection process or both. The present study examined these possibilities. A group of 12 young adults performed a reaction time location identification task and another group of 12 young adults performed a reaction time shape identification task. A visual target stimulus was presented 1850 to 2350 ms plus a fixed interval (50, 100, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 ms, depending on the block) after the appearance of a fixation point, on its left or right side, above or below a virtual horizontal line passing through it. In half of the trials, a weak auditory warning stimulus (S1) appeared 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, or 1600 ms (according to the block) before the target stimulus (S2). Twelve trials were run for each condition. The S1 produced a facilitatory effect for the 200, 400, 800, and 1600 ms stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) in the case of the side stimulus-response (S-R) corresponding condition, and for the 100 and 400 ms SOA in the case of the side S-R non-corresponding condition. Since these two conditions differ mainly by their response selection requirements, it is reasonable to conclude that automatic temporal expectancy influences the response selection process. PMID:22930411

  12. Effect of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Policy Decisions on Off-Label Use in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Franklin; Davidoff, Amy J.; Zeidan, Amer M.; Gore, Steven D.; Baer, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anemia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as an off-label indication. In early 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released safety alerts and mandated label changes, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a National Coverage Determination (NCD) in August 2007, dramatically restricting ESA coverage based on specific clinical parameters in non-MDS patients. We sought to determine the effect on ESA use in MDS, examining both treatment initiation and concordance with guidelines designed to target patients most likely to benefit from therapy. Methods We determined receipt of ESA within 6 months of diagnosis. For ESA recipients, we operationalized three National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines: serum erythropoietin determination before ESA initiation, transfusion-independent at ESA initiation, and initial ESA treatment episode of >= 8 weeks. Logistic regression models tested the effect of time (half-year increments pre-post the August ‘07 CMS NCD implementation), controlling for demographics and health status. Results 17,491 (61.1%) of 28,627 beneficiaries with MDS received ESAs. ESA use increased prior to the reference period (Jan.–July 2007), but declined beginning in August 2007, the date of NCD implementation (marginal probability =–0.05, p-value<0.01). Concordance with treatment guidelines changed during the observation period, with increased rates of serum erythropoietin levels, but declined in the other two guidelines. Conclusion These results suggest a mixed pattern of change in the face of the FDA safety warnings and CMS NCD in MDS and highlight the importance of monitoring for unintended consequences of policy changes. PMID:25485173

  13. Effect of photoaffinity labeling on rabbit uterine progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Clarke, C L; Feil, P D; Satyaswaroop, P G

    1986-08-15

    Photoaffinity labeling with [17 alpha-methyl-3H]promegestone ([ 3H]R5020) is an effective technique for the covalent labeling of the progesterone receptor (PR), which allows monitoring of the steroid receptor complex under denaturing conditions. The present study was initiated to evaluate whether photolabeled PR could be used also as a marker for PR under nondenaturing conditions. Accordingly, the effect of irradiation on each component of the reaction was evaluated separately. When [3H]R5020 alone was irradiated, there was a rapid (less than 5 min), light dependent destruction of [3H]R5020, as evident from increased formation of a more polar tritiated product on TLC and a concomitant decrease in the ability of the irradiated preparation to bind to PR. When rabbit uterine PR was irradiated in the absence of steroid, a gradual decrease in the binding capacity was observed, reaching 70% of the nonirradiated control in 10 min. The optimal irradiation time for covalent [3H]R5020-PR complex formation was determined by irradiation for up to 5 min, and separation of the products by sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Specific labeling of proteins of Mr 116,000 and 85,000 was observed, with the rate of labeling of the two being similar, and reaching a plateau by 4 min of irradiation. The photolabeling efficiency ranged from 2 to 12%. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of photolabeled PR revealed that both the irradiated sample and the nonirradiated control sedimented to the same position. Subsequent SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the sucrose gradient peak from the photolabeled sample showed the presence of both labeled proteins of Mr 116,000 and 85,000. In addition, photolabeled rabbit uterine PR (Mr 116,000 and 85,000) could be immunoprecipitated with a guinea pig antiserum raised against rabbit uterine PR. Analysis of the photoaffinity labeling procedure in our system revealed that the photodestruction of [3H]R5020 was very rapid. However, maximal labeling with [3H]R5020 was obtainable with minimal photodestruction of PR which suggests that photolabeled receptor can be used as a marker for PR under nondenaturing conditions. PMID:3766957

  14. Fluorescent labeling of human albumin using the new aromatic dialdehyde labels and the study of innerfilter effect.

    PubMed

    Aminuddin, Muhammad; Ahmed, Sofia; Sheraz, Muhammd Ali; Ahmad, Iqbal; Mahmood, Karamat; Miller, J N

    2010-10-01

    The labels naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA), 1-phenylnaphthalene-2,3-dialdehyde (?NDA), and anthracene-2,3-dialdehyde (ADA) have been used as fluorigenic reagents. They formed fluorescent derivatives with proteins. The derivatives formed are in fact isoindoles. The fluorescence decay of the labels-antibody was found to extend over a period of 4, 8, and 10 h for ?NDA, ADA, and NDA-derivative, respectively. Protein formed is comparatively less stable as compared to simple amino acids. In relation to innerfilter effect, the addition of cytochrome C, myoglobin, and ATP as absorbers to label-human albumin fluorophores appeared to have quenched the fluorescence. In the case of using NDA as label, the fluorescence was quenched roughly 70%, 24%, and 58% for addition of cytochrome C, myoglobin, and ATP, respectively. The labels used were found to give rapid, reproducible, and reliable results. PMID:21180475

  15. Category label effects on Chinese children's inductive inferences: modulation by perceptual detail and category specificity.

    PubMed

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deák, Gedeon O

    2012-02-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs (Experiment 1), realistic line drawings (Experiment 2), and cartoon-like line drawings (Experiment 3). No significant labeling effects were found for photos and realistic drawings, but there were significant effects for cartoon-like drawings. Children made mostly (>70%) category-based inferences about photographs whether or not labels were provided (Experiment 1). Children showed a bias toward category-based inferences about realistic drawings (Experiment 2) but did so only when labels were provided. Finally, children made mostly appearance-based generalizations for cartoon-like drawings (Experiment 3). However, labels (basic or superordinate level) reduced appearance-based responses. Labeling effects did not depend on having identical labels; however, identical superordinate labels were more effective than different basic-level labels for the least informative stimuli (i.e., cartoons). Thus, labels sometimes confirm the identity of ambiguous items. This evidence of labeling effects in Mandarin-speaking Chinese children extends previous findings beyond English-speaking children and shows that the effects are not narrowly culture and language specific. PMID:21945344

  16. Warning systems and public warning response

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  17. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

  18. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

  19. 21 CFR 349.70 - Labeling of ophthalmic hypertonicity drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...labeling of the product states, under the heading “Indications,” the following phrase: “For the temporary relief of corneal edema.” (c) Warnings. In addition to the warnings in § 349.50, the labeling of the product contains the following...

  20. 21 CFR 349.70 - Labeling of ophthalmic hypertonicity drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...labeling of the product states, under the heading “Indications,” the following phrase: “For the temporary relief of corneal edema.” (c) Warnings. In addition to the warnings in § 349.50, the labeling of the product contains the following...

  1. 21 CFR 349.70 - Labeling of ophthalmic hypertonicity drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...labeling of the product states, under the heading “Indications,” the following phrase: “For the temporary relief of corneal edema.” (c) Warnings. In addition to the warnings in § 349.50, the labeling of the product contains the following...

  2. Effect of time window length for maximum amplitude estimation on P wave magnitude: application for Earthquake Early Warning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hoshiba; K. Iwakiri; K. Ohtake

    2009-01-01

    Earthquake early warning, EEW, aims at issuing the warning of strong ground shaking before its arrival by analyzing seismic waveform data obtained near the hypocenter. Rapid estimation is important as well as precise anticipation of strong shaking. At present, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) anticipates the strong shaking using magnitude, attenuation relation and site amplification factors, and the anticipation is performed

  3. Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

  4. The Effect of Labeling on Preschool Children's Performance in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ulrich; Zelazo, Philip D.; Lurye, Leah E.; Liebermann, Dana P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that experimenter-induced labeling of test cards improves preschoolers' performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS), a measure of flexible rule use. Three experiments attempted to further clarify how labeling aids performance on the DCCS. Experiment 1 examined the nature of the labeling effect but failed…

  5. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  6. Modelling the effects of cardiac pulsations in arterial spin labelling.

    PubMed

    Kazan, S M; Chappell, M A; Payne, S J

    2010-02-01

    It has recently been demonstrated experimentally that cardiac pulsations seem significantly to affect the arterial spin labelling (ASL) signal. In this paper, we introduce a new theoretical model to examine this effect. Existing models of ASL do not take such effects into account since they model the transit of the ASL signal assuming uniform plug flow with a single transit delay. In this study, we model cardiac pulsations through the coupling of the Navier-Stokes equations with the three-dimensional mass transport equation. Our results complement the experimental findings and suggest that the ASL signal does depend on the timing of the onset of the cardiac cycle relative to the tagging and imaging locations. However, cardiac pulsatility only appears to have a small effect on the quantification of perfusion estimates. PMID:20071768

  7. Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

    2014-09-01

    In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. PMID:24161300

  8. Effect of Labels on Memory in the Absence of Rehearsal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, William C.; Legant, Patricia

    This study tests the hypothesis that labeling facilitates recall in nursery school children if and only if it leads to rehearsal. Subjects were 34 children ranging in age from 47 to 53 months. During pretraining, those children in the Label group named pictures of animals and fruits as they were presented, while those in the No Label group matched…

  9. Important characteristics of warning displays on alcohol containers.

    PubMed

    Malouff, J; Schutte, N; Wiener, K; Brancazio, C; Fish, D

    1993-07-01

    Four studies examined the federally mandated warning on alcohol containers, which is required by law to be "located in a conspicuous and prominent place." In all four studies few of the drinkers could recall the main parts of the warnings, even though the warning had been required on all alcohol containers for over two years. In Study 1, 44 adults looked at the warning on various beer containers and 77% thought that the warning was not conspicuous but could be made conspicuous through various changes, such as by printing the warning horizontally (parallel to the brand name) rather than vertically. In Study 2, 50 adults looked at the warning placed horizontally on one beer can and vertically on a similar can and rated the horizontal warning significantly more conspicuous. In Study 3, 44 adults spent several minutes in a simulated drinking atmosphere. Half the subjects had beer cans with a horizontal warning and half had a vertical warning. The subjects with the horizontal warning later showed significantly better awareness/recall of the warning. In Study 4, with 75 adult subjects in a bar, the half of the subjects prompted to notice the alcohol warning drank less thereafter in the bar than the other subjects. The findings of the series of studies suggest that the conspicuousness of health warnings on alcohol containers tends to influence their possible effectiveness. PMID:8341048

  10. In vitro effect of dipyrone on several peroxidase labelled immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Gascón-Roche, N; Mora-Brugués, J; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J; Cortés-Rius, M; González-Sastre, F

    1995-04-01

    We studied the in vitro effect of dipyrone on the determination of free triiodothyronine (free T3), cortisol, progesterone, estradiol, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein measured with an immunoenzyme assay based on enhanced luminescence that uses peroxidase as label. We found significant interference from dipyrone (p < 0.01) in the determination of all the analytes mentioned: for progesterone and estradiol the interference was present at high doses of dipyrone; for free T3 and cortisol the minimum dipyrone concentration producing interference was 712 mumol/l and for carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein 44 mumol/l. Dipyrone has an analytically and statistically significant interference effect on the determination of the mentioned analytes. PMID:7542931

  11. Modelling Reference-Dependent and Labelling Effects in Consumers’ Functional Food Choices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Ning Zou; Jill E. Hobbs

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the reference-dependent and labelling effects when consumers make choices about functional foods, and explores how changes in reference points could alter individuals’ preferences. Functional food (probiotic yogurt) and regular food (regular yogurt) are used as examples to explore the potential reference-dependent effects and labelling effects. A consumer utility model with reference point effects is developed. The paper

  12. Tsunami Warning Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Tsunami Warning Systems describes the processes involved in anticipating, detecting, and warning for a tsunami by summarizing data collection, modeling, analysis, and alert procedures used at NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers. A simulated event and past tsunami occurrences are used to highlight warning system processes for determining the tsunami threat based on seismic and sea level data and tsunami forecast models. Message communication and local response are also addressed as final components of any warning system. The module is intended for Weather Forecast Office staff and emergency managers who require a better understanding of the technical aspects of tsunami warning delivery. The module will also benefit anyone wanting to learn more about the components of tsunami warning systems.

  13. 'Retouch free': The effect of labelling media images as not digitally altered on women's body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Smyth, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of 'retouch free' labels on thin ideal fashion images on women's body dissatisfaction. This represents an experimental analogue to current practice by some fashion magazines. Participants were 224 female undergraduates who viewed a set of fashion shoots with either no label, or a label indicating that the image had not been digitally altered. Results indicated that, although body dissatisfaction increased after exposure to the thin ideal images, there was no significant effect of label type on mood or body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that labelling images as digitally unaltered appears neither helpful nor harmful in terms of body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of labels. PMID:24094477

  14. Negative Treatment Effects: Is It Time for a Black Box Warning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisvert, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on Negative effects from psychological treatments: A perspective by David Barlow. The author addresses negative treatment effects in the psychotherapy field by stating that Barlow provided a historical perspective of clinical psychology's long-standing interest in studying the positive effects of psychotherapy, and he indicated that…

  15. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  16. Quantitative Localization Microscopy: Effects of Photophysics and Labeling Stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Szymborska, Anna; Lidke, Keith A.; Rieger, Bernd; Stallinga, Sjoerd

    2015-01-01

    Quantification in localization microscopy with reversibly switchable fluorophores is severely hampered by the unknown number of switching cycles a fluorophore undergoes and the unknown stoichiometry of fluorophores on a marker such as an antibody. We overcome this problem by measuring the average number of localizations per fluorophore, or generally per fluorescently labeled site from the build-up of spatial image correlation during acquisition. To this end we employ a model for the interplay between the statistics of activation, bleaching, and labeling stoichiometry. We validated our method using single fluorophore labeled DNA oligomers and multiple-labeled neutravidin tetramers where we find a counting error of less than 17% without any calibration of transition rates. Furthermore, we demonstrated our quantification method on nanobody- and antibody-labeled biological specimens. PMID:25992915

  17. The Effects of Urban Consumer Perceptions on Attitudes for Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Wes Harrison; Jae-Hwan Han

    2005-01-01

    The effects of consumer perceptions on attitudes toward the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s current labeling policy for GM foods are examined. Results show that as beliefs regarding potential adverse effects of GM crops on wildlife and the environment increase, consumers are less likely to support the FDA's current labeling policy. The perceived safety of GM foods was

  18. Airlock caution and warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayfield, W. J.; Cork, L. Z.; Malchow, R. G.; Hornback, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Caution and warning system, used to monitor performance and warn of hazards or out-of-limit conditions on space vehicles, may have application to aircraft and railway transit systems. System consists of caution and warning subsystem and emergency subsystem.

  19. Timely Warning Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    A complaint received by the Department of Education alleged that Virginia Tech violated the "timely warning" requirements of the Clery Act on April 16, 2007, by not issuing specific campus-wide alerts once senior officials knew of the immediate threat to health and safety. The complaint also alleged that the University's timely warning policy, as…

  20. Academic Warning Preclinical Y

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Academic Warning 1st Clinical Y 3rd Preclinical Y 2nd Preclinical Y 1st Preclinical Y 1st USMLE fail Student meets with ADSA & DOSLER ---------------------- 2 Y's left Student retakes exam Pass = off --------------------- 1 Y left Student retakes exams Pass = off warning/continue ---------------------- Fail = probation

  1. Effects of the Private-Label Invasion in Food Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Ward; Jay P. Shimshack; Jeffrey M. Perloff; J. Michael Harris

    2002-01-01

    Using supermarket scanner data, we test a variety of hypotheses from trade journals about the invasion of private-label food products. According to conventional industry wisdom, name-brand firms defended their brands against new private-label products by lowering their prices, engaging in additional promotional activities, and increasingly differentiating their products. Our empirical evidence is inconsistent with these beliefs. Copyright 2002, Oxford University

  2. Effect of preparation procedures on intensity of radioautographic labeling is studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baserga, R.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Effects of tissue preparation and extractive procedures on the intensity of radioautographic labeling are presented in terms of mean grain count per cell in cells labeled with tritiated precursors of proteins or nucleic acids. This information would be of interest to medical researchers and cytologists.

  3. How Public Relations Professionals Can Use Food Labels as Effective Communication Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerick, Nancy; Weir, Lee

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes a panel of graphic arts education experts to review suggested Food and Drug Administration label guidelines--if the participants thought that "graphic problems" existed in the guidelines, they were asked to make suggestions to indicate how food labels could be prepared more effectively, at no additional cost. (PA)

  4. Front-of-pack nutrition labels. Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica van Herpen; Hans C. M. van Trijp

    2011-01-01

    Although front-of-pack nutrition labeling can help consumers make healthier food choices, lack of attention to these labels limits their effectiveness. This study examines consumer attention to and use of three different nutrition labeling schemes (logo, multiple traffic-light label, and nutrition table) when they face different goals and resource constraints. To understand attention and processing of labels, various measures are used

  5. Communication architecture of an early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angermann, M.; Guenther, M.; Wendlandt, K.

    2010-11-01

    This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS) in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009) on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

  6. The effects of nutrition knowledge on food label use. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition information on food labels is an important source of nutrition information but is typically underutilized by consumers. This review examined whether consumer nutrition knowledge is important for communication of nutrition information through labels on packaged foods. A cognitive processing model posits that consumers with prior knowledge are more likely to use label information effectively, that is, focus on salient information, understand information, and make healthful decisions based on this information. Consistent with this model, the review found that nutrition knowledge provides support for food label use. However, nutrition knowledge measures varied widely in terms of the dimensions they included and the extensiveness of the assessment. Relatively few studies investigated knowledge effects on the use of ingredient lists and claims, compared to nutrition facts labels. We also found an overreliance on convenience samples relying on younger adults, limiting our understanding of how knowledge supports food label use in later life. Future research should 1) investigate which dimensions, or forms, of nutrition knowledge are most critical to food label use and dietary decision making and 2) determine whether increases in nutrition knowledge can promote great use of nutrition information on food labels. PMID:26025086

  7. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Noosa River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  8. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Barron River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  9. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Bulloo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  10. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nerang River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  11. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Norman River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  12. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Paroo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  13. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the KOLAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Kolan River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  14. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOONIE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Moonie River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  15. Effect of acetaminophen on the leukocyte-labeling efficiency of indium oxine In 111

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, S.C.; Schmelter, R.F.; Nelson, K.L.; Petersen, R.J.; Qualfe, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    The effect of acetaminophen on the labeling efficiency of leukocytes with indium oxine In 111 was studied. A blood sample was obtained from eight healthy men before and after they received acetaminophen 650 mg every four hours for 24 hours. After dividing the plasma from each sample into three portions, leukocytes were separated and labeled with indium oxine In 111. In an in vitro study, 200 ml of blood was obtained from one of the men, and the plasma was separated into four portions. Acetaminophen in 95% ethanol was added to three of the plasma fractions to produce acetaminophen concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 micrograms/ml; ethanol was added to the fourth fraction as a control. Each plasma fraction was then subdivided into three aliquots, and leukocytes were labeled as in the in vivo study. Mean leukocyte labeling efficiencies in both studies were calculated from the ratios of leukocyte radioactivity to initial radioactivity in the samples, expressed as percentages. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies before acetaminophen administration ranged from 79 to 85%; after administration, labeling efficiencies ranged from 70 to 87%. No significant differences in mean labeling efficiency before and after acetaminophen administration were noted in any of the subjects. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies in all in vitro plasma fractions were reduced, ranging from 54 to 63%, but no significant differences in labeling efficiency between any of the plasma fractions were found. Using the labeling procedures in this study, exposure of leukocytes from healthy men to acetaminophen in vivo or in vitro does not affect labeling efficiency with indium oxine In 111.

  16. A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings: does the warning need to be linked to the collision event?

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob; Ho, Cristy; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface) can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs). The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV). Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming) vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards) or away (downwards) from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal. PMID:24475225

  17. A Comparison of Different Informative Vibrotactile Forward Collision Warnings: Does the Warning Need to Be Linked to the Collision Event?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Rob; Ho, Cristy; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface) can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs). The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV). Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming) vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards) or away (downwards) from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal. PMID:24475225

  18. Retesting after initial failure, coaching rumors, and warnings against faking in online personality measures for selection.

    PubMed

    Landers, Richard N; Sackett, Paul R; Tuzinski, Kathy A

    2011-01-01

    A large sample (N = 32,311) of applicants for managerial positions at a nationwide retailer completed a personality test online over the course of several years. A new type of faking was observed in their responses: the use of only extreme responses (all 1s and 5s), which is labeled blatant extreme responding (BER). An increase in BER over time was observed for internal but not for external applicants, suggesting the presence of a coaching rumor. A subsample of internal applicants chose to retake the test after initial failure. These individuals showed substantial increases in both test scores and rate of BER, with higher prevalence of faking at retest than the main sample. To reduce faking, an interactive warning was implemented one year after the initial administration. Differing patterns of faking were observed before and after warnings, allowing for an examination of warning effectiveness in the presence of a coaching rumor. Results suggest that faking increases over time as the coaching rumor spreads but that warnings deter this spread. Evidence suggests that faking is indeed a problem in real-world selection settings. PMID:20718510

  19. Classification of benzoyl peroxide as safe and effective and revision of labeling to drug facts format; topical acne drug products for over-the-counter human use; final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    We, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are issuing this final rule to include benzoyl peroxide as a generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) active ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) topical acne drug products. In addition, this final rule includes new warnings and directions required for OTC acne drug products containing benzoyl peroxide. We are also revising labeling for OTC topical acne drug products containing resorcinol, resorcinol monoacetate, salicylic acid and/or sulfur to meet OTC drug labeling content and format requirements in a certain FDA regulation. This final rule is part of our ongoing review of OTC drug products and represents our conclusions on benzoyl peroxide in OTC acne drug products. PMID:20383916

  20. FDA drug prescribing warnings: is the black box half empty or half full?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita K. Wagner; K. Arnold Chan; Inna Dashevsky; Marsha A. Raebel; Susan E. Andrade; Jennifer Elston Lafata; Robert L. Davis; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Stephen B. Soumerai; Richard Platt

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Black box warnings (BBWs) are the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) strongest labeling requirements for high-risk medicines. It is unknown how frequently physicians prescribe BBW drugs and whether they do so in compliance with the warnings. The purpose of the present study was to assess the frequency of use of BBW medications in ambulatory care and prescribing compliance with

  1. Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles-Labeling on Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Hamed; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Movassaghpour, Aliakbar; Akbarzadeh, Parvin; Amoghli Tabrizi, Bahram; Dehdilani, Nima; Lotfinegad, Parisa; Soleimanloo, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been used to label mammalian cells and to monitor their fate in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the effectiveness of phenotype of labeled cells by SPIONs is still a matter of question. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency and biological effects of labeled mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) using ferumoxide- protamine sulfate complex. Materials and Methods In an experimental study, undifferentiated mESCs, C571 line, a generous gift of Stem Cell Technology Company, were cultured on gelatin-coated flasks. The proliferation and viability of SPION-labeled cells were compared with control. ESCs and embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from differentiated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were analyzed for stage-specific cell surface markers using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Results Our observations showed that SPIONs have no effect on the self-renewal ability of mESCs. Reverse microscopic observations and prussian blue staining revealed 100% of cells were labeled with iron particles. SPION-labeled mESCs did not significantly alter cell viability and proliferation activity. Furthermore, labeling did not alter expression of representative surface phenotypic markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1) and cluster of differentiation 117 (CD117) on undifferentiated ESC and CD34, CD38 on HSCs, as measured by flowcytometry. Conclusion According to the results of the present study, SPIONs-labeling method as MRI agents in mESCs has no negative effects on growth, morphology, viability, proliferation and differentiation that can be monitored in vivo, noninvasively. Noninvasive cell tracking methods are considered as new perspectives in cell therapy for clinical use and as an easy method for evaluating the placement of stem cells after transplantation. PMID:26199901

  2. An efficient and cost-effective isotope labeling protocol for proteins expressed in shape Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mengli Cai; Ying Huang; Kazuyasu Sakaguchi; G. Marius Clore; Angela M. Gronenborn; Robert Craigie

    1998-01-01

    A cost-effective protocol for uniform 15N and\\/or13 C isotope labeling of bacterially expressed proteins is presented. Unlike most standard protocols, cells are initially grown in a medium containing nutrients at natural abundance and isotopically labeled nutrients are only supplied at the later stages of growth and during protein expression. This permits the accumulation of a large cell mass without the

  3. 21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

  4. 21 CFR 1271.370 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...must label each HCT/P made available for distribution clearly and accurately. (b) The following...criteria and makes the HCT/P available for distribution; (2) Storage temperature; (3) Other warnings, where...

  5. 21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

  6. 21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

  7. 21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

  8. 21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

  9. Investigation of the Effects of Isotopic Labeling at a PS/PMMA Interface Using SIMS and Mean-Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Investigation of the Effects of Isotopic Labeling at a PS/PMMA Interface Using SIMS and Mean ReceiVed December 4, 2005 ABSTRACT: Isotopic labeling (deuteration) is known to affect the phase qualitatively, using previously reported changes in for PS/PMMA due to isotopic labeling. The previously

  10. Read the Label First

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fact Sheets Health & Safety Read the Label First Read the Label First Need help with product labels? ... effectively. It contains pertinent information that you should read and understand before you use a pesticide product. ...

  11. Effects of Ferumoxides – Protamine Sulfate Labeling on Immunomodulatory Characteristics of Macrophage-like THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Janic, Branislava; Iskander, A. S. M.; Rad, Ali M.; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Arbab, Ali S.

    2008-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) complexed with cationic transfection agent is used to label various mammalian cells. Labeled cells can then be utilized as an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes. However, certain number of in vivo administered labeled cells may be cleared from tissues by the host's macrophages. For successful translation to routine clinical application of SPIO labeling method it is important that this mode of in vivo clearance of iron does not elicit any diverse immunological effects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that SPIO agent ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FePro) incorporation into macrophages does not alter immunological properties of these cells with regard to differentiation, chemotaxis, and ability to respond to the activation stimuli and to modulate T cell response. We used THP-1 cell line as a model for studying macrophage cell type. THP-1 cells were magnetically labeled with FePro, differentiated with 100 nM of phorbol ester, 12-Myristate-13-acetate (TPA) and stimulated with 100 ng/ml of LPS. The results showed 1) FePro labeling had no effect on the changes in morphology and expression of cell surface proteins associated with TPA induced differentiation; 2) FePro labeled cells responded to LPS with slightly higher levels of NF?B pathway activation, as shown by immunobloting; TNF-? secretion and cell surface expression levels of CD54 and CD83 activation markers, under these conditions, were still comparable to the levels observed in non-labeled cells; 3) FePro labeling exhibited differential, chemokine dependent, effect on THP-1 chemotaxis with a decrease in cell directional migration to MCP-1; 4) FePro labeling did not affect the ability of THP-1 cells to down-regulate T cell expression of CD4 and CD8 and to induce T cell proliferation. Our study demonstrated that intracellular incorporation of FePro complexes does not alter overall immunological properties of THP-1 cells. The described experiments provide the model for studying the effects of in vivo clearance of iron particles via incorporation into the host's macrophages that may follow after in vivo application of any type of magnetically labeled mammalian cells. To better mimic the complex in vivo scenario, this model may be further exploited by introducing additional cellular and biological, immunologically relevant, components. PMID:18575575

  12. Disaster warning satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Disaster Warning Satellite System is described. It will provide NOAA with an independent, mass communication system for the purpose of warning the public of impending disaster and issuing bulletins for corrective action to protect lives and property. The system consists of three major segments. The first segment is the network of state or regional offices that communicate with the central ground station; the second segment is the satellite that relays information from ground stations to home receivers; the third segment is composed of the home receivers that receive information from the satellite and provide an audio output to the public. The ground stations required in this system are linked together by two, separate, voice bandwidth communication channels on the Disaster Warning Satellites so that a communications link would be available in the event of disruption of land line service.

  13. Managing tsunamis through early warning systems: A multidisciplinary approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Di Jin; Jian Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the key factors that will make a tsunami warning system most effective, to develop a framework in which results of natural science and engineering research can be effectively integrated into coastal natural hazard planning, and to develop a numerical example that illustrates how benefit-cost analysis may be used to assess early warning systems. Results of

  14. Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug’s efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File – Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug interaction claims linked to the Drug Interactions section for a drug were potentially novel. The baseline performance characteristics of the proof-of-concept will enable further technical and user-centered research on robust methods for scaling the approach to the many thousands of product labels currently on the market. PMID:23351881

  15. 16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...product. The warning statements required by the Act are as follows: WARNING: THIS PRODUCT MAY CAUSE MOUTH CANCER WARNING: THIS PRODUCT MAY CAUSE GUM DISEASE AND TOOTH LOSS WARNING: THIS PRODUCT IS NOT A SAFE ALTERNATIVE TO CIGARETTES...

  16. GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

  17. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Proserpine River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  18. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Johnstone River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  19. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Haughton River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  20. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Diamantina River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  1. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mooloolah River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  2. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Herbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  3. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nicholson River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  4. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burdekin River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  5. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Maroochy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  6. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Leichhardt River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  7. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Fitzroy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  8. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River. Pioneer River at Mirani Contained in this document is information about: (Last updated April 2014) Flood

  9. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burnett River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  10. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Daintree River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  11. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Flinders River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  12. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Warrego River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  13. Monitoring and early warning for internet worms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff Changchun Zou; Lixin Gao; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

    2003-01-01

    After the Code Red incident in 2001 and the SQL Slammer in January 2003, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet, infects most vulnerable computers before people can take effective countermeasures. The fast spreading nature of worms calls for a worm monitoring and early warning system. In this paper, we propose effective algorithms

  14. GEO Label Web Services for Dynamic and Effective Communication of Geospatial Metadata Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, Victoria; Nüst, Daniel; Bastin, Lucy; Masó, Joan; Lumsden, Jo

    2014-05-01

    We present demonstrations of the GEO label Web services and their integration into a prototype extension of the GEOSS portal (http://scgeoviqua.sapienzaconsulting.com/web/guest/geo_home), the GMU portal (http://gis.csiss.gmu.edu/GADMFS/) and a GeoNetwork catalog application (http://uncertdata.aston.ac.uk:8080/geonetwork/srv/eng/main.home). The GEO label is designed to communicate, and facilitate interrogation of, geospatial quality information with a view to supporting efficient and effective dataset selection on the basis of quality, trustworthiness and fitness for use. The GEO label which we propose was developed and evaluated according to a user-centred design (UCD) approach in order to maximise the likelihood of user acceptance once deployed. The resulting label is dynamically generated from producer metadata in ISO or FDGC format, and incorporates user feedback on dataset usage, ratings and discovered issues, in order to supply a highly informative summary of metadata completeness and quality. The label was easily incorporated into a community portal as part of the GEO Architecture Implementation Programme (AIP-6) and has been successfully integrated into a prototype extension of the GEOSS portal, as well as the popular metadata catalog and editor, GeoNetwork. The design of the GEO label was based on 4 user studies conducted to: (1) elicit initial user requirements; (2) investigate initial user views on the concept of a GEO label and its potential role; (3) evaluate prototype label visualizations; and (4) evaluate and validate physical GEO label prototypes. The results of these studies indicated that users and producers support the concept of a label with drill-down interrogation facility, combining eight geospatial data informational aspects, namely: producer profile, producer comments, lineage information, standards compliance, quality information, user feedback, expert reviews, and citations information. These are delivered as eight facets of a wheel-like label, which are coloured according to metadata availability and are clickable to allow a user to engage with the original metadata and explore specific aspects in more detail. To support this graphical representation and allow for wider deployment architectures we have implemented two Web services, a PHP and a Java implementation, that generate GEO label representations by combining producer metadata (from standard catalogues or other published locations) with structured user feedback. Both services accept encoded URLs of publicly available metadata documents or metadata XML files as HTTP POST and GET requests and apply XPath and XSLT mappings to transform producer and feedback XML documents into clickable SVG GEO label representations. The label and services are underpinned by two XML-based quality models. The first is a producer model that extends ISO 19115 and 19157 to allow fuller citation of reference data, presentation of pixel- and dataset- level statistical quality information, and encoding of 'traceability' information on the lineage of an actual quality assessment. The second is a user quality model (realised as a feedback server and client) which allows reporting and query of ratings, usage reports, citations, comments and other domain knowledge. Both services are Open Source and are available on GitHub at https://github.com/lushv/geolabel-service and https://github.com/52North/GEO-label-java. The functionality of these services can be tested using our GEO label generation demos, available online at http://www.geolabel.net/demo.html and http://geoviqua.dev.52north.org/glbservice/index.jsf.

  15. SUBJECT: Timely Warning Trigger Warning: This warning addresses a report of sexual misconduct. Resources are

    E-print Network

    misconduct is the perpetrator. It is a violation of university policy to engage in sexual activities without percent of transgender people experience sexual violence. No matter the demographic, the most common typeSUBJECT: Timely Warning Trigger Warning: This warning addresses a report of sexual misconduct

  16. Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Methods Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only warnings were assessed, while at Wave 2 new large graphic warnings were assessed. In Malaysia, during both waves small text only warnings were in effect. Reactions were used to predict interest in quitting, and to predict making quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Results Multivariate predictors of “interest in quitting” were comparable across countries, but predictors of quit attempts varied. In both countries, cognitive reactions to warnings (adjusted ORs; 1.57 & 1.69 for Malaysia at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively and 1.29 & 1.19 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), forgoing a cigarette (except Wave 2 in Malaysia) (adjusted ORs; 1.77 for Malaysia at wave 1 and 1.54 & 2.32 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), and baseline knowledge (except wave 2 in both countries) (adjusted ORs; 1.71 & 1.51 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively) were positively associated with interest in quitting at that wave. In Thailand only, “cognitive reactions to warnings” (adjusted ORs; 1.12 & 1.23 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), “forgoing a cigarette” (adjusted OR?=?1.55 at wave 2 only) and “an interest in quitting” (adjusted ORs; 1.61 & 2.85 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively) were positively associated with quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Salience was negatively associated with subsequent quit attempts in both Malaysia and Thailand, but at Wave 2 only (adjusted ORs; 0.89 & 0.88 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively). Conclusion Warnings appear to have common mechanisms for influencing quitting regardless of warning strength. The larger and more informative Thai warnings were associated with higher levels of reactions predictive of quitting and stronger associations with subsequent quitting, demonstrating their greater potency. PMID:24330614

  17. Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1

    E-print Network

    Rawlinson, Nick

    Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1 and Alberto Michelini2] Effective tsunami early warning for coastlines near a tsunamigenic earthquake requires notification within 5, greater than about 50 s. Here we show that T0 gives more information on tsunami importance than moment

  18. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star, Alexander; Tu, Eugene; Niemann, Joseph; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P.; Joiner, C. Steve; Valcke, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events were confirmed by using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and then were further explored for label-free DNA detection at picomolar to micromolar concentrations. We have also observed a strong effect of DNA counterions on the electronic response, thus suggesting a charge-based mechanism of DNA detection using NTNFET devices. Implementation of label-free electronic detection assays using NTNFETs constitutes an important step toward low-cost, low-complexity, highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostics. hemochromatosis | SNP | biosensor

  19. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

  20. ‘Traffic-light’ nutrition labelling and ‘junk-food’ tax: a modelled comparison of cost-effectiveness for obesity prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Sacks; J L Veerman; M Moodie; B Swinburn

    2011-01-01

    Introduction:Cost-effectiveness analyses are important tools in efforts to prioritise interventions for obesity prevention. Modelling facilitates evaluation of multiple scenarios with varying assumptions. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of conservative scenarios for two commonly proposed policy-based interventions: front-of-pack ‘traffic-light’ nutrition labelling (traffic-light labelling) and a tax on unhealthy foods (‘junk-food’ tax).Methods:For traffic-light labelling, estimates of changes in energy intake were based

  1. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, T.; Raape, U.; Teßmann, S.; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; Kukofka, T.; Riedlinger, T.; Mikusch, E.; Dech, S.

    2010-09-01

    An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind - it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal) of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010). While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system) which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG - the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia - which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC) and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG) to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010).

  2. Human Response to Emergency Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, J.

    2009-12-01

    Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

  3. The Collaborative Encoding Deficit is Attenuated with Specific Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Paneerselvam, Bavani

    2012-01-01

    Individuals learning together do so less effectively than individuals learning alone, an effect known as the collaborative encoding deficit (Barber, Rajaram, & Aron, 2010). In the present studies we examined whether providing participants with a warning about the collaborative encoding deficit would increase their encoding task performance, and reduce subsequent memory deficits. Across two experiments, specific warnings were beneficial for memory. Collaborating participants who were told about the collaborative encoding deficit, and who received suggestions for how to complete the encoding task, had superior memory than participants who received no warning. This benefit was not due to qualitative changes in encoding task performance, was unrelated to the type of collaboration utilized, was absent when a more general warning was utilized, and was unrelated to self-reported task motivation. Rather, specific warnings appear to protect against the collaborative encoding deficit by increasing time spent on, and attention directed to, the encoding task. PMID:23296389

  4. Effect of labeling density and time post labeling on quality of antibody-based super resolution microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittel, Amy M.; Saldivar, Isaac; Dolman, Nicholas; Nickerson, Andrew K.; Lin, Li-Jung; Nan, Xiaolin; Gibbs, Summer L.

    2015-03-01

    Super resolution microscopy (SRM) has overcome the historic spatial resolution limit of light microscopy, enabling fluorescence visualization of intracellular structures and multi-protein complexes at the nanometer scale. Using single-molecule localization microscopy, the precise location of a stochastically activated population of photoswitchable fluorophores is determined during the collection of many images to form a single image with resolution of ~10-20 nm, an order of magnitude improvement over conventional microscopy. One of the key factors in achieving such resolution with single-molecule SRM is the ability to accurately locate each fluorophore while it emits photons. Image quality is also related to appropriate labeling density of the entity of interest within the sample. While ease of detection improves as entities are labeled with more fluorophores and have increased fluorescence signal, there is potential to reduce localization precision, and hence resolution, with an increased number of fluorophores that are on at the same time in the same relative vicinity. In the current work, fixed microtubules were antibody labeled using secondary antibodies prepared with a range of Alexa Fluor 647 conjugation ratios to compare image quality of microtubules to the fluorophore labeling density. It was found that image quality changed with both the fluorophore labeling density and time between completion of labeling and performance of imaging study, with certain fluorophore to protein ratios giving optimal imaging results.

  5. The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

  6. Effects of Labeling on Preschoolers' Explicit False Belief Performance: Outcomes of Cognitive Flexibility or Inhibitory Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and…

  7. Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…

  8. Prescribing pattern of glucose lowering drugs in the United Kingdom in the last decade: a focus on the effects of safety warnings about rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Ingrid; Romio, Silvana A.; Schuemie, Martijn; Oteri, Alessandro; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Trifirò, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Aim In the last decade, new glucose lowering drugs (GLDs) have been launched, and also several warnings regarding their safety. The cardiovascular safety of thiazolidinediones (TZD) has been questioned. We analyzed the prescription pattern of GLDs from 2000 to November 2009 in the United Kingdom (UK) using the THIN database with special focus on the effects of the safety warnings about rosiglitazone issued in May 2007 and January 2008. Methods Annual prevalence and incidence of GLD prescriptions were measured. For TZD, the monthly prevalence and incidence of prescription were calculated from May 2006 to January 2009. The switching pattern around the FDA alert and the characteristics of subjects starting treatment with TZD before and after the alerts were observed. Results The prevalence of prescriptions of GLDs increased during the 10?year period, metformin increasing more than three times. Rosiglitazone prevalence showed an increased trend until May 2007, (2.3/1000 person?years) and decreased thereafter (January 2009: 1.1/1000 person?years). The use of pioglitazone increased surpassing rosiglitazone from April 2008 onwards. The incidence of rosiglitazone use decreased sharply after May 2007 (0.8/1000 person?years). The prevalence of use of other therapies remained rather stable from 2000 to 2007 but increased afterwards. After May 2007, rosiglitazone users were increasingly switched to pioglitazone. There was an increased proportion of new users of pioglitazone with cardiovascular risk after the alerts. Conclusions The prescription of GLDs in the UK has increased in the last decade. For TZDs, it changed after May 2007 as well as the characteristics of the subjects treated with them. PMID:22845019

  9. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  10. Bystander effect in tumor cells produced by Iodine-125 labeled human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mamlouk, Omar; Balagurumoorthy, Pichumani; Wang, Ketai; Adelstein, S. James; Kassis, Amin I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the ability of human lymphocytes labeled with DNA-incorporated 125I to exert an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect on co-cultured human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells in vitro. Materials and methods Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated to synthesize DNA in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and labeled with 5-[125I]iodo-2?-deoxyuridine. Human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells were co-cultured with the 125I-labeled lymphocytes in various ratios for 5 days and the proliferation of the LS174T cells was assessed. Further, the supernatant media from these co-cultures were: (i) Transferred to LS174T cells and their proliferation measured after 5 days, (ii) used to assess the clonogenic survival of LS174T cells, and (iii) screened for factors that suppress growth. Results A significant reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells was observed when co-cultured either with 125I-labeled lymphocytes (56 ± 3.5%) or the supernatant media (52.5 ± 1.3%) obtained from these co-cultures. Clonogenic survival of LS174T cells grown in the supernatant media corroborated the decrease in tumor cell growth. Conclusion The observed reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells in presence of 125I-labeled lymphocytes or media obtained from such co-cultures can be attributed to an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect, probably mediated by factor(s) released from the dying 125I-labeled lymphocytes. PMID:22712702

  11. Effect of ADP on the orientation of spin-labeled myosin heads in muscle fibers: a high-resolution study with deuterated spin labels.

    PubMed

    Fajer, P G; Fajer, E A; Matta, J J; Thomas, D D

    1990-06-19

    We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the effects of ADP on the orientational distribution of nitroxide spin labels attached to myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. To maximize the specificity of labeling, we spin-labeled isolated myosin heads (subfragment 1) on a single reactive thiol (SH1) and diffused them into unlabeled muscle fibers. To maximize spectral and orientational resolution, we used perdeuterated spin labels, 2H-MSL and 2H-IASL, eliminating superhyperfine broadening and thus narrowing the line widths. Two different spin labels were used, with different orientation relative to the myosin head, to ensure that the results are not affected by unfavorable probe orientation. In rigor, a very narrow three-line spectrum was observed for both spin labels, indicating a narrow orientational distribution, as reported previously (Thomas & Cooke, 1980). ADP induced very slight changes in the spectrum, corresponding to very slight (but significant) changes in the orientational distribution. These changes were quantified by a digital analysis of the spectra, using a two-step simplex fitting procedure (Fajer et al., 1990). First, the magnetic tensor values and line widths were determined by fitting the spectrum of a randomly oriented sample. Then the spectrum of oriented fibers was fit to a model by assuming a Gaussian distribution of the tilt angle (theta) and twist angle (phi) of the nitroxide principal axes relative to the fiber axis. A single-Gaussian distribution resulted in inadequate fits, but a two-component model gave excellent results. ADP induces a small (less than 5 degrees) rotation of the major components for both spin labels, along with a similarly small increase of disorder about the average positions. PMID:2166562

  12. Effect of ADP on the orientation of spin-labeled myosin heads in muscle fibers: A high-resolution study with deuterated spin labels

    SciTech Connect

    Fajer, P.G.; Fajer, E.A.; Matta, J.J.; Thomas, D.D. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (USA))

    1990-06-19

    We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the effects of ADP on the orientational distribution of nitroxide spin labels attached to myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. To maximize the specificity of labeling, we spin-labeled isolated myosin heads (subfragment 1) on a single reactive thiol (SH1) and diffused them into unlabeled muscle fibers. To maximize spectral and orientational resolution, we used perdeuterated spin labels, 2H-MSL and 2H-IASL, eliminating superhyperfine broadening and thus narrowing the line widths. Two different spin labels were used, with different orientation relative to the myosin head, to ensure that the results are not affected by unfavorable probe orientation. In rigor, a very narrow three-line spectrum was observed for both spin labels, indicating a narrow orientational distribution, as reported previously. ADP induced very slight changes in the spectrum, corresponding to very slight (but significant) changes in the orientational distribution. These changes were quantified by a digital analysis of the spectra, using a two-step simplex fitting procedure. First, the magnetic tensor values and line widths were determined by fitting the spectrum of a randomly oriented sample. Then the spectrum of oriented fibers was fit to a model by assuming a Gaussian distribution of the tilt angle (theta) and twist angle (phi) of the nitroxide principal axes relative to the fiber axis. A single-Gaussian distribution resulted in inadequate fits, but a two-component model gave excellent results. ADP induces a small (less than 5 degrees) rotation of the major components for both spin labels, along with a similarly small increase of disorder about the average positions.

  13. Directing gaze: the effect of disclaimer labels on women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements.

    PubMed

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-09-01

    In an effort to combat the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal images, there is increasing worldwide pressure on fashion, media and advertising industries to disclose when images have been digitally altered. The current study used eye tracking technology to investigate experimentally how digital alteration disclaimer labels impact women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 60 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a specific more detailed disclaimer. It was established that women did attend to the disclaimers. The nature of the disclaimer had no effect on time spent looking at particular body parts, but did affect the direction of gaze following reading of the disclaimer. This latter effect was found to be greater for women high on trait appearance comparison. Further research is paramount in guiding effective policy around the use of disclaimer labels. PMID:24997284

  14. 76 FR 55923 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Submission of Warning Plans for Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...under the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act, as amended by the Family Smoking...of the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) when that requirement...warning plans for cigarette packaging and advertising to FDA. Section 204 of the...

  15. A SDMS Model: Early Warning Coordination Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Reyes, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Following the tsunami disaster in 2004, the General Secretary of the United Nations (UN) Kofi Annan called for a global early warning system for all hazards and for all communities. He also requested the ISDR (International Strategy fort Disaster Reduction) and its UN partners to conduct a global survey of capacities, gaps and opportunities in relation to early warning systems. The produced report, "Global survey of Early Warning Systems", concluded that there are many gaps and shortcomings and that much progress has been made on early warning systems and great capabilities are available around the world. However, it may be argued that an early warning system (EWS) may not be enough to prevent fatalities due to a natural hazard; i.e., it should be seen as part of a ‘wider' or total system. Furthermore, an EWS may work very well when assessed individually but it is not clear whether it will contribute to accomplish the purpose of the ‘total disaster management system'; i.e., to prevent fatalities. For instance, a regional EWS may only work if it is well co-ordinated with the local warning and emergency response systems that ensure that the warning is received, communicated and acted upon by the potentially affected communities. It may be argued that without these local measures being in place, a regional EWS will have little impact in saving lives. Researchers argued that unless people are warned in remote areas, the technology is useless; for instance McGuire [5] argues that: "I have no doubt that the technical element of the warning system will work very well,"…"But there has to be an effective and efficient communications cascade from the warning centre to the fisherman on the beach and his family and the bar owners." Similarly, McFadden [6] states that: "There's no point in spending all the money on a fancy monitoring and a fancy analysis system unless we can make sure the infrastructure for the broadcast system is there,"… "That's going to require a lot of work. If it's a tsunami, you've got to get it down to the last Joe on the beach. This is the stuff that is really very hard." Given the above, the paper argues that there is a need for a systemic approach to early warning centres. Systemic means looking upon things as a system; systemic means seeing pattern and inter-relationship within a complex whole; i.e., to see events as products of the working of a system. System may be defined as a whole which is made of parts and relationships. Given this, ‘failure' may be seen as the product of a system and, within that, see death/injury/property loss etc. as results of the working of systems. This paper proposes a preliminary model of ‘early warning coordination centres' (EWCC); it should be highlighted that an EWCC is a subsystem of the Systemic Disaster Management System (SDMS) model.

  16. Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D.

    2012-01-01

    Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator–prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, ‘what makes an effective warning signal?’, and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation. PMID:22113031

  17. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique. PMID:10903389

  18. N-Sulfonyl-?-lactam hapten as an effective labeling reagent for aldolase mAb.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Tsubasa; Fuller, Roberta P; Barbas, Carlos F

    2015-04-15

    Utilization of chemically programmed antibodies (cpAbs) is regarded to be one of the most efficient methods for the development of therapeutic systems. cpAbs can extend the half-life of programming reagents, activate immune systems via the Fc region of antibodies and achieve universal vaccination by attaching varieties of small, programmed molecules. In the current study, we aimed to develop a novel labeling reagent for the preparation of cpAbs and found that N-sulfonyl-?-lactams (NSBLs) were optimal. NSBL can be synthesized from readily available 4-(bromomethyl)benzenesulfonyl chloride via few simple manipulations and can label the aldolase monoclonal antibody (mAb) 84G3, which could not be labeled effectively by the conventional labeling reagent, N-acyl-?-lactam (NABL). We also demonstrated that the conjugate, which consists of mAb 84G3 and an NSBL bearing a biotin moiety, maintained strong binding activity to streptavidin. In addition, the stability assay of NSBL revealed that NSBLs can tolerate aqueous media without significant decomposition over 24h. PMID:25791455

  19. A comparison of two training methods for improving warning symbol comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Mary F

    2008-03-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of two different types of training in improving comprehension of warning symbols by younger (aged 20-35 years) and older adults (aged 50-70 years). The verbal label training paired the symbol with a label describing its meaning while the accident scenario training further expanded on the nature of the hazard, the required/prohibited actions, as well as the possible consequences of failing to comply. Contrary to prior research (e.g., [Lesch, M.F., 2003. Comprehension and memory for warning symbols: age-related differences and impact of training. J. Safety Res. 34, 495-505]), there was no difference in comprehension for younger and older adults prior to training, with both groups only obtaining about 40% correct responses. Both types of training improved performance on a subsequent comprehension test. However, the accident scenario training produced a higher percentage of correct responses, greater confidence in those responses, as well as a longer-lasting reduction of reaction times. In order to further improve symbol design, as well as training to address comprehension difficulties, future research should more closely examine symbol characteristics that influence comprehension. PMID:17900517

  20. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section... § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall be used when parked mobile equipment creates a hazard to persons in other mobile equipment. (b)...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 57.14208 Section... § 57.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall be used when parked mobile equipment creates a hazard to persons in other mobile equipment. (b)...

  2. Aptamer-based label-free immunosensors using carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenzo Maehashi; Kazuhiko Matsumoto

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, aptamer-based label-free immunosensors were fabricated for immunoglobulin E (IgE) detection using carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). Aptamers are artificial oligonucleotides and thus are smaller than the Debye length. After aptamers were covalently immobilized on CNT channels, the electrical properties of the CNTFETs were monitored in real time, indicating that IgE in the range of 250 pM -

  3. Evaluation of passive railroad grade crossing warning devices

    E-print Network

    Lillo, Sarah Marie

    1992-01-01

    large scale. A less expensive safety improvement entails the use of enhanced passive warning devices. The objective of this project was controlled testing of both the existing standard, and three proposed passive warning sign systems for railroad... performed. Quantitative analysis was used to determine if the sign systems had any significant effect on driver measures of performance. Results of this research indicated that there was no evidence that the sign system had any effect on driver speed...

  4. Soviet early warning satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, G. E.

    1982-02-01

    Satellite orbits and groups for the Cosmos spacecraft are discussed, noting that the orbits are configured to provide full early warning system coverage. The regular crossing of a ground track which includes all the Minuteman bases in the U.S. is noted, as are time constraints for the launch into a suitable orbit without introducing orbital anomalies. Cosmos 1024 was observed to need four corrections in order to reach a point where free libration over a fixed ground station was possible for a year until replacement by the Cosmos 1124 occurred. The current configuration is a total of nine satellites with 40 deg spacing, which yields full coverage, although it is indicated that only three satellites ever operate simultaneously.

  5. The Effect of Peptide Identification Search Algorithms on MS2-Based Label-Free Protein Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Degroeve, Sven; Staes, An; De Bock, Pieter-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Several approaches exist for the quantification of proteins in complex samples processed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by fragmentation analysis (MS2). One of these approaches is label-free MS2-based quantification, which takes advantage of the information computed from MS2 spectrum observations to estimate the abundance of a protein in a sample. As a first step in this approach, fragmentation spectra are typically matched to the peptides that generated them by a search algorithm. Because different search algorithms identify overlapping but non-identical sets of peptides, here we investigate whether these differences in peptide identification have an impact on the quantification of the proteins in the sample. We therefore evaluated the effect of using different search algorithms by examining the reproducibility of protein quantification in technical repeat measurements of the same sample. From our results, it is clear that a search engine effect does exist for MS2-based label-free protein quantification methods. As a general conclusion, it is recommended to address the overall possibility of search engine-induced bias in the protein quantification results of label-free MS2-based methods by performing the analysis with two or more distinct search engines. PMID:22804230

  6. Spin label EPR studies of the effect of gramicidin S on lipid chain dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiricsi, M.; Horváth, L. I.; Dux, L.; Páli, T.

    2001-05-01

    The effect of gramicidin S (GS) on acyl chain dynamics of 14-doxylstearic acid spin label (14-SASL) monitoring the centre of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers was studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The chain-melting transition of DMPC was shifted down and broadened monotonously by several degrees with increasing peptide concentration in the range of lipid/peptide ratios of l/p=5/1-15/1. The effective rotational correlation time ?eff of 14-SASL became larger with increasing amounts of peptide bound to fluid membranes of DMPC. From the dependence of ?eff on the lipid/peptide molar ratio it was estimated that about 10 DMPC molecules per monomer GS are involved in non-covalent peptide-lipid interaction. Optimized spectral subtractions showed that, well above the chain-melting transition, 90% of the EPR spectral intensity of the spin-labeled peptide-lipid complex (l/p=5/1) originated from spectra recorded in bilayers (without peptide) at lower temperature. This was not the case 6°C above the phase transition where two components with comparable intensities were detected. The two components were identified as different motional modes of the label molecules, rather than distinct mobile/immobile lipid populations.

  7. Effect of histocompatibility factors on pulmonary retention of indium-111-labeled granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, J.P.; Riggs, C. Jr.; Fox, J.J.; Johnston, G.S.; Norris, D.; Wiernik, P.H.; Schiffer, C.A. (Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are associated with a number of side effects including febrile transfusion reactions and occasionally pulmonary infiltrates. There is evidence that the presence of preformed antibodies may be a cause of these complications. In this study, allogeneic 111Indium-labeled granulocytes were used to evaluate the pulmonary retention of radioactivity in alloimmunized and non-alloimmunized patients in an attempt to assess antibody effect on granulocyte migration. After injection of labeled allogeneic granulocytes into neutropenic patients, the ratios of lung to heart activity were calculated for the first 30 min of scanning. There was significantly greater retention of radioactivity from cells in the lungs of patients who were alloimmunized, having both lymphocytotoxic (anti-HLA) and leuko-agglutinating antibodies, compared to the activity in the lungs of non-alloimmunized patients (P less than .001) or of patients receiving autologous granulocytes (P less than .001). This study demonstrates that labeled, mismatched granulocytes may be retained in the lungs for a significantly longer time in patients with preformed antibodies. This implies that transfusion of large numbers of such mismatched granulocytes, i.e., granulocyte transfusions, may also be retained in the lungs of alloimmunized patients, which could lead to pulmonary compromise. Therefore, granulocyte transfusions from random donors should not be given to alloimmunized patients.

  8. Driver Reaction Time to Tactile and Auditory Rear-End Collision Warnings While Talking on a Cell Phone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rayka Mohebbi; Rob Gray; Hong Z. Tan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of rear-end collision warnings presented in different sensory modalities while drivers were engaged in cell phone conversations in a driving simulator. Background: Tactile and auditory collision warnings have been shown to improve braking response time (RT) in rear-end collision situations. However, it is not clear how effective these warnings are when the driver is

  9. Label-free detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms utilizing the differential transfer function of field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ingebrandt; Y. Han; F. Nakamura; A. Poghossian; M. J. Schöning; A. Offenhäusser

    2007-01-01

    We present a label-free method for the detection of DNA hybridization, which is monitored by non-metallized silicon field-effect transistors (FET) in a microarray approach. The described method enables a fast and fully electronic readout of ex situ binding assays. The label-free detection utilizing the field-effect is based on the intrinsic charge of the DNA molecules and\\/or on changes of the

  10. Evaluating warning sound urgency with reaction times.

    PubMed

    Suied, Clara; Susini, Patrick; McAdams, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    It is well-established that subjective judgments of perceived urgency of alarm sounds can be affected by acoustic parameters. In this study, the authors investigated an objective measurement, the reaction time (RT), to test the effectiveness of temporal parameters of sounds in the context of warning sounds. Three experiments were performed using a RT paradigm, with two different concurrent visuomotor tracking tasks simulating driving conditions. Experiments 1 and 2 show that RT decreases as interonset interval (IOI) decreases, where IOI is defined as the time elapsed from the onset of one sound pulse to the onset of the next. Experiment 3 shows that temporal irregularity between pulses can capture a listener's attention. These findings lead to concrete recommendations: IOI can be used to modulate warning sound urgency; and temporal irregularity can provoke an arousal effect in listeners. The authors also argue that the RT paradigm provides a useful tool for clarifying some of the factors involved in alarm processing. PMID:18808274

  11. Pharmaceutical warnings and direct-to-consumer marketing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rankin Bohmea

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing is a multi-billion dollar enterprise in the United States. DTC marketing presents an important scenario for warnings, as it bypasses the traditional receiver of pharmaceutical warnings, the physician, and provides drug risk and benefit information directly to the patient. We examine the published literature on the effects of DTC marketing in the United States and conduct a

  12. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Eyre

  13. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bremer

  14. February 2001 Flood Warning Services in Victoria

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    February 2001 Flood Warning Services in Victoria Arrangements for VICTORIAN FLOOD WARNING CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE #12;Arrangements for Flood Warning Services in Victoria VICTORIAN FLOOD WARNING, `Geelong Advertiser' Title page: Bulleen Road at the Yarra River, Melbourne. Flooding a long time ago

  15. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government,

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    Services in the local area. Internet/World Wide Web Flood Warnings, River Height Bulletins and otherFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MARY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  16. Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

  17. Effect of reagent charge on the labeling of erythrocyte membrane proteins by photoactivated reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, J.C.; Hakimian, R.; Shimer, M.L.

    1986-05-01

    Leaky erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with /sup 3/H-(2-(4-azido-2-nitroanilino)ethyl)trimethylammonium iodide (cationic label) or /sup 3/H-N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-..beta..-alanine (anionic label). After the membranes were thoroughly washed, seven times as much cationic label was associated with the membranes as anionic label at 5 ..mu..M, whereas at 50 ..mu..M the cationic label was favored 15-fold. The distribution of label in the membrane proteins was ascertain by SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography. At 50 ..mu..M cationic label, erythrocyte membrane protein bands 1,2,3,4.2, and 5 were intensely labeled, while band 6 was labeled weakly. At 5 ..mu..M cationic label, bands 1 and 4.2 were heavily labeled, while 2,3 and 5 were labeled less well. At both 50 ..mu..M and 5 ..mu..M anionic label, bands 1 and 6 were most prominently labeled. Bands 2,3,4.2 and 5 were labeled also at 50 ..mu..M, but they were labeled only very weakly at 5 ..mu..M. Band 4.1 was labeled very poorly if at all by either reagent. A mixture of the reagents gave an additive pattern. Thus, the charge and concentration of these reagents appear to play a major role in their ability to label membrane proteins indiscriminately. Because these reagents contain the same chromophore, 4-azido-2-nitroaniline, and differ mainly only in their charge, they may prove useful in assessing the location of charged sites on proteins in supramolecular complexes.

  18. LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Wächter, J.

    2009-12-01

    The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean floor events, and ground displacements. Based on the upstream information flow DEWS focuses on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Multiple telecommunication channels will be used for the dissemination of warning messages. Wherever possible, existing standards have been integrated. The Command and Control User Interface (CCUI), a rich client application based on Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform) [4] and the open source GIS uDig [5], integrates various OGC services. Using WMS (Web Map Service) [6] and WFS (Web Feature Service) [7] spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture and to integrate a simulation system via WPS (Web Processing Service) [8] to identify affected areas. Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS [9] CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) [10] standard together with addressing information defined via EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element) [11]. Internal interfaces are realized with SOAP [12] web services. Based on results of GITEWS [13] - in particular the GITEWS Tsunami Service Bus [14] - the DEWS approach provides an implementation for tsunami early warning systems. The introductory part of the demonstration briefly explains the DEWS project, the CCUI in conjunction with operators’ workflow, the system architecture, details of information logistics and the virtual scenario of live demonstration. The live demonstration exhibits the CCUI on screen and the service environment of DEWS working in the background. The demonstration runs through a virtual Tsunami threat located in the Andaman Sea in front of Thailand; Beginning with the detection of an earthquake of critical magnitude and the calculation of early Tsunami predictions; Continuing with sea level measurements and the refinement of Tsunami predictions; Finally reaching the dissemination of warning messages via SMS, mail and other channels. REFERENCES [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the reconstruction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

  19. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. PMID:24503332

  20. An advanced missile warning processing suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Joel B.; Sanderson, Richard B.; McCalmont, John F.; Johnson, R. S.; McDermott, D. J.; Taylor, M. J.

    2008-04-01

    Effective missile warning and countermeasures remain an unfulfilled goal for the Air Force and others in the DOD community. To make the expectations a reality, newer sensors exhibiting the required sensitivity, field of regard, and spatial resolution are being developed and transitioned. The largest concern is in the first stage of a missile warning system: detection, in which all targets need to be detected with a high confidence and with very few false alarms. Typical fielded sensors are limited in their detection capability by either lack of sensitivity or by the presence of heavy background clutter, sun glints, and inherent sensor noise. Many threat environments include false alarm sources like burning fuels, flares, exploding ordinance, arc welders, and industrial emitters. Multicolor discrimination has been shown as one of the effective ways to improve the performance of missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. Its utility has been demonstrated in multiple demonstration and fielded systems. New exploitations of background and clutter spectral contents, coupled with advanced spatial and temporal filtering techniques, have resulted in a need to have a new baseline algorithm on which future processing advances may be judged against. This paper describes the AFRL Suite IIIc algorithm chain and its performance against long-range dim targets in clutter.

  1. Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

    Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical contamination would be useful. Based on the individual biomarker results’ contributing towards the distinct groupings it is possible to conclude that Site 1 is subjected to organic pollutants, whereas Sites 2 and 3 undergo a combination of metallic and organic pollutant stress. However, it is essential that a rapid and sensitive biomarker that is representative of the responses of a suite of biomarkers be tested before ABM can be implemented as a routine biomonitoring practice in water resource management.

  2. Epidural steroid warning controversy still dogging FDA.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Singh, Vijay; Gharibo, Christopher G; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Grider, Jay S; Diwan, Sudhir; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    On April 23, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a letter of warning that injection of corticosteroids into the epidural space of the spine may result in rare, but serious adverse events, including "loss of vision, stroke, paralysis, and death." The advisory also advocated that patients should discuss the benefits and risks of epidural corticosteroid injections with their health care professionals, along with the benefits and risks associated with other possible treatments. In addition, the FDA stated that the effectiveness and safety of the corticosteroids for epidural use have not been established, and the FDA has not approved corticosteroids for such use. To raise awareness of the risks of epidural corticosteroid injections in the medical community, the FDA's Safe Use Initiative convened a panel of experts including pain management experts to help define the techniques for such injections with the aim of reducing preventable harm. The panel was unable to reach an agreement on 20 proposed items related to technical aspects of performing epidural injections. Subsequently, the FDA issued the above referenced warning and a notice that a panel will be convened in November 2014. This review assesses the inaccuracies of the warning and critically analyzes the available literature. The literature has been assessed in reference to alternate techniques and an understanding of the risk factors when performing transforaminal epidural injections in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions, ultimately resulting in improved safety. The results of this review show the efficacy of epidural injections, with or without steroids, in a multitude of spinal ailments utilizing caudal, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar interlaminar approaches as well as lumbar transforaminal epidural injections . The evidence also shows the superiority of steroids in managing lumbar disc herniation utilizing caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches without any significant difference as compared to transforaminal approaches, either with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids combined. In conclusion, the authors request that the FDA modify the warning based on the evidence. PMID:25054397

  3. Spin label EPR study of the effects of monovalent cations, anions, and chaotropics on DPPC multilayers.

    PubMed

    Bartucci, R; Sportelli, L

    1994-11-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with the spin-labeling technique is used to investigate the effects of monovalent ions on multibilayer dispersions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Cations of chloride salt (Li+, Na+, K+ and Cs+) and anions of potassium salt (Br-, Cl- and NO3-) at the concentration of 1 M do not affect both the molecular order and the packing of the phospholipid acyl chains in the different phases compared to DPPC dispersions in buffer. Moreover, they leave unaffected the characteristics of the main transition, whereas the pre-transition temperature increases of about 2 degrees C in the presence of cations and changes in the order NO3- < Br- < buffer < Cl- in the presence of anions. The anions that exhibit pronounced chaotropic properties (I-, SCN-) result the most effective in perturbing the bilayer. In fact, DPPC dispersions in 1 M of these salt solutions do not show the pre-transition and have the main one shifted to lower temperature in the order: SCN- < 1- < buffer. Furthermore, the spin-label EPR results on the lipid chain dynamics indicate the presence of a flexibility gradient both in DPPC/buffer and in DPPC/chaotropic systems. However, the chaotropic anions influence the DPPC hydrocarbon chains in the gel phase in a manner such that interpenetration or interdigitation of the terminal methyl groups from opposing monolayers is likely to occur. PMID:7947915

  4. Effects of Labeling Thiophilic FRET Dyes on the Stability and Dimerization Process of ?-Lactoglobulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hai; Xie, Jin-Bing; Cao, Yi; Qin, Meng; Wang, Wei

    2011-11-01

    The stability and dimeric state of ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg) can be dramatically affected by labeling the thiophilic agent to Cys121, whereas the underlining mechanism of such an effect is still unclear. We label a fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET) pair of donor (1,5-IAEDANS) and acceptor (5-IAF) dyes to Cys121 of ?-lg monomers to investigate the effect of bulky thiophilic modification on the structure and stability of ?-lg. It is found that the modification dramatically destroys the native structure of ?-lg and results in an obvious increase of the ?-helical content, coincident with the accumulation of non-native ?-helical intermediates during its folding process. Importantly, the dimeric state of ?-lg can still be reached whereas its dimerization rate decreases dramatically, allowing us to characterize the dimerization process using the FRET method based on a stopped-flow apparatus. Our results reveal that the dimerization process occurs before the completely folding of individual monomers, providing direct evidence on the cooperativity of folding and binding processes.

  5. Labeling with Indium-111 has detrimental effects on human lymphocytes: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    ten Berge, R.J.M.; (Central Lab. of the Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Amsterdam); Natarajan, A.T.; Hardeman, M.R.; van Royen, E.A.; Schellekens, P.T.A.

    1983-07-01

    When lymphocytes from human peripheral blood were labeled with In-111 oxinate, several of their properties appeared to be affected. The spontaneous release of the radionuclide was found to be relatively high. Labeled lymphocytes showed a decreased proliferative capacity, dependent on the dose of the label. Cytogenetic studies revealed that In-111 oxinate induces severe chromosomal aberrations. These results emphasize the need for great caution in the use of the In-111 label for studies on lymphocyte traffic in humans.

  6. packaged foods followed food labeling changes that went into effect in 2006.1

    E-print Network

    for a product labeled zero trans fat to have close to 0.5 g of trans fat per serving, we are unaware of any pub- lished data on the distribution of TFA content for foods la- beled zero trans fat but still containing and Drug Administration, HHS. Food labeling: trans fatty acids in nutri- tion labeling, nutrient content

  7. Effects of the electrode size and modification protocol on a label-free electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Pui, Tze Sian; Wong, Chee Chung; Kumar, Sai; Rahman, Abdur Rub Abdur

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, the effect of a surface modification protocol along with the electrode size has been investigated for developing an efficient, label-free electrochemical biosensing method for diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) biomarkers. A microdisk electrode array (MDEA) and a macroelectrode with a comb structure (MECS) were modified with an anti-GFAP (GFAP = glial fibrillary acidic protein) antibody using two protocols for optimum and label-free detection of GFAP, a promising acute-phase TBI biomarker. For the MDEA, an array of six microdisks with a 100 ?m diameter and, for the MECS, a 3.2 mm × 5.5 mm electrode 5 ?m wide with 10 ?m spaced comb fingers were modified using an optimized protocol for dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (DSP) self-assembled monolayer formation. Anti-GFAP was covalently bound, and the remaining free DSP groups were blocked using ethanolamine (Ea). Sensors were exposed to solutions with different GFAP concentrations, and a label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to determine the concentration. EIS results confirmed that both types of Ea/anti-GFAP/DSP/Au electrodes modified with an optimized DSP-based protocol can accurately detect GFAP in the range of 1 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1 pg mL(-1). However, the cross-use of the MDEA protocol on the MECS and vice versa resulted in very low sensitivity or poor signal resolution, underscoring the importance of proper matching of the electrode size and type and the surface modification protocol. PMID:23651210

  8. Solute effects on spin labels at an aqueous-exposed site in the flap region of HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Galiano, Luis; Blackburn, Mandy E; Veloro, Angelo M; Bonora, Marco; Fanucci, Gail E

    2009-02-12

    The effects of solutes on spin-label mobility and protein conformation have been investigated with X-band continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for spin labels attached to an aqueous-exposed site in the beta-hairpin flap region of HIV-1 protease. Specifically, we examined the effects of glycerol, sucrose, PEG3000, and Ficoll400 for four commonly used nitroxide spin labels and found that the largest perturbations to the EPR line shapes occur for solutions containing PEG3000 and glycerol. From comparisons of the spectral line shapes and distance distribution profiles of spin-labeled HIV-1 protease with and without inhibitor, it was concluded that solutes such as glycerol and PEG3000 alter the line shapes of the spin label in the beta-hairpin flaps of HIV-1 PR by modulation of spin-label mobility through changes in preferential interactions with the solutes. It is noteworthy that the high osmolality of the 40% glycerol solution did not alter the conformation of the flaps as determined from pulsed EPR distance measurements. PMID:19146430

  9. A Rose is a Rose: Effects of label Change, Education, and Sex on Attitudes Toward Mental Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin D. MacDonald; Peter D. Maclntyre

    Previous research on attitudes toward mental disabilities has shown a consistent, positive effect when accurate information re- garding mental disabilities (i.e., education) is made available. Con- versely, the effects of labelling and sex differences produced in- consistent results. This study approaches such attitudes in terms of the \\

  10. Effect of the label of oligosaccharide acceptors on the kinetic parameters of nasturtium seed xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET).

    PubMed

    Kosík, Ond?ej; Garajová, So?a; Matulová, Mária; Rehulka, Pavel; Stratilová, Eva; Farkaš, Vladimír

    2011-02-01

    Fluorescently labeled derivatives of a xyloglucan (XG) nonasaccharide Glc(4)Xyl(3)Gal(2) (XLLG) were used as glycosyl acceptors in assays of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) from germinated nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) seeds. We have investigated how the type of the oligosaccharide label influences the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The fluorescent probes used to label XLLG were anthranilic acid (AA), 8-aminonaphtalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (ANTS), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and sulforhodamine (SR), respectively. The obtained data were compared with those of the reactions where aldose and/or alditol forms of tritium-labeled xyloglucan-derived nonasaccharide served as the respective acceptors. Modification at C-1 of the reducing-end glucose in XLLG by substitution with the fluorophore markedly affected the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The Michaelis constants K(m) for individual acceptors increased in the order [1-(3)H]XLLGXLLG-SR>XLLG-ANTS>[1-(3)H]XLLGol>[1-(3)H]XLLG>XLLG-AA. Catalytic efficiency (expressed as k(cat)/K(m)) with XLLG labeled with SR or FITC was 15 and 28 times, respectively, higher than with the tritium-labeled natural substrate [1-(3)H]XLLG. Comparison of the kinetic parameters found with acceptors labeled with different types of labels enables to select the most effective substrates for the high-throughput assays of XET. PMID:21146161

  11. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. The first users of the early warning signal will be the Istanbul gas company (IGDAS) and the metro line using the immersed tube tunnel (MARMARAY). Other prospective users are power plants and power distribution systems, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, petroleum facilities and high-rise buildings. In this study, different algorithms based on PGA, CAV and various definitions of instrumental intensity will be discussed and triggering threshold levels of these parameters will be studied. More complex algorithms based on artificial neural networks (ANN) can also be used [Boese et al., 2003]. ANN approach considers the problem of earthquake early-warning as a pattern recognition task. The seismic patterns can be defined by the shape and frequency content of the parts of accelerograms that are available at each time step. ANN can extract the engineering parameters PGA, CAV and instrumental intensity from these patterns, and map them to any location in the surrounded area. Boese M., Erdik, M., Wenzel, F. (2003), Artificial Neural Networks for Earthquake Early Warning, Proceedings AGU2003 Abstracts, S42B-0155

  12. Characterizing the pigment composition of a variable warning signal of Parasemia plantaginis larvae

    E-print Network

    Giron, David - Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, Université François Rabelais

    , suggesting that warning signal expression may be constrained by opposing selection pressures. If effective). Therefore, predator psychology and its relationship to the effectiveness of warning signals have gained. Author Received: No. of pages: 8 PE: Ulagammal *Correspondence author. E-mail: carita.lindstedt@jyu.fi Ó

  13. Effect of Labeling with Iron Oxide Particles or Nanodiamonds on the Functionality of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Blaber, Sinead P.; Hill, Cameron J.; Webster, Rebecca A.; Say, Jana M.; Brown, Louise J.; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vesey, Graham; Herbert, Benjamin Ross

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (?0.9 µm) fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green) superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles); and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ?0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo. PMID:23301012

  14. Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals.

    PubMed

    Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested. PMID:23220355

  15. People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haß, S.; Asch, K.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and their immediate response on how to act in case of emergency. Hence early warning systems have to be regarded in the context of an integrated and holistic risk management. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures include people-centred, timely and understandable warning. Further responsible authorities have to be identified in advance and standards for risk communication have to be established. Up to now, hazard and risk assessment for geohazards focuses on the development of inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. But often, especially in Europe, there are no institutional structures for managing geohazards and in addition there is a lack of an authority that is legally obliged to alarm on landslides at national or regional level. One of the main characteristics within the warning process for natural hazards e.g. in Germany is the split of responsibility between scientific authorities (wissenschaftliche Fachbehörde) and enforcement authorities (Vollzugsbehörde). The scientific authority provides the experts who define the methods and measures for monitoring and evaluate the hazard level. The main focus is the acquisition and evaluation of data and subsequently the distribution of information. The enforcement authority issues official warnings about dangerous natural phenomena. Hence the information chain in the context of early warning ranges over two different institutions, the forecast service and the warning service. But there doesn't exist a framework for warning processes in terms of landslides as yet. The concept for managing natural disasters is often reduced to hazard assessment and emergency response. Great importance is attached to the scientific understanding of hazards and protective structures, while analysis of socio-economic impacts and risk assessment are not considered enough. The reduction of vulnerability has to be taken into greater account. Also the information needs of different stakeholders have to be identified at an early stage and should be integrated in the development of early warning systems. The content of the warning message must be simple, understandable and should cover instructions on how to react. Further the timeliness of the messages has to be guarented. In this context the aim of the landslide monitoring and early warning system SLEWS (Sensor Based Landslide Early Warning System) is to integrate the above mentioned aspects of a holistic disaster and risk management. The technology of spatial data infrastructures and web services provides the use of multiple communication channels within an early warning system. Thus people-centred early warning messages and information about slope stability can be sent in nearly real-time. It has to be underlined that the technological information process is just one element of an effective warning system. Moreover the warning system has also to be considered as a social system and has to make allowance to socio-economic and gender aspects : «[...] Develop early warning systems that are people centered, in particular systems whose warnings are timely and understandable to those at risk, which take into account the demographic, gender, cultural and livelihood characteristics of the target audiences, including guidance on how to act upon warnings, and that support effective operations by disaster managers and other decision makers » (Hyogo Framework, 2005) References : UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION SECRETARIAT (UNISDR) (2006): Developing early warning systems: a checklist, Third international conference on early warning (EWC III): from concept to action: 27-29 March 2006, Bonn, Germany. Geneva, Switzerland: International Strate

  16. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning context has been worked out. The generated results contribute significantly in the fields of (1) warning decision and warning levels, (2) warning dissemination and warning message content, (3) early warning chain planning, (4) increasing response capabilities and protective systems, (5) emergency relief and (6) enhancing communities' awareness and preparedness towards tsunami threats. Additionally examples will be given on the potentials of an operational use of risk information in early warning systems as first experiences exist for the tsunami early warning center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Beside this the importance of linking national level early warning information with tsunami risk information available at the local level (e.g. linking warning message information on expected intensity with respective tsunami hazard zone maps at community level for effective evacuation) will be demonstrated through experiences gained in three pilot areas in Indonesia. The presentation seeks to provide new insights on benefits using risk information in early warning and will provide further evidence that practical use of risk information is an important and indispensable component of end-to-end early warning.

  17. 14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning...the stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow the...the stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow...

  18. 14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning...the stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow the...the stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow...

  19. 14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning...the stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow the...the stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow...

  20. 14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning...the stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow the...the stall warning margin in straight and turning flight must be sufficient to allow...

  1. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burrum and Cherwell Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

  2. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Pine and Caboolture Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

  3. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MULGRAVE AND RUSSELL RIVERS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MULGRAVE AND RUSSELL RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mulgrave and Russell Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

  4. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Tully-Murray Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  5. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Macintyre and Weir Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

  6. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Ross, Bohle and Black Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

  7. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Logan and Albert Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  8. Expert-Recommended Warnings for Medical Marijuana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Malouff; Sally E. Rooke

    2013-01-01

    Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many U.S. states. At present there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings,

  9. Universal primers for fluorescent labelling of PCR fragments--an efficient and cost-effective approach to genotyping by fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Blacket, M J; Robin, C; Good, R T; Lee, S F; Miller, A D

    2012-05-01

    Directly labelling locus-specific primers for microsatellite analysis is expensive and a common limitation to small-budget molecular ecology projects. More cost-effective end-labelling of PCR products can be achieved through a three primer PCR approach, involving a fluorescently labelled universal primer in combination with modified locus-specific primers with 5' universal primer sequence tails. This technique has been widely used but has been limited largely due to a lack of available universal primers suitable for co-amplifying large numbers of size overlapping loci and without requiring locus-specific PCR conditions to be modified. In this study, we report a suite of four high-performance universal primers that can be employed in a three primer PCR approach for efficient and cost-effective fluorescent end-labelling of PCR fragments. Amplification efficiency is maximized owing to high universal primer Tm values (approximately 60+?°C) that enhance primer versatility and enable higher annealing temperatures to be employed compared with commonly used universal primers such as M13. We demonstrate that these universal primers can be combined with multiple fluorophores to co-amplify multiple loci efficiently via multiplex PCR. This method provides a level of multiplexing and PCR efficiency similar to microsatellite fluorescent detection assays using directly labelled primers while dramatically reducing project costs. Primer performance is tested using several alternative PCR strategies that involve both single and multiple fluorophores in single and multiplex PCR across a wide range of taxa. PMID:22268566

  10. NSF warned about budget cuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Jones

    1991-01-01

    Walter Massey had been director of the National Science Foundation for less than 24 hours when Bob Traxler, chairman of the House VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies appropriations subcommittee, and one of the two most important people in Congress with jurisdiction over NSF, provided early warning of cuts in the foundation's proposed FY 1992 budget. ``We must tell you that

  11. Brand proneness versus experiential effect? Explaining consumer preferences towards labeled food products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imene Trabelsi Trigui; Georges Giraud

    2012-01-01

    Consumers' fears and anxiousness, triggered by recent food scares and crises, and technological developments such as GMOs, have led to serious concerns about food safety, ever-increasing demands for quality assurance, more information about product origin food labels, and more particularly designation-of-origin labels, such as PDO (protected designation of origin) and PGI (protected geographic indication). Region of origin food labels have

  12. Black Box Warnings and Drug Safety: Examining the Determinants and Timing of FDA Warning Labels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Begosh; John Goldsmith; Ed Hass; Randall W. Lutter; Clark Nardinelli; John A. Vernon

    2006-01-01

    Comparing the safety of prescription drugs over time is difficult due to the paucity of reliable quantitative measures of drug safety. Both the academic literature and popular press have focused on drug withdrawals as a proxy for breakdowns in the drug safety system. This metric, however, is problematic because withdrawals are rare events, and they may be influenced by factors

  13. Effects of alcohol intoxication and gender on cerebral perfusion: an arterial spin labeling study.

    PubMed

    Rickenbacher, Elizabeth; Greve, Douglas N; Azma, Sheeva; Pfeuffer, Josef; Marinkovic, Ksenija

    2011-12-01

    An increasing number of studies use functional MRI (fMRI) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal to investigate the neurofunctional basis of acute alcohol effects on the brain. However, the BOLD signal reflects neural activity only indirectly as it depends on regional hemodynamic changes and is therefore sensitive to vasoactive substances, such as alcohol. We used MRI-based pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) method to quantify effects of acute intoxication on resting cerebral perfusion. Gender effects have not been previously examined and yet they are of particular interest given the differences in hormonal dynamics, alcohol metabolism, and hemodynamic regulation. Nineteen young, healthy individuals (nine women) with no personal or familial alcohol- or drug-related problems served as their own controls by participating in both alcohol (0.6g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55g/kg for women) and placebo scanning sessions in a counterbalanced manner. Regionally specific effects of the moderate alcohol dose on gray matter perfusion were examined with voxel-wise and region-of-interest analyses suggesting an interaction between gender and alcohol beverage. Acute intoxication increased perfusion in bilateral frontal regions in men but not in women. Under placebo, stronger cortical perfusion was observed in women compared with men primarily in the left hemisphere in frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. These results emphasize gender differences and regional specificity of alcohol's effects of cerebral perfusion possibly because of interactive influences on hormonal, metabolic, and hemodynamic autoregulatory systems. Alcohol-induced perfusion increase correlated positively with impulsivity/antisocial tendencies, consistent with dopaminergic mediation of reward, and its effects on cortical perfusion. Additional ASL studies are needed to investigate dose- and time-dependent effects of alcohol intoxication and gender on the hemodynamic factors that conjointly influence BOLD signal to disambiguate the vascular/metabolic mechanisms from the neurally based changes. PMID:21621371

  14. Proposal for tunnel-field-effect-transistor as ultra-sensitive and label-free Deblina Sarkar and Kaustav Banerjee

    E-print Network

    Proposal for tunnel-field-effect-transistor as ultra-sensitive and label-free biosensors Deblina 6, 012807 (2012) Selective zinc ion detection by functionalised ZnO nanorods with ionophore J. Appl detection Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173703 (2009) Functionalized zinc oxide nanorod with ionophore

  15. Emission Characteristics of Fluorescent Labels with Respect to Temperature Changes and Subsequent Effects on DNA Microchip Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Tso Liu; Jer-Horng Wu; Emily Sze-Ying Li; Ezrein Shah Selamat

    2005-01-01

    The effects of temperature, salt concentration, and formamide concentration on the emission characteristics of commonly used fluorescent labels were evaluated on DNA microchips. The emission intensities of different fluorophores without hybridization were observed to vary, each to a different extent, to mainly temperature changes. Rhodamine red, TAMRA (tetramethylrhodamine), and dyes from the carbocyanide group exhibited the largest variations, and Texas

  16. 75 FR 9767 - Classification of Benzoyl Peroxide as Safe and Effective and Revision of Labeling to Drug Facts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 333 RIN 0910--AG00...as Safe and Effective and Revision of Labeling to Drug Facts Format; Topical Acne Drug Products for Over-The-Counter Human Use;...

  17. Inserting GM Products into the Food Chain: The Market and Welfare Effects of Different Labeling and Regulatory Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray Fulton; Konstantinos Giannakas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the system-wide effects of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products with and without labeling and to compare these two regimes to a third regime where GM products are not present either because they have not yet been developed or because they have been banned. For each regime, the decisions and welfare

  18. Labels of Giftedness and Gender-Typicality: Effects on Adults' Judgments of Children's Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Jennifer J.; Luria, Zella

    1989-01-01

    College students (n=80) rated children labeled as male/female, "gifted"/"average" and gender-typical/gender-atypical in academic interests on 30 adjective scales. Children labeled "gifted" were rated closer to "odd" than to "fits in well." Gender-atypical boys were considered more "odd" and gender-atypical girls were rated less "odd" than were…

  19. The Emotional Impact and Ease of Recall of Warning Signs for Suicide: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Berman, Alan L.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Hollar, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In light of concerns about potential iatrogenic effects of information about suicide, in the current study we examined the emotional impact of reading a list of warning signs for suicide in comparison to comparable lists for heart attacks and diabetes. All participants read two sets of warning signs, with the experimental group reading the suicide…

  20. In-Your-Face, Yet Unseen? Improving Head-Stabilized Warnings to Reduce Reaction Time

    E-print Network

    ) and a HMD. In an initial study, we found no significant effects of warning type or display technology, we found that with only this minor change, reaction times were significantly lower in the HMD when be more easily captured if a warning was displayed within the HMD's field of view. Nevertheless, we wanted

  1. A drought early warning system on real-time multireservoir operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Cheng Huang; Lun-Chin Yuan

    2004-01-01

    A color-coded early warning system is developed and proposed for drought management on the real-time reservoir operation. The system consists of three essential elements, namely, (1) drought watch, (2) water consumption measure, and (3) policy making. A new drought alert index is used to characterize the alert level of drought severity. For demonstration the drought warning procedures were effectively applied

  2. Evaluation of In-Pavement, Flashing Warning Lights on Pedestrian Crosswalk Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Boyce; Claudia H. Gilson

    Collisions involving pedestrians in crosswalks commonly result in fatalities. In-pavement flashing warning lights have been proposed as a means of increasing the conspicuity of pedestrians in crosswalks. However these warning light systems are more expensive to install than conventional striping. This report describes work undertaken to determine the relative effects on pedestrian and driver behavior of high visibility marking and

  3. Licorice abuse: time to send a warning message

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Irina; El-Ghonemi, Mohamed; Fathy, Ahmed; Rashad, Rania; Abdelmalak, Hany D.; Yerramadha, Muralidhar Reddy; Ali, Yaseen; Helal, Engy; Camporesi, Enrico M.

    2012-01-01

    Licorice extract has always been recognized as a sweetener and a thirst quencher. Its nutritive value is overrated by many who consume significant amounts and are prone to complications. Glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite in licorice, inhibits the enzyme 11-ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme type 2 with a resultant cortisol-induced mineralocorticoid effect and the tendency towards the elevation of sodium and reduction of potassium levels. This aldosterone-like action is the fundamental basis for understanding its health benefits and the wide spectrum of adverse effects. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of licorice along with the reported complications related to excess intake. Despite its apparent use in a few clinical scenarios, the daily consumption of licorice is never justified because its benefits are minor compared to the adverse outcomes of chronic consumption. The review highlights the importance of investigating the dietary habits and herbal remedies which are being used worldwide on cultural and habitual bases rather than reliable scientific evidence. Licorice is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food supplement used in many products without precise regulations to prevent toxicity. Increased awareness among the public is required through TV commercials, newspapers, internet sites, magazines and product labels regarding the upper limit of ingestion and health hazards associated with excess intake. We hope that this review will serve as a warning message that should be transmitted from physicians to patients to avoid excessive licorice intake as well as a message to the FDA to start regulating the use of this substance. PMID:23185686

  4. The Financial Benefit of Early Flood Warnings in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Parker, Dennis J.; Richardson, David; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    Effective disaster risk management relies on science based solutions to close the gap between prevention and preparedness measures. The outcome of consultations on the UNIDSR post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction highlight the need for cross-border early warning systems to strengthen the preparedness phases of disaster risk management in order to save people's lives and property and reduce the overall impact of severe events. In particular, continental and global scale flood forecasting systems provide vital information to various decision makers with which early warnings of floods can be made. Here the potential monetary benefits of early flood warnings using the example of the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) are calculated based on pan-European Flood damage data and calculations of potential flood damage reductions. The benefits are of the order of 400 Euro for every 1 Euro invested. Because of the uncertainties which accompany the calculation, a large sensitivity analysis is performed in order to develop an envelope of possible financial benefits. Current EFAS system skill is compared against perfect forecasts to demonstrate the importance of further improving the skill of the forecasts. Improving the response to warnings is also essential in reaping the benefits of flood early warnings.

  5. The effects of individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Escolano, C; Navarro-Gil, M; Garcia-Campayo, J; Congedo, M; Minguez, J

    2014-12-01

    Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individually determined using the alpha peak frequency as an anchor point. 20 ADHD children underwent 18 training sessions. Clinical and neurophysiological variables were measured pre- and post-training. EEG was recorded pre- and post-training, and pre- and post-training trials within each session, in both eyes closed resting state and eyes open task-related activity. A power EEG analysis assessed long-term and within-session effects, in the trained parameter and in all the sensors in the (1-30) Hz spectral range. Learning curves over sessions were assessed as well. Parents rated a clinical improvement in children regarding inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Neurophysiological tests showed an improvement in working memory, concentration and impulsivity (decreased number of commission errors in a continuous performance test). Relative and absolute upper alpha power showed long-term enhancement in task-related activity, and a positive learning curve over sessions. The analysis of within-session effects showed a power decrease ("rebound" effect) in task-related activity, with no significant effects during training trials. We conclude that the enhancement of the individual upper alpha power is effective in improving several measures of clinical outcome and cognitive performance in ADHD. This is the first NF study evaluating such a protocol in ADHD. A controlled evaluation seems warranted due to the positive results obtained in the current study. PMID:25199660

  6. Chemical Ligation and Isotope Labeling to Locate Dynamic Effects during Catalysis by Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Luk, Louis Y P; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Adesina, Aduragbemi S; Loveridge, E Joel; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vincent; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2015-07-27

    Chemical ligation has been used to alter motions in specific regions of dihydrofolate reductase from E.?coli and to investigate the effects of localized motional changes on enzyme catalysis. Two isotopic hybrids were prepared; one with the mobile N-terminal segment containing heavy isotopes ((2) H, (13) C, (15) N) and the remainder of the protein with natural isotopic abundance, and the other one with only the C-terminal segment isotopically labeled. Kinetic investigations indicated that isotopic substitution of the N-terminal segment affected only a physical step of catalysis, whereas the enzyme chemistry was affected by protein motions from the C-terminal segment. QM/MM studies support the idea that dynamic effects on catalysis mostly originate from the C-terminal segment. The use of isotope hybrids provides insights into the microscopic mechanism of dynamic coupling, which is difficult to obtain with other studies, and helps define the dynamic networks of intramolecular interactions central to enzyme catalysis. PMID:26079622

  7. Malaria epidemic early warning and detection in African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Abeku, Tarekegn A.; Hay, Simon I.; Ochola, Samuel; Langi, Peter; Beard, Brian; de Vlas, Sake J.; Cox, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Malaria epidemics have long been known to recur in the African highlands. Efforts to develop systems of early warning and detection for epidemics are outlined here with special emphasis on the Highland Malaria Project (HIMAL). This project has been conducting research on the operational implementation of a district-based surveillance and epidemic-monitoring system using a network of sentinel sites in four pilot districts of Kenya and Uganda. The potential use of weather monitoring as well as disease surveillance for effective early warning is being investigated. PMID:15324728

  8. 76 FR 2268 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Packaging and Labeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...veterinary biologics; require labeling to bear a consumer contact telephone number; change...vaccine containing modified live virus to bear a statement warning against use in pregnant...conditionally licensed veterinary biologics to bear a statement concerning efficacy and...

  9. Possibilities and limitations of label-free detection of DNA hybridization with field-effect-based devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Poghossian; A. Cherstvy; S. Ingebrandt; A. Offenhäusser; M. J. Schöning

    2005-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the possibilities and limitations of the label-free detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization by means of field-effect-based devices is discussed. A new DNA-detection method is introduced, which utilizes an ion-sensitive field-effect device as transducer. The upon the DNA hybridization induced redistribution of the ion concentration within the intermolecular spaces and\\/or the alteration of the ion sensitivity

  10. Effects of Physical Stigmata and Labels on Judgments of Subnormality by Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloia, Gregory F.

    1975-01-01

    Randomly selected full time students in a teacher training program (n=102) participated in a study to determine the influence of the label "mentally retarded" and physical attractiveness had on individual judgments of subnormality. (Author/CL)

  11. Kinetic isotope effects significantly influence intracellular metabolite [superscript 13]C labeling patterns and flux determination

    E-print Network

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    Rigorous mathematical modeling of carbon-labeling experiments allows estimation of fluxes through the pathways of central carbon metabolism, yielding powerful information for basic scientific studies as well as for a wide ...

  12. Nanoclusters of iron oxide: effect of core composition on structure, biocompatibility and cell labeling efficacy

    PubMed Central

    van Tilborg, Geralda A.F.; Cormode, David P.; Jarzyna, Peter A.; van der Toorn, Annette; van der Pol, Susanne M.A.; van Bloois, Louis; Fayad, Zahi A.; Storm, Gert; Mulder, Willem J.M.; de Vries, Helga E.; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals have a variety of applications in medicine. They may serve as contrast agents, therapeutics and for in vitro diagnostics. Frequently, the synthesis route yields hydrophobically capped nanocrystals, which necessitates their subsequent coating to render a water-soluble and biocompatible probe. Biocompatibility is crucial for cellular imaging applications, which require large quantities of diagnostically active nanoparticles to be loaded into cells. We have previously reported the design and synthesis of a fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging-detectable core-shell nanoparticle that encapsulates hydrophobically coated iron oxide nanocrystals. The core of soybean oil and iron oxide is covered by a shell mixture of phospholipids, some of which contained polyethylene glycol. Despite the biocompatibility of these components, we hypothesize that we can improve this formulation with respect to in vitro toxicity. To this aim, we measured the effect of six different core compositions on nanoparticle structure, cell labeling efficacy and cell viability, as well as cell tracking potential. We methodically investigated the causes of toxicity and conclude that, even when combining biocompatible materials, the resulting formulation is not guaranteed to be biocompatible. PMID:22471239

  13. Label-free field-effect-based single-molecule detection of DNA hybridization kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Sorgenfrei, Sebastian; Chiu, Chien-yang; Gonzalez, Ruben L.; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Probing biomolecules at the single-molecule level can provide useful information about molecular interactions, kinetics and motions that is usually hidden in ensemble measurements. Techniques with improved sensitivity and time resolution are required to explore fast biomolecular dynamics. Here, we report the first observation of DNA hybridization at the single-molecule level using a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. By covalently attaching a single-stranded probe DNA sequence to a point defect in a carbon nanotube, we are able to measure two-level fluctuations in the nanotube conductance due to reversible hybridizing and melting of a complementary DNA target. The kinetics are studied as a function of temperature, allowing the measurement of rate constants, melting curves and activation energies for different sequences and target concentrations. The kinetics show non-Arrhenius behavior, in agreement with DNA hybridization experiments using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. This technique is label-free and has the potential for studying single-molecule dynamics at sub-microsecond time-scales. PMID:21258331

  14. Methane production in ruminants: Its effect on the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Midwood, A.J.; Haggarty, P.; McGaw, B.A.; Robinson, J.J. (Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland (England))

    1989-12-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) technique for measuring CO2 production (rCO2) in free-living animals requires an assessment of the elimination of both 2H and 18O from the body over a long period of time. To calculate rCO2, it is necessary to calculate water turnover (rH2O) from the 2H flux rate. In ruminant animals, the accuracy of this calculation is affected by the loss of 2H in methane. We have quantified the effect of methane production (rCH4) on the 2H flux rate, determined in four sheep given 2H2O. The methane produced was depleted in 2H relative to the urine. A relationship between the enrichment of the methane and urine was established. The ratio of urine to methane enrichment was found on average to be 0.6536, and this value was unaffected by the level of rCH4 but showed some dependence on the absolute concentration of 2H in urine. For this reason, the ratio value obtained from four sheep not given 2H2O was different, a mean of 0.6886 was measured, this ratio was unaffected by changes in the diet supplied to the animals. Computer modeling was used to illustrate the dependence of the isotopically derived value for rCO2 on not only rCH4 but also the magnitude of rCO2 itself. The effect of rCH4 on the DLW method can be predicted from the observed ratio of rCO2 to rCH4 and the value of 0.6536 obtained for the ratio of methane to urine enrichment. With the use of data from several studies at this Institute, a limited range of 10 to 20 was found for rCO2/rCH4 in animals fed at or above maintenance.

  15. The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kevin S.; Hashmi, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling.

  16. The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kevin S; Hashmi, Sarah M; Shapiro, Erik M

    2013-03-29

    Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling. PMID:23459030

  17. [Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources. PMID:25338359

  18. Mood effects on limbic blood flow correlate with emotional self-rating: A PET study with oxygen-15 labeled water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Schneider; Raquel E. Gur; Lyn Harper Mozley; Robin J. Smith; P. David Mozley; David M. Censits; Abass Alavi; Ruben C. Gur

    1995-01-01

    Positron emission tomography was used to study the effects of experimentally controlled mood states on cerebral blood flow (CBF), measured with the quantitative equilibrium infusion method and 15O-labeled water. Twenty-seven brain regions in each hemisphere were assessed in 16 normal subjects. CBF and heart rate were measured during happy and sad mood induction, and during two nonemotional control conditions: sex

  19. Studies on the mechanism of hepatotoxicity of 4-methylphenol ( p-cresol): effects of deuterium labeling and ring substitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Thompson; Kumar Perera; Robert London

    1996-01-01

    We recently observed that 4-methylphenol (p-cresol) is toxic to rat liver tissue slices. A possible mechanism involves biotransformation of 4-methylphenol to a reactive quinone methide intermediate which covalently binds to cellular macromolecules and elicits cytotoxicity. In order to obtain further evidence for this proposed mechanism, we studied the effects of deuterium-labeled 4-methylphenol (4-[?,?,?-d3]-methylphenol), and the presence of various ring substituents,

  20. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa J Harnack; Simone A French; J Michael Oakes; Mary T Story; Robert W Jeffery; Sarah A Rydell

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. METHODS: To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast

  1. Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C. (inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (inventor); Lee, Burnett (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

  2. FLOOD WARNING This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Commonwealth Bureau of

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING in QUEENSLAND This brochure describes the flood warning system operated for managing and responding to flood disasters to understand the flood warning system. More details are given in flood at Surat, Queensland. January 1996. Photo courtesy of Wimera Aviation. Contained in this document

  3. Eco-labelling: Policy Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaditya Mattoo; HARSHA V. SINGH

    1994-01-01

    This paper argues that eco-labeling could lead to an adverse effect on the environment. In every society there are some consumers who are concerned about environmental problems and others who are not. Labeling may stimulate concern for the environment and increase the demand for environment-friendly products. However, it is precisely this consequence of labeling that can lead to perverse results.

  4. Examination of the Evidence for Off-Label Use of Gabapentin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALICIA MACK

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) Describe the relevance of off-label use of gabapentin to man- aged care pharmacy; (2) summarize recent FDA warnings and media reports related to off-label gabapentin use; (3) review medical information pertaining to the off-label use of gabapentin; (4) outline alternatives to off-label use of gabapentin in an evidence-based fashion, where literature exists to support such alternatives; and (5)

  5. Prevention of unplanned intensive care unit admissions and hospital mortality by early warning systems.

    PubMed

    Mapp, Ila D; Davis, Leslie L; Krowchuk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that patients exhibit physiological changes up to 8 hours prior to an arrest event. Deaths have been attributed to a lack of observation, lack of documentation of observations, inability of a caregiver to recognize early signs of deterioration, and lack of communication between healthcare providers. This integrative review examines early warning scoring systems and their effectiveness in predicting a patient's potential for deterioration and considers whether these scoring systems prevent unplanned intensive care unit admissions and/or death. Three databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL [Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature], and the Cochrane Collaboration) were searched to identify the instruments and clinical support systems available to assist healthcare personnel in recognizing early clinical deterioration. Key search words included modified early warning score, early warning score, early warning systems, deteriorating patient, patients at risk, shock index, track and trigger systems, and failure to rescue. Two prior literature reviews examined early warning scoring systems and their effects on patient outcomes; however, the most recent one reviewed only articles published before 2007. This review examined studies of early warning systems and the incorporation of clinical support published from 2007 to 2012. Nine studies fitting the search criteria were included in this review. Early warning scoring systems that interface with electronic medical records and are supplemented with decision aides (algorithms) and clinical support systems produce an effective screening system for early identification of deteriorating patients. This multifaceted approach decreases unplanned intensive care unit admissions and hospital mortality. PMID:24100432

  6. Labeling Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jón Gunnar Bernburg

    Labeling theory provides a distinctively sociological approach that focuses on the role of social labeling in the development\\u000a of crime and deviance. The theory assumes that although deviant behavior can initially stem from various causes and conditions,\\u000a once individuals have been labeled or defined as deviants, they often face new problems that stem from the reactions of self\\u000a and others

  7. Warning about contraceptive device given.

    PubMed

    Mayor, S

    1998-01-17

    The British Department of Health has issued a warning that the contraceptive device Persona may be an unreliable method of fertility control. This method tests hormone levels in urine to enable women to avoid unprotected intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. A pre-marketing clinical trial conducted by Upipath, the manufacturer of Persona, claimed a 94% reliability rate. However, the Medical Devices Agency has been unable to substantiate this claim and received numerous complaints from users, general practitioners, and trading standards officers. The warning letter advises physicians that, although Persona is basically a test-based form of the rhythm method, its technological basis may raise user expectations of accuracy. The letter notes that users should be aware a 94% reliability may also be expressed as a risk of 1 in 17 users becoming pregnant per 12 months of use. Persona is not considered suitable for women whose menstrual cycles do not fall into the 23-35 day range, those who have recently given birth or are breast feeding, and users of hormonal contraception. PMID:9468673

  8. Systematic ranging and late warning asteroid impacts

    E-print Network

    Farnocchia, D; Micheli, M

    2015-01-01

    We describe systematic ranging, an orbit determination technique especially suitable to assess the near-term Earth impact hazard posed by newly discovered asteroids. For these late warning cases, the time interval covered by the observations is generally short, perhaps a few hours or even less, which leads to severe degeneracies in the orbit estimation process. The systematic ranging approach gets around these degeneracies by performing a raster scan in the poorly-constrained space of topocentric range and range rate, while the plane of sky position and motion are directly tied to the recorded observations. This scan allows us to identify regions corresponding to collision solutions, as well as potential impact times and locations. From the probability distribution of the observation errors, we obtain a probability distribution in the orbital space and then estimate the probability of an Earth impact. We show how this technique is effective for a number of examples, including 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA, the only tw...

  9. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods, which are typically triggered by severe rainfall events, are difficult to monitor and predict at the spatial and temporal scales of interest due to large meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) need to be taken into account to provide skillful flash flood warnings with increased warning lead time. In France, the AIGA discharge-threshold flood warning system is currently being enhanced to ingest high-resolution ensemble QPFs from convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as well as probabilistic QPEs, to improve flash flood warnings for small-to-medium (from 10 to 1000 km²) ungauged basins. The current deterministic AIGA system is operational in the South of France since 2005. It ingests the operational radar-gauge QPE grids from Météo-France to run a simplified hourly distributed hydrologic model at a 1-km² resolution every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). This produces real-time peak discharge estimates along the river network, which are subsequently compared to regionalized flood frequency estimates of given return periods. Warnings are then provided to the French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) and regional flood forecasting offices, based on the estimated severity of ongoing events. The calibration and regionalization of the hydrologic model has been recently enhanced to implement an operational flash flood warning system for the entire French territory. To quantify the QPF uncertainty, the COSMO-DE-EPS rainfall ensembles from the Deutscher Wetterdienst (20 members at a 2.8-km resolution for a lead time of 21 hours), which are available on the North-eastern part of France, were ingested in the hydrologic model of the AIGA system. Streamflow ensembles were produced and probabilistic flash flood warnings were derived for the Meuse and Moselle river basins and for significant events of the 2010-2013 period. The evaluation showed significant improvements in terms of flash flood event detection and effective warning lead-time, compared to warnings from the current AIGA setup (without any future precipitation). Various verification metrics (e.g., Relative Mean Error, Continuous Rank Probability Skill Score) show the skill of ensemble precipitation and flow forecasts compared to single-valued persistency benchmarks. In addition to propagating the QPF uncertainty to streamflow forecasts, we discuss how to account for other sources of forecast uncertainty, including precipitation observational uncertainty (Caseri et al. 2014) and hydrologic uncertainties. Planned enhancements include ingesting other probabilistic nowcast and NWP products from Météo-France's convection-permitting AROME model, as well as developing comprehensive observational and post-event damage database to determine decision-relevant thresholds for flood magnitude and probability. Caseri, A., Javelle, P., Ramos, M.H., Leblois, E., 2014. Generating precipitation ensembles for flood alert and risk management. Journal of Flood Risk Management (submitted). Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D., Arnaud, P., 2014. Evaluating flash flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system. Hydrological Sciences Journal. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2014.923970

  10. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. ...specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

  11. Effects of laser labeling on the quality of citrus fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Etching the required information on fruit and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser etches the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for pathogen entry. Studies were conducted to measur...

  12. The Effects of Sex-Typed Labeling on Preschool Children's Information-Seeking and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbard, Marilyn R.; Endsley, Richard C.

    The main purpose of this study was to address this question: When preschool children are exposed to novel objects, will their tactual and verbal information-seeking about these objects and the amount of information they remember about these same objects be influenced by whether an adult labels them as things "for girls" or "for boys"? Thirty-six…

  13. Icing detector with early warning capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Ostermayer

    1985-01-01

    A method for the early warning of icing conditions was developed. The method is based on the optical anomalous dispersion of water and ice, which is used for ice detection, and a temperature decrease to enable early warning. The changing refraction behavior at a detection boundary area was examined using a radiation source and an optical branching that leads the

  14. Urban Flood Warning Systems using Radar Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N.; Bedient, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    There have been an increasing number of urban areas that rely on weather radars to provide accurate precipitation information for flood warning purposes. As non-structural tools, radar-based flood warning systems can provide accurate and timely warnings to the public and private entities in urban areas that are prone to flash floods. The wider spatial and temporal coverage from radar increases flood warning lead-time when compared to rain and stream gages alone. The Third Generation Rice and Texas Medical Center (TMC) Flood Alert System (FAS3) has been delivering warning information with 2 to 3 hours of lead time and a R2 value of 93% to facility personnel in a readily understood format for more than 50 events in the past 15 years. The current FAS utilizes NEXRAD Level II radar rainfall data coupled with a real-time hydrologic model (RTHEC-1) to deliver warning information. The system has a user-friendly dashboard to provide rainfall maps, Google Maps based inundation maps, hydrologic predictions, and real-time monitoring at the bayou. This paper will evaluate its reliable performance during the recent events occurring in 2012 and 2013 and the development of a similar radar-based flood warning system for the City of Sugar Land, Texas. Having a significant role in the communication of flood information, FAS marks an important step towards the establishment of an operational and reliable flood warning system for flood-prone urban areas.

  15. Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan A. Zysko

    2002-01-01

    A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that

  16. The effect of an external magnetic force on cell adhesion and proliferation of magnetically labeled mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As the strategy for tissue regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation, it is necessary that MSCs be accumulated and kept in the target area. To accumulate MSCs effectively, we developed a novel technique for a magnetic targeting system with magnetically labeled MSCs and an external magnetic force. In this study, we examined the effect of an external magnetic force on magnetically labeled MSCs in terms of cell adhesion and proliferation. Methods Magnetically labeled MSCs were plated at the bottom of an insert under the influence of an external magnetic force for 1 hour. Then the inserts were turned upside down for between 1 and 24 hours, and the number of MSCs which had fallen from the membrane was counted. The gene expression of MSCs affected magnetic force was analyzed with microarray. In the control group, the same procedure was done without the external magnetic force. Results At 1 hour after the inserts were turned upside down, the average number of fallen MSCs in the magnetic group was significantly smaller than that in the control group, indicating enhanced cell adhesion. At 24 hours, the average number of fallen MSCs in the magnetic group was also significantly smaller than that in control group. In the magnetic group, integrin alpha2, alpha6, beta3 BP, intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2), platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) were upregulated. At 1, 2 and 3 weeks after incubation, there was no statistical significant difference in the numbers of MSCs in the magnetic group and control group. Conclusions The results indicate that an external magnetic force for 1 hour enhances cell adhesion of MSCs. Moreover, there is no difference in cell proliferation after using an external magnetic force on magnetically labeled MSCs. PMID:20152029

  17. Graphic gambling warnings: how they affect emotions, cognitive responses and attitude change.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Borges, Adilson

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of graphic warnings related to excessive gambling. It is based upon a theoretical model derived from both the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). We focus on video lottery terminal (VLT), one of the most hazardous format in the gaming industry. Our cohort consisted of 103 actual gamblers who reported previous gambling activity on VLT's on a regular basis. We assess the effectiveness of graphic warnings vs. text-only warnings and the effectiveness of two major arguments (i.e., family vs. financial disruption). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test the direct and combined effects of two variables (i.e., warning content and presence vs. absence of a graphic). It was found that the presence of a graphic enhances both cognitive appraisal and fear, and has positive effects on the Depth of Information Processing. In addition, graphic content combined with family disruptions is more effective for changing attitudes and complying with the warning than other combinations of the manipulated variables. It is proposed that ELM and PMT complement each other to explain the effects of warnings. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22648580

  18. A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform forming the upstream information flow, the DEWS project focused on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Based on these results, TRIDEC continues this task focusing on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data.

  19. Digital warning system for geologic hazards in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. J.; Stefansson, R.; Hvannberg, E. Th.; Jonsson, B. G.; Halldorsson, P.; Magnusson, H. S.; Gudmundsson, G. B.; Thorbjarnardottir, B. S.; Gunnarsdottir, S.; Sveinbjornsson, H.

    2003-04-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) monitors and maintains an automated network of 42 digital seismic stations, which provides near real-time seismicity measurements for an area encompassing terrestrial and near-shore regions of Iceland (see http://www.vedur.is/ja). Additionally, digital data are received continuously from six borehole strain meters and 17 differential GPS stations. Collectively, these geophysical data allow unique insight into tectonic processes responsible for earthquake and volcanic activity in Iceland. To enable more precise, verifiable short- and long-term forecasts of geologic hazard potential in Iceland, the IMO is currently developing an Internet-based warning system. In this presentation, we describe the conceptual and technical design of the warning system and supporting geo-database. Specifically, we (i) explain how IMO data are stored to allow fast information retrieval via the Internet; (ii) summarise the design of the user interface, data options and display formats, and the software responsible for handling data requests; and (iii) illustrate how the warning system is providing unique overview capabilities that permit advanced recognition of anomalous geologic processes. The main advantage of the warning system is the ease and speed at which multi-parameter historic and real-time geophysical data can be evaluated on-screen. Besides the ability to visualise processed field data, a resource database is accessible from the system interface. This database comprises digital information in the form of scientific publications, customised hazard summaries, pre-processed information for civil defence purposes, and annotated map and image resources. Although the warning system will be used primarily by the IMO, it is anticipated that allied research institutions, civil defence personnel, and the public will benefit from Internet access to geophysical data and related hazard information. However, to ensure clear and effective information dissemination, varying access levels will be imposed. The warning system also serves as a platform for accessing environmental data from other institutions, and as an interface for public and scientific communication of observations. The IMO digital warning system is a state-of-the-art example of synergy between geophysical data and information technology for the purpose of geologic hazard mitigation.

  20. Synergizing nucleic acid aptamers with 1-dimensional nanostructures as label-free field-effect transistor biosensors.

    PubMed

    Lung Khung, Yit; Narducci, Dario

    2013-12-15

    Since the introduction by Gold et al. in 1990, nucleic acid aptamers had evolved to become a true contender in biosensors for protein and cell detections. Aptamers are short strands of synthetically designed DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can be self-assembled into unique 3-dimensional structures and can bind to different proteins, cells or even small molecules at a high level of specificity and affinity. In recent years, there had been many reports in literature in using aptamers in place of conventional antibodies as capture biomolecules on the surface. This is mainly due to the better thermal stability properties and ease in production. Consequently, also these characteristics allowed the aptamers to find use in field effect transistors (FETs) based upon 1D nanostructured (1D-NS) as label-free biosensing. In terms of designing label-free platforms for biosensors applications, 1D-NS FET had been an attractive option due to reported high sensitivities toward protein targets arising from the large surface area for detection as well as to their label-free nature. Since the first aptamer-based 1D-NS FET biosensor had surfaced in 2005, there had been many more improvements in the overall design and sensitivity in recent years. In this review, the latest developments in synergizing these two interesting areas of research (aptamers and 1D-NS FET) will be discussed for a range of different nanowire types as well as for the detection results. PMID:23872609

  1. Effect of redox label tether length and flexibility on sensor performance of displacement-based electrochemical DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-gang; Zaitouna, Anita J; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2014-02-17

    This article summarizes the sensor performance of four electrochemical DNA sensors that exploit the recently developed displacement-replacement sensing motif. In the absence of the target, the capture probe is partially hybridized to the signaling probe at the distal end, positioning the redox label, methylene blue (MB), away from the electrode. In the presence of the target, the MB-modified signaling probe is released; one type of probe is capable of assuming a stem-loop probe (SLP) conformation, whereas the other type adopts a linear probe (LP) conformation. Independent of the sensor architecture, all four sensors showed "signal-on" sensor behavior. Unlike the previous report, here we focused on elucidating the effect of the redox label tether length and flexibility on sensor sensitivity, specificity, selectivity, and reusability. For both SLP and LP sensors, the limit of detection was 10 pM for sensors fabricated using a signaling probe with three extra thymine (T3) bases linked to the MB label. A limit of detection of 100 pM was determined for sensors fabricated using a signaling probe with five extra thymine (T5) bases. The linear dynamic range was between 10 pM and 100 nM for the T3 sensors, and between 100 pM and 100 nM for the T5 sensors. When compared to the LP sensors, the SLP sensors showed higher signal enhancement in the presence of the full-complement target. More importantly, the SLP-T5 sensor was found to be highly specific; it is capable of discriminating between the full complement and single-base mismatch targets even when employed in undiluted blood serum. Overall, these results highlight the advantages of using oligo-T(s) as a tunable linker to control flexibility of the tethered redox label, so as to achieve the desired sensor response. PMID:24491779

  2. 76 FR 82129 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...unnecessary further testing and surgery due to false positive...that alerts users to the risk associated with off-label...or not to proceed with surgery. In the Federal Register...warning to address the risk of off-label use...Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C...

  3. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...unnecessary further testing and surgery due to false positive...that alerts users to the risk associated with off-label...or not to proceed with surgery. While FDA is establishing...warning to address the risk of off-label use...Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C...

  4. Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen.

    PubMed

    Lassen, A D; Beck, A; Leedo, E; Andersen, E W; Christensen, T; Mejborn, H; Thorsen, A V; Tetens, I

    2014-04-01

    Healthier meal selections at restaurants and canteens are often limited and not actively promoted. In this Danish study the effectiveness of a healthy labelling certification program in improving dietary intake and influencing edible plate waste was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study design. Employees from an intervention worksite canteen and a matched control canteen were included in the study at baseline (February 2012), after completing the certification process (end-point) and six month from end-point (follow-up) (total n=270). In order to estimate nutrient composition of the consumed lunch meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (P<0.001). No significant changes were seen with regard to food satisfaction and plate waste. In the control canteen no positive nutritional effects were observed. The results of the study highlight the potential of using healthy labelling certification programs as a possible driver for increasing both the availability and awareness of healthy meal choices, thereby improving dietary intake when eating out. PMID:24373732

  5. Effectiveness of isotopically labelled and non-isotopically labelled internal standards in the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of sulfur compounds in wines: use of a statistically based matrix comprehensive approach.

    PubMed

    Lavagnini, Irma; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Versini, Giuseppe; Magno, Franco

    2009-04-01

    The effectiveness of isotopically and non-isotopically labelled internal standards in reducing matrix-induced effects is evaluated. The question is addressed in the quantitative analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of dimethyl sulphide, chosen as a typical example of volatile sulphur compounds, in wine matrices. When matrix/run effects are not cancelled out the use of a variance component model (VCM) to handle the linear calibrations obtained by regression technique is successful. The method implies the estimation of an overall calibration straight line, which properly takes into account the uncertainty due to different matrices, the calibration run and the measurement error, making the use of an isotopically labelled internal standard not necessary. The obtained results show that the benefits of lowering times and costs for routine analyses compensate for the small increase in uncertainty in the concentration values obtained in the regression analysis and the slight increase in the detection limit. PMID:19291680

  6. Development and evaluation of collision warning\\/collision avoidance algorithms using an errable driver model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-Hsiang Yang; Huei Peng

    2010-01-01

    Collision warning\\/collision avoidance (CW\\/CA) systems must be designed to work seamlessly with a human driver, providing warning or control actions when the driver's response (or lack of) is deemed inappropriate. The effectiveness of CW\\/CA systems working with a human driver needs to be evaluated thoroughly because of legal\\/liability and other (e.g. traffic flow) concerns. CW\\/CA systems tuned only under open-loop

  7. Local early warning systems with LS-radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Arvidsson

    1988-01-01

    A complement to the local optical early warning system is described. The LS system (LS = optical early warning station) is suggested, using simple marine radars equipped with MTI circuits. It is possible for land based MTI-radar to separate moving target echoes from ground echoes. The LS-radar early warning system gives directly a warning to neighboring local command centers. Advantages

  8. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM THOMSON, BARCOO RIVERS AND COOPER CREEK

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the THOMSON, BARCOO RIVERS AND COOPER CREEK This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Thomson Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods

  9. 49 CFR 393.87 - Warning flags on projecting loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning flags on projecting loads. 393.87 Section...and Accessories § 393.87 Warning flags on projecting loads. (a) Any...with red or orange fluorescent warning flags. Each warning flag must be at least...

  10. 49 CFR 393.87 - Warning flags on projecting loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning flags on projecting loads. 393.87 Section...and Accessories § 393.87 Warning flags on projecting loads. (a) Any...with red or orange fluorescent warning flags. Each warning flag must be at least...

  11. 49 CFR 393.87 - Warning flags on projecting loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning flags on projecting loads. 393.87 Section...and Accessories § 393.87 Warning flags on projecting loads. (a) Any...with red or orange fluorescent warning flags. Each warning flag must be at least...

  12. Downstream labeling and upstream price competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Bonroy; Stéphane Lemarié

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the economic consequences of labeling in a setting with two vertically related markets. Labeling on the downstream market affects upstream price competition through two effects: a differentiation effect and a ranking effect. The magnitude of these two effects determines who in the supply chain will receive the benefits and who will bear the burden of labeling. For

  13. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  14. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible...

  3. Early Warnings for Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matland, Marc A.

    1976-01-01

    This articles summarizes the National Planning Association's (NPA) experience in its initial efforts to develop an early warning system to anticipate job openings generated in local communities by large Federal procurement contracts. (WL)

  4. Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests that Australian prescribers may have acted in response to scientific evidence or international safety warnings (EMA, FDA), prior to the response of the TGA. Minor effects were observed after bladder cancer warnings on pioglitazone utilisation. PMID:24708579

  5. Do gender labels yield sex differences in performance, or is label a fable?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleanor W. Herzog; Margaret Enright; Zella Luria; Jeffrey Z. Rubin

    1982-01-01

    Replicated R. Montemayor's labeling study using samples. Exp I, with 120 1st and 2nd graders, attempted to reproduce Montemayor's results with boy, girl, and neutral labeling, and to test whether experimenter's relabeling would change the Sex of Child?×?Sex of Label effect on performance. The expected interaction effect was not replicated on the labeling or in the relabeling conditions. The only

  6. Natural abundance deuterium and 18-oxygen effects on the precision of the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, M. A.; Schoeller, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    The doubly labeled water method for measuring total energy expenditure is subject to error from natural variations in the background 2H and 18O in body water. There is disagreement as to whether the variations in background abundances of the two stable isotopes covary and what relative doses of 2H and 18O minimize the impact of variation on the precision of the method. We have performed two studies to investigate the amount and covariance of the background variations. These were a study of urine collected weekly from eight subjects who remained in the Madison, WI locale for 6 wk and frequent urine samples from 14 subjects during round-trip travel to a locale > or = 500 miles from Madison, WI. Background variation in excess of analytical error was detected in six of the eight nontravelers, and covariance was demonstrated in four subjects. Background variation was detected in all 14 travelers, and covariance was demonstrated in 11 subjects. The median slopes of the regression lines of delta2H vs. delta18O were 6 and 7, respectively. Modeling indicated that 2H and 18O doses yielding a 6:1 ratio of final enrichments should minimize this error introduced to the doubly labeled water method.

  7. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  8. Effect of heat on the distribution of fluorescently labeled plasminogen and plasminogen activators in bovine skim milk.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Mauer, L J

    2008-04-01

    Differentially fluorescently labeled bovine plasminogen (PG-594) and human tissue- and urokinase-type plasminogen activators (tPA-647 and uPA-546) were added to bovine skim milk to track the effect of heat on the location and concentration of these plasmin system components following acid precipitation or ultracentrifugation. In unheated milk, the majority (71.7% to 89.0%) of the added PG and PAs associated with casein micelles or acid curd, and PG-594 in the serum fraction was partially due to associations with nonsedimentable caseins. Heat treatment (85 degrees C for 16 s) significantly (P < 0.05) affected distribution of PG-594, tPA-647, and uPA-546, resulting in reduced concentrations of PG and PAs in the serum fractions and reciprocal increases in their levels in the nonsedimentable casein fractions. Overall, almost all of the added PG and PAs (95.9% to 97.5%) became associated with caseins following heat treatment. This is the 1st study to successfully use fluorescent labeling to quantify effects of heat on the location of plasmin components in skim milk. PMID:18387097

  9. Effects of drought on C allocation and turnover in a Mediterranean shrub community - A 13C field labeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrichkova, O.; Tian, J.; Spohn, M.; Guidolotti, G.; de Dato, G.; Liberati, D.; Pausch, J.; Brugnoli, E.; De Angelis, P.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Predicting impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystem functioning is a big scientific challenge. Large-scale manipulation experiments may provide realistic estimates of the responses of biological processes to changes in their principal regulators such as temperature, CO2, and water availability. A field drought manipulation experiment has been established in a Mediterranean shrub community of Porto Conte (Sardegna, Italy) in 2002 as part of the INCREASE network. The INCREASE network aims at developing non-intrusive technologies for realistic climate change manipulations to study vulnerable shrubland ecosystems over Europe. In Porto Conte summer drought is extended by excluding precipitation with transparent roofs in order to mimic potential future changes in precipitation patterns. In October 2011 we performed a field 13C pulse labeling to explore effects of drought on carbon allocation and turnover in the shrub land of Porto Conte. For this purpose, Cistus monspeliensis, the dominant shrub species within the experimental site, was labeled in three plots subjected to extended summer droughts and in three control plots. Allocation of the tracer between various pools and fluxes in the plant-soil system was studied over a period of two weeks with an one day frequency. Aboveground carbon allocation and turnover was accessed by monitoring 13C content in shoots and in shoot-respired CO2. Belowground carbon allocation and turnover was explored by repeated determination of 13C label in roots, microbial biomass, and soil respired CO2. Two approaches of soil respired 13CO2 sampling were utilized and confronted here. Soil respiration and its ?13C were determined by Keeling plot approach. Additionally, cumulative amount of the soil respired CO2 and its isotopic signature were determined by trapping the evolved CO2 with soda traps. Conclusions on the sensitivity of C. monspeliensis to drought and its consequences for C cycling in shrub lands under extended summer droughts were drawn.

  10. An ethical excursion through labeling the mentally retarded

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent W. Franco

    1982-01-01

    Review of a representative body of research data concerning the effects of the “mentally retarded” (MR) label on parents, teachers, college students, nonretarded children, communities, and persons labeled fails to support the extravagant claim of some investigators that the labeling process has psychologically damaging effects upon the individuals labeled as well as society. Negative reactions to labels could be minimized

  11. Do warning calls boost survival of signal recipients? Evidence from a field experiment in a group-living bird species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Warning calls are a widespread anti-predator adaptation, which can signal unprofitability to predators or alert other potential targets of the predator. Although it is tacitly assumed that the recipients of warning calls experience a reduction in predation risk, this crucial assumption remains untested. Here I tested this hypothesis with a field experiment in the group-living Siberian jay, Perisoreus infaustus. I exposed male or female breeding adults that were foraging together with a non-breeder (related or unrelated) to a model of their main predator (goshawk Accipiter gentilis) in autumn. I then recorded the warning call response of breeders as well as the reaction time of non-breeders, and followed the subsequent survival of non-breeders until spring. Results In most experiments (73%), non-breeders were warned by the more experienced breeders. Warning calls almost halved the reaction time of non-breeders during the experiment and influenced the survival of call recipients: non-breeders that were warned had a higher subsequent survival (19 out of 23) than non-breeders that were not warned (2 out of 5). However, neither kinship, group size, the age of the non-breeder, or the habitat structure of the territory had an influence on the survival subsequent to the experiments. Conclusions Since earlier studies showed that breeders are consistent in their warning call investment across different contexts, breeders that did warn non-breeders in the experiment were likely to have done so in subsequent, natural attacks. Consequently non-breeders living with breeders that called had a better chance of surviving predator attacks. Thus, these results suggest that warning calls have the potential to boost the survival of signal recipients, confirming a pivotal, yet hitherto untested assumption of the effect of warning calls. PMID:23941356

  12. Inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chao

    Ever since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the technique of inversion of tsunami data and the importance of tsunami warning have drawn the attention of many researchers. However, since tsunamis are rare and extreme events, developed inverse techniques lack validation, and open questions rise when they are applied to a real event. In this study, several of those open questions are investigated, i.e., the wave dispersion, bathymetry grid size and subfault division. First, tsunami records from three large tsunami events -- 2010 Maule, 2011 Tohoku and 2012 Haida Gwaii -- are analyzed to extract the main characteristics of the leading tsunami waves. Using the tool of wavelet transforming, the instant wave period can be obtained and thus the dispersive parameter mu2 can be calculated. mu2 is found to be smaller than 0.02 for all records, indicating that the wave dispersion is minor for the propagation of tsunami leading waves. Second, inversions of tsunami data are carried out for three tsunami events -- 2011 Tohoku, 2012 Haida Gwaii and 2014 Iquique. By varying the subfault size and the bathymetry grid size in the inversions, general rules are established for choosing those two parameters. It is found that the choice of bathymetry grid size depends on various parameters, such as the subfault size and the depth of subfaults. The global bathymetry data GEBCO with spatial resolution of 30 arcsec is generally good if the subfault size is larger than 40 km x 40 km; otherwise, bathymetry data with finer resolution is desirable. Detailed instructions of choosing the bathymetry size can be found in Chapter 2. By contrast, the choice of subfault size has much more freedom; our study shows that the subfault size can be very large without significant influence on the predicted tsunami waves. For earthquakes with magnitude of 8.0 ˜ 9.0, the subfault size can be 60 km ˜ 100 km. In our study, the maximum subfault size results in 9 ˜ 16 subfault patches on the ruptured fault surface, so we infer that the maximum size of the subfault can be 1/4 to 1/3 of the scale of the faulting area. In Chapter 2, we also developed a method using the inverse residual to evaluate the effectiveness of tsunami buoys of different number and locations in the inversion. Results show that 2 ˜ 4 tsunami buoys are sufficient to constrain the source parameters quite well if they are optimally located. Adding data from more tsunami buoys into the inversion does not significantly improve the results. In addition, near-field stations in the source region do not have advantage against far-field stations in constraining the earthquake source parameters. Conversely, if the near-field data have short but large-amplitude waves and only such data are used in the inversion, it can result in very large but unreal slip near the seabed. The optimal locations for tsunami buoys of different number can also be obtained from this method. Inversions of tele-seismic data show that the inverse results do not necessarily predict the tsunami waves, unless iterative forward modeling techniques are applied to adjust the inverse parameters. Thus, from the standpoint of tsunami warning, tele-seismic data are not able to precisely predict the tsunami wave height or an accurate inundation map, although the estimation of earthquake magnitude and depth might be enough to issue a crude warning. In addition, numerical experiments are conducted and measurements of the computational time show that the calculation of tsunami Green's functions for an area of ˜ 30° only takes several minutes using 256 computational cores. Thus, it is possible to calculate the Green's functions in real time for a tsunami warning system. Finally, a case study is conducted for the South China Sea using the method of inverse residual, leading to recommendations of number and location of tsunami buoys required for a warning system near the Manila trench.

  13. Watson-Crick Petri net languages: The effect of labeling strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2014-07-01

    A Watson-Crick automaton is an automaton that works on tapes which are double stranded sequences of symbols related by Watson-Crick complementarity that are similar to the DNA molecules. However, this automaton cannot exploit the other fundamental features of DNA molecules such as the massive parallelism. Watson-Crick automata can be related to a model known as the Petri net. Petri net is a model based on the concepts of asynchronous and concurrent operation by the parts of a system and the realization by the parts can be represented by a graph or a net. From the relation between Watson-Crick automata and Petri net, a new model namely Watson-Crick Petri net has been developed. The language generated by Watson-Crick Petri net is a set of labeled sequences corresponding to the occurrence sequences of the model. In this research, some properties of languages generated by Watson-Crick Petri net are investigated.

  14. Effect of beta-carotene on structural and dynamic properties of model phosphatidylcholine membranes. I. An EPR spin label study.

    PubMed

    Strza?ka, K; Gruszecki, W I

    1994-08-24

    The influence of beta-carotene on structural and dynamic properties of model membranes (multilamellar liposomes) prepared of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine was investigated. It was found that beta-carotene: (1) decreases order within crystalline state of the membrane; the effect of beta-carotene was more pronounced than in the case of the polar carotenoid, lutein, as revealed by means of spin label EPR; (2) increases penetration, stronger than lutein, of apolar molecules into the membrane as indicated by greater partition coefficient of 5-doxyldecane; (3) increases correlation times tau B tau C stronger than lutein. In all cases the effect of beta-carotene on a membrane was more pronounced at crystalline state than at fluid state. On this basis a hypothesis is proposed that beta-carotene plays a physiological function in the fluidization of chloroplast membranes in a chilling stress to the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:8075127

  15. Development of a Patient-Centered Bilingual Prescription Drug Label

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Arun; Riley, M. Brian; Boyington, Dane; Johnston, Phillip; Trochez, Karen; Jennings, Callie; Mashburn, Jennie; Kripalani, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that prescription drug labels are often difficult for patients to understand, which contributes to medication errors and nonadherence. In this study, the authors developed and qualitatively evaluated an evidence-based bilingual prescription container label designed to improve understanding. The authors developed several prototypes in English only or in English and Spanish. The labels included an image of the drug, an icon to show its purpose, and plain-language instructions presented in a 4-time-of-day table. In 5 focus groups and interviews that included 57 participants, patients and pharmacists critically reviewed the designs and compared them with traditional medication labels and reformatted labels without illustrations. Patients strongly preferred labels that grouped patient-relevant content, highlighted key information, and included drug indication icons. They also preferred having the 4-time-of-day table and plain-language text instructions as opposed to either one alone. Patients preferred having pertinent warnings on the main label instead of auxiliary labels. Pharmacists and Latino patients valued having Spanish and English instructions on the label, so both parties could understand the content. The final label design adheres to the latest national- and state-level recommendations for label format and incorporates additional improvements on the basis of patient and pharmacist input. This design may serve as a prototype for improving prescription drug labeling. PMID:24093345

  16. Development of a patient-centered bilingual prescription drug label.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arun; Riley, M Brian; Boyington, Dane; Johnston, Phillip; Trochez, Karen; Jennings, Callie; Mashburn, Jennie; Kripalani, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that prescription drug labels are often difficult for patients to understand, which contributes to medication errors and nonadherence. In this study, the authors developed and qualitatively evaluated an evidence-based bilingual prescription container label designed to improve understanding. The authors developed several prototypes in English only or in English and Spanish. The labels included an image of the drug, an icon to show its purpose, and plain-language instructions presented in a 4-time-of-day table. In 5 focus groups and interviews that included 57 participants, patients and pharmacists critically reviewed the designs and compared them with traditional medication labels and reformatted labels without illustrations. Patients strongly preferred labels that grouped patient-relevant content, highlighted key information, and included drug indication icons. They also preferred having the 4-time-of-day table and plain-language text instructions as opposed to either one alone. Patients preferred having pertinent warnings on the main label instead of auxiliary labels. Pharmacists and Latino patients valued having Spanish and English instructions on the label, so both parties could understand the content. The final label design adheres to the latest national- and state-level recommendations for label format and incorporates additional improvements on the basis of patient and pharmacist input. This design may serve as a prototype for improving prescription drug labeling. PMID:24093345

  17. The spatial effect of protein deuteration on nitroxide spin-label relaxation: Implications for EPR distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mkami, Hassane; Ward, Richard; Bowman, Andrew; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Norman, David G.

    2014-11-01

    Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) coupled with site-directed spin labeling is a powerful technique for the elucidation of protein or nucleic acid, macromolecular structure and interactions. The intrinsic high sensitivity of electron paramagnetic resonance enables measurement on small quantities of bio-macromolecules, however short relaxation times impose a limit on the sensitivity and size of distances that can be measured using this technique. The persistence of the electron spin-echo, in the PELDOR experiment, is one of the most crucial limitations to distance measurement. At a temperature of around 50 K one of the predominant factors affecting persistence of an echo, and as such, the sensitivity and measurable distance between spin labels, is the electron spin echo dephasing time (Tm). It has become normal practice to use deuterated solvents to extend Tm and recently it has been demonstrated that deuteration of the underlying protein significantly extends Tm. Here we examine the spatial effect of segmental deuteration of the underlying protein, and also explore the concentration and temperature dependence of highly deuterated systems.

  18. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  19. Probabilistic earthquake early warning times in Fujian Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jin, Xing

    2013-11-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are a new and effective way to mitigate the damage associated with earthquakes. A prototype EEW system is currently being constructed in the Fujian Province, a region along the Southeast coast of China. It is anticipated that the system will be completed in time to be tested at the end of this year (2013). In order to evaluate how much advanced warning the EEW system will be able to provide different cities in Fujian, we established an EEW information release scheme based on the seismic monitoring stations distributed in the region. Based on this scheme, we selected 71 historical earthquakes. We then obtained the delineation of the region's potential seismic source data in order to estimate the highest potential seismic intensities for each city as well as the EEW system warning times. For most of the Fujian Province, EEW alarms would sound several seconds prior to the arrival of the destructive wave. This window of time gives city inhabitants the opportunity to take protective measures before the full intensity of the earthquake strikes.

  20. Early warning of atmospheric regime transitions using transfer operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantet, Alexis; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    The existence of persistent midlatitude atmospheric regimes, such as blocking events, with time scales larger than 5-10 days and indications of preferred transition paths between them motivates the development of early-warning indicators of regime transitions. Here, we use a barotropic model of the northern midlatitudes winter flow to study such meta-stable regimes. We look at estimates of transfer operators acting on densities evolving on a reduced phase space spanned by the first Empirical Orthogonal Functions of the streamfunction and develop an early-warning indicator of zonal to blocked flow transition. The study of the spectra of transfer operators estimated for different lags reveals a multi-level structure in the flow as well as the effect of memory on the reduced dynamics due to past interactions between the resolved and unresolved variables. The slowest motions in the reduced phase space are thereby found to have time scales larger than 8 days and to behave as Markovian for larger lags. These motions are associated with meta-stable regimes and their transitions and can be detected as almost-invariant sets of the transfer operator. The early-warning indicator is based on the action on an initial density of products of the transfer operators estimated for sufficiently long lags, making use of the semi-group property of these operators and shows relatively good Peirce skill score. From the energy budget of the model, we are able to explain the meta-stability of the regimes and the existence of preferred transition paths as the manifestation of barotropic instability. Finally, even though the model is highly simplified, the skill of the early warning indicator is promising, suggesting that the transfer operator approach can be used in parallel to an operational deterministic model for stochastic prediction or to assess forecast uncertainty.

  1. TRMM Applications for Rainfall-Induced Landslide Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dok, A.; Fukuoka, H.; Hong, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Early warning system (EWS) is the most effective method in saving lives and reducing property damages resulted from the catastrophic landslides if properly implemented in populated areas of landslide-prone nations. For predicting the occurrence of landslides, it requires examination of empirical relationship between rainfall characteristics and past landslide occurrence. In developed countries like Japan and the US, precipitation is monitored by rain radars and ground-based rain gauge matrix. However, in developing regions like Southeast Asian countries, very limited number of rain gauges is available, and there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. Correspondingly, satellite precipitation monitoring could be therefore a possible and promising solution for launching landslide quasi-real-time early warning system in those countries. It is due to the fact that TMPA (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis) can provides a globally calibration-based sequential scheme for combining precipitation estimates from multiple satellites, and gauge analyses where feasible, at fine scales (3-hourly with 0.25°x0.25° spatial resolution). It is available both after and in quasi-real time, calibrated by TRMM Combined Instrument and TRMM Microwave Imager precipitation product. However, validation of ground based rain gauge and TRMM satellite data in the vulnerable regions is still not yet operative. Snake-line/Critical-line and Soil Water Index (SWI) are used for issuing warning of landslide occurrence in Japan; whereas, Caine criterion is preferable in Europe and western nations. Herewith, it presents rainfall behavior which took place in Beichuan city (located on the 2008 Chinese Wenchuan earthquake fault), Hofu and Shobara cities in Japan where localized heavy rainfall attacked in 2009 and 2010, respectively, from TRMM 3B42RT correlated with ground based rain gauge data. The 1-day rainfall intensity and 15-day cumulative rainfall (snake line) were independently plotted to investigate the impact of short-term rainfall intensity and accumulated effective rainfall volume respectively for obtaining some probabilistic threshold. Japanese SWI was also tested to distribute threshold regarding to highly nonlinear rainfall patterns in predicting the landslide occurrence through the plot of total water of 3 serial tank models and daily precipitation. As a result, the snake line plots using TMPA work well for landslide warning in the selected cities; while SWI plots shows unusual peak value on the day of the debris flow occurrence. Graph of daily precipitation vs SWI implies possible zone of critical line, and second peak appearance 1 day before, indicating possibility of early warning.

  2. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184?mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820?mg black tea solids containing 184?mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820?mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2?hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF. PMID:23486295

  3. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to registration via third parties. The 'Future Flood Warning System' Our research shows that people want more choice on how they access and receive warnings. Many want a service tailored to their own risk, rather than that of their community. They also want more information about the forecast and the situation to that they can make decisions personal to their circumstances. Our future flood warning system will build upon the success of our existing service and will aim to: • provide our customers with a more flexible and personalised self-service approach which caters for the diverse range of user needs • alert people wherever they are, not just in properties • be flexible enough to respond to user feedback to make improvements and utilise new technology as it becomes available • provide real-time visualisation of system performance, to assist our flood response • capture greater levels of information from the recipients of our warnings • be efficient for operators of the system and utilise automation where relevant • take a risk based approach to resilience to provide the highest level of reliability when needed at a reduced cost

  4. Cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: progress and obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Blanco, Adriana; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objetive To describe cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean as of August 2010. Material and Methods Review of tobacco control legislation of all 33 countries of the region; analysis of British American Tobacco (BAT)’s corporate social reports; analysis of information from cigarette packages collected in 27 countries. Results In 2002, Brazil became the first country in the region to implement pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages. Since then, six more countries adopted pictorial labels. The message content and the picture style vary across countries. Thirteen countries have banned brand descriptors and nine require a qualitative label with information on constituents and emissions. Tobacco companies are using strategies commonly used around the world to block the effective implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)’s Article 11. Conclusions Since 2002, important progress has been achieved in the region. However, countries that have ratified the FCTC have not yet implemented all the recommendations of Article 11 Guidelines. PMID:21243194

  5. Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that compensates for temperature variations in the signals generated by the pressure transducer. The microprocessor is programmed to generate a warning or alarm if a cabin pressure altitude exceeding a predetermined threshold is detected. Preferably, the microprocessor generates two different types of warning or alarm outputs, a first early warning or alert when a first pressure altitude is exceeded. and a second more serious alarm condition when either a second. higher pressure altitude is exceeded, or when the first pressure altitude has been exceeded for a predetermined period of time. Multiple types of alarm condition indicators are preferably provided, including visual, audible and tactile. The system is also preferably designed to detect gas concentrations and other ambient conditions, and thus incorporates other sensors, such as oxygen, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia sensors, to provide a more complete characterization and monitoring of the local environment.

  6. Monitoring the effects of dexamethasone treatment by MRI using in vivo iron oxide nanoparticle-labeled macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease causing recurring inflammatory joint attacks. These attacks are characterized by macrophage infiltration contributing to joint destruction. Studies have shown that RA treatment efficacy is correlated to synovial macrophage number. The aim of this study was to experimentally validate the use of in vivo superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) labeled macrophages to evaluate RA treatment by MRI. Methods The evolution of macrophages was monitored with and without dexamethasone (Dexa) treatment in rats. Two doses of 3 and 1 mg/kg Dexa were administered two and five days following induction of antigen induced arthritis. SPIONs (7 mg Fe/rat) were injected intravenously and the knees were imaged in vivo on days 6, 10 and 13. The MR images were scored for three parameters: SPION signal intensity, SPION distribution pattern and synovial oedema. Using 3D semi-automated software, the MR SPION signal was quantified. The efficacy of SPIONs and gadolinium chelate (Gd), an MR contrast agent, in illustrating treatment effects were compared. Those results were confirmed through histological measurements of number and area of macrophages and nanoparticle clusters using CD68 immunostaining and Prussian blue staining respectively. Results Results show that the pattern and the intensity of SPION-labeled macrophages on MRI were altered by Dexa treatment. While the Dexa group had a uniform elliptical line surrounding an oedema pocket, the untreated group showed a diffused SPION distribution on day 6 post-induction. Dexa reduced the intensity of SPION signal 50-60% on days 10 and 13 compared to controls (P?=?0.00008 and 0.002 respectively). Similar results were found when the signal was measured by the 3D tool. On day 13, the persisting low grade arthritis progression could not be demonstrated by Gd. Analysis of knee samples by Prussian blue and CD68 immunostaining confirmed in vivo SPION uptake by macrophages. Furthermore, CD68 immunostaining revealed that Dexa treatment significantly decreased the area and number of synovial macrophages. Prussian blue quantification corresponded to the macrophage measurements and both were in agreement with the MRI findings. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of MRI tracking of in vivo SPION-labeled macrophages to assess RA treatment effects. PMID:24957862

  7. Label-free electrical detection of pyrophosphate generated from DNA polymerase reactions on field-effect devices.

    PubMed

    Credo, Grace M; Su, Xing; Wu, Kai; Elibol, Oguz H; Liu, David J; Reddy, Bobby; Tsai, Ta-Wei; Dorvel, Brian R; Daniels, Jonathan S; Bashir, Rashid; Varma, Madoo

    2012-03-21

    We introduce a label-free approach for sensing polymerase reactions on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using a chelator-modified silicon-on-insulator field-effect transistor (SOI-FET) that exhibits selective and reversible electrical response to pyrophosphate anions. The chemical modification of the sensor surface was designed to include rolling-circle amplification (RCA) DNA colonies for locally enhanced pyrophosphate (PPi) signal generation and sensors with immobilized chelators for capture and surface-sensitive detection of diffusible reaction by-products. While detecting arrays of enzymatic base incorporation reactions is typically accomplished using optical fluorescence or chemiluminescence techniques, our results suggest that it is possible to develop scalable and portable PPi-specific sensors and platforms for broad biomedical applications such as DNA sequencing and microbe detection using surface-sensitive electrical readout techniques. PMID:22262038

  8. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  9. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    PubMed Central

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary T; Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah A

    2008-01-01

    Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. Results No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu). Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Conclusion Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change. PMID:19061510

  10. Calorie labeling and food choices: a first look at the effects on low-income people in New York City.

    PubMed

    Elbel, Brian; Kersh, Rogan; Brescoll, Victoria L; Dixon, L Beth

    2009-01-01

    We examined the influence of menu calorie labels on fast food choices in the wake of New York City's labeling mandate. Receipts and survey responses were collected from 1,156 adults at fast-food restaurants in low-income, minority New York communities. These were compared to a sample in Newark, New Jersey, a city that had not introduced menu labeling. We found that 27.7 percent who saw calorie labeling in New York said the information influenced their choices. However, we did not detect a change in calories purchased after the introduction of calorie labeling. We encourage more research on menu labeling and greater attention to evaluating and implementing other obesity-related policies. PMID:19808705

  11. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in March 2012, initiated by a joint NASA and USDA press release, and followed by a series of training webinars. Almost 60 early-adopter state and federal forest managers attended at least one of the ForWarn rollout webinars. The ForWarn home page has had 2,632 unique visitors since rollout in March 2012, with 39% returning visits. ForWarn was used to map tornado scars from the historic April 27, 2011 tornado outbreak, and detected timber damage within more than a dozen tornado tracks across northern Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. ForWarn is the result of an ongoing, substantive cooperation among four different government agencies: USDA, NASA, USGS, and DOE. Disturbance maps are available on the web through the ForWarn Change Assessment Viewer at http://forwarn.forestthreats.org/fcav.

  12. A survey of early warning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.D.; Arlowe, H.D.; Williams, J.D.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a survey of technologies useful in providing early warning in physical security systems. Early warning is important in virtually all types of security systems whether they are used for temporary (tactical, portable, or semi-permanent) applications, border warning, fixed-site detection, or standoff surveillance detection. With the exception of the standoff surveillance detection systems, all systems discussed in this paper usually involve a moving target. The fact that a person(s) to be detected in a standoff surveillance scenario is not moving presents challenging problems and requires different applications of technology. The technologies commonly used to detect moving targets and some suggestions for detection of stationary targets are addressed in this paper.

  13. Natural risk warning: comparison of two methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, A.; Giannoni, F.

    2005-05-01

    The Italian network of "Centri Funzionali" is now reaching operational status both in hydro-meteorological risk forecasting and support to the decision making of administrations that issue natural risk warning. Each centre operates for its district of influence. In order to have a nationwide common standard the National Civil Protection Department proposed a quantitative warning methodology based on the definition of rainfall thresholds correlated to historical damages. In the first phase the thresholds have been defined using two studies that cover all Italy: the VAPI (statistics of extreme rainfall and discharges, see reference) and the AVI (database of historical flood and landslide events and reported damages, see reference). This work presents one year back analysis that compares the new methodology and the one that has been usied since 2000 by the Liguria Region Meteorological Centre with regard to flood warning, pinpointing the performance differences in terms of false and missed alerts.

  14. Stable carbon isotope labeling reveals different carry-over effects between functional types of tropical trees in an Ethiopian mountain forest.

    PubMed

    Krepkowski, Julia; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Shibistova, Olga; Bräuning, Achim

    2013-07-01

    We present an intra-annual stable carbon isotope (?(13)C) study based on a labeling experiment to illustrate differences in temporal patterns of recent carbon allocation to wood structures of two functional types of trees, Podocarpus falcatus (a late-successional evergreen conifer) and Croton macrostachyus (a deciduous broadleaved pioneer tree), in a tropical mountain forest in Ethiopia. Dendrometer data, wood anatomical thin sections, and intra-annual ?(13)C analyses were applied. Isotope data revealed a clear annual growth pattern in both studied species. For P. falcatus, it was possible to synchronize annual ?(13) C peaks, wood anatomical structures and monthly precipitation patterns. The labeling signature was evident for three consecutive years. For C. macrostachyus, isotope data illustrate a rapid decline of the labeling signal within half a year. Our ?(13)C labeling study indicates a distinct difference in carryover effects between trees of different functional types. A proportion of the labeled ?(13)C is stored in reserves of wood parenchyma for up to 3 yr in P. falcatus. By contrast, C. macrostachyus shows a high turnover of assimilates and a carbon carryover effect is only detectable in the subsequent year. PMID:23586968

  15. 76 FR 63303 - Guidance for Industry on Warnings and Precautions, Contraindications, and Boxed Warning Sections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...and format of the ``Adverse Reactions'' and ``Clinical Studies'' sections of labeling. In the Federal...draft guidance on the content and format of the ``Clinical Pharmacology'' section of labeling. The new labeling...

  16. Warning: accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.; Rosen, I.

    1982-01-01

    A reporter and an engineer reconstruct the events leading up to and following the March, 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island Reactor Number Two. They begin with the compromises and work pace required in designing, siting, and building a nuclear reactor and the warnings from incidents involving other reactors. The authors give a chronological report of the events and responses during the days following the accident. They view Three Mile Island as a warning that all the safety systems may not work in a future accident. 7 figures. (DCK)

  17. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1996-12-31

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  18. Integrating automobile multiple intelligent warning systems : performance and policy implications

    E-print Network

    Ho, Angela Wei Ling

    2006-01-01

    Intelligent driver warning systems can be found in many high-end vehicles on the road today, which will likely rapidly increase as they become standard equipment. However, introducing multiple warning systems into vehicles ...

  19. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  20. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  2. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  3. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  4. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  7. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  8. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  9. Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Clear Air Force Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ballistic Missile Early Warning System - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  11. 47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

  12. 47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

  13. Missile Warning Operations Center (MWOC) Beale Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Missile Warning Operations Center (MWOC) - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  14. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning...

  19. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Construction and Design Requirements § 27.23 Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably...

  20. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Construction and Design Requirements § 27.23 Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably...

  1. 46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards...

  2. Effect of intratumoral administration on biodistribution of 64Cu-labeled nanoshells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huan; Goins, Beth; Bao, Ande; Wang, Zheng Jim; Phillips, William T

    2012-01-01

    Background Gold nanoshells are excellent agents for photothermal ablation cancer therapy and are currently under clinical trial for solid tumors. Previous studies showed that passive delivery of gold nanoshells through intravenous administration resulted in limited tumor accumulation, which represents a major challenge for this therapy. In this report, the impact of direct intratumoral administration on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the nanoshells was systematically investigated. Methods The gold nanoshells were labeled with the radionuclide, copper-64 (64Cu). Intratumoral infusion of 64Cu-nanoshells and two controls, ie, 64Cu-DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazaciclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) and 64Cu-DOTA-PEG (polyethylene glycol), as well as intravenous injection of 64Cu-nanoshells were performed in nude rats, each with a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft. The pharmacokinetics was determined by radioactive counting of serial blood samples collected from the rats at different time points post-injection. Using positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, the in vivo distribution of 64Cu-nanoshells and the controls was monitored at various time points after injection. Organ biodistribution in the rats at 46 hours was analyzed by radioactive counting and compared between the different groups. Results The resulting pharmacokinetic curves indicated a similar trend between the intratumorally injected agents, but a significant difference with the intravenously injected 64Cu-nanoshells. Positron emission tomography images and organ biodistribution results on rats after intratumoral administration showed higher retention of 64Cu-nanoshells in tumors and less concentration in other healthy organs, with a significant difference from the controls. It was also found that, compared with intravenous injection, tumor concentrations of 64Cu-nanoshells improved substantially and were stable at 44 hours post-injection. Conclusion There was a higher intratumoral retention of 64Cu-nanoshells and a lower concentration in other healthy tissues, suggesting that intratumoral administration is a potentially better approach for nanoshell-based photothermal therapy. PMID:22619558

  3. [Effect of salvin on the incorporation of labeled precursors into macromolecular compounds of Staphylococcus aureus 209P].

    PubMed

    Pavlenko, L V; Mashkovski?, N N; Smirnov, V V

    1989-08-01

    Salvin is a preparation of Salvia officinalis L. Its effect on synthesis of macromolecules in cells of Staphylococcus aureus 209P was studied with labeled precursors in a system used for investigation of peptidoglycan synthesis. At a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml salvin inhibited incorporation of 14C-lysine into the cell wall polymer and protein fraction by 42.9 and 8.9 per cent respectively and stimulated incorporation of 3H-thymidine and 3H-uridine into the nucleic acid fraction. In the presence of salvin in a quantity of 120 micrograms/ml there was observed inhibition of 3H-uridine incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction by 53.3 per cent and 14C-lysine into the protein fraction by 74.5 per cent along with inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis by 95.5 per cent. The results conformed to the findings of electron microscopic investigation of the solving effect on ultrastructure of S. aureus 209P. They confirmed the previous assumption that salvin had the primary effect on the processes directly associated with synthesis of the cell wall polymer. PMID:2480082

  4. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  5. High sensitive circular Hall Effect sensor for magnetic bead labeled immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bowei Zhang; C. E. Korman; M. E. Zaghloul

    2010-01-01

    A novel circular shape CMOS Hall Effect sensor design is proposed in this paper. Compared with traditional rectangular shape Hall Effect sensor, the proposed design can improve the sensitivity significantly. By implementing this sensor design with readout circuit, amplifier and DSP circuit in a CMOS chip, the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) can be replaced by a lower cost, more portable

  6. The Effect of Gestural Facilitation on the Acquisition of Noun-Verb Labeling Responses with Severely Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Pieter C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Verbal training and verbal training plus gestures resulted in acquisition of noun-verb labeling responses in three severely retarded Ss (5-23 years old). The procedures did not differentially influence percentage of correct verbal labeling responses. The finding that gestural responses were shown across all conditions was discussed in terms of…

  7. Calorie Labeling And Food Choices: A First Look At The Effects On Low-Income People In New York City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Elbel; R. Kersh; V. L. Brescoll; L. B. Dixon

    2009-01-01

    Calorie information on menus appears to increase awareness of calorie content, but not necessarily the number of calories people purchase. by Brian Elbel, Rogan Kersh, Victoria L. Brescoll, and L. Beth Dixon ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of menu calorie labels on fast food choices in the wake of New York City's labeling mandate. Receipts and survey responses were collected

  8. Looming sounds as warning signals: the function of motion cues.

    PubMed

    Bach, Dominik R; Neuhoff, John G; Perrig, Walter; Seifritz, Erich

    2009-10-01

    Sounds with increasing intensity can act as intrinsic warning cues by signalling that the sound source is approaching. However, intensity change is not always the dominant motion cue to a moving sound, and the effects of simple rising intensity sounds versus sounds with full three dimensional motion cues have not yet been directly compared. Here, we examined skin conductance responses, phasic alertness, and perceptual and explicit emotional ratings in response to approaching and receding sounds characterised either by full motion cues or by intensity change only. We found a stronger approach/recede effect in sounds with full motion cues for skin conductance response amplitude, suggesting sustained mobilisation of resources due to their greater saliency. Otherwise, the approach/recede effect was comparable in sounds with and without full motion cues. Overall, approaching sounds elicited greater skin conductance responses and phasic alertness, and loudness change was estimated higher. Also, they were rated as more unpleasant, potent, arousing and intense, and the probability of such sounds to signal a salient event or threat was rated higher. Several of these effects were modulated by sex. In summary, this study supports the suggestion that intensity change is the dominant motion cue mediating the effects of approaching sound sources, thus clarifying the interpretation of previous studies using such stimuli. Explicit emotional appraisal of such sounds shows a strong directional asymmetry and thus may reflect their implicit warning properties. PMID:19615414

  9. Evaluation of the effects of antibiotics on cytotoxicity of EGFP and DsRed2 fluorescent proteins used for stable cell labeling.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Samluk, Anna; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz; Pijanowska, Dorota Genowefa

    2014-01-01

    The use of fluorescent markers has proven to be an attractive tool in biological imaging. However, its usefulness may be confined by the cytotoxicity of the fluorescent proteins. In this article, for the first time, we have examined an influence of the antibiotics present in culture medium on cytotoxicity of the EGFP and DsRed2 markers used for whole-cell labeling. Results showed that doxycycline negatively affected albumin synthesis in DsRed2-expressing hepatoma cells, and that both hepatoma cells and human skin fibroblasts, labeled with this protein, were characterized by the lowered growth rates. Thus, the cytotoxic effect of fluorescent markers depends on both protein used for cell labeling and on growth conditions that may cause cell stress. PMID:25379570

  10. 14 CFR 91.223 - Terrain awareness and warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system. 91.223 Section...Certificate Requirements § 91.223 Terrain awareness and warning system. (a) Airplanes...is equipped with an approved terrain awareness and warning system that as a...

  11. 14 CFR 91.223 - Terrain awareness and warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system. 91.223 Section...Certificate Requirements § 91.223 Terrain awareness and warning system. (a) Airplanes...is equipped with an approved terrain awareness and warning system that as a...

  12. 14 CFR 91.223 - Terrain awareness and warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system. 91.223 Section...Certificate Requirements § 91.223 Terrain awareness and warning system. (a) Airplanes...is equipped with an approved terrain awareness and warning system that as a...

  13. 14 CFR 91.223 - Terrain awareness and warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system. 91.223 Section...Certificate Requirements § 91.223 Terrain awareness and warning system. (a) Airplanes...is equipped with an approved terrain awareness and warning system that as a...

  14. 14 CFR 91.223 - Terrain awareness and warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system. 91.223 Section...Certificate Requirements § 91.223 Terrain awareness and warning system. (a) Airplanes...is equipped with an approved terrain awareness and warning system that as a...

  15. 49 CFR 218.73 - Warning signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning signal display. 218.73 Section 218.73 Transportation...Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.73 Warning signal display. (a) Warning signals, i.e., a white disk with the words...

  16. 49 CFR 218.73 - Warning signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signal display. 218.73 Section 218.73 Transportation...Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.73 Warning signal display. (a) Warning signals, i.e., a white disk with the words...

  17. 49 CFR 218.73 - Warning signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning signal display. 218.73 Section 218.73 Transportation...Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.73 Warning signal display. (a) Warning signals, i.e., a white disk with the words...

  18. 49 CFR 218.73 - Warning signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning signal display. 218.73 Section 218.73 Transportation...Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.73 Warning signal display. (a) Warning signals, i.e., a white disk with the words...

  19. 49 CFR 218.73 - Warning signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning signal display. 218.73 Section 218.73 Transportation...Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.73 Warning signal display. (a) Warning signals, i.e., a white disk with the words...

  20. Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings -an exploration

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings - an exploration H. Bloemink De Bilt, 2013 | Internal report; IR 2013-01 #12;#12;Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings - an exploration Version 1.0 Date January 2013 Status Final #12;#12;Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings

  1. ONE-WAY FIRE WARNING ALARM SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH E. HJELMSTAD; MARK A. ACKERSON

    Abstract - An ideal,fire,warning,alarm,system,for underground mines would be low cost, convenient, fast, re1 iable, and able to warn all underground workers. Present warning systems, such as phones, messengers, and stench, fail one or more of these criteria. The U.S. Bureau,of Mines may,have,devised,the,i deal

  2. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NEBINE, MUNGALLALA AND WALLAM CREEKS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    Services in the local area. Internet/World Wide Web Flood Warnings, River Height Bulletins and otherFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NEBINE, MUNGALLALA AND WALLAM CREEKS This brochure describes the flood and Nebine Creeks . It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings

  3. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances...Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures...Sites § 57.9306 Warning devices for restricted clearances...creates a hazard to persons on mobile equipment, warning devices shall be installed in...

  4. 30 CFR 56.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances...Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures...Sites § 56.9306 Warning devices for restricted clearances...creates a hazard to persons on mobile equipment, warning devices shall be installed in...

  5. Electrical Distribution System (EDS) and Caution and Warning System (CWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, T.

    1975-01-01

    An astronaut caution and warning system is described which monitors various life support system parameters and detects out-of-range parameter conditions. The warning system generates a warning tone and displays the malfunction condition to the astronaut along with the proper corrective procedures required.

  6. 21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

  7. 21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

  8. 21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

  9. 21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

  10. 21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

  11. Early-warning Mechanism of Food Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunwu Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Necessity of establishing the early-warning mechanism of food security is introduced, which is mainly shown in five aspects. First is the particularity of China's national and food condition: China has large population and immense consumption base. Once food insecurity occurs in an all-round way, China could not buy all the food needed from the international market. The second aspect is

  12. Tracking Defect Warnings Across Versions Jaime Spacco

    E-print Network

    Hovemeyer, David H.

    static analysis tool to find bugs in Java programs) for tracking defects across versions, discuss work on the FindBugs static analysis tool [5, 3] we have implemented techniques and tools for trackingTracking Defect Warnings Across Versions Jaime Spacco£ , David HovemeyerÝ , William Pugh£ £ Dept

  13. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Flaherty; Daniel Pritchett; Brian Cothren; James Schwaiger

    2011-01-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW

  14. Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich

    E-print Network

    Heinrich, Mark

    Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich School of EECS University of Central Florida Orlando Ithaca, NY 14853 Email: mainak@csl.cornell.edu Abstract-- Ocean is a popular program from the SPLASH-2 parallel benchmark suite. A complete application, as opposed to a computational kernel, Ocean is often used

  15. DRUG ABUSE WARNING NETWORK (DAWN) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is an ongoing drug abuse data collection system sponsored by SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies. DAWN collects data from: (1) hospital emergency departments (EDs) and (2) medical examiners (MEs). The DAWN ED component relies on a nationally r...

  16. Monitoring and Early Warning for Internet Worms

    E-print Network

    Xu, Shouhuai

    1 Monitoring and Early Warning for Internet Worms Cliff C. Zou, Lixin Gao, Weibo Gong, Don Towsley Technical Report: TR-CSE-03-01 Abstract After the Code Red incident in 2001 and the recent SQL worm in January 2003, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet

  17. Warning: accident at Three Mile Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gray; I. Rosen

    1982-01-01

    A reporter and an engineer reconstruct the events leading up to and following the March, 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island Reactor Number Two. They begin with the compromises and work pace required in designing, siting, and building a nuclear reactor and the warnings from incidents involving other reactors. The authors give a chronological report of the events and

  18. Adaptive brake warning system for automobiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Thammakaroon; P. Tangamchit

    2008-01-01

    We present an adaptive brake warning system in order to help a driver keep a safe distance from the cars in front to avoid rear-end collisions. The safe distance continuously varies according to the carpsilas velocity, driving events, and road conditions. Three sensors, an ECU reader, a camera, and a laser range finder, are used to collect the vehicular velocity,

  19. Effect of freezing conditions on distances and their distributions derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): A study of doubly-spin-labeled T4 lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Elka R.; Roy, Aritro S.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Borbat, Petr P.; Earle, Keith A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Freed, Jack H.

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (?100 ?s) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1 s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions.

  20. Effect of Freezing Conditions on Distances and Their Distributions Derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): A Study of Doubly-Spin-Labeled T4 Lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Elka R.; Roy, Aritro S.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Borbat, Petr P.; Earle, Keith A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Freed, Jack H.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (?100 ?s) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions. PMID:22341208

  1. Reproducibility of multiphase pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and the effect of post-processing analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Fazlollahi, Amir; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Liang, Xiaoyun; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Connelly, Alan; Salvado, Olivier; Calamante, Fernando

    2015-08-15

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an emerging MRI technique for non-invasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Compared to invasive perfusion imaging modalities, ASL suffers from low sensitivity due to poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), susceptibility to motion artifacts and low spatial resolution, all of which limit its reliability. In this work, the effects of various state of the art image processing techniques for addressing these ASL limitations are investigated. A processing pipeline consisting of motion correction, ASL motion correction imprecision removal, temporal and spatial filtering, partial volume effect correction, and CBF quantification was developed and assessed. To further improve the SNR for pseudo-continuous ASL (PCASL) by accounting for errors in tagging efficiency, the data from multiphase (MP) acquisitions were analyzed using a novel weighted-averaging scheme. The performances of each step in terms of SNR and reproducibility were evaluated using test-retest ASL data acquired from 12 young healthy subjects. The proposed processing pipeline was shown to improve the within-subject coefficient of variation and regional reproducibility by 17% and 16%, respectively, compared to CBF maps computed following motion correction but without the other processing steps. The CBF measurements of MP-PCASL compared to PCASL had on average 23% and 10% higher SNR and reproducibility, respectively. PMID:26026814

  2. Clinical Assessment of the Effect of Tetrabenazine on Functional Scales in Huntington Disease: A Pilot Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Robert; Davidson, Anthony; Jankovic, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background Tetrabenazine is a monoamine depleter with a well-documented effect against chorea associated with Huntington disease (HD). There is a paucity of data about how reduction in chorea relates to better performance on motor, gait, cognitive, and psychiatric assessments. Methods We designed an open label tetrabenazine withdrawal study to test performance using validated scales. The following instruments were used to assess cognitive, behavioral, and motor function in 10 patients with documented HD: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Beck Depression Inventory II, Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), Jebsen Hand Test, Timed 25-foot walk, Berg Balance Test (BBT), QuickDASH, and the Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) Motor, Stroop Color Word, Behavioral Assessment, Functional Checklist, and Independence Scale. Results Subjects performed significantly better while on tetrabenazine as measured by the DGI (p?=?0.041), BBT (p?=?0.007), and the UHDRS Total Motor (p?=?0.009), Maximum Chorea (p?=?0.005), and Stroop Color-Word tests (p?=?0.028). Discussion This pilot study demonstrates tetrabenazine's potential effects beyond improvement in chorea. PMID:23439575

  3. Necessity of Flood Early Warning Systems in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, C.; Natesan, U.; Durga Rao, K. H. V.

    2014-12-01

    India is one of the highly flood prone countries in the world. National flood commission has reported that 400,000 km² of geographical area is prone to floods, constituting to twelve percent of the country's geographical area. Despite the reoccurrences of floods, India still does not have a proper flood warning system. Probably this can be attributed to the lack of trained personnel in using advanced techniques. Frequent flood hazards results in damage to livelihood, infrastructure and public utilities. India has a potential to develop an early warning system since it is one of the few countries where satellite based inputs are regularly used for monitoring and mitigating floods. However, modeling of flood extent is difficult due to the complexity of hydraulic and hydrologic processes during flood events. It has been reported that numerical methods of simulations can be effectively used to simulate the processes correctly. Progress in computational resources, data collection and development of several numerical codes has enhanced the use of hydrodynamic modeling approaches to simulate the flood extent in the floodplains. In this study an attempt is made to simulate the flood in one of the sub basins of Godavari River in India using hydrodynamic modeling techniques. The modeling environment includes MIKE software, which simulates the water depth at every grid cell of the study area. The runoff contribution from the catchment was calculated using Nebdor Afstromnings model. With the hydrodynamic modeling approach, accuracy in discharge and water level computations are improved compared to the conventional methods. The results of the study are proming to develop effective flood management plans in the basin. Similar studies could be taken up in other flood prone areas of the country for continuous modernisation of flood forecasting techniques, early warning systems and strengthening decision support systems, which will help the policy makers in developing management plans and policies.

  4. A SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE OF WARN ON FORECAST: IDEAL TORNADO WARNING LEAD TIME AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC'S PERCEPTIONS OF WEATHER RISKS

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    A SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE OF WARN ON FORECAST: IDEAL TORNADO WARNING LEAD TIME AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC. They seemed to be familiar with tornado seasons, however, they were not aware of the relative number to pinpoint the ideal tornado warning lead-time for the general public, which was found to be 33.5 minutes

  5. Flood warnings, flood disaster assessments, and flood hazard reduction: the roles of orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Anderson, E.; Nghiem, S. V.; Caquard, S.; Shabaneh, T. B.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital remote sensing of the Earth is now poised to make three fundamental contributions towards reducing the detrimental effects of extreme floods. Effective Flood warning requires frequent radar observation of the Earth's surface through cloud cover. In contrast, both optical and radar wavelengths will increasingly be used for disaster assessment and hazard reduction.

  6. Effects of labeling and interpersonal contact upon attitudes towards schizophrenia: implications for reducing mental illness stigma in urban China

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Graciete; WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J.; Singla, Daisy R.; Link, Bruce G.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As mental illness stigma contributes to poor outcomes for schizophrenia in China, locating strategies to reduce public stigma is imperative. It is currently unknown whether diagnostic labeling and contact with different help-seeking sources increase or decrease public stigma in China. Further, it remains unresolved whether prior personal contact acts to reduce stigma in this context. Advancing understanding of these processes may facilitate stigma-reduction strategies. Methods We administered an experimental vignette randomly assigning one of four labeling conditions to respondents to assess social distance towards a psychotic vignette individual in a sample of 160 Northern, urban Chinese community respondents. Results As expected, respondents given a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition endorsed the least social distance. Unexpectedly, the labeling condition with a “psychiatric diagnostic label” + “lay help-seeking” condition elicited the greatest social distance. Unlike Western studies, personal contact did not independently decrease community stigma. However, prior contact reduced social distance to a greater extent in the labeling condition with a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition when compared with all other labeling conditions. Conclusion The results indicate that cultural idioms do provide some protection from stigma, but only among respondents who are already familiar with what mental illness is. Our finding that the condition that depicted untreated psychosis elicited the greatest amount of stigma, while the “treated psychosis” condition was viewed relatively benignly in China, suggests that improved access to mental health services in urban China has the potential to decrease public stigma via labeling mechanisms. PMID:22075964

  7. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Star; Eugene Tu; Joseph Niemann; Jean-Christophe P. Gabriel; C. Steve Joiner; Christian Valcke

    2006-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on the transport of spin-labeled compounds across the erythrocyte membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gwo?dzi?ski; G. Bartosz; W. Leyko

    1981-01-01

    Summary The effect of ionizing radiation on the non-electrolyte, anion and cation permeability of the erythrocyte membrane was studied by measurement of the reduction rate of appropriate nitroxyl derivatives. Irradiation of bovine erythrocytes in the dose-range of 2–50 krad resulted in a regular dose-dependent increase in the reduction rates of a cation (TEMPO-choline) and a hydrophobic non-electrolyte (TEMPO), and non-regular

  9. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  10. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do experience and information influence responses to alert services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and behavioural patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence on Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in-depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via short message service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated as well as flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for implementation. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  11. HRAS: a webserver for early warning of human health risk brought by aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifeng; Zeng, Xu; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Qian; Liu, Zhihua

    2013-02-01

    Most people are aware that outdoor air pollution can damage their health, but many do not know that indoor air pollution can also exhibit significant negative health effects. Fungi parasitizing in air conditioning and ventilation systems can be one of indoor air pollution sources. Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) became a central focus of indoor air pollution, especially in farmer markets. Therefore we developed an early warning system, Health Risk Assessment System, to estimate the growth rate of A. flavus, predict the amount of aflatoxin and provide early warning information. Firstly, the growth of A. flavus and the production of aflatoxin under different conditions were widely obtained through a comprehensive literature review. Secondly, three mathematical models were established to predict the A. flavus colony growth rate, lag phase duration and aflatoxin content, as functions of temperature and water activity based on present studies. Finally, all the results were evaluated by the user-supplied data using PHP programming language. We utilized the web page to show the results and display warning information. The JpGraph library was used to create a dynamic line chart, refreshing the warning information dynamically in real-time. The HARS provides accurate information for early warning purposes to let us take timely steps to protect ourselves. PMID:23076528

  12. Accuracy of pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in the human brain : tag width and timing effects

    E-print Network

    Bolar, Divya Sanam

    2007-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is the only non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that allows absolute quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF). It involves using radiofrequency pulses designed to invert ...

  13. The Effects of Mandatory Country-of-Origin Labeling on Canadian/U.S. Live Hog and Feeder Pig Trade 

    E-print Network

    Thevenaz, Shad Arthur Michel

    2012-02-14

    The final implementation of Mandatory Country-of-Origin Labeling has caused some U.S. packing plants and finishing operations to discontinue using Canadian live hogs and feeder pigs in their operations thereby reducing trade. Using a system...

  14. The Effects of Mandatory Country-of-Origin Labeling on Canadian/U.S. Live Hog and Feeder Pig Trade

    E-print Network

    Thevenaz, Shad Arthur Michel

    2012-02-14

    The final implementation of Mandatory Country-of-Origin Labeling has caused some U.S. packing plants and finishing operations to discontinue using Canadian live hogs and feeder pigs in their operations thereby reducing trade. Using a system...

  15. Tobacco health warnings in China

    E-print Network

    WHO International

    2014-01-01

    old; bottom = new) CIGARETTES CAUSE LUNG CANCER: 85% of lungcigarette smoking causes specific health effects, by wave (4) Lung cancerlung cancer, heart disease, stroke, emphysema) that are known to be caused by cigarette

  16. Efficient Utilization of the Expanded Criteria Donor (ECD) Deceased Donor Kidney Pool: An Analysis of the Effect of Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Richard A.; Pan, Qing; Schaubel, Douglas E.; Merion, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the expanded criteria donor (ECD) label on (i) recovery of kidneys and (ii) acceptance for transplantation given recovery. An ECD is age ? 60, or age 50–59 with ? 2 of 3 specified comorbidities. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from 1999 to 2005, we modeled recovery rates through linear regression and transplantation probabilities via logistic regression, focusing on organs from donors just-younger versus just-older than the ECD age thresholds. We split the sample at July 1, 2002 to determine how decisions changed at the approximate time of implementation of the ECD definition. Before July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities dropped at age 60, but transplantation probabilities given recovery did not. After July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities rose at age 60, but transplantation probabilities contingent on recovery declined. No similar trends were observed at donor age 50 among donors with ? 2 comorbidities. Overall, implementation of the ECD definition coincided with a reversal of an apparent reluctance to recover kidneys from donors over age 59, but increased selectiveness on the part of surgeons/centers with respect to these kidneys. PMID:20055795

  17. Cytotoxicity of alpha-particle-emitting astatine-211-labelled antibody in tumour spheroids: no effect of hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, M. L.; Larsen, R. H.; Welsh, P. C.; Zalutsky, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    The high linear energy transfer, alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) is of interest for certain therapeutic applications; however, because of the 55- to 70-microm path length of its alpha-particles, achieving homogeneous tracer distribution is critical. Hyperthermia may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-particle endoradiotherapy if it can improve tracer distribution. In this study, we have investigated whether hyperthermia increased the cytotoxicity of an 211At-labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) in tumour spheroids with a radius (approximately 100 microm) greater than the range of 211At alpha-particles. Hyperthermia for 1 h at 42 degrees C was used because this treatment itself resulted in no regrowth delay. Radiolabelled chimeric MAb 81C6 reactive with the extracellular matrix antigen tenascin was added to spheroids grown from the D-247 MG human glioma cell line at activity concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 250 kBq ml(-1). A significant regrowth delay was observed at 125 and 250 kBq ml(-1) in both hyperthermia-treated and untreated spheroids. For groups receiving hyperthermia, no increase in cytotoxicity was seen compared with normothermic controls at any activity concentration. These results and those from autoradiographs indicate that hyperthermia at 42 degrees C for 1 h had no significant effect on the uptake or distribution of this antitenascin MAb in D-247 MG spheroids. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9514054

  18. Effects of dopamine concentration on energy transfer between dendrimer-QD and dye-labeled antibody.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Rahm; Kang, Ik-Joong

    2009-07-01

    The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is currently used to assess Parkinson's disease, and is a key method for determining the progression of disease based on the gross findings of patients. However, this method cannot quantify the extent of disease of patients, which means the administration of drugs cannot be determined on a real-time basis. Thalamotomy also causes discomfort and pain to the patients, and adversely affects treatment as it is performed following the onset of symptoms. Accordingly, the dopamine concentration, which is one of the key factors in determining this disease, needs to be detected quantitatively at ordinary times. Hence, the development of a bio-kit or a bio-sensor is essential for effectively prescribing the correct dopamine concentration in a customizable manner. In this study, the effect of dopamine level on this phenomenon was observed using the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) phenomenon generated between a donor and acceptor. By confirming the photoluminescence (PL) and lifetime data, it was demonstrated that the degree of energy transfer increased with increasing dopamine concentration. To apply this phenomenon to an optical sensor, a glass surface was modified with a quantum dot (QD)-encapsulated dendrimer, and analyzed using the contact angle and ATR-FTIR. The topology of surface was determined by an atomic force microscope (AFM). PMID:19359098

  19. Indium111-labeled leukocyte scan in detection of synthetic vascular graft infection: The effect of antibiotic treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Chung; O. A. Hicklin; J. M. Payan; L. Gordon

    1991-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the indium-111-(¹¹¹In) labeled leukocyte scan for prosthetic vascular graft infection in patients treated with antibiotic therapy, a retrospective study was performed. Of 41 consecutive ¹¹¹In-labeled leukocyte scans performed to evaluate possible vascular graft infection, 23 scans were performed in patients treated with antibiotics. The average duration of antibiotic therapy was 21 days. Twelve

  20. Empirical analysis on the correlation between GCC compiler warnings and revision numbers of source files in five industrial software projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimund Moser; Barbara Russo; Giancarlo Succi

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses whether using warnings generated by the GNU C++ compiler can be used effectively to identify source\\u000a code files that are likely to be error prone. We analyze five industrial projects written in C++ and belonging to the telecommunication\\u000a domain. We find a significant positive correlation between the number of compiler warnings and the number of source files

  1. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. PMID:25218457

  2. Warning communication and hydraulic risk perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntfest, E.; Caporali, E.

    2003-04-01

    In disaster management scientists must transmit their results to large groups of recipients, including decision makers and the mass media who often are not familiar with the language of science. The importance of the promotion of the hydrologic risk perception of the user communities is that many events have short lead times and high levels of uncertainty. Natural hazard mitigation processes are complex and demand several perspectives. While the rhetoric calls for extensive collaboration between disciplines, the gap between theory and practice is large, particularly in the U.S. This paper highlights results from case studies of collaborative flood warning research in Europe and in USA. Case studies on warning systems from Italy and the U.S. are included.

  3. Effect of Chelators on the Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Labeled Imaging Agents for the Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Foss, Catherine A.; Falk, Alexander; Byun, Youngjoo; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    Technetium-99m, the most commonly used radionuclide in nuclear medicine, can be attached to biologically important molecules through a variety of chelating agents, the choice of which depends upon the imaging application. The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is increasingly recognized as an important target for imaging and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). Three different 99mTc-labeling methods were employed to investigate the effect of the chelator on the biodistribution and PCa tumor uptake profiles of 12 new urea based PSMA-targeted radiotracers. This series includes hydrophilic ligands for radiolabeling with the [99mTc(CO)3]+ core (L8-10), traditional NxSy-based chelating agents with varying charge and polarity for the 99mTc-oxo core (L11-18), and a 99mTc-organohydrazine-labeled radioligand (L19). 99mTc(I)-Tricarbonyl-labeled [99mTc]L8 produced the highest PSMA+ PC3 PIP to PSMA? PC3 flu tumor ratios, and demonstrated the lowest retention in normal tissues including kidney after 2 h. These results suggest that choice of chelator is an important pharmacokinetic consideration in the development of 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals targeting PSMA. PMID:23799782

  4. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  5. Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology

    SciTech Connect

    Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

  6. Early Warning and Crop Condition Assessment Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Biatwright; Victor Whitehead

    1986-01-01

    The Early Warning Crop Condition Assessment Project of AgRISTARS was a multiagency and multidisciplinary effort. Its mission and objectives were centered around development and testing of remote-sensing techniques that enhance operational methodologies for global crop-condition assessments. The project developed crop stress indicator models that provide data filter and alert capabilities for monitoring global agricultural conditions. The project developed a technique

  7. AMINO ACID SYNTHESIS IN PHOTO-SYNTHESIZING SPINACH CELLS. EFFECTS OF AMMONIA ON POOL SIZES AND RATES OF LABELING FROM {sup 14}CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peder Olesen; Cornwell, Karen L.; Gee, Sherry L.; Bassham, James A.

    1980-10-01

    Isolated cells from leaves of Spinacea oleracea have been maintained in a state capable of high rates of photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation for more than 60 h. The incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} under saturating CO{sub 2} conditions into carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids, and the effect of ammonia on this incorporation have been studied. Total incorporation, specific radioactivity and pool size have been determined as a function of time for most of the protein amino acids and for {gamma}-aminobutyric acid. the measurements of specific activities and of the approaches to {sup 14}C "saturation" of some amino acids indicate the presence and relative sizes of metabolically active and passive pools of these amino acids. Added ammonia decreased carbon fixation into carbohydrates and increased fixation into carboxylic acids and amino acids. Different amino acids were, however, affected in different and highly specific ways. Ammonia caused large stimulatory effects in incorporation of {sup 14}C into glutamine (a factor of 16), No effect or slight decreases were seen in glycine, serine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine labeling, In.the case of glutamate, {sup 14}C-labeling decreased, but specific activity increased. The production of labeled {gamma}-aminobutyric acid was virtually stopped by ammonia. The results indicate that added ammonia stimulates the reactions mediated by pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, as seen with other plant systems. The data on the effects of added ammonia on total labeling, pool sizes, and specific activities of several amino acids provides a number of indications about the intracellular sites of principal synthesis from carbon skeletons of these amino acids and the selective nature of effects of increased intracellular ammonia concentration on such synthesis.

  8. Effects of atorvastatin 10 mg/d on insulin resistance: A 12-week, open-label study in hyperlipidemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Özerkan, Filiz; Özdogan, Öner; Zoghi, Mehdi; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Yavuzgil, O?uz; Remzi Önder, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In addition to their cholesterol-lowering effects, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (“statins”) might have pleiotropic, nonlipid effects. Insulin resistance syndrome is known to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of statins on insulin resistance are a subject of controversy. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on insulin resistance in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: This 12-week, prospective, nonrandomized, open-label study was conducted at the outpatient cardiology clinic, Ege University Medical School, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey. Hyperlipidemic patients aged ?18 years with insulin resistance and no other components of the metabolic syndrome were included in the study. Atorvastatin 10 mg QD (after the evening meal) was administered by mouth (tablet) over a 12-week period. At baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment, insulin sensitivity was assessed using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index methodology. Serum lipid parameters and fasting levels of plasma glucose and insulin (FPG and FPI, respectively) were measured at the same 2 time points. The tolerability of atorvastatin was assessed using laboratory analysis and physical examination, including vital sign measurements. Results: Fifteen white patients (9 women, 6 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [8] years) participated in the study. No significant changes in HOMA index were found (mean [SD], 3.1 [1.5] vs 3.2 [1.9]). The lipid profile was improved significantly at 12 weeks compared with baseline (mean [SD] low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 173.2 [21.3] vs 110.8 [43.6] mg/dL; total cholesterol, 270.9 [21.5] vs 201.2 [46.7] mg/dL; and triglycerides, 269.5 [46.3] vs 205.5 [49.3] mg/dL; all, P < 0.001). No significant change in mean (SD) plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (45.5 [6.6] vs 43.7 [8.1] mg/dL) was found. In addition, no significant changes in FPG (85.3 [12.71 vs 84.8 [10.4] mg/dL), or FPI (13.5 [9.7] vs 13.9 [10.1] ?U/mL) were found. None of the patients required withdrawal of medication due to an adverse event. Conclusion: In this pilot study in hyperlipidemic patients with insulin resistance, 12 weeks of treatment with atorvastatin 10 mg QD was effective in controlling hyperlipidemia but did not reduce the severity of insulin resistance. PMID:24678082

  9. Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future studies and improvements, enabling the integration of lateral variations of the solid earth, bathymetry or atmosphere, finite model sources, non-linearity of the waves and better attenuation and coupling processes. All these effects are revealed by phase or amplitude discrepancies in selected observations. We then present goals and first results of source inversions, with a focus on estimations of the sea level uplift location and amplitude, either by using GPS networks close from the epicentre or, for tsunamis, GPS of the Hawaii Islands.

  10. Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  11. Advanced Caution and Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Robinson, Peter I.; Liolios, Sotirios; Lee, Charles; Ossenfort, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The current focus of ACAWS is on the needs of the flight controllers. The onboard crew in low-Earth orbit has some of those same needs. Moreover, for future deep-space missions, the crew will need to accomplish many tasks autonomously due to communication time delays. Although we are focusing on flight controller needs, ACAWS technologies can be reused for on-board application, perhaps with a different level of detail and different display formats or interaction methods. We expect that providing similar tools to the flight controllers and the crew could enable more effective and efficient collaboration as well as heightened situational awareness.

  12. Category-contingent face adaptation for novel colour categories: Contingent effects are seen only after social or meaningful labelling.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2011-01-01

    A face appears normal when it approximates the average of a population. Consequently, exposure to faces biases perceptions of subsequently viewed faces such that faces similar to those recently seen are perceived as more normal. Simultaneously inducing such aftereffects in opposite directions for two groups of faces indicates somewhat discrete representations for those groups. Here we examine how labelling influences the perception of category in faces differing in colour. We show category-contingent aftereffects following exposure to faces differing in eye spacing (wide versus narrow) for blue versus red faces when such groups are consistently labelled with socially meaningful labels (Extravert versus Introvert; Soldier versus Builder). Category-contingent aftereffects were not seen using identical methodology when labels were not meaningful or were absent. These data suggest that human representations of faces can be rapidly tuned to code for meaningful social categories and that such tuning requires both a label and an associated visual difference. Results highlight the flexibility of the cognitive visual system to discriminate categories even in adulthood. PMID:21040911

  13. Ovalbumin labeling with p-hydroxymercurybenzoate: The effect of different denaturing agents and the kinetics of reaction.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; Biancalana, Lorenzo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Bramanti, Emilia

    2015-08-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate how denaturing agents commonly used in protein analysis influence the labeling between a reactive molecule and proteins. For this reason, we investigated the labeling of ovalbumin (OVA) as a globular model protein with p-hydroxymercurybenzoate (pHMB) in its native state (phosphate buffer solution) and in different denaturing conditions (8molL(-1) urea, 3molL(-1) guanidinium thiocyanate, 6molL(-1) guanidinium chloride, 0.2% sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 20% methanol). In addition to chemical denaturation, thermal denaturation was also tested. The protein was pre-column simultaneously denatured and derivatized, and the pHMB-labeled denatured OVA complexes were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled online with chemical vapor generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVG-AFS). The number of -SH groups titrated greatly depends on the protein structure in solution. Indeed, we found that, depending on the adopted denaturing conditions, OVA gave different aggregate species that influence the complexation process. The results were compared with those obtained by a common alternative procedure for the titration of -SH groups that employs monobromobimane (mBBr) as tagging molecule and molecular fluorescence spectroscopy as detection technique. We also investigated the labeling kinetics for denatured OVA and pHMB, finding that the 4 thiolic groups of OVA have a very different reactivity toward mercury labeling, in agreement with previous studies. PMID:25944418

  14. Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, V. A.; Mercado, A.; von Hillebrandt, C. G.

    2003-12-01

    The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have also been identified. To help mitigate the risk of potential tsunamis on the coastal communities of Puerto Rico, with initial funding from the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000. Three of the main tasks are to evaluate the possibility of establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), prepare tsunami flood maps and education. The need to establish a system of rapid notification for tsunami alerting in the Caribbean region has been recognized by the emergency management and scientific community. Presently, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag\\x81ez is establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) for PR/VI. Part of the TWS is the EarlyBird system, developed by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, which has been running in the PRSN since January, 2003. This program automatically locates and disseminates information on potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes. Also, the existing protocol for exchanging data and information on potentially tsunamigenic events in the PR/VI is currently being reviewed by the concerned institutions. Tsunami flood maps were prepared for all of Puerto Rico, including the island municipalities of Vieques and Culebra. These flood maps were generated in three phases. First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios on the basis of the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes were developed. Secondly, each of these earthquakes source scenarios was simulated. The third step was to determine the worst case scenario for a tectonically generated tsunami throughout Puerto Rico. The runups were drawn on GIS referenced topographic maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by the local, state and federal emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Based on these maps tsunami warning signs are being installed throughout the potentially affected zones and are a very important component of the TWS.

  15. A Sustainable Early Warning System for Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lee; C. Tung; N. Chung

    2007-01-01

    In this era of rapid social and technological change leading to interesting life complexity and environmental displacement, both positive and negative effects among ecosystems call for a balance in which there are impacts by climate changes. Early warning systems for climate change impacts are necessary in order to allow society as a whole to properly and usefully assimilate the masses

  16. Responses to Deceleration during Car Following: Roles of Optic Flow, Warnings, Expectations, and Interruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Patricia R.; Tharanathan, Anand

    2009-01-01

    More than 25% of accidents are rear-end collisions. It is essential to identify the factors that contribute to such collisions. One such factor is a driver's ability to respond to the deceleration of the car ahead. In Experiment 1, we measured effects of optic flow information and discrete visual and auditory warnings (brake lights, tones) on…

  17. The effect of colchicine on the intracellular transport of 3 H-fucose-labelled glycoproteins in the absorptive cells of cultured human small-intestinal tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Blok; L. A. Ginsel; A. A. Mulder-Stapel; J. J. M. Onderwater; W. Th. Daems

    1981-01-01

    The effect of colchicine on the intracellular transport of 3H-fucose-labelled glycoproteins in the absorptive cells of cultured biopsy specimens of the human intestine was investigated by light- and electron-microscopical autoradiography and by biochemical methods. The results showed a decrease in the radioactivity of the cell coat on the microvilli and an increase in the Golgi apparatus and in the apical

  18. An electrophysiological study of the impact of a Forward Collision Warning System in a simulator driving task.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; Deleurence, Philippe; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

    2012-08-27

    Driver distraction has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential rear-end collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS and of its reliability according to the driver's attentional state by recording both behavioral and electrophysiological data. Participants drove following a lead motorcycle in a simplified simulator with or without a warning system which gave forewarning of the preceding vehicle braking. Participants had to perform this driving task either alone (simple task) or simultaneously with a secondary cognitive task (dual task). Behavioral and electrophysiological data contributed to revealing a positive effect of the warning system. Participants were faster in detecting the brake light when the system was perfect or imperfect, and the time and attentional resources allocation required for processing the target at higher cognitive level were reduced when the system was completely reliable. When both tasks were performed simultaneously, warning effectiveness was considerably affected at both performance and neural levels; however, the analysis of the brain activity revealed fewer differences between distracted and undistracted drivers when using the warning system. These results show that electrophysiological data could be a valuable tool to complement behavioral data and to have a better understanding of how these systems impact the driver. PMID:22765914

  19. The use of stable-isotopically labeled oleic acid to interrogate lipid assembly in vivo: assessing pharmacological effects in preclinical species.

    PubMed

    McLaren, David G; He, Timothy; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Mendoza, Vivienne; Rosa, Raymond; Gagen, Karen; Bhat, Gowri; Herath, Kithsiri; Miller, Paul L; Stribling, Sloan; Taggart, Andrew; Imbriglio, Jason; Liu, Jinqi; Chen, Dunlu; Pinto, Shirly; Balkovec, James M; Devita, Robert J; Marsh, Donald J; Castro-Perez, Jose M; Strack, Alison; Johns, Douglas G; Previs, Stephen F; Hubbard, Brian K; Roddy, Thomas P

    2011-06-01

    The use of stable isotopically labeled substrates and analysis by mass spectrometry have provided substantial insight into rates of synthesis, disposition, and utilization of lipids in vivo. The information to be gained from such studies is of particular benefit to therapeutic research where the underlying causes of disease may be related to the production and utilization of lipids. When studying biology through the use of isotope tracers, care must be exercised in interpreting the data to ensure that any response observed can truly be interpreted as biological and not as an artifact of the experimental design or a dilutional effect on the isotope. We studied the effects of dosing route and tracer concentration on the mass isotopomer distribution profile as well as the action of selective inhibitors of microsomal tri-glyceride transfer protein (MTP) in mice and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) in nonhuman primates, using a stable-isotopically labeled approach. Subjects were treated with inhibitor and subsequently given a dose of uniformly ¹³C-labeled oleic acid. Samples were analyzed using a rapid LC-MS technique, allowing the effects of the intervention on the assembly and disposition of triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids to be determined in a single 3 min run from just 10 ?l of plasma. PMID:21415123

  20. Effect of lonidamine on the utilization of /sup 14/C-labeled glucose by human astrocytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paggi, M.G.; Zupi, G.; Fanciulli, M.; Del Carlo, C.; Giorno, S.; Laudonio, N.; Silvestrini, B.; Caputo, A.; Floridi, A.

    1987-10-01

    The effect of lonidamine (LND), 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazol-3 carboxylic acid, on the utilization of carbon from /sup 14/C-labeled glucose by cell cultures of the permanent strain LI derived from a human glioblastoma multiforme (astrocytoma) has been investigated. The results may be summarized as follows. Aerobic glycolysis is the main energy-yielding process as shown by the fact that the greatest part of glucose carbon atoms is incorporated into lactate. Nevertheless, the amount of glucose converted accounts for only 63% of the lactate produced, indicating the presence of an elevated endogenous aerobic glycolysis. The amount of glucose carbon atoms incorporated into CO/sub 2/, lipids, nucleic acid, and supporting structures is low. LND decreased the incorporation of /sup 14/C activity in all the above mentioned isolated compounds because of its ability to inhibit glucose phosphorylation. Consequently, there is a lower concentration of glucose-6-phosphate which, in turn, affects the rate of formation of several metabolites in glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways. Experiments with (1-/sup 14/C)-2-deoxy-D-glucose further substantiate the idea of glucose phosphorylation as a main target of LND and strongly suggest the presence of a mitochondrially bound hexokinase. The higher inhibition of glucose phosphorylation in exponentially growing cells indicates a further shift of the enzyme toward mitochondria-bound form and confirms the importance of the energy status of the cell in eliciting the response to LND. The reduced capacity of LND-treated cells to synthetize ATP and glucose-6-phosphate reflects the decreased synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, which affects cell growth and duplication.

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION Carbon-13 Labeling for Improved Tracer

    E-print Network

    the effects of isotopic labeling using both deuterium substitution (dPS) and 13 C labeling (13 C-PS). ClearSHORT COMMUNICATION Carbon-13 Labeling for Improved Tracer Depth Profiling of Organic Materials Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA 13 C labeling is introduced as an alternative

  2. 21 CFR 510.105 - Labeling of drugs for use in milk-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...misbranded under section 502(f)(2) of the act unless their labeling bears appropriate warnings and directions for use to avoid adulteration of milk under section 402(a)(2)(c)(ii) of the act. (c) It is the position of the Food and Drug...

  3. Selective backbone labelling of ILV methyl labelled proteins.

    PubMed

    Sibille, Nathalie; Hanoulle, Xavier; Bonachera, Fanny; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy

    2009-04-01

    Adding the 13C labelled 2-keto-isovalerate and 2-oxobutanoate precursors to a minimal medium composed of 12C labelled glucose instead of the commonly used (2D, 13C) glucose leads not only to the 13C labelling of (I, L, V) methyls but also to the selective 13C labelling of the backbone C(alpha) and CO carbons of the Ile and Val residues. As a result, the backbone (1H, 15N) correlations of the Ile and Val residues and their next neighbours in the (i + 1) position can be selectively identified in HN(CA) and HN(CO) planes. The availability of a selective HSQC spectrum corresponding to the sole amide resonances of the Ile and Val residues allows connecting them to their corresponding methyls by the intra-residue NOE effect, and should therefore be applicable to larger systems. PMID:19288066

  4. A tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Merrifield et al.

    This resource is an abstract. Using tidal gauge data from the time of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the authors were able to reconstruct the height and speed of the waves and the time it took them to reach coastal regions. Readings from the tidal gauges could have given advance warning to some areas hit by the tsunami, had a warning system been in place. Suggestions for creating a tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean region are given.

  5. Real-time earthquake warning for astronomical observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Michael; Stubbs, Christopher; Barrientos, Sergio; Claver, Chuck; Harms, Jan; Chris Smith, R.; Warner, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Early earthquake warning is a rapidly developing capability that has significant ramifications for many fields, including astronomical observatories. In this work, we describe the susceptibility of astronomical facilities to seismic events, including large telescopes as well as second-generation ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers. We describe the potential warning times for observatories from current seismic networks and propose locations for future seismometers to maximize warning times.

  6. Inpatient nursing care and early warning scores: a workflow mismatch.

    PubMed

    Watson, Anne; Skipper, Chantel; Steury, Rachel; Walsh, Heather; Levin, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Early warning scores calculated by registered nurses (RNs) are used in hospitals to enhance the recognition of and communication about patient deterioration. This study evaluated workflow variables surrounding calculation and documentation of one pediatric hospital's use of an early warning score. Results indicated that there were significant delays in documentation of early warning scores by RNs and inconsistencies between the early warning scores and vital signs collected and documented by non-RN personnel. These findings reflected information obtained from the RNs about how they prioritize tasks and use work-arounds to specific systems issues regarding assessment and documentation in the electronic medical record. PMID:24569518

  7. Eosinophils as a Direct Target of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Salmeterol: Demonstration with Indium111-Labeled Eosinophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. I. Ezeamuzie; G. Ziada; M. Mathew; E. Philips; S. Gopinath; A. Owunwanne

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The ?2-adrenoceptor agonist salmeterol inhibits the accumulation of eosinophils at the site of allergic inflammation, but the cellular target is uncertain. This study was undertaken to determine whether eosinophils themselves are the target of this inhibitory action. Methods: Purified guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils were labeled with indium-111 oxine, pre-incubated with salmeterol or drug vehicle before being injected intravenously into

  8. Two-color infrared missile warning sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neele, Filip

    2005-05-01

    Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only attained against older missiles, with bright exhaust flames. Modern missile developments include the use of new propellants, which generate low-intensity plumes. These threats are detected at much shorter ranges by current ultraviolet warning sensors, resulting in short reaction times. Infrared sensors are able to detect targets at a much longer range. In contrast with the ultraviolet band, in which a target is observed against an almost zero background, infrared sensors must extract targets from a complex background. This leads to a much higher false-alarm rate, which has thus far prevented the deployment of infrared sensors in a missile warning system. One way of reducing false-alarms levels is to make use of the spectral difference between missile plumes and the background. By carefully choosing two wavelength bands, the contrast between missile plume and background can be maximised. This paper presents a method to search for the best possible combination of two bands in the mid-wave infrared, that leads to the longest detection ranges and that works for a wide range of missile propellants. Detection ranges predicted in the infrared will be compared with those obtained in the ultraviolet, to demonstrate the increased range and, therefore, the increased reaction time for the aircraft.

  9. Modelling driver behaviour towards innovative warning devices at railway level crossings.

    PubMed

    Tey, Li-Sian; Wallis, Guy; Cloete, Steven; Ferreira, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is costly and as funds are often limited, it is important to search for cost-effective, evidence-based solutions. The effect that the many existing alternative systems have on driver behaviour is not always known. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) at railway level crossings with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign). Regression models were developed to reflect driver's responses towards the four different types of devices based on data collected from a driving simulation experiment. The regression models include a binary choice model for predicting the probability of a driver stopping or driving through a railway crossing, as well as mixed regression models for predicting the moment at which a driver will produce specific behavioural responses before stopping at a crossing (e.g. initiation of accelerator release and application of foot-pedal brake). Violation results indicated the active systems produced much higher levels of driver compliance than passive devices. Contributing factors, such as age, gender, speed and types of warning devices were found significant at different approach stages to the level crossings. With the application of such behavioural models and traffic conflict techniques in microscopic simulation tools, traffic safety indicators, such as collision likelihood and time-to-collision can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived. PMID:23207839

  10. Definition of rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide early warning in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancelliere, A.; Peres, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme rainfall is the main cause of shallow landslides. For risk mitigation, landslide early warning systems can be implemented, on the basis of rainfall monitoring and forecasting, and the use of a landslide triggering model. Several empirical, also referred to as statistical, rainfall-landslide triggering models have been proposed in the scientific literature, and used for early warning systems activated worldwide. Nonetheless, it is not clear how effective are landslide warning systems, and it is difficult to quantify the induced benefits for the implemented ones. Many rainfall thresholds have been determined through the statistical analysis of the rainfall events that have been the cause of past landslides only, thus neglecting the cases of true negatives and false positives, with negative effects on the robustness of the proposed threshold and, probably, on the effectiveness of the warning system. In the present work we address the issue of establishing warning thresholds, which, although in an approximate way, account for the related benefits. We propose the maximization of an objective function, that measures the trade-off between true and false warning issues. A ratio between the disadvantages of false positive and false negatives, not greater than one, is introduced in the function. The effect of this ratio on the determination of the thresholds is analysed. The proposed method is based on the availability of a continuous rainfall time series. In Italy, continuous rainfall time series are available from the 1920s, but practical difficulties arise for using them, as they are not published in the Hydrological Annual Reports, by the Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale (National Hydrologic and Oceanographic Service), the manager of the most important rainfall monitoring network in Italy. However, it is possible to have a good approximation of the most intense rainfall events, in terms total rainfall, by using the data of annual maxima of precipitation for given durations, which are available in those Reports. The National Research Council's AVI database, the most complete systematic inventory of landslides events occurred in the past century in Italy, can be exploited to determine the thresholds. Hence the method has applicability for whole Italy, and uses large datasets of easy availability. As the method is based on the analysis of subdaily data, it is reliable for shallow landslides, for which low influence of antecedent precipitation on landslide triggering can be supposed. The method is illustrated through its application to case study areas in Sicily, for which there is high interest for activating early warning systems, after that the 1st October 2009 debris flow caused the loss of 37 lives and severe damage to nearby urban areas in the Peloritan Mountains.

  11. Patterns of failure after multimodal treatments for high-grade glioma: effectiveness of MIB-1 labeling index

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to analyze the recurrence pattern of high-grade glioma treated with a multimodal treatment approach and to evaluate whether the MIB-1 labeling index (LI) could be a useful marker for predicting the pattern of failure in glioblastoma (GB). Methods and materials We evaluated histologically confirmed 131 patients with either anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or GB. A median dose was 60?Gy. Concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy were administered to 111 patients. MIB-1 LI was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Recurrence patterns were categorized according to the areas of recurrence as follows: central failure (recurrence in the 95% of 60?Gy); in-field (recurrence in the high-dose volume of 50?Gy; marginal (recurrence outside the high-dose volume) and distant (recurrence outside the RT field). Results The median follow-up durations were 13?months for all patients and 19?months for those remaining alive. Among AA patients, the 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 23.1% and 39.2%, respectively, while in GB patients, the rates were 13.3% and 27.6%, respectively. The median survival time was 20?months for AA patients and 15?months for GB patients. Among AA patients, recurrences were central in 68.7% of patients; in-field, 18.8%; and distant, 12.5%, while among GB patients, 69.0% of recurrences were central, 15.5% were in-field, 12.1% were marginal, and 3.4% were distant. The MIB-1 LI medians were 18.2% in AA and 29.8% in GB. Interestingly, in patients with GB, the MIB-1 LI had a strong effect on the pattern of failure (P?=?0.014), while the extent of surgical removal (P?=?0.47) and regimens of chemotherapy (P?=?0.57) did not. Conclusions MIB-1 LI predominantly affected the pattern of failure in GB patients treated with a multimodal approach, and it might be a useful tool for the management of the disease. PMID:22734595

  12. Effectiveness and Safety of Donepezil in Hispanic Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: A 12-Week Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Oscar L.; Mackell, Joan A.; Sun, Yijun; Kassalow, Laurent M.; Xu, Yikang; McRae, Thomas; Li, Honglan

    2009-01-01

    Background Hispanics represent 10% of the U.S. population and are the fastest growing group. Studies show a higher prevalence and incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Hispanics than in the non-Hispanic white population, with an earlier age of onset. Among the currently estimated 200,000 Hispanics with AD, a significant number remain undiagnosed and untreated, and Hispanic participation in AD clinical trials has been historically low. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of donepezil hydrochloride (donepezil) in Hispanics with mild-to-moderate AD. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, 12-week study conducted in the United States, subjects were Hispanic men or women aged ?50 years with a diagnosis of mild-to-moderate AD (DSMV-IV and NINCDS/ADRDA criteria), with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of 10–26 (inclusive) at screening. Subjects were treated with donepezil 5 mg/day for 6 weeks followed by 10 mg/day for 6 weeks. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline, week 6 and week 12. Cognitive improvement was measured using the MMSE, Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) and Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT). Behavioral symptoms and associated caregiver distress were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Results One-hundred-six patients with mild-to-moderate AD (mean age 68.6 years) were enrolled (intent to treat, n=97); most chose to have assessments conducted in Spanish. With 12 weeks of treatment, subjects showed statistically significant improvement from baseline on MMSE (P<0.0001), FOME retrieval (P=0.0042), FOME repeated retrieval (P=0.0020) and SDMT correct scores (P<0.0001). The NPI subdomain “apathy/indifference” showed statistically significant improvement (P=0.0010). The NPI Caregiver Distress scale (NPI-D) total score was statistically significantly improved (P=0.0500), suggesting a positive impact on relieving caregivers’ burden associated with patient behavior. Most patients tolerated the treatment well, with only 2 discontinuing because of adverse events. The most common (>5%) adverse events were insomnia (9.5%), dizziness (7.6%), diarrhea (5.7%) and nausea (5.7%). Conclusion The cognitive improvement and safety results from this study were consistent with those reported for donepezil in the general population. Increased awareness of AD in the Hispanic population will help more Hispanics with AD to benefit from early diagnosis and effective treatment. PMID:19024233

  13. The Effect of the Prosthetic Group on the Pharmacologic Properties of 18F-labeled Rhodamine B, a Potential Myocardial Perfusion Agent for PET

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomä, Mark D.; Gottumukkala, Vijay; Zhang, Shaohui; Baker, Amanda; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederic H.; Treves, S. Ted; Packard, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported the development of the 2-[18F]fluoroethyl ester of rhodamine B as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for myocardial perfusion imaging. This compound, which was prepared using a [18F]fluoroethyl prosthetic group, has significant uptake in the myocardium in rats, but also demonstrates relatively high liver uptake and is rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo in mice. We have now prepared 18F-labeled rhodamine B using three additional prosthetic groups (propyl, diethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol) and found that the prosthetic group has a significant effect on the in vitro and in vivo properties of these compounds. Of the esters prepared to date, the diethylene glycol ester is superior in terms of in vitro stability and pharmacokinetics. These observations suggest that the prosthetic group plays a significant role in determining the pharmacological properties of 18F-labeled compounds. They also support the value of continued investigation of 18F-labeled rhodamines as PET radiopharmaceuticals for myocardial perfusion imaging. PMID:23210516

  14. USAID Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, M.; Mooney, W.

    2005-12-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS), created by an inter-agency agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA), the US Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) will work toward developing a tsunami early warning and disaster management and response system for the Indian Ocean by utilizing the leadership and technical expertise of India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives, and Indonesia. Inter-agency cooperation combines expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing an infrastructure for real-time data analysis of seismicity and for rapid communication and response networks, 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international logistical and administrative support. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus will be placed on``in-country capacity building,'' so that individual nations will be self-sustaining in the future. This will be accomplished, partly, by training provided by the U.S. Government through workshops, international exchange, and institutionalizing national capabilities. The USGS program was launched in August 2005 and will be implemented over a two-year period.

  15. A Hole in the Weather Warning System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Vincent T.; Weisman, Robert A.

    2003-02-01

    lack of text information. These problems had forced deaf and hard of hearing people to rely on looking at the sky or having hearing people alert them as their primary methods of receiving emergency information. These problems are documented through the use of a survey of 277 deaf and hard of hearing people in Minnesota and Oklahoma as well as specific examples.During the last two years, some progress has been made to "close this hole" in the weather warning system. The Federal Communications Commission has approved new rules, requiring that all audio emergency information provided by television stations, satellite, and cable operators must also be provided visually. In addition, the use of new technology such as pager systems, weather radios adapted for use by those with special needs, the Internet, and satellite warning systems have allowed deaf and hard of hearing people to have more access to emergency information.In this article, these improvements are documented but continuing problems and possible solutions are also listed.

  16. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  17. SPIRALE: early warning optical space demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, D.; Carucci, A.

    2004-11-01

    Thanks to its global coverage, its peacetime capabilities and its availability, ballistic missiles Early Warning (EW) space systems are identified as a key node of a global missile defence system. Since the Gulf war in 1991, several feasibility studies of such an Early Warning system have been conducted in France. The main conclusions are first that the most appropriate concept is to use infra-red (IR) sensors on geo- stationary orbit satellites and second that the required satellite performances are achievable and accessible to European industries, even if technological developments are necessary. Besides that, it was recommended to prepare the development of the EW operational system, by demonstrating its achievable performances on the basis of collected background images and available target IR signatures. This is the objective of the "EW optical space demonstrator", also named SPIRALE (this a French acronym which stands for "Preparatory IR Program for EW"). A contract has been awarded early 2004, by DGA/SPOTI (French Armament Procurement Agency), to EADS Astrium France, with a significant participation of Alcatel Space, to perform this demonstration.

  18. Comparison of three acute care pediatric early warning scoring tools.

    PubMed

    Robson, Mary-Ann J; Cooper, Carole L; Medicus, Lori A; Quintero, Mary J; Zuniga, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric Early Warning (PEW) scoring tools effectively identify hospitalized children at risk for clinical deterioration. The study compared the predictability of three previously validated PEW scoring tools. A retrospective case-control design was used that identified the PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) as a stronger predictor of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) than either the PEW Tool (C. Haines, M. Perrott, & P. Weir, 2006) or the Bedside PEW System Score (C. Parshuram, J. Hutchison, & K. Middaugh, 2009). The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) demonstrated a greater sensitivity (86.6%) and specificity (72.9%) at a score of five. The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) could benefit healthcare providers in potentially averting CPA. PMID:23276507

  19. 77 FR 6785 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Feedback Survey for Annual Tsunami Warning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...Comment Request; Feedback Survey for Annual Tsunami Warning Communications Tests AGENCY...This information collection supports the Tsunami Warning and Education Act, Public Law...National Weather Service's (NWS) Tsunami Warning System, this survey is...

  20. 21 CFR 369.21 - Drugs; warning and caution statements required by regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Warning and Caution Statements for Drugs § 369.21 Drugs; warning and caution statements required by regulations. ACETAMINOPHEN (N-ACETYL-p -AMINOPHENOL) (See § 310.201(a)(1) of this chapter.) Warning —Do not give to...

  1. 21 CFR 369.21 - Drugs; warning and caution statements required by regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Warning and Caution Statements for Drugs § 369.21 Drugs; warning and caution statements required by regulations. ACETAMINOPHEN (N-ACETYL-p -AMINOPHENOL) (See § 310.201(a)(1) of this chapter.) Warning —Do not give to...

  2. 21 CFR 369.21 - Drugs; warning and caution statements required by regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Warning and Caution Statements for Drugs § 369.21 Drugs; warning and caution statements required by regulations. ACETAMINOPHEN (N-ACETYL-p -AMINOPHENOL) (See § 310.201(a)(1) of this chapter.) Warning —Do not give to...

  3. Open-label, randomized, controlled pilot study of the effects of a glucosamine complex on Low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Tant, Laure; Gillard, Bruno; Appelboom, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Background: A series of studies has suggested some efficacy of glucosamine in arthrosis of the knee, but virtually no documentation exists regarding its effects on low back pain. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether a 12-week course of a glucosamine complex (GC) could benefit patients having low back pain despite a course of noninvasive physical therapy. In addition, we sought to delineate the subgroup of responders. Methods: This open-label, randomized, controlled study was conducted at the Division of Rheumatology and Physical Medicine, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. Male and female outpatients aged 40 to 80 years with low back pain (duration, ? 12 weeks; pain score on 10-cm visual analog scale [VAS] [0 = none to 10 = worst imaginable], ?3 cm) despite noninvasive physical therapy (massage, stretching, heat application, and analgesics for ?4 weeks) were included. Patients were randomly assigned to receive, in addition to conventional treatment (CT) (physical therapy plus analgesics/antiinflammatories), a GC (enriched with sulfonyl methane, silicon, and a botanical extract of Ribes nigrum) or CT alone (control) for 12 weeks. Pain at rest and on movement (effort) and early morning lumbar stiffness were measured every 4 weeks using the VAS. The primary end point was improvement in VAS score for pain at rest at 12 weeks. Two validated questionnaires were used to assess improvements in quality of life (QOL) (Oswestry Disability Questionnaire [ODQ] [10 items; scale: 0 = no disability to 60 = maximal disability] and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RMDQ] [24 items; scale: 0 = no disability to 24 = severe disability]). Responders were defined as patients who positively assessed the efficacy of the GC. At each visit, patients were also asked about possible adverse events. Results: Of 36 enrolled patients, 32 completed the study (18 men, 14 women; mean [SE] age, 64 [2] years; 17 in the GC group and 15 in the control group). Four patients were lost to follow-up. At week 4, changes from baseline VAS scores for pain at rest and lumbar stiffness were significantly greater in the GC group compared with the control group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively). At week 4, QOL was found to be improved, as measured using the ODQ, in the GC group compared with the control group (P = 0.028), but the between-group difference as measured using the RMDQ was not significant. The improvements from baseline on the questionnaires were sustained over the 12-week period in the GC group (all, P < 0.001). Gastrointestinal adverse effects were reported by 1 GC-treated patient and 1 patient in the control group, but neither patient withdrew from the study. Of the 17 GC-treated patients, 9 considered themselves responders, but the profile of a responder could not be delineated. Conclusions: In this study in patients with low back pain, analgesic effect and improvement in QOL were found with the use of GC. GC was well tolerated. PMID:24678073

  4. Era of faster FDA drug approval has also seen increased black-box warnings and market withdrawals.

    PubMed

    Frank, Cassie; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie; Bor, David H; Wolfe, Sidney M; Heymann, Orlaith; Zallman, Leah; Lasser, Karen E

    2014-08-01

    After approval, many prescription medications that patients rely on subsequently receive new black-box warnings or are withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. We examined whether the frequency of these safety problems has increased since 1992, when the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, legislation designed to accelerate the drug approval process at the Food and Drug Administration, was passed. We found that drugs approved after the act's passage were more likely to receive a new black-box warning or be withdrawn than drugs approved before its passage (26.7 per 100.0 drugs versus 21.2 per 100.0 drugs at up to sixteen years of follow-up). We could not establish causality, however. Our findings suggest the need for reforms to reduce patients' exposure to unsafe drugs, such as a statement or symbol in the labeling, medication guides for patients, and marketing materials indicating that a drug was approved only recently. PMID:25092848

  5. Microsimulation modelling of driver behaviour towards alternative warning devices at railway level crossings.

    PubMed

    Tey, Li-Sian; Zhu, Sicong; Ferreira, Luis; Wallis, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety issues, due to the addition of rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. The differences in the operational characteristics of different warning devices together with varying crossing, traffic or/and train characteristics, cause different driver behaviour at crossings. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign) at railway level crossings using microsimulation modelling. Two safety performance indicators directly related to collision risks, violation and time-to-collision, were adopted. Results indicated the active systems were more effective at reducing likely collisions compared to passive devices. With the combined application of driving simulation and traffic microsimulation modelling, traffic safety performance indicators for a level crossing can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived, or even for absolute safety evaluation with proper calibration from field investigations. PMID:24929822

  6. Preparation of fluorescently-labeled amyloid-beta peptide assemblies: the effect of fluorophore conjugation on structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Jungbauer, L. M.; Yu, C; Laxton, K. J.; LaDu, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has focused on soluble oligomeric assemblies of the 42 amino acid isoform of the amyloid-beta peptide (A?42) as the proximal cause of neuronal injury, synaptic loss, and the eventual dementia associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and deficits in behavior and memory have all been attributed to oligomeric A?42, the specific roles for this assembly in the cellular neuropathology of AD remain poorly understood. In particular, lack of reliable and well-characterized forms of easily detectable A?42 oligomers has hindered study of the cellular trafficking of exogenous A?42 by neurons in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the objective of this study is to fluorescently label soluble oligomeric A?42 without altering the structure or function of this assembly. Previous studies have demonstrated the advantages of using tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the structural assemblies formed by synthetic A?42 under specific solution conditions (e.g., oligomers, protofibrils, and fibrils). Here, we extend these methods to establish a strategy for fluorescent labeling of oligomeric A?42 assemblies that are structurally comparable to unlabeled oligomeric A?42. To compare function, we demon-strate that the uptake of labeled and unlabeled oligomeric A?42 by neurons in vitro is similar. AFM-characterized fluorophore-A?42 oligomers are an exciting new reagent for use in a variety of studies designed to elucidate critical cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of this A?42 assembly form in AD. PMID:19343729

  7. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, J.; Babeyko, A.; Fleischer, J.; Häner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Kloth, A.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-06-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT), the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys) for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean. Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP) and event-driven architecture (EDA)) are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Monitoring systems for warning impending failures

    E-print Network

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    safety and production issue for mining. Major wall failure can occur seemingly without any visual warning method are highlighted. Keywords Mining Á Slope stability Á Deformation monitoring systems Á Safety 1ORIGINAL PAPER Monitoring systems for warning impending failures in slopes and open pit mines

  9. Conspicuity, memorability, comprehension, and priming in road hazard warning signs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel G. Charlton

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed driver reactions to 16 road hazard warning signs of various formats by projecting life-sized video of road scenes to drivers in a driving simulator. A range of measures, including attentional and search conspicuity, implicit and explicit recognition, dynamic and static comprehension, and sign priming were collected. Of the signs tested, road works and school warning signs were

  10. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM CONDAMINE-BALONNE RIVER BELOW COTSWOLD

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the CONDAMINE-BALONNE RIVER BELOW COTSWOLD This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for mainstream flooding along the Condamine - Balonne River catchment downstream of Cotswold. It includes reference

  11. Detection probability of early warning radar against hypersonic cruise missile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiao Yongjie; Liu Jinrong; Bai Liping; Ding Hong; Li Xiangru

    2011-01-01

    Detection probability against hypersonic cruise missile is a key factor to assess early warning radar performance. Based on the search theory, detection probability models of early warning radar for hypersonic cruise missile are set up respectively in the case of no target indication, missile azimuth and motion state indication. Take PAVE PAWS radar for example, detection probability of the three

  12. Promoting A Physical Security Mental Model For Personal Firewall Warnings

    E-print Network

    Promoting A Physical Security Mental Model For Personal Firewall Warnings Abstract We used an iterative process to design personal firewall warnings in which the functionality of a firewall is visualized based on a physical security mental model. We performed a study to determine the degree to which

  13. Feasibility study of using satellites for a disaster warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The development of requirements for the Disaster Warning System (DWS) was investigated in relation to the National Weather Service. Conceptual communication traffic flow patterns for the future of the NWS are studied to determine the impact of the DWS on the MWS. The planned warning systems, and satellite communications are discussed along with data collection, and communication services.

  14. 30 CFR 56.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 56.14201 Section 56.14201 Mineral...Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When the entire length of a...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 57.14201 Section 57.14201 Mineral...Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When the entire length of a...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 57.14201 Section 57.14201 Mineral...Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When the entire length of a...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14201 - Conveyor start-up warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor start-up warnings. 56.14201 Section 56.14201 Mineral...Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14201 Conveyor start-up warnings. (a) When the entire length of a...

  18. Warning Signs for Suicide: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Berman, Alan L.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Nock, Matthew K.; Silverman, Morton M.; Mandrusiak, Michael; Van Orden, Kimberly; Witte, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    The current article addresses the issue of warning signs for suicide, attempting to differentiate the construct from risk factors. In accordance with the characteristic features discussed, a consensus set of warning signs identified by the American Association of Suicidology working group are presented, along with a discussion of relevant clinical…

  19. Warning color changes in response to food deprivation in the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Kimberly V; Nahm, Alexandra C; Rutowski, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Predation on distasteful animals should favor warning coloration that is relatively conspicuous and phenotypically invariable. However, even among similarly colored individuals there can be variation in their warning signals. In butterflies, individual differences in larval feeding history could cause this variation. The warning signal of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) consists of both a blue iridescent patch and pigmentbased orange spots on the ventral hindwing. B. philenor males also display a dorsal surface iridescent patch that functions as a sexual indicator signal. A previous study of iridescence in B. philenor found that the iridescent blue on both the dorsal and ventral hind wings is variable and significantly different between lab-reared and field-caught individuals. These differences could be the result of larval food deprivation in the field. Through experimental manipulation of larval diet, larval food deprivation was evaluated as a potential cause of the differences observed between lab and field individuals, and if food deprivation is a source of inter-individual variation in warning signals. B. philenor larvae were food restricted starting at two points in the last larval instar, and one group was fed through pupation. Adult coloration was then compared. Food deprivation led to poorer adult condition, as indicated by lower adult body mass, forewing length, and fat content of stressed individuals. As the level of food deprivation increased, the hue of the iridescent patches on both the dorsal and ventral hind wing shifted to shorter wavelengths, and the chroma of the orange spots decreased. The shifts in iridescent color did not match the differences previously found between lab and field individuals. However, the treatment differences indicate that food deprivation may be a significant source of warning color variation. The differences between the treatment groups are likely detectable by predators, but the effect of the variation on signal effectiveness and function remains to be empirically explored. PMID:24735188

  20. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    PubMed Central

    Arattano, Massimo; Marchi, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows), their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and non-structural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall) and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche pendulums, photocells, trip wires etc. Event warning systems for debris flows have a strong linkage with debris-flow monitoring that is carried out for research purposes: the same sensors are often used for both monitoring and warning, although warning systems have higher requirements of robustness than monitoring systems. The paper presents a description of the sensors employed for debris-flow monitoring and event warning systems, with attention given to advantages and drawbacks of different types of sensors.