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1

An experiment in designing effective warning labels.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a model for the design of effective warning labels concerning drinking and driving. One important aspect of the model is that producing a multiplicity of warning labels should result in a higher probability that at least a few of the warning labels will be of high quality and effectiveness. Secondly, greater similarity between the warning label designer and the intended target group should enhance the effectiveness of the warning label. In the present study, 49 warning labels were created by university undergraduates, and the effectiveness of these warning labels was assessed by a group of university students (target group members). A number of labels were judged as being effective, and more effective than the government warning label. Extending the notion of being close to the target group, warning labels designed by male and female university students for university students of the same sex were judged as more effective than warning labels designed for the opposite sex. PMID:10164447

Gorn, G J; Lavack, A M; Pollack, C R; Weinberg, C B

1996-01-01

2

Alcohol warnings and warning labels: an examination of alternative alcohol warning messages and perceived effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines consumer perceptions regarding the effectiveness of government-mandated alcohol warning labels and organizational efforts to promote responsible drinking from the perspective of social judgment theory. Investigates receiver involvement as a predictor of perceived effectiveness for alcohol warnings and warning labels. Finds the relationship between levels of alcohol consumption and perceptions of warning-label effectiveness to be insignificant; and that health consciousness

Thomas E. DeCarlo

1997-01-01

3

The Effectiveness of Alcohol Warning Labels: A Review and Extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the appearance of the federally mandated alcohol warning labels in 1989, there have been numerous research studies examining the effectiveness of the warnings. Such studies have explored awareness levels, risk perceptions, believability, attitudes, and behavioral changes associated with the alcohol warning labels. Unfortunately, although frequent and heavier drinkers are aware and have knowledge of consumption risks, they are also

J. Craig Andrews

1995-01-01

4

Review of the Effects of the Alcohol Warning Label  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Warning labels on alcohol containers were proposed as early as 1945.’ In 1988, legislation was passed requiring the following\\u000a warning label on alcoholic beverage containers beginning on November 18, 1989.2

David P. MacKinnon

5

First effects of warning labels on alcoholic beverage containers.  

PubMed

Health warning labels are now required on alcoholic beverage containers in the United States. This study addresses who has seen these labels and respondents' reported changes in relevant knowledge, attitudes and behavior. Random samples of adults in the general population of the United States were interviewed by telephone 6 months prior to and 6 months after the enactment in November 1989 of the warning label law (N = 2006 and 2000, respectively). Six months after introduction of warning labels, over one fifth of the respondents reported having seen the labels. Greater proportions of key target groups, such as heavy drinkers and young men at risk for drunk driving, reported seeing the warnings. No statistically significant changes in knowledge of the health risks included on the labels were detected, but we found that knowledge levels for two non-included potential warnings had declined somewhat. After controlling for demographics and alcohol consumption, respondents who probably saw the warning labels were significantly more likely to report several behaviors indicative of heightened awareness of, and caution regarding, the hazard of drinking and driving and of drinking during pregnancy, hazards that are both included on the warning labels. PMID:1425211

Kaskutas, L; Greenfield, T K

1992-10-01

6

Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective: To outline social psychological principles that could influence the psychosocial and behavioural effects of tobacco warning labels, and to inform the development of more effective tobacco warning labels. Data sources: PsycInfo and Medline literature searches and expert guided selection of principles and theories in social psychology and of tobacco warning labels, including articles, books, and reports. Conclusions: Tobacco warning labels represent a potentially effective method of influencing attitudes and behaviours. This review describes social psychological principles that could be used to guide the creation of more effective warning labels. The potential value of incorporating warning labels into a broader public health education campaign is discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.

Strahan, E; White, K; Fong, G; Fabrigar, L; Zanna, M; Cameron, R

2002-01-01

7

Forbidden Fruit Versus Tainted Fruit: Effects of Warning Labels on Attraction to Television Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under growing public and government pressure, the television networks have adopted warning labels for violent programs. Tainted fruit theory posits that warning labels will decrease interest in violent programs, whereas forbidden fruit theory posits that warning labels will increase interest in violent programs. In Experiment 1, it was found that warning labels increased interest in violent programs, especially when the

Brad J. Bushman; Angela D. Stack

1996-01-01

8

College student reactions to health warning labels: Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors related to perceived effectiveness of different approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine factors associated with perceiving different types of pictorial cigarette health warning labels as most effective in motivating smokers to quit or preventing smoking initiation among college students.

Carla J. Berg; James F. Thrasher; J. Lee Westmaas; Taneisha Buchanan; Erika A. Pinsker; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

9

The effectiveness of strategies such as health warning labels to reduce alcohol-related harms - an Australian perspective.  

PubMed

The efficacy of health warning labels for products such as alcoholic beverages continue to be debated internationally and now in Australia as a means of mitigating the misuse of alcohol within community groups. This paper discusses evidence emanating primarily from the USA that has adopted a health warning label for both alcohol and tobacco, and from Australia that has adopted a health warning label for tobacco, on the effectiveness of such a strategy in changing consumer behaviour. The conclusion drawn is that such labelling is generally ineffective in changing consumer behaviour and hence such a strategy is inappropriate for reducing alcohol-related harms. The paper also discusses briefly what advertising and messages influence consumers, positively and negatively, and what specific strategies have been shown to better educate consumers and change their consumption from excessive to light to moderate as defined by the (Australian) National Health and Medical Research Council, which is the present premise of harm minimisation in Australia. PMID:11399418

Stockley, C S.

2001-07-01

10

The role of equipment warning labels in the industrial workplace.  

PubMed

Among the many ways in which workers can get safety information, the role of equipment warning labels has not been well articulated. Presumably, warning labels help prevent accidents, but questions remain about how well those labels can be expected to work. This essay describes how contextual analysis can assist our understanding of warning label effectiveness. A contextual approach was conceptualized in terms of underlying communication variables and an exploratory study was conducted in which workers were asked if they noticed and remembered warning labels on an industrial table saw that they used over a 3-month period. Results showed that equipment warning labels had a limited impact on workers. The contextual approach explained the relative effectiveness of multiple sources of information. Implications for safety training and accident liability are discussed. PMID:21375954

McGrath, John M

2011-01-01

11

The effectiveness of strategies such as health warning labels to reduce alcohol-related harms — an Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of health warning labels for products such as alcoholic beverages continue to be debated internationally and now in Australia as a means of mitigating the misuse of alcohol within community groups. This paper discusses evidence emanating primarily from the USA that has adopted a health warning label for both alcohol and tobacco, and from Australia that has adopted

Creina S. Stockley

2001-01-01

12

College student reactions to health warning labels: Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors related to perceived effectiveness of different approaches  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine factors associated with perceiving different types of pictorial cigarette health warning labels as most effective in motivating smokers to quit or preventing smoking initiation among college students. Method We administered an online survey to 24,055 students attending six Southeast colleges in Fall, 2010. We obtained complete data for the current analyses from 2,600. Results Current smoking prevalence was 23.5%. The largest majority (78.6%) consistently rated gruesome images as most effective, 19.5% rated testimonial images as most effective, and only a small proportion rated either standard (1.6%) or human suffering images (0.3%) as most effective. Subsequent analyses focused on differences between those endorsing gruesome images or testimonials as most effective. Factors related to ranking testimonials versus gruesome images as most effective included being female (p<0.01), White (p<0.01), and nonsmokers (p=0.04), lower perceived smoking prevalence (p<0.01), and greater receptivity to laws/restrictions around smoking (p<0.01) and tobacco marketing (p=0.01). Among smokers, factors related to ranking testimonials as most effective versus gruesome images included being female (p=0.03), being White (p=0.03), higher autonomous motivation (p=0.03), and greater extrinsic self-efficacy (p=0.02). Conclusions Understanding factors related to perceived effectiveness of different pictorial warnings among subpopulations should inform health warning labels released by the FDA.

Berg, Carla J.; Thrasher, James F.; Westmaas, J. Lee; Buchanan, Taneisha; Pinsker, Erika A.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2011-01-01

13

Health warning labels for alcoholic beverages in Canada.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the background and rationale for health warning labels for alcoholic beverages. They have been recently approved for the United States. Mexico and Colombia already have such labels. However, Canadian health officials seem reluctant to require them unless the alcohol industry agrees. Arguments against labels (i.e. that they detract from other efforts, are misguided or ineffective) are not convincing. Evidence from research on health warnings on cigarettes and prescription and non-prescription drugs shows that labels can be effective if well designed. Special problems in having bilingual labels may exist but could be overcome. Canada should have health warning labels on alcoholic beverages as soon as possible. PMID:2207951

Smart, R G

14

Public support for warning labels on alcoholic beverage containers.  

PubMed

Warning labels are now required on alcohol beverage containers in the United States. Prior to the enactment of the warning label law, a random sample of adults in the general population of the United States were interviewed by telephone to assess baseline knowledge and support for the warning labels (n = 2006). This paper proceeds on the assumption that public support is crucial for sustained success of alcohol control policies such as the warning label mandate. We found that a vast majority (87%) of the respondents felt that alcoholic beverages should have warning labels about possible health hazards, with abstention as the most significant predictor of support. A majority of the respondents also felt that alcohol education, server intervention, treatment and counter-advertisement programs should be increased. A large minority felt that alcohol taxes should be increased store hours should be decreased, and the legal drinking age should be increased. Most respondents agreed that warning labels would not have much effect on heavy drinkers. When compared to responses to similar questions about alcohol control policies over the past 20 years, evidence supporting a conservative trend towards alcohol in the United States was found. PMID:1751848

Hilton, M E; Kaskutas, L

1991-10-01

15

Substance use and memory for health warning labels.  

PubMed

This article reports the relationship between substance use and memory for health warnings for cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and alcohol. Measures of substance use and recognition memory for warning labels were collected from 2 samples of college students (n = 288 and n = 243). It was hypothesized that if health warnings were noticed and remembered, then users, because they were often exposed to the warning labels, would have more accurate memory for the risks written on the containers of these products than nonusers. Prior research had not confirmed this relationship. In Study 1, a statistically significant correlation was obtained between use and recognition memory for both cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. The effects for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco were replicated in Study 2 and observed for alcohol as well. PMID:8500442

MacKinnon, D P; Fenaughty, A M

1993-03-01

16

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2013-01-01

17

A choice-based method to compare alternative alcohol warning labels.  

PubMed

Alternative alcohol warning labels were studied with a method used in magical-thinking research. In two studies (N = 111, N = 75), subjects completed a questionnaire. A "poison," "toxic" or "causes cancer" label on a beer can was shown to have substantial effects on self-reported choice behavior. In contrast, the alcohol warning label now mandated to appear on alcohol containers did not have nearly as powerful an effect. Explanations for the lack of strong effects of the mandated warning label center around label length, type of warning and salience of the warning. The methodology described in this article appears to test gut-level or conditioned responses to labels, which may be a valuable technique for evaluating warning labels. PMID:8412151

MacKinnon, D P

1993-09-01

18

48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contractor shall label the item package...requires that the hazard warning label conform to the...or (5) Federal Alcohol Administration Act...interpreted to mean that a label is required in accordance...copy of the hazard warning label for all...

2009-10-01

19

48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contractor shall label the item package...requires that the hazard warning label conform to the...or (5) Federal Alcohol Administration Act...interpreted to mean that a label is required in accordance...copy of the hazard warning label for all...

2010-10-01

20

TO LABEL OR NOT TO LABEL: THE PROS AND CONS OF ALCOHOL WARNING LABELS IN PREGNANCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a public and professional debate on the usefulness of alcohol warning labels. This paper presents the major arguments in favor and against such labeling in the context of alcohol use in pregnancy. lcohol warning labels were initially introduced in 1989 to provide the public with repetitive reminders of the teratogenic potential of alcohol use. There are strong arguments

Daniela Caprara; Offie Soldin; Gideon Koren

2004-01-01

21

Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (?2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention.

Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

2012-01-01

22

Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception.  

PubMed

Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants' smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels. PMID:22419415

Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Ritter, Simone M

2012-03-14

23

Substance Use and Memory for Health Warning Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the relationship between substance use and memory for health warnings for cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and alcohol. Measures of substance use and recognition memory for warning labels were collected from 2 samples of college students (n = 288 and n = 243). It was hypothesized that if health warnings were noticed and remembered, then users, because they were

David P. MacKinnon; Andrea M. Fenaughty

1993-01-01

24

Effect of the framework convention on tobacco control and voluntary industry health warning labels on passage of mandated cigarette warning labels from 1965 to 2012: transition probability and event history analyses.  

PubMed

Objectives. We quantified the pattern and passage rate of cigarette package health warning labels (HWLs), including the effect of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and HWLs voluntarily implemented by tobacco companies. Methods. We used transition probability matrices to describe the pattern of HWL passage and change rate in 4 periods. We used event history analysis to estimate the effect of the FCTC on adoption and to compare that effect between countries with voluntary and mandatory HWLs. Results. The number of HWLs passed during each period accelerated, from a transition rate among countries that changed from 2.42 per year in 1965-1977 to 6.71 in 1977-1984, 8.42 in 1984-2003, and 22.33 in 2003-2012. The FCTC significantly accelerated passage of FCTC-compliant HWLs for countries with initially mandatory policies with a hazard of 1.27 per year (95% confidence interval?=?1.11, 1.45), but only marginally increased the hazard for countries that had an industry voluntary HWL of 1.68 per year (95% confidence interval?=?0.95, 2.97). Conclusions. Passage of HWLs is accelerating, and the FCTC is associated with further acceleration. Industry voluntary HWLs slowed mandated HWLs. PMID:24028248

Sanders-Jackson, Ashley N; Song, Anna V; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

2013-09-12

25

Alcohol Warning Labels in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 2003, it was reported that twelve alcoholics were attempting to sue drink manufacturers for failing to warn them of the dangers of drinking alcohol. This alleged failure to warn is remarkably similar to the alleged failure to warn on which the flood of tobacco claims in the United States and Europe was based, resulting in a dramatic increase

Lindsy Taylor

2006-01-01

26

Interpretations of Cigarette Advertisement Warning Labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications

Nancy Morris; Dawn R. Gilpin; Melissa Lenos; Renee Hobbs

2011-01-01

27

Cartoon Characters as Tobacco Warning Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Multiple studies have indicated that the Joe Camel advertising campaign has been successful in marketing tobacco to children and adolescents, whereas other studies have reported that current tobacco warn- ing messages are ineffective. Objective: To determine the importance and believ- ability of familiar and novel tobacco warning messages with and without cartoons that were modeled after Joe Camel. Design:

Sonia A. Duffy; Dee Burton

2000-01-01

28

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2013-07-01

29

40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning...large size or bright color, as follows: CAUTION: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER...

2013-07-01

30

Are heat warning systems effective?  

PubMed

Heatwaves are associated with significant health risks particularly among vulnerable groups. To minimize these risks, heat warning systems have been implemented. The question therefore is how effective these systems are in saving lives and reducing heat-related harm. We systematically searched and reviewed 15 studies which examined this. Six studies asserted that fewer people died of excessive heat after the implementation of heat warning systems. Demand for ambulance decreased following the implementation of these systems. One study also estimated the costs of running heat warning systems at US$210,000 compared to the US$468 million benefits of saving 117 lives. The remaining eight studies investigated people's response to heat warning systems and taking appropriate actions against heat harms. Perceived threat of heat dangers emerged as the main factor related to heeding the warnings and taking proper actions. However, barriers, such as costs of running air-conditioners, were of significant concern, particularly to the poor. The weight of the evidence suggests that heat warning systems are effective in reducing mortality and, potentially, morbidity. However, their effectiveness may be mediated by cognitive, emotive and socio-demographic characteristics. More research is urgently required into the cost-effectiveness of heat warning systems' measures and improving the utilization of the services. PMID:23561265

Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Fitzgerald, Gerard; Aitken, Peter; Verrall, Kenneth; Tong, Shilu

2013-04-05

31

Adult Smokers' Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers’ reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Results: Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers’ reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. Conclusions: The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking.

2013-01-01

32

Different Black Box Warning Labeling for Same-Class Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION  Black box warnings (BBWs) are the strongest medication-related safety warnings in a drug’s labeling information and highlight\\u000a major risks. Absence of a BBW or asynchronous addition of a BBW among same-class drugs could have major implications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS  We identified the 20 top-selling drugs in 2008 (10 with BBWs and 10 without BBWs on their label) that belonged to different\\u000a drug classes.

Orestis A. Panagiotou; Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis; Panagiotis N. Papanikolaou; Evangelia E. Ntzani; John P. A. Ioannidis

2011-01-01

33

The alcohol warning and adolescents: 5-year effects.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study, a follow-up to the authors earlier report, examined the effects of the alcohol warning label on adolescents during the first 5 years that the warning was required. METHODS: Surveys were administered to 10th-grade (n = 16,661) and 12th-grade (n = 15,856) students from the 1989-1990 school year through the 1994-1995 school year. The measures were awareness of, exposure to, and recognition memory of the alcohol warning label; beliefs about the risks listed on the warning; and open-ended statements about consequences of alcohol use, alcohol consumption, and self-reported driving after drinking. RESULTS: There were increases in warning awareness, exposure, and recognition memory. These effects leveled off approximately 3.5 years after the inclusion of the warning on alcohol beverage containers. There was no beneficial change attributable to the warning in beliefs, alcohol consumption, or driving after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: The initial positive effects of the alcohol warning label on adolescents have leveled off, consistent with theories of repeated exposure to persuasive information. The alcohol warning has not affected adolescents' beliefs about alcohol or alcohol-related behaviors.

MacKinnon, D P; Nohre, L; Pentz, M A; Stacy, A W

2000-01-01

34

Do Alcohol Warning Labels Influence Men's and Women's Attempts to Deter Others from Driving When Intoxicated?  

PubMed Central

Research on the federally mandated alcohol warning label has found mixed results, but some findings are consistent with a modest influence on precautionary behaviors to reduce drinkers’ self-reported drunk driving. We hypothesized that warnings would also influence the likelihood of intervening to deter other’s driving after drinking. Using data from 1376 adult drinkers in a US national survey, a conceptual model reflecting effects of exposure to the label’s drunk driving message on taking actions to avert another's driving under the influence was tested in a structural equation modeling framework. For males and females, in structural models with drinking and handling of alcoholic beverages potentially affecting both message recall and intervening, the predicted relationships were found between message recall and actions to deter another’s drinking driving. This finding suggests that an important preventive effect of the alcohol warning label may be to legitimate collateral’s attempts to avert another’s drunk driving.

Tam, Tammy W.; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2009-01-01

35

Interpretations of cigarette advertisement warning labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans.  

PubMed

This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications regarding the possibility of wide variations in message interpretations and (b) support the call for public health messages to be carefully tested for effectiveness among different social groups. The article's focus on Puerto Ricans addresses the problem of misleading conclusions that can arise from aggregating all Latino subpopulations into one group. The use of a naturalistic setting to examine interpretations of messages about smoking departs from the experimental methods typically used for such research and provides new evidence that even a seemingly straightforward message can be interpreted in multiple ways. Understanding and addressing differences in message interpretation can guide public health campaigns aimed at reducing health disparities. PMID:21534024

Morris, Nancy; Gilpin, Dawn R; Lenos, Melissa; Hobbs, Renee

2011-05-24

36

Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?  

PubMed

Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed. PMID:17450995

Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

2007-02-01

37

Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: Testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label.  

PubMed

The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli. PMID:23688859

Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J

2013-05-18

38

The evolution of health warning labels on cigarette packs: the role of precedents, and tobacco industry strategies to block diffusion.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the evolution and diffusion of health warnings on cigarette packs around the world, including tobacco industry attempts to block this diffusion. METHODS: We analysed tobacco industry documents and public sources to construct a database on the global evolution and diffusion of health warning labels from 1966 to 2012, and also analysed industry strategies. RESULTS: Health warning labels, especially labels with graphic elements, threaten the tobacco industry because they are a low-cost, effective measure to reduce smoking. Multinational tobacco companies did not object to voluntary innocuous warnings with ambiguous health messages, in part because they saw them as offering protection from lawsuits and local packaging regulations. The companies worked systematically at the international level to block or weaken warnings once stronger more specific warnings began to appear in the 1970s. Since 1985 in Iceland, the tobacco industry has been aware of the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GWHL). The industry launched an all-out attack in the early 1990s to prevent GHWLs, and was successful in delaying GHWLs internationally for nearly 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Beginning in 2005, as a result of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), GHWLs began to spread. Effective implementation of FCTC labelling provisions has stimulated diffusion of strong health warning labels despite industry opposition. PMID:23092884

Hiilamo, Heikki; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

2012-10-23

39

Do Alcohol Warning Labels Influence Men's and Women's Attempts to Deter Others from Driving When Intoxicated?  

PubMed

Research on the federally mandated alcohol warning label has found mixed results, but some findings are consistent with a modest influence on precautionary behaviors to reduce drinkers' self-reported drunk driving. We hypothesized that warnings would also influence the likelihood of intervening to deter other's driving after drinking. Using data from 1376 adult drinkers in a US national survey, a conceptual model reflecting effects of exposure to the label's drunk driving message on taking actions to avert another's driving under the influence was tested in a structural equation modeling framework. For males and females, in structural models with drinking and handling of alcoholic beverages potentially affecting both message recall and intervening, the predicted relationships were found between message recall and actions to deter another's drinking driving. This finding suggests that an important preventive effect of the alcohol warning label may be to legitimate collateral's attempts to avert another's drunk driving. PMID:22473433

Tam, Tammy W; Greenfield, Thomas K

2010-11-01

40

40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

2013-07-01

41

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...destination) A carrier at its option may omit the last three lines of the above legend from the warning label but if not omitted...of lack of space, a 3Ã5 inch label may be used. A high visibility, pressure-sensitive warning label, whether as a...

2013-04-01

42

Generality and Specificity in Health Behavior: Application to Warning-Label and Social Influence Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors outlined a meta-theoretical and an analytic framework for construing the predictive effects of health-behavior expectancies, or beliefs, in terms of both general and specific processes. This framework was applied empirically to the investigation of the predictive effects of outcome expectancies related to the recently mandated alcohol-warning label as well as to expectancies reflecting social influence processes. Results showed

Alan W. Stacy; David P. MacKinnon; Mary Ann Pentz

1993-01-01

43

Generality and specificity in health behavior: Application to warning-label and social influence expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors outlined a meta-theoretical and an analytic framework for construing the predictive effects of health-behavior expectancies, or beliefs, in terms of both general and specific processes. This framework was applied empirically to the investigation of the predictive effects of outcome expectancies related to the recently mandated alcohol-warning label as well as to expectancies reflecting social influence processes. Results showed

Alan W. Stacy; David P. MacKinnon; Mary Ann Pent

1993-01-01

44

You've been warned: an empirical study of the effectiveness of web browser phishing warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many popular web browsers now include active phishing warnings since research has shown that passive warnings are often ignored. In this laboratory study we examine the effectiveness of these warnings and examine if, how, and why they fail users. We simulated a spear phishing attack to expose users to browser warnings. We found that 97% of our sixty participants fell

Serge Egelman; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Jason I. Hong

2008-01-01

45

16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled on the blade...

2010-01-01

46

16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled on the blade...

2009-01-01

47

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning statement. 82.110 Section 82.110 Protection...Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.110 Form of label bearing warning statement. (a) Conspicuousness and...

2013-07-01

48

Israeli Arab and Jewish youth knowledge and opinion about alcohol warning labels: pre-intervention data.  

PubMed

This article presents baseline data on the opinion toward alcohol beverage warning labels and on levels of knowledge of the risks discussed in the contents of the labels prior to the labels' introduction, and on levels of knowledge of additional alcohol-related hazards not included in the proposed warning labels, among a sample of 3065 adolescents of four religions living in the northern region of Israel. About 2220 Arab participants (Moslems, Christians and Druze) and 845 Jewish respondents answered in the winter of 1996 a Hebrew version of an American questionnaire, which had been used to measure levels of knowledge of the label in the United States. More respondents were in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than on advertisements. Arabs as a group were more in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than Jews. The initial knowledge levels among the participants were not very high, especially concerning the item 'Drinking impairs the ability to operate machinery' (74.4%) which is included on the proposed warning label, and concerning two hazards which are not included: 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' (54.6%) and 'Drinking increases risk of high blood pressure' (60.4%). Abstainers knew more than drinkers that 'Pregnant women should not drink', 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' and 'Alcohol in combination with other drugs is hazardous'. Implications for public health are discussed and alternative warning messages that might be used to inform the Israeli public of several less well-known hazards are suggested. PMID:9199725

Weiss, S

49

16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled on the blade housing or, in the absence of a blade housing, on other blade shielding or on an adjacent supporting structure or assembly, with the warning label shown in Fig. 7. The label shall be at...

2013-01-01

50

Awareness and knowledge of alcohol beverage warning labels among homeless persons in cook county, illinois.  

PubMed

In 1988 Congress passed the Alcohol Beverage Labeling Act, requiring that two specific health warning labels appear on all alcoholic beverage containers sold in the United States after November 1989. The following year, a random sample of 481 homeless persons interviewed in shelters, soup kitchens, drop-in centers, and single room occupancy (SRO) hotels in Cook County, Illinois were asked about their awareness and knowledge of these messages. As a group traditionally considered at high risk for alcohol abuse, the degree to which the newly-mandated warning messages have been communicated to homeless persons has important implications for the success of this public health measure. Findings revealed that age and level of alcohol consumption were each associated with label awareness and content familiarity, suggesting that alcohol beverage warning labels may be reaching homeless persons. PMID:20841002

Parsons, J A; Johnson, T P; Barrett, M E

1993-01-01

51

Five years' exposure to alcohol warning label messages and their impacts: Evidence from diffusion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research evaluating the alcohol warning label policy for the first two years following implementation indicated increasing levels of exposure to the label and its contents, and penetration was fairly high in target groups like heavier drinking younger adults. This study focuses on the time course of exposure levels in the U.S. for a period of approximately five years following the

Thomas. K. Greenfield; Lee Ann Kaskutas

1998-01-01

52

21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containers with halocarbon or hydrocarbon propellants. (1) In addition to the warning...self-pressurized container in which the propellant consists in whole or in part of a halocarbon...which contain less than 10 percent propellant in the container. (ii)...

2013-04-01

53

Impact of Tobacco-Related Health Warning Labels across Socioeconomic, Race and Ethnic Groups: Results from a Randomized Web-Based Experiment  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. Methods/Findings Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n?=?3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b?=?0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b?=?0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR?=?1.41, 95% CI?=?1.22?1.62), and intention to quit (OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.10?1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p?=?0.057). Conclusions Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities across groups. Policies that establish strong pictorial warning labels on tobacco packaging may be instrumental in reducing the toll of the tobacco epidemic, particularly within vulnerable communities.

Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Thrasher, James F.; Nagler, Rebekah H.; Feirman, Shari P.; Muenz, Larry R.; He, David Y.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

54

Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases.

Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillan, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Perez-Hernandez, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrie, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Pineda, Justino

2012-01-01

55

Changes in Reported Awareness of Product Warning Labels and Messages in Cohorts of California Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort of 777 Hispanics and 234 non-Hispanic Whites were interviewed in San Francisco, California, over the telephone in 1991 and again 1 year later. Overall, both Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites showed an increase in awareness of a general product warning label for beer and wine containers but a decrease in awareness of a product warning label for cigarettes. High-

Gerardo Marin; Raymond J. Gamba

1997-01-01

56

Scientists to Evaluate Social Effectiveness of Tsunami Warning Methods  

NSF Publications Database

... Social Effectiveness of Tsunami Warning Methods Key social and psychological variables influence ... are likely several key social and psychological variables that influence preparedness. We're hoping ...

57

The association between adolescents' receiver characteristics and exposure to the alcohol warning label  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between receiver characteristics and awareness of, exposure to, memory for, and beliefs about the alcohol warning label were examined. The receiver characteristics studied were sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, school grades, religious service attendance, alcohol use, friends' alcohol use, drinking from the alcohol container, and television viewing. Independent cross- sectional samples of 12th-grade students completed a (n 5 6,391)

Liva Nohre; David P. MacKinnon; Alan W. Stacy; Mary Ann Pentz

1999-01-01

58

16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually...material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...

2013-01-01

59

Novelty effects in a multimodal warning signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The warning signals of toxic insects are often ‘multimodal’, combining bright coloration with sounds or odours (or both). Pyrazine (a common insect warning odour) can elicit an intrinsic avoidance in domestic chicksGallus gallus domesticus, both against novel coloured food, and also against food colours that are specifically associated with aposematism, namely yellow and red. In three experiments, we investigated the

CANDY ROWE; TIM GUILFORD

1999-01-01

60

Warning labels on alcohol containers as a source of information on alcohol consumption in pregnancy among New Zealand women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe addition of a warning label on alcohol containers is a policy measure yet to be adopted in New Zealand. The current study aims to report the rating of a national sample of 16–40-year-old non-pregnant New Zealand women on a warning label on alcohol containers as a source of information on risks associated with alcohol consumption in pregnancy.

Sherly M. Parackal; Mathew K. Parackal; John A. Harraway

2010-01-01

61

Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: effects on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.  

PubMed

Recent proposals across a number of Western countries have suggested that idealised media images should carry some sort of disclaimer informing readers when these images have been digitally enhanced. The present studies aimed to experimentally investigate the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of the addition of such warning labels to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 120 and 114 female undergraduate students in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 respectively. In both experiments, participants viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no warning label, a generic warning label, or a specific more detailed warning label. In neither experiment was there a significant effect of type of label. However, state appearance comparison was found to predict change in body dissatisfaction irrespective of condition. Unexpectedly, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of label on body dissatisfaction, such that for women high on trait appearance comparison, exposure to specific warning labels actually resulted in increased body dissatisfaction. In sum, the present results showed no benefit of warning labels in ameliorating the known negative effect of viewing thin-ideal media images, and even suggested that one form of warning (specific) might be harmful for some individuals. Accordingly, it was concluded that more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of disclaimer labels. PMID:22947622

Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Bury, Belinda; Hawkins, Kimberley; Firth, Bonny

2012-09-01

62

Warnings of adverse side effects can backfire over time.  

PubMed

Warnings that a promoted product can have adverse side effects (e.g., smoking cigarettes can cause cancer) should dampen the product's allure. We predicted that with temporal distance (e.g., when an ad relates to future consumption or was viewed some time earlier), this common type of warning can have a worrisome alternative consequence: It can ironically boost the product's appeal. Building on construal-level theory, we argue that this is because temporal distance evokes high-level construal, which deemphasizes side effects and emphasizes message trustworthiness. In four studies, we demonstrated this phenomenon. For example, participants could buy cigarettes or artificial sweeteners after viewing an ad promoting the product. Immediately afterward, the quantity that participants bought predictably decreased if the ad they saw included a warning about adverse side effects. With temporal distance (product to be delivered 3 months later, or 2 weeks after the ad was viewed), however, participants who had seen an ad noting the benefits of the product but warning of risky side effects bought more than those who had seen an ad noting only benefits. PMID:23912069

Steinhart, Yael; Carmon, Ziv; Trope, Yaacov

2013-08-02

63

THE EFFECT OF HUD WARNING LOCATION ON DRIVER RESPONSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study investigated the effect of head-up display (HUD) location on response time and detection probability of HUD warnings. Twenty-four subjects, sitting in a driving simulator, watched a projected videotape of driving in traffic on a real road. The subjects pressed a key whenever they detected predetermined events in the road scene (passing cars, leading car signals, or road

Hiroshi Watanabe; Herbert Yoo; Omer Tsimhoni; Paul Green

1999-01-01

64

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

65

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

66

The impact of alcohol beverage container warning labels on alcohol-impaired drivers, drinking drivers and the general population in northern California.  

PubMed

Using data collected in a random-digit dial telephone survey in a northern California county, an examination of the impact of alcohol beverage container warning labels was conducted. In a broadly conceived approach to the possible impact of warning labels, we examined recall and content as well as risk assessment and the use of warning labels as public policy to combat drunk driving. In a repeated measures pre- and post-design, respondents reported significantly higher recall of labels and their content in the post-introduction period. Evidence from a multivariate analysis of post-introduction data indicate that both drinking drivers and impaired drivers (based on self-reports) were more likely to recall the labels and their content, an indication that warning labels are reaching "at risk" individuals. In addition, increases in the perceived risk of driving and drinking are consistent with the notion that warning labels, as one part of a larger social movement, are helping to create an atmosphere in which drinking and driving is less acceptable. However, our findings also indicate that, at least among at risk drinking and impaired drivers, increased use of public policies such as warning labels in an effort to reduce the negative consequences of drinking and driving may generate a public opinion backlash. PMID:7866248

Parker, R N; Saltz, R F; Hennessy, M

1994-12-01

67

Caution: Alcohol advertising and the surgeon general's alcohol warnings may have adverse effects on young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government mandated warnings are becoming more common. However, studies have not compared the effect of warnings, meant to increase perception of risk, to advertising, which aims to decrease perceptions of risk and enhance perceptions of product benefits. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of the newly introduced Surgeon General's alcohol warnings and advertisements on college students. Surprisingly, the

Leslie B. Snyder; Deborah J. Blood

1992-01-01

68

The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages, and Addendum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) published an 'Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking' concerning the attachment of warning labels on containers of alcoholic beverages (Federal Register, 16 Jan 1978), and has concluded that the public shou...

1979-01-01

69

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...statement is on outer packaging, as well as the display panel area, the statement...image of letters. (2) Alternative placement. The minimum type size for the warning statement on any alternative placement which meets the requirements of §...

2012-07-01

70

Adolescents' Attention to Traditional and Graphic Tobacco Warning Labels: An Eye-Tracking Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would 1) increase visual…

Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin

2010-01-01

71

Perceptions of young Jordanian adults to proposed anti-tobacco pictorial warning labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In commitment to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), four new pictorial warnings are now being proposed for\\u000a display on cigarette packages sold in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gauge the immediate perceptions of young Jordanian\\u000a adults towards these new pictorials and compare these perceptions to those of the pictorial currently being used in the country.

Feras I Hawari; Rasha K Bader; Hamza M Beano; Nour A Obeidat; Hiba S Ayub; Malek A Habashneh; Aisha S Shtaiwi; Rawan A Shihab; Hala N Madanat; Thomas E Novotny

2011-01-01

72

Caution: Alcohol Advertising and the Surgeon General's Alcohol Warnings May Have Adverse Effects on Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of the newly introduced Surgeon General's alcohol warnings and advertisements on college students. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates in communication sciences at the University of Connecticut viewed slides of alcohol products, with or without advertisements and warnings. Following the viewings, subjects filled…

Blood, Deborah J.; Snyder, Leslie B.

73

Caution: Alcohol Advertising and the Surgeon General's Alcohol Warnings May Have Adverse Effects on Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the effects of the newly introduced Surgeon General's alcohol warnings and advertisements on college students. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates in communication sciences at the University of Connecticut viewed slides of alcohol products, with or without advertisements and warnings. Following the viewings, subjects filled…

Blood, Deborah J.; Snyder, Leslie B.

74

Deaf Effect for Risk Warnings: A Causal Examination applied to Information Systems Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escalation of commitment to a chosen course of action is a phenomenon that shows for example when failing strategic Information Systems (IS) projects are continued for much too long. With this study we contribute to the explanation of why managers (Project Owners) respond with the Deaf Effect to Risk Warnings, even when these warnings are provided by a credible messenger,

Nuijten A. L. P

2012-01-01

75

The Impact of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels and Smoke-Free Law on Health Awareness and Thoughts of Quitting in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study evaluated the impact of Taiwan's graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on awareness of the health hazards of smoking and thoughts of quitting smoking. National representative samples of 1074 and 1094 people, respectively, were conducted successfully by telephone in July 2008 (pre-law) and March 2009 (post-law).…

Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-yu

2011-01-01

76

Effects of road surface appearance and low friction warning systems on driver behaviour and confidence in the warning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warning systems for slippery road conditions are a potential newcomer among driver support systems. A total of 75 participants drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator on roads with both visible and invisible ice, to investigate to which extent drivers rely on a low friction warning system. Three experimental groups with different versions of a low friction warning system and a

Katja Kircher; Birgitta Thorslund

2009-01-01

77

Off-Label Prescribing, Polypharmacy, and Black-Box Warnings: A Primer for School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychotropic medications are increasingly used to treat children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Between the years 1994 and 2001, there was a 191.7% increase in number of office visits resulting in a psychotropic medication prescription among children and adolescents. Many drugs are prescribed to children "off-label", whereby they…

Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

78

Early-warning management of inner logistics risk in SMEs based on label-card system  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the informationisation process of inner logistics, one of the main factors causing the business failure for SMEs in China is that the selected tools and methods of informationisation cannot adapt to the environment and scale of businesses properly. Directed at solving this problem, this article is intended to propose a so-called ‘Label-Card Management’ (LCM for short) for SMEs’ informationisation

Kefan Xie; Jieming Liu; Huatao Peng; Gang Chen; Yun Chen

2009-01-01

79

An Evaluation of Some Additional Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Warning Letters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objectives of the study were to determine the effectiveness of two types of warning letters and an informational pamphlet in reducing the subsequent collision and conviction records of pre-negligent drivers. An additional study objective was t...

W. V. Epperson R. M. Harano

1974-01-01

80

Evaluating the Life Cycle of a Product WarningSaccharin and Diet Soft Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the saccharin warning label on sales of diet soft drinks was modeled with an autoregressive integrated moving average (A RIMA) process. Retail price trends and attendant publicity were modeled concurrently to separate these effects from those due to the warning. Results indicated that the label produced a small yet statistically significant reduction in sales, with an abrupt

Robert G. Orwin; Raymond E. Schucker; Raymond C. Stokes

1984-01-01

81

FDA boxed warnings: how to prescribe drugs safely.  

PubMed

Boxed warnings, commonly referred to as "black box" warnings, are issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and featured in the labeling of drugs associated with serious adverse reactions. These safety concerns are typically identified through the Adverse Event Reporting System and the Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, which evaluates postmarket safety findings. The most common type of warning is issued when there is a potentially serious adverse effect that must be carefully weighed against the potential benefit of the drug. Warnings are also issued to draw attention to dosing, monitoring requirements, and potential drug interactions. Boxed warnings have been issued recently for oral sodium phosphate bowel preparations, fluoroquinolone antibiotics, and salmeterol. Despite these highly publicized warnings, all of these medications remain viable treatment options with appropriate patient selection. Ultimately, physicians must decide whether to prescribe drugs with boxed warnings. PMID:20112888

O'Connor, Nina R

2010-02-01

82

Effects of a commitment warning on children's decision behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 3 studies with 104 preschool children in the United States and Australia to determine whether a commitment warning (admonition that a decision will be binding) would influence behavior on immediate and on unrelated decisions. In comparison with Ss in the noncommitment condition, commitment Ss took longer to announce their choice of a gift toy and showed greater willingness to

Leon Mann

1971-01-01

83

Examining the conspicuousness and prominence of two required warnings on OTC pain relievers  

PubMed Central

The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is critical to their safe and effective use, and certain warnings are meant to be read at the point of purchase (POP). Examples include (i) warnings that alert consumers to the fact that the package is not child-resistant and (ii) warnings that alert consumers to potential product tampering. U.S. law mandates these warnings be “conspicuous” and “prominent” so that it is likely that consumers will read them before leaving the store. Our objective was to quantify the relative prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Sixty-one participants reviewed the packages of 5 commercially available analgesics to evaluate the prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Evaluated data included (i) the time spent examining the warnings compared with other areas of the label (using a bright pupil eye tracker), (ii) the ability to recall information from the OTCs viewed, and (iii) the legibility of the warnings relative to other elements of the labels (as measured by ASTM D7298-06). Eye-tracking data indicated that warnings were viewed by fewer participants and for less time than other elements of the packages. Recall and legibility data also indicated that the warning statements compared unfavorably with other elements of the labels tested. Evidence presented in this study suggests that 2 required warnings on 5 different OTCs are not prominent or conspicuous when compared with other elements of tested labels.

Bix, Laura; Bello, Nora M.; Auras, Rafael; Ranger, Jon; Lapinski, Maria K.

2009-01-01

84

Awareness of smoking risks and attitudes towards graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs: a cross-cultural study of two populations in Singapore and Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLittle is known about the level of awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition, although the relationship has been well established.AimTo compare the awareness of smoking risks and the impact of graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs in discouraging smoking among adults in Singapore and Scotland.MethodsA cross-sectional survey using a structured interview of adults in ophthalmic, general medical, and

D H L Ng; S T D Roxburgh; S Sanjay; K G Au Eong; DHL Ng

2010-01-01

85

Effexor Warning Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... The PI for Effexor XR includes a black box warning regarding suicidality in children ... The journal ad claims that “In an open-label study of patients ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

86

Quantifying Age-Related Differences in Information Processing Behaviors When Viewing Prescription Drug Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant problem in health care. While effective warnings have the potential to reduce the prevalence of ADEs, little is known about how patients access and use prescription labeling. We investigated the effectiveness of prescription warning labels (PWLs, small, colorful stickers applied at the pharmacy) in conveying warning information to two groups of patients (young

Raghav Prashant Sundar; Mark W. Becker; Nora M. Bello; Laura Bix

2012-01-01

87

Effects of verbal warning upon misapplication of a rule of limited applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the effects of level of intensity of a verbal warning upon the tendency to misapply a rule of limited applicability using a fixed effects 2-factor multiple dependent variable experimental design. Results with 86 undergraduate teacher education students (given either a test measuring the level of original learning or the rokeach dogmatism scale) show that the introduction of the rule

Duncan McQuarrie; Arden Grotelueschen

1971-01-01

88

EFFICIENCY AND SAFETY EVALUATION OF DETECTABLE WARNING SURFACES IN WINTER CONDITIONS: EFFECTS OF COLOR AND MATERIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project is to assess the efficiency and safety of warning tiles for persons who are blind in winter conditions, as well as to determine the effect colors and materials have on tile detection by foot. One of the objectives is to observe if the snow on a darker tile melts faster and if it contributes to

Julie Landry; Agathe Ratelle; Olga Overbury

2010-01-01

89

Loss Cone Precursors to Forbush Decreases and Advance Warning of Space Weather Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based observations of cosmic rays by neutron monitors and muon detectors have found precursor anisotropies before the arrival of an interplanetary shock and subsequent Forbush decrease, possibly providing advance warning of space weather effects on shock impact at the Earth's magnetosphere. Surprisingly, muon detectors observe precursors with a greater lead time than neutron monitors. Here, we explain both loss cone

K. Leerungnavarat; D. Ruffolo; J. W. Bieber

2003-01-01

90

Evaluation of a sudden brake warning system: Effect on the response time of the following driver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a video-based braking simulation dual task to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the effect of a sudden brake warning system (SBWS) in a leading passenger vehicle on the response time of the following driver. The primary task required the participants (N=25, 16 females, full NZ license holders) to respond to sudden braking manoeuvres of a lead

Robert B. Isler; Nicola J. Starkey

2010-01-01

91

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2013-04-01

92

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2011-04-01

93

Exposure to prescription drugs labeled for risk of adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide, 2006-2009.  

PubMed

Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to administrative prescription data. Descriptive statistics illustrate utilization: 89 personnel had a prescription history, 35 filled at least one prescription labeled with a warning, 26 had antidepressants on hand at death, and 2 died by drug overdose. Most airmen were not exposed to any prescriptions labeled for risk of suicidal ideation or behavior prior to death by suicide. PMID:22934922

Lavigne, Jill E; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L

2012-08-31

94

Intended and unintended effects of explicit warnings on eyewitness suggestibility: evidence from source identification tests.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that source identification (ID) tests reduce, and in some cases eliminate, eyewitness suggestibility errors. The present study showed that the suggestibility errors participants committed on a source ID test were further reduced when they were given the explicit postwarning that the experimenter was trying to trick them. These postwarnings reduced suggestibility to the same extent as prewarnings, and they did so for both once and repeatedly suggested items. In addition, the benefits of the pre- and postwarnings persisted when participants were retested 1 week later, but only if the suggestions had been repeated. For once-suggested items, the warning had the unintended effect of improving old/new recognition of the suggested information at retest, an effect that offset the improvements in source discrimination accuracy conferred by the warning. The advantages of using source ID tests for investigating group differences in eyewitness suggestibility are discussed. PMID:11913748

Chambers, K L; Zaragoza, M S

2001-12-01

95

An early warning system for unrecognized drug side effects discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs can treat human diseases through chemical interactions between the ingredients and intended targets in the human body. However, the ingredients could unexpectedly interact with off-targets, which may cause adverse drug side effects. Notifying patients and physicians of potential drug effects is an important step in improving healthcare quality and delivery. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0 applications, more

Hao Wu; Hui Fang; Steven J. Stanhope

2012-01-01

96

Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

2012-01-01

97

Effectiveness of a Forward Collision Warning System in simple and in dual task from an electrophysiological perspective.  

PubMed

Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) are expected to assist drivers; however, it is not completely clear whether these systems are of benefit to distracted drivers as much as they are to undistracted drivers. This study aims at investigating further the analysis of the effectiveness of a surrogate FCWS according to the attentional state of participants. In this experiment electrophysiological and behavioural data were recording while participants were required to drive in a simple car simulator and to react to the braking of the lead vehicle which could be announced by a warning system. The effectiveness of this warning system was evaluated when drivers were distracted or not by a secondary cognitive task. In a previous study, the warning signal was not completely effective likely due to the presence of another predictor of the forthcoming braking which competes with the warning. By eliminating this secondary predictor in the present study, the results confirmed the negative effect of the secondary task and revealed the expected effectiveness of the warning system at behavioural and electrophysiological levels. PMID:23485786

Bueno, Mercedes; Fort, Alexandra; Francois, Mathilde; Ndiaye, Daniel; Deleurence, Philippe; Fabrigoule, Colette

2013-02-26

98

Effect of regulatory warnings on antidepressant prescription rates, use of health services and outcomes among children, adolescents and young adults  

PubMed Central

Background Regulatory bodies worldwide, including Health Canada, have issued warnings about prescribing antidepressants to children and adolescents. We sought to determine whether the Health Canada warning had the desired effects on prescribing patterns and outcomes and whether it had any unintended health consequences. Methods We examined data from prescription and health care databases representing more than 265 000 children, adolescents and young adults annually to determine changes in the rates of antidepressant prescription, use of health services and outcomes in these populations in the 9 years before and the 2 years after the Health Canada warning. We also examined the data for unintended changes in these rates among patients with anxiety disorders. We used young adults as the comparison group because they were not targeted by the warning. Results Following the warning, the rate of antidepressant prescriptions decreased among children and adolescents (relative risk [RR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81–0.91) and among young adults (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86–0.93). Ambulatory visits because of depression decreased among children and adolescents (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.96) and young adults (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87–0.96). The rate of completed suicides among children and adolescents rose significantly after the warning (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08–1.44; annual rate per 1000 = 0.04 before and 0.15 after the warning). There was no equivalent change in the rate of completed suicides among young adults (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.93–1.10; annual rate per 1000 = 0.15 before and 0.22 after the warning). Among patients with an anxiety disorder, the prescription rates did not change among children and adolescents, except for a decrease in the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors other than fluoxetine, but the rates among young adults changed similar to the pattern of changes in the overall prescribing of antidepressants. There was also a significant decrease in the rate of physician visits because of anxiety disorders among young adults after the warning. Interpretation Health advisories and warnings issued by regulatory bodies may have unintended consequences on the provision of care, delivery of health services and clinical outcomes. Further efforts are required to ensure that health warnings do not result in unexpected harm.

Katz, Laurence Y.; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Prior, Heather J.; Enns, Murray W.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender

2008-01-01

99

WARNING LETTER  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... 2525 Dupont Drive Irvine, CA 92612 RE: NDA# 21-794 ACZONE® (dapsone) Gel, 5% MACMIS ID #17769 WARNING LETTER Dear Mr. Pyott: ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

100

Differential effects of target probability on saccade latencies in gap and warning tasks.  

PubMed

Saccade latencies are significantly reduced by extinguishing a foveal fixation stimulus before the appearance of a saccade target. It has been shown recently that this "fixation offset effect" (FOE) can be modulated by varying target probability. Cortico-collicular top-down effects have been assumed to mediate this strategic FOE modulation. Here, we have investigated strategic FOE modulation in 14 healthy human subjects performing gap and warning tasks. In the former task, the central fixation point was extinguished 200 ms before target onset. In the latter task, the central fixation point changed its colour 200 ms before target onset, but remained illuminated until the target appeared. Target probability was varied block-wise between 25 and 75%. In both tasks, mean latencies decreased with increasing target probability. However, in contrast with what can be expected from preceding studies, we found no differential modulation of mean latencies by target probability between tasks. Instead, we observed differential probability-dependent changes in latency distributions. In the gap task, discrete changes of saccade latencies were found, with a probability-dependent change in frequency of express and regular latencies. By contrast, in the warning task a shift of the entire latency distribution towards longer latencies with low target probability was found. We conclude that strategic modulation of saccade latencies by target probability may be mediated by two distinct neural mechanisms. Selection of either mechanism seems to depend critically on activation of the fixation system. PMID:15864566

Dick, Sandra; Kathmann, Norbert; Ostendorf, Florian; Ploner, Christoph J

2005-04-29

101

Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008  

PubMed Central

Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504), 2006 (n = 525), 2007 (n = 414) and 2008 (n = 464). Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

2011-01-01

102

The effects of prior warning and lifting-induced fatigue on trunk muscle and postural responses to sudden loading during manual handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of warning and lifting-induced fatigue on trunk muscle activity and postural responses to sudden loading. Thirty-one male subjects were subjected to sudden loading of a hand-held box with and without prior warning, before and after either lifting-induced fatigue or light callisthenic exercises. Results showed that warning did not alter the level of trunk muscle activity

G. A. Mawston; P. J. McNair; M. G. Boocock

2007-01-01

103

The Effects of Truncated Dome Detectable Warnings on Travelers Negotiating Curb Ramps in Wheelchairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truncated domes on curb ramps benefit travelers with visual impairments. However, concerns associated with the safety and negotiability of such detectable warnings for other travelers have resulted in much controversy. The findings of the study presented here indicate that detectable warnings did not adversely affect the negotiability of ramps by…

Lee, Helen

2011-01-01

104

The Effectiveness of the Warning Signs Program in Educating Youth about Violence Prevention: A Study with Urban High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the Warning Signs program in educating urban high school youth about the signs of potential violence in themselves and others was stud- ied. No differences were found with exposure to the program. Rather, students in all groups identified certain personality traits that are suggestive of vio- lence, but ignored family, school, and social contribu- tors. Suggestions for

Kristin Schaefer

105

Long-term effect of introducing an early warning score on respiratory rate charting on general wards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiratory rate is an early indicator of disease, yet many clinicians underestimate its importance and hospitals report a poor level of respiratory rate recording. We studied the short- and long-term effects of introducing a new patient vital signs chart and the modified early warning score (MEWS), which incorporates respiratory rate on the prevalence of respiratory rate recording in six

Jackie McBride; Debbie Knight; Jo Piper; Gary B Smith

2005-01-01

106

An evaluation of warning habits and beliefs across the adult life span.  

PubMed

Beliefs about warnings and habits associated with reading them were assessed for 863 individuals of various ages. Information gathered for various common household products included (a) how frequently people attend to warning information, (b) the degree of risk they believe is involved during product usage, and (c) how important they believe warnings are for different product types. Also assessed were perceived helpfulness and comprehension for symbols commonly found on product labels or on signs in the environment. Respondents 55 years and older reported reading product warnings more frequently than did younger adults, although they generally perceived warnings as less important. However, no overall age-related differences were found for perceived level of risk involved in using different product types. Although older adults generally perceived symbols to be very helpful when using a particular product, their comprehension levels were poorer than those of younger adults for half of the symbols. Overall, these data suggest that adults of all ages do read warnings on a variety of product types and that they believe warning information is important. This research illustrates the importance of including older adults in usability studies during the development of warning systems, given age-related effects may be associated with some aspects of the warning processing but not others. PMID:11866191

Hancock, H E; Rogers, W A; Fisk, A D

2001-01-01

107

Effect of two warning signs on adult supervision and risky activities by children in grocery shopping carts.  

PubMed

398 children, 1 to 6 years of age, and the adults accompanying them in two supermarkets were exposed to one of four treatments. Two experimental treatments featured variations on a warning sign, prompting adults to prevent their children from standing while in the cart seat and basket portions of shopping carts. The two control treatments exposed the adults to advertisements rather than warning signs. No effect was observed of either warning on standing while in cart seats, standing while in baskets, climbing on carts, or standing on the ends or sides of carts; nor was any effect noted on three measures of adult supervision. This lack of effect is attributed to adults' perceptions of the low risk of serious injury to children in carts, their familiarity with carts, the costliness of ensuring compliance with the warnings, and the lack of natural contingencies supporting the prompts. Risky activities by children were related to the child's location in the cart, child's sex, and adult supervision. PMID:12841463

Harrell, W Andrew

2003-06-01

108

The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

109

Using Fear Appeals in Warning Labels to Promote Responsible Gambling Among VLT Players: The Key Role of Depth of Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous.\\u000a Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The\\u000a present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial\\u000a design experiment was used

Yaromir Munoz; Jean-Charles Chebat; Jacob Amnon Suissa

2010-01-01

110

21 CFR 812.5 - Labeling of investigational devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hazards, adverse effects, interfering substances or devices, warnings, and precautions. (b) Prohibitions. The labeling...other units of a device that are or will be included in the Strategic National Stockpile. [45 FR 3751, Jan. 18, 1980,...

2013-04-01

111

21 CFR 1302.05 - Effective dates of labeling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01... Effective dates of labeling requirements. 1302.05 Section 1302.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS...requirements. All labels on commercial...

2013-04-01

112

[Pictorial health warnings on tobacco products packages as a part of tobacco epidemic control].  

PubMed

The use of tobacco products has been described by the World Health Organization as the risk factor responsible for six out of eight causes of death in the world. Informing about the harm of smoking may be presented in many ways like media campaigns, text warnings, or graphic warnings placed on tobacco products. The aim of this article is to describe the role of graphic warnings placed on tobacco products in light of tobacco control. In this work, the available current data, including researches and reports of WHO, have been used. Graphic warnings may be a very valuable source of knowledge about health consequences of smoking. They are also much more visible, draw attention much better compared with text warnings and more clearly communicate the threats of tobacco use. They also have a stronger impact, are better memorized and better motivate to quit smoking. Pictorial warnings are also approved by the society. Smokers themselves perceive them as more effective than text warnings. Moreover, this kind of labeling makes tobacco products less attractive. The introduction of legal regulations enforcing these types of warnings does not cost anybody but the tobacco companies. This kind of solution helps to gain public acceptance for other methods of tobacco control like totally free tobacco smoke places. PMID:19999044

Kaleta, Dorota; Kozie?, Anna; Mi?kiewicz, Paulina

2009-01-01

113

Effects of in-vehicle warning information displays with or without spatial compatibility on driving behaviors and response performance.  

PubMed

A driving simulator study was conducted to evaluate the effects of five in-vehicle warning information displays upon drivers' emergent response and decision performance. These displays include visual display, auditory displays with and without spatial compatibility, hybrid displays in both visual and auditory format with and without spatial compatibility. Thirty volunteer drivers were recruited to perform various tasks that involved driving, stimulus-response, divided attention and stress rating. Results show that for displays of single-modality, drivers benefited more when coping with visual display of warning information than auditory display with or without spatial compatibility. However, auditory display with spatial compatibility significantly improved drivers' performance in reacting to the divided attention task and making accurate S-R task decision. Drivers' best performance results were obtained for hybrid display with spatial compatibility. Hybrid displays enabled drivers to respond the fastest and achieve the best accuracy in both S-R and divided attention tasks. PMID:22103964

Liu, Yung-Ching; Jhuang, Jing-Wun

2011-11-20

114

Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy  

PubMed Central

An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification.

Stevens, Catherine J.; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare

2009-01-01

115

THE EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT-ISSUED TERROR WARNINGS ON PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the possibility that government-issued terror warnings could increase support for the president. This contention is supported anecdotally by the large increase in presidential approval immediately following the attacks on the United States of September 11, 2001. Additionally, social identity theory suggests that fear of external attacks leads to increased support for standing leaders. To evaluate this proposition,

Robb Willer

116

The Effectiveness of Reverse Telephon Emergency Warning Systems in the October 2007 San Diego Wildfires  

SciTech Connect

Late in October, 2007, fast-moving wildfires fueled by extreme Santa Ana winds threatened residents and their properties in San Diego County, California. The impacted area also included the City of San Diego within the County s boundaries. It turns out the San Diego firestorms would be the biggest in the County's history, surpassing the devastating 2003 firestorms in intensity, duration, and impacted populations. Both San Diego County and the City of San Diego have installed telephone reverse call-down emergency warning systems. A telephone survey of 1200 households located in areas identified by emergency officials as the evacuation zones for the 2007 fires was conducted in late March and early April 2008 using a random telephone dialing process to determine if people responded to the reverse telephone warning systems calls. Findings indicate that those who received a reverse emergency warning call were much more likely to evacuate than those who did not receive a call. The telephone calls were also the most likely source of first warning.

Sorensen, John H [ORNL; Sorensen, Barbara Vogt [ORNL

2009-01-01

117

The Legal Decision Making of Well-Informed SubjectsThe Effect of Miranda Warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students were asked to serve as legal advisors to six potential defendants. Prior to this task, the subjects were either reminded or not reminded about the Miranda rights via a standard warning. It was found that the students, whether or not they had been reminded of the Miranda protections, gave advice that accurately reflected the varying degree of legal

MICHAEL T. ARMOUR; JEFFREY C. SAVITSKY

1984-01-01

118

Effects of labeling on children's visual imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the visual imagery of kindergarten, 3rd, and 6th graders via a continuous visual recognition test in which Ss were to identify repeated pictures of familiar and nonsense objects. 3 labeling variations were employed: no label was given, the E said a label aloud, or the S was instructed to construct mentally his own label. Error scores on the unlabeled

Carol T. Mowbray; Zella Luria

1973-01-01

119

When the death makes you smoke: A terror management perspective on the effectiveness of cigarette on-pack warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the principal vehicles for informing tobacco consumers about the risks of smoking is the warning message on each cigarette package. Based on terror management theory, the present study investigates the impact of mortality-salient warnings on cigarette packages compared to warnings with no mortality threat. Results suggest that to the degree that smoking is a source of self-esteem, later

Jochim Hansen; Susanne Winzeler; Sascha Topolinski

2010-01-01

120

The effect of a cross-trial shift of auditory warning signals on the sequential foreperiod effect.  

PubMed

When a warning signal (WS) precedes an imperative signal (IS) by a certain amount of time (the foreperiod, FP), responses are speeded. Moreover, this effect is modulated by the FP length in the previous trial. This sequential FP effect has lately been attributed to a trace-conditioning mechanism according to which individuals learn (and re-learn) temporal relationships between the WS and the IS. Recent evidence suggests that sensory WS attributes are critical to trigger time-related response activation. Specifically, when WS modality is shifted in subsequent trials (e.g., from auditory to visual modality), the sequential FP effect becomes attenuated. This study examined whether the sequential FP effect is reduced only by between-modality shifts or whether this attenuation generalizes to cross-trial shifts of WS attributes within modalities. We compared dimensional (low vs. high tone frequency) and qualitative shifts (pure tone vs. noise) of equal-intense auditory WS events. The results of four experiments revealed that shifts of tone frequency did not, whereas shifts of qualitative tone characteristics did attenuate the sequential FP effect. These results support the view that the WS acts as a trigger cue that unintentionally activates responses at previously reinforced critical moments. PMID:20096395

Steinborn, Michael B; Rolke, Bettina; Bratzke, Daniel; Ulrich, Rolf

2010-01-21

121

Warning systems and public warning response  

SciTech Connect

This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

Sorensen, J.H.

1993-09-01

122

Warning Letters 2005  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Cream" (Warning Letter) PDF or HTML, One Life USA, DNDLC, 11/9 ... August 2005. ... Domperidone (Warning Letter), Cape Drugs, DNDLC, 7/11/2005, 8 ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/enforcementactivitiesbyfda

123

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Ask an ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

124

Local Warning System Definition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the final report of the Local Warning System Definition project. The report describes a method for determining an optimum mixture of public warning systems. Two types of input data to the optimum mixture method are developed: warning effec...

B. D. Miller

1970-01-01

125

Metamnemonic control over the discriminability of memory evidence: A signal detection analysis of warning effects in the associative list paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to signal detection theory (SDT), retrieval warnings may decrease false memory in the associative list paradigm either by inducing a conservative criterion shift or by decreasing the amount of evidence that critical theme words were studied. Fitting a SDT model to 12 existing datasets revealed suggestive evidence that warnings impact critical theme evidence, and two new experiments confirmed this

Jeffrey J. Starns; Jill D. Alonzo; Cristine C. Roussel

2007-01-01

126

WARNING LETTER  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... comparative claim that Zyrtec is more effective in treating allergies in general, or certain types of allergies, than some other allergy products, which ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

127

Proposal for a Comprehensive, Integrated National Warning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current National Warning System has neither the organization nor the analytical cohesion to perform effectively the vital function of providing timely and accurate strategic warning to the NCA. In order to correct this critical deficiency, the Intelli...

K. D. Rowley

1990-01-01

128

Medical Malpractice Risk Management Early Warning Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of early warning systems that are based on incident of occurrence reports in improving medical malpractice claims processing and outcomes was studied. Results showed that malpractice claims established on the basis of early warning incident reports not only involve the full range of injury severity, but also identify claims warranting substantial indemnity payments.

Orley H. Lindgren; Ronald Christensen; Don Harper Mills

1991-01-01

129

27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter II require warning labels for products containing certain specified...A. Formula Nos. 3-A and 30 require warning labels because they contain methyl alcohol, a hazardous substance at levels of...

2010-04-01

130

27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter II require warning labels for products containing certain specified...A. Formula Nos. 3-A and 30 require warning labels because they contain methyl alcohol, a hazardous substance at levels of...

2009-04-01

131

Outdoor Weathering Effect on Shipping Label Covers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative study was performed where different shipping label covers were affixed to porous weather-resistant, triple-wall fiberboard boxes and subjected to an outdoor weathering environment for a six-month period. Even though the water-resistant brush...

J. A. Hincks

1972-01-01

132

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

133

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2013-04-01

134

List of Firms Receiving Warning Letters Regarding Cherry and ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... List of Firms Receiving Warning Letters Regarding Cherry and other Fruit-Based Products with Disease Claims in Labeling. October 17, 2005. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/complianceenforcement/warningletters

135

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2011-04-01

136

Warning Letters 2009  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Internet Marketing of Unapproved and Misbranded Drugs. Warning Letter. Forrest Media Incorporated. (approved-swiss-meds.com,. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/enforcementactivitiesbyfda

137

Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo review evidence on the impact of health warning messages on tobacco packages.Data sourcesArticles were identified through electronic databases of published articles, as well as relevant ‘grey’ literature using the following keywords: health warning, health message, health communication, label and labelling in conjunction with at least one of the following terms: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, product, package and pack. Study selection

David Hammond

2011-01-01

138

Timely Warning Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A complaint received by the Department of Education alleged that Virginia Tech violated the "timely warning" requirements of the Clery Act on April 16, 2007, by not issuing specific campus-wide alerts once senior officials knew of the immediate threat to health and safety. The complaint also alleged that the University's timely warning policy, as…

Stafford, Dolores

2011-01-01

139

Multitasking in academia: Effective combinations of research, education and public outreach illustrated by a volcanic ash warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science permeates our society. Its role and its perceived importance evolves with time. Scientists today are highly specialized, yet society demands they master a variety of skills requiring not only a number of different competencies but also a broad mindset. Scientists are subjected to a meritocracy in terms of having to produce scientific papers. Peer-reviewed scientific publications used to be sufficient to meet the various laws and regulations with respect to dissemination of scientific results. This has dramatically changed; both expressed directly through public voices (such as in the climate change discourses), but also by politicians and policy makers. In some countries research funding now comes with specific requirements concerning public outreach that go way beyond peer-reviewed publications and presentation at scientific conferences. Science policies encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and scientific questions themselves often cannot be answered without knowledge and information from several scientific areas. Scientists increasingly need to communicate knowledge and results in more general terms as well as educating future generations. A huge challenge lies in developing the knowledge, human capacity and mindset that will allow an individual academician to contribute to education, communicate across scientific fields and sectors in multidisciplinary cross sectoral cooperations and also reach out to the general public while succeeding within the scientific meritocracy. We demonstrate how research, education and communication within and outside academia can effectively be combined through a presentation of the International Airways Volcano Watch that encompasses an operational volcanic ash warning system for the aviation industry. This presentation will show the role of science throughout the information flow, from basic science to the pilots' decision-making. Furthermore, it will illustrate how one can connect specific scientific topics to societal issues such as security and economy. Skills, knowledge and mindset must be developed and nurtured through university curricula and reflected in career awards and other professional appreciations. By using concrete examples of geoscience in practice, such as the volcanic ash warning system, different aspects of science, it's role in society and economic impact is being communicated across sectors and taught simultaneously. The very same information is relevant and appropriate for society at large and thus time saving for academicians. It also serves as a recruiting strategy.

Bye, B. L.; Plag, H.

2011-12-01

140

Effects of Social Deviance Labels on Judgements of Facial Attractiveness: A Comparison of Labelling Procedures Using Japanese Raters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are people labelled as social deviants also perceived as less physically attractive? Four studies con- ducted in Japan examined judgements of male social-deviants' attractiveness using several labelling procedures. Study 1 determined attractiveness judgement and social distance of various social groups, and Study 2 examined the effect of three labels on attractiveness judgement of 16 portraits. In Studies 3 and 4

Rotem Kowner

1998-01-01

141

Negative Treatment Effects: Is It Time for a Black Box Warning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on Negative effects from psychological treatments: A perspective by David Barlow. The author addresses negative treatment effects in the psychotherapy field by stating that Barlow provided a historical perspective of clinical psychology's long-standing interest in studying the positive effects of psychotherapy, and he indicated that…

Boisvert, Charles M.

2010-01-01

142

Differential effects of target probability on saccade latencies in gap and warning tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccade latencies are significantly reduced by extinguishing a foveal fixation stimulus before the appearance of a saccade target. It has been shown recently that this “fixation offset effect” (FOE) can be modulated by varying target probability. Cortico-collicular top-down effects have been assumed to mediate this strategic FOE modulation. Here, we have investigated strategic FOE modulation in 14 healthy human subjects

Sandra Dick; Norbert Kathmann; Florian Ostendorf; Christoph J. Ploner

2005-01-01

143

Communication architecture of an early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS) in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009) on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

Angermann, M.; Guenther, M.; Wendlandt, K.

2010-11-01

144

21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.63 Medical devices; warning statements for devices...in the upper atmosphere. CONSULT WITH YOUR PHYSICIAN,...

2009-04-01

145

21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.63 Medical devices; warning statements for devices...in the upper atmosphere. CONSULT WITH YOUR PHYSICIAN,...

2010-04-01

146

Reliability and Effectiveness of an Electromagnetic Animal Detection and Driver Warning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains data on the reliability and effectiveness of an animal detection system project along US Hwy 160 between Durango and Bayfield, Colorado. The system that was first installed was a Perimitrax system from Senstar Corporation. In the fall...

C. Haas K. R. Crooks M. P. Huijser

2012-01-01

147

Why People Don't Listen to Warnings: With Discussion of Implications for Futurists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document reviews recent literature on warning processes, evaluates the effectiveness of warnings in changing public policy and personal behavior, and applies warning literature to specific problem areas. Warning is interpreted to include a statement of the problem and a proposed course of action. The document is presented in six parts. Part…

Koster, Fran

148

Why People Don't Listen to Warnings: With Discussion of Implications for Futurists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document reviews recent literature on warning processes, evaluates the effectiveness of warnings in changing public policy and personal behavior, and applies warning literature to specific problem areas. Warning is interpreted to include a statement of the problem and a proposed course of action. The document is presented in six parts. Part…

Koster, Fran

149

Warning Letters 2003  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Street Drug Alternatives Fantasy/Space/Bliss Capsules -Warning Letter, Mr. Mark Hurlbur, Compliance, 3/31/2003, 7/1/2003. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/enforcementactivitiesbyfda

150

Warning Letters 2002  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... 6/14/2002. Overdrive - Warning Letter, Diabetes Tea, Office of Compliance, 6/12/2002, 6/14/2002. Phenylkinetics, Libido Magic ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/enforcementactivitiesbyfda

151

Warning Letters 2001  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Sponsor-Investigator-Warning Letter, William M. Patterson, MD, 8/31/2001, 10/26/2001. ... Transderm Scop (scopolamine), Novartis, 8/31/2001, 9/14/2001 ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/enforcementactivitiesbyfda

152

Capsular warning syndrome.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented with fluctuating right-sided weakness and numbness. This was characterised by episodic sudden onset weakness with resolution of symptoms in between. His symptoms and signs were becoming persistent despite the addition of dual antiplatelet therapy. The history we describe is classical of capsular warning syndrome. The patient went on to have further definitive neuroimaging which revealed a pontine infarct, rather than the expected capsular infarct. We discuss the importance of capsular warning syndrome, the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms and different locations of infarction in previous cases of capsular warning syndrome. We also discuss the lack of consensus (within the literature) in treatment options which are used to try and prevent a completed stroke occurring in cases of capsular warning syndrome. PMID:23853023

Nadarajan, Vivek; Adesina, Tolu

2013-07-12

153

Effectiveness of Wildlife Warning Reflectors in Reducing Deer-Vehicle Accidents in Washington State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of Swareflex Wildlife Reflectors in reducing deer-vehicle collision rates was tested on SR 395 in eastern Washington State where high mortality rates of white-tailed deer had previously been recorded. Reflectors were placed in four test ...

J. A. Schafer S. Penland W. P. Carr

1984-01-01

154

Effective Warnings in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott False-Memory Paradigm: The Role of Identifiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

These experiments document that warnings can substantially reduce false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm when the critical items are easily identifiable. Participants in a norming study identified the critical item after hearing a list of words. The lists with critical items that could be identified by the largest proportion of participants (high identifiable [HI] lists) and the smallest proportion

Jeffrey S. Neuschatz; Gregory E. Benoit; David G. Payne

2003-01-01

155

Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia: Safety and Effectiveness in a 12-Week, Open-Label Trial.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: Varenicline was approved by the FDA in 2006. In 2009, based largely on case reports, the FDA issued a warning of possible adverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior for varenicline and bupropion. Prospective trials of varenicline have not reported increased incidence of psychiatric adverse events other than sleep disturbance, but smokers with major mental illness have been excluded from large prospective trials of varenicline to date. We sought to evaluate the effect of a standard open-label 12-week varenicline trial on prospectively assessed safety and smoking outcomes in stable, treated adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and nicotine dependence. METHODS: One-hundred-and-twelve stable outpatients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day participated in a 12-week, open-label, smoking cessation trial of varenicline and weekly group cognitive behavioral therapy. Participants took varenicline for 4 weeks before attempting cessation. Trained raters collected safety and smoking outcome data weekly. RESULTS: Participants demonstrated improved psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms and nicotine withdrawal symptoms from baseline to week 12 or early termination. At the end of 12 weeks open label treatment, the 14- and 28-day continuous abstinence rates were 47.3 and 34%, respectively. Expired CO declined significantly during treatment in those who did not achieve abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study suggests that varenicline may be well-tolerated and effective for smoking cessation in combination with group CBT in stable outpatients with schizophrenia, a group with high rates of smoking and smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality. PMID:22888309

Pachas, Gladys N; Cather, Corinne; Pratt, Sarah A; Hoeppner, Bettina; Nino, Johanna; Carlini, Sara V; Achtyes, Eric D; Lando, Harry; Mueser, Kim T; Rigotti, Nancy A; Goff, Donald C; Evins, A Eden

2012-05-11

156

Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia: Safety and Effectiveness in a 12-Week, Open-Label Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives Varenicline was approved by the FDA in 2006. In 2009, based largely on case reports, the FDA issued a warning of possible adverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior for varenicline and bupropion. Prospective trials of varenicline have not reported increased incidence of psychiatric adverse events other than sleep disturbance, but smokers with major mental illness have been excluded from large prospective trials of varenicline to date. We sought to evaluate the effect of a standard open-label 12-week varenicline trial on prospectively assessed safety and smoking outcomes in stable, treated adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and nicotine dependence. Methods One-hundred-and-twelve stable outpatients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day participated in a 12-week, open-label, smoking cessation trial of varenicline and weekly group cognitive behavioral therapy. Participants took varenicline for 4 weeks before attempting cessation. Trained raters collected safety and smoking outcome data weekly. Results Participants demonstrated improved psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms and nicotine withdrawal symptoms from baseline to week 12 or early termination. At the end of 12 weeks open label treatment, the 14- and 28-day continuous abstinence rates were 47.3 and 34%, respectively. Expired CO declined significantly during treatment in those who did not achieve abstinence. Conclusions This prospective study suggests that varenicline may be well-tolerated and effective for smoking cessation in combination with group CBT in stable outpatients with schizophrenia, a group with high rates of smoking and smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality.

Pachas, Gladys N.; Cather, Corinne; Pratt, Sarah A.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Nino, Johanna; Carlini, Sara V.; Achtyes, Eric D.; Lando, Harry; Mueser, Kim T.; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Goff, Donald C.; Evins, A. Eden

2011-01-01

157

DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE MULTI-MODAL, MULTIPLE-WARNING SYSTEM: THE PROCESS USED FOR IVBSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the process employed to develop the driver-vehicle interface (DVI) for the light-vehicle platform of the Intelligent Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) project, a cooperative agreement between the private industry and the United States Department of Transportation. The goal is to develop an effective and easy-to-use DVI that alerts the driver of the possibility of rear-end crashes, road departures,

Dinu Madau; Colleen Serafin; Debra Bezzina; Omer Tsimhoni; Paul A. Green

158

Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment  

SciTech Connect

More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-08-01

159

Stigma and suicide warning signs.  

PubMed

The current study explored the relationship between stigma and suicide warning signs using a case vignette methodology. Three comparable vignettes were used varying only the essential warning signs, including heart attack, suicidality without specific mention of suicidal thinking, and suicidality with specific mention of suicidal thoughts and associated intent to die. After reading the vignette, participants responded to questions gauging urgency of response, along with their appraisal of the situation across six domains including: seriousness, time (how quickly should they respond), comfort 1 (how comfortable they were with the situation in general), sureness (how sure they were in their response), comfort 2 (how comfortable they were in implementing their response), and hopefulness (how hopeful they were that their response would be helpful). Consistent with study hypotheses, results indicated that participants were significantly less comfortable, less sure, and less hopeful when responding to a suicidal crisis when compared to a heart attack. In addition, participants were significantly less likely to access emergency services for a seriously suicidal individual in comparison to someone suffering a heart attack, instead choosing to talk with family and friends first. The potential moderating effects of family and individual history of psychiatric illness and treatment, along with current individual psychological symptoms, were also explored and discussed, with no significant impact uncovered. The importance of more targeted efforts to train individuals to not just recognize suicide warning signs, but on how to specifically respond, is emphasized. PMID:23889579

Rudd, M David; Goulding, Jeffrey M; Carlisle, Cory J

2013-01-01

160

Earthquake Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of earthquake physics, and the resulting unpredictability of exact rupture behavior makes accurate prediction of earthquakes difficult. However, once the rupture occurs and seismic waves are generated, the behavior is controlled by elastic properties of the earth, and becomes more predictable. If the ground motion information detected near the source is transmitted immediately as an early warning for ground motion to sites at some distance away before the ground motion begins there, the information could be utilized for various damage mitigation measures. An early warning system has been used in practice in Japan, Mexico, and Taiwan. Two approaches are possible: (1) Regional warning, and (2) Site-specific warning. In (1), the traditional seismological method is used to locate an earthquake, determine the magnitude, and estimate the ground motion at other sites. In (2), the beginning of the ground motion (mainly P wave) observed at a site is used to predict the ensuing ground motion (mainly by S and surface waves) at the same site; no attempt is made to locate the event and estimate the magnitude. The first approach is more reliable, but takes a longer time and cannot be used for the sites at short distances. In contrast, the second approach is less reliable, but very fast, and could provide useful early warning to sites even at very short distances where an early warning is most needed. The first approach has been already used in Japan, Mexico, and Taiwan. Here, we investigate the second approach in some detail from the point of view of rupture physics, and practical applications. The basic principle is that P wave carries the information of the source, but not much energy. S wave and surface waves carry most of the energy and cause the damage. Thus, if we can extract critical information regarding the size of an earthquake from the first few seconds of P waves, the information can be used to predict the severity of ground motion at the site. In general, if P wave is small, the event is either small or large but at large distances, and no warning is warranted. However, a large P wave does not necessarily warrant a warning, because the event can be a nearby small earthquake with short duration of slip motion. Thus, it is important to determine whether the event's slip motion has stopped or keeps growing. To determine whether the event is growing or not, the parameter ? used by Nakamura provides a good diagnostics. ? can be interpreted as a spectrally- weighted period during the first few sec (3 sec in this study). Using simulated records computed for an earthquake rupture model, we have verified that ? is a good measure of the lower-bound of the size of an earthquake. We have determined ? for events with MW=3 to 7.6 (1999 Chi-Chi earthquake), and the results are consistent with the simulation results. If ? <1 sec, the event has already ended or is not likely to grow. If ? > 1 sec, it is likely to grow, but how large it will eventually become cannot be determined. In this sense, this method provides a threshold warning. Thus, a combination of the amplitude and ? from the first 3 sec can provide a useful site-specific early warning. A use of multiple sites is desirable to increase the reliability. This approach can provide a very rapid warning that strong ground motions are imminent, but does not provide the ground-motion time history. For the next step of early warning applications, it is desirable to develop a method to estimate the time history which can be incorporated in predictive structural control in engineering practice.

Kanamori, H.; Allen, R. M.

2003-12-01

161

Rationalisation as delusion: pictorial health warnings and tobacco industry arguments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The tobacco industry consistently opposes measures that would limit their marketing, but provides little empirical evidence to support its position. This paper aims to test claims that pictorial health warnings on tobacco products would be no more effective than text-only warnings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Three studies used face-to-face interviews with smokers and non-smokers to compare pictorial and text-only warnings.

Janet Hoek; Philip Gendall; Jordan Louviere

2011-01-01

162

Relevance of Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs: A Psycholinguistic Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most research on the effect of tobacco warnings has been focused on attitude changes following the presentation of tobacco warnings, this paper takes a somewhat new perspective by investigating cognitive processing of tobacco warnings by adolescents of different ages (i.e., 14-, 16-, and 18-year-olds). More specifically, this paper investigates the way adolescents encode different textual elements presented in tobacco

Pascal Mark Gygax; Marlène Bosson; Christelle Gay; Farfalla Ribordy

2010-01-01

163

37 CFR 11.21 - Warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.21 Warnings. A warning is neither public nor a disciplinary sanction. The OED Director may conclude an investigation with the issuance of a warning. The warning shall contain a brief statement of...

2013-07-01

164

National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display  

MedlinePLUS

... Outlooks RSS Feeds E-Mail Alerts Weather Information Storm Reports NWS Hazards Map Watch/Warning Map National ... Severe Thunderstorm Warning* Hurricane Watch Hurricane Warning Tropical Storm Watch Tropical Storm Warning Flash Flood Watch Flash ...

165

Epileptic Seizure Warning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to epileptic seizure warning system based on pattern recognition principles. The system is embodied in a small self-contained device which can be carried in a pocket of a person subject to grand mal seizures, to monitor the ...

S. S. Viglione V. A. Ordon W. B. Martin C. C. Kesler

1973-01-01

166

Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous

H. Alcik; A. Mert; O. Ozel; M. Erdik

2007-01-01

167

Required warnings for cigarette packages and advertisements. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health consequences of smoking, to accompany the nine new textual warning statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This final rule specifies the color graphic images that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements. PMID:21696017

2011-06-22

168

DEFINITION OF WARNING CRITERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to promote the use of sea-sate related parameters and in particular to introduce new warning criteria for rogues waves and dangerous sea-states within GMDSS, WP8 main tasks consisted in to propose updates of WMO regulations and to interact with some end users to define specific products with the aid of physical, statistical and deterministic wave models. To find

Henri Savina; Jean-Michel Lefevre; Patrick Josse

169

Papers of a Seminar on Early Warning Systems for Toxic Substances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Early-warning system for toxic substances: human health effects; Landscape geochemistry and environmental problems; Legislation and laws concerning early warning systems for toxic substances; An incident of industrially related toxic peripheral ...

B. Carroll

1975-01-01

170

Monitoring and early warning for internet worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Code Red incident in 2001 and the SQL Slammer in January 2003, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet, infects most vulnerable computers before people can take effective countermeasures. The fast spreading nature of worms calls for a worm monitoring and early warning system. In this paper, we propose effective algorithms

Cliff Changchun Zou; Lixin Gao; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

2003-01-01

171

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind - it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal) of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010). While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system) which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG - the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia - which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC) and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG) to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010).

Steinmetz, T.; Raape, U.; Teßmann, S.; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; Kukofka, T.; Riedlinger, T.; Mikusch, E.; Dech, S.

2010-09-01

172

Bone Seeking Labels as Markers for Bone Turnover: Effect of Dosing Schedule on Labeling Various Bone Sites in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary excretion of bone labels can be used to monitor bone resorption. Here we investigate the effects of dosing frequency\\u000a on label incorporation of various sites when bone turnover was perturbed by ovariectomy. We compared tritiated tetracycline\\u000a (3H-TC) and 45Ca in two studies. Nine-month-old rats were given single or multiple injections of 3H-TC and 45Ca and sacrificed after 7 or

Jennifer M. K. Cheong; Nilupa S. Gunaratna; George P. McCabe; George S. Jackson; Connie M. Weaver

2009-01-01

173

Human Response to Emergency Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

Sorensen, J.

2009-12-01

174

Electronic Gaming Machine Warning Messages: Information versus Self-Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulators have extensively used warning signs in many health domains to enhance knowledge and shift attitudes and behaviors to reduce associated harm. The effectiveness of these signs is influenced by their physical attributes and content. Gambling warning signs traditionally focus on the following: informing individuals of the potentially risky outcomes of gambling and the odds of winning, encouraging gambling within

Sally M Monaghan; Alex Blaszczynski

2009-01-01

175

Early Warning Index System for Natural Disasters Emergency Logistics Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lots of risks existed in the process of Emergency Logistics especially when natural disasters happened. Evaluation research on Emergency Logistics Risks (ELR) is the basis of effective early warning and responding to risks, so it's of great theoretical and practical significance to establish an early warning index system for ELR. Firstly, some foundation research about ELR was carried out, including

Qi Cheng; Lei Yu

2010-01-01

176

The ethics and cultural politics of reproductive risk warnings: A case study of California's Proposition 65  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public space is filled with reproductive risk warnings, from labels on bottles of alcohol and cigarette packs, to disclaimers on drugs, signs posted in front of amusement park rides, and public health campaigns and advisories aimed at modifying pregnant women's behaviour. California's Proposition 65 requires that businesses post signs warning of the presence of chemicals that cause cancer, birth defects,

Rebecca Kukla

2010-01-01

177

Label exposure and recall among detroit metropolitan women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines exposure to the alcoholic beverage warning label among a sample of 1,107 Detroit area women in 1995. The analysis was conducted at two levels: 1) What are the predictors of label exposure? and 2) Once exposed to the label, what are the predictors of correct knowledge of the warning message? Thirty-nine percent of all women (59% of

Janet R. Hankin

1998-01-01

178

The Collaborative Encoding Deficit is Attenuated with Specific Warnings  

PubMed Central

Individuals learning together do so less effectively than individuals learning alone, an effect known as the collaborative encoding deficit (Barber, Rajaram, & Aron, 2010). In the present studies we examined whether providing participants with a warning about the collaborative encoding deficit would increase their encoding task performance, and reduce subsequent memory deficits. Across two experiments, specific warnings were beneficial for memory. Collaborating participants who were told about the collaborative encoding deficit, and who received suggestions for how to complete the encoding task, had superior memory than participants who received no warning. This benefit was not due to qualitative changes in encoding task performance, was unrelated to the type of collaboration utilized, was absent when a more general warning was utilized, and was unrelated to self-reported task motivation. Rather, specific warnings appear to protect against the collaborative encoding deficit by increasing time spent on, and attention directed to, the encoding task.

Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Paneerselvam, Bavani

2012-01-01

179

THE EFFECT OF NEW FOOD LABELING ON NUTRIENT INTAKES: AN ENDOGENOUS SWITCHING REGRESSION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of the new labeling regulations on nutrient intakes using an endogenous switching regression model. Using the 1994 - 96 CSFII\\/DHKS, we evaluate the impact of food label use on intakes of selected nutrients.

Sung-Yong Kim; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.; Oral Capps Jr.

1999-01-01

180

Evaluating Warning Sound Urgency With Reaction Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-established that subjective judgments of perceived urgency of alarm sounds can be affected by acoustic parameters. In this study, the authors investigated an objective measurement, the reaction time (RT), to test the effectiveness of temporal parameters of sounds in the context of warning sounds. Three experiments were performed using a RT paradigm, with two different concurrent visuomotor tracking

Clara Suied; Patrick Susini; Stephen McAdams

2008-01-01

181

Automated decision procedure for earthquake early warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early warning systems represent an effective tool for disseminating timely information about potentially catastrophic hazards to the public, emergency managers, and operators and users of transportation systems, industrial facilities, public buildings including schools and government offices, and private residences. This information gives the possibility of taking action to initiate mitigation or security measures before a catastrophic event occurs. Earthquake early

V. F. Grasso; J. L. Beck; G. Manfredi

2007-01-01

182

40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Child hazard warning. (a) Each pesticide product must bear on the front panel of the label the statement âKeep Out of Reach of Children.â That statement, or any alternative statement approved by EPA, must appear on a separate line...

2013-07-01

183

A SDMS Model: Early Warning Coordination Centres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the tsunami disaster in 2004, the General Secretary of the United Nations (UN) Kofi Annan called for a global early warning system for all hazards and for all communities. He also requested the ISDR (International Strategy fort Disaster Reduction) and its UN partners to conduct a global survey of capacities, gaps and opportunities in relation to early warning systems. The produced report, "Global survey of Early Warning Systems", concluded that there are many gaps and shortcomings and that much progress has been made on early warning systems and great capabilities are available around the world. However, it may be argued that an early warning system (EWS) may not be enough to prevent fatalities due to a natural hazard; i.e., it should be seen as part of a ‘wider' or total system. Furthermore, an EWS may work very well when assessed individually but it is not clear whether it will contribute to accomplish the purpose of the ‘total disaster management system'; i.e., to prevent fatalities. For instance, a regional EWS may only work if it is well co-ordinated with the local warning and emergency response systems that ensure that the warning is received, communicated and acted upon by the potentially affected communities. It may be argued that without these local measures being in place, a regional EWS will have little impact in saving lives. Researchers argued that unless people are warned in remote areas, the technology is useless; for instance McGuire [5] argues that: "I have no doubt that the technical element of the warning system will work very well,"…"But there has to be an effective and efficient communications cascade from the warning centre to the fisherman on the beach and his family and the bar owners." Similarly, McFadden [6] states that: "There's no point in spending all the money on a fancy monitoring and a fancy analysis system unless we can make sure the infrastructure for the broadcast system is there,"… "That's going to require a lot of work. If it's a tsunami, you've got to get it down to the last Joe on the beach. This is the stuff that is really very hard." Given the above, the paper argues that there is a need for a systemic approach to early warning centres. Systemic means looking upon things as a system; systemic means seeing pattern and inter-relationship within a complex whole; i.e., to see events as products of the working of a system. System may be defined as a whole which is made of parts and relationships. Given this, ‘failure' may be seen as the product of a system and, within that, see death/injury/property loss etc. as results of the working of systems. This paper proposes a preliminary model of ‘early warning coordination centres' (EWCC); it should be highlighted that an EWCC is a subsystem of the Systemic Disaster Management System (SDMS) model.

Santos-Reyes, Jaime

2010-05-01

184

Using Auditory Streaming to Reduce Disruption to Serial Memory by Extraneous Auditory Warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of extraneous speech warnings (i.e., low-priority warnings initiated during high-priority tasks) on cognitive performance and whether organizing the auditory warnings into streams can attenuate any disruption. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a variety of speech warnings can be separated into perceptually distinct streams by allocating them to discrete spatial locations. Experiment 2 showed

Simon Banbury; Liz Fricker; Sébastien Tremblay; Lucy Emery

2003-01-01

185

30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation...Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation...Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning device systems that use...

2010-07-01

186

30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation...Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation...Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning device systems that use...

2009-07-01

187

Effect of Labels on Memory in the Absence of Rehearsal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tests the hypothesis that labeling facilitates recall in nursery school children if and only if it leads to rehearsal. Subjects were 34 children ranging in age from 47 to 53 months. During pretraining, those children in the Label group named pictures of animals and fruits as they were presented, while those in the No Label group…

Ward, William C.; Legant, Patricia

188

Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature  

PubMed Central

Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator–prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, ‘what makes an effective warning signal?’, and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation.

Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D.

2012-01-01

189

The effects of radioiodination and fluorescent labelling on albumin  

SciTech Connect

The preparation and characterization of fluorescamine -, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -, and radioiodine-labelled bovine serum albumin is critically evaluated. Electrophoretic mobility and ion-exchange chromatography, together with measures of degree of conjugation and sulfhydryl content, are used to assess the changes due to conjugation. Fluorescamine labelling results in drastic changes in chromatographic behavior and electrophoretic mobility. FITC labelling also results in significant changes in chromatographic and electrophoretic properties. Radioiodination leads to minor changes in chromatographic properties and oxydation of sulfhydryl groups, with little or no change in electrophoretic properties. All three labels have some degree of lability and show increased levels of free label with time, even after extensive initial purification. It is concluded that the two fluorescent labels and possibly the radioiodine labelling method used here are unsuitable for certain studies of BSA, such as its adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces.

Crandall, R.E.; Janatova, J.; Andrade, J.D.

1981-01-01

190

The Effect of Labeling on Preschool Children's Performance in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research suggests that experimenter-induced labeling of test cards improves preschoolers' performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS), a measure of flexible rule use. Three experiments attempted to further clarify how labeling aids performance on the DCCS. Experiment 1 examined the nature of the labeling effect but failed…

Muller, Ulrich; Zelazo, Philip D.; Lurye, Leah E.; Liebermann, Dana P.

2008-01-01

191

Warning Letter: Strattera  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... According to its FDA-approved product labeling1, Strattera is indicated for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

192

Tsunami Warning Services for the Caribbean Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami warning and watch services are currently provided to the Caribbean region through a collaborative effort between the two NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs): the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska. The WCATWC, in coordination with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), provides fast-response warning services to the U.S. territories of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/VI). The PTWC provides regional watch services to other countries throughout and surrounding the Caribbean Sea as part of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. This collaboration is analogous to the TWC's responsibilities in the Pacific basin: the WCATWC provides fast-response warning services for the U.S. west coast states, Alaska, and British Columbia in Canada, while the PTWC provides regional services for countries throughout and surrounding the Pacific Ocean (as well as a fast-response service for the U.S. State of Hawaii). Caribbean seismic data are transmitted to the TWCs through several means. The PRSN directly exports data to the WCATWC, providing the Center sufficient seismic data for the PR/VI region. Additionally, the PRSN provides the TWCs with data gathered from other Caribbean nations. Using modern communication capabilities, the seismic data can be processed at the TWCs at the same time it is processed locally. Another source of high- quality seismic data is the new USGS nine-station array that circles the region. The Global Seismic Network maintains several stations in Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations which are available in real-time to the TWCs. Unfortunately, sea level data coverage is sporadic in the region. The PR/VI has a relatively dense array of coastal tide gages, but coastal tide gage coverage is very sparse for the rest of the Caribbean basin. Three deep-ocean pressure sensors are installed in the region: two north of PR/VI and one in the central Caribbean Sea. Together, these seismic and sea level data sets provide the TWCs with the necessary data to provide effective tsunami warning products and services for the Caribbean region.

Whitmore, P. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Weinstein, S. A.

2007-05-01

193

Earthquake early warning performance tests for Istanbul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marmara Region is the most densily populated region in Turkey. The greater area of the mega-city Istanbul inhabits about 14 million people. The city is located in the direct vicinity of the Main Marmara Fault, a dextral strike-slip fault system intersecting the Sea of Marmara, which is the western continuation of the North Anatolian Fault [Le Pichon et al., 2001]. Its closest distance to the city of Istanbul ranges between 15 and 20 km. Recent estimates by Parsons [2004] give a probability of more than 40% of a M ? 7 earthquake that will affect Istanbul within the next 30 years. Due to this high seismic risk, earthquake early warning is an important task in disaster management and seismic risk reduction, increasing the safety of millions of people living in and around Istanbul and reducing economic losses. The Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System (IERREWS) includes a set of 10 strong-motion sensors used for early warning which are installed between Istanbul and the Main Marmara Fault. The system works on the exceedance of amplitude thresholds, whereas three alarm levels are defined at three different thresholds [Erdik et al., 2003]. In the context of the research project EDIM (Earthquake Disaster Information System for the Marmara Region, Turkey), the early warning network is planned to be extended by an additional set of 10 strong-motion sensors installed around the Sea of Marmara to include the greater Marmara Region into the early warning process. We present performance tests of both the existing and the planned extended early warning network using ground motion simulations for 280 synthetic earthquakes along the Main Marmara Fault with moment magnitudes between 4.5 and 7.5. We apply the amplitude thresholds of IERREWS, as well as, for comparison, an early warning algorithm based on artificial neural networks which estimates hypocentral location and magnitude of the occurring earthquake. The estimates are updated continuously with proceeding time. Applying the amplitude thresholds increase the number of alarms by 6.5% for alarm level 1, by 6% for alarm level 2, and by 4% for alarm level 3, mainly due to false alarms caused by earthquakes further away from Istanbul but closer to the additional stations. However, applying the neural network algorithm to the extended network increases the reliability of source parameter estimates by 8% already 2 seconds after the first station triggers, and by 19% after 5 seconds. We analyse the effects of the network extension to the greater region and discuss possible advantages as well as arising problems.

Köhler, N.; Wenzel, F.; Erdik, M.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.

2009-04-01

194

30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...warning device thatâ (1) Gives an audible alarm when the equipment is put in reverse; or (2) Uses infrared light, ultrasonic waves, radar, or other effective devices to detect objects or persons at the rear of the equipment, and...

2010-07-01

195

30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...warning device thatâ (1) Gives an audible alarm when the equipment is put in reverse; or (2) Uses infrared light, ultrasonic waves, radar, or other effective devices to detect objects or persons at the rear of the equipment, and...

2009-07-01

196

Warnings reduce false memories for missing aspects of events.  

PubMed

When people see movies with some parts missing, they falsely recognize many of the missing parts later. In two experiments, we examined the effect of warnings on people's false memories for these parts. In Experiment 1, warning subjects about false recognition before the movie (forewarnings) reduced false recognition, but warning them after the movie (postwarnings) reduced false recognition to a lesser extent. In Experiment 2, the effect of the warnings depended on the nature of the missing parts. Forewarnings were more effective than postwarnings in reducing false recognition of missing noncrucial parts, but forewarnings and postwarnings were similarly effective in reducing false recognition of crucial missing parts. We use the source monitoring framework to explain our results. PMID:21106471

Gerrie, Matthew P; Garry, Maryanne

2011-01-01

197

Effects of the label "mentally retarded" on causal explanations for success and failure outcomes.  

PubMed

Previous research has been inconclusive in demonstrating the effects of the label "mentally retarded" on the reactions and evaluations of others toward the labeled person. The present study derived predictions from attribution theory regarding the effects of the label on the perceptions of observers. Specifically, we hypothesized that the presence of the label would reduce the likelihood that observers would credit successful task outcomes to the labeled person's ability but enhance the likelihood that observers would credit unsuccessful task outcomes to the labeled person's ability. Such effects were not anticipated in the absence of the label. A factorial design varying Labels (mentally retarded us. no label), Task Outcomes (success v. failure), and Sex of Target Person was employed. Dependent variables measured observers' assessments of the causes of the target person's outcomes. The results strongly confirmed the hypothesis by showing that ability, effort, and task difficulty are all perceived differently for labeled than for nonlabeled target persons. The results were discussed in terms of implications for future research and proper use of the label "mentally retarded." PMID:868924

Severance, L J; Gasstrom, L L

1977-05-01

198

27 CFR 16.30 - Certificates of label approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Certificates of label approval. 16...Section 16.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General...Certificates of label approval....

2010-04-01

199

27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...false Mandatory label information...Section 16.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health...21 Mandatory label...

2010-04-01

200

27 CFR 16.30 - Certificates of label approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Certificates of label approval. 16...Section 16.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General...Certificates of label approval....

2009-04-01

201

27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...false Mandatory label information...Section 16.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health...21 Mandatory label...

2009-04-01

202

Suzanne's Natural Foods Warning Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... November 9, 2005 Suzanne Charron Suzanne's Natural Foods 3106 S. Connecticut Ave. ... Page 2 – Suzanne's Natural Foods Warning Letter ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

203

Act on early warnings.  

PubMed

Two conditions establish the threshold for protective action in the presence of scientific uncertainty; 1. Credible evidence that a synthetic chemical can cause biological changes that are known to result in unintended harmful outcomes to human health or the environment in some cases; 2. The presence of such a chemical where it does not belong and where it can cause damage to biological systems (such as human bodies). Acting with foresight takes many forms. We must create and strengthen human health and wildlife monitoring programs to detect and predict harm; take steps to prevent, eliminate, and mitigate exposure when credible evidence of harm is found; monitor novel technologies; consider clusters of problems to be early warnings of harm; and open toxic tort records. All action taken must be based on precautionary definitions of "harm" and "credible evidence" and must include public participation. Significant precautionary actions may be taken on the state and local level in advance of a precautionary national chemicals policy. PMID:17959564

Myers, Nancy; Rabe, Anne; Silberman, Katie

2007-01-01

204

Bone seeking labels as markers for bone turnover: effect of dosing schedule on labeling various bone sites in rats.  

PubMed

Urinary excretion of bone labels can be used to monitor bone resorption. Here we investigate the effects of dosing frequency on label incorporation of various sites when bone turnover was perturbed by ovariectomy. We compared tritiated tetracycline ((3)H-TC) and (45)Ca in two studies. Nine-month-old rats were given single or multiple injections of (3)H-TC and (45)Ca and sacrificed after 7 or 14 days. Six-month-old OVX rats were given (3)H-TC and (41)Ca tracers 1 or 3 months following ovariectomy (OVX + 1 mo or OVX + 3 mo, when bone turnover was higher or lower, respectively) and sacrificed 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, or 6 months postdose. Twenty-four-hour urine pools over 2-4 consecutive days as well as the proximal tibia, femur midshaft, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and remaining skeleton were analyzed for (3)H, (45)Ca, and calcium content. Bone turnover as assessed by urinary (3)H-TC was greater in OVX + 1 mo compared to OVX + 3 mo rats up to 6 months postdose. (45)Ca labeling efficiency (% dose/g Ca) was significantly higher than for (3)H and labeling was higher in trabecular-rich than cortical-rich bone. This study affirms that a single administration of either (3)H-TC or (45)Ca is a useful approach to measuring bone turnover directly. The amount of label incorporation into bone was greater in bone sites that were more metabolically active and in all sites when closer vs farther from OVX. PMID:19763372

Cheong, Jennifer M K; Gunaratna, Nilupa S; McCabe, George P; Jackson, George S; Weaver, Connie M

2009-09-11

205

Effects of the Private-Label Invasion in Food Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using supermarket scanner data, we test a variety of hypotheses from trade journals about the invasion of private-label food products. According to conventional industry wisdom, name-brand firms defended their brands against new private-label products by lowering their prices, engaging in additional promotional activities, and increasingly differentiating their products. Our empirical evidence is inconsistent with these beliefs. Copyright 2002, Oxford University

Michael B. Ward; Jay P. Shimshack; Jeffrey M. Perloff; J. Michael Harris

2002-01-01

206

Tsunami Warnings: Understanding in Hawai‘i  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating southeast Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 has brought home the destructive consequences of coastal hazards\\u000a in an absence of effective warning systems. Since the 1946 tsunami that destroyed much of Hilo, Hawai‘i, a network of pole\\u000a mounted sirens has been used to provide an early public alert of future tsunamis. However, studies in the 1960s showed that

Chris E. Gregg; Bruce F. Houghton; Douglas Paton; David M. Johnston; Donald A. Swanson; Brian S. Yanagi

2007-01-01

207

LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean floor events, and ground displacements. Based on the upstream information flow DEWS focuses on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Multiple telecommunication channels will be used for the dissemination of warning messages. Wherever possible, existing standards have been integrated. The Command and Control User Interface (CCUI), a rich client application based on Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform) [4] and the open source GIS uDig [5], integrates various OGC services. Using WMS (Web Map Service) [6] and WFS (Web Feature Service) [7] spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture and to integrate a simulation system via WPS (Web Processing Service) [8] to identify affected areas. Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS [9] CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) [10] standard together with addressing information defined via EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element) [11]. Internal interfaces are realized with SOAP [12] web services. Based on results of GITEWS [13] - in particular the GITEWS Tsunami Service Bus [14] - the DEWS approach provides an implementation for tsunami early warning systems. The introductory part of the demonstration briefly explains the DEWS project, the CCUI in conjunction with operators’ workflow, the system architecture, details of information logistics and the virtual scenario of live demonstration. The live demonstration exhibits the CCUI on screen and the service environment of DEWS working in the background. The demonstration runs through a virtual Tsunami threat located in the Andaman Sea in front of Thailand; Beginning with the detection of an earthquake of critical magnitude and the calculation of early Tsunami predictions; Continuing with sea level measurements and the refinement of Tsunami predictions; Finally reaching the dissemination of warning messages via SMS, mail and other channels. REFERENCES [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the reconstruction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Wächter, J.

2009-12-01

208

Driver Reaction Time to Tactile and Auditory Rear-End Collision Warnings While Talking on a Cell Phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of rear-end collision warnings presented in different sensory modalities while drivers were engaged in cell phone conversations in a driving simulator. Background: Tactile and auditory collision warnings have been shown to improve braking response time (RT) in rear-end collision situations. However, it is not clear how effective these warnings are when the driver is

Rayka Mohebbi; Rob Gray; Hong Z. Tan

2009-01-01

209

The Effects of Urban Consumer Perceptions on Attitudes for Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of consumer perceptions on attitudes toward the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s current labeling policy for GM foods are examined. Results show that as beliefs regarding potential adverse effects of GM crops on wildlife and the environment increase, consumers are less likely to support the FDA's current labeling policy. The perceived safety of GM foods was

R. Wes Harrison; Jae-Hwan Han

2005-01-01

210

Pharmaceutical warnings and direct-to-consumer marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing is a multi-billion dollar enterprise in the United States. DTC marketing presents an important scenario for warnings, as it bypasses the traditional receiver of pharmaceutical warnings, the physician, and provides drug risk and benefit information directly to the patient. We examine the published literature on the effects of DTC marketing in the United States and conduct a

S. Rankin Bohmea

211

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2013-04-01

212

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2011-04-01

213

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

214

Capsular warning syndrome caused by middle cerebral artery stenosis.  

PubMed

The capsular warning syndrome is a term used to describe recurrent stereotyped lacunar transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). This syndrome is associated with a high risk of developing a completed stroke. The presumed mechanism for this syndrome is angiopathy of a lenticulostriate artery. We describe the case of a 33-year-old man who presented with the capsular warning syndrome who was successfully treated with angioplasty. The patient's capsular warning syndrome manifested as recurrent episodes of transient left hemiparesis. Symptoms recurred one to three times daily despite treatment with antithrombotics. Cerebral angiography demonstrated stenosis of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) with decreased flow to a dominant lenticulostriate artery. Angioplasty of the right middle cerebral artery increased flow to the lenticulostriate artery and the TIAs resolved following the procedure. In select cases intracranial angioplasty, may be an effective treatment for patients with capsular warning syndrome. PMID:20619422

Lee, Jun; Albers, Gregory W; Marks, Michael P; Lansberg, Maarten G

2010-07-08

215

Near infrared missile warning testbed sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicolor discrimination is one of the most effective ways of improving the performance of infrared missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. A new tactical airborne multicolor missile warning testbed was developed and fielded as part of a continuing Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) initiative focusing on clutter and missile signature measurements for effective missile warning algorithms. The developed sensor test bed is a multi-camera system 1004x1004 FPA coupled with optimized spectral filters integrated with the optics; a reduced form factor microprocessor-based video data recording system operating at 48 Hz; and a real time field programmable gate array processor for algorithm and video data processing capable of 800B Multiply/Accumulates operations per second. A detailed radiometric calibration procedure was developed to overcome severe photon-limited operating conditions due to the sub-nanometer bandwidth of the spectral filters. This configuration allows the collection and real-time processing of temporally correlated, radiometrically calibrated video data in multiple spectral bands. The testbed was utilized to collect false alarm sources spectra and Man-Portable Air Defense System (MANPADS) signatures under a variety of atmospheric and solar illuminating conditions. Signatures of approximately 100 missiles have been recorded.

McDermott, D. J.; Johnson, R. S.; Montgomery, J. B.; Sanderson, R. B.; McCalmont, J. F.; Taylor, M. J.

2008-05-01

216

ACTIVE BIOMONITORING IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS: EARLY WARNING SIGNALS FROM BIOMARKERS IN ASSESSING BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DIFFUSE SOURCES OF POLLUTANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms has a high ecological relevance. However, relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remain a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of

V Wepener; E A Venter; N Muller

217

Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers' Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking  

PubMed Central

The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers’ knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.

Fathelrahman, Ahmed I.; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Bin Mohd

2010-01-01

218

Hospital outpatients' responses to taking medications with driving warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study investigates the knowledge, intentions and driving behaviour of persons prescribed medications that display a warning about driving. It also examines their confidence that they can self-assess possible impairment, as is required by the Australian labelling system.Method: We surveyed 358 outpatients in an Australian public hospital pharmacy, representing a well-advised group taking a range of medications including those

T. Smyth; M. Sheehan; V. Siskind

2012-01-01

219

Tsunami Early Warning: Introducing single frequency GPS receiver into the Tsunami Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M. Ramatschi (1), C. Falck (1), M. Bartsch (1), A. Merx (1), J. Hoeberechts (1), G. Schmidt (1) Abstract After the disastrous tsunami event in Sumatra in 2004 the German government initiated the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) which was inaugurated in 2008 and is now known as the Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia (INA-TEWS). Within GITEWS, some new technologies were introduced into the Tsunami early warning, such as geodetic dual frequency GNSS receiver, which are installed on open sea buoys, coastal tide gauges and inland reference stations. This technology is able to support tsunami early warning systems, e.g., by detection of ground motions due to earthquakes. The major drawback of this sensor type is its high expense. Under certain circumstances cost effective single frequency receiver could achieve the same quality, as long as the network topology allows a precise data processing. In our presentation we will review the GNSS part of GITEWS to demonstrate the integration of the newly designed, low power single frequency GPS sensor station with respect to the real-time data flow and the precise near real-time data processing. Technical aspects of data transmission will be addressed as well. Benefits of a small GPS sensor array located next to the Sumatra trench will be discussed in detail. (1) GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 17, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany

Ramatschi, M.; Falck, C.

2009-12-01

220

Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia: Safety and Effectiveness in a 12Week, Open-Label Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Varenicline was approved by the FDA in 2006. In 2009, based largely on case reports, the FDA issued a warning of possible adverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior for varenicline and bupropion. Prospective trials of varenicline have not reported increased incidence of psychiatric adverse events other than sleep disturbance, but smokers with major mental illness

Gladys N. Pachas; Corinne Cather; Sarah I. Pratt; Bettina Hoeppner; Johanna Nino; Sara V. Carlini; Eric D. Achtyes; Harry Lando; Kim T. Mueser; Nancy A. Rigotti; Donald C. Goff; A. Eden Evins

2012-01-01

221

Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia: Safety and Effectiveness in a 12Week Open-Label Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Varenicline was approved by the FDA in 2006. In 2009, based largely on case reports, the FDA issued a warning of possible adverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior for varenicline and bupropion. Prospective trials of varenicline have not reported increased incidence of psychiatric adverse events other than sleep disturbance, but smokers with major mental illness

Gladys N. Pachas; Corinne Cather; Sarah I. Pratt; Bettina Hoeppner; Johanna Nino; Sara V. Carlini; Eric D. Achtyes; Harry Lando; Kim T. Mueser; Nancy A. Rigotti; Donald C. Goff; A. Eden Evins

2012-01-01

222

To Go or Not to Go: Stimulus-Response Compatibility for Tactile and Auditory Pedestrian Collision Warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of the stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility of pedestrian collision warnings presented via different sensory modalities in a driving simulator. Despite the well-established fact that reaction times (RT) are faster under S-R compatible conditions, the majority of collision warning research has used S-R incompatible warnings (i.e., the warning comes from the direction of the obstacle to be

Stacie M. Straughn; Rob Gray; Hong Z. Tan

2009-01-01

223

Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise

V. Wepener; J. H. J. van Vuren; F. P. Chatiza; Z. Mbizi; L. Slabbert; B. Masola

2005-01-01

224

The Effect of Store Image on Consumers' Perceptions of Designer and Private Label Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of brand labeling and store image on perceptions of clothing characteristics were investigated using a 3X3 completefactorial between-subjects experimental design. Ninety women individually examined and rated a knit shirt on status, utility, styling, and purchase evaluation characteristics. The shirt had either a designer, private, or no label attached to it and was associated with either a high image

Dawna F. Baugh; Leslie L. Davis

1989-01-01

225

Effect of acetaminophen on the leukocyte-labeling efficiency of indium oxine In 111  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acetaminophen on the labeling efficiency of leukocytes with indium oxine In 111 was studied. A blood sample was obtained from eight healthy men before and after they received acetaminophen 650 mg every four hours for 24 hours. After dividing the plasma from each sample into three portions, leukocytes were separated and labeled with indium oxine In 111.

S. C. Augustine; R. F. Schmelter; K. L. Nelson; R. J. Petersen; M. A. Qualfe

1983-01-01

226

How Public Relations Professionals Can Use Food Labels as Effective Communication Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizes a panel of graphic arts education experts to review suggested Food and Drug Administration label guidelines--if the participants thought that "graphic problems" existed in the guidelines, they were asked to make suggestions to indicate how food labels could be prepared more effectively, at no additional cost. (PA)

Somerick, Nancy; Weir, Lee

1998-01-01

227

Pediatric Primary Care Providers and Adolescent Depression: A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Treatment and the Effect of the Black Box Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe recent black box warning on antidepressants has drawn attention to controversies regarding the treatment of adolescent depression in primary care settings, but little is known about how providers decide to treat depressed youth and what resources are employed.

Laura P. Richardson; Charlotte W. Lewis; Mary Casey-Goldstein; Elizabeth McCauley; Wayne Katon

2007-01-01

228

49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must...

2012-10-01

229

49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must...

2011-10-01

230

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...obtained from the electronic images contained in âCigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in âCigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in âCigarette Required...

2013-04-01

231

Licorice abuse: time to send a warning message  

PubMed Central

Licorice extract has always been recognized as a sweetener and a thirst quencher. Its nutritive value is overrated by many who consume significant amounts and are prone to complications. Glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite in licorice, inhibits the enzyme 11-ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme type 2 with a resultant cortisol-induced mineralocorticoid effect and the tendency towards the elevation of sodium and reduction of potassium levels. This aldosterone-like action is the fundamental basis for understanding its health benefits and the wide spectrum of adverse effects. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of licorice along with the reported complications related to excess intake. Despite its apparent use in a few clinical scenarios, the daily consumption of licorice is never justified because its benefits are minor compared to the adverse outcomes of chronic consumption. The review highlights the importance of investigating the dietary habits and herbal remedies which are being used worldwide on cultural and habitual bases rather than reliable scientific evidence. Licorice is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food supplement used in many products without precise regulations to prevent toxicity. Increased awareness among the public is required through TV commercials, newspapers, internet sites, magazines and product labels regarding the upper limit of ingestion and health hazards associated with excess intake. We hope that this review will serve as a warning message that should be transmitted from physicians to patients to avoid excessive licorice intake as well as a message to the FDA to start regulating the use of this substance.

Komarova, Irina; El-Ghonemi, Mohamed; Fathy, Ahmed; Rashad, Rania; Abdelmalak, Hany D.; Yerramadha, Muralidhar Reddy; Ali, Yaseen; Helal, Engy; Camporesi, Enrico M.

2012-01-01

232

Malaria early warning in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Kenya displays large spatiotemporal diversity in its climate and ecology. It follows that malaria transmission will reflect this environmental heterogeneity in both space and time. In this article, we discuss how such heterogeneity, and its epidemiological consequences, should be considered in the development of early warning systems for malaria epidemics.

Hay, Simon I.; Rogers, David J.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Myers, Monica F.; Snow, Robert W.

2011-01-01

233

Strategic Warning--Strategic Myth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Amidst the euphoria of the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War came a realization that strategic warning of a Soviet or Warsaw Pact attack on Western Europe had increased from tens of hours or a few days to weeks or even months. However, n...

R. A. McCallum

1991-01-01

234

Effect of acetaminophen on the leukocyte-labeling efficiency of indium oxine In 111  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acetaminophen on the labeling efficiency of leukocytes with indium oxine In 111 was studied. A blood sample was obtained from eight healthy men before and after they received acetaminophen 650 mg every four hours for 24 hours. After dividing the plasma from each sample into three portions, leukocytes were separated and labeled with indium oxine In 111. In an in vitro study, 200 ml of blood was obtained from one of the men, and the plasma was separated into four portions. Acetaminophen in 95% ethanol was added to three of the plasma fractions to produce acetaminophen concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 micrograms/ml; ethanol was added to the fourth fraction as a control. Each plasma fraction was then subdivided into three aliquots, and leukocytes were labeled as in the in vivo study. Mean leukocyte labeling efficiencies in both studies were calculated from the ratios of leukocyte radioactivity to initial radioactivity in the samples, expressed as percentages. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies before acetaminophen administration ranged from 79 to 85%; after administration, labeling efficiencies ranged from 70 to 87%. No significant differences in mean labeling efficiency before and after acetaminophen administration were noted in any of the subjects. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies in all in vitro plasma fractions were reduced, ranging from 54 to 63%, but no significant differences in labeling efficiency between any of the plasma fractions were found. Using the labeling procedures in this study, exposure of leukocytes from healthy men to acetaminophen in vivo or in vitro does not affect labeling efficiency with indium oxine In 111.

Augustine, S.C.; Schmelter, R.F.; Nelson, K.L.; Petersen, R.J.; Qualfe, M.A.

1983-11-01

235

32 CFR 806b.28 - Warning banners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning banners. 806b.28 Section 806b.28 National...Notifications § 806b.28 Warning banners. Information systems that contain...subject to the Privacy Act will have warning banners displayed on the first screen (at...

2010-07-01

236

32 CFR 806b.28 - Warning banners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notifications] [Sec. 806b.28 - Warning banners.] 32 NATIONAL DEFENSE 6 2009-07-01...Notifications Sec. 806b.28 Warning banners. Information systems that contain...subject to the Privacy Act will have warning banners displayed on the first screen (at...

2009-07-01

237

32 CFR 806b.28 - Warning banners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning banners. 806b.28 Section 806b.28 National...Notifications § 806b.28 Warning banners. Information systems that contain...subject to the Privacy Act will have warning banners displayed on the first screen (at...

2013-07-01

238

GITEWS -- The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is the implementation of an effective Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean. It is a component part of an Early Warning System that will also be capable of registering other natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The system integrates terrestrial observation networks of seismology und geodesy with marine measurements techniques and satellite observations. The required R & D work will be realized within the framework of a stage-plan, which will, within a short time span of 1-3 years, be able to provide effective warning on the one hand and, which will also allow for an integration of technological developments, currently undergoing further research. The initiative is coordinated by the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (HGF), represented by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ). In view of the geological situation one has to bear in mind that Indonesia especially, due to the fact that the main islands are located next to and above the Sunda seismogenic zone, could most frequently and most intensively in the future be prone to catastrophic Tsunami events. The envisaged Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean consists of different components as broadband seismometers, GPS, tide gauges, ocean-bottom pressure sensors and GPS-Buoys. On the basis of the data and recordings registered a warning can be generated. This presentation gives insight into the creation of the 26 December 2004 Tsunami, introduces the planned technical realization of the Early Warning System, shows first model scenarios and gives an overview of the planned realization of an Early Warning System in the Indian Ocean. http://www.gfz-potsdam.de

Lauterjung, J.; Rudloff, A.

2005-12-01

239

On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning context has been worked out. The generated results contribute significantly in the fields of (1) warning decision and warning levels, (2) warning dissemination and warning message content, (3) early warning chain planning, (4) increasing response capabilities and protective systems, (5) emergency relief and (6) enhancing communities' awareness and preparedness towards tsunami threats. Additionally examples will be given on the potentials of an operational use of risk information in early warning systems as first experiences exist for the tsunami early warning center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Beside this the importance of linking national level early warning information with tsunami risk information available at the local level (e.g. linking warning message information on expected intensity with respective tsunami hazard zone maps at community level for effective evacuation) will be demonstrated through experiences gained in three pilot areas in Indonesia. The presentation seeks to provide new insights on benefits using risk information in early warning and will provide further evidence that practical use of risk information is an important and indispensable component of end-to-end early warning.

Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

2010-05-01

240

People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and their immediate response on how to act in case of emergency. Hence early warning systems have to be regarded in the context of an integrated and holistic risk management. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures include people-centred, timely and understandable warning. Further responsible authorities have to be identified in advance and standards for risk communication have to be established. Up to now, hazard and risk assessment for geohazards focuses on the development of inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. But often, especially in Europe, there are no institutional structures for managing geohazards and in addition there is a lack of an authority that is legally obliged to alarm on landslides at national or regional level. One of the main characteristics within the warning process for natural hazards e.g. in Germany is the split of responsibility between scientific authorities (wissenschaftliche Fachbehörde) and enforcement authorities (Vollzugsbehörde). The scientific authority provides the experts who define the methods and measures for monitoring and evaluate the hazard level. The main focus is the acquisition and evaluation of data and subsequently the distribution of information. The enforcement authority issues official warnings about dangerous natural phenomena. Hence the information chain in the context of early warning ranges over two different institutions, the forecast service and the warning service. But there doesn't exist a framework for warning processes in terms of landslides as yet. The concept for managing natural disasters is often reduced to hazard assessment and emergency response. Great importance is attached to the scientific understanding of hazards and protective structures, while analysis of socio-economic impacts and risk assessment are not considered enough. The reduction of vulnerability has to be taken into greater account. Also the information needs of different stakeholders have to be identified at an early stage and should be integrated in the development of early warning systems. The content of the warning message must be simple, understandable and should cover instructions on how to react. Further the timeliness of the messages has to be guarented. In this context the aim of the landslide monitoring and early warning system SLEWS (Sensor Based Landslide Early Warning System) is to integrate the above mentioned aspects of a holistic disaster and risk management. The technology of spatial data infrastructures and web services provides the use of multiple communication channels within an early warning system. Thus people-centred early warning messages and information about slope stability can be sent in nearly real-time. It has to be underlined that the technological information process is just one element of an effective warning system. Moreover the warning system has also to be considered as a social system and has to make allowance to socio-economic and gender aspects : «[...] Develop early warning systems that are people centered, in particular systems whose warnings are timely and understandable to those at risk, which take into account the demographic, gender, cultural and livelihood characteristics of the target audiences, including guidance on how to act upon warnings, and that support effective operations by disaster managers and other decision makers » (Hyogo Framework, 2005) References : UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION SECRETARIAT (UNISDR) (2006): Developing early warning systems: a checklist, Third international conference on early warning (EWC III): from concept to action: 27-29 March 2006, Bonn, Germany. Geneva, Switzerland: International Strate

Haß, S.; Asch, K.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Arnhardt, C.

2009-04-01

241

NWS HotSeat: Weather Warning Decision Simulator (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online simulations, published by the National Weather Service (NWS), place students in the role of weather forecasters who must decide whether and to whom to issue severe weather warnings. They observe archived remote imagery from actual events along with severe weather reports and damage survey photographs to approximate the feel of issuing actual severe weather warnings, and decide which counties and cities must recieve the warnings. The simulations can be used in the form of a game, in which participants receive a score for leadtime, minutes in effect, and type of warning.

242

Is More Better? -- Night Vision Enhancement System's Pedestrian Warning Modes and Older Drivers  

PubMed Central

Pedestrian fatalities as a result of vehicle collisions are much more likely to happen at night than during day time. Poor visibility due to darkness is believed to be one of the causes for the higher vehicle collision rate at night. Existing studies have shown that night vision enhancement systems (NVES) may improve recognition distance, but may increase drivers’ workload. The use of automatic warnings (AW) may help minimize workload, improve performance, and increase safety. In this study, we used a driving simulator to examine performance differences of a NVES with six different configurations of warning cues, including: visual, auditory, tactile, auditory and visual, tactile and visual, and no warning. Older drivers between the ages of 65 and 74 participated in the study. An analysis based on the distance to pedestrian threat at the onset of braking response revealed that tactile and auditory warnings performed the best, while visual warnings performed the worst. When tactile or auditory warnings were presented in combination with visual warning, their effectiveness decreased. This result demonstrated that, contrary to general sense regarding warning systems, multi-modal warnings involving visual cues degraded the effectiveness of NVES for older drivers.

Brown, Timothy; He, Yefei; Roe, Cheryl; Schnell, Thomas

2010-01-01

243

Global warning, global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life;

Benarde

1992-01-01

244

Warning Letter: YAZ  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... out of a coffee shop, driving and singing ... These complex presentations distract from and make it ... The overall effect of the distracting visuals, graphics ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

245

Kinetic isotope effects significantly influence intracellular metabolite (13) C labeling patterns and flux determination.  

PubMed

Rigorous mathematical modeling of carbon-labeling experiments allows estimation of fluxes through the pathways of central carbon metabolism, yielding powerful information for basic scientific studies as well as for a wide range of applications. However, the mathematical models that have been developed for flux determination from (13) C labeling data have commonly neglected the influence of kinetic isotope effects on the distribution of (13) C label in intracellular metabolites, as these effects have often been assumed to be inconsequential. We have used measurements of the (13) C isotope effects on the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme from the literature to model isotopic fractionation at the pyruvate node and quantify the modeling errors expected to result from the assumption that isotope effects are negligible. We show that under some conditions kinetic isotope effects have a significant impact on the (13) C labeling patterns of intracellular metabolites, and the errors associated with neglecting isotope effects in (13) C-metabolic flux analysis models can be comparable in size to measurement errors associated with GC-MS. Thus, kinetic isotope effects must be considered in any rigorous assessment of errors in (13) C labeling data, goodness-of-fit between model and data, confidence intervals of estimated metabolic fluxes, and statistical significance of differences between estimated metabolic flux distributions. PMID:23828762

Wasylenko, Thomas M; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

2013-08-05

246

Global warning, global warming  

SciTech Connect

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster.

Benarde, M.A. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

247

Towards a nationwide Early Warning System in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to use early warning methods to reduce natural risks in modern societies is related to their unprecedented dependence upon technology. The strong deep events originating from Vrancea-Romania (Mw =7.5) area and shallow events originating from Banat-Romania or Shabla-Bulgaria areas can generate destructive effects in Romania and neighbor countries, and may seriously affect high risk manmade structures. EWS for deep Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. For the shallow events several methodologies to rapidly estimate earthquake magnitude are under testing. NIEP developed an early warning system that is able to evaluate rapidly earthquake magnitude after detection in the epicenter. In the last years, NIEP upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. The early warning system consists of seismic stations that allow rapid communication of data, several software modules developed at NIEP and a communication network. The system allows estimation of earthquake magnitude and permits to send earthquake alarm very fast to users. The early warning software modules minimize communication latencies present in other communication protocols in order to have a rapid magnitude determination. This software was developed by NIEP and is running in present at our institute in real time.

Marmureanu, A.; Ionescu, C.; Manea, L.

2012-04-01

248

Effects of Ferumoxides - Protamine Sulfate Labeling on Immunomodulatory Characteristics of Macrophage-like THP-1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) complexed with cationic transfection agent is used to label various mammalian cells. Labeled cells can then be utilized as an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes. However, certain number of in vivo administered labeled cells may be cleared from tissues by the host's macrophages. For successful translation to routine clinical application of SPIO labeling method it is important that this mode of in vivo clearance of iron does not elicit any diverse immunological effects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that SPIO agent ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FePro) incorporation into macrophages does not alter immunological properties of these cells with regard to differentiation, chemotaxis, and ability to respond to the activation stimuli and to modulate T cell response. We used THP-1 cell line as a model for studying macrophage cell type. THP-1 cells were magnetically labeled with FePro, differentiated with 100 nM of phorbol ester, 12-Myristate-13-acetate (TPA) and stimulated with 100 ng/ml of LPS. The results showed 1) FePro labeling had no effect on the changes in morphology and expression of cell surface proteins associated with TPA induced differentiation; 2) FePro labeled cells responded to LPS with slightly higher levels of NF?B pathway activation, as shown by immunobloting; TNF-? secretion and cell surface expression levels of CD54 and CD83 activation markers, under these conditions, were still comparable to the levels observed in non-labeled cells; 3) FePro labeling exhibited differential, chemokine dependent, effect on THP-1 chemotaxis with a decrease in cell directional migration to MCP-1; 4) FePro labeling did not affect the ability of THP-1 cells to down-regulate T cell expression of CD4 and CD8 and to induce T cell proliferation. Our study demonstrated that intracellular incorporation of FePro complexes does not alter overall immunological properties of THP-1 cells. The described experiments provide the model for studying the effects of in vivo clearance of iron particles via incorporation into the host's macrophages that may follow after in vivo application of any type of magnetically labeled mammalian cells. To better mimic the complex in vivo scenario, this model may be further exploited by introducing additional cellular and biological, immunologically relevant, components.

Janic, Branislava; Iskander, A. S. M.; Rad, Ali M.; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Arbab, Ali S.

2008-01-01

249

Effect of labeling on new vegetable dish acceptance in preadolescent children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a food-labeling strategy to introduce new versions of foods to children's diets, in natural lunch settings (school canteens). The proposed food involved two different types of vegetables: carrots (very familiar) and broccoli (less familiar), both being prepared and presented for choice in a 'familiar' (known) versus a 'new' (unknown) version. We assessed whether adding a label (either basic or model-related) to new versions of vegetable dishes would increase the likelihood that 8- to 11-year-old children would select the new dishes rather than the familiar versions. In the first condition (no label/control condition), both the familiar and the new versions of the vegetable dishes were presented with absence of any information. In the second condition (basic label condition), the new dish was presented accompanied by a basic label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe". In the third condition (model-related label condition), the new version of the dish was presented with a model-related label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe, Special Mix for Super Heroes". Results showed that children chose significantly more often the familiar version of the dish when no information was given (control condition). The addition of a descriptive label (whether basic or model-related) led to an increased frequency of choice for the new vegetable dish for carrots only, and not for broccoli. This study suggests that adding a label with the vegetable's name can be used to increase children's willingness to select a new version of a vegetable dish instead of a familiar one, at least when the vegetable is familiar to the children (i.e. carrots). PMID:22664298

Morizet, David; Depezay, Laurence; Combris, Pierre; Picard, Delphine; Giboreau, Agnès

2012-06-01

250

Regional Warning Center Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RWC-Sweden is operated by the Lund division of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics located at IDEON, a Science Research Technology Park. The Institute of Technology of Lund and Lund University are just adjacent to IDEON. This creates a lot of synergy effects. Copenhagen, with the Danish National Space Center DNSC), and Atmosphere Space Research Division of Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), is 45 min away via the bridge. The new LOIS Space Centre is located two hours away by car, north of Lund and just outside V¨xj¨. The IRF Lund a o division is aiming at becoming a "Solar and Space Weather Center". We focus on solar magnetic activity, its influence on climate and on space weather effects such the effect of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC). Basic research: A PostDoc position on "Solar Magnetic Activity: Topology and Predictions has recently been created. Research is carried on to improve predictions of solar magnetic activity. Preparations for using upcoming SDO vector magnetic fields are ongoing. Predictions: RWC-Sweden offers real-time forecasts of space weather and space weather effects based on neural networks. We participated in the NASA/NOAA Cycle 24 Prediction Panel. We have also participated in several ESA/EU solar-climate projects New observation facilities: Distributed, wide-area radio facility (LOIS) for solar (and other space physics) observations and a guest prof: Radio facility about 200 km distant, outside V¨xj¨ (Sm? a o aland), in Ronneby (Blekinge) and Lund (Sk? ane) is planned to be used for tracking of CMEs and basic solar physics studies of the corona. The LOIS station outside V¨xj¨ has a o been up and running for the past three years. Bo Thidé has joined the Lund division e as a guest prof. A new magnetometer at Risinge LOIS station has been installed an calibrated and expected to be operational in March, 2008.

Lundstedt, Henrik

251

Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug’s efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File – Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug interaction claims linked to the Drug Interactions section for a drug were potentially novel. The baseline performance characteristics of the proof-of-concept will enable further technical and user-centered research on robust methods for scaling the approach to the many thousands of product labels currently on the market.

2013-01-01

252

Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness.  

PubMed

Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug's efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File - Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug interaction claims linked to the Drug Interactions section for a drug were potentially novel. The baseline performance characteristics of the proof-of-concept will enable further technical and user-centered research on robust methods for scaling the approach to the many thousands of product labels currently on the market. PMID:23351881

Boyce, Richard D; Horn, John R; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Waard, Anita de; Schneider, Jodi; Luciano, Joanne S; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Liakata, Maria

2013-01-26

253

Dyad of Papers Concerning Joint Verification of Severe Local Storm Watches and Warnings during Tornado Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Weather Service issues watches and warnings to alert the public to the threat of severe local storms. The study is based upon a tabulation of whether watches or warnings were in effect during tornado events during 1982-1988. Percentages of to...

P. W. Leftwich J. E. Hales

1990-01-01

254

Comprehension and memory for warning symbols: Age-related differences and impact of training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Prior research indicates that many warning symbols are poorly understood, particularly by the elderly. Method: The effectiveness of three different training conditions to improve comprehension and memory for warning symbols was assessed for younger (18–35 years of age) and older (50–67 years of age) participants. All three conditions paired the symbols with associated text during training; however they differed

Mary F. Lesch

2003-01-01

255

Pharmacy Students' Knowledge of Black Box Warnings  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups.

Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

2010-01-01

256

Quantifying Age-Related Differences in Information Processing Behaviors When Viewing Prescription Drug Labels  

PubMed Central

Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant problem in health care. While effective warnings have the potential to reduce the prevalence of ADEs, little is known about how patients access and use prescription labeling. We investigated the effectiveness of prescription warning labels (PWLs, small, colorful stickers applied at the pharmacy) in conveying warning information to two groups of patients (young adults and those 50+). We evaluated the early stages of information processing by tracking eye movements while participants interacted with prescription vials that had PWLs affixed to them. We later tested participants’ recognition memory for the PWLs. During viewing, participants often failed to attend to the PWLs; this effect was more pronounced for older than younger participants. Older participants also performed worse on the subsequent memory test. However, when memory performance was conditionalized on whether or not the participant had fixated the PWL, these age-related differences in memory were no longer significant, suggesting that the difference in memory performance between groups was attributable to differences in attention rather than differences in memory encoding or recall. This is important because older adults are recognized to be at greater risk for ADEs. These data provide a compelling case that understanding consumers’ attentive behavior is crucial to developing an effective labeling standard for prescription drugs.

Sundar, Raghav Prashant; Becker, Mark W.; Bello, Nora M.; Bix, Laura

2012-01-01

257

Mortality distributions in time and space during tsunamis: implications for the performance of tsunami warning systems and the importance of Education for Self Warning and Voluntary Evacuation (ESWAVE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami warning systems take advantage of the time windows of opportunity between occurrence of the source event and the impact of the tsunami on vulnerable coastlines. These time windows are taken up by instrumental detection of the event or the tsunami, distribution of warning messages, and the time needed for effective mitigation by evacuation of the expected inundation zone. Time distributions of mortality during a variety of well documented historical tsunamis show that with one exception (the 1946 Aleutians tsunami) at least 80 percent of tsunami mortality occurs within the first hour after the source event, even in the case of transoceanic tsunamis. This usually leaves less than 30 minutes for the warning systems to function if they are to prevent these 80 percent of deaths in tsunamis. However, in most cases the 80 percent of deaths also occur within zones of strong felt seismic shaking from tsunamigenic earthquakes, or within zones where other warning signs are evident to the vulnerable populations. Even outside these zones premonitory signs of tsunamis like leading negative or small positive waves commonly provide sufficient warning, in daylight at least, for effective evacuations by aware or educated populations. Instrument - based tsunami warning systems need to be significantly more rapid than at present to be as effective as Education for Self - Warning and Voluntary Evacuation (ESWAVE), and both need to be coupled with coastal land use planning to prevent mass mortalities in sites where evacuation is impossible within the tsunami propagation time.

Ranger, R.; Day, S. J.

2007-12-01

258

GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

2013-04-01

259

Social Utility Theory: Guiding Labeling of VNRs as Ethical and Effective Public Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social utility theory suggests that labeling video news release (VNR) source material is the ethical decision (Wulfemeyer & Frazier, 1992), yet the persuasion knowledge model predicts that the effectiveness of VNRs will decrease as people become aware of this PR tactic (Friestad & Wright, 1994). Our study found that positive and negative effects were heightened when subjects read about VNRs

Michelle L. M. Wood; Michelle R. Nelson; Lucy Atkinson

2008-01-01

260

Intelligent early-warning system of dam safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the effective control of dam life process, it is important to implement the real-time diagnosis and reasonable evaluation for dam safety based on prototype observations. The development of intelligent early-warning systems of dam safety (IEWSDS) is a significant approach to realize above aim. This paper regarded dam as a vital and intelligent system, thereby constructed a bionics model of

Huai-Zhi Su; Zhi-Ping Wen

2005-01-01

261

FDA Safety Communication: New boxed warning for ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... FDA Safety Communication: New boxed warning for thrombosis related to human immune globulin products. Date: June 10, 2013. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability

262

Italian landslide early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, intense or prolonged rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides, and rainfall-induced slope failures occur every year, claiming lives, causing economic disruption, and producing different environmental problems. The national Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) is responsible for the protection of individuals, communities and their properties, against natural hazards, including landslides, and for rescuing people if a catastrophic event should occur. The main tasks of the DPC are the issuing of meteorological, hydrological, and landslide warnings and the determination of landslide hazards and risk at different geographical scales. In 2007, the DPC asked IRPI, a research institute of the Italian National Research Council, to design and implement a prototype system for the quasi-real-time forecast of rainfall induced landslides in Italy. The system - under development - is based on two main components: (i) a set of national, regional and local rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of landslides, and (ii) a synoptic (small scale) assessment of landslide hazards and the associated risk in Italy. The system attempt to predict rainfall induced landslides using existing and new rainfall thresholds. The new rainfall thresholds, chiefly of the intensity-duration (ID) and normalized-ID types, will be defined analyzing a catalogue of rainfall events that have or have not resulted in landslides. The thresholds will be established using objective statistical techniques. The assessment of landslide hazards and risk will be performed using statistical models based on small scale thematic information and catalogues of historical landslides and historical landslides with human consequences in Italy, in the period from 1900 to 2005. The catalogues were compiled through a thorough literature and archive search. The two individual system components will be then combined to form a national landslide warning system. A preliminary version of a software tool for the early warning system, comparing rain gauge network measurements with existing and new national rainfall thresholds, has been implemented. In this version, information on landslide spatial and temporal probability at the national scale have been made available. Future versions of the system: (i) will use new Italian regional and local rainfall thresholds, (ii) will consider rainfall estimates obtained from ground-based weather radars, meteorological satellites, and numerical weather forecasts, and (iii) will implement new criteria for the issue of warning based on the combination of rainfall thresholds and statistical models of landslide hazard and risk.

Rossi, M.

2009-04-01

263

Considering the impact of medicine label design characteristics on patient safety.  

PubMed

Medication errors involving patients receiving the wrong medicines, the wrong dosages or failure to take medicines according to the prescribed schedule are a substantial threat to patient safety. In the medical domain, research evidence on the benefits of improved labelling are piecemeal and often single-product or single-manufacturer driven and often do not inform the more general process of label design. Government and other guidelines on this topic are often low level and non-specific, often failing to give evidence-based guidance. However, there is a wealth of evidence-based research findings in related areas such as food labelling, chemical labelling and more general warnings research, which can provide systematic evidence on the effects of design characteristics such as font size, colour, signal words and linguistic usage on crucial performance variables such as compliance, understandability and discriminability. This research is reviewed and its relevance to medicine labelling is presented. PMID:16717013

Hellier, E; Edworthy, J; Derbyshire, N; Costello, A

264

WARNING!  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... associated with a local pharmacy or health insurance plan searched online for comments and ratings before making the purchase. Consumers ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou

265

Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events were confirmed by using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and then were further explored for label-free DNA detection at picomolar to micromolar concentrations. We have also observed a strong effect of DNA counterions on the electronic response, thus suggesting a charge-based mechanism of DNA detection using NTNFET devices. Implementation of label-free electronic detection assays using NTNFETs constitutes an important step toward low-cost, low-complexity, highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostics. hemochromatosis | SNP | biosensor

Star, Alexander; Tu, Eugene; Niemann, Joseph; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P.; Joiner, C. Steve; Valcke, Christian

2006-01-01

266

27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...label, separate and apart from all other information, the following statement: GOVERNMENT WARNING: (1) According to the Surgeon General, women should not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects. (2)...

2013-04-01

267

21 CFR 350.50 - Labeling of antiperspirant drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...definition of bullet. (ii) The warning required by § 369.21 of this chapter for drugs in dispensers pressurized by gaseous propellants. (d) Directions. The labeling of the product contains the following statement under the heading...

2013-04-01

268

Effects of Labeling the 'Drug-Abuser': An Inquiry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph is a literature review and analysis of the effects on adolescent self-concept and subsequent behavior stemming from arrest or apprehension on a drug-use charge. It is addressed to the social issue of whether apprehension, in the respect tha...

J. R. Williams

1976-01-01

269

Isolating Effects of Microscopic Nonuniform Distributions of 131I on Labeled and Unlabeled Cells  

PubMed Central

Radiopharmaceuticals are generally distributed nonuniformly in tissue. At the microscopic level, only a fraction of the cells in tissue are labeled. Consequently, the labeled cells receive an absorbed dose from radioactivity within the cell (self-dose) as well as an absorbed dose from radioactivity in surrounding cells (cross-dose). On the other hand, unlabeled cells only receive a cross-dose. This work uses a novel approach to examine the lethal effects of microscopic nonuniformities of 131I individually on the labeled and unlabeled cells. Methods A multicellular tissue model was used to investigate the lethality of microscopic nonuniform distributions of 131I. Mammalian cells (V79) were dyed with CFDA-SE (carboxy fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) and labeled with 131I-iododeoxyuridine (131IdU). The dyed labeled cells were then mixed with equal numbers of unlabeled cells, and 3-dimensional tissue constructs (4 × 106 cells) were formed by centrifugation in a small tube. This resulted in a uniform distribution of 131I at the macroscopic level but nonuniform distribution at the multicellular level, wherein 50% of the cells were labeled. The multicellular clusters were maintained at 10.5°C for 72 h to allow 131I decays to accumulate. The clusters were then dismantled and the labeled (dyed) and unlabeled (undyed) cells were separately seeded for colony formation using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Results The unlabeled cells, which received only a cross-dose, exhibited a mean lethal dose D37 of 4.0 ± 0.3 Gy. In contrast, the labeled cells received both a self-dose and a cross-dose. Isolating the effects of the self-dose resulted in a D37 of 1.2 ± 0.3 Gy, which was about 3.3 times more toxic per unit dose than the cross-dose. The reason for these differences appears to be primarily related to the higher relative biological effectiveness of the self-dose delivered by 131IdU compared with the cross-dose. Theoretical modeling of the killing of labeled and unlabeled cells was achieved by considering the cellular self-doses and cross-doses. Conclusion Cellular self-doses and cross-doses play an important role in determining the biological response of tissue to microscopic nonuniform distributions of 131I. Prediction of the biological response requires that both self-doses and cross-doses be considered along with their relative lethality per unit dose.

Neti, Prasad V.S.V.; Howell, Roger W.

2010-01-01

270

48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identification and Material Safety Data clause of this contract...Rodenticide Act; (2) Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act; (3) Consumer Product Safety Act; (4) Federal Hazardous...Identification and Material Safety Data clause of...

2012-10-01

271

Front-of-Package Labeling Initiative Warning Letters  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Beechnut Whole Grain Oatmeal with mixed fruit. PBM Products, Parent's Choice Little Puffs Plus Calcium Blueberry Naturally Flavored. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/complianceenforcement/warningletters

272

Warning Labels as Cheap Talk: Why Regulators Ban Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most frequently mentioned explanation for product bans is that regulators know more about product quality than consumers. A problem with this explanation, however, is that such regulators should prefer to just communicate the information implicit in their ban, perhaps via a \\

Robin Hanson

273

PUBLIC ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTION REGARDING ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING LABELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am extremely,grateful to the members,of my committee. Dr. John C. Schweitzer and Dr. Mark Harmon, who provided the guidance and support necessary for the completion,of this project. Special acknowledgment,goes to Dr. Jerry C. Hudson who served as thesis chair and spent endless hours in support of this project. 1 would also like to express sincere appreciation to Dr.

DAVID ALEC MARTIN

1991-01-01

274

FDA Approves Updated Labeling with Boxed Warning and ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Media Inquiries: Susan Cruzan, 301-827-6242 Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA. ... Use of these drugs in children under 2 years of age is not ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

275

Design and evaluation of warning systems: application to nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This study starts by defining and explaining key concepts about warning, both as a process and a system. Thereafter, it presents a quantitative, probabilistic, and decision-oriented methodology for designing and evaluating a warning system. It illustrates the methodology for the case of rare, controllable, and potentially disastrous technological events, such as accidents in nuclear power plants. The methodology covers and links the three principal components of a warning system - signal (which is mainly technical), warning dissemination, and warning response (which are mainly social) - thereby allowing the relative evaluation of technological and social measures for reducing risks. Analytical principles and techniques of risk and decision analyses are applied. It defines a probabilistic performance measure to characterize each component of a warning system, and a value measure to assess the overall effectiveness of the system. An important aspect of this work is the integration, into one analytical model, of the results of engineering studies, such as probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants, and of empirical findings on human response to warning in sociological research. The models, calculations, and sensitivity analyses are done with influence diagrams that are both intuitive and mathematical. This work puts particular emphasis on the study of behavioral response of individuals to warning.

Pe Benito-Claudio, C.

1986-01-01

276

Licorice abuse: time to send a warning message.  

PubMed

Licorice extract has always been recognized as a sweetener and a thirst quencher. Its nutritive value is overrated by many who consume significant amounts and are prone to complications. Glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite in licorice, inhibits the enzyme 11-ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme type 2 with a resultant cortisol-induced mineralocorticoid effect and the tendency towards the elevation of sodium and reduction of potassium levels. This aldosterone-like action is the fundamental basis for understanding its health benefits and the wide spectrum of adverse effects. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of licorice along with the reported complications related to excess intake. Despite its apparent use in a few clinical scenarios, the daily consumption of licorice is never justified because its benefits are minor compared to the adverse outcomes of chronic consumption. The review highlights the importance of investigating the dietary habits and herbal remedies which are being used worldwide on cultural and habitual bases rather than reliable scientific evidence. Licorice is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food supplement used in many products without precise regulations to prevent toxicity. Increased awareness among the public is required through TV commercials, newspapers, internet sites, magazines and product labels regarding the upper limit of ingestion and health hazards associated with excess intake. We hope that this review will serve as a warning message that should be transmitted from physicians to patients to avoid excessive licorice intake as well as a message to the FDA to start regulating the use of this substance. PMID:23185686

Omar, Hesham R; Komarova, Irina; El-Ghonemi, Mohamed; Fathy, Ahmed; Rashad, Rania; Abdelmalak, Hany D; Yerramadha, Muralidhar Reddy; Ali, Yaseen; Helal, Engy; Camporesi, Enrico M

2012-08-01

277

The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

Kulkofsky, Sarah

2010-01-01

278

Effects of Labeling on Preschoolers' Explicit False Belief Performance: Outcomes of Cognitive Flexibility or Inhibitory Control?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and…

Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

2012-01-01

279

Direct and indirect effects of functionalised fluorescence-labelled nanoparticles on human osteoclast formation and activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it was demonstrated that phosphonate-functionalised nanoparticles were successfully taken up by mesenchymal stem cells without influencing their viability and differentiation capacity, suggesting that they may provide a promising basis for the development of nanoparticles for drug delivery or cell labelling. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of these nanoparticles on osteoclast formation and activity as well as

Andrea Tautzenberger; Ludwika Kreja; Anke Zeller; Steffen Lorenz; Hubert Schrezenmeier; Volker Mailänder; Katharina Landfester; Anita Ignatius

2011-01-01

280

Stannous Glucoheptonate: An Effective Tinning Agent for Tc-99M Labeling of Blood Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of the various tin compounds studied, stannous glucoheptonate proved to be the most effective tinning agent for labelling blood cells with technetium 99. Much less tin was needed to achieve a rapid and satisfactory intracellular Sn(II) content. Less Sn(II...

R. F. Straub G. E. Meinken S. C. ivastava

1986-01-01

281

Effects of facilitation and cueing on labelling of «novel» stimuli by aphasic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facilitation and cueing are integral to the stimulation approaches to aphasia rehabilitation, but the degree to which these techniques affect untrained responses is rarely documented. This study determined the effects of facilitation and cueing training on aphasic subjects' labelling of novel stimuli. Twenty-three aphasic adults were trained on facilitation and cueing tasks designed to simulate those used in aphasia therapy.

Robert C. Marshall; Sandra I. Neuburger; David S. Phillips

1992-01-01

282

The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

Kulkofsky, Sarah

2010-01-01

283

Effect of Cast Immobilization on Bone Turnover: A Tetracycline Double Labelling Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of cast immobilization on bone turnover is investigated by double tetracycline labelling in 66 rabbits. In normal unimmobilized rabbits the appositional growth rates of newly-formed bones of the left and right femora were 1.95 microns and 2.00 ...

C. Benfu Z. Xiulin Y. Lianfang

1980-01-01

284

High efficiency Hall effect micro-biosensor platform for detection of magnetically labeled biomolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of magnetically labeled biomolecules using micro-Hall biosensors is a promising method for monitoring biomolecular recognition processes. The measurement efficiency of standard systems is limited by the time taken for magnetic beads to reach the sensing area of the Hall devices. Here, micro-current lines were integrated with Hall effect structures to manipulate the position of magnetic beads via field gradients

Adarsh Sandhu; Yoshimichi Kumagai; Adam Lapicki; Satoshi Sakamoto; Masanori Abe; Hiroshi Handa

2007-01-01

285

Electronic gaming machine warning messages: information versus self-evaluation.  

PubMed

Regulators have extensively used warning signs in many health domains to enhance knowledge and shift attitudes and behaviors to reduce associated harm. The effectiveness of these signs is influenced by their physical attributes and content. Gambling warning signs traditionally focus on the following: informing individuals of the potentially risky outcomes of gambling and the odds of winning, encouraging gambling within affordable limits, and advertising counseling services. The limited evidence suggests that warning signs for gambling attract attention and improve knowledge but are generally ineffective in modifying players' thoughts and behaviors. Therefore, the authors aimed to determine the optimal content of messages that would enhance responsible gambling practices. The authors conclude that, in contrast with signs displaying probabilities or informing players of the risks associated with gambling, signs designed to encourage players to reflect on, appraise, evaluate, and self-regulate their actions have greater theoretical and empirical support. The authors comment that warning signs should promote the application of self-appraisal and self-regulation skills rather than the simple provision of information on odds and probabilities to maximize their effectiveness as a public health tool. PMID:20092071

Monaghan, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex

286

Cosmetic Labeling & Label Claims  

MedlinePLUS

... to all labels and other written, printed, or graphic matter on or accompanying a product [FD&C ... drug and cosmetic ingredient labeling [21 CFR 701.3(d)]. The drug ingredients must appear according to the ...

287

The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural

Angelia P. Bukley; John A. Mulqueen

1994-01-01

288

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too

Wamsted

1994-01-01

289

Stochastic design of an early warning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early warning systems (EWS) are monitoring devices designed to avoid or to mitigate the impact posed by a threat. Since EWS are time-sensitive or stochastic, it is necessary to develop a design methodology that defines the integration of the participating monitoring information sources, the identification of potential warning thresholds, and the assessment of the associated risk within an explicit causal

Zenon Medina-Cetina; Farrokh Nadim

2008-01-01

290

LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean

M. Hammitzsch; M. Lendholt; J. Wächter

2009-01-01

291

10 Warning Signs of Primary Immunodeficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Home » About PI » 10 Warning Signs Hotline 1-866-INFO-4-PI Search: Click here to Learn the 4 Stages of Immunologic Testing ... Version ] [ View PDF Version (Need Adobe® Reader® ?) ] Home | 10 Warning Signs | Find an Expert | PI Awareness Campaign | ...

292

Miranda Warnings--When Are They Required?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents two legal cases involving high school students ("Birdsey v. Grand Blanc Community Schools" and "State v. Wolfer") that illustrate requirements for use of "Miranda Warnings." These warnings are not usually required to be provided in civil suits, or proceedings involved in administration of school discipline. In both cases the courts held…

Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

1987-01-01

293

Bystander effect in tumor cells produced by Iodine-125 labeled human lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the ability of human lymphocytes labeled with DNA-incorporated 125I to exert an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect on co-cultured human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells in vitro. Materials and methods Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated to synthesize DNA in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and labeled with 5-[125I]iodo-2?-deoxyuridine. Human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells were co-cultured with the 125I-labeled lymphocytes in various ratios for 5 days and the proliferation of the LS174T cells was assessed. Further, the supernatant media from these co-cultures were: (i) Transferred to LS174T cells and their proliferation measured after 5 days, (ii) used to assess the clonogenic survival of LS174T cells, and (iii) screened for factors that suppress growth. Results A significant reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells was observed when co-cultured either with 125I-labeled lymphocytes (56 ± 3.5%) or the supernatant media (52.5 ± 1.3%) obtained from these co-cultures. Clonogenic survival of LS174T cells grown in the supernatant media corroborated the decrease in tumor cell growth. Conclusion The observed reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells in presence of 125I-labeled lymphocytes or media obtained from such co-cultures can be attributed to an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect, probably mediated by factor(s) released from the dying 125I-labeled lymphocytes.

Mamlouk, Omar; Balagurumoorthy, Pichumani; Wang, Ketai; Adelstein, S. James; Kassis, Amin I.

2013-01-01

294

Front-of-pack nutrition labels. Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints.  

PubMed

Although front-of-pack nutrition labeling can help consumers make healthier food choices, lack of attention to these labels limits their effectiveness. This study examines consumer attention to and use of three different nutrition labeling schemes (logo, multiple traffic-light label, and nutrition table) when they face different goals and resource constraints. To understand attention and processing of labels, various measures are used including self-reported use, recognition, and eye-tracking measures. Results of two experiments in different countries show that although consumers evaluate the nutrition table most positively, it receives little attention and does not stimulate healthy choices. Traffic-light labels and especially logos enhance healthy product choice, even when consumers are put under time pressure. Additionally, health goals of consumers increase attention to and use of nutrition labels, especially when these health goals concern specific nutrients. PMID:21554909

van Herpen, Erica; Trijp, Hans C M van

2011-04-28

295

Expert-recommended warnings for medical marijuana.  

PubMed

Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings, the first ever from marijuana experts, come from 13 experts. The expert-recommended warnings pertain to risks relating to (1) safety, (2) physical health, (3) fetal harm, (4) mental health, (5) withdrawal and dependence, and (6) adolescent development. The results provide initial expert recommendations for warnings to be required on packages of medical marijuana. PMID:23577899

Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E

296

If we label it, will they care? The effect of GM-ingredient labelling on consumer responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 60% of foods in North American supermarkets contain GM ingredients. While North American consumers seem less concerned about GM foods than Europeans and Japanese, many consumer activists argue that consumers have a “right to know” if what they eat has GM ingredients. Will informative labelling of GM foods lead to major shifts in buying patterns? An experimental study

Louise A. Heslop

2006-01-01

297

Effect of ADP on the orientation of spin-labeled myosin heads in muscle fibers: A high-resolution study with deuterated spin labels  

SciTech Connect

We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the effects of ADP on the orientational distribution of nitroxide spin labels attached to myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. To maximize the specificity of labeling, we spin-labeled isolated myosin heads (subfragment 1) on a single reactive thiol (SH1) and diffused them into unlabeled muscle fibers. To maximize spectral and orientational resolution, we used perdeuterated spin labels, 2H-MSL and 2H-IASL, eliminating superhyperfine broadening and thus narrowing the line widths. Two different spin labels were used, with different orientation relative to the myosin head, to ensure that the results are not affected by unfavorable probe orientation. In rigor, a very narrow three-line spectrum was observed for both spin labels, indicating a narrow orientational distribution, as reported previously. ADP induced very slight changes in the spectrum, corresponding to very slight (but significant) changes in the orientational distribution. These changes were quantified by a digital analysis of the spectra, using a two-step simplex fitting procedure. First, the magnetic tensor values and line widths were determined by fitting the spectrum of a randomly oriented sample. Then the spectrum of oriented fibers was fit to a model by assuming a Gaussian distribution of the tilt angle (theta) and twist angle (phi) of the nitroxide principal axes relative to the fiber axis. A single-Gaussian distribution resulted in inadequate fits, but a two-component model gave excellent results. ADP induces a small (less than 5 degrees) rotation of the major components for both spin labels, along with a similarly small increase of disorder about the average positions.

Fajer, P.G.; Fajer, E.A.; Matta, J.J.; Thomas, D.D. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (USA))

1990-06-19

298

Effect of ADP on the orientation of spin-labeled myosin heads in muscle fibers: a high-resolution study with deuterated spin labels.  

PubMed

We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the effects of ADP on the orientational distribution of nitroxide spin labels attached to myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. To maximize the specificity of labeling, we spin-labeled isolated myosin heads (subfragment 1) on a single reactive thiol (SH1) and diffused them into unlabeled muscle fibers. To maximize spectral and orientational resolution, we used perdeuterated spin labels, 2H-MSL and 2H-IASL, eliminating superhyperfine broadening and thus narrowing the line widths. Two different spin labels were used, with different orientation relative to the myosin head, to ensure that the results are not affected by unfavorable probe orientation. In rigor, a very narrow three-line spectrum was observed for both spin labels, indicating a narrow orientational distribution, as reported previously (Thomas & Cooke, 1980). ADP induced very slight changes in the spectrum, corresponding to very slight (but significant) changes in the orientational distribution. These changes were quantified by a digital analysis of the spectra, using a two-step simplex fitting procedure (Fajer et al., 1990). First, the magnetic tensor values and line widths were determined by fitting the spectrum of a randomly oriented sample. Then the spectrum of oriented fibers was fit to a model by assuming a Gaussian distribution of the tilt angle (theta) and twist angle (phi) of the nitroxide principal axes relative to the fiber axis. A single-Gaussian distribution resulted in inadequate fits, but a two-component model gave excellent results. ADP induces a small (less than 5 degrees) rotation of the major components for both spin labels, along with a similarly small increase of disorder about the average positions. PMID:2166562

Fajer, P G; Fajer, E A; Matta, J J; Thomas, D D

1990-06-19

299

A Comparison of Tactile, Visual, and Auditory Warnings for Rear-End Collision Prevention in Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of rear-end collision warnings presented in different sensory modalities as a function of warning timing in a driving simulator. Background: The proliferation of in-vehicle information and entertainment systems threatens driver attention and may increase the risk of rear-end collisions. Collision warning systems have been shown to improve inattentive and\\/or distracted driver response time (RT)

J. J. Scott; Robert Gray

2008-01-01

300

Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?  

PubMed

Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984-1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response. PMID:22745628

Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2012-06-26

301

Prevention of unplanned intensive care unit admissions and hospital mortality by early warning systems.  

PubMed

Researchers have found that patients exhibit physiological changes up to 8 hours prior to an arrest event. Deaths have been attributed to a lack of observation, lack of documentation of observations, inability of a caregiver to recognize early signs of deterioration, and lack of communication between healthcare providers. This integrative review examines early warning scoring systems and their effectiveness in predicting a patient's potential for deterioration and considers whether these scoring systems prevent unplanned intensive care unit admissions and/or death. Three databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL [Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature], and the Cochrane Collaboration) were searched to identify the instruments and clinical support systems available to assist healthcare personnel in recognizing early clinical deterioration. Key search words included modified early warning score, early warning score, early warning systems, deteriorating patient, patients at risk, shock index, track and trigger systems, and failure to rescue. Two prior literature reviews examined early warning scoring systems and their effects on patient outcomes; however, the most recent one reviewed only articles published before 2007. This review examined studies of early warning systems and the incorporation of clinical support published from 2007 to 2012. Nine studies fitting the search criteria were included in this review. Early warning scoring systems that interface with electronic medical records and are supplemented with decision aides (algorithms) and clinical support systems produce an effective screening system for early identification of deteriorating patients. This multifaceted approach decreases unplanned intensive care unit admissions and hospital mortality. PMID:24100432

Mapp, Ila D; Davis, Leslie L; Krowchuk, Heidi

302

A spin label study of the effects of asbestos, quartz, and titanium dioxide dusts on the bovine erythrocyte membrane.  

PubMed

The effects of five UICC asbestos samples, titanium dioxide, and quartz on the bovine red cell membrane have been studied in erythrocyte ghosts by the spin labelling technique. Analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of two sulphydryl reactive spin labels and one fatty acid spin label in red cell ghosts showed modifications in membrane protein after asbestos treatment but no alterations in membrane lipids. In experiments with quartz no membrane changes were noted but titanium dioxide altered the proteins bound with the protein reactive spin label used in the present study. The possible mechanism for these effects is discussed. PMID:2983752

Leyko, W; Gendek, E

1985-04-01

303

A spin label study of the effects of asbestos, quartz, and titanium dioxide dusts on the bovine erythrocyte membrane.  

PubMed Central

The effects of five UICC asbestos samples, titanium dioxide, and quartz on the bovine red cell membrane have been studied in erythrocyte ghosts by the spin labelling technique. Analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of two sulphydryl reactive spin labels and one fatty acid spin label in red cell ghosts showed modifications in membrane protein after asbestos treatment but no alterations in membrane lipids. In experiments with quartz no membrane changes were noted but titanium dioxide altered the proteins bound with the protein reactive spin label used in the present study. The possible mechanism for these effects is discussed.

Leyko, W; Gendek, E

1985-01-01

304

Human factors field evaluation of automotive headway maintenance/collision warning devices.  

PubMed

Three on-road studies were conducted to determine how headway maintenance and collision warning displays influence driver behavior. Visual perspective, visual perspective with a pointer, visual perspective combined with an auditory warning, discrete visual warning, and discrete auditory warning were assessed during both coupled headway and deceleration events. Results indicate that when drivers are provided with salient visual information regarding safe headways, they utilize the information and increase their headway when appropriate. Auditory warnings were less effective than visual warnings for increasing headways but may be helpful for improving reaction time during events that require deceleration. Drivers were somewhat insensitive to false alarm rates, at least during short-term use. Finally, and most important, driver headway maintenance increased by as much as 0.5 s when the appropriate visual display was used. However, a study to investigate the longterm effects of such displays on behavior is strongly recommended prior to mass marketing of headway maintenance/collision warning devices. PMID:9302889

Dingus, T A; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N; Jahns, S K; Carney, C; Hankey, J M

1997-06-01

305

Rooting out institutional corruption to manage inappropriate off-label drug use.  

PubMed

Prescribing drugs for uses that the FDA has not approved - off-label drug use - can sometimes be justified but is typically not supported by substantial evidence of effectiveness. At the root of inappropriate off-label drug use lie perverse incentives for pharmaceutical firms and flawed oversight of prescribing physicians. Typical reform proposals such as increased sanctions for manufacturers might reduce the incidence of unjustified off-label use, but they do not remove the source of the problem. Public policy should address the cause and control the practice. To manage inappropriate off-label drug use, off-label prescriptions must be tracked in order to monitor the risks and benefits and the manufacturers' conduct. Even more important, reimbursement rules should be changed so that manufacturers cannot profit from off-label sales. When off-label sales pass a critical threshold, manufacturers should also be required to pay for independent testing of the safety and effectiveness of off-label drug uses and for the FDA to review the evidence. Manufacturers should also finance, under FDA supervision, programs designed to warn physicians and the public about the risks of off-label drug use. PMID:24088156

Rodwin, Marc A

2013-09-01

306

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (P <0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

1982-02-01

307

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

1982-02-01

308

Effect of muscular exercise on the metabolism of 4-C 14 labelled cholesterol in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The effect of exercise on cholesterol metabolism in mice was quantitatively studied after the administration of 4-C14 labelled cholesterol. The distribution of isotope in the sterol and saponifiable fractions of liver and excreta was determined after periods from 3 to 21 days.It was observed that exercise stimulated [1] the degradation of cholesterol, in particular, its conversion to acidic products, and

M. Hebbelinck; H. Casier

1966-01-01

309

Effects of alcohol intoxication and gender on cerebral perfusion: an arterial spin labeling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of studies use functional MRI (fMRI) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal to investigate the neurofunctional basis of acute alcohol effects on the brain. However, the BOLD signal reflects neural activity only indirectly as it depends on regional hemodynamic changes and is therefore sensitive to vasoactive substances, such as alcohol. We used MRI-based pulsed arterial spin labeling

Elizabeth Rickenbacher; Douglas N. Greve; Sheeva Azma; Josef Pfeuffer; Ksenija Marinkovic

310

Effect of Straw Incorporation on 15N?Labeled Ammonium Nitrogen Uptake and Rice Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of rice straw residue on growth and uptake of added N?labeled ammonium nitrogen (NH4?N) (3% N abundance at the rate of 150 kg N ha) by rice in Crowley silt loam soil (Typic Albaqualfs). Higher rates of rice straw addition had an adverse affect on plant growth from the first to sixth

Manoch Kongchum; R. D. DeLaune; Wayne H. Hudnall; Patrick K. Bollich

2007-01-01

311

CISN ShakeAlert: Accounting for site amplification effects and quantifying time and spatial dependence of uncertainty estimates in the Virtual Seismologist earthquake early warning algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Seismologist (VS) earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithm is one of 3 EEW approaches being incorporated into the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a prototype EEW system being tested in real-time in California. The VS algorithm, implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich, is a Bayesian approach to EEW, wherein the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likehihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS codes have been running in real-time at the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) since July 2008, and at the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) since February 2009. With the aim of improving the convergence of real-time VS magnitude estimates to network magnitudes, we evaluate various empirical and Vs30-based approaches to accounting for site amplification. Empirical station corrections for SCSN stations are derived from M>3.0 events from 2005 through 2009. We evaluate the performance of the various approaches using an independent 2010 dataset. In addition, we analyze real-time VS performance from 2008 to the present to quantify the time and spatial dependence of VS uncertainty estimates. We also summarize real-time VS performance for significant 2011 events in California. Improved magnitude and uncertainty estimates potentially increase the utility of EEW information for end-users, particularly those intending to automate damage-mitigating actions based on real-time information.

Caprio, M.; Cua, G. B.; Wiemer, S.; Fischer, M.; Heaton, T. H.; CISN EEW Team

2011-12-01

312

THE COMPREHENSIBILITY AND CONTENT OF JUVENILE MIRANDA WARNINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually, more than 1.5 million juvenile offenders are arrested and routinely Mirandized with little consideration regarding the comprehensibility of these warnings. The current investigation examined 122 juvenile Miranda warnings from across the United States regarding their length, reading level, and content. Even more variable than general Miranda warnings, juvenile warnings ranged remarkably from 52 to 526 words; inclusion of Miranda

Richard Rogers; Lisa L. Hazelwood; Kenneth W. Sewell; Daniel W. Shuman; Hayley L. Blackwood

2008-01-01

313

Greatest Herbs on Earth Warning Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... November 9, 2005 Richard Slayton Greatest Herbs on Earth 11620 Deodar Way Reno, NV 89506 ... Page 2 – Greatest Herbs on Earth Warning Letter ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

314

All Natural Pain Relief Inc. Warning Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Your Soy Futura™ product is also misbranded within the ... Page 2 – All Natural Pain Relief, Inc., Warning ... of your website and the products that your ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

315

Global Emergency Observation and Warning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required t...

A. P. Bukley J. A. Mulqueen

1994-01-01

316

Environmental Early Warning System (EEWS): Concept Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives a concept description of the Environmental Early Warning System (EEWS) developed by the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL). The EEWS is an interactive computer system designed to give the Department of Army Hea...

R. C. Lozar H. Balbach

1983-01-01

317

What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke?  

MedlinePLUS

... part of the body it controls. TIAs, or transient ischemic attacks, are “warning strokes” that can happen before a ... for a short time. The signs of a TIA are like a stroke, but they usually last ...

318

Anticipating Surprise: Analysis for Strategic Warning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Warning is a skill unto itself, requiring an understanding of the attitudes and disciplines of potential adversaries as well as their capabilities, their history, their culture and their biases. In an era of asymmetric warfare in which our national securi...

C. M. Grabo

2002-01-01

319

47 CFR 3.71 - Warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Warnings will generally be issued for violations which do not seriously or immediately affect settlement functions or international relations. Continued or unresolved violations may lead to further enforcement action by the Commission, including any...

2012-10-01

320

The coevolution of warning signals.  

PubMed Central

It has long been recognized that defended prey tend to be conspicuous. Current theories suggest that the association ('aposematism') has arisen because predators more readily learn to avoid attacking defended phenotypes when they are conspicuous. In this paper, I consider why such psychology has evolved. In particular, I argue that aposematism may have evolved not because of an independent and pre-existing receiver bias, but because the conspicuousness of a prey item provides a reliable indicator of its likelihood of being defended. To develop my case I consider how warning signals might coevolve in a system containing a number of predators, whose foraging behaviour is also subject to selection. In these cases, models readily show that the greater the conspicuousness of a novel prey item, the more likely that it has been encountered by other predators and survived. As a consequence, naive predators should be less likely to attack highly conspicuous novel prey on encounter, or at least more inclined to attack them cautiously. This adaptive predator behaviour will greatly facilitate the spread of aposematic phenotypes from extreme rarity, which in turn will enhance selection for forms of predator behaviour under which aposematism will coevolve even more readily.

Sherratt, Thomas N

2002-01-01

321

Demonstrating adequacy of railroad warnings: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequently a jury is asked to evaluate a claim that a device provided adequate warning of a hazardous condition. Although there is extensive research on which basis an expert may evaluate such claim, the layman is unprepared to integrate such information into a decision. Previous attempts to produce courtroom demonstrations of warnings have been easily challenged by opposing experts. In a recent case involving a pedestrian accident on a railroad right-of-way we produced a jury demonstration that was accepted by the court, was not challenged effectively by opposing counsel, and communicated effectively with the jury. This paper describes a demonstration that incorporated binaural recording and presentation with a synchronized video orientation and simulation. We will present an excerpt of the demonstration.

Erdreich, John; Difrancesco, Victor

2005-09-01

322

TEWI—Turkey Early Warning Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

TEWI—Turkey Early Warning Index is a combination of eight different indexes that basically stands on eight different macroeconomic variables. Each variable was selected in accordance with the strength of reflecting macroeconomic outlook. Analysis of the macroeconomic variables shows that all variables have almost the same transactions in pre-crisis terms. The difference of TEWI—Turkey Early Warning Index from the current early

Sercan Kiliclar; Oktay Tas

2009-01-01

323

Degradation of surface-labeled hepatoma membrane polypeptides: effect of inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

When their membrane proteins were labeled with 125I by lactoperoxidase, dividing hepatoma cells lost radioactivity to the medium in a biphasic manner (T1/2 . 16-26 h, greater than 40 h). Lysosomotropic weak bases, chloroquine, and NH4Cl inhibited the rapid phase by 59%. More than 50% of the radioactivity which accumulates in the media from dividing cells during the first 4 h after labeling was trichloroacetic acid-soluble, and was identified as iodotyrosine. Iodotyrosine release from labeled membrane proteins was 60-71% inhibited by lysosomotropic agents chloroquine and NH4Cl as well as the sodium-proton ionophore, monensin. The inhibitory effect of NH4Cl and monensin was reversible. Inhibitors of microtubule and microfilament function and transglutamination had no effect on release of iodotyrosine to the medium, but trypsin-like protease inhibitors, p-aminobenzamidine, tosyl-L-lysine/chloromethylketone, and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, as well as the cathepsin B inhibitor, leupeptin, inhibited by 21-24%. Iodotyrosine release showed a biphasic Arrhenius plot with an activation energy of 17 kcal/mol above but 27 kcal/mol below 20 degrees C. These results indicate that cell membrane polypeptides require a temperature-limiting event as well as passage through an ion-sensitive compartment prior to their complete degradation to constituent amino acids. In contrast to other lysosomal-mediated events, however, iodinated membrane proteins of dividing cells are degraded in a manner insensitive to agents which disrupt the cytoskeleton.

Hare, J.F.; Huston, M.

1984-09-01

324

A Method to Increase Drivers' Trust in Collision Warning Systems Based on Reliability Information of Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driver's workload tends to be increased during driving under complicated traffic environments like a lane change. In such cases, rear collision warning is effective for reduction of cognitive workload. On the other hand, it is pointed out that false alarm or missing alarm caused by sensor errors leads to decrease of driver' s trust in the warning system and it can result in low efficiency of the system. Suppose that reliability information of the sensor is provided in real-time. In this paper, we propose a new warning method to increase driver' s trust in the system even with low sensor reliability utilizing the sensor reliability information. The effectiveness of the warning methods is shown by driving simulator experiments.

Tsutsumi, Shigeyoshi; Wada, Takahiro; Akita, Tokihiko; Doi, Shun'ichi

325

Modafinil for atypical depression: effects of open-label and double-blind discontinuation treatment.  

PubMed

Atypical depression, with features of hypersomnia, hyperphagia, anergia, and rejection sensitivity, is a common presentation of major depressive disorder. There are few available effective therapies for this disorder. We test modafinil, a novel wake-promoting agent, as monotherapy for atypical depression in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, relapse prevention trial after open-label treatment. We found that modafinil significantly improved atypical depression symptoms during 12 weeks of open-label treatment (mean +/- SD Hamilton Depression Scale (29-item version) score changed from 34 +/- 8.2 at baseline to 9.7 +/- 9.3, P < 0.0001), and that benefits were maintained alike in both the continuation and placebo arms during the double-blind treatment phase (P = 0.92). Modafinil was well tolerated and the drug was associated with significant weight loss compared with placebo (P = 0.01). PMID:16855454

Vaishnavi, Sandeep; Gadde, Kishore; Alamy, Sayed; Zhang, Wei; Connor, Kathryn; Davidson, Jonathan R T

2006-08-01

326

Structure health assessment and warning system (SHAWS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a Structure Health Assessment and Warning System (SHAWS) based on building displacement measurements and wireless communication. SHAWS will measure and predict the stability/instability of a building, determine whether it is safe for emergency responders to enter during an emergency, and provide individual warnings on the condition of the structure. SHAWS incorporates remote sensing nodes (RSNs) installed on the exterior frame of a building. Each RSN includes a temperature sensor, a three-axis accelerometer making static-acceleration measurements, and a ZigBee wireless system (IEEE 802.15.4). The RSNs will be deployed remotely using an air cannon delivery system, with each RSN having an innovative adhesive structure for fast (<10 min) and strong installation under emergency conditions. Once the building has moved past a threshold (~0.25 in./building story), a warning will be issued to emergency responders. In addition to the RSNs, SHAWS will include a base station located on an emergency responder's primary vehicle, a PDA for mobile data display to guide responders, and individual warning modules that can be worn by each responder. The individual warning modules will include visual and audio indicators with a ZigBee receiver to provide the proper degree of warning to each responder.

Bock, Daniel M.; Kim, Keehoon; Mapar, Jalal

2008-04-01

327

¹?N metabolic labeling: evidence for a stable isotope effect on plasma protein levels and peptide chromatographic retention times.  

PubMed

Many quantitative proteomics methods rely on protein and peptide labeling with stable isotopes. We have recently found that the introduction of ¹?N into organisms via in vivo metabolic labeling affects protein expression levels as well as metabolic pathways and behavioral phenotypes. Here, we present further evidence for a stable isotope effect based on the plasma proteome analysis of ¹?N-labeled mice. We compared plasma proteomes of ¹?N-labeled and unlabeled (¹?N) mice by quantitative MS. We found a number of protein level differences, some of which were verified immunochemically. In addition, we observed divergent chromatographic retention time and peak full width at half maximum (FWHM) between ¹?N-labeled and ¹?N tryptic peptides. Our data point toward a systemic effect of the introduction of heavy isotopes in vivo. PMID:23279933

Webhofer, Christian; Zhang, Yaoyang; Brusis, Jan; Reckow, Stefan; Landgraf, Rainer; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Turck, Christoph W; Filiou, Michaela D

2012-12-30

328

Tsunami early warning in the central Mediterranean: effect of the heterogeneity of the seismic source on the timely detectability of a tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Mediterranean, and in particular the coasts of southern Italy, is one of the areas with the highest tsunami hazard in Europe. Limiting our attention to earthquake-generated tsunamis, the sources of historical events hitting this region, as well as the largest part of the potential tsunamigenic seismic sources mapped there, are found at very short distances from the closest shorelines, reducing the time needed for the tsunami to attack the coasts themselves to few minutes. This represents by itself an issue from the Tsunami Early Warning (TEW) perspective. To make the overall problem even more intriguing and challenging, it is known that large tsunamigenic earthquakes are generally characterized by highly heterogeneous distributions of the slip on the fault. This feature has been recognized clearly, for instance, in the giant Sumatra 2004, Chile 2010, and Japan 2011 earthquakes (magnitude 9.3, 8.8 and 9.0, respectively), but it was a property also of smaller magnitude events occurred in the region considered in this study, like the 28 December 1908 Messina Straits tsunamigenic earthquake (M=7.2). In terms of tsunami impact, the parent fault slip heterogeneity usually determines a high variability of run-up and inundation on the near-field coasts, which further complicates the TEW problem. The information on the details of the seismic source rupture coming from the seismic (and possibly geodetic) networks, though of primary importance, is typically available after a time that is comparable or larger than the time comprised between the generation and the impact of the tsunami. In the framework of the EU-FP7 TRIDEC Project, we investigate how a proper marine sensors coverage both along the coasts and offshore can help posing constraints on the characteristics of the source in near-real time. Our approach consists in discussing numerical tsunami scenarios in the central Mediterranean involving different slip distributions on the parent fault; the tsunamigenic region we take into consideration is the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment located offshore eastern Sicily, where several large historical tsunamigenic earthquakes took place (e.g. 11 January 1693). Starting from different slip configurations on a chosen fault, we compare the time series of wave elevation simulated for tide gauges placed along the coast and for virtual deep sea sensors placed at different distances from the source area. The final goal is to understand whether a properly designed marine sensor network can help determining in real-time the slip characteristics along the parent fault and hence forecasting the pattern of impact of the tsunami especially along the closest coasts.

Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.

2012-04-01

329

Local Tsunami Warning in the Pacific Coastal United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal areas are warned of a tsunami by natural phenomena and man-made warning systems. Earthquake shaking and\\/or unusual water conditions, such as rapid changes in water level, are natural phenomena that warn coastal areas of a local tsunami that will arrive in minutes. Unusual water conditions are the natural warning for a distant tsunami. Man-made warning systems include sirens, telephones,

Mark Darienzo; Al Aya; George L. Crawford; David Gibbs; Paul M. Whitmore; Tyree Wilde; Brian S. Yanagi

2005-01-01

330

Local Tsunami Warning in the Pacific Coastal United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal areas are warned of a tsunami by natural phenomena and man-made warning systems. Earthquake shaking and\\/or unusual water conditions, such as rapid changes in water level, are natural phenomena that warn coastal areas of a local tsunami that will arrive in minutes. Unusual water conditions are the natural warning for a distant tsunami. Man-made warning systems include sirens, telephones,

Mark Darienzo; Al Aya; George Crawford; David Gibbs; Paul Whitmore; Tyree Wilde; Brian Yanagi

331

An Analysis of Miranda Warnings and Waivers: Comprehension and Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miranda warnings enshrine the constitutional rights of custodial suspects against self-incrimination. However, the wording\\u000a and sentence complexity of Miranda warnings and waivers vary dramatically from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. This study is\\u000a the first extensive investigation of Miranda warning variations examining 560 Miranda warnings from across the United States.\\u000a With Flesch-Kincaid reading comprehension as a useful metric, Miranda warnings varied from

Richard Rogers; Kimberly S. Harrison; Daniel W. Shuman; Kenneth W. Sewell; Lisa L. Hazelwood

2007-01-01

332

Impact on the Australian Quitline of new graphic cigarette pack warnings including the Quitline number  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:In March 2006, Australia introduced graphic pictorial warnings on cigarette packets. For the first time, packs include the Quitline number.Objective:To measure the combined effect of graphic cigarette pack warnings and printing the Quitline number on packs on calls to the Australian Quitline service.Methods:Calls to the Australian Quitline were monitored over 4 years, 2 years before and after the new packets

C L Miller; D J Hill; P G Quester; J E Hiller

2009-01-01

333

Tsunami Early Warning Within Five Minutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis are most destructive at near to regional distances, arriving within 20-30 min after a causative earthquake; effective early warning at these distances requires notification within 15 min or less. The size and impact of a tsunami also depend on sea floor displacement, which is related to the length, L, width, W, mean slip, D, and depth, z, of the earthquake rupture. Currently, the primary seismic discriminant for tsunami potential is the centroid-moment tensor magnitude, M {w/CMT}, representing the product LWD and estimated via an indirect inversion procedure. However, the obtained M {w/CMT} and the implied LWD value vary with rupture depth, earth model, and other factors, and are only available 20-30 min or more after an earthquake. The use of more direct discriminants for tsunami potential could avoid these problems and aid in effective early warning, especially for near to regional distances. Previously, we presented a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using two, simple measurements on P-wave seismograms—the predominant period on velocity records, T d , and the likelihood, T {50/Ex}, that the high-frequency, apparent rupture-duration, T 0, exceeds 50-55 s. We have shown that T d and T 0 are related to the critical rupture parameters L, W, D, and z, and that either of the period-duration products T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex} gives more information on tsunami impact and size than M {w/CMT}, M wp, and other currently used discriminants. These results imply that tsunami potential is not directly related to the product LWD from the "seismic" faulting model, as is assumed with the use of the M {w/CMT} discriminant. Instead, information on rupture length, L, and depth, z, as provided by T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex}, can constrain well the tsunami potential of an earthquake. We introduce here special treatment of the signal around the S arrival at close stations, a modified, real-time, M wpd(RT) magnitude, and other procedures to enable early estimation of event parameters and tsunami discriminants. We show that with real-time data currently available in most regions of tsunami hazard, event locations, m b and M wp magnitudes, and the direct, period-duration discriminant, T d T {50/Ex} can be determined within 5 min after an earthquake occurs, and T 0, T d T 0, and M wpd(RT) within approximately 10 min. This processing is implemented and running continuously in real-time within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it). We also show that the difference m b - log10( T d T 0) forms a rapid discriminant for slow, tsunami earthquakes. The rapid availability of these measurements can aid in faster and more reliable tsunami early warning for near to regional distances.

Lomax, Anthony; Michelini, Alberto

2013-09-01

334

Comparison of several indium-111 ligands in labeling blood cells: effect of diethylpyrocarbonate and CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

The effect of oxine sulfate, oxine sulfonate, tropolone, and Merc (2 mercaptopyridine-1-oxide) were compared with oxine, with respect to their capability of labeling blood cells when complexed to indium-111 (/sup 111/In). Indium-111 oxine sulfate performed similarly to (/sup 111/In)oxine with regard to cell labeling capability. Indium-111 oxine sulfonate had no labeling ability. Indium-111 tropolone and Merc were not superior to (/sup 111/In)oxine as cell labeling agents. Carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and a CO/sub 2/ generating compound, diethyl pyrocarbonate, dramatically improved the cell labeling ability in plasma of (/sup 111/In)tropolone and Merc. In the case of oxine, this improvement was less distinct. Theoretical aspects of the CO/sub 2/ cell labeling stimulating effect are discussed in terms of intra- and extracellular transferrin and lactoferrin iron (indium) binding capacity. Indium-111 tropolone behaved favorably with respect to inhibition of leukocyte migration, compared with oxine and Merc. Combined with the property of easy cell labeling and good solubility in water, also in the complexed state, tropolone must be regarded as the most suitable cell labeling ligand.

Goedemans, W.T.; de Jong, M.M.

1987-06-01

335

The speeding of voluntary reaction by a warning signal.  

PubMed

Warning signals can shorten reaction time (RT) via either a top-down mechanism, temporal attention, or a bottom-up one, phasic arousal. The goal of this review article is to identify the locus at which these processes influence RT. Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence indicate that the chronometric locus for both modulatory effects lies mainly within a narrow window at the center of the stimulus-response interval. This interval presumably encompasses late perceptual, response selection, and early motor processes. Phasic arousal is theorized to reduce the threshold for response selection within a circuit involving the supramarginal gyrus. A blind-sight study indicates that conscious, cortical level processing is necessary for temporal attention, at least when the warning signal is visual. PMID:18811626

Hackley, Steven A

2008-09-22

336

76 FR 38975 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21...RIN 0910-AF43 Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use Correction In rule document...

2011-07-05

337

21 CFR 333.350 - Labeling of acne drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of acne drug products. 333.350 Section 333...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.350 Labeling of acne drug products. (c) Warnings . The...

2010-04-01

338

Label-free detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms utilizing the differential transfer function of field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a label-free method for the detection of DNA hybridization, which is monitored by non-metallized silicon field-effect transistors (FET) in a microarray approach. The described method enables a fast and fully electronic readout of ex situ binding assays. The label-free detection utilizing the field-effect is based on the intrinsic charge of the DNA molecules and\\/or on changes of the

S. Ingebrandt; Y. Han; F. Nakamura; A. Poghossian; M. J. Schöning; A. Offenhäusser

2007-01-01

339

A Simple Procedure for Effective Quenching of Trypsin Activity and Prevention of 18O-Labeling Back-Exchange  

PubMed Central

Trypsin-catalyzed stable isotope 16O/18O-labeling of the C-terminal carboxyl groups of peptides is increasingly used in shotgun proteomics for relative peptide/protein quantitation. However, precise quantitative measurements are often complicated by residual trypsin that can catalyze the back-exchange of 18O with 16O after labeling. Here, we demonstrate through a detailed evaluation that boiling the peptide sample for 10 minutes provides a simple means for completely quenching residual trypsin activity and preventing oxygen back-exchange in 18O-labeled samples. We also observed that the presence of organic solvents such as acetonitrile made quenching trypsin activity less efficient. Finally, current 18O-labeling methods that typically employ immobilized trypsin result in significant sample losses due to non-specific binding of peptides on the resin, making their application toward smaller biological samples increasingly impractical. We present here an improved 18O-labeling protocol that is more applicable to microscale biological samples by using solution-phase trypsin instead of immobilized trypsin to overcome the non-specific sample loss issue encountered with the use of immobilized trypsin. The ability to generate stably 18O-labeled samples without back-exchange should enable more effective applications of 18O-labeled toward large-scale biomarker discovery and validations where an 18O-labeled sample can be used as a common reference for quantitation.

Petritis, Brianne O.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

2009-01-01

340

Kinetics of RNA Labeling in Toad Bladder Epithelium: Effects of Aldosterone and Related Steroids  

PubMed Central

Sucrose gradient analysis revealed an aldosterone-dependent increase in the incorporation of [3H]uridine into a nonmethylated, rapidly labeled RNA that sedimented at 9-12 S. This effect was antagonized by an anti-mineralocorticoid, spironolactone (SC 9420), and was not elicited either by a glucocorticoid, cortisol, or by the inactive isomer, 17-?-isoaldosterone. These findings are in accord with the inference that mRNA is induced by aldosterone during the latent period and that the induced mRNA mediates the action on sodium transport. Images

Rossier, B. C.; Wilce, P. A.; Edelman, I. S.

1974-01-01

341

Self-assembled nanotube field-effect transistors for label-free protein biosensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-assembly method is developed to fabricate single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT-FETs). The electrode surface and the area between electrodes are modified with nonpolar groups (-CH3) and polar groups (-NH3+). SWNTs are selectively placed in the area between the electrodes. We achieve stability and specificity in label-free protein detection using the biotin-streptavidin pair as research model. Our process holds promise for high integration of SWNT-FET biosensors, with no need for high-temperature processing.

Hu, P.; Fasoli, A.; Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Estrela, P.; Maeng, S. L.; Milne, W. I.; Ferrari, A. C.

2008-10-01

342

21 CFR 357.850 - Labeling of deodorant drug products for internal use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...810(b). (i) âAn aid to reduce odor from a colostomy or ileostomy.â (ii) âAn aid to reduce fecal odor due to incontinence.â (c) Warnings. The labeling of the product contains the following warnings under the heading...

2010-04-01

343

76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend the regulation classifying ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test systems to restrict these devices so that a prescribed warning statement that addresses a risk identified in the special controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The black box warning......

2011-03-23

344

Hydrologic Ensemble Forecasts for Flash Flood Warnings at Ungauged Locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of operational flash flood warning systems is one of the challenges in operational hydrology: flash floods are devastating but difficult to monitor and predict due to their nature. To provide flash flood warnings for ungauged basins, Météo-France and Irstea (formally Cemagref) have developed a discharge-threshold flood warning system called AIGA, which combines radar-gauge rainfall grids with a simplified distributed rainfall-runoff model run every 15 minutes at a 1-km² resolution. Operational since 2005 in the Southern part of France, the AIGA system produces, every 15 minutes, a map of the river network with a color chart indicating the range of the estimated return period of the ongoing flood event. To increase forecast lead time and quantify the forcing input uncertainty, the rainfall-runoff distributed model ingests the 11 precipitation ensemble members from the PEARP ensemble prediction system of Météo-France. Performance of the experimental probabilistic precipitation and flow forecasts is evaluated from a variety of ensemble verification metrics (e.g., Continuous Ranked Probability Skill Score, Relative Operating Characteristic score) for different French basins. We also discuss planned enhancements and challenges to assess other sources of hydrologic uncertainty and effectively communicate the uncertainty information to forecasters for better risk-based decision making.

Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Ramos, Maria-Helena

2013-04-01

345

Reactions to life-style warnings: coffee and cancer.  

PubMed

A well-publicized report linking coffee to cancer of the pancreas provided an opportunity to examine how people react to life-style warnings. According to the concepts of cognitive dissonance and defensive avoidance, coffee drinkers might be expected to avoid this report or dispute its validity. Within the sample of 89 secretarial and clerical workers, coffee drinkers were found to be somewhat more likely than nondrinkers to be aware of and to recall the contents of the report. The more they drank, the more likely they were to have changed their coffee consumption in response to the new information. Coffee drinking had no effect on interest in receiving a copy of the original report nor were coffee drinkers more likely than nondrinkers to doubt the future confirmation of the reported coffee-cancer link. It was suggested that life-style warnings, particularly warnings about risks that are newly recognized, do not produce strong avoidance motivations. Several reasons for this lack of avoidance are discussed. PMID:3997536

Weinstein, N D

1985-01-01

346

A framework for drought early warning systems in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework for drought warning and mitigation in Africa is proposed to assist in establishing policy priorities based on scientific evidence. Overall, a science-based approach is a useful guideline, but a number of challenges are recognized. Risk-based approaches to preparing for drought are focused on acquiring accurate probabilistic information about the events themselves. When this is not possible, the strategy fails. In contrast, understanding and reducing vulnerability does not demand accurate predictions of the incidence of extreme drought. Nevertheless, if may be politically difficult to justify drought vulnerability reduction on economic grounds. The evidence-based approach responds to four major questions: First, what is the science available? We evaluate the detection of the signs of impending drought. Second, what are the societal capacities? We evaluating the institutional framework that enables policy development. Third, how can science be translated into policy? We propose a framework for linking science indicators into definition of risk levels and analysing the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. Here we also respond to the question: Can policy be enforced? Evaluation of policy implementation and giving effect to early warning. Finally, how can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating the provision of information to potentially affected groups. Here we also answer: What should society do with the warnings? In this final step we link the science indicators the actions/interventions that society needs to implement.

Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis

2013-04-01

347

TRMM Applications for Rainfall-Induced Landslide Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning system (EWS) is the most effective method in saving lives and reducing property damages resulted from the catastrophic landslides if properly implemented in populated areas of landslide-prone nations. For predicting the occurrence of landslides, it requires examination of empirical relationship between rainfall characteristics and past landslide occurrence. In developed countries like Japan and the US, precipitation is monitored by rain radars and ground-based rain gauge matrix. However, in developing regions like Southeast Asian countries, very limited number of rain gauges is available, and there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. Correspondingly, satellite precipitation monitoring could be therefore a possible and promising solution for launching landslide quasi-real-time early warning system in those countries. It is due to the fact that TMPA (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis) can provides a globally calibration-based sequential scheme for combining precipitation estimates from multiple satellites, and gauge analyses where feasible, at fine scales (3-hourly with 0.25°x0.25° spatial resolution). It is available both after and in quasi-real time, calibrated by TRMM Combined Instrument and TRMM Microwave Imager precipitation product. However, validation of ground based rain gauge and TRMM satellite data in the vulnerable regions is still not yet operative. Snake-line/Critical-line and Soil Water Index (SWI) are used for issuing warning of landslide occurrence in Japan; whereas, Caine criterion is preferable in Europe and western nations. Herewith, it presents rainfall behavior which took place in Beichuan city (located on the 2008 Chinese Wenchuan earthquake fault), Hofu and Shobara cities in Japan where localized heavy rainfall attacked in 2009 and 2010, respectively, from TRMM 3B42RT correlated with ground based rain gauge data. The 1-day rainfall intensity and 15-day cumulative rainfall (snake line) were independently plotted to investigate the impact of short-term rainfall intensity and accumulated effective rainfall volume respectively for obtaining some probabilistic threshold. Japanese SWI was also tested to distribute threshold regarding to highly nonlinear rainfall patterns in predicting the landslide occurrence through the plot of total water of 3 serial tank models and daily precipitation. As a result, the snake line plots using TMPA work well for landslide warning in the selected cities; while SWI plots shows unusual peak value on the day of the debris flow occurrence. Graph of daily precipitation vs SWI implies possible zone of critical line, and second peak appearance 1 day before, indicating possibility of early warning.

Dok, A.; Fukuoka, H.; Hong, Y.

2012-04-01

348

A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and capabilities of different dissemination channels such as SMS, email and television, have bearing on the information processing required for delivery and consumption of a DEWS EDXL-DE/CAP message over each dissemination channel. These messages may include additional information in the form of maps, graphs, documents, sensor observations, etc. Therefore, the generated messages are pre-processed by channel adaptors in the information dissemination services converting it into a format that is suitable for end-to-end delivery over the dissemination channels without any semantic distortion. The approach followed by DEWS for disseminating warnings not only relies on traditional communication ways used by the already established early warnings such as the delivery of faxes and phone calls but takes into consideration the use of other broadly used communication channels such as SMS, email, narrowcast and broadcast television, instant messaging, Voice over IP, and radio. It also takes advantage of social media channels like RSS feeds, Facebook, Twitter, etc., enabling a multiplier effect, like in the case of radio and television, and thus allowing to create mash-ups by aggregating other sources of information to the original message. Finally, status information is also important in order to assess and understand whether the process of disseminating the warning to the message consumers has been successfully completed or the process failed at some point of the dissemination chain. To that end, CAP-based messages generated within the information dissemination services provide the semantics for those fields that are of interest within the context of reporting the warning dissemination status in DEWS.

Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

2012-04-01

349

Labels used by young people to describe mental disorders: which ones predict effective help-seeking choices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Mental disorders are common in young people, yet many do not seek help. Being able to label the problem may facilitate effective\\u000a help-seeking, but it is not clear which labels are best. This study aims to examine which labels commonly used by young people\\u000a are associated with a preference for recommended sources of help and treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A national telephone survey

Annemarie WrightAnthony; Anthony F. Jorm; Andrew J. Mackinnon

350

The operational status of the Russian space-based early warning system  

SciTech Connect

Early warning against ballistic missile attack has played a very important role in the military doctrines of the United States and Russia. Both countries have deployed systems of early warning satellites that could detect an attack almost immediately after the missiles were launched. These systems were vital for providing a launch on warning capability that was an important building block of their deterrence policies. With the end of the Cold War, the probability of a large-scale nuclear conflict has practically disappeared and the mission of the early warning system has become more diversified. The new missions, such as detection of accidental or unauthorized launches or countering the emerging threat of ballistic missile launches from third-world countries, becoming almost equally important, could require an early warning system of a different kind. This article analyzes the capabilities of the currently deployed Russian space based early warning system and shows that the system could not be modified to be effectively used in the post Cold War environment.

Podvig, P.

1994-08-01

351

Lessons from New Zealand's introduction of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packaging.  

PubMed

While international evidence suggests that featuring pictorial health warnings on tobacco packaging is an effective tobacco control intervention, the process used to introduce these new warnings has not been well documented. We examined relevant documents and interviewed officials responsible for this process in New Zealand. We found that, despite tobacco companies' opposition to pictorial health warnings and the resource constraints facing health authorities, the implementation process was generally robust and successful. Potential lessons for other countries planning to introduce or refresh existing pictorial health warnings include: (i) strengthening the link between image research and policy; (ii) requiring frequent image development and refreshment; (iii) using larger pictures (e.g. 80% of the front of the packet); (iv) developing themes that recognize concerns held by different smoker sub-groups; and (v) running integrated mass media campaigns when the warnings are introduced. All countries could also support moves by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's Secretariat to develop an international bank of copyright-free warnings. PMID:21076568

Hoek, Janet; Wilson, Nick; Allen, Matthew; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George; Li, Judy

2010-10-05

352

Investigating drug repositioning opportunities in FDA drug labels through topic modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Drug repositioning offers an opportunity to revitalize the slowing drug discovery pipeline by finding new uses for currently existing drugs. Our hypothesis is that drugs sharing similar side effect profiles are likely to be effective for the same disease, and thus repositioning opportunities can be identified by finding drug pairs with similar side effects documented in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug labels. The safety information in the drug labels is usually obtained in the clinical trial and augmented with the observations in the post-market use of the drug. Therefore, our drug repositioning approach can take the advantage of more comprehensive safety information comparing with conventional de novo approach. Method A probabilistic topic model was constructed based on the terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) that appeared in the Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions, and Adverse Reactions sections of the labels of 870 drugs. Fifty-two unique topics, each containing a set of terms, were identified by using topic modeling. The resulting probabilistic topic associations were used to measure the distance (similarity) between drugs. The success of the proposed model was evaluated by comparing a drug and its nearest neighbor (i.e., a drug pair) for common indications found in the Indications and Usage Section of the drug labels. Results Given a drug with more than three indications, the model yielded a 75% recall, meaning 75% of drug pairs shared one or more common indications. This is significantly higher than the 22% recall rate achieved by random selection. Additionally, the recall rate grows rapidly as the number of drug indications increases and reaches 84% for drugs with 11 indications. The analysis also demonstrated that 65 drugs with a Boxed Warning, which indicates significant risk of serious and possibly life-threatening adverse effects, might be replaced with safer alternatives that do not have a Boxed Warning. In addition, we identified two therapeutic groups of drugs (Musculo-skeletal system and Anti-infective for systemic use) where over 80% of the drugs have a potential replacement with high significance. Conclusion Topic modeling can be a powerful tool for the identification of repositioning opportunities by examining the adverse event terms in FDA approved drug labels. The proposed framework not only suggests drugs that can be repurposed, but also provides insight into the safety of repositioned drugs.

2012-01-01

353

The glycemic index: methodological aspects related to the interpretation of health effects and to regulatory labeling.  

PubMed

The glycemic index (GI) is an experimental system that classifies carbohydrates (CHO) and CHO-containing foods according to their blood glucose-raising potential. It is based on the glycemic response following the ingestion of a test food containing a defined amount of available CHO relative to that of an equi-carbohydrate portion of either white bread or glucose. The concept has been extended to mixed meals and whole diets where the GI of the meal/diet is expressed as the weighted average of the GI of each food, based on the percentage of the total mealldiet CHO provided by each food. Over the last few decades, a substantial number of epidemiological and interventional studies have reported beneficial associationsleffects of lower GI diets across a wide spectrum of pathophysiological conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and certain forms of cancer. This has prompted proponents of the GI to recommend its use for dietary planning and labeling purposes. However, the currently recommended GI methodology is not well standardized and has several flaws, which brings into question the strength of evidence attributed to the health effects of low-GI diets. This review focuses exclusively on the methodological aspects of the GI, how they might impact the interpretation of data related to the purported health benefits of low GI diets, and the considerations for the use of the GI in food labeling. In addition, alternative systems for classifying the glycemic effects of CHO-containing foods are briefly discussed. PMID:19610381

Aziz, Alfred

354

Labeling with Indium-111 has detrimental effects on human lymphocytes: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

When lymphocytes from human peripheral blood were labeled with In-111 oxinate, several of their properties appeared to be affected. The spontaneous release of the radionuclide was found to be relatively high. Labeled lymphocytes showed a decreased proliferative capacity, dependent on the dose of the label. Cytogenetic studies revealed that In-111 oxinate induces severe chromosomal aberrations. These results emphasize the need for great caution in the use of the In-111 label for studies on lymphocyte traffic in humans.

ten Berge, R.J.M.; (Central Lab. of the Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Amsterdam); Natarajan, A.T.; Hardeman, M.R.; van Royen, E.A.; Schellekens, P.T.A.

1983-07-01

355

In Brief: Russian volcano warnings reinstated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) is again issuing warnings for aviation during periods of activity by Kamchatkan volcanoes. KVERT had stopped issuing warnings on 1 March due to a loss of funding by the Federal Unitary Enterprise State Air Traffic Management Corporation of Russia (see Eos 88(12), 2007). The funding for this work has now resumed. KVERT is a collaborative project of scientists from the Russian Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department, and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

Zielinski, Sarah

2007-04-01

356

Warning signs for suicide in Internet forums.  

PubMed

The presence of 10 warning signs for suicide proposed by the American Association of Suicidology was compared in 215 postings on a suicide forum and 94 postings on a self-injury forum. The suicide forum postings received a higher score on the 10 signs than the self-injury forum postings, and significant differences were found for 6 of the 10 signs: suicidal ideation, purposelessness, trapped, hopelessness, withdrawal, and, in the reverse direction, recklessness. Overall, the findings support the usefulness of the warning signs in identifying suicidal individuals. PMID:23045860

McSwain, Stephanie; Lester, David; Gunn, John F

2012-08-01

357

Health warnings on tobacco products: international practices.  

PubMed

Health warnings on tobacco products have emerged as a prominent area of tobacco control policy. Regulatory practice has rapidly evolved over the past decade to the point where health warnings on tobacco products continue to set international precedents for their size and comprehensiveness. The current paper provides a general review of current regulatory practices, including physical design features (such as size and location), message content (pictorial vs. text and content themes), and regulatory considerations such as rotation period and other novel practices. PMID:22689165

Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

2012-06-01

358

The Effect of Alternative Nutrition Menu Labels on Children’s Meals Purchases and Parent-Child Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children are one subpopulation that have seen a threefold increase in obesity over the last two decades but have received no attention in the menu labeling literature. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of different menu labeling formats on purchases of children’s meals and parent-child decision-making at a family-oriented restaurant. The intervention consists of five children’s

Ashley Holmes; Elena Serrano; George C. Davis

2011-01-01

359

School meals: teenagers’ attitudes to nutritional labelling and intended effects on food choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reports on a small-scale survey of teenagers’ preferences for a selection of pre-prepared foods sold by the school cash cafeteria, nutritional knowledge towards fat, attitudes to nutritional labelling of school food and their intended change in eating behaviour prompted by nutritional labelling. Results suggest that the provision of simple nutritional labelling information on school meals in cash cafeterias

Roger Neale; Kristina Langnäse

1998-01-01

360

Rapid telemetry and earthquake early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is currently testing algorithms for earthquake early warning on the realtime seismic systems in the state. An earthquake warning system rapidly detects the initiation of earthquakes and assesses the associated hazard. The goal is to provide warning of potentially damaging ground motion in a target region prior to the arrival of seismic waves. The network-based approach to early warning requires station data to be gathered at a central site for joint processing. ElarmS, one network-based approach being tested, currently runs 15 sec behind realtime in order to gather ~90% of station data before processing. Even with this delay the recent Mw 5.4 Alum Rock earthquake near San Jose was detected and an accurate hazard assessment was available before ground shaking in San Francisco. The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method, another network-based approach, is a Bayesian method that incorporates information such as network topology, previously observed seismicity, and the Gutenberg-Richter relationship in magnitude and location estimation. The VS method is currently being transitioned from off-line to real-time testing and will soon be running 15 sec behind real-time, as in the case of ElarmS. We are also testing an on-site warning approach, which is based on single-station observations. On-site systems can deliver earthquake information faster than regional systems, and the warning could possibly reach potential users at much closer epicentral distances before the damaging shaking starts. By definition, on-site systems do not require a central processing facility or delivery of data from a distant seismic station, but they are less robust that networked-based systems and need a fast and reliable telemetry to deliver warnings to local users. The range of possible warning times is typically seconds to tens of seconds and every second of data latency translates into an equal reduction in the available warning time. Minimal latency is therefore important to warning systems. Sources of latency range from data packetization in the digitizer system through telemetry systems to processing at the data (warning) center. As part of the ongoing testing in California, we are assessing the data latencies for the various generations of geophysical equipment currently in use, and find that one large source of delay is the packetization of data by dataloggers prior to transmission. We are also assessing delays caused within telemetry systems ranging from satellite connections through radio, frame relay, cell phone data services and publicly available internet services such as DSL. We are investigating ways to reduce the current delays and formulating specifications for the next generation of geophysical networks that will provide realtime data in a robust fashion.

Allen, R.; Bose, M.; Brown, H.; Cua, G.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Heaton, T.; Hellweg, M.; Jordan, T.; Kireev, A.; Maechling, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Solanki, K.; Zeleznik, M.

2008-05-01

361

Label-free sub-picomolar protein detection with field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

Proteins mediate the bulk of biological activity and are powerfully assayed in the diagnosis of diseases. Protein detection relies largely on antibodies, which have significant technical limitations especially when immobilized on two-dimensional surfaces. Here, we report the integration of peptide aptamers with extended gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to achieve label-free sub-picomolar target protein detection. Specifically, peptide aptamers that recognize highly related protein partners of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family are immobilized on the transistor gate to enable human CDK2 to be detected at 100 fM or 5 pg/mL, well within the clinically relevant range. The target specificity, ease of fabrication, and scalability of these FET arrays further demonstrate the potential application of the multiplexable field effect format to protein sensing. PMID:20394401

Estrela, Pedro; Paul, Debjani; Song, Qifeng; Stadler, Lukas K J; Wang, Ling; Huq, Ejaz; Davis, Jason J; Ko Ferrigno, Paul; Migliorato, Piero

2010-05-01

362

Effects of ferumoxides-protamine sulfate labeling on immunomodulatory characteristics of macrophage-like THP-1 cells.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) complexed with cationic transfection agent is used to label various mammalian cells. Labeled cells can then be utilized as an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes. However, certain number of in vivo administered labeled cells may be cleared from tissues by the host's macrophages. For successful translation to routine clinical application of SPIO labeling method it is important that this mode of in vivo clearance of iron does not elicit any diverse immunological effects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that SPIO agent ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FePro) incorporation into macrophages does not alter immunological properties of these cells with regard to differentiation, chemotaxis, and ability to respond to the activation stimuli and to modulate T cell response. We used THP-1 cell line as a model for studying macrophage cell type. THP-1 cells were magnetically labeled with FePro, differentiated with 100 nM of phorbol ester, 12-Myristate-13-acetate (TPA) and stimulated with 100 ng/ml of LPS. The results showed 1) FePro labeling had no effect on the changes in morphology and expression of cell surface proteins associated with TPA induced differentiation; 2) FePro labeled cells responded to LPS with slightly higher levels of NFkappaB pathway activation, as shown by immunobloting; TNF-alpha secretion and cell surface expression levels of CD54 and CD83 activation markers, under these conditions, were still comparable to the levels observed in non-labeled cells; 3) FePro labeling exhibited differential, chemokine dependent, effect on THP-1 chemotaxis with a decrease in cell directional migration to MCP-1; 4) FePro labeling did not affect the ability of THP-1 cells to down-regulate T cell expression of CD4 and CD8 and to induce T cell proliferation. Our study demonstrated that intracellular incorporation of FePro complexes does not alter overall immunological properties of THP-1 cells. The described experiments provide the model for studying the effects of in vivo clearance of iron particles via incorporation into the host's macrophages that may follow after in vivo application of any type of magnetically labeled mammalian cells. To better mimic the complex in vivo scenario, this model may be further exploited by introducing additional cellular and biological, immunologically relevant, components. PMID:18575575

Janic, Branislava; Iskander, A S M; Rad, Ali M; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Arbab, Ali S

2008-06-25

363

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2013-01-01

364

Internal and External Crisis Early Warning and Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes research on the Early Warning and Monitoring System (EWAMS). The proliferation of quantitative computer-based systems for facilitating I&W (Indications and Warning) analysis has provided a significant impetus for EWAMS research. Exte...

G. W. Hopple

1980-01-01

365

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...committee representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings...

2012-10-01

366

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...committee representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings...

2011-10-01

367

49 CFR 230.85 - Audible warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.85 Audible warning...device that produces a minimum sound level of 96db(A) at 100...measurement. Measurement of the sound level shall be made using a sound level meter...

2011-10-01

368

21 CFR 369.7 - Warnings required by official compendia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Warnings required by official compendia. 369.7 Section 369.7 Food and...369.7 Warnings required by official compendia. Any drug included in the official compendia defined by the act shall bear such...

2013-04-01

369

21 CFR 369.7 - Warnings required by official compendia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Warnings required by official compendia. 369.7 Section 369.7 Food and...369.7 Warnings required by official compendia. Any drug included in the official compendia defined by the act shall bear such...

2010-04-01

370

21 CFR 369.7 - Warnings required by official compendia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Warnings required by official compendia. 369.7 Section 369.7 Food and...369.7 Warnings required by official compendia. Any drug included in the official compendia defined by the act shall bear such...

2009-04-01

371

Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Clear Air Force Station, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ballistic Missile Early Warning System - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

372

Missile Warning Operations Center (MWOC) Beale Air Force Base, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Missile Warning Operations Center (MWOC) - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

373

Division of Supply Chain Integrity Warning Letters and Notice ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... These Warning Letters and Notice of Violation Letters warn website operators that they may be engaged in illegal activities and inform them of the ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugintegrityandsupplychainsecurity

374

Evaluation of Flood Forecast and Warning in Elbe river basin - Impact of Forecaster's Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is responsible for flood forecasting and warning in the Czech Republic. To meet that issue CHMI operates hydrological forecasting systems and publish flow forecast in selected profiles. Flood forecast and warning is an output of system that links observation (flow and atmosphere), data processing, weather forecast (especially NWP's QPF), hydrological modeling and modeled outputs evaluation and interpretation by forecaster. Forecast users are interested in final output without separating uncertainties of separate steps of described process. Therefore an evaluation of final operational forecasts was done for profiles within Elbe river basin produced by AquaLog forecasting system during period 2002 to 2008. Effects of uncertainties of observation, data processing and especially meteorological forecasts were not accounted separately. Forecast of flood levels exceedance (peak over the threshold) during forecasting period was the main criterion as flow increase forecast is of the highest importance. Other evaluation criteria included peak flow and volume difference. In addition Nash-Sutcliffe was computed separately for each time step (1 to 48 h) of forecasting period to identify its change with the lead time. Textual flood warnings are issued for administrative regions to initiate flood protection actions in danger of flood. Flood warning hit rate was evaluated at regions level and national level. Evaluation found significant differences of model forecast skill between forecasting profiles, particularly less skill was evaluated at small headwater basins due to domination of QPF uncertainty in these basins. The average hit rate was 0.34 (miss rate = 0.33, false alarm rate = 0.32). However its explored spatial difference is likely to be influenced also by different fit of parameters sets (due to different basin characteristics) and importantly by different impact of human factor. Results suggest that the practice of interactive model operation, experience and forecasting strategy differs between responsible forecasting offices. Warning is based on model outputs interpretation by hydrologists-forecaster. Warning hit rate reached 0.60 for threshold set to lowest flood stage of which 0.11 was underestimation of flood degree (miss 0.22, false alarm 0.28). Critical success index of model forecast was 0.34, while the same criteria for warning reached 0.55. We assume that the increase accounts not only to change of scale from single forecasting point to region for warning, but partly also to forecaster's added value. There is no official warning strategy preferred in the Czech Republic (f.e. tolerance towards higher false alarm rate). Therefore forecaster decision and personal strategy is of great importance. Results show quite successful warning for 1st flood level exceedance, over-warning for 2nd flood level, but under-warning for 3rd (highest) flood level. That suggests general forecaster's preference of medium level warning (2nd flood level is legally determined to be the start of the flood and flood protection activities). In conclusion human forecaster's experience and analysis skill increases flood warning performance notably. However society preference should be specifically addressed in the warning strategy definition to support forecaster's decision making.

Danhelka, Jan; Vlasak, Tomas

2010-05-01

375

Ethical considerations of clinical use of Miranda -like warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatrists and other psychotherapists are not generally required to provideMiranda-like warnings to their patients. Even so, many psychotherapists issue such warnings before encountering clinical situations that frequently arise in general clinical practice and have potential involvement with the legal system. Ethical considerations of whether to utilizeMiranda-like warnings in common clinical situations such as involuntary hospitalization, the duty to warn and

Gregory B. Leong; J. Arturo Silva; Robert Weinstock

1988-01-01

376

Interpretations of a teratogen warning symbol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Warning symbols are used on terato- genic medications to communicate the message that women should (1) not take that medication if they may already be pregnant, and (2) not get pregnant while taking that medication. Communications research indi- cates that people interpret symbols or pictures in dif- ferent ways. Other studies have shown that patients do not always receive

Katherine Lyon Daniel; Karen Denard Goldman; Sue Lachenmayr; J. David Erickson; Cynthia Moore

2001-01-01

377

First Fracture May Be Warning Sign  

MedlinePLUS

... Copyright 2007 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons First Fracture May Be a Warning Sign A fracture can be more than a just a broken ... low bone density have a higher risk for fracture and refracture. Osteoporosis is a contributing factor in ...

378

ADVANCE WARNING FLASHERS: DO THEY IMPROVE SAFETY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main findings of a study to evaluate the safety of advance warning flashers (AWFs) are presented. A portion of the traffic accidents that occur at signalized intersections relate to poor driver decisions during the change interval time. Providing drivers with advance information about the status of a downstream traffic signal can help the driver make safer decisions. An AWF

Tarek Sayed; Homayoun Vahidi; Felipe Rodriguez

1999-01-01

379

Potential For Early Warning of Dust Storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust storms can be devastating events in many continents, extremely adverse influences over large parts of the Earth. They are a cause of health, environmental and even economic problem. As such, the potential of early warning before a dust storm is fully developed becomes of paramount importance. Remote sensing using a variety of sensors and techniques can be utilized to

M. Kafatos; H. El-Askary; G. Kallos

2004-01-01

380

Environmental Early Warning Systems (EEWS): User's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Details are given for day-to-day use of the Environmental Early Warning Systems (EEWS) by Army planners. The EEWS functions are described along with the procedures necessary to enact them. EEWS is an interactive computer system designed to give the U.S. A...

R. C. Lozar R. C. Belles R. Gauthier M. Larson

1986-01-01

381

Anticipating Surprise: Analysis for Strategic Warning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Warning intelligence at the strategic level, or as it is sometimes called 'indications of intelligence,' is largely a post-World War II development. More specifically, it was a product of the early days of the Cold War, when we began to perceive that the ...

C. M. Grabo

2002-01-01

382

Do instructional warnings reduce false recognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY After previously encoding lists of related words (e.g. bed, rest, awake, etc.) associated with one critical word (e.g. sleep), participants frequently falsely recognize critical words as having been previously presented. Past research indicates that warning participants of this memory illusion can reduce false recognition of critical words. However, the memory processes responsible for this reduction are not known. We

Carmen E. Westerberg; Chad J. Marsolek

2006-01-01

383

Toward earthquake early warning in northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake early warning systems are an approach to earthquake hazard mitigation which takes advantage of the rapid availability of earthquake information to quantify the hazard associated with an earthquake and issue a prediction of impending ground motion prior to its arrival in populated or otherwise sensitive areas. One such method, Earthquake Alarm Systems (ElarmS) has been under development in southern

Gilead Wurman; Richard M. Allen; Peter Lombard

2007-01-01

384

Early-warning Mechanism of Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessity of establishing the early-warning mechanism of food security is introduced, which is mainly shown in five aspects. First is the particularity of China's national and food condition: China has large population and immense consumption base. Once food insecurity occurs in an all-round way, China could not buy all the food needed from the international market. The second aspect is

Shunwu Xiao

2009-01-01

385

The Presidential Initiative on Shared Early Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1998, President Clinton and President Yeltsin issued a statement that our two countries would develop a system to share data from our respective early warning systems. The purpose of the initiative is to further reduce the risk of ballistic missile launches occurring in response to a misunderstanding about the data from such systems. The proposal includes a permanent

Roy Pettis

2000-01-01

386

The development and application of Financial Warning Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial warning management system, which is based on the enterprise information infrastructure, is a management system supervising enterprise management activities of the potential financial risks. With information technology development, the study on the financial warning system, especially in the computer how to achieve the financial warning system is a very important practical significance to the issue.

Tao Gu; Zhongliang Guan; Siqiang Wang

2008-01-01

387

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2013-04-01

388

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. ...specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

2009-04-01

389

Perceptions About Changing the Miranda Warnings Among Police Chiefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have considered whether the race of a police officer influences police decision-making processes. The current study assesses whether a police chief's race influences perceptions about the Miranda warnings. Police chiefs from the Commonwealth of Virginia completed questionnaires assessing various aspects about the Miranda warnings when the fate of the warnings was to be determined by the

Brian K. Payne

2005-01-01

390

Juvenile Miranda Warnings: Perfunctory Rituals or Procedural Safeguards?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Bar Association, via its newly adopted policy, seeks fundamental changes in procedural justice with respect to juvenile Miranda warnings. It calls for understandable Miranda warnings to educate youth in custody regarding the relevant Constitutional protections. In surveying prosecutors and public defenders, the authors collected 293 juvenile Miranda warnings that are intended specifically for youthful offenders. Length and reading

Richard Rogers; Hayley L. Blackwood; Chelsea E. Fiduccia; Jennifer A. Steadham; Eric Y. Drogin; Jill E. Rogstad

2012-01-01

391

Legal and Moral Dimensions of Churchill's Failure to Warn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Churchill had been given at least forty-eight hours' warning that Coventry would be hit. He could have warned the people of Coventry of the impending attack. Yet Churchill determined that any advance warning to the people of Coventry would have enabled the Germans to deduce that their top secret code had been broken. The coded intercepts provided evidence of the

Anthony DAmato

2010-01-01

392

Warning Analysis for the Information Age: Rethinking the Intelligence Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

QUESTION: How can we rethink our assumptions on intelligence to redefine methodologies to provide strategic warning in an age of WMD and terrorist threat? HYPOTHESIS: The changing tempo of WMD and terrorist threats has virtually destroyed the ability to provide tactical or strategic warning. New methodologies for warning intelligence need to be developed based on quantum thinking rather than Newtonian

John W. Bodnar

2003-01-01

393

Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous

M. O. Erdik; Y. Fahjan; O. Ozel; H. Alcik; M. Aydin; M. Gul

2003-01-01

394

High efficiency Hall effect micro-biosensor platform for detection of magnetically labeled biomolecules.  

PubMed

Detection of magnetically labeled biomolecules using micro-Hall biosensors is a promising method for monitoring biomolecular recognition processes. The measurement efficiency of standard systems is limited by the time taken for magnetic beads to reach the sensing area of the Hall devices. Here, micro-current lines were integrated with Hall effect structures to manipulate the position of magnetic beads via field gradients generated by localized currents flowing in the current lines. Beads were accumulated onto the sensor surface within seconds of passing currents through the current lines. Real-time detection of magnetic beads using current lines integrated with Hall biosensors was achieved. These results are promising in establishing Hall biosensor platforms as efficient and inexpensive means of monitoring biomolecular reactions for medical applications. PMID:17055242

Sandhu, Adarsh; Kumagai, Yoshimichi; Lapicki, Adam; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Abe, Masanori; Handa, Hiroshi

2006-10-19

395

Study on warning radius of diffuse reflection laser warning based on fish-eye lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse reflection type of omni-directional laser warning based on fish-eye lens is becoming more and more important. As one of the key parameters of warning system, the warning radius should be put into investigation emphatically. The paper firstly theoretically analyzes the energy detected by single pixel of FPA detector in the system under complicated environment. Then the least energy detectable by each single pixel of the system is computed in terms of detector sensitivity, system noise, and minimum SNR. Subsequently, by comparison between the energy detected by single pixel and the least detectable energy, the warning radius is deduced from Torrance-Sparrow five-parameter semiempirical statistic model. Finally, a field experiment was developed to validate the computational results. It has been found that the warning radius has a close relationship with BRDF parameters of the irradiated target, propagation distance, angle of incidence, and detector sensitivity, etc. Furthermore, an important fact is shown that the experimental values of warning radius are always less than that of theoretical ones, due to such factors as the optical aberration of fish-eye lens, the transmissivity of narrowband filter, and the packing ratio of detector.

Chen, Bolin; Zhang, Weian

2013-09-01

396

Does Inclusion of a Disclaimer versus Warning Reduce the Effects of Exposure to Thin-Ideal Media Images on Body Dissatisfaction and Intent to Diet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between exposure to media images of ultra-thin models and body dissatisfaction has been documented in numerous correlational and experimental studies. Given the association between body dissatisfaction and negative outcomes such as eating disorders, prevention and intervention programs have sought to minimize the effects of the media on body dissatisfaction by, for example, providing education on the air-brushing techniques

Rheanna Nichole Ata

2012-01-01

397

Buffering of the effect of acid rain on decomposition of C-14-labelled beech leaf litter by saprophagous invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of simulated acid rain on the decomposition of C-14-labelled beech leaf litter (4 months old), and the modification of this effect by litter fragmentation by the millipede Glomeris marginata (Villers) and by the burrowing activity of two earthworm species [Lumbricus castaneus (Savigny) and Octolasion lacteum (Örley)], was studied in laboratory experiments over a period of 168 days. The

S. Scheu; V. Wolters

1991-01-01

398

An overview of a regional meteorology warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a regional meteorology warning system, particularly the operational weather warning system used by the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) for Basque Country. System considers different meteorological phenomena capable of generate warnings, and is based on combined thresholds criteria depending on particular weather event and area of territory where is applied. In this work we describe the most significant aspects related with the warning event definition and the warning bulletin. Conclusions from comparison with the former system (prior to 2009) and feedback from different users are presented.

Gaztelumendi, S.; Egaña, J.; Otxoa-de-Alda, K.; Hernandez, R.; Aranda, J.; Anitua, P.

2012-08-01

399

Point labeling with sliding labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses algorithms for labeling sets of points in the plane, where labelsare not restricted to some nite number of positions. We show that continuously slidinglabels allow more points to be labeled both in theory and in practice. We denesix dierent models of labeling. We compare models by analyzing how many morepoints can receive labels under one model than

Marc J. Van Kreveld; Tycho Strijk; Alexander Wolff

1999-01-01

400

HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION WARNING ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 13. Reinhart WH, Berchtold PE. Effect of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy on blood rheology. Lancet 1992; 339:662-4. 14. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

401

Tip Top Vitamins Warning Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... genistein ….” “Genistein and other soy components provide specific anti-cancer protection ….” ... cancer. Soy modulates the effects of Page 3. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

402

Herbal Fields Supplements Warning Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... “The two main isoflavones found in soybeans and soy products are genistein and daidzein. ... Daidzein has shown similar anticancer effects.” ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

403

Automaticity of Basic-Level Categorization Accounts for Labeling Effects in Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are there consequences of calling objects by their names? Lupyan (2008) suggested that overtly labeling objects impairs subsequent recognition memory because labeling shifts stored memory representations of objects toward the category prototype (representational shift hypothesis). In Experiment 1, we show that processing objects at the basic…

Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

404

A spin label study of the effect of chrysotile asbestos on erythrocyte membranes.  

PubMed

Alterations in erythrocyte membranes caused by UICC B chrysotile asbestos fibres were studied in red cell ghosts using the spin label technique. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of two sulphydryl reactive spin labels and one fatty acid spin probe in erythrocyte ghosts showed membrane protein modifications but no changes in lipid fluidity caused by the haemolytic chrysotile asbestos fibres. PMID:6318801

Gendek, E; Bartosz, G; Leyko, W

1984-02-01

405

A spin label study of the effect of chrysotile asbestos on erythrocyte membranes.  

PubMed Central

Alterations in erythrocyte membranes caused by UICC B chrysotile asbestos fibres were studied in red cell ghosts using the spin label technique. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of two sulphydryl reactive spin labels and one fatty acid spin probe in erythrocyte ghosts showed membrane protein modifications but no changes in lipid fluidity caused by the haemolytic chrysotile asbestos fibres.

Gendek, E; Bartosz, G; Leyko, W

1984-01-01

406

Women's Relationship to Feminism: Effects of Generation and Feminist Self-Labeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relative importance to feminism of generation and feminist self-labeling was explored in a sample of 667 women riding buses to a 1992 March on Washington for Reproductive Rights. Specifically, generational (Generation X vs. Baby Boomers) and feminist self-labeling (strong feminists vs. weak feminists vs. nonfeminists) similarities and…

Duncan, Lauren E.

2010-01-01

407

Effects of Categorical Labels on Similarity Judgments: A Critical Analysis of Similarity-Based Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our goal in the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children's judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked…

Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

2012-01-01

408

Impact on the Australian Quitline of new graphic cigarette pack warnings including the Quitline number  

PubMed Central

Background: In March 2006, Australia introduced graphic pictorial warnings on cigarette packets. For the first time, packs include the Quitline number. Objective: To measure the combined effect of graphic cigarette pack warnings and printing the Quitline number on packs on calls to the Australian Quitline service. Methods: Calls to the Australian Quitline were monitored over 4 years, 2 years before and after the new packets were introduced. Results: There were twice as many calls to the Quitline in 2006 (the year of introduction), as there were in each of the preceding 2 years. The observed increase in calls exceeds that explained by the accompanying television advertising alone. While call volume tapered back in 2007, it remained at a level higher than before the introduction of new packets. No change was observed in the proportion of first time callers. Conclusion: Introducing graphic cigarette packet warnings and the Quitline number on cigarette packets boosts demand for Quitline services, with likely flow on effects to cessation.

Miller, C L; Hill, D J; Quester, P G; Hiller, J E

2009-01-01

409

Rogue wave early warning through spectral measurements?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectra of the Peregrine soliton and higher-order rational solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), which we use as a model of the rogue waves in optics and in the deep ocean. We show that these solutions have specific triangular spectra that are certainly easily measurable in optical systems and which may be amenable to characterisation in ocean environments. As the triangular feature of the solutions appears at an early stage of their evolution, this raises the possibility of early detection and possible localized warning of the appearance of rogue waves. We anticipate that studying the characteristics of "early warning spectra" of rogue waves may become an important future field of research.

Akhmediev, Nail; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Dudley, John M.

2011-01-01

410

Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology  

SciTech Connect

Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

411

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

Almut Gerhardt

1996-01-01

412

Winter storm warning! Are you ready?  

PubMed

All of us are at the mercy of nature. Disasters can occur quickly and without warning. Recent disasters have revealed a lack of preparedness and a need for improvement in response. No matter what the disaster may be, there are common problems in all. These include communication, water, power, supplies, transportation, and safety. The ice storm of 1998 that struck the extreme Northeast portion of New York state tested all of these areas. PMID:12143428

Speranza-Reid, J; Flynn, W

2001-10-01

413

Novel approaches to helicopter obstacle warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EADS Germany is the world market leader in commercial Helicopter Laser Radar (HELLAS) Obstacle Warning Systems. The HELLAS-Warning System has been introduced into the market in 2000, is in service at German Border Control (Bundespolizei) and Royal Thai Airforce and is successfully evaluated by the Foreign Comparative Test Program (FCT) of the USSOCOM. Currently the successor system HELLAS-Awareness is in development. It will have extended sensor performance, enhanced realtime data processing capabilities and advanced HMI features. We will give an outline of the new sensor unit concerning detection technology and helicopter integration aspects. The system provides a widespread field of view with additional dynamic line of sight steering and a large detection range in combination with a high frame rate of 3Hz. The workflow of the data processing will be presented with focus on novel filter techniques and obstacle classification methods. As commonly known the former are indispensable due to unavoidable statistical measuring errors and solarisation. The amount of information in the filtered raw data is further reduced by ground segmentation. The remaining raised objects are extracted and classified in several stages into different obstacle classes. We will show the prioritization function which orders the obstacles concerning to their threat potential to the helicopter taking into account the actual flight dynamics. The priority of an object determines the display and provision of warnings to the pilot. Possible HMI representation includes video or FLIR overlay on multifunction displays, audio warnings and visualization of information on helmet mounted displays and digital maps. Different concepts will be presented.

Seidel, Christian; Samuelis, Christian; Wegner, Matthias; Münsterer, Thomas; Rumpf, Thomas; Schwartz, Ingo

2006-06-01

414

HRAS: a webserver for early warning of human health risk brought by aflatoxin.  

PubMed

Most people are aware that outdoor air pollution can damage their health, but many do not know that indoor air pollution can also exhibit significant negative health effects. Fungi parasitizing in air conditioning and ventilation systems can be one of indoor air pollution sources. Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) became a central focus of indoor air pollution, especially in farmer markets. Therefore we developed an early warning system, Health Risk Assessment System, to estimate the growth rate of A. flavus, predict the amount of aflatoxin and provide early warning information. Firstly, the growth of A. flavus and the production of aflatoxin under different conditions were widely obtained through a comprehensive literature review. Secondly, three mathematical models were established to predict the A. flavus colony growth rate, lag phase duration and aflatoxin content, as functions of temperature and water activity based on present studies. Finally, all the results were evaluated by the user-supplied data using PHP programming language. We utilized the web page to show the results and display warning information. The JpGraph library was used to create a dynamic line chart, refreshing the warning information dynamically in real-time. The HARS provides accurate information for early warning purposes to let us take timely steps to protect ourselves. PMID:23076528

Hu, Ruifeng; Zeng, Xu; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Qian; Liu, Zhihua

2012-10-18

415

The "duty to warn" a patient's family members about hereditary disease risks.  

PubMed

Genetic tests for adult-onset disorders, including common forms of cancer, are now commercially available, and tests for genetic polymorphisms that predict drug effects or toxicity after treatment are under development. For each of these circumstances, testing of 1 individual may imply an increased risk to his/her relative. The obligation, if any, to warn family members of the identification of a genetic mutation has generated concerns regarding the conflict between the physician's ethical obligations to respect the privacy of genetic information vs the potential liabilities resulting from the physician's failure to notify at-risk relatives. A duty to warn relatives about risks due to some infectious agents has been assumed by state and local health agencies, and the duty to breach confidentiality to warn of imminent harm has been the subject of case law. In general, the special nature of genetic tests has been viewed as a barrier to physicians' breaching the confidentiality of personal genetic information. However, the failure to warn family members about hereditary disease risks has already resulted in 3 lawsuits against physicians in the United States. While the findings of case law and the state and federal statutes that bear on the issue of "duty to warn" of inherited health risk are still being defined, we believe that health care professionals have a responsibility to encourage but not to coerce the sharing of genetic information in families, while respecting the boundaries imposed by the law and by the ethical practice of medicine. PMID:15383518

Offit, Kenneth; Groeger, Elizabeth; Turner, Sam; Wadsworth, Eve A; Weiser, Mary A

2004-09-22

416

Climatic hazards warning process in Bangladesh: Experience of, and lessons from, the 1991 April cyclone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and technology cannot control entirely the causes of natural hazards. However, by using multifaceted programs to modify the physical and human use systems, the potential losses from disasters can effectively be minized. Predicting, identifying, monitoring, and forecasting extreme meteorological events are the preliminary actions towards mitigating the cyclone-loss potential of coastal inhabitants, but without the successful dissemination of forecasts and relevant information, and without appropriate responses by the potential victims, the loss potential would probably remain the same. This study examines the process through which warning of the impending disastrous cyclone of April 1991 was received by the local communities and disseminated throughout the coastal regions of Bangladesh. It is found that identification of the threatening condition due to atmospheric disturbance, monitoring of the hazard event, and dissemination of the cyclone warning were each very successful. However, due to a number of socioeconomic and cognitive factors, the reactions and responses of coastal inhabitants to the warning were in general passive, resulting in a colossal loss, both at the individual and national level. The study recommends that the hazard mitigation policies should be integrated with national economic development plans and programs. Specifically, it is suggested that, in order to attain its goals, the cyclone warning system should regard the aspects of human response to warnings as a constituent part and accommodate human dimensions in its operational design.

Haque, C. Emdad

1995-09-01

417

Geoengineering to reduce global warning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a possible course of action to offset global warming and its side effects, the National Academy of Sciences recommends more research and development projects to better understand the potential of geoengineering options. The recommendations are part of ``Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming,'' by the NAS released on April 10. The report is one of the products of the NAS

Susan Bush

1991-01-01

418

Effects of yokukansan on behavioral and psychological symptoms of vascular dementia: an open-label trial.  

PubMed

Previous clinical trials suggest that the traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan has beneficial effects on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). The present study was conducted to elucidate the efficacy of yokukansan on BPSD in patients with vascular dementia. Thirteen Japanese patients (9 men and 4 women) who were diagnosed as having vascular dementia (VaD) according to the diagnostic criteria of NINDS-AIREN were subjected to the open-label clinical trial in which yokukansan (7.5g/day) has been given for 4 weeks. Their mean age was 71.2±6.5 years. The BPSD was evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), cognitive function was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the activities of daily living was evaluated by Barthel index (BI) and Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD), and the extrapyramidal signs were evaluated by United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The mean NPI was 33.0±17.3 and 23.6±13.9 for the baseline and after treatment, respectively. It was significantly improved after treatment (p<0.05). In the NPI-subcategories, there was a significant improvement in agitation and disinhibition after the treatment. There was no significant change in MMSE, BI, DAD or UPDRS before and after the treatment. There was no adverse effect during the treatment period. The present results suggest that yokukansan is beneficial for the treatment of BPSD in VaD patients. PMID:22421528

Nagata, Ken; Yokoyama, Eriko; Yamazaki, Takashi; Takano, Daiki; Maeda, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Satoshi; Terayama, Yasuo

2012-03-13

419

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

SciTech Connect

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too late to do the real work and force parties to confront each other instead of working together to solve the problem. He encouraged joint implementation as an important factor in speeding the transfer of much-needed, appropriate technologies from the United States and other developed countries to the nations of the developing world. First, he urged the DOE to continue its aggressive voluntary emissions reduction programs, particularly its effort to negotiate greenhouse gas reductions with the electric utility industry. Second, he suggested that the US move to focus the international debate on no more than six major projects. The global warming issue is so broad, he warned, that without such a focus, no progress will be made.

Wamsted, D.

1994-10-07

420

The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations  

SciTech Connect

Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically.

NA

2005-01-04

421

Magnetically labeled human natural killer cells, accumulated in vitro by an external magnetic force, are effective against HOS osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

We evaluated the efficacy of a novel natural killer (NK) cell delivery system in vitro, and also investigated the antitumor effect of the accumulated cells on HOS osteosarcoma cells. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and co-cultured with inactivated K562 erythroleukaemic cells in the presence of IL-2 for 5 days. CD3- CD56+ NK cells were labeled with immunomagnetic beads and separated using a magnetic cell sorting system. Purity and cytotoxicity against K562 cells and HOS cells of the magnetically labeled NK cells were measured. To evaluate whether magnetically labeled NK cells could be accumulated in a specific area by magnetic force, the NK cells were placed in chamber slides in the presence, or not, of an external magnetic force of a neodymium magnet (diameter: 1.5 mm, height: 3 mm, total magnetic flux density: 0.282 T). Moreover, to investigate the antitumor effect on HOS cells, the magnetically labeled NK cells were added to HOS cells in chamber slides in the presence, or not, of an external magnetic force for various times. HOS cells were subsequently stained with Papanicolaou for histological examination. It was found that the magnetically labeled NK cells were highly purified and had cytotoxicity against target cells. The NK cells were accumulated effectively by the magnetic field and, when the NK cells were added to HOS cells in a chamber slide with a magnet placed beneath, a significantly larger number of HOS cells detached from the magnet zone than from other zones. Apoptosis was detected in most detached HOS cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate that magnetically accumulated NK cells efficiently induced apoptosis in HOS cells, suggesting that magnetic targeting therapy using magnetically labeled NK cells holds promise as an immunotherapy for osteosarcoma. PMID:16142312

Nakashima, Yuko; Deie, Masataka; Yanada, Shinobu; Sharman, Patrick; Ochi, Mitsuo

2005-10-01

422

Inserting GM Products into the Food Chain: The Market and Welfare Effects of Different Labeling and Regulatory Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine the system-wide effects of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products with and without labeling and to compare these two regimes to a third regime where GM products are not present either because they have not yet been developed or because they have been banned. For each regime, the decisions and welfare

Murray Fulton; Konstantinos Giannakas

2004-01-01

423

Labeling Regulations and Segregation of First and Second-Generation Genetically Modified Products: Innovation Incentives and Welfare Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some of the most significant issues and results on the economic effects of genetically modified (GM) product innovation, with emphasis on the question of GM labeling and the need for costly segregation and identity preservation activities. The analysis is organized around an explicit model that can accommodate the features of both first-generation and second-generation GM products. The model

GianCarlo Moschini; Harvey E. Lapan

2005-01-01

424

What Contributes to the Split-Attention Effect? The Role of Text Segmentation, Picture Labelling, and Spatial Proximity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the split-attention effect spatial proximity is frequently considered to be pivotal. The transition from a spatially separated to a spatially integrated format not only involves changes in spatial proximity, but commonly necessitates text segmentation and picture labelling as well. In an experimental study, we investigated the influence of…

Florax, Mareike; Ploetzner, Rolf

2010-01-01

425

Neuroprotective effects and magnetic resonance imaging of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with SPION in a rat model of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been tested and proven effective in some neurodegenerative diseases, but their tracking after transplantation may be challenging. Our group has previously demonstrated the feasibility and biosafety of rat MSC labeling with iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPION). In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of SPION-labeled MSC in a rat model of Huntington's disease, a genetic degenerative disease with characteristic deletion of striatal GABAergic neurons. MSC labeled with SPION were injected into the striatum 1h after quinolinic acid injection. FJ-C analysis demonstrated that MSC transplantation significantly decreased the number of degenerating neurons in the damaged striatum 7 days after lesion. In this period, MSC transplantation enhanced the striatal expression of FGF-2 but did not affect subventricular zone proliferation, as demonstrated by Ki67 proliferation assay. In addition, MSC transplantation significantly reduced the ventriculomegaly in the lesioned brain. MRI and histological techniques detected the presence of the SPION-labeled cells at the lesion site. SPION-labeled MSC produced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals that were visible for at least 60 days after transplantation. Our data highlight the potential of adult MSC to reduce brain damage under neurodegenerative diseases and indicate the use of nanoparticles in cell tracking, supporting their potential as valuable tools for cell therapy. PMID:22742973

Moraes, Louise; Vasconcelos-dos-Santos, Andreia; Santana, Fernando Cleber; Godoy, Mariana Araya; Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Jasmin; Azevedo-Pereira, Ricardo Luiz; Cintra, Wagner Monteiro; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Santiago, Marcelo Felippe; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia

2012-05-29

426

Evaluating the effect of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for a long-term magnetic cell labeling  

PubMed Central

In order to evaluate the long-term viability, the iron content stability, and the labeling efficiency of mammalian cells using magnetic cell labeling; dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIOs) nanoparticles with plain surfaces having a hydrodynamic size of 25 nm were used for this study. Tests were carried out in four groups each containing 5 flasks of 5.5 × 106 AD-293 embryonic kidney cells. The cell lines were incubated for 24 h using four different iron concentrations with and without protamine sulfate (Pro), washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and centrifuged three times to remove the unbounded USPIOs. Cell viability was also verified using USPIOs. There were no significant differences in the cell viability between the control group of cells and those groups with iron uptake at the specified iron concentrations. The average iron uptake ratio compared to that of the control group was (114 ± 1). The magnetic resonance images (MRI) at post-labeling day 1 and day 21 showed (75 ± 4)% and (22 ± 5)% signal decrements compared to that of the control, respectively. The Perl's Prussian blue test showed that 98% of the cells were labeled, and the iron concentration within the media did not affect the cell iron uptake. Magnetic cellular labeling with the USPIO-Pro complex had no short or medium term (3 weeks) toxic effects on AD-293 embryonic kidney cells.

Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Allen, Barry J.; Amanlou, Massoud; Masoudi, Afshin; Daha, Fariba Johari

2013-01-01

427

Same faces, different labels: Generating the cross-race effect in face memory with social category information.  

PubMed

Recognition of own-race faces is superior to recognition of other-race faces. In the present experiments, we explored the role of top-down social information in the encoding and recognition of racially ambiguous faces. Hispanic and African American participants studied and were tested on computer-generated ambiguous-race faces (composed of 50 % Hispanic and 50 % African American features; MacLin & Malpass, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 7:98-118, 2001). In Experiment 1, the faces were randomly assigned to two study blocks. In each block, a group label was provided that indicated that those faces belonged to African American or to Hispanic individuals. Both participant groups exhibited superior memory for faces studied in the block with their own-race label. In Experiment 2, the faces were studied in a single block with no labels, but tested in two blocks in which labels were provided. Recognition performance was not influenced by the labeled race at test. Taken together, these results confirm the claim that purely top-down information can yield the well-documented cross-race effect in recognition, and additionally they suggest that the bias takes place at encoding rather than testing. PMID:23546969

Hourihan, Kathleen L; Fraundorf, Scott H; Benjamin, Aaron S

2013-10-01

428

Effect of plasmapheresis on the liver uptake of ApoB-lipoproteins labeled with technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

To study liver low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor activity before and after plasmapheresis, ({sup 99m}Tc) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was used. Autologous VLDL was labeled, sterilized by filtration, and administered intravenously to patients under a gamma camera. The uptake of lipoproteins in the liver was measured by scintiscanning. Liver activity curves were generated for each patient. The liver activity in patients with the heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis (SA) without hereditary deficit of LDL receptors was reduced as compared to healthy people. Plasmapheresis enhanced the liver uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled lipoproteins in atherosclerotic patients. Thus, labeled metabolites could presumably be of use in assessing the effect of plasmapheresis on liver function.

Anisimova, O.Ju.; Konovalov, G.A.; Agapov, I.I.; Fuki, I.V.; Sergienko, V.B.; Repin, V.S.; Kukharchuk, V.V. (USSR Cardiology Research Center, Moscow (USSR))

1989-12-01

429

Label Claims  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Print; Share; E-mail. Home; Food; Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling; Labeling & Nutrition. ... that petitions and notifications be submitted in electronic form ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

430

Effects of categorical labels on similarity judgments: a critical analysis of similarity-based approaches.  

PubMed

Our goal in the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children's judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked to make perceptual judgments about identical items judge discriminable items less accurately when making subsequent similarity judgments. Thus, labels do not generally affect children's perceptual similarity judgments; rather, children's reliance on labels to make similarity judgments appears to be attributable to flaws in the methodological approaches used in prior studies. These results have implications for the role of perceptual and conceptual information in children's categorization and induction. PMID:22059447

Noles, Nicholaus S; Gelman, Susan A

2011-11-07

431

Effect of weight-related labels on corticospinal excitability during observation of grasping: a TMS study.  

PubMed

Recent studies of corticospinal excitability during observation of grasping and lifting of objects of different weight have highlighted the role of agent's kinematics in modulating observer's motor excitability. Here, we investigate whether explicit weight-related information, provided by written labels on the objects, modulate the excitability of the observer's motor system and how this modulation is affected when there is a conflict between label and object's weight. We measured TMS-evoked motor potentials (MEPs) from right hand intrinsic muscles, while subjects were observing an actor lifting objects of different weights, in some trials labeled (heavy/light) in congruent or incongruent way. Results confirmed a weight-related modulation of MEPs based on kinematic cues. Interestingly, any conflict between the labels and the actual weight (i.e., explicit versus implicit information), although never consciously noticed by the observer, deeply affected the mirroring of others' actions. Our findings stress the automatic involvement of the mirror-neuron system. PMID:21533701

Senot, Patrice; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Franca, Michele; Caselli, Luana; Craighero, Laila; Fadiga, Luciano

2011-03-29

432

Effects of categorical labels on similarity judgments: A critical analysis of similarity-based approaches  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children’s judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked to make perceptual judgments about identical items judge discriminable items less accurately when making subsequent similarity judgments. Thus, labels do not generally affect children’s perceptual similarity judgments; rather, children’s reliance on labels to make similarity judgments appears to be attributable to flaws in the methodological approaches used in prior studies. These results have implications for the role of perceptual and conceptual information in children’s categorization and induction.

Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

2012-01-01

433

Label-free field-effect-based single-molecule detection of DNA hybridization kinetics  

PubMed Central

Probing biomolecules at the single-molecule level can provide useful information about molecular interactions, kinetics and motions that is usually hidden in ensemble measurements. Techniques with improved sensitivity and time resolution are required to explore fast biomolecular dynamics. Here, we report the first observation of DNA hybridization at the single-molecule level using a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. By covalently attaching a single-stranded probe DNA sequence to a point defect in a carbon nanotube, we are able to measure two-level fluctuations in the nanotube conductance due to reversible hybridizing and melting of a complementary DNA target. The kinetics are studied as a function of temperature, allowing the measurement of rate constants, melting curves and activation energies for different sequences and target concentrations. The kinetics show non-Arrhenius behavior, in agreement with DNA hybridization experiments using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. This technique is label-free and has the potential for studying single-molecule dynamics at sub-microsecond time-scales.

Sorgenfrei, Sebastian; Chiu, Chien-yang; Gonzalez, Ruben L.; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Shepard, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

434

Earthquake Early Warning and Public Policy: Opportunities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of an earthquake early warning capability and pilot project were objectives of TriNet, a 5-year (1997-2001) FEMA-funded project to develop a state-of-the-art digital seismic network in southern California. In parallel with research to assemble a protocol for rapid analysis of earthquake data and transmission of a signal by TriNet scientists and engineers, the public policy, communication and educational issues inherent in implementation of an earthquake early warning system were addressed by TriNet's outreach component. These studies included: 1) a survey that identified potential users of an earthquake early warning system and how an earthquake early warning might be used in responding to an event, 2) a review of warning systems and communication issues associated with other natural hazards and how lessons learned might be applied to an alerting system for earthquakes, 3) an analysis of organization, management and public policy issues that must be addressed if a broad-based warning system is to be developed and 4) a plan to provide earthquake early warnings to a small number of organizations in southern California as an experimental prototype. These studies provided needed insights into the social and cultural environment in which this new technology will be introduced, an environment with opportunities to enhance our response capabilities but also an environment with significant barriers to overcome to achieve a system that can be sustained and supported. In this presentation we will address the main public policy issues that were subjects of analysis in these studies. They include a discussion of the possible division of functions among organizations likely to be the principle partners in the management of an earthquake early warning system. Drawing on lessons learned from warning systems for other hazards, we will review the potential impacts of false alarms and missed events on warning system credibility, the acceptability of fully automated warning systems and equity issues associated with possible differential access to warnings. Finally, we will review the status of legal authorities and liabilities faced by organizations that assume various warning system roles and possible approaches to setting up a pilot project to introduce early warning. Our presentation will suggest that introducing an early warning system requires multi-disciplinary and multi-agency cooperation and thoughtful discussion among organizations likely to be providers and participants in an early warning system. Recalling our experience with earthquake prediction, we will look at early warning as a promising but unproven technology and recommend moving forward with caution and patience.

Goltz, J. D.; Bourque, L.; Tierney, K.; Riopelle, D.; Shoaf, K.; Seligson, H.; Flores, P.

2003-12-01

435

Examination of the Evidence for Off-Label Use of Gabapentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: (1) Describe the relevance of off-label use of gabapentin to man- aged care pharmacy; (2) summarize recent FDA warnings and media reports related to off-label gabapentin use; (3) review medical information pertaining to the off-label use of gabapentin; (4) outline alternatives to off-label use of gabapentin in an evidence-based fashion, where literature exists to support such alternatives; and (5)

ALICIA MACK

2003-01-01

436

Triple isotopic labeling and kinetic isotope effects: exposing H-transfer steps in enzymatic systems.  

PubMed

Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) studies can provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of specific chemical steps in complex catalytic cascades. Recent results from hydrogen KIE measurements have examined correlations between enzyme dynamics and catalytic function, leading to a surge of studies in this area. Unfortunately, most enzymatic H-transfer reactions are not rate limiting, and the observed KIEs do not reliably reflect the intrinsic KIEs on the chemical step of interest. Given their importance to understanding the chemical step under study, accurate determination of the intrinsic KIE from the observed data is essential. In 1975, Northrop developed an elegant method to assess intrinsic KIEs from their observed values [Northrop, D. B. (1975) Steady-state analysis of kinetic isotope effects in enzymic reactions. Biochemistry 14, 2644-2651]. The Northrop method involves KIE measurements using all three hydrogen isotopes, where one of them serves as the reference isotope. This method has been successfully used with different combinations of observed KIEs over the years, but criteria for a rational choice of reference isotope have never before been experimentally determined. Here we compare different reference isotopes (and hence distinct experimental designs) using the reduction of dihydrofolate and dihydrobiopterin by two dissimilar enzymes as model reactions. A number of isotopic labeling patterns have been applied to facilitate the comparative study of reference isotopes. The results demonstrate the versatility of the Northrop method and that such experiments are limited only by synthetic techniques, availability of starting materials, and the experimental error associated with the use of distinct combinations of isotopologues. PMID:21688781

Sen, Arundhuti; Yahashiri, Atsushi; Kohen, Amnon

2011-06-30

437

Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.  

PubMed

As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

2004-01-01

438

The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network: Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAFER and EDIM working groups, the Department of Computer Science, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, and Section 2.1 Earthquake Risk and Early Warning, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany Contact: Frank Kühnlenz, kuehnlenz@informatik.hu-berlin.de The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) represents a new approach for Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), consisting in taking advantage of novel wireless communications

F. Kühnlenz; J. Fischer; I. Eveslage

2009-01-01

439

A tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is an abstract. Using tidal gauge data from the time of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the authors were able to reconstruct the height and speed of the waves and the time it took them to reach coastal regions. Readings from the tidal gauges could have given advance warning to some areas hit by the tsunami, had a warning system been in place. Suggestions for creating a tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean region are given.

Al., Merrifield E.; Agu

440

An electrophysiological study of the impact of a Forward Collision Warning System in a simulator driving task.  

PubMed

Driver distraction has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential rear-end collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS and of its reliability according to the driver's attentional state by recording both behavioral and electrophysiological data. Participants drove following a lead motorcycle in a simplified simulator with or without a warning system which gave forewarning of the preceding vehicle braking. Participants had to perform this driving task either alone (simple task) or simultaneously with a secondary cognitive task (dual task). Behavioral and electrophysiological data contributed to revealing a positive effect of the warning system. Participants were faster in detecting the brake light when the system was perfect or imperfect, and the time and attentional resources allocation required for processing the target at higher cognitive level were reduced when the system was completely reliable. When both tasks were performed simultaneously, warning effectiveness was considerably affected at both performance and neural levels; however, the analysis of the brain activity revealed fewer differences between distracted and undistracted drivers when using the warning system. These results show that electrophysiological data could be a valuable tool to complement behavioral data and to have a better understanding of how these systems impact the driver. PMID:22765914

Bueno, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; Deleurence, Philippe; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

2012-07-02

441

Earthquake early warning as a tool for improving society’s resilience and crisis response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing vulnerability of metropolitan areas to earthquake and the very low probability level at which short term earthquake forecasting is possible make earthquake early warning methods (EEW) the main viable alternative for effective risk reduction in cities. Preventive actions, such as retrofitting and building and the diffusion of construction codes, are of course essential. They are not sufficient. A substantial

Paolo Gasparini; Gaetano Manfredi; Jochen Zschau

2011-01-01

442

A Sustainable Early Warning System for Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this era of rapid social and technological change leading to interesting life complexity and environmental displacement, both positive and negative effects among ecosystems call for a balance in which there are impacts by climate changes. Early warning systems for climate change impacts are necessary in order to allow society as a whole to properly and usefully assimilate the masses

T. Lee; C. Tung; N. Chung

2007-01-01

443

Responses to Deceleration during Car Following: Roles of Optic Flow, Warnings, Expectations, and Interruptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More than 25% of accidents are rear-end collisions. It is essential to identify the factors that contribute to such collisions. One such factor is a driver's ability to respond to the deceleration of the car ahead. In Experiment 1, we measured effects of optic flow information and discrete visual and auditory warnings (brake lights, tones) on…

DeLucia, Patricia R.; Tharanathan, Anand

2009-01-01

444

Early warning signs checklists for relapse in bipolar depression and mania: Utility, reliability and validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecognising early warning signs (EWS) of mood changes is a key part of many effective interventions for people with Bipolar Disorder (BD). This study describes the development of valid and reliable checklists required to assess these signs of depression and mania.

Fiona Lobban; Ivonne Solis-Trapala; Wendy Symes; Richard Morriss

2011-01-01

445

Global early warning systems for natural hazards: systematic and people-centred  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be effective, early warning systems for natural hazards need to have not only a sound scientific and technical basis, but also a strong focus on the people exposed to risk, and with a systems approach that incorporates all of the relevant factors in that risk, whether arising from the natural hazards or social vulnerabilities, and from short-term or long-term

Reid Basher

2006-01-01

446

The influence of distraction and driving context on driver response to imperfect collision warning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive collision warning systems (CWS) can enhance hazard identification and management. However, false alarms (FAs), which occur as a random activation of the system not corresponding to a threat and not interpretable by the driver, and unnecessary alarms (UAs), which occur in situations judged hazardous by the algorithm but not by the driver, may limit CWS effectiveness. A driving simulator

M. N. Lees; J. D. Lee

2007-01-01

447

An Early Warning System for Technological Innovation Risk Management Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of knowledge-based economy, technological innovation is becoming more and more important and it is widely regarded as a key ingredient in business success. However, under a complex and changeable environment, the innovation risks are an inherent part of innovation process and they need to be managed effectively from the very beginning. Today, innovation risk warning as a

Hao Yun-hong; Li Wen-bo; Xu Xiu-ling

2007-01-01

448

Testing Promotes Eyewitness Accuracy with a Warning: Implications for Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Numerous studies have demonstrated that repeated retrieval boosts later retention. However, recent research has shown that testing can increase eyewitness susceptibility to misleading post-event information (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). The present study examines the effects of warning on this counterintuitive finding. In two…

Thomas, Ayanna K.; Bulevich, John B.; Chan, Jason C. K.

2010-01-01

449

The Research on the Financial Early Warning System Based on Cash Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now the listed companies in China are facing a severe problem about the financial situation because of the financial tsunami. Certainly, the stakeholders of the enterprises will experience different levels of loss. Therefore, the build of effective early-warning index system of financial crisis make a significance to corporate investors, creditors, operators, etc. This article indicates the financial data limitation of

Yumei He; Bo Dai

2010-01-01

450

Responses to Deceleration during Car Following: Roles of Optic Flow, Warnings, Expectations, and Interruptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 25% of accidents are rear-end collisions. It is essential to identify the factors that contribute to such collisions. One such factor is a driver's ability to respond to the deceleration of the car ahead. In Experiment 1, we measured effects of optic flow information and discrete visual and auditory warnings (brake lights, tones) on…

DeLucia, Patricia R.; Tharanathan, Anand

2009-01-01

451

Evaluation of Downhill Truck Speed Warning System on I-70 West of Eisenhower Tunnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the downhill truck speed warning system (DTSWS) installed in the westbound lanes of Eisenhower Tunnel on I-70 in Colorado. A long downgrade of at least ten miles with -5% to -7% grades follows ...

B. N. Janson

1999-01-01

452

FDA Drug Safety Communication: New boxed warning for ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... FDA Drug Safety Communication: New boxed warning for severe liver injury with arthritis drug Arava (leflunomide). ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

453

PCAST warns against slashing Federal science budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the congressional cost-cutting dynamo rolling through the 1996 budget process, a group of academic and industry science advisors has assumed the role of traffic cop, cautioning legislators on both sides of the aisle to [slow down!] Invoking economic productivity, the quality of American life, and national security, the 19 members of the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) have warned both political parties that a budget balanced through severe cuts in research funding will cost the country more than it saves.

Carlowicz, Michael

454

Tsunami warnings using ocean circulation models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is an abstract. This study uses numerical models that take advantage of digital seismometry and satellite radar altimetry to shed light on tsunami source and formation mechanisms. The authors used data from the 26 December 2004 tsunami to generate a 3-D ocean circulation model that they compared it to actual wave propagation recorded by satellites. It was found that the model consistently matches the observed phenomenon. The authors suggest that ocean-general-circulation-models coupled with fresh earthquake data can provide earlier warning to coastal communities at risk.

Al., Song E.; Agu

455

A Driver Interface for a Road Hazard Warning System: Development and Preliminary Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns in-vehicle warnings for accident- provocative situations (accidents ahead, new traffic signals, police cars on emergency runs, etc.). Candidate warnings were developed for 30 hazards based on drawings from 10 drivers. Subsequently, 75 drivers ranked these warnings. Preferred warnings were not always in the standard U.S. highway sign set. In general, text warnings were slightly preferred over symbolic

Paul Green

456

The Development of Parameters and Warning Algorithms for an Intersection Bus-Pedestrian Collision Warning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the conceptual design of an intersection bus-pedestrian collision warning system for bus drivers approaching an intersection. The basic parameters of the proposed design concept include the bus drivers’ perception-reaction time, the emergency deceleration rate of the bus, and pedestrian walking speed. A bus driving simulation was designed and conducted to analyze bus drivers’ responses to unexpected pedestrians

Chien-Yen Chang; Ting-Wei Chang

2011-01-01

457

Label-free DNA sensors using ultrasensitive diamond field-effect transistors in solution.  

PubMed

Charge detection biosensors have recently become the focal point of biosensor research, especially field-effect-transistors (FETs) that combine compactness, low cost, high input, and low output impedances, to realize simple and stable in vivo diagnostic systems. However, critical evaluation of the possibility and limitations of charge detection of label-free DNA hybridization using silicon-based ion-sensitive FETs (ISFETs) has been introduced recently. The channel surface of these devices must be covered by relatively thick insulating layers ( SiO2, Si3N4, Al2O3, or Ta2O5) to protect against the invasion of ions from solution. These thick insulating layers are not suitable for charge detection of DNA and miniaturization, as the small capacitance of thick insulating layers restricts translation of the negative DNA charge from the electrolyte to the channel surface. To overcome these difficulties, thin-gate-insulator FET sensors should be developed. Here, we report diamond solution-gate FETs (SGFETs), where the DNA-immobilized channels are exposed directly to the electrolyte solution without gate insulator. These SGFETs operate stably within the large potential window of diamond (>3.0 V). Thus, the channel surface does not need to be covered by thick insulating layers, and DNA is immobilized directly through amine sites, which is a factor of 30 more sensitive than existing Si-ISFET DNA sensors. Diamond SGFETs can rapidly detect complementary, 3-mer mismatched (10 pM) and has a potential for the detection of single-base mismatched oligonucleotide DNA, without biological degradation by cyclically repeated hybridization and denature. PMID:17155108

Song, Kwang-Soup; Zhang, Gou-Jun; Nakamura, Yusuke; Furukawa, Kei; Hiraki, Takahiro; Yang, Jung-Hoon; Funatsu, Takashi; Ohdomari, Iwao; Kawarada, Hiroshi

2006-10-27

458

Real-time Tsunami Warning Operations at the NOAA West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, provide tsunami warning services for a large portion of the world's coasts. The WCATWC has primary responsibility for providing tsunami detection, warnings, and forecasts to Canada, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and all U.S. States except Hawaii. WCATWC also acts as back-up for the PTWC, requiring the center to constantly monitor global tsunami activities by rapidly detecting and evaluating earthquakes for their tsunamigenic potential. The Centers' goals are to issue initial messages as quickly as possible to alert those near the source to potential danger (assuming there is any), and to follow that with a reasonable forecast of impact level. With these goals in mind, a Watchstander's initial action is based entirely on estimates of tsunami potential from the earthquake's source parameters. The course of action for the first message is determined primarily by the earthquake's magnitude, location, tsunami history, tsunami travel time, estimated threat based on pre-computed models, and pre-set criteria. Supplemental messages, if necessary, are based on wave observations and forecasts generated from hydrodynamic models (which are calibrated with near real-time observations). In April 2006, the WCATWC increased staff level so that the Center can be staffed 24/7 with two watchstanders. Since then, the Center's response time for events within the primary area-of-responsibility has decreased to less than 5 minutes. In order to illustrate the WCATWC's real time tsunami warning operational environment, tsunami warning operation timelines for several tsunamigenic earthquakes - including the September 12 southern Sumatra 8.4 and the January 13 Kuril Island 8.1 earthquakes - are provided. The timelines highlight the key parameters and observations that guide tsunami warning operations chronicling the event through: 1) initial alarm, 2) earthquake analysis, 3) dissemination of information, 4) sea level observation/forecasting model calibration, and 5) supplemental message dissemination. The timelines demonstrate processing and dissemination capabilities.

Whitmore, P.; Huang, P.; Crowley, H.; Ferris, J.; Hale, D.; Knight, W.; Medbery, A.; Nyland, D.; Preller, C.; Turner, B.; Urban, G.

2007-12-01

459

The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling.  

PubMed

Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling. PMID:23459030

Tang, Kevin S; Hashmi, Sarah M; Shapiro, Erik M

2013-03-04

460

The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling.

Tang, Kevin S.; Hashmi, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Erik M.

2013-03-01