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1

Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective: To outline social psychological principles that could influence the psychosocial and behavioural effects of tobacco warning labels, and to inform the development of more effective tobacco warning labels. Data sources: PsycInfo and Medline literature searches and expert guided selection of principles and theories in social psychology and of tobacco warning labels, including articles, books, and reports. Conclusions: Tobacco warning labels represent a potentially effective method of influencing attitudes and behaviours. This review describes social psychological principles that could be used to guide the creation of more effective warning labels. The potential value of incorporating warning labels into a broader public health education campaign is discussed, and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:12198266

Strahan, E; White, K; Fong, G; Fabrigar, L; Zanna, M; Cameron, R

2002-01-01

2

Communicating tobacco health risks: How effective are the warning labels on tobacco products?  

PubMed Central

Background: Health hazards of tobacco are well known but only small numbers of tobacco users are fully aware of the harmful effects of tobacco. Warning labels on tobacco products are an effective way of communicating the consequences of tobacco use and bring about behavioural changes like quitting and reducing the tobacco consumption. So the present study was conducted to investigate the awareness and effectiveness of warning labels on tobacco products among health and non-healthcare professional of Barwala, Panchkula. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 408 subjects who were randomly selected from different professional colleges of Barwala, Panchkula. Data obtained were anlysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS 20.0. Results: Most of study participants has noticed the warnings on tobacco products and most of them believe that they could understand warning labels. More that 70% believe that warnings create awareness about health hazards of tobacco and help in reducing or quitting tobacco. Pictorial warning was found to be better as compared to text warning. Health professionals were able to assess pictorial warnings more correctly as compared to non-healthcare professionals. Conclusion: Warning labels on tobacco packs effectively inform people about adverse health effects of tobacco but the mandated warnings do not serve the desired purpose since they are not properly understood. PMID:25298607

Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja

2014-01-01

3

Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels: examining the impact of graphics, message framing, and temporal framing.  

PubMed

This study examines the effectiveness of cigarette warning labels, with a specific focus on the impact of graphics, message framing (gain vs. loss), and temporal framing (present-oriented vs. future-oriented) among nonsmokers in the United States. A controlled experiment (N = 253) revealed that graphic warning labels were perceived as more effective, stronger in argument strength, and were generally liked more compared to text-only labels. In addition, loss-framed labels, compared to their gain-framed counterparts, were rated higher in perceived effectiveness, argument strength, and liking. No significant difference was observed between the present- and future-oriented frames on any of the dependent variables. Implications of the findings for antismoking communication efforts are discussed. PMID:24628288

Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Yang, Bo; Iles, Irina

2015-01-01

4

The role of equipment warning labels in the industrial workplace.  

PubMed

Among the many ways in which workers can get safety information, the role of equipment warning labels has not been well articulated. Presumably, warning labels help prevent accidents, but questions remain about how well those labels can be expected to work. This essay describes how contextual analysis can assist our understanding of warning label effectiveness. A contextual approach was conceptualized in terms of underlying communication variables and an exploratory study was conducted in which workers were asked if they noticed and remembered warning labels on an industrial table saw that they used over a 3-month period. Results showed that equipment warning labels had a limited impact on workers. The contextual approach explained the relative effectiveness of multiple sources of information. Implications for safety training and accident liability are discussed. PMID:21375954

McGrath, John M

2011-01-01

5

[Effects of new warning labels on cigarette packets among high school adolescents].  

PubMed

In developing countries, smoking habit develops between the ages of 12-16. In recent years, various ways to struggle against smoking have been implemented and one of them is to print warnings on cigarette packets. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these warnings among high school adolescents and their efficiency to make them quit smoking. The total number of the subjects were 917, 103 of whom were female and 814 of whom were male students. The mean age of the subjects was 16.6 + or - 1.1. The rate of the smokers was 24.1%. The rate of the subjects who had tried smoking at least once was 50.6%. When if or not the students were educated about the harmful effects of smoking by any means was evaluated, the rate of educated subjects was 58.3% and 41.7% of the subjects were not educated by any means. All the warnings on cigarette packets were considered to be "important" and "very important" by the subjects. The rate of the subjects who think that the warning phrases will have positive effects on the way to quit was 38.9%, while the rate of the subjects who think that they will have no positive effect was 61.1%. The rate of the subjects who had quitted smoking after reading these warnings was 22.5%, 44.4% of the subjects stated that they were effected but did not quit, and 33.1% of the subjects stated that they were not effected at all by the warnings and continued to smoke. The warnings on cigarette packets were found to serve as an additional information source about the harmful effects of smoking and had beneficial effects on the subjects' decision to quit. It was concluded that the method is an important step in the struggle against smoking. PMID:19787472

Ozkaya, Sevket; Edinsel, Suayip; Ozkaya, Elif; Hamzaçebi, Hasan

2009-01-01

6

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2011-01-01

7

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2010-01-01

8

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2012-01-01

9

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2013-01-01

10

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2014-01-01

11

48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazard warning labels. 252.223-7001...Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7001 Hazard warning labels. As prescribed in 223.303, use the following clause: Hazard Warning Labels (DEC 1991)...

2010-10-01

12

Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception.  

PubMed

Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants' smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels. PMID:22419415

Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Ritter, Simone M

2013-02-01

13

The alcohol warning label and adolescents: the first year.  

PubMed Central

Awareness of the alcohol labeling law and exposure to, beliefs about, and memory for the government-mandated alcohol warning label were measured in a sample of adolescents immediately before the label was required to appear (in the fall of 1989) and 1 year after the label was required. After the label was required, there were increases in awareness, exposure, and recognition memory, but there were not substantial changes in alcohol use or beliefs about the risks written on the warning. PMID:8460742

MacKinnon, D P; Pentz, M A; Stacy, A W

1993-01-01

14

21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions...

2010-04-01

15

21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions...

2011-04-01

16

Warning LabelsA Source of Toxicity Information for Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hazardous Substances Act specifies that warning labels for household products contain specific signal words. This study was designed to determine whether this warning label format provides enough information for parents to accurately assess product toxicity. One hundred forty- two parents from two different sites (community health clinic, private pediatrician's office) were asked to rate the toxicity of four common

Blaine E. Benson; Wendy Klein-Schwartz; Gary M. Oderda; Jaquelyn S. Lucy

1984-01-01

17

Cigarette Warning Label Policy Alternatives and Smoking-Related Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Background Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. Purpose To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. Methods From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Results Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, p<0.001) and effective (5.4 vs 6.8, p<0.001), and as more credible, but only among participants with low health literacy (7.6 vs 8.2, p<0.001). Within the experimental condition, pictorial health warning labels with graphic imagery had significantly higher ratings of credibility, personal relevance, and effectiveness than imagery of human suffering and symbolic imagery. Significant interactions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Conclusions Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. PMID:23159254

Thrasher, James F.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Gray, Kevin M.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B.; Cummings, K. Michael

2012-01-01

18

Interpretations of Cigarette Advertisement Warning Labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications

Nancy Morris; Dawn R. Gilpin; Melissa Lenos; Renee Hobbs

2011-01-01

19

Warning labels. A source of toxicity information for parents.  

PubMed

The Hazardous Substances Act specifies that warning labels for household products contain specific signal words. This study was designed to determine whether this warning label format provides enough information for parents to accurately assess product toxicity. One hundred forty-two parents from two different sites (community health clinic, private pediatrician's office) were asked to rate the toxicity of four common household products (Crystal Drano, Lysol Basin/Tub and Tile Cleaner, Clorox Bleach, Tempera Poster Paint) and four imaginary products based on the warning labels found on them. Parents had a fairly accurate perception of the toxicity of products and the toxicity to be anticipated based on the warning label. There was considerable variability in response for products which were less toxic or nontoxic. Confusion was noted regarding the meaning of the term nontoxic. PMID:6734019

Benson, B E; Klein-Schwartz, W; Oderda, G M; Lucy, J S

1984-08-01

20

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2013-07-01

21

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2012-07-01

22

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2014-07-01

23

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2011-07-01

24

40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning...large size or bright color, as follows: CAUTION: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER...

2014-07-01

25

Smokers' responses toward cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This paper is concerned with the effects of cigarette pack warning labels on quitting intentions. We examined whether different responses among smokers toward cigarette pack warning labels could predict quit intentions and self-efficacy in quitting. Variables studied were “noticing warning labels during last month,” “reading or looking closely at warning labels,” “avoiding looking at labels during last month,” “thinking about health risks of smoking because of the warning labels, “more likely to quit because of the warning labels,” and “stopping from having a cigarette when about to smoke one because of the labels.” Methods: A total of 2,006 adult smokers in Malaysia were surveyed in face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Of those, 1,919 male smokers were included in the analyses. Results: The responses “more likely to quit because of the warning labels” and “stopped from having a cigarette when about to smoke one” significantly predicted all stages of change and self-efficacy, independent of the other measures. In addition, thinking about the health risks and reading the warnings more often added extra predictive capacity but only in the early stages of contemplating change. Discussion: Less intense processing of the information may be important in initiating thoughts, but cognitions about quitting and foregoing cigarettes are the key mechanisms by which warnings stimulate quitting intentions and help smokers feel capable of succeeding. Malaysian smokers appear to respond to warnings in ways comparable with those from developed countries. PMID:19246625

Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Zain, Zarihah

2009-01-01

26

Adult Smokers’ Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers’ reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Results: Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers’ reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. Conclusions: The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking. PMID:23291637

2013-01-01

27

Interpretations of cigarette advertisement warning labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans.  

PubMed

This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications regarding the possibility of wide variations in message interpretations and (b) support the call for public health messages to be carefully tested for effectiveness among different social groups. The article's focus on Puerto Ricans addresses the problem of misleading conclusions that can arise from aggregating all Latino subpopulations into one group. The use of a naturalistic setting to examine interpretations of messages about smoking departs from the experimental methods typically used for such research and provides new evidence that even a seemingly straightforward message can be interpreted in multiple ways. Understanding and addressing differences in message interpretation can guide public health campaigns aimed at reducing health disparities. PMID:21534024

Morris, Nancy; Gilpin, Dawn R; Lenos, Melissa; Hobbs, Renee

2011-09-01

28

Responses of young adults to graphic warning labels for cigarette packages  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a series of 36 graphic warning labels for cigarette packages. We sought to evaluate the effects of the labels on fear-related emotions about health consequences of smoking and smoking motivations of young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in 2010–2011 with 325 smokers and non-smokers ages 18–30 years whom we recruited through community distribution lists in North Carolina and through a national survey company. Each participant viewed 27 labels (18 of the proposed labels with graphic images and text warnings and 9 with text-only warnings) in a random order, evaluating each label on understandability and its effects on fear-related reactions and discouragement from wanting to smoke. Results Respondents found most of the proposed labels easy to understand. Of the 36 labels, 64% induced greater fear-related reactions and 58% discouraged respondents from wanting to smoke more than the corresponding text-only labels did. Labels with the greatest effects had photographs (as compared with drawings or other art graphics) or depicted diseased body parts or suffering or dead people. In almost every comparison, smokers reported lower fear-related reactions and feeling less discouraged from wanting to smoke relative to non-smokers. Conclusions Most of the proposed labels enhanced fear-related reactions about health consequences of smoking and reduced motivations to smoke relative to text-only labels, although some had larger effects than others. All but one of the nine warning labels recently adopted by the FDA enhanced fear-related reactions and reduced smoking motivations. PMID:23624558

Cameron, Linda D.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Brewer, Noel T.

2013-01-01

29

The alcohol warning and adolescents: 5-year effects.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study, a follow-up to the authors earlier report, examined the effects of the alcohol warning label on adolescents during the first 5 years that the warning was required. METHODS: Surveys were administered to 10th-grade (n = 16,661) and 12th-grade (n = 15,856) students from the 1989-1990 school year through the 1994-1995 school year. The measures were awareness of, exposure to, and recognition memory of the alcohol warning label; beliefs about the risks listed on the warning; and open-ended statements about consequences of alcohol use, alcohol consumption, and self-reported driving after drinking. RESULTS: There were increases in warning awareness, exposure, and recognition memory. These effects leveled off approximately 3.5 years after the inclusion of the warning on alcohol beverage containers. There was no beneficial change attributable to the warning in beliefs, alcohol consumption, or driving after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: The initial positive effects of the alcohol warning label on adolescents have leveled off, consistent with theories of repeated exposure to persuasive information. The alcohol warning has not affected adolescents' beliefs about alcohol or alcohol-related behaviors. PMID:11029993

MacKinnon, D P; Nohre, L; Pentz, M A; Stacy, A W

2000-01-01

30

Effects of warning validity and proximity on responses to warnings.  

PubMed

The effects of a warning's validity and display characteristics on the responses to binary warnings were studied in a categorization task that resembled the control of a simulated production environment. Students performed a visual signal detection task and were aided by a binary warning indicator. Experimental conditions differed in the validity of the warning and its proximity to the judged stimulus. Participants' performance improved over the course of the experiment, and they partly adjusted their responses to the validity of the warnings but continued to respond to nonvalid warnings throughout the experiment. It was particularly difficult to ignore the nonvalid information when it was integrated with the continuous information. There was evidence for nonoptimal use of the information from the warning system, whether it was valid or not valid. The results indicate a possible distinction between two dimensions of users' trust in warning systems: compliance and reliance. Actual or potential implications of this research include improved warning design based on analysis of system and operator characteristics. PMID:12002005

Meyer, J

2001-01-01

31

40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION...82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a...that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement...

2010-07-01

32

The efficacy of cigarette warning labels on health beliefs in the United States and Mexico.  

PubMed

Concern over health risks is the most common motivation for quitting smoking. Health warnings on tobacco packages are among the most prominent interventions to convey the health risks of smoking. Face-to-face surveys were conducted in Mexico (n = 1,072), and a web-based survey was conducted in the US (n = 1,449) to examine the efficacy of health warning labels on health beliefs. Respondents were randomly assigned to view two sets of health warnings (each with one text-only warning and 5-6 pictorial warnings) for two different health effects. Respondents were asked whether they believed smoking caused 12 different health effects. Overall, the findings indicate high levels of health knowledge in both countries for some health effects, although significant knowledge gaps remained; for example, less than half of respondents agreed that smoking causes impotence and less than one third agreed that smoking causes gangrene. Mexican respondents endorsed a greater number of correct beliefs about the health effects of smoking than did the U.S. sample. In both countries, viewing related health warning labels increased beliefs about the health risks of smoking, particularly for less well-known health effects such as gangrene, impotence, and stroke. PMID:23905611

Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; Thrasher, James F

2013-01-01

33

The Efficacy of Cigarette Warning Labels on Health Beliefs in the United States and Mexico  

PubMed Central

Concern over health risks is the most common motivation for quitting smoking. Health warnings on tobacco packages are among the most prominent interventions to convey the health risks of smoking. Face-to-face surveys were conducted in Mexico (n=1,072), and a web-based survey was conducted in the US (n=1,449) to examine the efficacy of health warning labels on health beliefs. Respondents were randomly assigned to view two sets of health warnings (each with one text-only warning and 5–6 pictorial warnings) for two different health effects. Respondents were asked whether they believed smoking caused 12 different health effects. Overall, the findings indicate high levels of health knowledge in both countries for some health effects, although significant knowledge gaps remained; for example: less than half of respondents agreed that smoking causes impotence and less than one third agreed that smoking causes gangrene. Mexican respondents endorsed a greater number of correct beliefs about the health impact of smoking than the US sample. In both countries, viewing related health warning labels increased beliefs about the health risks of smoking, particularly for less well-known health effects, such as gangrene, impotence, and stroke. PMID:23905611

MUTTI, SEEMA; HAMMOND, DAVID; REID, JESSICA L.; THRASHER, JAMES F.

2013-01-01

34

Appalachian residents' perspectives on new U.S. cigarette warning labels.  

PubMed

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration revealed new pictorial warning labels in June 2011 for cigarette packages, yet little is known about how these labels are perceived by U.S. residents. We examined the reactions to and attitudes about the new labels among residents of Appalachian Ohio, a region with a high smoking prevalence. We conducted focus groups with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants included healthcare providers (n = 30), community leaders (n = 26), parents (n = 28), and young adult men ages 18-26 (n = 18). Most participants supported the addition of the new labels to U.S. cigarette packages, though many were unaware of the labels prior to the focus groups. Participants did not think the labels would be effective in promoting smoking cessation among smokers in their communities, but they were more positive about the potential of the labels to reduce smoking initiation. Participants reported positive feedback about the more graphic labels, particularly those showing a man with a tracheal stoma or a person with severe oral disease. The labels that include a cartoon image of an ill infant and a man who quit smoking received the most negative feedback. Participants generally supported adding pictorial warning labels to U.S. cigarette packages, but only a few of labels received mostly positive feedback. Results offer early insight into how the new labels may be received if they are put into practice. PMID:22527659

Reiter, Paul L; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Klein, Elizabeth G; Paskett, Electra D; Katz, Mira L

2012-12-01

35

Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?  

PubMed

Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking. PMID:22385817

McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

2012-04-01

36

Low literacy impairs comprehension of prescription drug warning labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients’ literacy and their ability to understand\\u000a medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret\\u000a commonly used prescription medication warning labels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment.

Terry C. Davis; Michael S. Wolf; Pat F. Bass III; Mark Middlebrooks; Estela Kennen; David W. Baker; Charles L. Bennett; Ramon Durazo-Arvizu; Anna Bocchini; Stephanie Savory; Ruth M. Parker

2006-01-01

37

EFFECT OF THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL AND VOLUNTARY INDUSTRY HEALTH WARNING LABELS ON PASSAGE OF MANDATED CIGARETTE WARNING LABELS 1965 TO 2012: TRANSITION PROBABILITY AND EVENT HISTORY ANALYSES  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper quantifies the pattern and rate of passage of HWLs on cigarette packages, including the effect of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and HWLs voluntarily implemented by tobacco companies. Methods Transition probability matrices were used to describe the pattern of HWL passage and rate of change in four time periods. Event history analysis was used to estimate the effect of the FCTC on adoption and to compare that effect between countries with voluntary HWLs and those with mandatory HWLs. Results The number of HWLs passed during each time period accelerated, from a transition rate among countries that changed from 2.42/year in 1965–1977 to 6.71/year in 1977–1984, 8.42/year in 1984–2003, and 22.33/year in 2003–2012. The FCTC significantly accelerated passage of FCTC compliant HWLs for countries with initially mandatory policies with a hazard of 1.27/year (95% CI=1.11–1.45), but only marginally increased the hazard for countries that had an industry voluntary HWL 1.68/year (.95–2.97). Conclusions Passage of HWLs is accelerating, with the FCTC being associated with further acceleration of the passage of HWLS. Industry voluntary HWLs slowed mandated HWLs. PMID:24028248

Sanders-Jackson, Ashley N.; Song, Anna V.; Hillamo, Heikki

2013-01-01

38

Ohio Appalachian residents' views on smoke-free laws and cigarette warning labels  

PubMed Central

Introduction Smoke-free laws and the addition of graphic warning labels to cigarette packages represent public health policies that can potentially reduce smoking and smoking-related disease. The attitudes and beliefs relating to these policies were examined among residents of Ohio Appalachia, a mostly rural region with high smoking prevalence among its residents. Methods Focus groups were conducted with participants from Ohio Appalachia during the summer of 2007. Groups included healthcare providers (n=37), community leaders (n=31), parents (n=19), and young adult women aged 18–26 years (n=27). Results Most participants were female (94%), non-Hispanic White (94%), and married (65%). Participants believed that most non-smokers supported Ohio’s enforced statewide comprehensive smoke-free law that began in 2007, while some smokers opposed the law due to a perceived infringement of their rights. They also reported that most residents and local businesses were abiding by and enforcing the law. Participants supported the addition of graphic warning labels to cigarette packages in the USA. They believed that such warning labels could help deter adolescents and adult non-smokers from smoking initiation, particularly if the negative aesthetic effects of smoking were emphasized. However, they felt the labels would be less effective among current smokers and older individuals living in their communities. Conclusions Participants generally held positive views about both the smoke-free law and the addition of graphic warning labels to cigarette packages in the USA. These tobacco-related public health policies are promising strategies for potentially reducing smoking and its associated diseases among residents living in Appalachia. Additional research is needed to further examine support for these policies among more diverse Appalachian populations. PMID:22300190

Reiter, PL; Wewers, ME; Paskett, ED; Klein, EG; Katz, ML

2013-01-01

39

40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.  

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a)...

2014-07-01

40

You've been warned: an empirical study of the effectiveness of web browser phishing warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many popular web browsers now include active phishing warnings since research has shown that passive warnings are often ignored. In this laboratory study we examine the effectiveness of these warnings and examine if, how, and why they fail users. We simulated a spear phishing attack to expose users to browser warnings. We found that 97% of our sixty participants fell

Serge Egelman; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Jason I. Hong

2008-01-01

41

Israeli Arab and Jewish youth knowledge and opinion about alcohol warning labels: pre-intervention data.  

PubMed

This article presents baseline data on the opinion toward alcohol beverage warning labels and on levels of knowledge of the risks discussed in the contents of the labels prior to the labels' introduction, and on levels of knowledge of additional alcohol-related hazards not included in the proposed warning labels, among a sample of 3065 adolescents of four religions living in the northern region of Israel. About 2220 Arab participants (Moslems, Christians and Druze) and 845 Jewish respondents answered in the winter of 1996 a Hebrew version of an American questionnaire, which had been used to measure levels of knowledge of the label in the United States. More respondents were in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than on advertisements. Arabs as a group were more in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than Jews. The initial knowledge levels among the participants were not very high, especially concerning the item 'Drinking impairs the ability to operate machinery' (74.4%) which is included on the proposed warning label, and concerning two hazards which are not included: 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' (54.6%) and 'Drinking increases risk of high blood pressure' (60.4%). Abstainers knew more than drinkers that 'Pregnant women should not drink', 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' and 'Alcohol in combination with other drugs is hazardous'. Implications for public health are discussed and alternative warning messages that might be used to inform the Israeli public of several less well-known hazards are suggested. PMID:9199725

Weiss, S

1997-01-01

42

Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: An Investigation on Opinions of Male Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background: Health warning labels on cigarette packages are among the most straightforward and important tools to communicate with smokers and various studies have illustrated their efficacy. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the opinions of male smokers in Mashhad city about the efficacy of health warning labels printed on cigarette packages on the smoking status of smokers. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2013 using a questionnaire. The research population included the male smokers of Mashhad. The participants were selected from the customers referring to the newsstands for cigarettes. The obtained data were analyzed employing SPSS software Version 16, and the statistical tests including Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman, and correlation coefficient of Pearson, Chi Square, Mann-Whitney, and Bonferroni correction were used in this regard. Results: In this research, there were 500 participants with the average age of 25 years. The initiation age of smoking was eight years while the maximum age was reported as 45 years. Results of this research about the effect of these labels on decreasing cigarette consumption rate showed that almost half of the participants believed that these labels were ineffective for them (52.2%) and other smokers (53.8%).Furthermore, significant relationship was found between the age and opinion of the smokers about the influence of these labels on reducing their cigarette consumption (P < 0.001). Conclusions: To promote the effect of printed images on cigarette packages, it is recommended to consider the suitability of labels in the targeted culture. In addition, to be more effective consultation sites to quit smoking should be introduced under the images. PMID:24829777

Shojaezadeh, Davoud; Peyman, Nooshin; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohaddes Hakkak, Abbas; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mohaddes Hakkak, Hamid Reza; Shariati, Keivan; Taghipour, Ali

2014-01-01

43

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2013-07-01

44

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2014-07-01

45

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2011-07-01

46

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2010-07-01

47

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2012-07-01

48

Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

2011-01-01

49

Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories  

PubMed Central

Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds. Objective To evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Methods All waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Bahrain, Canada, Germany and South Africa. Findings Of the total number of waterpipe tobacco products collected from Lebanon, the majority had textual health warning labels covering on average only 3.5% of total surface area of the package. Misleading descriptors were commonplace on waterpipe tobacco packages and related accessories. Conclusions There are no WHO FCTC compliant waterpipe-specific health warning labels on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Introducing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco products and accessories will probably have worldwide public health benefits. PMID:20501497

Khalil, Joanna

2010-01-01

50

16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. 1205.6 Section 1205.6 ...STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General....

2010-01-01

51

Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillan, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Perez-Hernandez, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrie, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Pineda, Justino

2012-01-01

52

21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in a self-pressurized...this section, the label of a food packaged in a self-pressurized...Products expelled in the form of a foam or cream, which contain less...than 1/2 oz. (c) Animal food containing or manufactured...

2013-04-01

53

21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in a self-pressurized...this section, the label of a food packaged in a self-pressurized...Products expelled in the form of a foam or cream, which contain less...than 1/2 oz. (c) Animal food containing or manufactured...

2012-04-01

54

Children's misunderstandings of hazard warning signs in the new globally harmonized system for classification and labeling.  

PubMed

Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35?000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n?=?49) and a second school provided a control group (n?=?23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p?=?0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention. PMID:23964825

Latham, Garry; Long, Tony; Devitt, Patric

2013-12-01

55

The Impact of Cigarette Pack Design, Descriptors, and Warning Labels on Risk Perception in the U.S  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., limited evidence exists on the impact of colors and brand imagery used in cigarette pack design. Purpose This study examined the impact of pack design, product descriptors, and health warnings on risk perception and brand appeal. Methods A cross-sectional mall-intercept study was conducted with 197 adult smokers and 200 nonsmokers in Buffalo, NY from June to July 2009 (data analysis from July 2009 to December 2010). Participants were shown 12 sets of packs randomly; each set varied by a particular design feature (color, descriptor) or warning label style (text vs graphic, size, attribution, message framing). Packs were rated on criteria including risk perceptions, quit motivation, and purchase interest. Results Participants selected larger, pictorial, and loss-framed warning labels as more likely to attract attention, encourage thoughts about health risks, motivate quitting, and most effective. Participants were more likely to select packs with lighter color shading and descriptors such as light, silver, and smooth as delivering less tar, smoother taste, and lower health risk, compared to darker-shaded or full flavor packs. Additionally, participants were more likely to select the branded compared to plain white pack when asked which delivered the most tar, smoothest taste, was more attractive, appealed to youth aged <18 years, and contained cigarettes of better quality. Conclusions The findings support larger, graphic health warnings that convey loss-framed messages as most effective in communicating health risks to U.S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features. PMID:21565661

Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Smith, Philip; Cummings, K. Michael

2011-01-01

56

Comprehending product warning information: age-related effects and the roles of memory, inferencing, and knowledge.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine if age affects comprehension for explicit and implied warning information and, if so, to reveal the nature of such effects. Experiment 1 measured younger (18-23 years) and older (65-75 years) adults' comprehension for real-world warnings via a verification test presented immediately after reading the warnings or after a delay. In Experiment 2, younger (18-22 years) and older (64-76 years) participants also read fabricated warnings that were inconsistent with real-world knowledge. In both experiments, older adults frequently failed to infer the correct hazard and safety information. The older adults also had trouble understanding warning information even when it was explicitly stated (when no inferences were required), especially when memory demands were high and product-specific knowledge could not be used. That many of the older adults did not understand commonly used product warnings indicates that the wording on many household products is not conducive to being understood by everyone who uses them. Actual or potential applications of this research include the recommendation that designers of product labels, warnings, and instructions should consider minimizing memory load and maximizing opportunities for knowledge application when designing consumer warnings. PMID:16170935

Hancock, Holly E; Fisk, Arthur D; Rogers, Wendy A

2005-01-01

57

16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually...material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...

2012-01-01

58

16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually...material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...

2011-01-01

59

16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...  

16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually...material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...

2014-01-01

60

16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually...material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...

2013-01-01

61

16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually...material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...

2010-01-01

62

21 CFR 510.410 - Corticosteroids for oral, injectable, and ophthalmic use in animals; warnings and labeling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...injectable, and ophthalmic use in animals; warnings and labeling requirements...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Requirements for Specific...

2011-04-01

63

Compelled commercial speech: the Food and Drug Administration's effort to smoke out the tobacco industry through graphic warning labels.  

PubMed

FDA's proposed graphic warning labels for cigarette packages have been scrutinized for potentially violating the First Amendment's free speech clause. This article addresses the distinction between the commercial speech and compelled speech doctrines and their applicability in analyzing the constitutionality of the labels. The government's position is that the labels evoke an emotional response and educate consumers, while tobacco companies argue that the labels forcibly promote the government's message. Two federal appellate courts, applying different legal standards, have arrived at different conclusions. This article advocates that the Supreme Court, if faced with review of the labels, should apply strict scrutiny and declare the labels unconstitutional. PMID:24552078

Haynes, Bryan M; Andrews, Anne Hampton; Jacob, C Reade

2013-01-01

64

A pilot study of research methods for determining the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels among smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Science to determine the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels can inform decisions about warning label implementation and adjustments to their contents to maximize impact. This pilot study builds from earlier research on plain cigarette packaging to examine the feasibility of a method for determining the impact of pictorial warnings among smokers. Findings The study was a prospective, within-subjects pilot trial where smokers ages 18–30 (n?=?10) were exposed to pictorial warnings on their cigarette packs. On day one, participants completed a baseline interview with an expired carbon monoxide reading and affixed pictorial warning labels to their cigarette pack(s) they would use the next day. On day two, participants completed mobile phone text message assessments of smoking behaviors and protocol adherence. On day three, participants completed a follow-up interview similar to baseline. We achieved 100% sample retention and adherence with procedures. Compared with baseline assessments of perceptions and behaviors related to existing text-only warnings, at follow-up participants were more likely to report that pictorial warnings used during the study were noticeable (M 4.1, SD 1.3 vs. M 2.7, SD 1.2, p?=?.013), stopped them from smoking (M 1.6, SD 0.8 vs. M 1.1, SD 0.3, p?=?.052), and conveyed health risks of smoking (M 3.5 SD 1.3 vs. M 2.2, SD 1.1, p?=?.006). At follow-up, participants also reported the protocol was acceptable. Conclusions These findings suggest this is a feasible method that with further validation could provide evidence that can inform decisions regarding implementation of pictorial cigarette warnings. PMID:25276116

2014-01-01

65

Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: effects on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.  

PubMed

Recent proposals across a number of Western countries have suggested that idealised media images should carry some sort of disclaimer informing readers when these images have been digitally enhanced. The present studies aimed to experimentally investigate the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of the addition of such warning labels to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 120 and 114 female undergraduate students in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 respectively. In both experiments, participants viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no warning label, a generic warning label, or a specific more detailed warning label. In neither experiment was there a significant effect of type of label. However, state appearance comparison was found to predict change in body dissatisfaction irrespective of condition. Unexpectedly, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of label on body dissatisfaction, such that for women high on trait appearance comparison, exposure to specific warning labels actually resulted in increased body dissatisfaction. In sum, the present results showed no benefit of warning labels in ameliorating the known negative effect of viewing thin-ideal media images, and even suggested that one form of warning (specific) might be harmful for some individuals. Accordingly, it was concluded that more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of disclaimer labels. PMID:22947622

Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Bury, Belinda; Hawkins, Kimberley; Firth, Bonny

2013-01-01

66

Scientists to Evaluate Social Effectiveness of Tsunami Warning Methods  

NSF Publications Database

... to Evaluate Social Effectiveness of Tsunami Warning Methods Key social and psychological variables ... The award was made through NSF's Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) Priority Area. The group, led by ...

67

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

68

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

69

Is the Effectiveness of Tobacco Image-Based Warning Labels Likely to Vary by Socio-Demographic Variable? Findings from an Online Survey of 19,000 Members of the UK Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Smoking continues to be a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. Countries have increasingly adopted the use of images as warnings on cigarette packs. We aimed to investigate the likely differential impact of varied images and messages on sub-groups of the United Kingdom (UK) smoking population. Methods: Forty two images…

Styles, Maggie; Williams, Brian; Humphris, Gerry

2013-01-01

70

Estimating the Impact of Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and the Potential Added Impact of Plain Packaging: Evidence From Experimental Auctions Among Adult Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate differences in demand for cigarette packages with different packaging and health warning label formats. Methods: Adult smokers (n=404) in four states participated in experimental auctions. Participants bid on two of four experimental conditions, each involving a different health warning label format but with the same warning message: 1. text on 50% of pack side; 2. text on

James F. Thrasher; Matthew C. Rousu; David Hammond; Ashley Navarro; Jay R. Corrigan

2011-01-01

71

Effects of Active Warning Reliability on Motorist Compliance at Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Railroad Administration is interested in understanding the effect of warning reliability on motorist compliance to warnings at active grade crossings. The John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center conducted two studies to examine mo...

J. Multer, M. Gil, M. Yeh

2006-01-01

72

The communication triangle: elements of an effective warning message  

SciTech Connect

The lack of good communication is a very real problem in mine emergencies. To counter communication breakdowns, researchers at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory developed the Emergency Communication Triangle. It is a training intervention designed to help those giving a warning to provide the right sort of information and those receiving a warning to ask the right questions. The Triangle has six ordered components with the first three considered most important. The Emergency Communication is packaged as a short safety talk to be given by supervisors at the start of a shift. It was first tested in 1998 with a group of 236 workers at an underground mine in Colorado, and proved effective. It was followed up in 2003 and again in 2004. Now, more than half the miners would report who was affected by an event, 60% would report in its severity, and 70% would say what had been done so far. 3 figs.

Vaught, C.; Brnich, M.J. Jr.; Mallett, L. [NIOSH-PRL (United States)

2007-01-15

73

Adolescents' attention to traditional and graphic tobacco warning labels: an eye-tracking approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would (1) increase visual attention, as measured by eye movement patterns and fixation density, and (2) improve memory for tobacco advertisements among a group of 12 to 14 year olds in the western United States. Data were collected from 32 middle school students using a head-mounted eye-tracking device that recorded viewing time, scan path patterns, fixation locations, and dwell time. Participants viewed a series of 20 magazine advertisements that included five U.S. tobacco ads with traditional Surgeon General warning messages and five U.S. tobacco ads that had been modified to include non-traditional messages and Canadian-style graphic images. Following eye tracking, participants completed unaided- and aided-recall exercises. Overall, the participants spent equal amounts of time viewing the advertisements regardless of the type of warning message. However, the warning messages that included the graphic images generated higher levels of visual attention directed specifically toward the message, based on average dwell time and fixation frequency, and were more likely to be accurately recalled than the traditional warning messages. PMID:21313984

Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin

2010-01-01

74

Adolescents' Attention to Traditional and Graphic Tobacco Warning Labels: An Eye-Tracking Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would 1) increase visual…

Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin

2010-01-01

75

The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

2011-01-01

76

Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

2014-01-01

77

Marlene Haffner For the vast majority of us, the labels on food packaging warning `this  

E-print Network

), they serve as an important aid in managing their disease. Increased awareness of this debilitating rare disease, which can cause brain damage if not managed properly, led to this increased labeling of consumer of such companies than with those of a large pharmaceutical firm. Rare diseases,according to the Orphan Drug

Cai, Long

78

Off-Label Prescribing, Polypharmacy, and Black-Box Warnings: A Primer for School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychotropic medications are increasingly used to treat children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Between the years 1994 and 2001, there was a 191.7% increase in number of office visits resulting in a psychotropic medication prescription among children and adolescents. Many drugs are prescribed to children "off-label", whereby they…

Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

79

Caution: Alcohol Advertising and the Surgeon General's Alcohol Warnings May Have Adverse Effects on Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of the newly introduced Surgeon General's alcohol warnings and advertisements on college students. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates in communication sciences at the University of Connecticut viewed slides of alcohol products, with or without advertisements and warnings. Following the viewings, subjects filled…

Blood, Deborah J.; Snyder, Leslie B.

80

Effective sample labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-water samples collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for hazardous waste and radiological monitoring programs have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Before these laws were in effect, sample collection consisted mainly of filling a single plastic bottle that was then submitted for limited

J. T. Reiger; R. W. Bryce

1989-01-01

81

Perceptions of young Jordanian adults to proposed anti-tobacco pictorial warning labels  

PubMed Central

Background In commitment to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), four new pictorial warnings are now being proposed for display on cigarette packages sold in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gauge the immediate perceptions of young Jordanian adults towards these new pictorials and compare these perceptions to those of the pictorial currently being used in the country. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of youth aged 17-26. The interviewer-administered survey gauged participants' perceptions of salience, fear elicitation, and gained information as well as participants' motivation to remain non-smokers or quit smoking after viewing each of the four proposed new pictorials as well as the current pictorial used in Jordan. Perceptions regarding each new pictorial were compared to the current pictorial. Results A total of 450 surveys were included in the analysis. The sample (mean age 20.9) was 51.6% female and 31.3% cigarette (regular or occasional) smokers. In smokers, only one proposed pictorial had significantly more smokers perceiving it as salient or adding to information when compared to the current pictorial. More smokers reported fear when observing the proposed pictorials compared with current pictorial, but overall proportions reporting fear were generally less than 50%. Furthermore, all new pictorials motivated significantly more smokers to consider quitting compared with the current pictorial; however, the overall proportion of smokers reporting motivation was < 25%. Among nonsmokers, significantly more respondents perceived the new pictorials as salient and fear-eliciting compared to the old pictorial, but there were no major differences in information added. Motivation to remain non-smokers was comparable between the old and new pictorials. Conclusion Given the variability of response across both smokers and nonsmokers, and across the three elements of perception (salience, added information, fear) for each pictorial, further testing of the pictorials in a more diverse sample of Jordanian young adults prior to launch is recommended. PMID:21627794

2011-01-01

82

Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs  

PubMed Central

Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n?=?338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n?=?63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change. PMID:23977223

Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

2013-01-01

83

Exposure to prescription drugs labeled for risk of adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide, 2006-2009.  

PubMed

Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to administrative prescription data. Descriptive statistics illustrate utilization: 89 personnel had a prescription history, 35 filled at least one prescription labeled with a warning, 26 had antidepressants on hand at death, and 2 died by drug overdose. Most airmen were not exposed to any prescriptions labeled for risk of suicidal ideation or behavior prior to death by suicide. PMID:22934922

Lavigne, Jill E; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L

2012-10-01

84

Developing effective warning systems: Ongoing research at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PurposeThis paper examines the unique challenges to volcanic risk management associated with having a ski area on an active volcano. Using a series of simulated eruption/lahar events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a context, a model of risk management that integrates warning system design and technology, risk perceptions and the human response is explored. Principal resultsDespite increases in the observed audibility and comprehension of the warning message, recall of public education content, and people's awareness of volcanic risk, a persistent minority of the public continued to demonstrate only moderate awareness of the correct actions to take during a warning and failed to respond effectively. A relationship between level of staff competence and correct public response allowed the level of public response to be used to identify residual risk and additional staff training needs. The quality of staff awareness, action and decision-making has emerged as a critical factor, from detailed staff and public interviews and from exercise observations. Staff actions are especially important for mobilising correct public response at Ruapehu ski areas due to the transient nature of the visitor population. Introduction of education material and staff training strategies that included the development of emergency decision-making competencies improved knowledge of correct actions, and increased the proportion of people moving out of harm's way during blind tests. Major conclusionsWarning effectiveness is a function of more than good hazard knowledge and the generation and notification of an early warning message. For warning systems to be effective, these factors must be complemented by accurate knowledge of risk and risk management actions. By combining the Ruapehu findings with those of other warning system studies in New Zealand, and internationally, a practical five-step model for effective early warning systems is discussed. These steps must be based upon sound and regularly updated underpinning science and be tied to formal effectiveness evaluation, which is fed back into system improvements. The model presented emphasises human considerations, the development of which arguably require even more effort than the hardware components of early warning systems.

Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Christianson, Amy; Becker, Julia; Keys, Harry

2008-05-01

85

Assessing effectiveness of various auditory warning signals in maintaining drivers' attention in virtual reality-based driving environments.  

PubMed

Drivers' fatigue contributes to traffic accidents, so drivers must maintain adequate alertness. The effectiveness of audio alarms in maintaining driving performance and characteristics of alarms was studied in a virtural reality-based driving environment. Response time to the car's drifting was measured under seven conditions: with no warnings and with continuous warning tones (500 Hz, 1750 Hz, and 3000 Hz), and with tone bursts at 500 Hz, 1750 Hz, and 3000 Hz. Analyses showed the audio warning signals significantly improved driving. Further, the tones' spectral characteristics significantly influenced the effectiveness of the warning. PMID:19725318

Lin, Chin-Teng; Chiu, Tien-Ting; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chao, Chih-Feng; Liang, Wen-Chieh; Hsu, Shang-Hwa; Ko, Li-Wei

2009-06-01

86

Synthesized speech rate and pitch effects on intelligibility of warning messages for pilots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In civilian and military operations, a future threat-warning system with a voice display could warn pilots of other traffic, obstacles in the flight path, and/or terrain during low-altitude helicopter flights. The present study was conducted to learn whether speech rate and voice pitch of phoneme-synthesized speech affects pilot accuracy and response time to typical threat-warning messages. Helicopter pilots engaged in an attention-demanding flying task and listened for voice threat warnings presented in a background of simulated helicopter cockpit noise. Performance was measured by flying-task performance, threat-warning intelligibility, and response time. Pilot ratings were elicited for the different voice pitches and speech rates. Significant effects were obtained only for response time and for pilot ratings, both as a function of speech rate. For the few cases when pilots forgot to respond to a voice message, they remembered 90 percent of the messages accurately when queried for their response 8 to 10 sec later.

Simpson, C. A.; Marchionda-Frost, K.

1984-01-01

87

The effect of plain packages on the perception of cigarette health warnings.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted with 568 adolescent children (average age 13) to investigate the possible effects upon perceptions of health warnings when cigarettes are presented in plain packaging. A measure of unaided recall was used to reflect participants' attention to the assortment of cues presented on cigarette packs. The presentation of health warnings in the context of plain packs achieved a significantly greater recall rate as opposed to brand packs. When less brand image cues were presented, respondents were able to perceive and recall with more accuracy a greater proportion of 'non-image' information. PMID:1529094

Beede, P; Lawson, R

1992-07-01

88

Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

2012-01-01

89

Development of Expressway Exit Hazardous Traffic Incident Monitoring and Warning System and its Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring and warning the expressway exit incidents is an effective way to prevent expressway accidents. This paper deals with illegal changing lanes and illegal parking behavior as the major incidents that should be monitored. In this paper, we introduce a system that aims to reduce the chance of traffic delay and traffic conflict and has put it into practice to

Guan Xuri; Wu Jiahua

2011-01-01

90

International cigarette labelling practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

DESIGNCross-sectional study.PARTICIPANTSMembers of GLOBALink (www.globalink.org), an internet listserve for tobacco activists with members in 56 countries, who were asked to provide specific information on cigarette warning requirements in their countries.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESPresence of specific warning labels, overall content score (based on a 0–10 scale with a point for each specific warning mentioned), size of warning label, location of warning label.RESULTSForty-five

Macksood Aftab; Deborah Kolben; Peter Lurie

1999-01-01

91

Effects of Labels on Visual Perceptions  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF LABELS ON VISUAL PERCEPTIONS Major: Psychology April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE... RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by FRANKIE LARA EFFECTS OF LABELS ON VISUAL PERCEPTIONS Approved by: Research Advisor: Takashi Yamauchi Associate Dean for Undergraduate Research: Robert C. Webb Major: Psychology April 2009...

Lara, Frankie

2009-06-09

92

Toolbox Safety Talk Chemical Labeling  

E-print Network

effective means of communicating chemical hazards. DEFINITIONS · Pictogram: a symbol plus other graphic in the workplace to be clearly labeled with the appropriate identification and warnings. A label may be affixed to to be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to a hazardous chemical, improper

Pawlowski, Wojtek

93

Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Warning Letters  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have suggested that there has been an increase in the number of ‘warning letters’ issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) despite the publication of the FDA advertising guidelines. However, limited information is available on the description of warning letters. The objective of this study was to analyse the frequency and content of FDA warning letters in relation to promotional claims and discuss the influence of regulatory and industry constraints on promotion. Methods All warning letters published by the FDA between 5 May 1995 and 11 June 2007 were reviewed. Warning letters related to promotional issues were included and analysed. Information related to the identification number, date of the warning letter, FDA division that issued the letter, drug name, manufacturer, specific warning problem, type of promotional material and requested action was extracted. Two independent investigators reviewed and classified each PDF file, any differences were discussed until a consensus was reached. Results Between May 1995 and June 2007 a total of 8692 warning letters were issued, of which 25% were related to drugs. Of these, 206 warning letters focused on drug promotion and were included in this study: 23% were issued in 2005, 15% in 2004 and 14% in 1998. In total, 47% of the warning letters were issued because of false or misleading unapproved doses and uses, 27% failed to disclose risks, 15% cited misleading promotion, 8% related to misleading labelling and 3% promoted false effectiveness claims. Discussion There is an important variation in the number of warning letters issued in the last decade, probably because of the increasing number of drugs approved by the FDA, drug withdrawal scandals, and the publication of the FDA and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) guidelines. Conclusion We found that benefit-related claims, such as unapproved uses or doses of drugs, and failure to disclose risks, are the main causes of FDA issued warning letters for promotional claims related to medications. PMID:24353430

Salas, Maribel; Martin, Michelle; Pisu, Maria; McCall, Erin; Zuluaga, Alvaro; Glasser, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

94

Solar Max: Storm Warning - Effects on the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a promotional folder for Sun-Earth Days 2013, containing images and illustrations of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System. Also included is information about the period known as solar maximum, as well as links to Sun-Earth Day resources and the Space Weather Action Center.

95

The effect of colored borders and age on the conspicuity of warning signs in a complex visual environment  

E-print Network

This laboratory study examined the effect of colored borders and age on the conspicuity of roadside warning signs embedded in cluttered urban environments. Prior research has suggested that a uniform border surrounding a sign will increase its...

Chard, Joshua Turner

2012-06-07

96

Use of an auditory signal in a rear-end collision warning system: effects on braking force and reaction time  

E-print Network

This simulator experiment is a preliminary study examining the effects of different auditory signals on braking force and reaction time in a rear-end collision warning system. A driving simulator was built in which subjects operated a computer...

Hopkins, Jennifer Susan

2012-06-07

97

Memory Saves Lives: Inter-generational Warnings Effectiveness - 13556  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami was a world-class natural disaster. It has been described as the most powerful earthquake ever in Japan, and as one of the most powerful earthquakes ever noted in the world. The toll in terms of human lives lost and property destruction was unimaginable. Even the word 'horrible' is inadequate to describe the suffering and misery that resulted. Nations with nuclear power programs are engaged in, or at least planning to become engaged in, arranging to eventually dispose of their higher-level radioactive waste materials in deep geologic repositories. Geologic repositories are passive safety systems, and if undisturbed isolate these dangerous materials form the biosphere for extremely long times. The key words, however, are 'if undisturbed'. To assure that future generations do not inadvertently drill into repositories, national programs, and the international community (the Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) preservation project of the Nuclear Energy Agency, for example), are proposing to place markers and/or monuments on closed repository sites that say 'do not drill here, and this is why' in various sophisticated ways. Such markers or monuments are attempts at providing passive institutional controls. The effectiveness of messages from past generations to a present generation may give an indication of how effective such passive institutional controls may be. (authors)

Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Shafer, David [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States); Klein, Thomas [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

2013-07-01

98

Abandoning a label doesn't make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects.  

PubMed

Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed. PMID:23105148

Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

2013-01-01

99

The effects of noise on speech and warning signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the effects of noise on speech communication it is necessary to examine certain characteristics of the speech signal. Speech level can be measured by a variety of methods, none of which has yet been standardized, and it should be kept in mind that vocal effort increases with background noise level and with different types of activity. Noise and filtering commonly degrade the speech signal, especially as it is transmitted through communications systems. Intelligibility is also adversely affected by distance, reverberation, and monaural listening. Communication systems currently in use may cause strain and delays on the part of the listener, but there are many possibilities for improvement. Individuals who need to communicate in noise may be subject to voice disorders. Shouted speech becomes progressively less intelligible at high voice levels, but improvements can be realized when talkers use clear speech. Tolerable listening levels are lower for negative than for positive S/Ns, and comfortable listening levels should be at a S/N of at least 5 dB, and preferably above 10 dB. Popular methods to predict speech intelligibility in noise include the Articulation Index, Speech Interference Level, Speech Transmission Index, and the sound level meter's A-weighting network. This report describes these methods, discussing certain advantages and disadvantages of each, and shows their interrelations.

Suter, Alice H.

1989-06-01

100

The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

101

Alarm effectiveness in driver-centred collision-warning R. PARASURAMAN, P. A. HANCOCK and O. OLOFINBOBA  

E-print Network

² and O. OLOFINBOBA² Cognitive Science Laboratory, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 to be a major cause of loss of life and disabling injury throughout the world. In the USA, the estimated cost-centred warning systems that are effective and usable can be ® elded. In this paper one of the major issues

Parasuraman, Raja

102

Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High Park Fire.  

E-print Network

, including the area of the High Park Fire. For more information, go to http Park Fire area calls for mostly clear conditions, with lows in the mid-40s. Breezy, with southwestPage 1 Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High

Stephens, Graeme L.

103

Expectancy Effects of Labels: Fact or Artifact?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictions were obtained from 36 regular classroom teachers on the videotaped performance of a child labeled either as gifted, normal, or educable mentally retarded. A significant interaction between label and length of exposure was indicated. (CL)

Reschly, Daniel J.; Lamprecht, Michael J.

1979-01-01

104

Investigating the effects of repeated Miranda warnings: do they perform a curative function on common Miranda misconceptions?  

PubMed

In Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court of the United States required that custodial suspects be apprised of their Constitutional rights against self-incrimination. The Court could not have anticipated the rampant popularization of Miranda warnings in subsequent movies and television dramas. Influenced by public media, many arrestees assume that they already "know" their rights, with no awareness of their misconceptions. The current investigation examines whether repeated exposures to Miranda warnings performs any "curative" function (i.e., dispelling common Miranda misconceptions held by pretrial defendants). The accumulative effects of five different Miranda warnings were tested over a several-hour period on 260 detainees. For the nearly half (113 or 43.5%) with three or more misconceptions, improvement (i.e., ?2 fewer misconceptions) occurred for only 35 defendants. Predictably, this improved group also tended to display a better understanding of Miranda-relevant vocabulary words and a better recall of the administered Miranda warnings than their unimproved counterparts. On average, the improved group also performed better on general measures of intelligence, and listening and reading comprehension, while still evidencing substantial cognitive deficits. The curative function of Miranda advisements is considered in light of these findings. PMID:23670943

Rogers, Richard; Fiduccia, Chelsea E; Robinson, Emily V; Steadham, Jennifer A; Drogin, Eric Y

2013-01-01

105

"Girl,""Woman,""Guy,""Man": The Effects of Sexist Labeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An artist was identified as either female or male, with a high status, low status, or neutral label. Low and high labels had equally negative effects on subjects' judgment of (supposed) females' paintings and equally positive effects on subjects' judgments of painting (supposedly) by males. (CJM)

Lipton, Jack P.; Hershaft, Alan M.

1984-01-01

106

Warnings from the Trenches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, as a retired high school teacher, has some bad news for college professors. In case, they do not already see what is happening. The author wants to warn them of what to expect from the students who will be arriving in one's classroom even if they teach in a highly selective institution. No Child Left Behind went into effect for the…

Bernstein, Kenneth

2013-01-01

107

Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy  

PubMed Central

An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification. PMID:20523852

Stevens, Catherine J.; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare

2009-01-01

108

The Effectiveness of Reverse Telephon Emergency Warning Systems in the October 2007 San Diego Wildfires  

SciTech Connect

Late in October, 2007, fast-moving wildfires fueled by extreme Santa Ana winds threatened residents and their properties in San Diego County, California. The impacted area also included the City of San Diego within the County s boundaries. It turns out the San Diego firestorms would be the biggest in the County's history, surpassing the devastating 2003 firestorms in intensity, duration, and impacted populations. Both San Diego County and the City of San Diego have installed telephone reverse call-down emergency warning systems. A telephone survey of 1200 households located in areas identified by emergency officials as the evacuation zones for the 2007 fires was conducted in late March and early April 2008 using a random telephone dialing process to determine if people responded to the reverse telephone warning systems calls. Findings indicate that those who received a reverse emergency warning call were much more likely to evacuate than those who did not receive a call. The telephone calls were also the most likely source of first warning.

Sorensen, John H [ORNL; Sorensen, Barbara Vogt [ORNL

2009-01-01

109

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

110

Label Effects in Social Interaction Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article is a by-product of a series of studies on conflict, conflict reduction and alliance formation. It reports on the investigation of possible response biases of subjects with respect to labels of objects or persons to which the subjects are requi...

E. A. Hartman

1970-01-01

111

A cross-sectional survey investigating the desensitisation of graphic health warning labels and their impact on smokers, non-smokers and patients with COPD in a London cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GHWL) in different individuals, including patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Investigating knowledge and attitudes may allow better implementation of future public health policies. We hypothesised that differences in the impact of GHWL exist between non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD, with decreased efficacy in those groups who are longer and more frequently exposed to them. Participants and setting 163 participants (54% male, aged 21–80) including 60 non-smokers, 53 smokers and 50 patients with COPD (Gold stage II–IV), attending London respiratory outpatient clinics, participated in case-controlled surveys (50 items). Outcome measures Ten different GHWL were shown and demographics, smoking history, plans to quit, smoking-risk awareness, emotional response, processing and impact of GHWL on behaviour were recorded. Patients were further asked to prioritise the hypothetical treatment or prevention of five specific smoking-related diseases. Results Smokers, in particular those with COPD, were less susceptible to GHWL than non-smokers; 53.4% of all participants expressed fear when looking at GHWL, non-smokers (71.9%) more so than smokers (39.8%, p<0.001). COPD participants were less aware of the consequences than non-COPD participants (p<0.001), including an awareness of lung cancer (p=0.001). Lung cancer (95%), oral cancer (90.2%), heart disease (84.7%) and stroke (71.2%) were correctly associated with smoking, whereas blindness was least associated (23.9%). However, blindness was prioritised over oral cancer, stroke and in patients with COPD also over heart disease when participants were asked about hypothetical treatment or prevention. Conclusions GHWL are most effective in non-smokers and a desensitisation effect was observed in smokers and patients with COPD. As a consequence, a tailored and concerted public health approach to use such messages is required and ‘blindness’ deserves to be mentioned in this context because of an unexpectedly high-deterring impact. PMID:24996914

Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Chisnall, Ben; Drakatos, Panagis; Sivakumar, Sukhanthan; Sivakumar, Bairavie; Barrecheguren, Miriam; Douiri, Abdel; Steier, Joerg

2014-01-01

112

Driving-simulator-based test on the effectiveness of auditory red-light running vehicle warning system based on time-to-collision sensor.  

PubMed

The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles. PMID:24566631

Yan, Xuedong; Xue, Qingwan; Ma, Lu; Xu, Yongcun

2014-01-01

113

The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

1981-07-01

114

Flash Flood Early Warning System Reference Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flash Flood Warning System Reference Guide is intended to promote the implementation of flash flood early warning systems based upon proven and effective methods already in use in flash-flood prone nations around the world. Both governmental and non-governmental decision makers can use it to better understand flash floods and the elements that constitute a robust, end-to-end flash flood early warning system. The guide includes chapters on Flash Flood Science, Flash Flood Forecasting Methods, Monitoring Networks, Technology Infrastructure, Warning Dissemination and Notification, and Community-based Disaster Management, and offers several examples of warning systems.

Comet

2011-10-18

115

Airburst warning and response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is virtually certain (probability>99%) that the next destructive NEO event will be an airburst. Planetary defense is usually assumed to have the primary goal of maximizing the number of lives saved, but it can be argued that more emphasis should be placed on maximizing the probability of saving lives. For the latter goal, it is far more effective to create an early warning and civil defense plan than a mitigation plan that involves deflecting a large NEO. Because early warning and civil defense will almost certainly be needed long before the first deflection is ever required, the credibility of the planetary defense community and its recommendations will be put to its first serious test by an airburst. Successful response to an airburst event will make it much more likely that recommendations for mitigation by deflection will be accepted by decision makers and the public. Focusing more attention on the second goal will, as a side effect, benefit the primary goal.

Boslough, Mark

2014-10-01

116

Crying Wolf: An Empirical Study of SSL Warning Effectiveness Joshua Sunshine, Serge Egelman, Hazim Almuhimedi, Neha Atri, and Lorrie Faith Cranor  

E-print Network

then designed two new warnings using warn- ings science principles and lessons learned from the survey. We evaluated warnings used in three pop- ular web browsers and our two warnings in a 100- participant, between

Sadeh, Norman M.

117

A Study on Estimation on Flood Warning Trigger Rainfall in medium and small Stream Affected by Urban Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As extreme floods occur frequently in recent years due to global climate changes, an in sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration is becoming the significant danger and loss of life and property in the Korean Peninsula as well as most parts of the world. The desire for living without hazardous damages grows these days, the city strategy to make the safer community has become an issue. Previously most of flood prevention efforts have been made for relatively large watersheds near to channel flow. However, as economical development and the expansion of city near medium and small stream, human casualty and property by flood occurs frequently. Therefore, to reduce the damage of human lives and property by flood, we develop an assessment method for flood warning trigger rainfall considering urban effect. Considering complex land use, HEC-HMS is used for rural area and SWMM is adopted for sewer networks runoff. And relationship between runoff and stream water level, HEC-RAS is accompanied with runoff results. Proposed flood warning trigger rainfall assessment method shows good agreement with gauged data and could be used for another case to mitigate damage. Acknowledgement: "This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-NH-2011-45] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea." Keyword: HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, critical precipitation, medium and small stream

Youngseok, Song; Moojong, Park; JungHo, Lee; HeeSup, Lee

2013-04-01

118

Warning systems and public warning response  

SciTech Connect

This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

Sorensen, J.H.

1993-09-01

119

Embedded Alcohol Messages in Television Series: The Interactive Effect of Warnings and Audience Connectedness on Viewers' Alcohol Beliefs*  

PubMed Central

Objective This research investigates whether warning viewers about the presence of embedded messages in the content of a television episode affects viewers' drinking beliefs and whether audi ence connectedness moderates the warning's impact. Method Two hun dred fifty college students participated in a laboratory experiment approximating a real-life television viewing experience. They viewed an actual television series episode containing embedded alcohol messages, and their subsequent beliefs about alcohol consequences were measured. Experimental conditions differed based on a 2 (Connectedness Level: low vs high) × 2 (Timing of the Warning: before or after the episode) × 2 (Emphasis of Warning: advertising vs health message) design. Connectedness was measured, and the timing and emphasis of the warnings were manipulated. The design also included a control condition where there was no warning. Results The findings indicate that warning view ers about embedded messages in the content of a program can yield sig nificant differences in viewers' beliefs about alcohol. However, the warning's impact differs depending on the viewers' level of connectedness to the program. In particular, in comparison with the no-warning control condition, the advertising prewarning produced lower positive beliefs about alcohol and its consequences but only for the low-connected viewers. Highly connected viewers were not affected by a warning emphasizing advertising messages embedded in the program, but a warning emphasizing health produced significantly higher negative be liefs about drinking than in the control condition. Conclusions The presence of many positive portrayals of drinking and alcohol product placements in television series has led many to suggest ways to counter their influence. However, advocates of warnings should be conscious of their differential impact on high- and low-connected viewers. PMID:18432390

RUSSELL, DALE W.; RUSSELL, CRISTEL ANTONIA

2014-01-01

120

Tsunami Warning Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tsunami Warning Systems describes the processes involved in anticipating, detecting, and warning for a tsunami by summarizing data collection, modeling, analysis, and alert procedures used at NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers. A simulated event and past tsunami occurrences are used to highlight warning system processes for determining the tsunami threat based on seismic and sea level data and tsunami forecast models. Message communication and local response are also addressed as final components of any warning system. The module is intended for Weather Forecast Office staff and emergency managers who require a better understanding of the technical aspects of tsunami warning delivery. The module will also benefit anyone wanting to learn more about the components of tsunami warning systems.

Comet

2010-10-12

121

Important characteristics of warning displays on alcohol containers.  

PubMed

Four studies examined the federally mandated warning on alcohol containers, which is required by law to be "located in a conspicuous and prominent place." In all four studies few of the drinkers could recall the main parts of the warnings, even though the warning had been required on all alcohol containers for over two years. In Study 1, 44 adults looked at the warning on various beer containers and 77% thought that the warning was not conspicuous but could be made conspicuous through various changes, such as by printing the warning horizontally (parallel to the brand name) rather than vertically. In Study 2, 50 adults looked at the warning placed horizontally on one beer can and vertically on a similar can and rated the horizontal warning significantly more conspicuous. In Study 3, 44 adults spent several minutes in a simulated drinking atmosphere. Half the subjects had beer cans with a horizontal warning and half had a vertical warning. The subjects with the horizontal warning later showed significantly better awareness/recall of the warning. In Study 4, with 75 adult subjects in a bar, the half of the subjects prompted to notice the alcohol warning drank less thereafter in the bar than the other subjects. The findings of the series of studies suggest that the conspicuousness of health warnings on alcohol containers tends to influence their possible effectiveness. PMID:8341048

Malouff, J; Schutte, N; Wiener, K; Brancazio, C; Fish, D

1993-07-01

122

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2010-04-01

123

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug products must bear a warning that...is especially important not to use” (select “aspirin” or “carbaspirin calcium,” as...

2011-04-01

124

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

...The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug products must bear a warning that...is especially important not to use” (select “aspirin” or “carbaspirin calcium,” as...

2014-04-01

125

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug products must bear a warning that...is especially important not to use” (select “aspirin” or “carbaspirin calcium,” as...

2012-04-01

126

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The labeling of orally or rectally administered OTC aspirin and aspirin-containing drug products must bear a warning that...is especially important not to use” (select “aspirin” or “carbaspirin calcium,” as...

2013-04-01

127

40 CFR 82.106 - Warning statement requirements.  

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.106 Warning...harms public health and environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere. (b) Exemptions...

2014-07-01

128

The Effect of Parallax and Cadence on Asteroid Impact Probabilities and Warning Times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the time evolution of the impact probability for synthetic, but realistic, impacting and close-approaching asteroids detected in a simulated all-sky survey. We use the impact probability to calculate the impact warning time (tw) as the time interval between when an object reaches a Palermo Scale value of -2 and when it impacts Earth. A simple argument shows that tw ? Dx, with the exponent in the range [1.0,1.5], and our derived value was x = 1.3 ± 0.1. The low-precision astrometry from the single simulated all-sky survey could require many days or weeks to establish an imminent impact for asteroids larger than 100 m in diameter that are discovered far from Earth. Most close-approaching asteroids are quickly identified as not being impactors, but a size-dependent percentage, even for those larger than 50 m diameter, have a persistent impact probability of greater than 10-6 on the day of closest approach. Thus, a single all-sky survey can be of tremendous value in identifying Earth-impacting and close-approaching asteroids in advance of their closest approach, but it can not solve the problem on its own: high-precision astrometry from other optical or radar systems is necessary to rapidly establish an object as an impactor or close approacher. We show that the parallax afforded by surveying the sky from two sites is only of benefit for a small fraction of the smallest objects detected within a couple days before impact: probably not enough to justify the increased operating costs of a two-site survey. Finally, the survey cadence within a fixed time span is relatively unimportant to the impact probability calculation. We tested three different reasonable cadences and found that one provided ˜10 times higher (better) value for the impact probability on the discovery night for the smallest (10 m diameter) objects, but the consequences on the overall impact probability calculation are negligible.

Vereš, Peter; Farnocchia, Davide; Jedicke, Robert; Spoto, Federica

2014-05-01

129

Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo review evidence on the impact of health warning messages on tobacco packages.Data sourcesArticles were identified through electronic databases of published articles, as well as relevant ‘grey’ literature using the following keywords: health warning, health message, health communication, label and labelling in conjunction with at least one of the following terms: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, product, package and pack. Study selection

David Hammond

2011-01-01

130

The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

Silvey, Brian A.

2009-01-01

131

Multitasking in academia: Effective combinations of research, education and public outreach illustrated by a volcanic ash warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science permeates our society. Its role and its perceived importance evolves with time. Scientists today are highly specialized, yet society demands they master a variety of skills requiring not only a number of different competencies but also a broad mindset. Scientists are subjected to a meritocracy in terms of having to produce scientific papers. Peer-reviewed scientific publications used to be sufficient to meet the various laws and regulations with respect to dissemination of scientific results. This has dramatically changed; both expressed directly through public voices (such as in the climate change discourses), but also by politicians and policy makers. In some countries research funding now comes with specific requirements concerning public outreach that go way beyond peer-reviewed publications and presentation at scientific conferences. Science policies encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and scientific questions themselves often cannot be answered without knowledge and information from several scientific areas. Scientists increasingly need to communicate knowledge and results in more general terms as well as educating future generations. A huge challenge lies in developing the knowledge, human capacity and mindset that will allow an individual academician to contribute to education, communicate across scientific fields and sectors in multidisciplinary cross sectoral cooperations and also reach out to the general public while succeeding within the scientific meritocracy. We demonstrate how research, education and communication within and outside academia can effectively be combined through a presentation of the International Airways Volcano Watch that encompasses an operational volcanic ash warning system for the aviation industry. This presentation will show the role of science throughout the information flow, from basic science to the pilots' decision-making. Furthermore, it will illustrate how one can connect specific scientific topics to societal issues such as security and economy. Skills, knowledge and mindset must be developed and nurtured through university curricula and reflected in career awards and other professional appreciations. By using concrete examples of geoscience in practice, such as the volcanic ash warning system, different aspects of science, it's role in society and economic impact is being communicated across sectors and taught simultaneously. The very same information is relevant and appropriate for society at large and thus time saving for academicians. It also serves as a recruiting strategy.

Bye, B. L.; Plag, H.

2011-12-01

132

Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age  

PubMed Central

AIM The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of children <2 years in Italy and the Netherlands was carried out. Age and country specific prescription prevalence rates were calculated for the period 2005–08. Comparisons of prescription rates in 2005 (pre) and 2008 (post) warnings were done by means of a chi-square test. RESULTS The cohort consisted of 99 176 children <2 years of age. After international warnings, overall prescription rates for CCMs decreased slightly from 83 to 77/1000 person years (P = 0.05) in Italy and increased in the Netherlands from 74 to 92/1000 children per year. Despite the international warnings, prescription rates for nasal sympathomimetics and opium alkaloids increased in the Netherlands (P < 0.01). In Italy a significant decrease in the prescription rates of opium alkaloids and other cough suppressants (P < 0.01) was observed, and also a significant reduction in use of combinations of nasal sympathomimetics. CONCLUSION Despite the international safety warnings and negative benefit-risk profiles, prescription rates of cough and cold medicines remain substantial and were hardly affected by the warnings, especially in the Netherlands where no warning was issued. The hazards of use of these medicines in young children should be explicitly stipulated by the European Medicines Agency and all national agencies, in order to increase awareness amongst physicians and caretakers and reduce heterogeneity across the EU. PMID:21564162

Sen, E Fatma; Verhamme, Katia M C; Felisi, Mariagrazia; 't Jong, Geert W; Giaquinto, Carlo; Picelli, Gino; Ceci, Adriana; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

2011-01-01

133

Multisensory warning signals for event perception and safe driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews various different approaches to the design of unimodal and multisensory warning signals, in particular warning signals for use in alerting drivers to potentially dangerous situations. The design of optimal warning signals that are maximally effective in terms of the limitations that constrain human information processing are discussed in light of the latest findings emerging from cognitive neuroscience

Charles Spence; Cristy Ho

2008-01-01

134

Negative Treatment Effects: Is It Time for a Black Box Warning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on Negative effects from psychological treatments: A perspective by David Barlow. The author addresses negative treatment effects in the psychotherapy field by stating that Barlow provided a historical perspective of clinical psychology's long-standing interest in studying the positive effects of psychotherapy, and he indicated that…

Boisvert, Charles M.

2010-01-01

135

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-print Network

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT 2 OCT 2007 This communication is prepared as part of the Timely Warning to students and employees in a manner that is timely and that may aid in the prevention of similar occurrences on Monday night. According to the early reports of the incident, two males in their late teens or early

Hardy, Christopher R.

136

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-print Network

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT 12/03/07 This communication is prepared as part of the Timely Warning to students and employees in a manner that is timely and that may aid in the prevention of similar occurrences which reportedly took place early AM on 1 December 2007 in the area of Hillview Avenue and South Duke

Hardy, Christopher R.

137

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of these ... production has lasted a month, this could indicate lung disease. Wheezing - Noisy breathing or wheezing is a sign ...

138

Airlock caution and warning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Caution and warning system, used to monitor performance and warn of hazards or out-of-limit conditions on space vehicles, may have application to aircraft and railway transit systems. System consists of caution and warning subsystem and emergency subsystem.

Mayfield, W. J.; Cork, L. Z.; Malchow, R. G.; Hornback, G. L.

1972-01-01

139

Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

2013-12-01

140

Warning Young Adults Against Tobacco Consumption Through Ad Parodies: its Effects on Cigarette Brands Attitude  

E-print Network

web- sites (Vanden Bergh et al., 2011). However, studies mainly focus on consumer-created ad parodies undertaken by brand loyalists on behalf of the brand and left anti-brand ad parodies effects on persuasion-tobacco brand ad parodies, and the researchers who study them, to gain a better understanding of their relative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

141

A 10-Year Analysis of the Effects of Media Coverage of Regulatory Warnings on Antidepressant Use in The Netherlands and UK  

PubMed Central

Background In 2003–2004 and 2007–2008, the regulatory banning of SSRI use in pediatrics and young adults due to concerns regarding suicidality risk coincided with negative media coverage. SSRI use trends were analyzed from 2000–2010 in the Netherlands (NL) and the UK, and whether trend changes might be associated with media coverage of regulatory warnings. Methods Monthly SSRIs sales were presented as DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day. SSRI-use trends were studied using time-series segmented regression analyses. Timing of trend changes was compared with two periods of media coverage of warnings. Annual Dutch SSRI prescription data were analyzed by age group. Results Trend changes in SSRI use largely corroborated with the periods of media coverage of warnings. British SSRI use declined from 3.9 to 0.7 DDDs/month (95%CI 3.3;4.5 & 0.5;0.9, respectively) before the first warning period (2003–2004). A small decrease of ?0.6 DDDs/month (?1.2; ?0.05) was observed in Dutch SSRI use shortly after 2003–2004. From 2007–2008, British SSRI use stabilized, whilst Dutch SSRI use diminished to ?0.04 DDDs/month (?0.4;0.3). Stratified analyses showed a rapid decrease of ?1.2 DDDs/month (?2.1; ?1.7) in UK paroxetine use before 2003–2004, but only a minimal change in Dutch paroxetine use (?0.3 DDDs/month ?0.8;0.2). Other SSRI use, especially (es)citalopram, increased during 2003–2004 in both countries. Significant reductions in Dutch paroxetine use were observed in pediatrics, adolescents, and young adults after 2003–2004. Conclusion Changes in SSRI use (NL & UK) were associated with the timing of the combined effect of media coverage and regulatory warnings. Our long-term assessment illustrates that changes in SSRI use were temporal, drug-specific and more pronounced in pediatrics and young adults. The twofold increase in SSRI use over one decade indicates that regulatory warnings and media coverage may come and go, but they do not have a significant impact on the overall upward trend of SSRI use as a class in both countries. PMID:23029065

Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; van Thiel, Ghislaine J. M. W.; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Warmerdam, Jan; de Valk, Vincent; Raaijmakers, Jan A. M.; Pieters, Toine

2012-01-01

142

Communication architecture of an early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS) in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009) on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

Angermann, M.; Guenther, M.; Wendlandt, K.

2010-11-01

143

Why People Don't Listen to Warnings: With Discussion of Implications for Futurists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document reviews recent literature on warning processes, evaluates the effectiveness of warnings in changing public policy and personal behavior, and applies warning literature to specific problem areas. Warning is interpreted to include a statement of the problem and a proposed course of action. The document is presented in six parts. Part…

Koster, Fran

144

Suicide Warning Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... Feeling rage or uncontrolled anger or seeking revenge Suicide Warning Signs n Acting reckless or engaging in ... you or someone you love at risk of suicide? Get the facts and take appropriate action. Printed: ...

145

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-print Network

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT 25 February 2008 This communication is prepared as part of the Timely-in's and at least three burglaries. The purpose of this communication is to not only alert the campus community

Hardy, Christopher R.

146

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-print Network

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT April 5, 2007 This communication is prepared as part of the Timely wandering the halls. Two alert students reported the suspicious activity to the police as the suspects fled

Hardy, Christopher R.

147

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Automatic rainfall station at Brinsmead Contained

Greenslade, Diana

148

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Peter Faust Dam

Greenslade, Diana

149

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding

Greenslade, Diana

150

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Johnstone River in flood

Greenslade, Diana

151

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the KOLAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Kolan River at Monduran Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

152

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Maroochy River at Picnic

Greenslade, Diana

153

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Daintree River in flood

Greenslade, Diana

154

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bulloo River at Thargomindah Contained

Greenslade, Diana

155

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bundilla Alert Station 2007

Greenslade, Diana

156

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Haughton River at Hustons

Greenslade, Diana

157

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. March 2012 - Rockhampton

Greenslade, Diana

158

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOONIE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Moonie River at Flinton Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

159

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Lawn Hill Creek at Lawn Hill

Greenslade, Diana

160

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Cloncurry River at Cloncurry

Greenslade, Diana

161

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GILBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GILBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Einasleigh River at Van Lee

Greenslade, Diana

162

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Burdekin Falls Dam Contained

Greenslade, Diana

163

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Lake Cooroibah Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

164

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Binna Burra ALERT Station Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

165

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Norman River at Normanton Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

166

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Paroo River at Eulo Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

167

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Center during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Diamantina

Greenslade, Diana

168

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Burnett River at Mundubbera

Greenslade, Diana

169

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Julius Dam

Greenslade, Diana

170

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Nive River at Biddenham

Greenslade, Diana

171

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Herbert River at Halifax

Greenslade, Diana

172

Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

2012-01-01

173

Effects Of A Nutrition Newsletter For Seniors on Actual and Perceived Knowledge of Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the effectiveness of a newsletter food label education program for older adults.The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act initiated widespread use of food labels (FL) to guide consumers in making more nutritious food selections. FL are potentially very beneficial to older adults, many of whom are following special diets. However, there are limited data on the impact

K. J. Lancaster; S. Taylor-Davis; H. Smiciklas-Wright; A. Davis; G. L. Jensen

1996-01-01

174

Age differences in the rejection of false memories: the effects of giving warning instructions and slowing the presentation rate.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to examine whether children of different ages differ in their ability to reject associative false memories with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two different types of manipulations that are thought to facilitate false memory rejection in adults-slowing the presentation rate and issuing explicit warnings-were analyzed in younger and older children. The results showed that older children were more able than younger children to reject associative false memories through warnings and by slowing the presentation rate. We conclude that although older children are, in general, more prone to produce false memories with the DRM paradigm, they are also more able to reject them when certain conditions facilitate the editing process. PMID:19875129

Carneiro, Paula; Fernandez, Angel

2010-01-01

175

A survey of public perception and response to heat warnings across four North American cities: an evaluation of municipal effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the efficacy of municipal heat watch warning systems, a thorough evaluation of the heat mitigation plans of four\\u000a North American cities - Dayton (Ohio, USA), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania, USA), Phoenix (Arizona, USA), and Toronto (Ontario,\\u000a Canada) - was undertaken. In concert with this evaluation was a survey of residents in the metropolitan areas of these cities\\u000a that gauged their

Scott C. Sheridan

2007-01-01

176

Age differences in the rejection of false memories: The effects of giving warning instructions and slowing the presentation rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to examine whether children of different ages differ in their ability to reject associative false memories with the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two different types of manipulations that are thought to facilitate false memory rejection in adults—slowing the presentation rate and issuing explicit warnings—were analyzed in younger and older children. The results showed that older children were

Paula Carneiro; Angel Fernandez

2010-01-01

177

Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment  

SciTech Connect

More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-08-01

178

Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

2006-01-01

179

Consumer involvement: effects on information processing from over-the-counter medication labels.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumer involvement on information processing from over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels. A sample of 256 students evaluated simulated OTC product labels for two product categories (headache and cold) in random order. Each participant evaluated labels after reading a scenario to simulate high and low involvement respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect data on variables such as label comprehension, attitude-towards-product label, product evaluation, and purchase intention. The results indicate that when consumers are involved in their purchase of OTC medications they are significantly more likely to understand information from the label and evaluate it accordingly. However, involvement does not affect attitude-towards-product label nor does it enhance purchase intention. PMID:11727293

Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S; Sansgiry, S

2001-01-01

180

'Retouch free': The effect of labelling media images as not digitally altered on women's body dissatisfaction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effect of 'retouch free' labels on thin ideal fashion images on women's body dissatisfaction. This represents an experimental analogue to current practice by some fashion magazines. Participants were 224 female undergraduates who viewed a set of fashion shoots with either no label, or a label indicating that the image had not been digitally altered. Results indicated that, although body dissatisfaction increased after exposure to the thin ideal images, there was no significant effect of label type on mood or body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that labelling images as digitally unaltered appears neither helpful nor harmful in terms of body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of labels. PMID:24094477

Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Smyth, Veronica

2014-01-01

181

Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?  

PubMed

The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. PMID:23701641

Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

2014-02-01

182

The Effects of Urban Consumer Perceptions on Attitudes for Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of consumer perceptions on attitudes toward the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s current labeling policy for GM foods are examined. Results show that as beliefs regarding potential adverse effects of GM crops on wildlife and the environment increase, consumers are less likely to support the FDA's current labeling policy. The perceived safety of GM foods was

R. Wes Harrison; Jae-Hwan Han

2005-01-01

183

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-print Network

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT 23 January 2010 Posted 23 January 2010 This communication is prepared community. Such reports shall be provided to students and employees in a manner that is timely and that may a report of a sexual assault that reportedly took place during the early evening of Friday, 22 January 2010

Hardy, Christopher R.

184

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-print Network

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT 6 APRIL 2008 This communication is prepared as part of the Timely be provided to students and employees in a manner that is timely and that may aid in the prevention of similar teens or early twenties. The two black males were dressed completely in dark clothing, while the white

Hardy, Christopher R.

185

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-print Network

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT Attempted Strong-Arm Robbery 12/02/11 This communication is prepared community. Such reports shall be provided to students and employees in a manner that is timely and that may was approached by a tall, approximately 6'5" B/M/late teens-early 20's wearing a gray hooded sweatshirt and nylon

Hardy, Christopher R.

186

STORM SURGE WARNING SERVICE  

E-print Network

services In case of Storm surge and High Water on the Rivers Rhine or Meuse for the sector Dordrecht: · Storm surge has worse consequences for the water levels in the sector Dordrecht than High Water1 STORM SURGE WARNING SERVICE SVSD by Jan Kroos Rijkswaterstaat / RIKZ #12;2 Overview

Stoffelen, Ad

187

Modeling warning times for the Israel's earthquake early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2012, the Israeli government approved the offer of the creation of an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) that would provide timely alarms for schools and colleges in Israel. A network configuration was chosen, consisting of a staggered line of ˜100 stations along the main regional faults: the Dead Sea fault and the Carmel fault, and an additional ˜40 stations spread more or less evenly over the country. A hybrid approach to the EEWS alarm was suggested, where a P-wave-based system will be combined with the S-threshold method. The former utilizes first arrivals to several stations closest to the event for prompt location and determination of the earthquake's magnitude from the first 3 s of the waveform data. The latter issues alarms, when the acceleration of the surface movement exceeds a threshold for at least two neighboring stations. The threshold will be chosen to be a peak acceleration level corresponding to a magnitude 5 earthquake at a short distance range (5-10 km). The warning times or lead times, i.e., times between the alarm signal arrival and arrival of the damaging S-waves, are considered for the P, S, and hybrid EEWS methods. For each of the approaches, the P- and the S-wave travel times and the alarm times were calculated using a standard 1D velocity model and some assumptions regarding the EEWS data latencies. Then, a definition of alarm effectiveness was introduced as a measure of the trade-off between the warning time and the shaking intensity. A number of strong earthquake scenarios, together with anticipated shaking intensities at important targets, namely cities with high populations, are considered. The scenarios demonstrated in probabilistic terms how the alarm effectiveness varies depending on the target distance from the epicenter and event magnitude.

Pinsky, Vladimir

2014-09-01

188

Perceptions of tobacco health warnings in China compared with picture and text-only health warnings from other countries: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the perceived effectiveness of cigarette health warnings in China, compared with picture and text-only warnings from other countries.Method1169 individuals (adult smokers, adult nonsmokers and youth) from four Chinese cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Kunming and Yinchuan) viewed 10 health warnings on cigarette packages, which included (a) the current Chinese text warnings covering 30% of the front\\/back of the pack (introduced

Geoffrey T Fong; David Hammond; Yuan Jiang; Qiang Li; Anne C K Quah; Pete Driezen; Mi Yan

2010-01-01

189

The Effect of Store Image on Consumers' Perceptions of Designer and Private Label Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of brand labeling and store image on perceptions of clothing characteristics were investigated using a 3X3 completefactorial between-subjects experimental design. Ninety women individually examined and rated a knit shirt on status, utility, styling, and purchase evaluation characteristics. The shirt had either a designer, private, or no label attached to it and was associated with either a high image

Dawna F. Baugh; Leslie L. Davis

1989-01-01

190

The Effects of Labeling and Social Desirability on Perceived Success of a Learning Disabled Student  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the effects of specific learning disability labels and participant social desirability scores on peer judgments of a target person's social and academic success. Participants were given a description of a fictitious high school student who was labeled as either dyslexic, ADHD, or needing glasses. Participants then made judgments of the student's social and academic success and completed

Faith G. Hunt

2006-01-01

191

A hypothesis-confirming bias in labeling effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the process leading to the confirmation of a perceiver's expectancies about another when the social label that created the expectancy provides poor or tentative evidence about another's true dispositions or capabilities. Ss were 67 undergraduates. One group was led to believe that a child came from a high SES background; the other group, that the child came from a

John M. Darley; Paget H. Gross

1983-01-01

192

Monitoring and early warning for internet worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Code Red incident in 2001 and the SQL Slammer in January 2003, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet, infects most vulnerable computers before people can take effective countermeasures. The fast spreading nature of worms calls for a worm monitoring and early warning system. In this paper, we propose effective algorithms

Cliff Changchun Zou; Lixin Gao; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

2003-01-01

193

DEFINITION OF WARNING CRITERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to promote the use of sea-sate related parameters and in particular to introduce new warning criteria for rogues waves and dangerous sea-states within GMDSS, WP8 main tasks consisted in to propose updates of WMO regulations and to interact with some end users to define specific products with the aid of physical, statistical and deterministic wave models. To find

Henri Savina; Jean-Michel Lefevre; Patrick Josse

194

21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01...2013-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements...63 Section 801.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING...

2013-04-01

195

21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01...2012-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements...63 Section 801.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING...

2012-04-01

196

21 CFR 801.63 - Medical devices; warning statements for devices containing or manufactured with...  

21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01...2014-04-01 false Medical devices; warning statements...63 Section 801.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING...

2014-04-01

197

Cost-effective method for the preparation of uniformly labeled myristoylated proteins for NMR measurements.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique for solving protein structures or studying their interactions. However, it requires molecules labeled with NMR sensitive isotopes like carbon (13)C and nitrogen (15)N. The recombinant expression of labeled proteins is simple to perform but requires quite expensive chemicals. When there is a need for special labeled chemicals, like uniformly (13)C-labeled myristic acid, the price significantly rises. Here we describe a cost-effective method for the recombinant expression of uniformly labeled myristoylated proteins in Escherichia coli demonstrated on the production of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus matrix protein. We used the ability of E. coli to naturally synthetize myristic acid. When grown in isotopically labeled medium the myristic acid will be labelled as well. Bacteria were co-transfected with plasmid carrying gene for yeast N-myristoyltransferase which ensures myristoylation of expressed protein. This process provided 1.8mg of the myristoylated, doubly labeled ((13)C/(15)N)M-PMV matrix protein from 1L of (15)N/(13)C labeled M9 medium. The price represents approximately 50% cost reduction of conventional method using commercially available [U-(13)C]myristic acid. PMID:24662511

Kroupa, Tomáš; Prchal, Jan; Doležal, Michal; Ruml, Tomáš; Hrabal, Richard

2014-07-01

198

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind - it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal) of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010). While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system) which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG - the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia - which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC) and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG) to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010).

Steinmetz, T.; Raape, U.; Teßmann, S.; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; Kukofka, T.; Riedlinger, T.; Mikusch, E.; Dech, S.

2010-09-01

199

Methods for nanoparticle labeling of ricin and effect on toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique optical properties associated with nanostructured materials that support the excitation of surface plasmons offer many new opportunities for the enhanced optical investigation of biological materials that pose a security threat. In particular, ricin is considered a significant bioterrorism risk due to its high toxicity combined with its ready availability as a byproduct in castor oil production. Therefore, the development of optical techniques capable of rapid on-site toxin detection with high molecular specificity and sensitivity continues to be of significant importance. Furthermore, understanding of the ricin cell entry and intracellular pathways remains poor due to a lack of suitable bioanalytical techniques. Initial work aimed at simultaneously tackling both these issues is described where different approaches for the nanoparticle labeling of ricin are investigated along with changes in ricin toxicity associated with the labeling process.

Wark, Alastair W.; Yu, Jun; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Nativo, Paola; Graham, Duncan

2009-09-01

200

Evaluating Warning Sound Urgency with Reaction Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well-established that subjective judgments of perceived urgency of alarm sounds can be affected by acoustic parameters. In this study, the authors investigated an objective measurement, the reaction time (RT), to test the effectiveness of temporal parameters of sounds in the context of warning sounds. Three experiments were performed using a…

Suied, Clara; Susini, Patrick; McAdams, Stephen

2008-01-01

201

Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Methods Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only warnings were assessed, while at Wave 2 new large graphic warnings were assessed. In Malaysia, during both waves small text only warnings were in effect. Reactions were used to predict interest in quitting, and to predict making quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Results Multivariate predictors of “interest in quitting” were comparable across countries, but predictors of quit attempts varied. In both countries, cognitive reactions to warnings (adjusted ORs; 1.57 & 1.69 for Malaysia at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively and 1.29 & 1.19 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), forgoing a cigarette (except Wave 2 in Malaysia) (adjusted ORs; 1.77 for Malaysia at wave 1 and 1.54 & 2.32 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), and baseline knowledge (except wave 2 in both countries) (adjusted ORs; 1.71 & 1.51 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively) were positively associated with interest in quitting at that wave. In Thailand only, “cognitive reactions to warnings” (adjusted ORs; 1.12 & 1.23 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), “forgoing a cigarette” (adjusted OR?=?1.55 at wave 2 only) and “an interest in quitting” (adjusted ORs; 1.61 & 2.85 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively) were positively associated with quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Salience was negatively associated with subsequent quit attempts in both Malaysia and Thailand, but at Wave 2 only (adjusted ORs; 0.89 & 0.88 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively). Conclusion Warnings appear to have common mechanisms for influencing quitting regardless of warning strength. The larger and more informative Thai warnings were associated with higher levels of reactions predictive of quitting and stronger associations with subsequent quitting, demonstrating their greater potency. PMID:24330614

2013-01-01

202

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2010-04-01

203

Effects of front-of-package and shelf nutrition labeling systems on consumers.  

PubMed

As standards are considered for nutrition front-of-package (FOP) and shelf-labeling systems in the United States, it is important to know what types of systems are most effective in conveying scientifically accurate and useful information to consumers. A systematic literature review identified 38 empirical studies on consumer response to FOP nutrition labeling and shelf labeling. Studies indicate that consumers can more easily interpret and select healthier products with nutrient-specific FOP nutrition labels that incorporate text and symbolic color to indicate nutrient levels rather than nutrient-specific labels that only emphasize numeric information, such as Guideline Daily Amounts expressed as percentages and/or grams. Summary systems may influence consumers to purchase healthier products. However, more research is needed to assess the influence of nutrient-specific labels on consumers' purchases. This review identified few studies that compared consumers' ability to select healthier products using nutrient-specific systems that incorporate text and color codes with multiple-level summary icons. More research is needed to determine the effects of FOP nutrition labeling on consumers' actual shopping behaviors and dietary intakes. PMID:23282247

Hersey, James C; Wohlgenant, Kelly C; Arsenault, Joanne E; Kosa, Katherine M; Muth, Mary K

2013-01-01

204

Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature  

PubMed Central

Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator–prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, ‘what makes an effective warning signal?’, and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation. PMID:22113031

Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D.

2012-01-01

205

Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature.  

PubMed

Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator-prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, 'what makes an effective warning signal?', and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation. PMID:22113031

Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

2012-02-01

206

Comparison of two warning concepts of an intelligent Curve Warning system for motorcyclists in a simulator study.  

PubMed

Curve crashes are a particular matter of concern regarding motorcycle riding safety. For this reason, an intelligent Curve Warning system has been designed that gives the riders support when negotiating a curve. The system has been tested in a simulator study carried out with 20 test riders. The subjects performed three rides: one without the system (baseline) and two experimental rides using a version of the Curve Warning system, one providing the warnings by a force feedback throttle and one by a haptic glove. The effects of the two system versions were evaluated both in terms of the simulated riding performance and the subjective assessment by the riders. A descriptive analysis of the riders' reactions to the warnings shows that the warnings provided by both system versions provoke an earlier and stronger adaptation of the motorcycle dynamics to the curve than when the riders do not use the system. Riding with the Curve Warning system with the haptic glove furthermore leads to a reduction of critical curve events. The riders' subjective workload level was not affected by the system use, whereas the Curve Warning system with the force feedback throttle required an increased attention. The comparison of the riders' opinions about the system reveals a preference of the Curve Warning system with the haptic glove. The better acceptance of this system version suggests a higher potential in the enhancement of riding safety. PMID:22062345

Huth, Véronique; Biral, Francesco; Martín, Oscar; Lot, Roberto

2012-01-01

207

Heavy water labeling method for measuring the effect of genistein on mammary gland carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy water labeling method was applied to measure the effect of genistein on mammary gland carcinogenesis by incoporating\\u000a 2H from 2H2O into the deoxyribose (dR) moiety of purine deoxyribonucleotides in dividing cells. In the present study, we followed the\\u000a study design of Lamartiniere group to evaluate the efficacy of 2H2O labeling on the measurement of mammary gland carconogenesis. Female Sprague–Dawley

Hyeon-A Kim; Kyu-Shik Jeong; Dae-Hun Park; Jeong-Ae Lee; Won-Il Jeong; Yoo Kyeong Kim

2007-01-01

208

Radio disturbance warning issuance system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radio disturbance warning issuance system was introduced in the Hiraiso Branch of the Radio Research Laboratories in 1972 to reconstruct the current radio disturbance warning service as a social information service. A description of the new ideas which were experimentally systematized by means of an electronic computer is presented.

Maeda, R.; Inuki, H.

1979-01-01

209

Warning Signs of Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Jul 18,2014 By themselves, any one sign of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But ... content was last reviewed on 08/20/2012." Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Warning Signs of Heart ...

210

Kinetic isotope effects significantly influence intracellular metabolite 13C labeling patterns and flux determination  

PubMed Central

Rigorous mathematical modeling of carbon-labeling experiments allows estimation of fluxes through the pathways of central carbon metabolism, yielding powerful information for basic scientific studies as well as for a wide range of applications. However, the mathematical models that have been developed for flux determination from 13C labeling data have commonly neglected the influence of kinetic isotope effects on the distribution of 13C label in intracellular metabolites, as these effects have often been assumed to be inconsequential. We have used measurements of the 13C isotope effects on the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme from the literature to model isotopic fractionation at the pyruvate node and quantify the modeling errors expected to result from the assumption that isotope effects are negligible. We show that under some conditions kinetic isotope effects have a significant impact on the 13C labeling patterns of intracellular metabolites, and the errors associated with neglecting isotope effects in 13C-metabolic flux analysis models can be comparable in size to measurement errors associated with GC–MS. Thus, kinetic isotope effects must be considered in any rigorous assessment of errors in 13C labeling data, goodness-of-fit between model and data, confidence intervals of estimated metabolic fluxes, and statistical significance of differences between estimated metabolic flux distributions. PMID:23828762

Wasylenko, Thomas M.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

2014-01-01

211

Effect of labeling on new vegetable dish acceptance in preadolescent children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a food-labeling strategy to introduce new versions of foods to children's diets, in natural lunch settings (school canteens). The proposed food involved two different types of vegetables: carrots (very familiar) and broccoli (less familiar), both being prepared and presented for choice in a 'familiar' (known) versus a 'new' (unknown) version. We assessed whether adding a label (either basic or model-related) to new versions of vegetable dishes would increase the likelihood that 8- to 11-year-old children would select the new dishes rather than the familiar versions. In the first condition (no label/control condition), both the familiar and the new versions of the vegetable dishes were presented with absence of any information. In the second condition (basic label condition), the new dish was presented accompanied by a basic label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe". In the third condition (model-related label condition), the new version of the dish was presented with a model-related label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe, Special Mix for Super Heroes". Results showed that children chose significantly more often the familiar version of the dish when no information was given (control condition). The addition of a descriptive label (whether basic or model-related) led to an increased frequency of choice for the new vegetable dish for carrots only, and not for broccoli. This study suggests that adding a label with the vegetable's name can be used to increase children's willingness to select a new version of a vegetable dish instead of a familiar one, at least when the vegetable is familiar to the children (i.e. carrots). PMID:22664298

Morizet, David; Depezay, Laurence; Combris, Pierre; Picard, Delphine; Giboreau, Agnès

2012-10-01

212

Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug’s efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File – Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug interaction claims linked to the Drug Interactions section for a drug were potentially novel. The baseline performance characteristics of the proof-of-concept will enable further technical and user-centered research on robust methods for scaling the approach to the many thousands of product labels currently on the market. PMID:23351881

2013-01-01

213

Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness.  

PubMed

Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug's efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File - Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug interaction claims linked to the Drug Interactions section for a drug were potentially novel. The baseline performance characteristics of the proof-of-concept will enable further technical and user-centered research on robust methods for scaling the approach to the many thousands of product labels currently on the market. PMID:23351881

Boyce, Richard D; Horn, John R; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Waard, Anita de; Schneider, Jodi; Luciano, Joanne S; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Liakata, Maria

2013-01-01

214

GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

2013-04-01

215

Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

2006-01-01

216

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Tully River

Greenslade, Diana

217

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding

Greenslade, Diana

218

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Looking

Greenslade, Diana

219

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Ross

Greenslade, Diana

220

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Pine

Greenslade, Diana

221

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bremer

Greenslade, Diana

222

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Eyre

Greenslade, Diana

223

Driver Reaction Time to Tactile and Auditory Rear-End Collision Warnings While Talking on a Cell Phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of rear-end collision warnings presented in different sensory modalities while drivers were engaged in cell phone conversations in a driving simulator. Background: Tactile and auditory collision warnings have been shown to improve braking response time (RT) in rear-end collision situations. However, it is not clear how effective these warnings are when the driver is

Rayka Mohebbi; Rob Gray; Hong Z. Tan

2009-01-01

224

LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean floor events, and ground displacements. Based on the upstream information flow DEWS focuses on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Multiple telecommunication channels will be used for the dissemination of warning messages. Wherever possible, existing standards have been integrated. The Command and Control User Interface (CCUI), a rich client application based on Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform) [4] and the open source GIS uDig [5], integrates various OGC services. Using WMS (Web Map Service) [6] and WFS (Web Feature Service) [7] spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture and to integrate a simulation system via WPS (Web Processing Service) [8] to identify affected areas. Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS [9] CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) [10] standard together with addressing information defined via EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element) [11]. Internal interfaces are realized with SOAP [12] web services. Based on results of GITEWS [13] - in particular the GITEWS Tsunami Service Bus [14] - the DEWS approach provides an implementation for tsunami early warning systems. The introductory part of the demonstration briefly explains the DEWS project, the CCUI in conjunction with operators’ workflow, the system architecture, details of information logistics and the virtual scenario of live demonstration. The live demonstration exhibits the CCUI on screen and the service environment of DEWS working in the background. The demonstration runs through a virtual Tsunami threat located in the Andaman Sea in front of Thailand; Beginning with the detection of an earthquake of critical magnitude and the calculation of early Tsunami predictions; Continuing with sea level measurements and the refinement of Tsunami predictions; Finally reaching the dissemination of warning messages via SMS, mail and other channels. REFERENCES [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the reconstruction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Wächter, J.

2009-12-01

225

The Effects of Echolalia on Acquisition and Generalization of Receptive Labeling in Autistic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments, with about five autistic children (two to 14 years old) in each experiment, assessed the effects of autistic immediate echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling tasks. These results indicated that echolalia faciliated generalization for echolalic autistic children but not for functionally mute autistic…

Charlop, Marjorie H.

1983-01-01

226

Effects of Labeling on Preschoolers' Explicit False Belief Performance: Outcomes of Cognitive Flexibility or Inhibitory Control?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and…

Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

2012-01-01

227

Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…

Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

2013-01-01

228

The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

Kulkofsky, Sarah

2010-01-01

229

Effects of different discount levels on healthy products coupled with a healthy choice label, special offer label or both: results from a web-based supermarket experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Two strategies commonly recommended to improve population diets include food labels and food taxes/subsidies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both strategies separately and in combination. Findings An experiment with a 3x3 factorial design was conducted, including: three levels of price reduction (10%; 25%; and 50%) x three labels (‘special offer’, ‘healthy choice’ and ‘special offer & healthy choice’) on healthy foods defined following the Choices front-of-pack nutrition label. N?=?109 participants completed the experiment by conducting a typical weekly shop for their household at a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance. Participants receiving a 50% price discount purchased significantly more healthy foods for their household in a typical weekly shop than the 10% discount (+8.7 items; 95%CI?=?3.8-13.6) and the 25% discount group (+7.7 items; 95%CI?=?2.74 – 12.6). However, the proportion of healthy foods was not significantly higher and the discounts lead to an increased amount of energy purchased. No significant effects of the labels were found. Conclusion This study brings some relevant insights into the effects of price discounts on healthier foods coupled with different labels and shows that price effects over shadowed food labels. However, price discounts seem to have ambiguous effects; they do encourage the purchase of healthy products, but also lead to increased energy purchases. More research is needed to examine how pricing strategies can work in directing consumers towards interchanging unhealthier options for healthier alternatives. PMID:23680347

2013-01-01

230

[Effects of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling monoclonal antibody].  

PubMed

Objective To investigate the influence of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling monoclonal antibody (mAb). Methods The pH value of colloidal gold was adjusted by K2CO3 solution. Then colloidal gold with a range of pH 5.0-9.0 labeled enterovirus 71 (EV71)-VP1 mAb respectively, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added to block the unreacted sites on the gold colloids for further experiments. The changes in the properties of colloidal gold in the progress of colloidal gold labeling mAb were monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Finally, Mey's test was adopted to identify the stability of immunogold, and the sensitivity of the strip was evaluated by detecting gradual dilution of serum. Results EV71-VP1 mAb could be conjugated with colloidal gold at pH7.0-8.5, and at this optimal pH, the test strip presented a good sensitivity. Conclusion pH is an important factor to ensure the stability of immunogold and to determine the conjugation effect between colloidal gold and mAb. The study confirmed that UV/Vis spectroscopy can evaluate the influence of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling mAb and set up an optimal pH for colloidal gold labeling using UV/Vis spectroscopy. PMID:25374082

Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yunlong; Li, Yulin; Wang, Jichuang; Cheng, Lei; Deng, Lili

2014-11-01

231

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

232

What is the Clinically Relevant Relative Biologic Effectiveness? A Warning for Fractionated Treatments With High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the clinically relevant relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of fractionated treatments with high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and to identify the important factors that might influence the transfer of tolerance and curative levels from low LET radiation. These are important questions in the light of the growing interest for the therapeutic use of radiation with higher LET than electrons or photons. Methods and Materials: The RBE of various fractionated schedules was analyzed with theoretical models for radiation effect, and the resulting predictions were compared with the published clinical and experimental data regarding fractionated irradiation with high LET radiation. Results: The clinically relevant RBE increased for greater doses per fraction, in contrast to the predictions from single-dose experiments. Furthermore, the RBE for late-reacting tissues appeared to modify more quickly than that for early-reacting tissues. These aspects have quite important clinical implications, because the increased biologic effectiveness reported for this type of radiation would otherwise support the use of hypofractionation. Thus, the differential between acute and late-reacting tissues could put the late-reacting normal tissues at more risk from high LET irradiation; however, at the same time, it could increase the therapeutic window for slow-growing tumors. Conclusions: The modification of the RBE with the dose per fraction must be carefully taken into consideration when devising fractionated treatments with high LET radiation. Neglecting to do so might result in an avalanche of complications that could obscure the potential advantages of the therapeutic use of this type of radiation.

Dasu, Alexandru [Department of Radiation Physics, Norrland University Hospital, Umea (Sweden)], E-mail: alexandru.dasu@radfys.umu.se; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

2008-03-01

233

Front-of-pack nutrition labels. Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints.  

PubMed

Although front-of-pack nutrition labeling can help consumers make healthier food choices, lack of attention to these labels limits their effectiveness. This study examines consumer attention to and use of three different nutrition labeling schemes (logo, multiple traffic-light label, and nutrition table) when they face different goals and resource constraints. To understand attention and processing of labels, various measures are used including self-reported use, recognition, and eye-tracking measures. Results of two experiments in different countries show that although consumers evaluate the nutrition table most positively, it receives little attention and does not stimulate healthy choices. Traffic-light labels and especially logos enhance healthy product choice, even when consumers are put under time pressure. Additionally, health goals of consumers increase attention to and use of nutrition labels, especially when these health goals concern specific nutrients. PMID:21554909

van Herpen, Erica; Trijp, Hans C M van

2011-08-01

234

Effect of ADP on the orientation of spin-labeled myosin heads in muscle fibers: A high-resolution study with deuterated spin labels  

SciTech Connect

We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the effects of ADP on the orientational distribution of nitroxide spin labels attached to myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. To maximize the specificity of labeling, we spin-labeled isolated myosin heads (subfragment 1) on a single reactive thiol (SH1) and diffused them into unlabeled muscle fibers. To maximize spectral and orientational resolution, we used perdeuterated spin labels, 2H-MSL and 2H-IASL, eliminating superhyperfine broadening and thus narrowing the line widths. Two different spin labels were used, with different orientation relative to the myosin head, to ensure that the results are not affected by unfavorable probe orientation. In rigor, a very narrow three-line spectrum was observed for both spin labels, indicating a narrow orientational distribution, as reported previously. ADP induced very slight changes in the spectrum, corresponding to very slight (but significant) changes in the orientational distribution. These changes were quantified by a digital analysis of the spectra, using a two-step simplex fitting procedure. First, the magnetic tensor values and line widths were determined by fitting the spectrum of a randomly oriented sample. Then the spectrum of oriented fibers was fit to a model by assuming a Gaussian distribution of the tilt angle (theta) and twist angle (phi) of the nitroxide principal axes relative to the fiber axis. A single-Gaussian distribution resulted in inadequate fits, but a two-component model gave excellent results. ADP induces a small (less than 5 degrees) rotation of the major components for both spin labels, along with a similarly small increase of disorder about the average positions.

Fajer, P.G.; Fajer, E.A.; Matta, J.J.; Thomas, D.D. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (USA))

1990-06-19

235

If we label it, will they care? The effect of GM-ingredient labelling on consumer responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 60% of foods in North American supermarkets contain GM ingredients. While North American consumers seem less concerned about GM foods than Europeans and Japanese, many consumer activists argue that consumers have a “right to know” if what they eat has GM ingredients. Will informative labelling of GM foods lead to major shifts in buying patterns? An experimental study

Louise A. Heslop

2006-01-01

236

Tsunami Early Warning: Introducing single frequency GPS receiver into the Tsunami Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M. Ramatschi (1), C. Falck (1), M. Bartsch (1), A. Merx (1), J. Hoeberechts (1), G. Schmidt (1) Abstract After the disastrous tsunami event in Sumatra in 2004 the German government initiated the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) which was inaugurated in 2008 and is now known as the Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia (INA-TEWS). Within GITEWS, some new technologies were introduced into the Tsunami early warning, such as geodetic dual frequency GNSS receiver, which are installed on open sea buoys, coastal tide gauges and inland reference stations. This technology is able to support tsunami early warning systems, e.g., by detection of ground motions due to earthquakes. The major drawback of this sensor type is its high expense. Under certain circumstances cost effective single frequency receiver could achieve the same quality, as long as the network topology allows a precise data processing. In our presentation we will review the GNSS part of GITEWS to demonstrate the integration of the newly designed, low power single frequency GPS sensor station with respect to the real-time data flow and the precise near real-time data processing. Technical aspects of data transmission will be addressed as well. Benefits of a small GPS sensor array located next to the Sumatra trench will be discussed in detail. (1) GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 17, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany

Ramatschi, M.; Falck, C.

2009-12-01

237

Epidural steroid warning controversy still dogging FDA.  

PubMed

On April 23, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a letter of warning that injection of corticosteroids into the epidural space of the spine may result in rare, but serious adverse events, including "loss of vision, stroke, paralysis, and death." The advisory also advocated that patients should discuss the benefits and risks of epidural corticosteroid injections with their health care professionals, along with the benefits and risks associated with other possible treatments. In addition, the FDA stated that the effectiveness and safety of the corticosteroids for epidural use have not been established, and the FDA has not approved corticosteroids for such use. To raise awareness of the risks of epidural corticosteroid injections in the medical community, the FDA's Safe Use Initiative convened a panel of experts including pain management experts to help define the techniques for such injections with the aim of reducing preventable harm. The panel was unable to reach an agreement on 20 proposed items related to technical aspects of performing epidural injections. Subsequently, the FDA issued the above referenced warning and a notice that a panel will be convened in November 2014. This review assesses the inaccuracies of the warning and critically analyzes the available literature. The literature has been assessed in reference to alternate techniques and an understanding of the risk factors when performing transforaminal epidural injections in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions, ultimately resulting in improved safety. The results of this review show the efficacy of epidural injections, with or without steroids, in a multitude of spinal ailments utilizing caudal, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar interlaminar approaches as well as lumbar transforaminal epidural injections . The evidence also shows the superiority of steroids in managing lumbar disc herniation utilizing caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches without any significant difference as compared to transforaminal approaches, either with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids combined. In conclusion, the authors request that the FDA modify the warning based on the evidence. PMID:25054397

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Singh, Vijay; Gharibo, Christopher G; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Grider, Jay S; Diwan, Sudhir; Hirsch, Joshua A

2014-01-01

238

Distribution of C in Pulse-Labelled Spring Barley. Effect of Light Intensity and Length of Photoperiod Before Labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of photoassimilated C in spring barley plants was determined at different times after the onset of light and at different light intensities during assimilation. The plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse, and at late tillering and late elongation, CO2 pulse-labellings of 2 h duration were carried out 1.5, 4 or 8.5 h after the onset of

Bendt Jensen

1994-01-01

239

16 CFR 1500.82 - Exemption from full labeling and other requirements.  

...household or by children should...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...

2014-01-01

240

16 CFR 1500.82 - Exemption from full labeling and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...household or by children should...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...

2010-01-01

241

16 CFR 1500.82 - Exemption from full labeling and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...household or by children should...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...

2011-01-01

242

16 CFR 1500.82 - Exemption from full labeling and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...household or by children should...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...

2012-01-01

243

16 CFR 1500.82 - Exemption from full labeling and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...household or by children should...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...bears labeling giving adequate directions and warnings for safe use...for use by children who have...

2013-01-01

244

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (P <0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

1982-02-01

245

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

1982-02-01

246

21 CFR 332.30 - Labeling of antiflatulent drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accidental overdose warning. The labeling for antiflatulent drug products containing simethicone identified in § 332.10 and antacid/antiflatulent combination drug products provided for in § 332.15, containing the active ingredients identified...

2013-04-01

247

21 CFR 332.30 - Labeling of antiflatulent drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accidental overdose warning. The labeling for antiflatulent drug products containing simethicone identified in § 332.10 and antacid/antiflatulent combination drug products provided for in § 332.15, containing the active ingredients identified...

2010-04-01

248

21 CFR 332.30 - Labeling of antiflatulent drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accidental overdose warning. The labeling for antiflatulent drug products containing simethicone identified in § 332.10 and antacid/antiflatulent combination drug products provided for in § 332.15, containing the active ingredients identified...

2011-04-01

249

21 CFR 332.30 - Labeling of antiflatulent drug products.  

...accidental overdose warning. The labeling for antiflatulent drug products containing simethicone identified in § 332.10 and antacid/antiflatulent combination drug products provided for in § 332.15, containing the active ingredients identified...

2014-04-01

250

21 CFR 332.30 - Labeling of antiflatulent drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accidental overdose warning. The labeling for antiflatulent drug products containing simethicone identified in § 332.10 and antacid/antiflatulent combination drug products provided for in § 332.15, containing the active ingredients identified...

2012-04-01

251

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

...shall be obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...shall be obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...shall be obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required...

2014-04-01

252

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall be obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...shall be obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...shall be obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required...

2012-04-01

253

47 CFR 3.71 - Warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.71 Warnings. The Commission may issue written warnings or forfeitures to...

2010-10-01

254

47 CFR 3.71 - Warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.71 Warnings. The Commission may issue written warnings or forfeitures to...

2012-10-01

255

47 CFR 3.71 - Warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.71 Warnings. The Commission may issue written warnings or forfeitures to...

2011-10-01

256

47 CFR 3.71 - Warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.71 Warnings. The Commission may issue written warnings or forfeitures to...

2013-10-01

257

16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986...Required warnings. The Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of...advertisement is an outdoor billboard) of a smokeless tobacco product. The warning...

2010-01-01

258

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required...

2013-04-01

259

Polar Warnings A Lifelike Machine  

E-print Network

1663 Polar Warnings A Lifelike Machine W88 Pit Certification The Business of Radioisotopes LOS of supercomputing. In addition to those signature Los Alamos facilities, materials science and actinide chemistry laboratories, gas guns, and firing sites are making vital contributions to Stockpile Stewardship. Manufacturing

260

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burrum and Cherwell Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

261

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MULGRAVE AND RUSSELL RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MULGRAVE AND RUSSELL RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mulgrave and Russell Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

262

Earthquake Early Warning: Tools for System Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful earthquake early warning requires a fast, reliable network of seismic stations and a fast, accurate analysis algorithm to produce useful warnings in a timely manner. Developers and operators of earthquake early warning systems must constantly assess the health of their network and the performance of their algorithms. Hardware and telemetry of the seismic network are evaluated based on station

I. Lim; R. M. Allen; H. Brown; M. Hellweg; D. S. Neuhauser; O. Khainovsky

2010-01-01

263

GITEWS -- The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is the implementation of an effective Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean. It is a component part of an Early Warning System that will also be capable of registering other natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The system integrates terrestrial observation networks of seismology und geodesy with marine measurements techniques and satellite observations. The required R & D work will be realized within the framework of a stage-plan, which will, within a short time span of 1-3 years, be able to provide effective warning on the one hand and, which will also allow for an integration of technological developments, currently undergoing further research. The initiative is coordinated by the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (HGF), represented by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ). In view of the geological situation one has to bear in mind that Indonesia especially, due to the fact that the main islands are located next to and above the Sunda seismogenic zone, could most frequently and most intensively in the future be prone to catastrophic Tsunami events. The envisaged Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean consists of different components as broadband seismometers, GPS, tide gauges, ocean-bottom pressure sensors and GPS-Buoys. On the basis of the data and recordings registered a warning can be generated. This presentation gives insight into the creation of the 26 December 2004 Tsunami, introduces the planned technical realization of the Early Warning System, shows first model scenarios and gives an overview of the planned realization of an Early Warning System in the Indian Ocean. http://www.gfz-potsdam.de

Lauterjung, J.; Rudloff, A.

2005-12-01

264

Effect of histocompatibility factors on pulmonary retention of indium-111-labeled granulocytes  

SciTech Connect

Granulocyte transfusions are associated with a number of side effects including febrile transfusion reactions and occasionally pulmonary infiltrates. There is evidence that the presence of preformed antibodies may be a cause of these complications. In this study, allogeneic 111Indium-labeled granulocytes were used to evaluate the pulmonary retention of radioactivity in alloimmunized and non-alloimmunized patients in an attempt to assess antibody effect on granulocyte migration. After injection of labeled allogeneic granulocytes into neutropenic patients, the ratios of lung to heart activity were calculated for the first 30 min of scanning. There was significantly greater retention of radioactivity from cells in the lungs of patients who were alloimmunized, having both lymphocytotoxic (anti-HLA) and leuko-agglutinating antibodies, compared to the activity in the lungs of non-alloimmunized patients (P less than .001) or of patients receiving autologous granulocytes (P less than .001). This study demonstrates that labeled, mismatched granulocytes may be retained in the lungs for a significantly longer time in patients with preformed antibodies. This implies that transfusion of large numbers of such mismatched granulocytes, i.e., granulocyte transfusions, may also be retained in the lungs of alloimmunized patients, which could lead to pulmonary compromise. Therefore, granulocyte transfusions from random donors should not be given to alloimmunized patients.

Dutcher, J.P.; Riggs, C. Jr.; Fox, J.J.; Johnston, G.S.; Norris, D.; Wiernik, P.H.; Schiffer, C.A. (Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (USA))

1990-04-01

265

Two-step OFFGEL approach for effective peptide separation compatible with iTRAQ labeling.  

PubMed

Shotgun proteomic analyses are increasingly becoming methods of choice for complex samples. The development of effective methods for fractionating peptides to reduce the complexity of the sample before mass analysis is a key point in this strategy. The OFFGEL technology has recently become a tool of choice in proteomic analysis at peptide level. This OFFGEL electrophoresis (OGE) approach allows the in-solution separation of peptides from various biological sources by isoelectric focusing in highly resolved 24 fractions. It was also demonstrated that OGE technology is a filtering tool for pI-based validation of peptide identification. As peptide OGE is compatible with iTRAQ labeling, OGE is finding valuable applications in quantitative proteomics as well. The aim of this study is to explain a new 2D-OGE approach that improves the proteomic coverage of complex mixtures such as colorectal cell line lysates, and which is compatible with iTRAQ labeling. PMID:24115339

Rideau, Alexis; Besson, Damien; Boissard, Alice; Coqueret, Olivier; Guette, Catherine

2013-11-01

266

On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning context has been worked out. The generated results contribute significantly in the fields of (1) warning decision and warning levels, (2) warning dissemination and warning message content, (3) early warning chain planning, (4) increasing response capabilities and protective systems, (5) emergency relief and (6) enhancing communities' awareness and preparedness towards tsunami threats. Additionally examples will be given on the potentials of an operational use of risk information in early warning systems as first experiences exist for the tsunami early warning center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Beside this the importance of linking national level early warning information with tsunami risk information available at the local level (e.g. linking warning message information on expected intensity with respective tsunami hazard zone maps at community level for effective evacuation) will be demonstrated through experiences gained in three pilot areas in Indonesia. The presentation seeks to provide new insights on benefits using risk information in early warning and will provide further evidence that practical use of risk information is an important and indispensable component of end-to-end early warning.

Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

2010-05-01

267

NWS HotSeat: Weather Warning Decision Simulator (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online simulations, published by the National Weather Service (NWS), place students in the role of weather forecasters who must decide whether and to whom to issue severe weather warnings. They observe archived remote imagery from actual events along with severe weather reports and damage survey photographs to approximate the feel of issuing actual severe weather warnings, and decide which counties and cities must recieve the warnings. The simulations can be used in the form of a game, in which participants receive a score for leadtime, minutes in effect, and type of warning.

268

Global warning, global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life;

Benarde

1992-01-01

269

Rooting out institutional corruption to manage inappropriate off-label drug use.  

PubMed

Prescribing drugs for uses that the FDA has not approved - off-label drug use - can sometimes be justified but is typically not supported by substantial evidence of effectiveness. At the root of inappropriate off-label drug use lie perverse incentives for pharmaceutical firms and flawed oversight of prescribing physicians. Typical reform proposals such as increased sanctions for manufacturers might reduce the incidence of unjustified off-label use, but they do not remove the source of the problem. Public policy should address the cause and control the practice. To manage inappropriate off-label drug use, off-label prescriptions must be tracked in order to monitor the risks and benefits and the manufacturers' conduct. Even more important, reimbursement rules should be changed so that manufacturers cannot profit from off-label sales. When off-label sales pass a critical threshold, manufacturers should also be required to pay for independent testing of the safety and effectiveness of off-label drug uses and for the FDA to review the evidence. Manufacturers should also finance, under FDA supervision, programs designed to warn physicians and the public about the risks of off-label drug use. PMID:24088156

Rodwin, Marc A

2013-01-01

270

Radar-based rainfall thresholds for debris flow warning: A review of opportunities, effect of estimation uncertainties, and assessment of key challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing availability of weather radar precipitation products provides new opportunities to improve upon existing methods for debris flow warning. The aim of this work is to examine how different characteristics of precipitation products, derived either from raingauges or from weather radar, may impact on the identification and use of precipitation thresholds that are used for debris flow warning. Precipitation exhibits space and time variability at all scales leading to high uncertainty in raingauge-based rain estimation. One distinct feature of the precipitation estimation problem for raingauge-based threshold relationship identification and use, is that the triggering precipitation to be estimated at the debris flow location exceeds an actual threshold which is likely not to be exceeded at the measuring raingauges. Recent results has shown that these characteristics may lead to biased precipitation threshold identification and low warning efficiency. Weather radar monitoring represent an interesting alternative for precipitation threshold identification, overcoming the sampling problem of point measurements. However, despite long-standing efforts, radar derived estimates are still affected by considerable uncertainties, particularly in the rough topography terrain typical of debris flows. It is therefore important to understand how uncertainties due to either rainfall sampling (typical of raingauges) or to rainfall estimation (typical of weather radar) propagates through the precipitation threshold identification methodology. Results are presented for a set of 10 high intensity debris-flow triggering storms that impacted the Southern Tyrol Region (Eastern Italian Alps) during the last decade. The region is characterized by rough orography, with elevation ranging from 300 to 4000 m asl, and it is monitored by a raingauge network with an average density of 1/70 km2 and a well calibrated and maintained C-band Doppler radar. High quality radar rainfall estimations are obtained taking into account both vertical (VPR) and radial (attenuation, screening) sources of error, and are adjusted with raingauges to provide reference rainfall estimates at the ground. Radar- and raingauge- based precipitation thresholds are identified and are compared, showing that a bias arises when using raingauge measurements for threshold assessment. The bias is related to the spatial variability characteristics of the considered storms and to the relative geometry of raingauges and debris flows. Even though the weather radar estimation uncertainty also impact the precipitation threshold identification methodology, no bias is reported for this last case. This provides a basis to identify opportunities in the use of radar-based estimates for debris flow warning in alpine regions. Key challenges are also identified, including the requirement for high quality, high resolution radar-based precipitation reanalyses and problems in areas with mixed or poor radar-coverage.

Marra, F.; Nikolopoulos, E.; Borga, M.; Creutin, J. D.

2013-12-01

271

Black Box Warnings and Drug Safety: Examining the Determinants and Timing of FDA Warning Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing the safety of prescription drugs over time is difficult due to the paucity of reliable quantitative measures of drug safety. Both the academic literature and popular press have focused on drug withdrawals as a proxy for breakdowns in the drug safety system. This metric, however, is problematic because withdrawals are rare events, and they may be influenced by factors

Allan Begosh; John Goldsmith; Ed Hass; Randall W. Lutter; Clark Nardinelli; John A. Vernon

2006-01-01

272

Satellites, Tsunamis, and Early Warnings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pan Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC) Special Workshop on Tsunamis, Busan, South Korea, 1 November 2006 In the early morning of 26 December 2004 the ocean research satellite Jason flew over the Indian Ocean and recorded a surface tsunami wave less than 1 meter high. If it was no more than chance that a satellite equipped with a sensitive radar passed over at that precise moment, then the potential role of orbiting spacecraft in future early warning systems was established.

Allan, T. D.

2007-08-01

273

Conspicuity, memorability, comprehension, and priming in road hazard warning signs.  

PubMed

This study assessed driver reactions to 16 road hazard warning signs of various formats by projecting life-sized video of road scenes to drivers in a driving simulator. A range of measures, including attentional and search conspicuity, implicit and explicit recognition, dynamic and static comprehension, and sign priming were collected. Of the signs tested, road works and school warning signs were most often detected, remembered, and understood. Slippery surface warnings were associated with some of the lowest detection and comprehension rates. The effectiveness of the different formats depended on the type of hazard sign. In the case of road works warnings, a flashing variable message format was only slightly more conspicuous than the large dimension format, equal in comprehensibility, and perhaps somewhat worse in terms of memorability. For the school warnings, however, the flashing variable message format appeared to convey a greater sense of potential hazard, produced superior search conspicuity and priming, and was equal in terms of memorability and comprehensibility. The range of measures worked well as a whole with the two measures of conspicuity and the measure of static comprehension showing the greatest consistency. PMID:16386230

Charlton, Samuel G

2006-05-01

274

Effects of nutrition label format and product assortment on the healthfulness of food choice.  

PubMed

This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers' food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivation and perceived capability of making healthful choices. One thousand German and Polish consumers participated in the study that manipulated the format of nutrition labels. All labels referred to the content of calories and four negative nutrients and were presented on savoury and sweet snacks. The different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers' motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers' perceived capability of making healthful choices. While the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices. PMID:23891558

Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans C M; Bialkova, Svetlana; Raats, Monique M; Hodgkins, Charo; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

2013-12-01

275

Safety Warnings and First Aid Instructions on Nigerian Traditional Herbal Remedies: Are They Adequate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the adequacy of safety warnings and first aid instructions on the labels of 122 made in Nigeria herbal remedies was carried out. The results show that 6.6% of the herbal preparations had correct and appropriate information on their labels while another 6.6% carried legible print size. Only 9, 1.6, 3.3, 1.6% showed dosage, composition, expiration date and

E. Obi; N. A. Ezejiofor; O. E. Orisakwe

2006-01-01

276

Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan is located in one of the most tectonically active region in the world. We have suffered from many disasters brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. Significant efforts to mitigate disasters have been made as one of the most important national programs. Considering the difficulty of the earthquake prediction in time, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) considers it is important to issue the early warning immediately when the large earthquake occurs. JMA has been developing the "Earthquake Early Warning(EEW)" as a countermeasure to strong motion. JMA's EEW estimates hypocenter and magnitude using initial seismic waveform observed at the stations close to the epicenter, and issues estimated seismic intensity before the strong motion arrival. It also enables prompter issuance of the tsunami warning. We adopt a step-by-step method to improve the accuracy and reliance of the estimated focal parameters as the available data increases as the time lapse, ensuring the promptness of the first estimation at the same time. We estimate the hypocenter using Single Station Method and Network Method. Single Station Method is fitting simple function (Bt*exp(-At)) to the absolute value of acceleration waveform envelope of the first two seconds from the P onset by the cooperative study with Railway Technical Research Institute(RTRI). Network Method is using "territory" and "grid search" in combination. In addition to this procedure, we use the result of "Not Yet Arrived Data Method", a kind of grid search method, from June 2005. This method is developed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention(NIED). After the hypocenter is determined, we estimate the magnitude by using hypocentral distance and maximum displacement amplitudes (Dmax) updated every second and the formula is as follows: M = log (Dmax) + logR + a1*R + a2 (R: Hypocentral distance (km)) We can calculate each site of Seismic Intensity estimation by using up-to-date hypocenter and magnitude in addition. JMA has started test distribution of EEW in Feb. 2004 to specific users to fieldtest the effectiveness of the warning, for the events that occur in the region where JMA has integrated data processing functions at the seismic stations. EEW issued 245 times from Feb. 25th 2004 to Aug 31st 2005 (including 22 times of false alarm almost due to initial artificial mistakes). We will discuss the detail of EEW distribution at the session.

Kiyomoto, M.; Tsukada, S.; Ohtake, K.; Shiozu, Y.; Morimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Sekita, Y.; Doi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Odaka, T.; Ashiya, K.; Horiuchi, S.

2005-12-01

277

The Emotional Impact and Ease of Recall of Warning Signs for Suicide: A Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of concerns about potential iatrogenic effects of information about suicide, in the current study we examined the emotional impact of reading a list of warning signs for suicide in comparison to comparable lists for heart attacks and diabetes. All participants read two sets of warning signs, with the experimental group reading the suicide…

Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Berman, Alan L.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Hollar, Daniel

2006-01-01

278

Labels used by young people to describe mental disorders: which ones predict effective help-seeking choices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Mental disorders are common in young people, yet many do not seek help. Being able to label the problem may facilitate effective\\u000a help-seeking, but it is not clear which labels are best. This study aims to examine which labels commonly used by young people\\u000a are associated with a preference for recommended sources of help and treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A national telephone survey

Annemarie WrightAnthony; Anthony F. Jorm; Andrew J. Mackinnon

279

Licorice abuse: time to send a warning message.  

PubMed

Licorice extract has always been recognized as a sweetener and a thirst quencher. Its nutritive value is overrated by many who consume significant amounts and are prone to complications. Glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite in licorice, inhibits the enzyme 11-ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme type 2 with a resultant cortisol-induced mineralocorticoid effect and the tendency towards the elevation of sodium and reduction of potassium levels. This aldosterone-like action is the fundamental basis for understanding its health benefits and the wide spectrum of adverse effects. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of licorice along with the reported complications related to excess intake. Despite its apparent use in a few clinical scenarios, the daily consumption of licorice is never justified because its benefits are minor compared to the adverse outcomes of chronic consumption. The review highlights the importance of investigating the dietary habits and herbal remedies which are being used worldwide on cultural and habitual bases rather than reliable scientific evidence. Licorice is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food supplement used in many products without precise regulations to prevent toxicity. Increased awareness among the public is required through TV commercials, newspapers, internet sites, magazines and product labels regarding the upper limit of ingestion and health hazards associated with excess intake. We hope that this review will serve as a warning message that should be transmitted from physicians to patients to avoid excessive licorice intake as well as a message to the FDA to start regulating the use of this substance. PMID:23185686

Omar, Hesham R; Komarova, Irina; El-Ghonemi, Mohamed; Fathy, Ahmed; Rashad, Rania; Abdelmalak, Hany D; Yerramadha, Muralidhar Reddy; Ali, Yaseen; Helal, Engy; Camporesi, Enrico M

2012-08-01

280

Speed Adaptive Probabilistic Flooding in Cooperative Emergency Warning  

E-print Network

Speed Adaptive Probabilistic Flooding in Cooperative Emergency Warning Yiannos Mylonas University, such as a traffic accident. Towards this goal, we propose a novel Speed Adaptive Probabilistic Flooding algorithm, mitigates the effect of the broadcast storm problem, typical when utilizing blind flooding. Our results

Pitsillides, Andreas

281

The Indian Ocean disaster: Tsunami physics and early warning dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the physics of tsunamis may save lives, especially near the epicenter of a large earthquake where the danger is highest and early warning is least likely to be effective.Normal modes of Earth are standing waves of the Love (toroidal) or the Rayleigh (spheroidal) variety. The Indian Ocean tsunami may have been partly or wholly caused by low-order spheroidal modes

Cinna Lomnitz; Sara Nilsen-Hofseth

2005-01-01

282

The warning glove - development and evaluation of a multimodal action-specific warning prototype.  

PubMed

This paper has two objectives: first, to introduce the concept of multimodal action-specific warnings and its prototypic realization in the form of a warning glove and second, to present the main findings of a user study that was conducted to test the warning glove against a conventional warning system. Regarding the first goal, the combination of multimodality and action-specificity was implemented by attaching electronic actuators on a right-handed glove for transmitting visual, auditory and tactile feedback. For the second objective, a user study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the warning glove is capable of obtaining faster responses and to determine the perceptions of the users regarding the appropriateness of the warning glove. The results confirmed the assumption of faster response times and participants perceived the warning glove to be 'fairly appropriate'. These results warrant further development of this multimodal action-specific warning glove. PMID:24119868

Schmuntzsch, Ulrike; Sturm, Christine; Roetting, Matthias

2014-09-01

283

Label free sensing platform for amyloid fibrils effect on living cells.  

PubMed

This study presents a multiparametric label-free analysis gathering surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for monitoring the progress of a model epithelial cell culture (Madin Darbey Canine Kidney - MDCK) exposed to a peptide with high bio-medical relevance, amyloid ? (A?42). The approach surpasses the limitations in using the SPR angle for analyzing confluent cell monolayers and proposes a novel quantitative analysis of the SPR dip combined with advanced EIS as a tool for dynamic cell assessment. Long, up to 48h time series of EIS and SPR data reveal a biphasic cellular response upon A?42 exposure corresponding to changes in cell-substrate adherence, cell-cell tightening or cytoskeletal remodeling. The equivalent circuit used for fitting the EIS spectra provided substantiation of SPR analysis on the progress of cell adhesion as well as insight on dynamics of cell-cell junction. Complementary endpoint assays: western blot analysis and atomic force microscopy experiments have been performed for validation. The proposed label free sensing of nonlethal effect of model amyloid protein at cellular level provides enhanced resolution on cell-surface and cell-cell interactions modulated by membrane related protein apparatus, applicable as well to other adherent cell types and amyloid compounds. PMID:24035851

Gheorghiu, Mihaela; David, Sorin; Polonschii, Cristina; Olaru, Andreea; Gaspar, Szilveszter; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Bogdan O; Gheorghiu, Eugen

2014-02-15

284

A spin label study of rat brain membranes. Effects of temperature and divalent cations.  

PubMed

Rat brain myelin, synaptosomal plasma membranes and synaptic vesicles were spin labelled with stearic acid nitroxide derivatives. Their electron spin resonance spectra were studied as a function of temperature and devalent ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) concentrations. (1) Synaptosomal plasma membranes and synaptic vesicles show identical temperature variations of their order parameter (S = 0.58 at 35 degrees C and S = 0.72 AT 22 DEGREES C). Myelin appears more rigid (S = 0.66 at 35 degrees C and S = 0.76 at 22 degrees C). A discontinuity of the order parameter variation as a function of temperature, is observed between 14.5 degrees C and l9.5 degrees C with the three types of membranes. (2) The hydrophobic core of these membranes is very fluid. No transition temperature is observed. The measured values of the spin label rotation correlation times and rotational activation energies are 2.1 and 2.8 ns at 35 degrees C and 3.1 and 3.6 kcal/mol respectively for synaptosomal plasma membranes and myelin. (3) Ca2+ enhances the membrane rigidity (12+/-0.7% increase of the order parameter at 35 degrees C in the presence of 10(-3) M Ca2+) and increases the transition temperature. At a lower extend, similar effects are observed with Mg2+. PMID:182227

Viret, J; Leterrier, F

1976-07-15

285

Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study  

PubMed Central

Summary Zolpidem has been reported as an “awakening drug” in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective open-label study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state (n=32) were behaviorally assessed using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) before and one hour after administration of 10 mg of zolpidem. At the group level, the diagnosis did not change after intake of zolpidem (p=0.10) and CRS-R total scores decreased (p=0.01). Twelve patients (20%) showed improved behaviors and/or CRS-R total scores after zolpidem administration but in only one patient was the diagnosis after zolpidem intake found to show a significant improvement (functional object use), which suggested a change of diagnosis. However, in this patient, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed in order to better specify the effects of zolpidem, but the patient, on this trial, failed to show any clinical improvements. The present open-label study therefore failed to show any clinically significant improvement (i.e., change of diagnosis) in any of the 60 studied chronic DOC patients. PMID:24598393

Thonnard, Marie; Gosseries, Olivia; Demertzi, Athena; Lugo, Zulay; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Habbal, Dina; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

2013-01-01

286

Failure to warn: How student race affects warnings of potential academic difficulty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two studies, we document “failure to warn”—a reduced likelihood of warning Black students against potential academic difficulty compared to White students. In both studies, participants placed in the role of academic advisors saw a highly challenging academic course plan, attributed to either a Black or a White student, and gave Black students less warning about the potential negative consequences

Jennifer Randall Crosby; Benoît Monin

2007-01-01

287

[Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].  

PubMed

Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources. PMID:25338359

Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

2014-08-01

288

Adolescent's Attitudes Towards Health Warning Message on Cigarette Packs  

PubMed Central

A total of 190 secondary four male school students from three schools in Kota Bharu were surveyed on their smoking habits and their attitudes towards the health warning messages on cigarette packs. There were 57 (30.0%) students who were current smokers, 45 (23.7%) students who were ex-smokers and 88 (46.3%) students who have never smoked cigarettes. Nearly all current and ex-smokers (95.1%) as well as non-smokers (94.3%) knew the wording of the health warning message currently displayed on cigarette packs. Almost all the students (95.3%) also knew where the warning message was placed. There were more ex-smokers and non-smokers (70.5%) compared to current smokers (50.0%) who felt that there should be different health warning messages and each should be displayed concurrently on different cigarette packs. The students felt that the current health message was not effective to motivate smokers to quit (score=2.25). Alternative messages which the students felt may be more effective were ‘Smoking is dangerous for pregnancy’ (score = 3.3), ‘Cigarette smoke is dangerous for your child’ (score=3.11) and ‘Smoking can kill you’ (score=3.08). The current health message “Smoking is dangerous for your health’ is eighth with a score of only 2.64. The students felt that the least effective message was ‘Cigarettes are drugs’ (score=2.22). Most of the students (80.0%) felt that the health warning message should be placed at the front instead of on the side of the cigarette pack to be more effective. PMID:22973151

Ahmad, Zulkifli; Jaafar, Rogayah; Musa, Razlan; Naing, Nyi Nyi

2001-01-01

289

Effect of microwave irradiation on antibody labeling efficiency when applied to ultrathin cryosections through fixed biological material.  

PubMed

To study the effect of microwaves on immunolabeling, ultrathin cryosections or diluted antibodies were irradiated prior to antibody application, and gold labeling was quantified. In addition, affinity purified, polyclonal antibodies and protein A-gold were applied to ultrathin cryosections of aldehyde-fixed material in the presence and absence of microwaves. Amylase, a soluble protein secreted by pancreatic acinar cells, MHC class II, an integral membrane protein, and 3-(2,4-dinitroanilino)-3-amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP), an exogenously added antigen, were localized with monospecific antibodies. Each was chosen for their contrasting subcellular characteristics. Results demonstrated that for some antigens, antibody labeling efficiency was quantitatively improved by microwave irradiation of sections prior to antibody application. Irradiation of diluted antibodies prior to their application also resulted in improved labeling. In contrast, the results obtained using rapid immunolabeling protocols in the presence of microwaves resulted in labeling levels similar to those obtained in the absence of microwaves. We conclude that microwave irradiation can improve the labeling efficiency of some antibodies. However, improvements in labeling density are dependent on the antigen under study and on variable irradiation times, unique to each antibody. This suggests that the routine use of microwaves to reduce incubation times may not be a viable alternative to bench protocols. PMID:9712160

Chicoine, L; Webster, P

1998-07-01

290

Direct in vivo characterization of delta 5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: Effect of insulin  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DHLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) was compared in normal subjects and diabetic patients before and after treatment with insulin. The kinetics of the incorporation of deuterium-labeled DHLA and its conversion product, deuterium-labeled AA, was determined in plasma triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, and platelet lipids of subjects after ingestion of 2 g of the labeled precursor. Analysis was performed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using multiple ion detection. In normal subjects, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration rose to 24 to 69 mg/L in plasma triglycerides four to nine hours after ingestion and to 20 to 34 mg/L in plasma phospholipids about four hours later. Deuterium-labeled AA appeared at 12 hours, rose to 2.4 to 3.8 mg/L between 48 and 72 hours in plasma phospholipids, but remained at the limit of detection in plasma triglycerides and was undetectable in platelet lipids. In diabetic patients both before and after insulin treatment, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration in plasma triglycerides and in plasma phospholipids followed the same pattern as in normal subjects. However, the deuterium-labeled arachidonic acid concentration was below 1 mg/L in plasma phospholipids before insulin. After insulin treatment the patients recovered normal DHLA metabolism because deuterium-labeled AA rose in phospholipids to a mean value of 3.5 mg/L, which is in the same range as that observed in normal subjects (3.2 mg/L). The present data provide direct evidence for the conversion of DHLA into AA in humans. The effect of insulin and the data from the literature of animal studies suggest insulin dependence of delta 5 desaturase in humans.

el Boustani, S.; Causse, J.E.; Descomps, B.; Monnier, L.; Mendy, F.; Crastes de Paulet, A.

1989-04-01

291

Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only) were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Results Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. Conclusion More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias. PMID:18950529

Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A

2008-01-01

292

Proceedings of the lightning threat warning workshop  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a workshop on lightning detection and warning. Papers from government and private industry researchers are presented. The topics of the papers cover electric field sensors, mathematical models of thunderclouds, lightning damage mechanisms, and future warning systems. Briefings are included which summarize each participant's involvement with lightning threats. Papers are indexed separately. (JDH)

Not Available

1987-01-01

293

A National Implementation Panel for Detectable Warnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes meetings by a panel of travel, access, and public transit professionals to discuss detectable warning systems (devices to notify individuals with visual impairments of hazards along their path of travel). Recommendations of the panel for universal design standards and educating communities about detectable warning systems are…

Joffee, E.

1996-01-01

294

Stochastic design of an early warning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early warning systems (EWS) are monitoring devices designed to avoid or to mitigate the impact posed by a threat. Since EWS are time-sensitive or stochastic, it is necessary to develop a design methodology that defines the integration of the participating monitoring information sources, the identification of potential warning thresholds, and the assessment of the associated risk within an explicit causal

Zenon Medina-Cetina; Farrokh Nadim

2008-01-01

295

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too

Wamsted

1994-01-01

296

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for...

2010-04-01

297

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. ...specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

2010-04-01

298

Brand proneness versus experiential effect? Explaining consumer preferences towards labeled food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' fears and anxiousness, triggered by recent food scares and crises, and technological developments such as GMOs, have led to serious concerns about food safety, ever-increasing demands for quality assurance, more information about product origin food labels, and more particularly designation-of-origin labels, such as PDO (protected designation of origin) and PGI (protected geographic indication). Region of origin food labels have

Imene Trabelsi Trigui; Georges Giraud

2012-01-01

299

Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals.  

PubMed

In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested. PMID:23220355

Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

2013-03-01

300

Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?  

PubMed

Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984-1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response. PMID:22745628

Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2012-01-01

301

Automaticity of Basic-Level Categorization Accounts for Labeling Effects in Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are there consequences of calling objects by their names? Lupyan (2008) suggested that overtly labeling objects impairs subsequent recognition memory because labeling shifts stored memory representations of objects toward the category prototype (representational shift hypothesis). In Experiment 1, we show that processing objects at the basic…

Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

302

Women's Relationship to Feminism: Effects of Generation and Feminist Self-Labeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative importance to feminism of generation and feminist self-labeling was explored in a sample of 667 women riding buses to a 1992 March on Washington for Reproductive Rights. Specifically, generational (Generation X vs. Baby Boomers) and feminist self-labeling (strong feminists vs. weak feminists vs. nonfeminists) similarities and…

Duncan, Lauren E.

2010-01-01

303

Effects of Categorical Labels on Similarity Judgments: A Critical Analysis of Similarity-Based Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our goal in the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children's judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked…

Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

2012-01-01

304

A Reevaluation of Gender Label Effects: Expectant Mothers' Responses to Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women pregnant with their first child were observed interacting with an infant labeled as either a boy or a girl. Toy use and other maternal behaviors were examined as a function of gender label, women's attitudes regarding gender differences, and infant behavior. (Author/DB)

Bell, Nancy J.; Carver, William

1980-01-01

305

The Effect of a Diagnostic Label of Language Delay on Adults' Perceptions of Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults (n=20) who interacted with small groups of preschoolers, including a child with expressive language disorder (ELD), evaluated the ELD child differentially depending on awareness of the child's ELD label. Adults unaware of the label ranked the ELD child as less likable and less productive and predicted less academic competence. Aware adults…

Wood, Michelle; Valdez-Menchaca, Marta C.

1996-01-01

306

A charming little Cabernet : Effects of wine label design on purchase intent and brand personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of brand personality on purchase intent and the influence of three design elements of wine labels on brand personality. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Participants made brand personality judgments and rated their purchase intent for subsets of 90 experimental wine labels, which varied along the dimensions of color, illustration, and design

Claire A. Boudreaux; Stephen E. Palmer

2007-01-01

307

A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform forming the upstream information flow, the DEWS project focused on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Based on these results, TRIDEC continues this task focusing on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data.

Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

2012-04-01

308

Optical design of solar blind ultraviolet warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet warning technology is one of the important methods for missile warning. "Solar blind region" provides a very effective way to detect the target for missile approaching alarm. In order to find the target by detecting the ultraviolet radiation of missile efflux plasma, ultraviolet optical system design of large field of view and large relative aperture is the key for the technology of ultraviolet detection. From the academic point of view, the structure parameters are determined for 2048×2048 ultraviolet CCD detector according to the requirements of ultraviolet warning system. The refractive ultraviolet warning optical system is designed for 0.24?m ~0.28?m wave band with ZEMAX optical design software. The focal length is 41mm, the field of view is 46°and the relative aperture is 1:3.5. In order to ensure the detected energy, aspherical and binary surface are adopted to reduce the aberration and spot size of the system. Within the 0.8 field of view RMS of spot diagram is less than 13?m. It is smaller than the pixel size 13.5?m of ultraviolet CCD. The energy concentration is more than 80%. This optical system has long focal length and large relative aperture that meet the energy requirements of warning system. Large field of view can satisfy the range of searching targets. The spot diagram RMS of each field of view is so small that can meet the requirement of image quality. In addition, the system is composed of six lenses. The structure of it is simple, the volume is small and the application is very convenient.

Li, Quanyong; Xu, Chunyun; Dong, Jianing

2012-11-01

309

The Effects of Individual Upper Alpha Neurofeedback in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individually determined using the alpha peak frequency as an anchor point. 20 ADHD children underwent 18 training sessions. Clinical and neurophysiological variables were measured pre- and post-training. EEG was recorded pre- and post-training, and pre- and post-training trials within each session, in both eyes closed resting state and eyes open task-related activity. A power EEG analysis assessed long-term and within-session effects, in the trained parameter and in all the sensors in the (1-30) Hz spectral range. Learning curves over sessions were assessed as well. Parents rated a clinical improvement in children regarding inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Neurophysiological tests showed an improvement in working memory, concentration and impulsivity (decreased number of commission errors in a continuous performance test). Relative and absolute upper alpha power showed long-term enhancement in task-related activity, and a positive learning curve over sessions. The analysis of within-session effects showed a power decrease ("rebound" effect) in task-related activity, with no significant effects during training trials. We conclude that the enhancement of the individual upper alpha power is effective in improving several measures of clinical outcome and cognitive performance in ADHD. This is the first NF study evaluating such a protocol in ADHD. A controlled evaluation seems warranted due to the positive results obtained in the current study. PMID:25199660

Escolano, C; Navarro-Gil, M; Garcia-Campayo, J; Congedo, M; Minguez, J

2014-12-01

310

What Contributes to the Split-Attention Effect? The Role of Text Segmentation, Picture Labelling, and Spatial Proximity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the split-attention effect spatial proximity is frequently considered to be pivotal. The transition from a spatially separated to a spatially integrated format not only involves changes in spatial proximity, but commonly necessitates text segmentation and picture labelling as well. In an experimental study, we investigated the influence of…

Florax, Mareike; Ploetzner, Rolf

2010-01-01

311

Inserting GM Products into the Food Chain: The Market and Welfare Effects of Different Labeling and Regulatory Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine the system-wide effects of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products with and without labeling and to compare these two regimes to a third regime where GM products are not present either because they have not yet been developed or because they have been banned. For each regime, the decisions and welfare

Murray Fulton; Konstantinos Giannakas

2004-01-01

312

76 FR 38975 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1978N-0038) RIN 0910-AF43 Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use...Corrected] In Sec. 201.327, on page 35661, in the third column, Sec. 201.327(i)(1)(ii)(A)(2) and...

2011-07-05

313

Graphic gambling warnings: how they affect emotions, cognitive responses and attitude change.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the effects of graphic warnings related to excessive gambling. It is based upon a theoretical model derived from both the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). We focus on video lottery terminal (VLT), one of the most hazardous format in the gaming industry. Our cohort consisted of 103 actual gamblers who reported previous gambling activity on VLT's on a regular basis. We assess the effectiveness of graphic warnings vs. text-only warnings and the effectiveness of two major arguments (i.e., family vs. financial disruption). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test the direct and combined effects of two variables (i.e., warning content and presence vs. absence of a graphic). It was found that the presence of a graphic enhances both cognitive appraisal and fear, and has positive effects on the Depth of Information Processing. In addition, graphic content combined with family disruptions is more effective for changing attitudes and complying with the warning than other combinations of the manipulated variables. It is proposed that ELM and PMT complement each other to explain the effects of warnings. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22648580

Muñoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Borges, Adilson

2013-09-01

314

The effect of the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised in capital cases: mock jurors' responses to the label of psychopathy.  

PubMed

Despite mixed empirical evidence regarding the ability of the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) to predict violence among incarcerated inmates, it continues to be used to address such questions, even in the context of capital cases. The purpose of this study was to examine if the PCL-R has a prejudicial effect on mock jury members during the sentencing phase of a capital murder trial. Results indicated that participants were more likely to sentence the defendant to death when the defendant exhibited a high likelihood to commit future violence, whether or not the diagnostic label "psychopath" was present. Interestingly, when asked to rate the defendant's likelihood for future violence and murder, the defendant who was a high risk for future violence and not labeled a psychopath received the highest rating. These results suggest an absence of juror bias as it pertains to the label "psychopath" when sentencing a defendant in a capital murder case. PMID:20824653

Cox, Jennifer; DeMatteo, David S; Foster, Elizabeth E

2010-01-01

315

16 CFR 307.6 - Requirements for disclosure on the label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986... (a) In the case of the label of a smokeless tobacco package, the warning...or dispenser of individual packages of smokeless tobacco that may be purchased in...

2010-01-01

316

Consumer testing of the acceptability and effectiveness of front-of-pack food labelling systems for the Australian grocery market.  

PubMed

The placement of nutrition information on the front of food packages has been proposed as a method of providing simplified and visible nutrition information. This study aimed to determine the most acceptable and effective front-of-pack food labelling system for Australian consumers. Consumers' preferences and ability to compare the healthiness of mock food products were assessed for different front-of-pack labelling systems. Four systems were tested, including two variations of the Percentage Daily Intake system (Monochrome %DI and Colour-Coded %DI), which displays the proportion of daily nutrient contribution that a serve of food provides; and two variations of the Traffic Light (TL) system (Traffic Light and Traffic Light + Overall Rating), which uses colour-coding to indicate nutrient levels. Intercept surveys with 790 consumers were conducted, where each participant was exposed to a single labelling system for performance testing. Participants indicated strong support for the inclusion of nutrient information on total fat, saturated fat, sugar and sodium on the front of packages, and a consistent labelling format across all products. Using the TL system, participants were five times more likely to identify healthier foods compared with the Monochrome %DI system [odds ratio (OR) = 5.18; p < 0.001], and three times more likely compared with the Colour-Coded %DI system (OR = 3.01; p < 0.05). Consumers supported the introduction of consistent front-of-pack food labelling. The TL system was the most effective in assisting consumers to identify healthier foods. Mandatory TL labelling regulations are recommended to assist consumers in making healthy food choices. PMID:19336501

Kelly, Bridget; Hughes, Clare; Chapman, Kathy; Louie, Jimmy Chun-Yu; Dixon, Helen; Crawford, Jennifer; King, Lesley; Daube, Mike; Slevin, Terry

2009-06-01

317

Effects of autoshaping procedures on 3H-8-OH-DPAT-labeled 5HT 1a binding and 125I-LSD-labeled 5HT 2a binding in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of experience with Pavlovian autoshaping procedures on lever-press autoshaping conditioned response (CR) performance and 3H-8-OH-DPAT-labeled binding of 5-HT1a receptors as well as 125I-LSD-labeled binding of 5-HT2a receptors were evaluated in four groups of male Long-Evans hooded rats. Two groups of rats (Group Paired High CR and Group Paired Low CR) received Pavlovian autoshaping procedures wherein the presentation of a

Arthur Tomie; Jason Di Poce; Allison Aguado; Amy Janes; Daniel Benjamin; Larissa Pohorecky

2003-01-01

318

The coevolution of warning signals.  

PubMed Central

It has long been recognized that defended prey tend to be conspicuous. Current theories suggest that the association ('aposematism') has arisen because predators more readily learn to avoid attacking defended phenotypes when they are conspicuous. In this paper, I consider why such psychology has evolved. In particular, I argue that aposematism may have evolved not because of an independent and pre-existing receiver bias, but because the conspicuousness of a prey item provides a reliable indicator of its likelihood of being defended. To develop my case I consider how warning signals might coevolve in a system containing a number of predators, whose foraging behaviour is also subject to selection. In these cases, models readily show that the greater the conspicuousness of a novel prey item, the more likely that it has been encountered by other predators and survived. As a consequence, naive predators should be less likely to attack highly conspicuous novel prey on encounter, or at least more inclined to attack them cautiously. This adaptive predator behaviour will greatly facilitate the spread of aposematic phenotypes from extreme rarity, which in turn will enhance selection for forms of predator behaviour under which aposematism will coevolve even more readily. PMID:11934367

Sherratt, Thomas N

2002-01-01

319

Use Chia Seeds with Caution, Researcher Warns  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Use Chia Seeds With Caution, Researcher Warns Never eat them dry, ... 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Despite potential health benefits, chia seeds may pose a risk if they are not ...

320

30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and open flames shall be posted where a fire or explosion hazard...

2013-07-01

321

FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims  

MedlinePLUS

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Search the Consumer Updates Section Researchers hope ... forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

322

30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning...

2010-07-01

323

30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14208 Warning...

2010-07-01

324

14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.  

...distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning must be furnished either through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the airplane or by a device that will give clearly distinguishable indications under expected...

2014-01-01

325

14 CFR 23.207 - Stall warning.  

...normal position, in straight and turning flight. (b) The stall warning may be furnished either through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the airplane or by a device that will give clearly distinguishable indications under expected...

2014-01-01

326

14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning must be furnished either through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the airplane or by a device that will give clearly distinguishable indications under expected...

2011-01-01

327

14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning must be furnished either through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the airplane or by a device that will give clearly distinguishable indications under expected...

2012-01-01

328

14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maintain level flight at 1.3 VSR . (g) Stall warning must also be provided in each abnormal configuration of the high lift devices that is likely to be used in flight following system failures (including all configurations covered by...

2013-01-01

329

33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. ...Dangerous Cargo No Visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each...

2010-07-01

330

Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

1996-01-01

331

Selective lymphoid irradiation. VI. Effect of palladium-109-labeled lymphocytes on rat cardiac allograft survival  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously shown that pretransplant treatment with palladium-109 hematoporphyrin (Pd-H) and two small doses of antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) leads to donor-specific permanent acceptance of cardiac allografts in weakly histoincompatible rat combinations and significant prolongation of hearts in the ACI-to-Lewis strains. Pd-H also concentrates in nonlymphoid organs to a significant degree that is undesirable, so the authors have examined, the efficacy of Pd-109 attached to lymphocytes in producing selective lymphoid irradiation and compared it with the immunosuppressive effect of Pd-H. Adoptive transfer of syngeneic lymphocytes labeled with palladium-109 (Pd-L) led to significant concentration of radioactivity in the peripheral lymphoid organs relative to the bone marrow (BM), intestine, thymus, and endocrine organs. The concentration of radioactivity in the spleen relative to BM and intestinal mucosa was 23:1 and 58:1, respectively. The immunosuppressive efficacy of a suboptimal dose of 3 mCi (one-third of the dose used in earlier reports with Pd-H) administered via Pd-L (6 X 10(9) cells) at 4 days combined with 5 mg ALG at 2 days and 1 day prior to transplantation was compared in its effect on cardiac allografts with a similar dose of Pd-H (3 mCi) combined with ALG. The mean survival time (MST) of 6.5 +/- 0.4 days in untreated recipients was moderately prolonged to 14.6 +/- 3.0 days by Pd-H and ALG, and was not significantly different from an MST of 14.1 +/- 0.3 days achieved with 2 doses of ALG alone. Pretransplant treatment of Lewis rats with Pd-L and ALG produced a significant prolongation of ACI heart allografts to 30.5 +/- 3.1 days (P less than 0.001).

Oluwole, S.; Fawwaz, R.; Kuromoto, N.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A.

1985-08-01

332

The research on training risk early-warning of chain clothing stores based on BSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzed training risk early-warning of chain clothing stores based on BSC in four aspects of financial, customer, internal processes and learning and growth, making comprehensive utilization of monitoring in financial indicators of risk and non-financial indicators, using research methods of qualitative and quantitative fuzzy evaluation method. This thesis analyzes training risk early-warning of chain stores of clothing effectively9ÿ

Wei Guo; Liu Yang

2011-01-01

333

An Analysis of Miranda Warnings and Waivers: Comprehension and Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miranda warnings enshrine the constitutional rights of custodial suspects against self-incrimination. However, the wording\\u000a and sentence complexity of Miranda warnings and waivers vary dramatically from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. This study is\\u000a the first extensive investigation of Miranda warning variations examining 560 Miranda warnings from across the United States.\\u000a With Flesch-Kincaid reading comprehension as a useful metric, Miranda warnings varied from

Richard Rogers; Kimberly S. Harrison; Daniel W. Shuman; Kenneth W. Sewell; Lisa L. Hazelwood

2007-01-01

334

Tsunami early warning within 5 minutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis are most destructive at near to regional distances, arriving within 20-30 min after a causative earthquake; effective early warning at these distances requires notification within 15 min or less. The size and impact of a tsunami also depend on sea floor displacement, which is related to the length, L, width, W , mean slip, D, and depth, z, of the earthquake rupture. Currently, the primary seismic discriminant for tsunami potential is the centroid-moment tensor magnitude, MwCMT, representing the product LWD and estimated through an indirect, inversion procedure. However, the obtained MwCMT and implied LWD value vary with rupture depth, earth model and other factors, and is only available 20-30 min or more after an earthquake. The use of more direct discriminants for tsunami potential could avoid these problems and aid in effective early warning, especially for near to regional distances. Previously (http://alomax.net/posters/period-duration), we presented a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using two, simple measures on P -wave seismograms - the predominant period on velocity records, Td, and the likelihood, T50Ex, that the high-frequency, apparent rupture-duration, T0, exceeds 50-55 sec. We have shown that Td and T0 are related to the critical rupture parameters L, W , D and z, and that either of the period-duration products TdT0 or TdT50Ex give more information on tsunami impact and size than MwCMT, Mwp and other currently used discriminants. These results imply that tsunami potential is not directly related to the product LWD from the "seismic" faulting model, as is assumed with the use of the MwCMT discriminant. Instead, knowledge of rupture length, L, and depth, z, alone can constrain well the tsunami potential of an earthquake. We introduce here special treatment of the signal around the S arrival at close stations, a modified, real-time, Mwpd(RT) magnitude, and other procedures to allow early estimation of event parameters and tsunami discriminants. We show that with real-time data currently available in most regions of tsunami hazard, event locations, mb and Mwp magnitudes and the direct, period-duration discriminant, TdT50Ex can be determined within 5 min after an earthquake occurs, and T0, TdT0, and Mwpd(RT) within about 10 min. This processing is implemented and running continuously in real-time within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it). The rapid availability of these measures can aid in faster and more reliable tsunami early warning for near to regional distances.

Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

2012-04-01

335

Tsunami Early Warning Within Five Minutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis are most destructive at near to regional distances, arriving within 20-30 min after a causative earthquake; effective early warning at these distances requires notification within 15 min or less. The size and impact of a tsunami also depend on sea floor displacement, which is related to the length, L, width, W, mean slip, D, and depth, z, of the earthquake rupture. Currently, the primary seismic discriminant for tsunami potential is the centroid-moment tensor magnitude, M {w/CMT}, representing the product LWD and estimated via an indirect inversion procedure. However, the obtained M {w/CMT} and the implied LWD value vary with rupture depth, earth model, and other factors, and are only available 20-30 min or more after an earthquake. The use of more direct discriminants for tsunami potential could avoid these problems and aid in effective early warning, especially for near to regional distances. Previously, we presented a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using two, simple measurements on P-wave seismograms—the predominant period on velocity records, T d , and the likelihood, T {50/Ex}, that the high-frequency, apparent rupture-duration, T 0, exceeds 50-55 s. We have shown that T d and T 0 are related to the critical rupture parameters L, W, D, and z, and that either of the period-duration products T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex} gives more information on tsunami impact and size than M {w/CMT}, M wp, and other currently used discriminants. These results imply that tsunami potential is not directly related to the product LWD from the "seismic" faulting model, as is assumed with the use of the M {w/CMT} discriminant. Instead, information on rupture length, L, and depth, z, as provided by T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex}, can constrain well the tsunami potential of an earthquake. We introduce here special treatment of the signal around the S arrival at close stations, a modified, real-time, M wpd(RT) magnitude, and other procedures to enable early estimation of event parameters and tsunami discriminants. We show that with real-time data currently available in most regions of tsunami hazard, event locations, m b and M wp magnitudes, and the direct, period-duration discriminant, T d T {50/Ex} can be determined within 5 min after an earthquake occurs, and T 0, T d T 0, and M wpd(RT) within approximately 10 min. This processing is implemented and running continuously in real-time within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it). We also show that the difference m b - log10( T d T 0) forms a rapid discriminant for slow, tsunami earthquakes. The rapid availability of these measurements can aid in faster and more reliable tsunami early warning for near to regional distances.

Lomax, Anthony; Michelini, Alberto

2013-09-01

336

Biodistribution of Fluorescently Labeled PAMAM Dendrimers in Neonatal Rabbits: Effect of Neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Dendrimers are being explored in many preclinical studies as drug, gene, and imaging agent delivery systems. Understanding their detailed organ, tissue, cellular uptake, and retention can provide valuable insights into their effectiveness as delivery vehicles and the associated toxicity. This work explores a fluorescence-quantification based assay that enables simultaneous quantitative biodistribution and imaging of dendrimers with a single agent. We have labeled an ethylenediamine-core generation-4 hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer using the fluorescent photostable, near-IR cyanine dye (Cy5) and performed quantitative and qualitative biodistribution of the dendrimer-Cy5 conjugates (D-Cy5) in healthy neonatal rabbits and neonatal rabbits with cerebral palsy (CP). The biodistribution of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 dye was evaluated in newborn rabbits, based on the developed quantification methods using fluorescence spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and supported by microscopic imaging. The uptake was assessed in the brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, blood serum, and urine. Results obtained based on these three independent methods are in good agreement and indicate the fast renal clearance of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 with relatively higher organs accumulation of the D-Cy5 conjugate. Following systemic administration, the D-Cy5 mainly accumulated in kidneys and bladder at 24 h. The quantitative biodistribution is in good agreement with previous studies based on radiolabeling. These methods for dendrimers quantification are easier and more practical, provide excellent sensitivity (reaching 0.1 ng per gram of tissue), and allow for quantification of dendrimers in different organs over longer time periods without concerns for radioactive decay, while also enabling tissue and cellular imaging in the same animal. In kits with fetal-neuroinflammation induced CP, there was a significantly higher uptake of D-Cy5 in the brain, while biodistribution in other organs was similar to that of healthy kits. PMID:24116950

Lesniak, Wojciech G.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Jyoti, Amar; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Zhang, Fan; Nance, Elizabeth; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

2014-01-01

337

Biodistribution of fluorescently labeled PAMAM dendrimers in neonatal rabbits: effect of neuroinflammation.  

PubMed

Dendrimers are being explored in many preclinical studies as drug, gene, and imaging agent delivery systems. Understanding their detailed organ, tissue, cellular uptake, and retention can provide valuable insights into their effectiveness as delivery vehicles and the associated toxicity. This work explores a fluorescence-quantification based assay that enables simultaneous quantitative biodistribution and imaging of dendrimers with a single agent. We have labeled an ethylenediamine-core generation-4 hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer using the fluorescent photostable, near-IR cyanine dye (Cy5) and performed quantitative and qualitative biodistribution of the dendrimer-Cy5 conjugates (D-Cy5) in healthy neonatal rabbits and neonatal rabbits with cerebral palsy (CP). The biodistribution of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 dye was evaluated in newborn rabbits, based on the developed quantification methods using fluorescence spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and supported by microscopic imaging. The uptake was assessed in the brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, blood serum, and urine. Results obtained based on these three independent methods are in good agreement and indicate the fast renal clearance of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 with relatively higher organs accumulation of the D-Cy5 conjugate. Following systemic administration, the D-Cy5 mainly accumulated in kidneys and bladder at 24 h. The quantitative biodistribution is in good agreement with previous studies based on radiolabeling. These methods for dendrimers quantification are easier and more practical, provide excellent sensitivity (reaching 0.1 ng per gram of tissue), and allow for quantification of dendrimers in different organs over longer time periods without concerns for radioactive decay, while also enabling tissue and cellular imaging in the same animal. In kits with fetal-neuroinflammation induced CP, there was a significantly higher uptake of D-Cy5 in the brain, while biodistribution in other organs was similar to that of healthy kits. PMID:24116950

Lesniak, Wojciech G; Mishra, Manoj K; Jyoti, Amar; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Zhang, Fan; Nance, Elizabeth; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

2013-12-01

338

The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling.

Tang, Kevin S.; Hashmi, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Erik M.

2013-03-01

339

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

PubMed

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

340

Effective PHIP Labeling of Bioactive Peptides Boosts the Intensity of the NMR Signal.  

PubMed

A series of novel bioactive derivatives of the sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1) suitable for hyperpolarization by parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) was developed. The PHIP activity was achieved by labeling with L-propargylglycine, O-propargyl-L-tyrosine, or 4-pentynoic acid. (1) H?NMR signal enhancements (SE) of up to a factor of 70 were achieved in aqueous solution. We found that an isolated spatial location of the triple bond within the respective label and its accessibility for the hydrogenation catalyst are essential factors for the degree of signal enhancement. PMID:25296746

Sauer, Grit; Nasu, Daichi; Tietze, Daniel; Gutmann, Torsten; Englert, Simon; Avrutina, Olga; Kolmar, Harald; Buntkowsky, Gerd

2014-11-17

341

Do warning calls boost survival of signal recipients? Evidence from a field experiment in a group-living bird species  

PubMed Central

Introduction Warning calls are a widespread anti-predator adaptation, which can signal unprofitability to predators or alert other potential targets of the predator. Although it is tacitly assumed that the recipients of warning calls experience a reduction in predation risk, this crucial assumption remains untested. Here I tested this hypothesis with a field experiment in the group-living Siberian jay, Perisoreus infaustus. I exposed male or female breeding adults that were foraging together with a non-breeder (related or unrelated) to a model of their main predator (goshawk Accipiter gentilis) in autumn. I then recorded the warning call response of breeders as well as the reaction time of non-breeders, and followed the subsequent survival of non-breeders until spring. Results In most experiments (73%), non-breeders were warned by the more experienced breeders. Warning calls almost halved the reaction time of non-breeders during the experiment and influenced the survival of call recipients: non-breeders that were warned had a higher subsequent survival (19 out of 23) than non-breeders that were not warned (2 out of 5). However, neither kinship, group size, the age of the non-breeder, or the habitat structure of the territory had an influence on the survival subsequent to the experiments. Conclusions Since earlier studies showed that breeders are consistent in their warning call investment across different contexts, breeders that did warn non-breeders in the experiment were likely to have done so in subsequent, natural attacks. Consequently non-breeders living with breeders that called had a better chance of surviving predator attacks. Thus, these results suggest that warning calls have the potential to boost the survival of signal recipients, confirming a pivotal, yet hitherto untested assumption of the effect of warning calls. PMID:23941356

2013-01-01

342

Labeling Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labeling theory provides a distinctively sociological approach that focuses on the role of social labeling in the development\\u000a of crime and deviance. The theory assumes that although deviant behavior can initially stem from various causes and conditions,\\u000a once individuals have been labeled or defined as deviants, they often face new problems that stem from the reactions of self\\u000a and others

Jón Gunnar Bernburg

343

Product Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a self-service economy, a company must find factors to serve as surrogate salespeople to create attention for the product and distinguish it from competing items. Consumer desires for label information and how consumers are informed\\/misled by those statements were examined using wine labels. Eight hundred telephone interviews were completed across the United States.Consumers believed the information on wine labels

Dennis H. Tootelian; Karen Ross

2000-01-01

344

Effects of Doxycycline on the Phagocytosis of 32P-Labelled Escherichia coli by Human Polymorphonuclear Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the effect of various concentrations (2–100 ?g\\/ml) of doxycycline on the phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear cells was undertaken using a radio-labelled strain of Escherichia coli as test particle. In the presence of 10% normal human serum pretreatment with 50–100 ?g\\/ml resulted in a 50% increase in cell-associated radioactivity. When omitting serum during the ingestion phase, or

Kjetil Melby; Tore Midtvedt

1981-01-01

345

Effects of Hypericum perforatum on Ivabradine Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers: An Open-Label, Pharmacokinetic Interaction Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the CYP3A4 inducer, Hypericum perforatum,on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of ivabradine were assessed. An open-label, 2-period, nonrandomized, phase-I, pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. Twelve healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of ivabradine (10 mg) followed by H perforatum (300 mg orally, 3 times a day) for 14 days, combining the last dose with

A. Portoles; A. Terleira; A. Calvo; I. Martinez; G. Resplandy

2006-01-01

346

Effect of Thuya occidentalis on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.  

PubMed

Thuya occidentalis is used in popular medicine in the treatment of condyloma and has antibacterial action. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. This labeling depends on a reducing agent, usually stannous ion. Any drug which alters the labeling of the tracer could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceutical. We have evaluated the influence of T. occidentalis extract on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with 99mTc. Blood was withdrawn and incubated with T. occidentalis (0.25; 2.5; 20.5; and 34.1 percent v/v). Stannous chloride (1.2 micrograms/ml) was added and then 99mTc was added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in radioactivity (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with 34.1 percent of the drug. In the labeling process of RBC with 99mTc, the stannous and pertechnetate ions pass through the membrane, so we suggest that the T. occidentalis effect can be explained (i) by an inhibition of the transport of these ions, (ii) by damage in membrane, (iii) by competition with the cited ions for the same binding sites, or (iv) by possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion. PMID:9436292

Oliveira, J F; Braga, A C; Avila, A S; Fonseca, L M; Gutfilen, B; Bernardo-Filho, M

1996-01-01

347

Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that compensates for temperature variations in the signals generated by the pressure transducer. The microprocessor is programmed to generate a warning or alarm if a cabin pressure altitude exceeding a predetermined threshold is detected. Preferably, the microprocessor generates two different types of warning or alarm outputs, a first early warning or alert when a first pressure altitude is exceeded. and a second more serious alarm condition when either a second. higher pressure altitude is exceeded, or when the first pressure altitude has been exceeded for a predetermined period of time. Multiple types of alarm condition indicators are preferably provided, including visual, audible and tactile. The system is also preferably designed to detect gas concentrations and other ambient conditions, and thus incorporates other sensors, such as oxygen, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia sensors, to provide a more complete characterization and monitoring of the local environment.

Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

348

A framework for drought early warning systems in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework for drought warning and mitigation in Africa is proposed to assist in establishing policy priorities based on scientific evidence. Overall, a science-based approach is a useful guideline, but a number of challenges are recognized. Risk-based approaches to preparing for drought are focused on acquiring accurate probabilistic information about the events themselves. When this is not possible, the strategy fails. In contrast, understanding and reducing vulnerability does not demand accurate predictions of the incidence of extreme drought. Nevertheless, if may be politically difficult to justify drought vulnerability reduction on economic grounds. The evidence-based approach responds to four major questions: First, what is the science available? We evaluate the detection of the signs of impending drought. Second, what are the societal capacities? We evaluating the institutional framework that enables policy development. Third, how can science be translated into policy? We propose a framework for linking science indicators into definition of risk levels and analysing the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. Here we also respond to the question: Can policy be enforced? Evaluation of policy implementation and giving effect to early warning. Finally, how can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating the provision of information to potentially affected groups. Here we also answer: What should society do with the warnings? In this final step we link the science indicators the actions/interventions that society needs to implement.

Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis

2013-04-01

349

TRMM Applications for Rainfall-Induced Landslide Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning system (EWS) is the most effective method in saving lives and reducing property damages resulted from the catastrophic landslides if properly implemented in populated areas of landslide-prone nations. For predicting the occurrence of landslides, it requires examination of empirical relationship between rainfall characteristics and past landslide occurrence. In developed countries like Japan and the US, precipitation is monitored by rain radars and ground-based rain gauge matrix. However, in developing regions like Southeast Asian countries, very limited number of rain gauges is available, and there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. Correspondingly, satellite precipitation monitoring could be therefore a possible and promising solution for launching landslide quasi-real-time early warning system in those countries. It is due to the fact that TMPA (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis) can provides a globally calibration-based sequential scheme for combining precipitation estimates from multiple satellites, and gauge analyses where feasible, at fine scales (3-hourly with 0.25°x0.25° spatial resolution). It is available both after and in quasi-real time, calibrated by TRMM Combined Instrument and TRMM Microwave Imager precipitation product. However, validation of ground based rain gauge and TRMM satellite data in the vulnerable regions is still not yet operative. Snake-line/Critical-line and Soil Water Index (SWI) are used for issuing warning of landslide occurrence in Japan; whereas, Caine criterion is preferable in Europe and western nations. Herewith, it presents rainfall behavior which took place in Beichuan city (located on the 2008 Chinese Wenchuan earthquake fault), Hofu and Shobara cities in Japan where localized heavy rainfall attacked in 2009 and 2010, respectively, from TRMM 3B42RT correlated with ground based rain gauge data. The 1-day rainfall intensity and 15-day cumulative rainfall (snake line) were independently plotted to investigate the impact of short-term rainfall intensity and accumulated effective rainfall volume respectively for obtaining some probabilistic threshold. Japanese SWI was also tested to distribute threshold regarding to highly nonlinear rainfall patterns in predicting the landslide occurrence through the plot of total water of 3 serial tank models and daily precipitation. As a result, the snake line plots using TMPA work well for landslide warning in the selected cities; while SWI plots shows unusual peak value on the day of the debris flow occurrence. Graph of daily precipitation vs SWI implies possible zone of critical line, and second peak appearance 1 day before, indicating possibility of early warning.

Dok, A.; Fukuoka, H.; Hong, Y.

2012-04-01

350

Nutrition label  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This label shows that there are some nutrients that should be limited in the diet of humans and there are others that humans need to intake on a daily basis to stay healthy. These labels show the percent daily value that the food provides for each nutrient.

N/A N/A (FDA;)

2007-09-27

351

A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and capabilities of different dissemination channels such as SMS, email and television, have bearing on the information processing required for delivery and consumption of a DEWS EDXL-DE/CAP message over each dissemination channel. These messages may include additional information in the form of maps, graphs, documents, sensor observations, etc. Therefore, the generated messages are pre-processed by channel adaptors in the information dissemination services converting it into a format that is suitable for end-to-end delivery over the dissemination channels without any semantic distortion. The approach followed by DEWS for disseminating warnings not only relies on traditional communication ways used by the already established early warnings such as the delivery of faxes and phone calls but takes into consideration the use of other broadly used communication channels such as SMS, email, narrowcast and broadcast television, instant messaging, Voice over IP, and radio. It also takes advantage of social media channels like RSS feeds, Facebook, Twitter, etc., enabling a multiplier effect, like in the case of radio and television, and thus allowing to create mash-ups by aggregating other sources of information to the original message. Finally, status information is also important in order to assess and understand whether the process of disseminating the warning to the message consumers has been successfully completed or the process failed at some point of the dissemination chain. To that end, CAP-based messages generated within the information dissemination services provide the semantics for those fields that are of interest within the context of reporting the warning dissemination status in DEWS.

Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

2012-04-01

352

GIS-aided avalanche warning in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Avalanche warning for large areas requires the processing of an extensive amount of data. Information relating to the three basic requirements for avalanche warning - knowledge of terrain, the snow conditions, and the weather - needs to be available for the forecaster. The information is highly variable in time. The form and visualization of the data is often decisive for the use by the avalanche forecasters and therefore also for the quality of the produced forecasts. Avalanche warnings can be issued at different scales from national to regional and down to object specific. Often the same warning service is working at different scales and for different clients requiring a flexible and scalable approach. The workflow for producing avalanche forecasts must be extremely efficient - all the way from acquiring observation data, evaluating the situation, down to publishing the new forecast. In this study it has been an aim to include the entire workflow in a single web application. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) solution was chosen to include all data needed by the forecaster for the avalanche danger evaluation. This interactive system of maps features background information for the entire country, such as topographic maps, slope steepness, aspect, hill shades and satellite images. In each avalanche warning area, all active avalanche paths are plotted including information on wind exposure. Each avalanche path is linked to a webpage with more details, such as fall height, release area elevation and pictures. The avalanche path webpage also includes information on the object at risk e.g. buildings, roads, or other objects. Thus, the forecaster can easily get an overview on the overall situation and focus on single avalanche paths to generate detailed avalanche warnings for the client.

Jaedicke, Christian; Syre, Egil; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Kjetil

2014-05-01

353

West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunami warning center for Alaska and the west coast of the United States. Users can access current tsunami information through an interactive map that shows the latest events and information statements. Rolling over the map symbols provides the date and time, location, and preliminary magnitude of earthquakes. Clicking on them provides access to additional information, including a statement of whether a tsunami is expected. There are also links to previous warning messages, Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds with headlines, links to documents and brief information; publications; and links to related sites with additional information.

2010-11-12

354

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

DOEpatents

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

1999-08-17

355

Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

2009-01-01

356

Warning signs for suicide in Internet forums.  

PubMed

The presence of 10 warning signs for suicide proposed by the American Association of Suicidology was compared in 215 postings on a suicide forum and 94 postings on a self-injury forum. The suicide forum postings received a higher score on the 10 signs than the self-injury forum postings, and significant differences were found for 6 of the 10 signs: suicidal ideation, purposelessness, trapped, hopelessness, withdrawal, and, in the reverse direction, recklessness. Overall, the findings support the usefulness of the warning signs in identifying suicidal individuals. PMID:23045860

McSwain, Stephanie; Lester, David; Gunn, John F

2012-08-01

357

49 CFR 393.87 - Warning flags on projecting loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Warning flags on projecting loads. 393.87 Section 393.87 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.87 Warning flags on projecting loads....

2010-10-01

358

30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning...

2012-07-01

359

30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning...

2013-07-01

360

30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning...

2014-07-01

361

30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning...

2011-07-01

362

75 FR 69523 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...use and to encourage current smokers to consider...homicide, suicide, and motor vehicle crashes combined...Health Warnings A. Current Warnings on Cigarette...rotated quarterly in alternating sequence in cigarette...would replace the current text-only...

2010-11-12

363

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2013-10-01

364

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2012-10-01

365

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2010-10-01

366

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2011-10-01

367

46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards...

2010-10-01

368

46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards...

2012-10-01

369

46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards...

2011-10-01

370

46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards...

2013-10-01

371

30 CFR 75.1103 - Automatic fire warning devices.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic fire warning devices. 75.1103 Section 75.1103...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103 Automatic fire warning devices. [Statutory...

2014-07-01

372

Integrating automobile multiple intelligent warning systems : performance and policy implications  

E-print Network

Intelligent driver warning systems can be found in many high-end vehicles on the road today, which will likely rapidly increase as they become standard equipment. However, introducing multiple warning systems into vehicles ...

Ho, Angela Wei Ling

2006-01-01

373

30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices...Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. (a) Mobile equipment such as front-end...

2010-07-01

374

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section...and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2013-10-01

375

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section...and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2012-10-01

376

A Sustainable Early Warning System for Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this era of rapid social and technological change leading to interesting life complexity and environmental displacement, both positive and negative effects among ecosystems call for a balance in which there are impacts by climate changes. Early warning systems for climate change impacts are necessary in order to allow society as a whole to properly and usefully assimilate the masses of new information and knowledge. Therefore, our research addresses to build up a sustainable early warning mechanism. The main goal is to mitigate the cumulative impacts on the environment of climate change and enhance adaptive capacities. An effective early warning system has been proven for protection. However, there is a problem that estimate future climate changes would be faced with high uncertainty. In general, take estimations for climate change impacts would use the data from General Circulation Models and take the analysis as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change declared. We follow the course of the method for analyzing climate change impacts and attempt to accomplish the sustainable early warning system for water quality management. Climate changes impact not only on individual situation but on short-term variation and long-term gradually changes. This kind characteristic should adopt the suitable warning system for long-term formulation and short- term operation. To continue the on-going research of the long-term early warning system for climate change impacts on water quality management, the short-term early warning system is established by using local observation data for reappraising the warning issue. The combination of long-term and short-term system can provide more circumstantial details. In Taiwan, a number of studies have revealed that climate change impacts on water quality, especially in arid period, the concentration of biological oxygen demand may turn into worse. Rapid population growth would also inflict injury on its assimilative capacity to degenerate. To concern about those items, the sustainable early warning system is established and the initiative fall into the following categories: considering the implications for policies, applying adaptive strategies and informing the new climate changes. By setting up the framework of early warning system expectantly can defend stream area from impacts damaging and in sure the sustainable development.

Lee, T.; Tung, C.; Chung, N.

2007-12-01

377

33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.  

...following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each letter on the sign must be...7.6 centimeters (3 inches) high. (c) The words “No Smoking” and “No Open Lights” may be omitted when the product...

2014-07-01

378

Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich  

E-print Network

Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich School of EECS University of Central Florida Orlando Ithaca, NY 14853 Email: mainak@csl.cornell.edu Abstract-- Ocean is a popular program from the SPLASH-2 parallel benchmark suite. A complete application, as opposed to a computational kernel, Ocean is often used

Heinrich, Mark

379

JAMA Patient Page: Warning Signs of Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. JAMA PATIENT PAGE| Neurology Warning Signs of a Stroke A stroke happens ... be photocopied noncommercially by physicians and other health care professionals to share with patients. To purchase bulk reprints, call 312/464-0776. ...

380

33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be seen from the shore and the water; and (3) Have the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No Visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each letter in the words on the sign must be— (1) Block style; (2) Black on a white...

2013-07-01

381

Tracking Defect Warnings Across Versions Jaime Spacco  

E-print Network

Tracking Defect Warnings Across Versions Jaime Spacco£ , David HovemeyerÝ , William Pugh£ £ Dept. of Computer Science A. V. Williams Building University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 USA jspacco,pugh @cs.umd.edu Ý Dept. of Computer Science Vassar College 124 Raymond Ave. Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 USA hovemeyer

Hovemeyer, David H.

382

Global Emergency Observation, Warning and Relief Network  

SciTech Connect

The decade of the 1990`s has been proclaimed by the United Nations to be the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). There exists a documented need for improved communications and information distribution to provide adequate warning in the face of impending disasters and facilitate the response after a disaster has occurred. The Global Emergency Observation Warning and Relief Network (GEOWARN) is proposed as a system that can potentially fill the existing gaps in the disaster management capabilities by providing a mechanism for the timely processing of information both before and after an event has occurred. A system design is proposed that would utilize existing remote sensing resources augmented by additional satellites and airborne sensor platforms linked together via a computer network. This network would be configured around five control centers called Multi-National Centers which would host an extensive Geographical Information System to perform the task of providing global disaster warning and relief support. To support the potential development of GEOWARN, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center performed a study to assess concept feasibility. This study has resulted in several recommended modifications to the ISU system concept. It was concluded that a system design which optimizes the use of existing resources can result in significant improvements in disaster warning and management capabilities for most of the world. This paper presents the results of the feasibility study, including a general overview of the GEOWARN concept and the elements comprising the system.

Bukley, A.P.; Mulqueen, J.A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States)

1995-12-31

383

33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each letter on the sign must be...7.6 centimeters (3 inches) high. (c) The words “No Smoking” and “No Open Lights” may be omitted when the product...

2013-07-01

384

46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1830 Warning...Cargo. (3) No Visitors. (4) No Smoking. (5) No Open Lights. (c) Each...borders of the sign. (e) The words “No Smoking” and “No Open Lights” may be...

2010-10-01

385

The Telegraph in Storm-warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE idea of using the electric telegraph to give warning of cyclones approaching from a distance is generally supposed to have first occurred to Prof. Henry of the Smithsonian Institution in 1847 (NATURE, vol. iv. p. 390). This however is not the fact, for the same thing had been recommended in India fully five years before by the late Mr.

Fred. Norgate

1874-01-01

386

Earthquake Early Warning: Tools for System Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful earthquake early warning requires a fast, reliable network of seismic stations and a fast, accurate analysis algorithm to produce useful warnings in a timely manner. Developers and operators of earthquake early warning systems must constantly assess the health of their network and the performance of their algorithms. Hardware and telemetry of the seismic network are evaluated based on station latencies and the numbers of station P-wave triggers. Software and event processing performance can be analyzed by considering the number of successful event detections, of false alarms (alerts generated for nonexistent events), and of missed events (real events for which no alert was generated). Additional parameters for evaluation are the speed of delivery of the alerts and accuracy of magnitude, location and ground shaking estimates. For rapid assessment of system performance, it is useful to provide automatically prepared summaries for review. We present new tools for viewing and assessing performance of the earthquake early warning system from data collection through telemetry to alert delivery in a graphical, intuitive format. The data is collected into a KMZ file for easy viewing in Google Earth. We will show some example of these tools as part of our evaluation of the CISN ShakeAlert system. We will continue to improve automatic procedures for CISN ShakeAlert system.

Lim, I.; Allen, R. M.; Brown, H.; Hellweg, M.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Khainovsky, O.

2010-12-01

387

Do “good” food products make others look “bad”? : Spin-off effects of labels for sustainable food production in the consumer perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this study is to examine whether sustainability labels like Fair Trade have a spin-off effect to mainstream products in the consumer perception: do consumers perceive mainstream products and brands more negatively in the presence of a product with a sustainability label? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Five scientific experiments were conducted to test the spin-off effect of products

Menno Binnekamp; Paul Ingenbleek

2008-01-01

388

¹³C labelled internal standards--a solution to minimize ion suppression effects in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of drugs in biological samples?  

PubMed

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is frequently used to identify and quantify drugs in human biological samples due to the high selectivity and sensitivity of this technique. However, ion suppression effects caused by co-eluting compounds: drugs, metabolites, matrix components, impurities and degradation products, are a major concern. Stable isotope labelled internal standards (SIL ISs), usually deuterium ((2)H) labelled, are often used to compensate for these effects. In many LC separations the retention times of (2)H labelled ISs and their analogues will differ. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is increasingly being used for bio-analysis. With the better chromatographic resolution provided with sub 2 ?m particles, larger separation between analytes and their (2)H labelled analogues can be expected, which might reduce the benefits of the SIL IS. There is a greater difference in physico-chemical properties between hydrogen isotopes than between isotopes of other elements. (13)C, (15)N and (18)O labelled ISs are more similar to their analytes than (2)H labelled ISs and thereby expected to behave more similarly in chromatographic separations. In this study we have investigated the use of (13)C and (2)H labelled ISs for the determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine by UPLC-MS/MS. The (13)C labelled ISs were co eluting with their analytes under different chromatographic conditions while the (2)H labelled ISs and their analytes were slightly separated. An improved ability to compensate for ion suppression effects were observed when the (13)C labelled ISs were used. Furthermore, an UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine in urine using (13)C labelled ISs has been developed and validated. Unfortunately, there are few (13)C labelled ISs commercial available today. If more (13)C labelled ISs become commercial available they may well be the coming solution to minimize ion suppression/enhancement effects in LC-MS/MS analyses of drugs in biological samples. PMID:22119139

Berg, Thomas; Strand, Dag Helge

2011-12-30

389

The development and application of Financial Warning Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial warning management system, which is based on the enterprise information infrastructure, is a management system supervising enterprise management activities of the potential financial risks. With information technology development, the study on the financial warning system, especially in the computer how to achieve the financial warning system is a very important practical significance to the issue.

Tao Gu; Zhongliang Guan; Siqiang Wang

2008-01-01

390

Warning Signs for Suicide on the Internet: A Descriptive Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of suicide warning signs on the Internet is considered. In addition to reviewing some of the relevant conceptual issues about warning signs, a random sample of Internet sites was selected and reviewed. Warning signs were grouped and agreement across sites was examined, with results confirming broad disparity in what is presented to the…

Mandrusiak, Michael; Rudd, M. David; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Berman, Alan L.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy

2006-01-01

391

Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous

M. O. Erdik; Y. Fahjan; O. Ozel; H. Alcik; M. Aydin; M. Gul

2003-01-01

392

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2013-04-01

393

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2012-04-01

394

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2011-04-01

395

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2014-04-01

396

Millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has developed a millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing for use in the nation's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS, formerly IVHS). The Safety Warning System TU (SWS) utilizes a homodyne radar that operates at 24.1 GHz as both a radar and a system to transmit highway safety messages. The warning message is received by

G. Greneker

1998-01-01

397

Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings -an exploration  

E-print Network

Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings - an exploration H. Bloemink De Bilt, 2013 | Internal report; IR 2013-01 #12;#12;Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings - an exploration Version 1.0 Date January 2013 Status Final #12;#12;Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings

Haak, Hein

398

Crying Wolf: An Empirical Study of SSL Warning Eectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web users are shown an invalid certicate warning when their browser cannot validate the identity of the websites they are visiting. While these warn- ings often appear in benign situations, they can also signal a man-in-the-middle attack. We conducted a survey of over 400 Internet users to examine their reactions to and understanding of current SSL warn- ings. We then

Joshua Sunshine; Serge Egelman; Hazim Almuhimedi; Neha Atri; Lorrie Faith Cranor

399

Electrical Distribution System (EDS) and Caution and Warning System (CWS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An astronaut caution and warning system is described which monitors various life support system parameters and detects out-of-range parameter conditions. The warning system generates a warning tone and displays the malfunction condition to the astronaut along with the proper corrective procedures required.

Mcclung, T.

1975-01-01

400

An Overview of Optical Label Switching Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical label switching is a new technology of optical switching, which can overcome the electronic bottleneck of optical communication effectively, optical label switching (OLS) network as a specific implementation of future optical packet network has been paid more and more attention, its key technology is the generation and extraction of optical label. In this paper, subcarrier multiplexing label, OCDM optical code label and orthogonal modulation label are described and discussed. Their strength and weakness are analyzed.

Su, Fugen; Jin, Hongli; Jin, Fulu

401

The effect of biochar amendment on the soil microbial community - PLFA analyses and 13C labeling results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of biochar amendment on plant growth and on the chemical / physical soil characteristics are well explored but only few studies have investigated the impact on soil microorganisms. The response of the soil microbial community to biochar amendment was investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis in (i) a large scale pot experiment, (ii) a small scale pot experiment using 13C labeled biochar and (iii) an incubation study using 13C labeled biochar. In the large scale pot experiment, three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four different types of biochar were investigated. In total, 25 treatments with 5 replicates each were set up and monitored over a year. The results from the pot experiments showed no significant influence of biochar amendment on the total microbial biomass in the first 100 days after biochar addition. However, discriminant analysis showed a distinction of biochar and control soils as well as a strong effect of the pyrolysis temperature on the microbial composition. The effect of biochar was dependent on the type of soil. In the Planosol, some PLFAs were affected positively, especially when adding biochar with a low pyrolysis temperature, in the first month. In the long term, microbial community composition altered. Growth of fungi and gram negative bacteria was enhanced. In the Chernozem, PLFAs from various microbial groups decreased in the long term. Variability in the incubation study was low. Consequently, many PLFAs were significantly affected by biochar amendment. Again, in the Planosol, gram negative bacteria, actinomycetes and, after 2 weeks, gram positive bacteria increased under biochar amendment whereas in the chernozem total microbial biomass and gram positive bacteria were negatively affected in the long term. The 13C labeling studies confirmed the low degradability of the biochar, i.e. no alteration of the content and the ?13C in the soil organic matter within 100 days, decreased CO2 emission after biochar addition and little 13C signature from the biochar in the respired CO2. The uptake of the labeled biochar into the microbial PLFAs was analysed and will provide an evidence if biochar was used as a carbon source. In addition, the long term effect of biochar amendment (beyond 100 days) on the soil microbial community is currently investigated. These results will be also presented in the oncoming meeting.

Watzinger, A.; Feichtmair, S.; Rempt, F.; Anders, E.; Wimmer, B.; Kitzler, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Horacek, M.; Zehetner, F.; Kloss, S.; Richoz, S.; Soja, G.

2012-04-01

402

Study on warning radius of diffuse reflection laser warning based on fish-eye lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse reflection type of omni-directional laser warning based on fish-eye lens is becoming more and more important. As one of the key parameters of warning system, the warning radius should be put into investigation emphatically. The paper firstly theoretically analyzes the energy detected by single pixel of FPA detector in the system under complicated environment. Then the least energy detectable by each single pixel of the system is computed in terms of detector sensitivity, system noise, and minimum SNR. Subsequently, by comparison between the energy detected by single pixel and the least detectable energy, the warning radius is deduced from Torrance-Sparrow five-parameter semiempirical statistic model. Finally, a field experiment was developed to validate the computational results. It has been found that the warning radius has a close relationship with BRDF parameters of the irradiated target, propagation distance, angle of incidence, and detector sensitivity, etc. Furthermore, an important fact is shown that the experimental values of warning radius are always less than that of theoretical ones, due to such factors as the optical aberration of fish-eye lens, the transmissivity of narrowband filter, and the packing ratio of detector.

Chen, Bolin; Zhang, Weian

2013-09-01

403

Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets  

PubMed Central

As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established. PMID:24191134

Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhen-Jun

2013-01-01

404

Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen.  

PubMed

Healthier meal selections at restaurants and canteens are often limited and not actively promoted. In this Danish study the effectiveness of a healthy labelling certification program in improving dietary intake and influencing edible plate waste was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study design. Employees from an intervention worksite canteen and a matched control canteen were included in the study at baseline (February 2012), after completing the certification process (end-point) and six month from end-point (follow-up) (total n=270). In order to estimate nutrient composition of the consumed lunch meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (P<0.001). No significant changes were seen with regard to food satisfaction and plate waste. In the control canteen no positive nutritional effects were observed. The results of the study highlight the potential of using healthy labelling certification programs as a possible driver for increasing both the availability and awareness of healthy meal choices, thereby improving dietary intake when eating out. PMID:24373732

Lassen, A D; Beck, A; Leedo, E; Andersen, E W; Christensen, T; Mejborn, H; Thorsen, A V; Tetens, I

2014-04-01

405

The Indian Ocean disaster: Tsunami physics and early warning dilemmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the physics of tsunamis may save lives, especially near the epicenter of a large earthquake where the danger is highest and early warning is least likely to be effective.Normal modes of Earth are standing waves of the Love (toroidal) or the Rayleigh (spheroidal) variety. The Indian Ocean tsunami may have been partly or wholly caused by low-order spheroidal modes of the Earth such as 0S2, 0S3, and 0S4, that may have excited a waveguide—a layer that confines and guides a propagating wave—in the ocean.

Lomnitz, Cinna; Nilsen-Hofseth, Sara

406

A preliminary comparison of the retail level effects of genetically modified food labelling policies in Canada and France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most developed countries have adopted labelling policies for genetically modified (GM) food. In April 2004, Canada implemented a voluntary labelling policy for GM and non-GM food, while France adopted the European Union’s new extended mandatory labelling of GM food. I present the result of a qualitative survey of GM and non-GM food labels in supermarkets in Canada and France, five

Guillaume P. Gruère

2006-01-01

407

Effectiveness of the Food Guide Pyramid, the Nutrition Facts Food Label, and Work Site Wellness Program in the Task of Making Healthy Food Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the effectiveness of the Food Guide Pyramid, the Nutrition Facts Food Label and work-site Wellness Programs in teaching consumers to make healthy food choices.The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of participation in work-site Wellness Programs and awareness of and knowledge of the Food Guide Pyramid and the Nutrition Facts Food Label to

NT Sheehan; ES Parham

1997-01-01

408

Transfer of learning in avoiding false memory: the roles of warning, immediate feedback, and incentive.  

PubMed

Participants learned semantic associates and were tested in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. A multiple-trial learning procedure with warning, feedback, and monetary incentive was employed to reduce false memory. Results showed that there was a progressive reduction of false memory over the trials as well as a generalization of learning to new lists of words in avoiding the critical nonpresented words attributable to explicit warning, feedback, and incentive, respectively. Both the feedback and the monetary incentive had an effect beyond what an explicit warning could obtain. In addition, participants were found to achieve false-memory reduction by enhancing the activation of the critical words and the monitoring process, rather than by strengthening the verbatim processing of the list words. It was concluded that false memory may not be as impervious to correction as was believed insofar as an effective training method is applied. PMID:17514599

Jou, Jerwen; Foreman, Joseph

2007-06-01

409

Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology  

SciTech Connect

Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

410

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural early warning responses to polluted surface water from an industrial effluent have been measured in two freshwater\\u000a macroinvertebrate species using the four electrode impedance conversion technique. Specimens ofGammarus pulex (L.) andHydropsycho angustipennis (Curtis) were caught from reference streams and exposed to water from above and below the factory and to reference water\\u000a for about 1 h with different kinds

Almut Gerhardt

1996-01-01

411

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

SciTech Connect

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too late to do the real work and force parties to confront each other instead of working together to solve the problem. He encouraged joint implementation as an important factor in speeding the transfer of much-needed, appropriate technologies from the United States and other developed countries to the nations of the developing world. First, he urged the DOE to continue its aggressive voluntary emissions reduction programs, particularly its effort to negotiate greenhouse gas reductions with the electric utility industry. Second, he suggested that the US move to focus the international debate on no more than six major projects. The global warming issue is so broad, he warned, that without such a focus, no progress will be made.

Wamsted, D.

1994-10-07

412

The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations  

SciTech Connect

Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically.

NA

2005-01-04

413

Advanced Caution and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current focus of ACAWS is on the needs of the flight controllers. The onboard crew in low-Earth orbit has some of those same needs. Moreover, for future deep-space missions, the crew will need to accomplish many tasks autonomously due to communication time delays. Although we are focusing on flight controller needs, ACAWS technologies can be reused for on-board application, perhaps with a different level of detail and different display formats or interaction methods. We expect that providing similar tools to the flight controllers and the crew could enable more effective and efficient collaboration as well as heightened situational awareness.

Spirkovska, Lilly; Robinson, Peter I.; Liolios, Sotirios; Lee, Charles; Ossenfort, John P.

2013-01-01

414

Effect of interdome spacing on the resonance properties of plasmonic nanodome arrays for label-free optical sensing.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report on experimental and theoretical studies that investigate how the structural properties of plasmonic nanodome array devices determine their optical properties and sensing performance. We examined the effect of the interdome gap spacing within the plasmonic array structures on the performance for detection of change in local refractive index environment for label-free capture affinity biosensing applications. Optical sensing properties were characterized for nanodome array devices with interdome spacings of 14 nm, 40 nm, and 79 nm, as well as for a device where adjacent domes are in contact. For each interdome spacing, the extinction spectrum was measured using a broadband reflection instrumentation, and finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulation was used to model the local electric field distribution associated with the resonances. Based on these studies, we predict that nanodome array devices with gap between 14 nm to 20 nm provide optimal label-free capture affinity biosensing performances, where the dipole resonance mode exhibits the highest overall surface sensitivity, as well as the lowest limit of detection. PMID:24514341

Choi, Charles J; Semancik, Steve

2013-11-18

415

The spatial effect of protein deuteration on nitroxide spin-label relaxation: Implications for EPR distance measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) coupled with site-directed spin labeling is a powerful technique for the elucidation of protein or nucleic acid, macromolecular structure and interactions. The intrinsic high sensitivity of electron paramagnetic resonance enables measurement on small quantities of bio-macromolecules, however short relaxation times impose a limit on the sensitivity and size of distances that can be measured using this technique. The persistence of the electron spin-echo, in the PELDOR experiment, is one of the most crucial limitations to distance measurement. At a temperature of around 50 K one of the predominant factors affecting persistence of an echo, and as such, the sensitivity and measurable distance between spin labels, is the electron spin echo dephasing time (Tm). It has become normal practice to use deuterated solvents to extend Tm and recently it has been demonstrated that deuteration of the underlying protein significantly extends Tm. Here we examine the spatial effect of segmental deuteration of the underlying protein, and also explore the concentration and temperature dependence of highly deuterated systems.

El Mkami, Hassane; Ward, Richard; Bowman, Andrew; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Norman, David G.

2014-11-01

416

Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future studies and improvements, enabling the integration of lateral variations of the solid earth, bathymetry or atmosphere, finite model sources, non-linearity of the waves and better attenuation and coupling processes. All these effects are revealed by phase or amplitude discrepancies in selected observations. We then present goals and first results of source inversions, with a focus on estimations of the sea level uplift location and amplitude, either by using GPS networks close from the epicentre or, for tsunamis, GPS of the Hawaii Islands.

Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan

2014-05-01

417

Acute effects of alcohol on brain perfusion monitored with arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in young adults.  

PubMed

While a number of studies have established that moderate doses of alcohol increase brain perfusion, the time course of such an increase as a function of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) has not yet been investigated, and studies differ about regional effects. Using arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated (1) the time course of the perfusion increase during a 15-minute linear increase of BrAC up to 0.6?g/kg followed by a steady exposure of 100?minutes, (2) the regional distribution, (3) a potential gender effect, and (4) the temporal stability of perfusion effects. In 48 young adults who participated in the Dresden longitudinal study on alcohol effects in young adults, we observed (1) a 7% increase of global perfusion as compared with placebo and that perfusion and BrAC are tightly coupled in time, (2) that the increase reaches significance in most regions of the brain, (3) that the effect is stronger in women than in men, and (4) that an acute tolerance effect is not observable on the time scale of 2?hours. Larger studies are needed to investigate the origin and the consequences of the effect, as well as the correlates of inter-subject variations. PMID:24398943

Marxen, Michael; Gan, Gabriela; Schwarz, Daniel; Mennigen, Eva; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Guenther, Matthias; Smolka, Michael N

2014-03-01

418

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have also been identified. To help mitigate the risk of potential tsunamis on the coastal communities of Puerto Rico, with initial funding from the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000. Three of the main tasks are to evaluate the possibility of establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), prepare tsunami flood maps and education. The need to establish a system of rapid notification for tsunami alerting in the Caribbean region has been recognized by the emergency management and scientific community. Presently, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag\\x81ez is establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) for PR/VI. Part of the TWS is the EarlyBird system, developed by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, which has been running in the PRSN since January, 2003. This program automatically locates and disseminates information on potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes. Also, the existing protocol for exchanging data and information on potentially tsunamigenic events in the PR/VI is currently being reviewed by the concerned institutions. Tsunami flood maps were prepared for all of Puerto Rico, including the island municipalities of Vieques and Culebra. These flood maps were generated in three phases. First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios on the basis of the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes were developed. Secondly, each of these earthquakes source scenarios was simulated. The third step was to determine the worst case scenario for a tectonically generated tsunami throughout Puerto Rico. The runups were drawn on GIS referenced topographic maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by the local, state and federal emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Based on these maps tsunami warning signs are being installed throughout the potentially affected zones and are a very important component of the TWS.

Huerfano, V. A.; Mercado, A.; von Hillebrandt, C. G.

2003-12-01

419

Data Fusion Concepts for Tsunami Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami source region for subduction zone earthquakes is near the base of the acreationary wedge. In that region the material properties are weak, and are unable to store significant elastic energy. Therefore, the tsunamigenic rupture is nearly aseismic. Instead, the seismic energy primarily radiates from deeper within the fault; thus resolving or imaging this shallow rupture is extremely difficult, particularly when factoring in the real time requirements of tsunami warning. In the current U.S. Tsunami warning systems, the operational paradigm is to initially determine the most probable source parameters in a maximum likelihood sense, then establish alert level based, and wait for sea level measurements (DART or tide gauge) to validate or cancel the alert. This approach results in numerous false alarms, with some missed tsunamis based on the initial alert. In fact, the maximum likelihood approach works well for typical events; however, the tsunamigenic events are outliers; in the last 30 years, there have been about 130 events of size and location that would warrant a expanding warning. Of those events, 43 were associated with tsunamis of greater than 1 m; however, most of those were local, with only 13 events having significant far field tsunamis. So, even for large events, tsunamigenic earthquakes are statistical outliers. To address this issue, we have conceptualized a data fusion based approach to tsunami warning that will incorporate multiple data types simultaneously to provide better, rapid estimates of tsunami source, partially by identifying "statistical outliers" and partially by running multiple hypothesis of tsunami sources. For example, we can test to see the error bias of the preliminary magnitude estimate; that is, is the system more likely underestimating or overestimating the magnitude. In addition, incorporating non-seismic data, such as hydroactoustic (T-phase) and GPS data may improve the ability to image the shallow rupture. The approach also allows for the incorporation of evidence for slumping/landslides, including anomalous long period Rayleigh waves (e.g., Eksrom, 2006) and hydroacoustic signals. In summary, a fusion approach to tsunami warning should provide for lower false alarm rates while increasing the probability of detection of the events in time period prior to sea level measurements.

Hebenstreit, G. T.; Salzberg, D. H.

2007-12-01

420

Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.  

PubMed

To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. PMID:25218457

Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

2014-11-01

421

Soil H2 18O labelling reveals the effect of drought on C18OO fluxes to the atmosphere.  

PubMed

Above- and belowground processes in plants are tightly coupled via carbon and water fluxes through the soil-plant-atmosphere system. The oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 and water vapour (H2Ov) provides a valuable tool for investigating the transport and cycling of carbon and water within this system. However, detailed studies on the coupling between ecosystem components and environmental drivers are sparse. Therefore, we conducted a H2 (18)O-labelling experiment to investigate the effect of drought on the speed of the link between below- and aboveground processes and its subsequent effect on C(18)OO released by leaves and soils. A custom-made chamber system, separating shoot from soil compartments, allowed separate measurements of shoot- and soil-related processes under controlled conditions. Gas exchange of oxygen stable isotopes in CO2 and H2Ov served as the main tool of investigation and was monitored in real time on Fagus sylvatica saplings using laser spectroscopy. H2 (18)O-labelling showed that drought caused a slower transport of water molecules from soil to shoot, which was indicated by its direct derivation from independently measured concentrations and (18)O/(16)O ratios of CO2 and H2Ov, respectively. Furthermore, drought reduced the (18)O equilibrium between H2O and CO2 at the shoot level, resulting in less-enriched C(18)OO fluxes from leaf to atmosphere compared with control plants. Compared with the shoot, (18)O equilibrium was not instantaneous in the soil and no drought effect was apparent. PMID:25100825

Barthel, Matti; Sturm, Patrick; Hammerle, Albin; Buchmann, Nina; Gentsch, Lydia; Siegwolf, Rolf; Knohl, Alexander

2014-11-01

422

Downstream labeling and upstream price competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the economic consequences of labeling in a setting with two vertically related markets. Labeling on the downstream market affects upstream price competition through two effects: a differentiation effect and a ranking effect. The magnitude of these two effects determines who in the supply chain will receive the benefits and who will bear the burden of labeling. For

Olivier Bonroy; Stéphane Lemarié

2012-01-01

423

The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling  

PubMed Central

Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184?mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820?mg black tea solids containing 184?mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820?mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2?hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF. PMID:23486295

Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

2013-01-01

424

Characterizing Pleiotropic Effects of Glucocorticoids in Mice Using Heavy Water Labeling and Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

toxicity, and resistance to glucocorticoids: focus on theobserved glucocorticoid-like effects on insulin resistance (resistance equally. We also demonstrate that, contrary to expectations, some metabolic effects of glucocorticoid

Roohk, Donald Jason

2011-01-01

425

Early Warning Signs in Social-Ecological Networks  

PubMed Central

A number of social-ecological systems exhibit complex behaviour associated with nonlinearities, bifurcations, and interaction with stochastic drivers. These systems are often prone to abrupt and unexpected instabilities and state shifts that emerge as a discontinuous response to gradual changes in environmental drivers. Predicting such behaviours is crucial to the prevention of or preparation for unwanted regime shifts. Recent research in ecology has investigated early warning signs that anticipate the divergence of univariate ecosystem dynamics from a stable attractor. To date, leading indicators of instability in systems with multiple interacting components have remained poorly investigated. This is a major limitation in the understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological networks. Here, we develop a theoretical framework to demonstrate that rising variance—measured, for example, by the maximum element of the covariance matrix of the network—is an effective leading indicator of network instability. We show that its reliability and robustness depend more on the sign of the interactions within the network than the network structure or noise intensity. Mutualistic, scale free and small world networks are less stable than their antagonistic or random counterparts but their instability is more reliably predicted by this leading indicator. These results provide new advances in multidimensional early warning analysis and offer a framework to evaluate the resilience of social-ecological networks. PMID:25013901

Suweis, Samir; D'Odorico, Paolo

2014-01-01

426

Label-free electrical detection of pyrophosphate generated from DNA polymerase reactions on field-effect devices†  

PubMed Central

We introduce a label-free approach for sensing polymerase reactions on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using a chelator-modified silicon-on-insulator field-effect transistor (SOI-FET) that exhibits selective and reversible electrical response to pyrophosphate anions. The chemical modification of the sensor surface was designed to include rolling-circle amplification (RCA) DNA colonies for locally enhanced pyrophosphate (PPi) signal generation and sensors with immobilized chelators for capture and surface-sensitive detection of diffusible reaction by-products. While detecting arrays of enzymatic base incorporation reactions is typically accomplished using optical fluorescence or chemiluminescence techniques, our results suggest that it is possible to develop scalable and portable PPi-specific sensors and platforms for broad biomedical applications such as DNA sequencing and microbe detection using surface-sensitive electrical readout techniques. PMID:22262038

Su, Xing; Wu, Kai; Elibol, Oguz H.; Liu, David J.; Reddy, Bobby; Tsai, Ta-Wei; Dorvel, Brian R.; Daniels, Jonathan S.

2012-01-01

427

Earthquake Early Warning and Public Policy: Opportunities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of an earthquake early warning capability and pilot project were objectives of TriNet, a 5-year (1997-2001) FEMA-funded project to develop a state-of-the-art digital seismic network in southern California. In parallel with research to assemble a protocol for rapid analysis of earthquake data and transmission of a signal by TriNet scientists and engineers, the public policy, communication and educational issues inherent in implementation of an earthquake early warning system were addressed by TriNet's outreach component. These studies included: 1) a survey that identified potential users of an earthquake early warning system and how an earthquake early warning might be used in responding to an event, 2) a review of warning systems and communication issues associated with other natural hazards and how lessons learned might be applied to an alerting system for earthquakes, 3) an analysis of organization, management and public policy issues that must be addressed if a broad-based warning system is to be developed and 4) a plan to provide earthquake early warnings to a small number of organizations in southern California as an experimental prototype. These studies provided needed insights into the social and cultural environment in which this new technology will be introduced, an environment with opportunities to enhance our response capabilities but also an environment with significant barriers to overcome to achieve a system that can be sustained and supported. In this presentation we will address the main public policy issues that were subjects of analysis in these studies. They include a discussion of the possible division of functions among organizations likely to be the principle partners in the management of an earthquake early warning system. Drawing on lessons learned from warning systems for other hazards, we will review the potential impacts of false alarms and missed events on warning system credibility, the acceptability of fully automated warning systems and equity issues associated with possible differential access to warnings. Finally, we will review the status of legal authorities and liabilities faced by organizations that assume various warning system roles and possible approaches to setting up a pilot project to introduce early warning. Our presentation will suggest that introducing an early warning system requires multi-disciplinary and multi-agency cooperation and thoughtful discussion among organizations likely to be providers and participants in an early warning system. Recalling our experience with earthquake prediction, we will look at early warning as a promising but unproven technology and recommend moving forward with caution and patience.

Goltz, J. D.; Bourque, L.; Tierney, K.; Riopelle, D.; Shoaf, K.; Seligson, H.; Flores, P.

2003-12-01

428

Effect of intratumoral administration on biodistribution of 64Cu-labeled nanoshells  

PubMed Central

Background Gold nanoshells are excellent agents for photothermal ablation cancer therapy and are currently under clinical trial for solid tumors. Previous studies showed that passive delivery of gold nanoshells through intravenous administration resulted in limited tumor accumulation, which represents a major challenge for this therapy. In this report, the impact of direct intratumoral administration on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the nanoshells was systematically investigated. Methods The gold nanoshells were labeled with the radionuclide, copper-64 (64Cu). Intratumoral infusion of 64Cu-nanoshells and two controls, ie, 64Cu-DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazaciclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) and 64Cu-DOTA-PEG (polyethylene glycol), as well as intravenous injection of 64Cu-nanoshells were performed in nude rats, each with a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft. The pharmacokinetics was determined by radioactive counting of serial blood samples collected from the rats at different time points post-injection. Using positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, the in vivo distribution of 64Cu-nanoshells and the controls was monitored at various time points after injection. Organ biodistribution in the rats at 46 hours was analyzed by radioactive counting and compared between the different groups. Results The resulting pharmacokinetic curves indicated a similar trend between the intratumorally injected agents, but a significant difference with the intravenously injected 64Cu-nanoshells. Positron emission tomography images and organ biodistribution results on rats after intratumoral administration showed higher retention of 64Cu-nanoshells in tumors and less concentration in other healthy organs, with a significant difference from the controls. It was also found that, compared with intravenous injection, tumor concentrations of 64Cu-nanoshells improved substantially and were stable at 44 hours post-injection. Conclusion There was a higher intratumoral retention of 64Cu-nanoshells and a lower concentration in other healthy tissues, suggesting that intratumoral administration is a potentially better approach for nanoshell-based photothermal therapy. PMID:22619558

Xie, Huan; Goins, Beth; Bao, Ande; Wang, Zheng Jim; Phillips, William T

2012-01-01

429

Cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: progress and obstacles  

PubMed Central

Objetive To describe cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean as of August 2010. Material and Methods Review of tobacco control legislation of all 33 countries of the region; analysis of British American Tobacco (BAT)’s corporate social reports; analysis of information from cigarette packages collected in 27 countries. Results In 2002, Brazil became the first country in the region to implement pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages. Since then, six more countries adopted pictorial labels. The message content and the picture style vary across countries. Thirteen countries have banned brand descriptors and nine require a qualitative label with information on constituents and emissions. Tobacco companies are using strategies commonly used around the world to block the effective implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)’s Article 11. Conclusions Since 2002, important progress has been achieved in the region. However, countries that have ratified the FCTC have not yet implemented all the recommendations of Article 11 Guidelines. PMID:21243194

Sebrié, Ernesto M; Blanco, Adriana; Glantz, Stanton A

2011-01-01

430

Responses to Deceleration during Car Following: Roles of Optic Flow, Warnings, Expectations, and Interruptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 25% of accidents are rear-end collisions. It is essential to identify the factors that contribute to such collisions. One such factor is a driver's ability to respond to the deceleration of the car ahead. In Experiment 1, we measured effects of optic flow information and discrete visual and auditory warnings (brake lights, tones) on…

DeLucia, Patricia R.; Tharanathan, Anand

2009-01-01

431

Evolving a real-world vehicle warning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many serious automobile accidents could be avoided if drivers were warned of impending crashes before they occur. Creat- ing such warning systems by hand, however, is a difficult and time-consuming task. This paper describes three advances toward evolving neural networks with NEAT (NeuroEvolu- tion of Augmenting Topologies) to warn about such crashes in real-world environments. First, NEAT was evaluated in

Nate Kohl; Kenneth O. Stanley; Risto Miikkulainen; Michael E. Samples; Rini Sherony

2006-01-01

432

A tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is an abstract. Using tidal gauge data from the time of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the authors were able to reconstruct the height and speed of the waves and the time it took them to reach coastal regions. Readings from the tidal gauges could have given advance warning to some areas hit by the tsunami, had a warning system been in place. Suggestions for creating a tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean region are given.

Al., Merrifield E.; Agu

433

An electrophysiological study of the impact of a Forward Collision Warning System in a simulator driving task.  

PubMed

Driver distraction has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential rear-end collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS and of its reliability according to the driver's attentional state by recording both behavioral and electrophysiological data. Participants drove following a lead motorcycle in a simplified simulator with or without a warning system which gave forewarning of the preceding vehicle braking. Participants had to perform this driving task either alone (simple task) or simultaneously with a secondary cognitive task (dual task). Behavioral and electrophysiological data contributed to revealing a positive effect of the warning system. Participants were faster in detecting the brake light when the system was perfect or imperfect, and the time and attentional resources allocation required for processing the target at higher cognitive level were reduced when the system was completely reliable. When both tasks were performed simultaneously, warning effectiveness was considerably affected at both performance and neural levels; however, the analysis of the brain activity revealed fewer differences between distracted and undistracted drivers when using the warning system. These results show that electrophysiological data could be a valuable tool to complement behavioral data and to have a better understanding of how these systems impact the driver. PMID:22765914

Bueno, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; Deleurence, Philippe; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

2012-08-27

434

Meteoalarm - Latest developments for weather warnings in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather warnings for high impact weather play a more crucial role than ever. With rising vulnerability impact and damages continue to rise. The meteoalarm platform brought producers of warnings (National Meteorological and Hydrological Services) and their users closer together. The users come in high numbers from the general public, but also from public institutions within Civil Protection, who looks for conditions outside their own country. Their feedback suggested more hazards to be integrated, a shift from warnings for hazards to impact and longer forecast periods/lead times for warnings. The shift from hazard warnings to a more impact orientated perspective would also be reflected the relevant UNISDR and UN Hyogo Framework of Actions concepts. Recent developments within meteoalarm try to cover these needs while maintaining a good balance between existing national procedures for warnings and the needs of Europeans and others who travel or act professionally outside their own country and expect homogenous warning procedures. A welldesigned communication process outside the meteoalarm platform itself is neeeded to attract relevant users from the public and private institutions. Warnings for coastal sea areas are one step in this direction, a heat index assessing the Thermal Environment of the Human Being will be another way to cover user needs. Closer co-operation between meteorological and hydrological services and possible flood warnings within meteoalarm also underline the importance of connecting pure meteorology with other applications.

Staudinger, M.; Koppe, C.; Heikinheimo, M.; Kroonenberg, F.

2009-09-01

435

77 FR 72868 - Compliance Guidance for Small Business Entities on Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...effectiveness testing consists of a sun protection factor (SPF) Test and a Broad Spectrum (ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) protection) Test. In addition, a test demonstrating water resistance that accompanies the SPF Test to ensure retention...

2012-12-06

436

Effects of labeling and pointing on object gaze in boys with fragile X syndrome: an eye-tracking study.  

PubMed

We examined the visual processing of a social learning stimulus and the ways in which visual attention was distributed to objects as well as to the examiner's face during word learning under conditions that varied only in the presence or absence of a label. The goal of the current study, then, was to evaluate the effects of differentially providing pointing and labeling during exposure to a novel target object in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n=14, ages 4.33-10.02), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=17, ages 4.04-10.4), or typical development (TD) (n=18, ages 2.05-5.33). In particular, the present study examined attention to the examiner's face as well as target and distracter objects that were presented as video stimuli. An eye-tracker captured gaze to the video stimuli as they were shown in order to examine the way in which children with FXS, ASD, or TD distributed their gaze toward the examiner and the objects. Results indicated that no group showed increased gaze toward the target object compared to the distracter object. However, results revealed that participants with FXS showed significantly increased face gaze compared to the novel objects, whereas children with ASD and TD both showed similar amounts of relative gaze toward the face and objects. Furthermore, the act of pointing at the target object was found to increase gaze toward the target objects compared to when there was no pointing in all groups. Together, these findings suggest that social cues like those employed in a word-learning task, when presented with video, may relate to gaze in FXS in context- or task-dependent ways that are distinct from those expected during live interaction. PMID:25062097

Benjamin, David P; Mastergeorge, Ann M; McDuffie, Andrea S; Kover, Sara T; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard

2014-11-01

437

Effects of Risperidone on Core Symptoms of Autistic Disorder Based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale: An Open Label Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including “relating to others”, “communication skills”, and “stereotyped behaviors” based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001). At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively). However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder. PMID:24701014

Ghaeli, Padideh; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Alimadadi, Abbas; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

2014-01-01

438

Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a pure agricultural vulnerability and (ii) a systemic vulnerability. The first considers the agricultural potential of terrains, the diversity of cultivated crops and the percentage of irrigated area as main driving factors. The second vulnerability aspect consists of geographic units in which a set of socio-economic factors are modeled geographically on the basis of the physical accessibility to market centers in one case, and according to a spatial gravity model of market areas in another case. Results of the model applied to a case study (Niger) and evaluated with food insecurity data, are presented.

Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

2014-05-01

439

Effects of Labels on Perception and its Relation to Visual Working Memory, Implicit Beliefs, and Metacognitive Ability  

E-print Network

Labels hold a great amount of information and power, and they have been shown to affect perception and people?s decisions when making categorical and similarity judgments. This study examines why reliance on labels found in previous studies is so...

Hahn, Amanda 1989-

2011-04-21

440

Environmental labeling and consumers’ choice—an empirical analysis of the effect of the Nordic Swan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provision of information on the environmental effects of consumption is often put forward as an appealing alternative to traditional means of environmental regulation such as permits and environmental taxes. When consumers in opinion polls are asked if their purchasing decisions would be influenced by information on environmental or ethical aspects of products, the majority seem very ready to say yes.

Thomas Bue Bjørner; L. G. Lars Garn Hansen; Clifford S. Russell

2004-01-01

441

Environmental Labelling and Consumer's Choice - An Empirical Analysis of the Effect of the Nordic Swan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provision of information on the environmental effects of consumption is often put forward as an appealing alternative to traditional means of environmental regulation such as permits and environmental taxes. When consumers in opinion polls are asked if their purchasing decisions would be influenced by information on environmental or ethical aspects of products, the majority seem very ready to say yes.

Thomas Bue Bjorner; Lars Garn Hansen; Clifford S. Russell

2002-01-01

442

Brief Report: Labelling Effects on the Perceived Deleterious Consequences of Pop Music Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several correlational studies have supported the claim of conservative protestors that there exists a positive relationship between listening to pop music and adolescent problem behaviours. However, research on the so-called 'prestige effects' has shown that experimental participants' responses to music can be mediated by manipulations of prior…

North, A.C.; Hargreaves, D.J.

2005-01-01

443

Early warning of geohazards using space technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The societal impact of geological hazards is enormous. Every year volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence claim thousands of lives, injure many thousands more, devastate peoples' homes and destroy their livelihoods. The costs of damaged infrastructure are taken higher still by insurance premiums and run into the billions in any currency. This affects rich and poor alike, but with a disproportionate impact on the developing world. As the human population increases and more people live in hazardous areas, this impact grows unsustainably. It must be reduced and that requires increased understanding of the geohazards, improved preparedness for disasters and better ways to manage them when they occur. The inter-related disasters that comprise geohazards are all driven directly by geological processes and share ground deformation as a common thread. This means that they can be addressed using similar technology and understood using related scientific modelling processes. Geohazards are a complex phenomenon and no one method can provide all the necessary information and understanding. It is essential that Earth Observation data are integrated with airborne data, in-situ observations and associated historical data archives, and then analysed using GIS and other modelling tools if these hazards are to be understood and managed. Geohazards occur in one form or another in every country. They do not respect national boundaries and have the potential to cause changes in the atmosphere that will be truly global in effect, requiring a global observing infrastructure to monitor them. The current situation in space research of early warning of geohazards indicates a few phenomena, related with geohazard processes: Earth's deformation, surface temperature, gas and aerosol emission, electromagnetic disturbances in ionosphere. Both horizontal and vertical deformations scaled about tens centimetres and meters measured after the shock. Such deformations are recorded by InSAR technique with confidence. Pre-earthquake deformation are rather small - centimetres. A few cases of deformation mapping after the shock using satellite data are known at present time. Volcanoes, landslides and subsidence indicate clear deformations in centimetre scale before the event. Future development lays in precision SAR systems with medium spatial resolution and combination with GPS technique. Temperature growth is one of the reliable signs of preparing volcano eruption. A few current operational systems using geostationary and polar satellites for volcano monitoring are on duty. There are numerous observations of surface and near surface temperature growth on 3-5 Ñ prior to Earth's crust earthquakes. Modern IR satellite systems simply record such thermal anomalies. Methods of earthquake predictions are developing using thermal IR survey. Gas emission before the eruption is well-known phenomena. A few cases of gas and aerosol content change in atmosphere before the earthquake were described. Satellite methods allow to restore the concentrations of gases in atmosphere: O3, CH4, CO2, CO, H2S, SO2, HCl and aerosol. However the spatial resolution and sensitivity of modern systems are still low. First promising results were obtained only for ozone. Electromagnetic researches of ionosphere in relation with earthquake are widely spread now. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained. A few new ionospheric satellites are prepared for launch. Other auxiliary space technologies are developed: oxygen luminescence, unusual clouds, atmosphere sounding. Thus, we can declarate the need of Integrated Global Observation Strategy for Geohazards - IGOS-Geohazard. Such initiative is developed now under UNESCO patronage.

Tronin, A.

444

Cost-effective production of 13C, 15N stable isotope-labelled biomass from phototrophic microalgae for various biotechnological applications.  

PubMed

The present study outlines a process for the cost-effective production of 13C/15N-labelled biomass of microalgae on a commercial scale. The core of the process is a bubble column photobioreactor with exhaust gas recirculation by means of a low-pressure compressor. To avoid accumulation of dissolved oxygen in the culture, the exhaust gas is bubbled through a sodium sulphite solution prior to its return to the reactor. The engineered system can be used for the production of 13C, 15N, and 13C-15N stable isotope-labelled biomass as required. To produce 13C-labelled biomass, 13CO2 is injected on demand for pH control and carbon supply, whereas for 15N-labelled biomass Na15NO3 is supplied as nitrogen source at the stochiometric concentration. The reactor is operated in semicontinuous mode at different biomass concentrations, yielding a maximum mean biomass productivity of 0.3 gL(-1) day(-1). In order to maximize the uptake efficiency of the labelled substrates, the inorganic carbon is recovered from the supernatant by acidification/desorption processes, while the nitrate is delivered at stochiometric concentration and the harvesting of biomass is performed when the 15NO3- is depleted. In these conditions, elemental analysis of both biomass and supernatant shows that 89.2% of the injected carbon is assimilated into the biomass and 6.9% remains in the supernatant. Based on elemental analysis, 97.8% of the supplied nitrogen is assimilated into the biomass and 1.3% remains in the supernatant. Stable isotope-labelling enrichment has been analysed by GC-MS results showing that the biomass is highly labelled. All the fatty acids are labelled; more than 96% of the carbon present in these fatty acids is 13C. The engineered system was stably operated for 3 months, producing over 160 g of 13C and/or 15N-labelled biomass. The engineered bioreactor can be applied for the labelling of various microalgae. PMID:16257578

Acién Fernández, F G; Fernández Sevilla, J M; Egorova-Zachernyuk, T A; Molina Grima, E

2005-12-01

445

Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

2011-05-01

446

USAID Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS), created by an inter-agency agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA), the US Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) will work toward developing a tsunami early warning and disaster management and response system for the Indian Ocean by utilizing the leadership and technical expertise of India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives, and Indonesia. Inter-agency cooperation combines expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing an infrastructure for real-time data analysis of seismicity and for rapid communication and response networks, 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international logistical and administrative support. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus will be placed on``in-country capacity building,'' so that individual nations will be self-sustaining in the future. This will be accomplished, partly, by training provided by the U.S. Government through workshops, international exchange, and institutionalizing national capabilities. The USGS program was launched in August 2005 and will be implemented over a two-year period.

Coble, M.; Mooney, W.

2005-12-01

447

Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes  

SciTech Connect

The effect of different leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of granulocytes is not known. Thus, the optimum in vitro serologic tests to determine a safe and effective granulocyte transfusion or to diagnose immune destruction of granulocytes in other clinical situations have not been identified. We have studied the effect of granulocyte agglutinating (GA), granulocytotoxic (GC), and lymphocytotoxic (LC) antibodies on the intravascular recovery and half-life (t 1/2) and the extravascular localization of Indium-111-granulocytes in 50 patients. GA antibodies caused reduced granulocyte recovery and t 1/2 in three of three non-neutropenic patients (one with anti-NB1), increased sequestration of cells in the liver, and failure of granulocytes to localize at sites of infection in two of two patients (one with anti-NA1). In contrast, GC antibodies in five patients and LC antibodies in one patient did not cause reduced intravascular recovery or t 1/2 of granulocytes. In nine patients with GC and six patients with LC antibodies, incompatible granulocytes localized at known sites of infection. It appears that GA, but not GC nor LC, antibodies alter the fate in vivo of granulocytes.

McCullough, J.; Weiblen, B.J.; Clay, M.E.; Forstrom, L.

1981-07-01

448

Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

2011-01-01

449

Evaluation of the in vitro effect of a Lantana camara extract on the labeling of blood constituents of rats with technetium-99m.  

PubMed

Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have been used in nuclear medicine procedures and drugs are capable to interfere on this labeling. Lantana camara (lantana) has medicinal properties and it has been used in folk medicine. The aim is to verify the effect of a lantana extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. Blood of rats was incubated with extract, stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. The % of radioactivity (%ATI) in these samples was calculated. Samples of labeled BC were washed and the %ATI maintained (%ATI-M) in the BC was determined. The results showed that lantana extract decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the IF-P from 70.24 +/- 2.59 to 11.95 +/- 3.07. This effect was not observed in the BC and IF-BC. The BC-%ATI-M was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in all concentrations tested when the BC was washed. This fact was not observed in the control. Substances present on the extract should have redoxi action decreasing the concentration of the stannous ion and this condition could justify the effect on the IF-P. The results about the BC-%ATI-M should indicate a possible effect on the transport of ions through the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:18390001

Maiworm, A I; Santos-Filho, S D; Presta, G A; Giani, T S; Paoli, S; Bernardo-Filho, M

2008-03-01

450

EFFECT OF RAPID SHALLOW BREATHING ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF 18-O-LABELED OZONE REACTION PRODUCT IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the effect of breathing pattern on ozone reaction product content within the respiratory tract. Thirty-four anesthetized, maleWistar rats were exposed to oxygen-18 (18O)-labeled ozone at 1.0 ppm for 2 h using a dual-chamber, negative-pressure ventilation system. Fre...

451

Effects of oxygen on the metabolism of nitroxide spin labels in cells  

SciTech Connect

The products of the reduction of nitroxides in cells are the corresponding hydroxylamines, which cells can oxidize back to the nitroxides in the presence of oxygen. Both the reduction of nitroxides and the oxidation of hydroxylamines are enzyme-mediated processes. For lipid-soluble nitroxides, the rates of reduction are strongly dependent on the intracellular concentration of oxygen; severely hypoxic cells reduce nitroxides more rapidly than cells supplied with oxygen. In contrast, the rates of oxidation of hydroxylamines increase smoothly with increasing intracellular oxygen concentration up to 150 microM. In order to separate the effects on the rates of metabolism of nitroxides due directly to oxygen from effects due to the redox state of enzymes, we studied the cells under conditions in which each of these variables could be changed independently. Oxygen affects the metabolism of these nitroxides primarily by interacting with cytochrome c oxidase to change the redox state of the enzymes in the respiratory chain. Our results are consistent with the conclusions that in these cells reduction of lipophilic nitroxides occurs at the level of ubiquinone in the respiratory chain in mitochondria, and oxidation of the corresponding hydroxylamines occurs at the level of cytochrome c oxidase.

Chen, K.; Glockner, J.F.; Morse, P.D. II; Swartz, H.M.

1989-03-21

452

[Antitumor effects of radioiodine labeled KH901 on nude mice bearing hepatoma].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the biological activity in vitro and the antitumor effects of 131I-conditionally replicating oncolytic adenovirus KH901 on HepG2 human hepatoma xenografts, the leves of GM-CSF expression were determined by ELISA method. A panel of tumor and normal cells was infected with recombinant adenovirus KH901 at MOI of 10 PPC. The medium was harvested to determine the bioactivity of GM-CSF after 24 hours. Nude mice bearing HepG2 human hepatoma xenografts were given 131-KH901. Antitumor effects were assessed using endpoints of tumor growth delay. The data showed that after 24 hours 131-KH901 replicated hugely in tumor cells and produced significant amount of GM-CSF 183.27 +/- 6.90 pg/ml, while producing very small amount of GM-CSF 20.44 +/- 0.77 pg/ml in normal cells. In the treatment of tumor, 131I-KH901 showed higher restraint rate (71.3%) compared to 131I (22.7%) or KH901 (52.7%). Therefore, 131-KH901 can inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell in nude mice and it may be a potential drug for treating liver cancer. PMID:20481325

Mi, Yanxia; Li, Yunchun; Long, Yahong

2010-04-01

453

Conspicuity, memorability, comprehension, and priming in road hazard warning signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed driver reactions to 16 road hazard warning signs of various formats by projecting life-sized video of road scenes to drivers in a driving simulator. A range of measures, including attentional and search conspicuity, implicit and explicit recognition, dynamic and static comprehension, and sign priming were collected. Of the signs tested, road works and school warning signs were

Samuel G. Charlton

2006-01-01

454

www.meteoalarm.eu Immediate warnings of dangerous and  

E-print Network

on Internet. A cooperative initiative by more than 30 European countries' national weather services. www.meteoalarm.eu Immediate warnings of dangerous and extreme weather across all of Europe on Internet. A cooperative that are dependent on the weather.Keep an eye on the weather forecasts and warnings and take no unnecessary risks

Haak, Hein

455

URBAN EARTHQUAKE RAPID RESPONSE AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Technological advances in seismic instrumentation and telecommunication permit the implementation of real-time rapid response and early warning systems. During large earthquakes, such systems are capable of providing from a few seconds to a few tens of seconds of warning before the arrival of strong ground shaking and enable quick reports about the damage estimates to determine where emergency response

Mustafa ERDIK

456

Millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has developed a millimeter wave safety warning system for in vehicle signing that is soon to be tested for applicability for use in the nation's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) (formerly IVHS). The Safety Warning System TM (SWS) utilizes a homodyne radar that operates at 24.1 GHz as both a radar and a system to transmit

G. Greneker

1997-01-01

457

Multiple use of an IR missile approach warning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

PIMAWS (Passive IR Missile Approach Warning System) is an Advanced Technology Demonstrator (ATD) for a Passive IR Missile Approach Warning System for use on all flying platforms. The ATD is under development under a contract to the German MoD. First the presentation about PIMAWS will cover the basic design principles to understand, how the system is working (based on real-time

Ingo Schwaetzer

2003-01-01

458

46 CFR 98.30-35 - Warning sign at gangway.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...product with a flashpoint of less than 300 °F unless the person in charge displays at each gangway or access that is open for use a