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Sample records for effective warning labels

  1. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  2. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  3. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  4. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  5. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  6. The instrumental role of product information: a study of warning labels for non-prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Discenza, R; Ferguson, J M

    1992-01-01

    The study extends work in informative labeling, fear appeals, and negative information effects. Respondents were given two labels from two packages, one of which contained the experimental treatment. Warning strength was manipulated at three levels: weak, medium, and strong. The data show that, unlike labels on prescription medications, non-prescription warning labels tend to discourage use of the product. Results have implications for information theorists, marketers, and public policy makers. PMID:10124787

  7. The Alcohol Warning and Adolescents: 5-Year Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, David P.; Nohre, Liva; Pentz, Mary Ann; Stacy, Alan W.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of alcohol warning labels on adolescents during the first 5 years that the warning was required. Surveys of 10th and 12th grade students over 5 years indicated that the initial positive effects of the labels on adolescents leveled off after 3.5 years. The labels have not affected adolescents' beliefs about alcohol or…

  8. Health Warning Labels Might Help Parents Skip the Soda Aisle

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156707.html Health Warning Labels Might Help Parents Skip the Soda ... Child Nutrition Parenting Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Parenting About MedlinePlus Site ...

  9. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17...

  10. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17...

  11. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17...

  12. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioral impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Background Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. Methods We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an ‘emotional reaction’ scale in previous research. Results We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Conclusions Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway PMID:25564288

  13. Are heat warning systems effective?

    PubMed

    Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Fitzgerald, Gerard; Aitken, Peter; Verrall, Kenneth; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Heatwaves are associated with significant health risks particularly among vulnerable groups. To minimize these risks, heat warning systems have been implemented. The question therefore is how effective these systems are in saving lives and reducing heat-related harm. We systematically searched and reviewed 15 studies which examined this. Six studies asserted that fewer people died of excessive heat after the implementation of heat warning systems. Demand for ambulance decreased following the implementation of these systems. One study also estimated the costs of running heat warning systems at US$210,000 compared to the US$468 million benefits of saving 117 lives. The remaining eight studies investigated people's response to heat warning systems and taking appropriate actions against heat harms. Perceived threat of heat dangers emerged as the main factor related to heeding the warnings and taking proper actions. However, barriers, such as costs of running air-conditioners, were of significant concern, particularly to the poor. The weight of the evidence suggests that heat warning systems are effective in reducing mortality and, potentially, morbidity. However, their effectiveness may be mediated by cognitive, emotive and socio-demographic characteristics. More research is urgently required into the cost-effectiveness of heat warning systems' measures and improving the utilization of the services. PMID:23561265

  14. Interpretations of cigarette advertisement warning labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nancy; Gilpin, Dawn R; Lenos, Melissa; Hobbs, Renee

    2011-09-01

    This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications regarding the possibility of wide variations in message interpretations and (b) support the call for public health messages to be carefully tested for effectiveness among different social groups. The article's focus on Puerto Ricans addresses the problem of misleading conclusions that can arise from aggregating all Latino subpopulations into one group. The use of a naturalistic setting to examine interpretations of messages about smoking departs from the experimental methods typically used for such research and provides new evidence that even a seemingly straightforward message can be interpreted in multiple ways. Understanding and addressing differences in message interpretation can guide public health campaigns aimed at reducing health disparities. PMID:21534024

  15. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels must be in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication. ... access point to a regulated area with the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG...

  16. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels must be in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication. ... access point to a regulated area with the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG...

  17. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels must be in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication. ... access point to a regulated area with the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG...

  18. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels must be in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication. ... access point to a regulated area with the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG...

  19. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels must be in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication. ... access point to a regulated area with the following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG...

  20. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17 Section 501.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  1. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17 Section 501.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  2. Responses of young adults to graphic warning labels for cigarette packages

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Linda D.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a series of 36 graphic warning labels for cigarette packages. We sought to evaluate the effects of the labels on fear-related emotions about health consequences of smoking and smoking motivations of young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in 2010–2011 with 325 smokers and non-smokers ages 18–30 years whom we recruited through community distribution lists in North Carolina and through a national survey company. Each participant viewed 27 labels (18 of the proposed labels with graphic images and text warnings and 9 with text-only warnings) in a random order, evaluating each label on understandability and its effects on fear-related reactions and discouragement from wanting to smoke. Results Respondents found most of the proposed labels easy to understand. Of the 36 labels, 64% induced greater fear-related reactions and 58% discouraged respondents from wanting to smoke more than the corresponding text-only labels did. Labels with the greatest effects had photographs (as compared with drawings or other art graphics) or depicted diseased body parts or suffering or dead people. In almost every comparison, smokers reported lower fear-related reactions and feeling less discouraged from wanting to smoke relative to non-smokers. Conclusions Most of the proposed labels enhanced fear-related reactions about health consequences of smoking and reduced motivations to smoke relative to text-only labels, although some had larger effects than others. All but one of the nine warning labels recently adopted by the FDA enhanced fear-related reactions and reduced smoking motivations. PMID:23624558

  3. Perceptions of prescription warning labels within an underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Meyer, Brittney A.; Locke, Michelle R.; Wettergreen, Sara

    Objective To understand how underserved populations attend to prescription warning label (PWL) instructions, examine the importance of PWL instructions to participants and describe the challenges associated with interpreting the information on PWLs. Methods Adults from an underserved population (racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with low income, older adults) who had a history of prescription medication use and were able to understand English took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants were presented with eight different prescription bottles with an attached PWL. Participants were asked, If this prescription was yours, what information would you need to know about the medicine? The number of participants who attended to the warning labels was noted. Other questions assessed the importance of PWLs, the challenges with understanding PWLs, and ways a pharmacist could help participant understanding of the PWL. Results There were 103 participants. The mean age was 50.25 years (SD=18.05). Majority attended to the PWL. Participants not currently taking medications and who had limited health literacy were likely to overlook the warning labels. Majority rated the warning instructions to be extremely important (n=86, 83.5 %), wanted the pharmacist to help them understand PWLs by counseling them on the information on the label (n=63, 61.2%), and thought the graphics made the label information easy to understand. Conclusions PWLs are an important method of communicating medication information, as long as they are easily comprehensible to patients. In addition to placing PWLs on prescription bottles, health care providers need to counsel underserved populations on medication warnings, especially individuals with limited health literacy who are not currently using a prescription medication. PMID:24644523

  4. History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products. PMID:24518387

  5. Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label.

    PubMed

    Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J

    2013-09-01

    The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli. PMID:23688859

  6. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  7. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with

  8. Graphic Warning Labels Elicit Affective and Thoughtful Responses from Smokers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Abigail T.; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Emery, Lydia F.; Sheerin, Kaitlin M.; Romer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observational research suggests that placing graphic images on cigarette warning labels can reduce smoking rates, but field studies lack experimental control. Our primary objective was to determine the psychological processes set in motion by naturalistic exposure to graphic vs. text-only warnings in a randomized clinical trial involving exposure to modified cigarette packs over a 4-week period. Theories of graphic-warning impact were tested by examining affect toward smoking, credibility of warning information, risk perceptions, quit intentions, warning label memory, and smoking risk knowledge. Methods Adults who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes daily (N = 293; mean age = 33.7), did not have a contra-indicated medical condition, and did not intend to quit were recruited from Philadelphia, PA and Columbus, OH. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive their own brand of cigarettes for four weeks in one of three warning conditions: text only, graphic images plus text, or graphic images with elaborated text. Results Data from 244 participants who completed the trial were analyzed in structural-equation models. The presence of graphic images (compared to text-only) caused more negative affect toward smoking, a process that indirectly influenced risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk perception->quit intention). Negative affect from graphic images also enhanced warning credibility including through increased scrutiny of the warnings, a process that also indirectly affected risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk scrutiny->warning credibility->risk perception->quit intention). Unexpectedly, elaborated text reduced warning credibility. Finally, graphic warnings increased warning-information recall and indirectly increased smoking-risk knowledge at the end of the trial and one month later. Conclusions In the first naturalistic clinical trial conducted, graphic warning labels are more effective than text-only warnings in encouraging smokers to consider quitting and in educating them about smoking’s risks. Negative affective reactions to smoking, thinking about risks, and perceptions of credibility are mediators of their impact. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01782053 PMID:26672982

  9. The evolution of health warning labels on cigarette packs: the role of precedents, and tobacco industry strategies to block diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the evolution and diffusion of health warnings on cigarette packs around the world, including tobacco industry attempts to block this diffusion. Methods We analysed tobacco industry documents and public sources to construct a database on the global evolution and diffusion of health warning labels from 1966 to 2012, and also analysed industry strategies. Results Health warning labels, especially labels with graphic elements, threaten the tobacco industry because they are a low-cost, effective measure to reduce smoking. Multinational tobacco companies did not object to voluntary innocuous warnings with ambiguous health messages, in part because they saw them as offering protection from lawsuits and local packaging regulations. The companies worked systematically at the international level to block or weaken warnings once stronger more specific warnings began to appear in the 1970s. Since 1985 in Iceland, the tobacco industry has been aware of the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GWHL). The industry launched an all-out attack in the early 1990s to prevent GHWLs, and was successful in delaying GHWLs internationally for nearly 10 years. Conclusions Beginning in 2005, as a result of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), GHWLs began to spread. Effective implementation of FCTC labelling provisions has stimulated diffusion of strong health warning labels despite industry opposition. PMID:23092884

  10. Implementation of effective cigarette health warning labels among low and middle income countries: State capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigates the effects of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FTCT), state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity on the implementation of effective health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packs among low and middle income countries (LMIC). Using logistic regression in separate analyses for FCTC Article 11 compliant HWLs and graphic HWLs (GHWL), we found that the odds of FCTC compliance increased by a factor of 1.31 for each year after FCTC entered into force in the country (p<0.01). The odds of passing GHWLs increased by a factor of 1.46 (p<0.05) per year after FCTC entered into force. The weaker the capacity of the states were, the less likely they were to have implemented FCTC compliant HWLs (p<0.05). The countries with voluntary HWLs in 1992 were less likely (OR= 0.19, p<0.01) to comply with FCTC 21 years later (in 2013). The FCTC has promoted HWL policies among LMICs. Public health regulations require investments in broader state capacity. As the theory of path-dependency predicts voluntary agreements have long lasting influence on the direction of tobacco control in a country. Adopting voluntary HWL policies reduced likelihood of having FCTC compliant HWLs decades later. The fact that voluntary agreements delayed effective tobacco regulations suggests that policymakers must be careful of accepting industry efforts for voluntary agreements in other areas of public health as well, such as alcohol and junk food. PMID:25462428

  11. Implementation of effective cigarette health warning labels among low and middle income countries: state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity.

    PubMed

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    We investigates the effects of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FTCT), state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity on the implementation of effective health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packs among low and middle income countries (LMIC). Using logistic regression in separate analyses for FCTC Article 11 compliant HWLs and graphic HWLs (GHWL), we found that the odds of FCTC compliance increased by a factor of 1.31 for each year after FCTC entered into force in the country (p < 0.01). The odds of passing GHWLs increased by a factor of 1.46 (p < 0.05) per year after FCTC entered into force. The weaker the capacity of the states were, the less likely they were to have implemented FCTC compliant HWLs (p < 0.05). The countries with voluntary HWLs in 1992 were less likely (OR = 0.19, p < 0.01) to comply with FCTC 21 years later (in 2013). The FCTC has promoted HWL policies among LMICs. Public health regulations require investments in broader state capacity. As the theory of path-dependency predicts voluntary agreements have long lasting influence on the direction of tobacco control in a country. Adopting voluntary HWL policies reduced likelihood of having FCTC compliant HWLs decades later. The fact that voluntary agreements delayed effective tobacco regulations suggests that policymakers must be careful of accepting industry efforts for voluntary agreements in other areas of public health as well, such as alcohol and junk food. PMID:25462428

  12. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Do, Kathy T; Galvn, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  13. The Efficacy of Cigarette Warning Labels on Health Beliefs in the United States and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    MUTTI, SEEMA; HAMMOND, DAVID; REID, JESSICA L.; THRASHER, JAMES F.

    2013-01-01

    Concern over health risks is the most common motivation for quitting smoking. Health warnings on tobacco packages are among the most prominent interventions to convey the health risks of smoking. Face-to-face surveys were conducted in Mexico (n=1,072), and a web-based survey was conducted in the US (n=1,449) to examine the efficacy of health warning labels on health beliefs. Respondents were randomly assigned to view two sets of health warnings (each with one text-only warning and 5–6 pictorial warnings) for two different health effects. Respondents were asked whether they believed smoking caused 12 different health effects. Overall, the findings indicate high levels of health knowledge in both countries for some health effects, although significant knowledge gaps remained; for example: less than half of respondents agreed that smoking causes impotence and less than one third agreed that smoking causes gangrene. Mexican respondents endorsed a greater number of correct beliefs about the health impact of smoking than the US sample. In both countries, viewing related health warning labels increased beliefs about the health risks of smoking, particularly for less well-known health effects, such as gangrene, impotence, and stroke. PMID:23905611

  14. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed. PMID:17450995

  15. Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

    2012-04-01

    Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking. PMID:22385817

  16. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the...

  17. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the...

  18. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the...

  19. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the...

  20. 40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning... Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition on removal. Except as... manufacturer of a product that incorporates a product that is accompanied by a label bearing the...

  1. Implications of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior: An International Perspective.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-03-01

    Graphic warning labels (GWLs) have been developed as a representative non-price policy to block such marketing. This study investigated the current state and effect of the global introduction of GWLs and examines the future tasks related to GWLs. We systematically reviewed literatures on GWL and a tobacco control strategy in the past fifteen years. The policy of enforcing GWLs has spread globally based on the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. GWLs are more effective than text warnings and are implemented in over 70 countries. The policy has showed the impact of GWLs as a preventive effect on adolescents' smoking, inducement of smoking cessation, reduction in the amount of tobacco smoked, and reduction in smoking rates. The success of an anti-smoking policy can manifests itself as an effect of individual policies, the rise of tobacco prices, and the introduction of GWLs. PMID:27051645

  2. Implications of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior: An International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Graphic warning labels (GWLs) have been developed as a representative non-price policy to block such marketing. This study investigated the current state and effect of the global introduction of GWLs and examines the future tasks related to GWLs. We systematically reviewed literatures on GWL and a tobacco control strategy in the past fifteen years. The policy of enforcing GWLs has spread globally based on the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. GWLs are more effective than text warnings and are implemented in over 70 countries. The policy has showed the impact of GWLs as a preventive effect on adolescents’ smoking, inducement of smoking cessation, reduction in the amount of tobacco smoked, and reduction in smoking rates. The success of an anti-smoking policy can manifests itself as an effect of individual policies, the rise of tobacco prices, and the introduction of GWLs. PMID:27051645

  3. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Form of label bearing warning statement. 82.110 Section 82.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.110 Form of label bearing...

  4. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... warning statement shall be the standard chemical name of the substance as listed in 40 CFR part 82... matter on the label. The warning statement shall appear in sharp contrast to any background upon which it... contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light...

  5. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... warning statement shall be the standard chemical name of the substance as listed in 40 CFR part 82... matter on the label. The warning statement shall appear in sharp contrast to any background upon which it... contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light...

  6. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... warning statement shall be the standard chemical name of the substance as listed in 40 CFR part 82... matter on the label. The warning statement shall appear in sharp contrast to any background upon which it... contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light...

  7. 40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... warning statement shall be the standard chemical name of the substance as listed in 40 CFR part 82... matter on the label. The warning statement shall appear in sharp contrast to any background upon which it... contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light...

  8. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be...

  9. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be...

  10. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be...

  11. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be...

  12. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be...

  13. The effect of cancer warning statements on alcohol consumption intentions.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with attitudinal, intentions and demographic items, the survey included an online simulation that exposed respondents to one of six cancer warning statements delivered across a range of situational contexts. Half of the statements made general reference to cancer and half mentioned specific forms of cancer. Respondents reported on the believability, convincingness and personal relevance of the warning statements. Pre- and post-exposure data were captured relating to respondents' alcohol consumption intentions. Of the six statements tested, Alcohol increases your risk of bowel cancer produced the highest scores across all outcome measures. All statements produced favorable changes in alcohol consumption intentions, including among high-risk drinkers. There is thus the potential for these and similar statements to be used as a suite of rotating warning messages located on alcoholic beverage labels and applied in various public education contexts. PMID:26787351

  14. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants

  15. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. Methods The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13–17 years, young adults aged 18–24 years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups with high smoking prevalence or smoking risk. Using nine graphic labels, this study collected participant data in the field via an iPad-administered survey and card sorting of graphic warning labels. This paper reports on findings for AI/AN participants. Results After viewing graphic warning labels, participants rated their likelihood of talking about smoking risks to friends, parents and siblings higher than their likelihood of talking to teachers and doctors. Further, this study found that certain labels (eg, the label of the toddler in the smoke cloud) made them think about their friends and family who smoke. Conclusions Given the influence of community social networks on health beliefs and attitudes, health communication using graphic warning labels could effect change in the smoking habits of AI/AN community members. Study findings suggest that graphic labels could serve as stimuli for conversations about the risks of smoking among AI/AN community members, and could be an important element of a peer-to-peer smoking cessation effort. PMID:27009143

  16. Mediational pathways of the impact of cigarette warning labels on quit attempts

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F.; Thompson, Mary E.; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Cummings, K. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test and develop, using structural equation modelling, a robust model of the mediational pathways through which health warning labels exert their influence on smokers’ subsequent quitting behaviour. Methods Data come from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort study conducted in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. Waves 5–6 data (n=4988) were used to calibrate the hypothesized model of warning label impact on subsequent quit attempts via a set of policy-specific and general psychosocial mediators. The finalised model was validated using Waves 6–7 data (n=5065). Results As hypothesized, warning label salience was positively associated with thoughts about risks of smoking stimulated by the warnings (β=.58, p<.001), which in turn were positively related to increased worry about negative outcomes of smoking (β=.52, p<.001); increased worry in turn predicted stronger intention to quit (β=.39, p<.001) which was a strong predictor of subsequent quit attempts (β=.39, p<.001). This calibrated model was successfully replicated using Waves 6–7 data. Conclusions Health warning labels seem to influence future quitting attempts primarily through their ability to stimulate thoughts about the risks of smoking, which in turn help to raise smoking-related health concerns, which lead to stronger intentions to quit, a known key predictor of future quit attempts for smokers. By making warning labels more salient and engaging, they should have a greater chance to change behaviour. PMID:24977309

  17. Estimating the impact of different cigarette package warning label policies: the auction method.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Rousu, Matthew C; Anaya-Ocampo, Rafael; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2007-12-01

    The study estimated the reduction in demand associated with implementing cigarette package warning labels that contain imagery illustrating the consequences of smoking. The experimental auction method was used, wherein adult smokers in Mexico (n=89) placed separate bids on two packs of cigarettes: one with a text-only warning label and the other with a warning label that included text and a graphic image. Differences in the values attributed to each pack were assessed using t-tests and multivariate regression. The pack with the graphic image had a mean attributed value which was 17% lower ($3.21 pesos) than the pack with the text-only warning, and this difference remained statistically significant within subgroups defined by sociodemographics, amount of smoking, number of quit attempts, and levels of perceived smoking risks. In the multivariate model, the difference in attributed values was greater among females than males, but no such differences were found for other sociodemographic or smoking-related variables. The consistently lower value that smokers attributed to cigarette packages with the graphic warning label indicates that these labels are likely to reduce cigarette demand. PMID:17630221

  18. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  19. Was the media campaign that supported Australia’s new pictorial cigarette warning labels and plain packaging policy associated with more attention to and talking about warning labels?

    PubMed Central

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Osman, Amira; Yong, Hua-Hie; Huang, Li-Ling; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-level interventions can possibly enhance each other’s effects when they are implemented simultaneously. When the plain packaging policy was implemented in Australia, pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages were also updated and a national mass media campaign was aired. This study examined whether smokers who recalled the media campaign reported more attention to and talking about HWLs. Methods Longitudinal survey data was obtained among Australian adult smokers, aged 18 years and older, from an online consumer panel. One survey wave was conducted before (September 2012) and two waves were conducted after (January 2013 and May 2013) the interventions. The sample was replenished to maintain a sample size of 1000 participants at each wave. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. Results Compared to wave 1, attention to HWLs increased at wave 2 (b = 0.32, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001), but not at wave 3 (b = 0.10, SE = 0.08, p = 0.198). Talking about HWLs increased over time (IRR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.58–2.09 and IRR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05–1.47, at wave 2 and wave 3 respectively). Campaign recall was significantly associated with more attention to HWLs (b = 0.29, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001) and with more talking about HWLs (IRR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29) with similar effects across waves 2 and 3. Conclusions Recall of the campaign was associated with more attention to and talking about HWLs. When adjusting for campaign recall, there was still an increasing trend in attention and talking. This suggests that the media campaign and the new packaging and labeling policies had independent and positive effects on attention to and talking about HWLs. PMID:26050643

  20. Interpretations of risk: the use of scientific information in the development of the alcohol warning label policy.

    PubMed

    Kaskutas, L A

    1995-01-01

    In 1988 the US Congress passed a law requiring a health warning label on alcoholic beverage containers, to include the message that pregnant women should not drink alcohol. This paper addresses the role that scientific knowledge played in the formation and passage of the alcohol warning label policy. The constellation of birth defects implicated in the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (including fetal alcohol effects) is sketched, and the FAS-related legislative events leading to the law's passage are described. A synopsis of the state of knowledge in 1988 regarding the effects of alcohol on the fetus is presented, and a snapshot of the social climate at that time is offered. The paper concludes with an update of relevant FAS research since the legislation was passed, and considers implications for future research and policy in the prevention of FAS. PMID:8557408

  1. Children's misunderstandings of hazard warning signs in the new globally harmonized system for classification and labeling.

    PubMed

    Latham, Garry; Long, Tony; Devitt, Patric

    2013-12-01

    Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35 000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n = 49) and a second school provided a control group (n = 23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p = 0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention. PMID:23964825

  2. 19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18.4 Section 18.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions § 18.4 Sealing conveyances...

  3. Cancer illustrations and warning labels on cigarette packs: perceptions of teenagers from high socioeconomic status in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Zil-E-Ali, Ahsan; Ahsen, Noor Fatima; Iqbal, Humaira

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is linked with adverse health outcomes and multi-organ diseases with six million deaths every year. The smoking population includes both genders and the habit is seen in minors as well. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore among teenagers belonging to high socioeconomic class. A sample of 191 students was recruited by convenience sampling. The teenagers were questioned on their perceptions relating to prohibition labels, factors that led them to smoke, and ideas to make health warnings more effective. Overall, 66(34.55%) teenagers were smokers, and of them, 50(75.75%) were boys and 16(24.24%) were girls. Besides, 25(37.9%) smokers were of the view that smoking is a bad habit; 40(60.6%) said prohibition labels would not change the mindset of the smoker; 35(53%)believed that a smoker is completely uninfluenced by prohibition labels. Results suggest that the warning labels on cigarette packs should be made more comprehensible and alarming for smokers. PMID:26060175

  4. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-03-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  5. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Langleben, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study’s objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  6. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: effects on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Bury, Belinda; Hawkins, Kimberley; Firth, Bonny

    2013-01-01

    Recent proposals across a number of Western countries have suggested that idealised media images should carry some sort of disclaimer informing readers when these images have been digitally enhanced. The present studies aimed to experimentally investigate the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of the addition of such warning labels to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 120 and 114 female undergraduate students in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 respectively. In both experiments, participants viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no warning label, a generic warning label, or a specific more detailed warning label. In neither experiment was there a significant effect of type of label. However, state appearance comparison was found to predict change in body dissatisfaction irrespective of condition. Unexpectedly, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of label on body dissatisfaction, such that for women high on trait appearance comparison, exposure to specific warning labels actually resulted in increased body dissatisfaction. In sum, the present results showed no benefit of warning labels in ameliorating the known negative effect of viewing thin-ideal media images, and even suggested that one form of warning (specific) might be harmful for some individuals. Accordingly, it was concluded that more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of disclaimer labels. PMID:22947622

  7. A pilot study of research methods for determining the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels among smokers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Science to determine the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels can inform decisions about warning label implementation and adjustments to their contents to maximize impact. This pilot study builds from earlier research on plain cigarette packaging to examine the feasibility of a method for determining the impact of pictorial warnings among smokers. Findings The study was a prospective, within-subjects pilot trial where smokers ages 18–30 (n = 10) were exposed to pictorial warnings on their cigarette packs. On day one, participants completed a baseline interview with an expired carbon monoxide reading and affixed pictorial warning labels to their cigarette pack(s) they would use the next day. On day two, participants completed mobile phone text message assessments of smoking behaviors and protocol adherence. On day three, participants completed a follow-up interview similar to baseline. We achieved 100% sample retention and adherence with procedures. Compared with baseline assessments of perceptions and behaviors related to existing text-only warnings, at follow-up participants were more likely to report that pictorial warnings used during the study were noticeable (M 4.1, SD 1.3 vs. M 2.7, SD 1.2, p = .013), stopped them from smoking (M 1.6, SD 0.8 vs. M 1.1, SD 0.3, p = .052), and conveyed health risks of smoking (M 3.5 SD 1.3 vs. M 2.2, SD 1.1, p = .006). At follow-up, participants also reported the protocol was acceptable. Conclusions These findings suggest this is a feasible method that with further validation could provide evidence that can inform decisions regarding implementation of pictorial cigarette warnings. PMID:25276116

  8. Thermoregulation constrains effective warning signal expression.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Carita; Lindström, Leena; Mappes, Johanna

    2009-02-01

    Evolution of conspicuous signals may be constrained if animal coloration has nonsignaling as well as signaling functions. In aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) larvae, the size of a warning signal (orange patch on black body) varies phenotypically and genetically. Although a large warning signal is favored as an antipredator defense, we hypothesized that thermoregulation may constrain the signal size in colder habitats. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a factorial rearing experiment with two selection lines for larval coloration (small and large signal) and with two temperature manipulations (high and low temperature environment). Temperature constrained the size and brightness of the warning signal. Larvae with a small signal had an advantage in the colder environment, which was demonstrated by a faster development time and growth rate in the low temperature treatment, compared to larvae with a large signal. Interestingly, the larvae with a small signal were found more often on the plant than the ones with a large signal, suggesting higher basking activity of the melanic (small signal) individuals in the low temperature. We conclude that the expression of aposematic display is not only defined by its efficacy against predators; variation in temperature may constrain evolution of a conspicuous warning signal and maintain variation in it. PMID:19154362

  9. A qualitative content analysis of cigarette health warning labels in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone

    2015-02-01

    The legislation of health warning labels on cigarette packaging is a major focus for tobacco control internationally and is a key component of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This population-level intervention is broadly supported as a vital measure for warning people about the health consequences of smoking. However, some components of this approach warrant close critical inspection. Through a qualitative content analysis of the imagery used on health warning labels from 4 countries, we consider how this imagery depicts people that smoke. By critically analyzing this aspect of the visual culture of tobacco control, we argue that this imagery has the potential for unintended consequences, and obscures the social and embodied contexts in which smoking is experienced. PMID:25521883

  10. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia

  11. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  12. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement...

  13. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement...

  14. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement...

  15. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement...

  16. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement...

  17. Investigating the Effectiveness of Pictorial Health Warnings in Mauritius: Findings From the ITC Mauritius Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kaai, Susan C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Driezen, Pete; Quah, Anne C. K.; Burhoo, Premduth

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages are an effective strategy for informing the public about the harms associated with tobacco use. Most studies investigating the effectiveness of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on cigarette packages are from high-income countries. This study evaluated the impact of PHWs on smokers’ perceptions and behavior in Mauritius, the first country in the World Health Organization African region to implement PHWs. Methods: Data were drawn from 3 waves of a nationally representative cohort of adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mauritius Survey (n = 668). Wave 1 was conducted in 2009, 6 months prior to the implementation of PHWs. Waves 2 and 3 were conducted 10–12 months and 20–21 months, respectively, postimplementation. Six established indicators of warning effectiveness were used to evaluate the effect of PHWs on smokers’ perceptions and behavior. Results: All indicators of warning effectiveness (salience, cognitive, and behavioral reactions) and the Label Impact Index, a weighted combination of 4 indicators, increased significantly between Waves 1 and 2. However, between Waves 2 and 3, there was a significant decline in the proportion of smokers who reported “avoiding looking” at labels. Conclusions: This study found that implementation of PHWs in Mauritius significantly enhanced the effectiveness of warnings, illustrating their value for other countries, particularly in Africa, at an early stage in tobacco control. The study also demonstrates the importance of revising PHWs to counteract wearout. The introduction of PHWs in Mauritius clearly demonstrates the benefits of employing an evidence-based approach to strengthen tobacco control policies. PMID:24747120

  18. Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

  19. Effects of road surface appearance and low friction warning systems on driver behaviour and confidence in the warning system.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Katja; Thorslund, Birgitta

    2009-02-01

    Warning systems for slippery road conditions are a potential newcomer among driver support systems. A total of 75 participants drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator on roads with both visible and invisible ice, to investigate to which extent drivers rely on a low friction warning system. Three experimental groups with different versions of a low friction warning system and a control group without warning system were compared. All drivers ranked the systems according to trust. A system displaying recommended speed received the best ratings. Driving speed was analysed for three particular segments of the route. Generally, lowest speeds were achieved with the recommended speed system. The participants drove more slowly on a slippery segment that looked icy than on the segments that looked dry when they did not receive a low friction warning. When they received a warning for low friction they also lowered their speed for the segment looking like asphalt. The results provide guidelines for how to present low friction warnings to drivers. The design has substantial effects on the resulting behaviour and therefore it can have a high impact on traffic safety. So far, not much research on low friction warning systems has been reported. PMID:18937091

  20. Is the Effectiveness of Tobacco Image-Based Warning Labels Likely to Vary by Socio-Demographic Variable? Findings from an Online Survey of 19,000 Members of the UK Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles, Maggie; Williams, Brian; Humphris, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Smoking continues to be a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. Countries have increasingly adopted the use of images as warnings on cigarette packs. We aimed to investigate the likely differential impact of varied images and messages on sub-groups of the United Kingdom (UK) smoking population. Methods: Forty two images

  1. Is the Effectiveness of Tobacco Image-Based Warning Labels Likely to Vary by Socio-Demographic Variable? Findings from an Online Survey of 19,000 Members of the UK Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles, Maggie; Williams, Brian; Humphris, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Smoking continues to be a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. Countries have increasingly adopted the use of images as warnings on cigarette packs. We aimed to investigate the likely differential impact of varied images and messages on sub-groups of the United Kingdom (UK) smoking population. Methods: Forty two images…

  2. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental information to increase the public's understanding of earthquake shaking and protective behaviors.

  3. The Case for Requiring Graphic Warning Labels on Smokeless Tobacco Product Packages.

    PubMed

    Pakhale, Smita; Samet, Jonathan; Folan, Patricia; Leone, Frank; White, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    On November 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, the sale of smokeless tobacco products authorized under the new premarket tobacco application pathway. This Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision draws attention to the growing worldwide use of smokeless tobacco products in general. Use of these tobacco products is particularly popular in low- and middle-income countries of Asia. Due to aggressive and strategic marketing to children, young adults, and current smokers, rates of smokeless tobacco use in men of all ages are on the rise in United States and elsewhere. The tobacco industry also continues to market these products to current cigarette smokers for use in the growing number of "smoke-free environments." Smokeless tobacco products are associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas; cardiovascular diseases; small-for-gestational-age infants; premature births; increased risk of apnea; and stillbirth. There is no convincing evidence regarding the efficacy of smokeless tobacco, including snus, to promote smoking cessation. Rather, studies from Europe and the United States demonstrate that smokeless tobacco use may facilitate regular cigarette smoking by acting as a gateway drug, especially for children. Caution is warranted before proposing smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction strategy, in part because of the potential for further promoting smokeless tobacco in low- and middle-income countries where use is already widespread. Continued vigilance through comprehensive surveillance is warranted. We strongly recommend the use of graphic warning labels as a "no regrets" strategy for all smokeless tobacco products marketed globally. PMID:26784741

  4. Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

    2015-03-01

    In the evolving landscape of tobacco use, it remains unclear how tobacco control efforts should be designed and promoted for maximum impact. The current study links the identification of latent classes of young adult combustible tobacco users with anticipated responses to graphic health warning labels (HWLs). Data were collected in January 2012 using an online address-based panel as part of the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study, and analyses were conducted in 2013. Latent class analyses identified five groups of tobacco users in a national sample of 4,236 young adults aged 18-34years: (1) little cigar/cigarillo/bidi (LCC) and hookah users (4%); (2) nonusers, open to smoking (3%); (3) daily smokers who self-identify as "smokers" (11%); (4) nondaily, light smokers who self-identify as "social or occasional smokers" (9%); and (5) nonusers closed to smoking (73%). Of the nonusers closed to smoking, 23% may be better characterized as at risk for tobacco initiation. Results indicate differences in the potential effectiveness of HWLs across classes. Compared to the daily "smokers," LCC and hookah users (RRR=2.35) and nonusers closed to smoking (RRR=2.33) were more than twice as likely to report that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking. This study supports the potential of graphic HWLs to prevent young nonusers from using tobacco products. It suggests that the extension of prominent HWLs to other tobacco products, including LCCs and hookah tobacco, may also serve a prevention function. PMID:25437268

  5. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82... children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by...

  6. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82... children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by...

  7. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82... children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by...

  8. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82... children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by...

  9. 21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-depleting substance designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82... children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems. (3) The warning statement required by...

  10. Do more graphic and aversive cigarette health warning labels affect Brazilian smokers' likelihood of quitting?

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Volchan, Eliane; Thrasher, James F; Perez, Cristina; Szklo, Moysés; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence, with an innovative round of aversive pictorial health warnings implemented on cigarette packs and at points of sale in 2009. The objective of this study was to examine changes over time in the distribution of quitting attempts and self-reported thoughts about quitting due to health warnings among current smokers. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate data from two nationally-representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013. Responses to questions on smokers' quitting attempts in the last year (yes vs. no) and whether health warnings led them to think about quitting in the last month (yes vs. no) were combined into four categories, for which the distribution of the Brazilian smoking population by year was estimated. A multinomial model was used to obtain proportions for each category, adjusted by socio-demographic variables and nicotine dependence. The proportion of smokers who reported making a quitting attempt in the last year and stated that health warnings led them think about quitting smoking statistically increased over time (from 30.0% to 33.1%; p-value=0.010). The percentage of those who answered "no" to these two questions also increased over time (from 23.5% to 32.9%; p-value≤0.001). These findings suggest that innovative warnings introduced in Brazil likely served as a "reminder" for continuing to think about cessation among those who attempted to quit in the last year. These warnings may have also triggered more avoidance of thinking about their contents than the previous warnings, which some studies have found to promote subsequent quitting activity. PMID:27161535

  11. Warning. Workers at Risk, Train Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmerling, George F.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Hazard Communication Rule, also known as the Federal "right-to-know" law, aimed specifically at the chemical industry. He discusses content of the law, the role of trainers, input of labor unions, the effectiveness of safety training programs, and prepackaged training…

  12. The communication triangle: elements of an effective warning message

    SciTech Connect

    Vaught, C.; Brnich, M.J. Jr.; Mallett, L.

    2007-01-15

    The lack of good communication is a very real problem in mine emergencies. To counter communication breakdowns, researchers at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory developed the Emergency Communication Triangle. It is a training intervention designed to help those giving a warning to provide the right sort of information and those receiving a warning to ask the right questions. The Triangle has six ordered components with the first three considered most important. The Emergency Communication is packaged as a short safety talk to be given by supervisors at the start of a shift. It was first tested in 1998 with a group of 236 workers at an underground mine in Colorado, and proved effective. It was followed up in 2003 and again in 2004. Now, more than half the miners would report who was affected by an event, 60% would report in its severity, and 70% would say what had been done so far. 3 figs.

  13. Women’s Perspectives on Smoking and Pregnancy and Graphic Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Denise M.; Stone-Wiggins, Brenda; O’Hegarty, Michelle; Tong, Van T.; Polen, Kara N. D.; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Council, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore women’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about adverse outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy and which outcomes might motivate cessation; to explore reactions to graphic warnings depicting 2 adverse outcomes. Methods Twelve focus groups were conducted with women of childbearing age who were current smokers. Results Participants had low to moderate awareness of many outcomes and believed it was acceptable to smoke in the first trimester before knowledge of pregnancy. Perceived susceptibility to outcomes was low. Motivators included risk-focused information, especially serious risks to the baby (eg, stillbirth, SIDS). Graphic warnings produced strong reactions, especially the warning with a real photo. Conclusions Despite barriers to reducing rates of smoking during pregnancy, educational information and photos depicting babies’ risks could motivate women to quit. PMID:24933145

  14. Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Smoking Prevalence in Canada: A Critical Examination and Reformulation of the FDA Regulatory Impact Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The estimated effect of cigarette graphic warning labels (GWLs) on smoking rates is a key input to FDA's regulatory impact analysis (RIA), required by law as part of its rulemaking process. However, evidence on the impact of GWLs on smoking prevalence is scarce. Objective The goal of this paper is to critically analyze FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates in its RIA, and to suggest a path forward to estimating the impact of the adoption of GWLs in Canada on Canadian national adult smoking prevalence. Methods A quasi-experimental methodology was employed to examine the impact of adoption of GWLs in Canada in 2000, using the U.S. as a control. Findings We found a statistically significant reduction in smoking rates after the adoption of GWLs in Canada in comparison to the U.S. Our analyses show that implementation of GWLs in Canada reduced smoking rates by 2.87 to 4.68 percentage points, a relative reduction of 12.1 to 19.6% — 33 to 53 times larger than FDA's estimates of a 0.088 percentage point reduction. We also demonstrated that FDA's estimate of the impact was flawed because it is highly sensitive to the changes in variable selection, model specification, and the time period analyzed. Conclusions Adopting GWLs on cigarette packages reduces smoking prevalence. Applying our analysis of the Canadian GWLs, we estimate that if the U.S. had adopted GWLs in 2012, the number of adult smokers in the U.S. would have decreased by 5.3 to 8.6 million in 2013. Our analysis demonstrates that FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates is flawed. Rectifying these problems before this approach becomes the norm is critical for FDA's effective regulation of tobacco products. PMID:24218057

  15. Adolescents' Attention to Traditional and Graphic Tobacco Warning Labels: An Eye-Tracking Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would 1) increase visual…

  16. Perceptions and Perceived Impact of Graphic Cigarette Health Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior Among U.S. Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration published a final rule requiring cigarette packages and advertisements to include graphic health warning labels (HWLs) with new warning statements. Implementation of this rule has been stalled by legal challenge. This study assessed correlates of smoking-related intentions related to graphic HWLs among current cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in a national sample of U.S. young adults aged 18–34. Methods: Data were collected from 4,236 participants aged 18–34 using an online panel in January 2012 for the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study. Analyses were weighted to provide nationally representative estimates. Our main outcome was assessed with a single item: “Do you think that new warning labels with graphic pictures would make you think about not smoking?” Results: Twenty-two percent of the young adults were current cigarette smokers. Fifty-three percent endorsed that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking (40% among current smokers compared with 56% among nonsmokers). Among nonsmokers, those aged 18–24, females, Hispanics, and those who were aware of graphic cigarette HWLs were more likely to report intention to not smoke related to graphic HWLs. Among current smokers, intending to quit within the next 6 months was correlated with intention resulting from graphic HWLs. Hispanic ethnicity and intention to quit within 30 days were strong correlates of intention in light, nondaily, and self-identified social/occasional smokers. Conclusions: This study supports previous findings that graphic HWLs play an important role in preventing smoking, in addition to encouraging cessation in young adults. PMID:24212476

  17. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  18. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  19. The Impact of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels and Smoke-Free Law on Health Awareness and Thoughts of Quitting in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-yu

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of Taiwan's graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on awareness of the health hazards of smoking and thoughts of quitting smoking. National representative samples of 1074 and 1094 people, respectively, were conducted successfully by telephone in July 2008 (pre-law) and March 2009 (post-law).…

  20. Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, M.; Bründl, M.; Straub, D.

    2015-07-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are increasingly applied as preventive measures within an integrated risk management approach for natural hazards. At present, common standards and detailed guidelines for the evaluation of their effectiveness are lacking. To support decision-makers in the identification of optimal risk mitigation measures, a three-step framework approach for the evaluation of EWS is presented. The effectiveness is calculated in function of the technical and the inherent reliability of the EWS. The framework is applicable to automated and non-automated EWS and combinations thereof. To address the specifics and needs of a wide variety of EWS designs, a classification of EWS is provided, which focuses on the degree of automations encountered in varying EWS. The framework and its implementation are illustrated through a series of example applications of EWS in an alpine environment.

  1. Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, M.; Bründl, M.; Straub, D.

    2016-01-01

    Early warning systems (EWSs) are increasingly applied as preventive measures within an integrated risk management approach for natural hazards. At present, common standards and detailed guidelines for the evaluation of their effectiveness are lacking. To support decision-makers in the identification of optimal risk mitigation measures, a three-step framework approach for the evaluation of EWSs is presented. The effectiveness is calculated in function of the technical and the inherent reliability of the EWS. The framework is applicable to automated and non-automated EWSs and combinations thereof. To address the specifics and needs of a wide variety of EWS designs, a classification of EWSs is provided, which focuses on the degree of automations encountered in varying EWSs. The framework and its implementation are illustrated through a series of example applications of EWS in an alpine environment.

  2. The misinformation effect is unrelated to the DRM effect with and without a DRM warning.

    PubMed

    Calvillo, Dustin P; Parong, Jocelyn A

    2016-03-01

    The misinformation and Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigms are used to study forms of false memories. Despite the abundance of research using these two paradigms, few studies have examined the relationship between the errors that arise from them. In the present study, 160 participants completed a misinformation task and two DRM tasks, receiving a warning about the effect before the second DRM task. Participants demonstrated misinformation and DRM effects (with and without the warning), but susceptibility to these forms of false memory were not significantly related across individuals. The DRM warning reduced the DRM effect, and signal detection analysis revealed that the DRM warning reduced a liberal response bias in this task. Sensitivity and response bias in both DRM tasks were not significantly related to these measures in the misinformation task. These findings suggest that these two forms of false memories are not interchangeable and they appear to be the result of different cognitive processes. PMID:25664935

  3. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  4. Art and the Craft of Avoidance: Toxic Art Supplies Lack Warnings Despite Federal Labeling Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Lucinda

    Despite federal law requiring that art and craft materials be labeled, many products continue to be sold without adequate identification of their contents. This report summarizes the findings of the U.S. Public Interest Research Group (PIRG) which conducted an investigation in June and July 1991 to determine how art and craft manufacturers comply…

  5. Off-Label Prescribing, Polypharmacy, and Black-Box Warnings: A Primer for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are increasingly used to treat children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Between the years 1994 and 2001, there was a 191.7% increase in number of office visits resulting in a psychotropic medication prescription among children and adolescents. Many drugs are prescribed to children "off-label", whereby they…

  6. A word of warning: Instructions and feedback cannot prevent the revelation effect.

    PubMed

    Aßfalg, André; Nadarevic, Lena

    2015-07-01

    In recognition tests, participants claim that stimuli appear more familiar after an intervening task (e.g., solving an anagram) than without an intervening task-the revelation effect. In Experiment 1, we warned half of the participants about the revelation effect and asked them to prevent any judgment bias. However, compared to a control group without warning instructions, the revelation effect remained unaltered. In Experiment 2, participants who received warning instructions additionally received accuracy feedback for their recognition judgments. We assumed that feedback would aid participants in detecting any judgment bias. Again, warning instructions and feedback failed to reduce the revelation effect. In Experiment 3, participants demonstrated that they understood the warning instructions and generally believed that they were successful in suppressing the revelation effect. Yet, again, a revelation effect occurred. The experiments suggest that the revelation effect is a robust judgment bias that lies outside of the participants' control. PMID:25881234

  7. Perceptions of young Jordanian adults to proposed anti-tobacco pictorial warning labels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In commitment to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), four new pictorial warnings are now being proposed for display on cigarette packages sold in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gauge the immediate perceptions of young Jordanian adults towards these new pictorials and compare these perceptions to those of the pictorial currently being used in the country. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of youth aged 17-26. The interviewer-administered survey gauged participants' perceptions of salience, fear elicitation, and gained information as well as participants' motivation to remain non-smokers or quit smoking after viewing each of the four proposed new pictorials as well as the current pictorial used in Jordan. Perceptions regarding each new pictorial were compared to the current pictorial. Results A total of 450 surveys were included in the analysis. The sample (mean age 20.9) was 51.6% female and 31.3% cigarette (regular or occasional) smokers. In smokers, only one proposed pictorial had significantly more smokers perceiving it as salient or adding to information when compared to the current pictorial. More smokers reported fear when observing the proposed pictorials compared with current pictorial, but overall proportions reporting fear were generally less than 50%. Furthermore, all new pictorials motivated significantly more smokers to consider quitting compared with the current pictorial; however, the overall proportion of smokers reporting motivation was < 25%. Among nonsmokers, significantly more respondents perceived the new pictorials as salient and fear-eliciting compared to the old pictorial, but there were no major differences in information added. Motivation to remain non-smokers was comparable between the old and new pictorials. Conclusion Given the variability of response across both smokers and nonsmokers, and across the three elements of perception (salience, added information, fear) for each pictorial, further testing of the pictorials in a more diverse sample of Jordanian young adults prior to launch is recommended. PMID:21627794

  8. Caution: Alcohol Advertising and the Surgeon General's Alcohol Warnings May Have Adverse Effects on Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Deborah J.; Snyder, Leslie B.

    A study investigated the effects of the newly introduced Surgeon General's alcohol warnings and advertisements on college students. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates in communication sciences at the University of Connecticut viewed slides of alcohol products, with or without advertisements and warnings. Following the viewings, subjects filled…

  9. Effect of the Written and Combined Warnings on the Cigarette Pockets on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercek, Cem; Dogan, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the written and combined (written and pictures) warning statements on the cigarette pockets on university students. The sample of the study includes a total of 231 undergraduate students. The participants were divided into two groups: the first group was presented only written warnings,…

  10. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  11. Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: a longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Canada, Australia and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Osman, Amira; Moodie, Crawford; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Methods Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to maintain sample sizes of 1000 participants in each country at each wave. Country-stratified logistic Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of citing HWLs as a source of information on quitlines and cessation websites. GEE models also regressed having called the quitline, and having visited a cessation website, on awareness of these resources because of HWLs. Results At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about quitlines was highest in Canada, followed by Australia and Mexico (33%, 19% and 16%, respectively). Significant increases over time were only evident in Australia and Mexico. In all countries, citing HWLs as a source of quitline information was significantly associated with self-report of having called a quitline. At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was higher in Canada than in Australia (14% and 6%, respectively; Mexico was excluded because HWLs do not include website information), but no significant changes over time were found for either country. Citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was significantly associated with having visited a website in both Canada and Australia. Conclusions HWLs are an important source of cessation information. PMID:25052860

  12. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  13. An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation.

    PubMed

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemoğlu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-03-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging and, most recently, of a proposed rule that would assert FDA's authority over tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Given the controversy over the FDA's approach to assessing net economic benefits in its proposed and final rules on GWLs and the importance of having economic impact analyses prepared in accordance with sound economic analysis, a group of prominent economists met in early 2014 to review that approach and, where indicated, to offer suggestions for an improved analysis. We concluded that the analysis of the impact of GWLs on smoking substantially underestimated the benefits and overestimated the costs, leading the FDA to substantially underestimate the net benefits of the GWLs. We hope that the FDA will find our evaluation useful in subsequent analyses, not only of GWLs but also of other regulations regarding tobacco products. Most of what we discuss applies to all instances of evaluating the costs and benefits of tobacco product regulation and, we believe, should be considered in FDA's future analyses of proposed rules. PMID:25550419

  14. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  15. An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemoğlu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging and, most recently, of a proposed rule that would assert FDA’s authority over tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Given the controversy over the FDA's approach to assessing net economic benefits in its proposed and final rules on GWLs and the importance of having economic impact analyses prepared in accordance with sound economic analysis, a group of prominent economists met in early 2014 to review that approach and, where indicated, to offer suggestions for an improved analysis. We concluded that the analysis of the impact of GWLs on smoking substantially underestimated the benefits and overestimated the costs, leading the FDA to substantially underestimate the net benefits of the GWLs. We hope that the FDA will find our evaluation useful in subsequent analyses, not only of GWLs but also of other regulations regarding tobacco products. Most of what we discuss applies to all instances of evaluating the costs and benefits of tobacco product regulation and, we believe, should be considered in FDA's future analyses of proposed rules. PMID:25550419

  16. Non-Smoking Male Adolescents' Reactions to Cigarette Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Cameron, Linda D.; Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. Methods A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11–17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2×2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer) using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. Results The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were “very much” discouraged, p<.001). Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. Conclusions Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels. PMID:23950861

  17. The effectiveness and limitations of regulatory warnings for the safe prescribing of citalopram

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Kevin J; Bugden, Shawn C

    2015-01-01

    Background Citalopram is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant in Canada. Concerns have been raised about its cardiac safety, and a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval has been documented. Drug interactions involving concomitant use of other medications that prolong the QT interval or increase citalopram levels by interfering with its metabolism increase the cardiac risk. Regulatory bodies (Health Canada and the US Food and Drug Administration) issued warnings and required labeling changes in 2011/2012, suggesting maximum citalopram doses (<40 mg for those <65 years; <20 mg for those ≥65 years) and avoiding drug interactions that increase cardiac risk. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of these warnings on citalopram prescribing practices. Methods A quasi-experimental interrupted time series analysis was conducted using all citalopram prescribing data from the population of Manitoba, Canada from 1999 to 2014. This allowed for the examination of high-dose prescribing (above regulatory warning levels) and the number of interacting medications per citalopram prescription. Results There was a dramatic decline in the prescribing of high doses in both age groups, with a 64.8% decline in those <65 years and 33.6% in those ≥65 years. Segmented regression models indicated significant breakpoints in the third quarter of 2011 for both age groups (P<0.0001), corresponding to the time the regulatory warnings were issued. There appeared to be no impact of the warnings on the prescribing of interacting medications. The number of interacting medications actually increased in the postwarning period (<65, 0.78–0.81 interactions per citalopram prescription; ≥65, 0.93–0.94, P<0.001). Conclusion Regulatory changes appear to have produced an important reduction in the high-dose prescribing of citalopram. In contrast to this relatively simple dosage change, there was no indication that the more complex issue of resolving drug–drug interactions was impacted by regulatory warnings. PMID:26316822

  18. Effects of Shared Electronic Health Record Systems on Drug-Drug Interaction and Duplication Warning Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rinner, Christoph; Grossmann, Wilfried; Sauter, Simone Katja; Wolzt, Michael; Gall, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Shared electronic health records (EHRs) systems can offer a complete medication overview of the prescriptions of different health care providers. We use health claims data of more than 1 million Austrians in 2006 and 2007 with 27 million prescriptions to estimate the effect of shared EHR systems on drug-drug interaction (DDI) and duplication warnings detection and prevention. The Austria Codex and the ATC/DDD information were used as a knowledge base to detect possible DDIs. DDIs are categorized as severe, moderate, and minor interactions. In comparison to the current situation where only DDIs between drugs issued by a single health care provider can be checked, the number of warnings increases significantly if all drugs of a patient are checked: severe DDI warnings would be detected for 20% more persons, and the number of severe DDI warnings and duplication warnings would increase by 17%. We show that not only do shared EHR systems help to detect more patients with warnings but DDIs are also detected more frequently. Patient safety can be increased using shared EHR systems. PMID:26682218

  19. Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs

    PubMed Central

    Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change. PMID:23977223

  20. Developing effective warning systems: Ongoing research at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Christianson, Amy; Becker, Julia; Keys, Harry

    2008-05-01

    PurposeThis paper examines the unique challenges to volcanic risk management associated with having a ski area on an active volcano. Using a series of simulated eruption/lahar events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a context, a model of risk management that integrates warning system design and technology, risk perceptions and the human response is explored. Principal resultsDespite increases in the observed audibility and comprehension of the warning message, recall of public education content, and people's awareness of volcanic risk, a persistent minority of the public continued to demonstrate only moderate awareness of the correct actions to take during a warning and failed to respond effectively. A relationship between level of staff competence and correct public response allowed the level of public response to be used to identify residual risk and additional staff training needs. The quality of staff awareness, action and decision-making has emerged as a critical factor, from detailed staff and public interviews and from exercise observations. Staff actions are especially important for mobilising correct public response at Ruapehu ski areas due to the transient nature of the visitor population. Introduction of education material and staff training strategies that included the development of emergency decision-making competencies improved knowledge of correct actions, and increased the proportion of people moving out of harm's way during blind tests. Major conclusionsWarning effectiveness is a function of more than good hazard knowledge and the generation and notification of an early warning message. For warning systems to be effective, these factors must be complemented by accurate knowledge of risk and risk management actions. By combining the Ruapehu findings with those of other warning system studies in New Zealand, and internationally, a practical five-step model for effective early warning systems is discussed. These steps must be based upon sound and regularly updated underpinning science and be tied to formal effectiveness evaluation, which is fed back into system improvements. The model presented emphasises human considerations, the development of which arguably require even more effort than the hardware components of early warning systems.

  1. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  2. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to

  3. Synthesized speech rate and pitch effects on intelligibility of warning messages for pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Marchionda-Frost, K.

    1984-01-01

    In civilian and military operations, a future threat-warning system with a voice display could warn pilots of other traffic, obstacles in the flight path, and/or terrain during low-altitude helicopter flights. The present study was conducted to learn whether speech rate and voice pitch of phoneme-synthesized speech affects pilot accuracy and response time to typical threat-warning messages. Helicopter pilots engaged in an attention-demanding flying task and listened for voice threat warnings presented in a background of simulated helicopter cockpit noise. Performance was measured by flying-task performance, threat-warning intelligibility, and response time. Pilot ratings were elicited for the different voice pitches and speech rates. Significant effects were obtained only for response time and for pilot ratings, both as a function of speech rate. For the few cases when pilots forgot to respond to a voice message, they remembered 90 percent of the messages accurately when queried for their response 8 to 10 sec later.

  4. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  5. Immediate skin responses to laser and light treatments: Warning endpoints: How to avoid side effects.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew M; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment. This article presents the warning endpoints during specific dermatologic laser treatments, and the accompanying article presents the therapeutic endpoints, their underlying mechanisms, and the utility of these endpoints. PMID:27085227

  6. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention to reduce tobacco related inequities

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Thrasher, James; Reid, Jessica L.; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent and effective means of communicating the risks of smoking; however, there is little research on effective types of message content and socio-demographic effects. This study tested message themes and content of pictorial warnings in Mexico. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 544 adult smokers and 528 youth in Mexico City. Participants were randomized to view 5–7 warnings for two of 15 different health effects. Warnings for each health effect included a text-only warning and pictorial warnings with various themes: “graphic” health effects, “lived experience”, symbolic images, and testimonials. Results Pictorial health warnings were rated as more effective than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings featuring “graphic” depictions of disease were significantly more effective than symbolic images or experiences of human suffering. Adding testimonial information to warnings increased perceived effectiveness. Adults who were female, older, had lower education, and intended to quit smoking rated warnings as more effective, although the magnitude of these differences was modest. Few interactions were observed between socio-demographics and message theme. Conclusions Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups. PMID:22362058

  7. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  8. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:

  9. Abandoning a label doesn't make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects.

    PubMed

    Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

    2013-01-01

    Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed. PMID:23105148

  10. Memory Saves Lives: Inter-generational Warnings Effectiveness - 13556

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell; Shafer, David; Klein, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami was a world-class natural disaster. It has been described as the most powerful earthquake ever in Japan, and as one of the most powerful earthquakes ever noted in the world. The toll in terms of human lives lost and property destruction was unimaginable. Even the word 'horrible' is inadequate to describe the suffering and misery that resulted. Nations with nuclear power programs are engaged in, or at least planning to become engaged in, arranging to eventually dispose of their higher-level radioactive waste materials in deep geologic repositories. Geologic repositories are passive safety systems, and if undisturbed isolate these dangerous materials form the biosphere for extremely long times. The key words, however, are 'if undisturbed'. To assure that future generations do not inadvertently drill into repositories, national programs, and the international community (the Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) preservation project of the Nuclear Energy Agency, for example), are proposing to place markers and/or monuments on closed repository sites that say 'do not drill here, and this is why' in various sophisticated ways. Such markers or monuments are attempts at providing passive institutional controls. The effectiveness of messages from past generations to a present generation may give an indication of how effective such passive institutional controls may be. (authors)

  11. Neural biomarkers for assessing different types of imagery in pictorial health warning labels for cigarette packaging: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Thrasher, James F; Fridriksson, Johann; Brixius, William; Froeliger, Brett; Hammond, David; Cummings, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Objective Countries around the world have increasingly adopted pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) for tobacco packages to warn consumers about smoking-related risks. Research on how pictorial HWLs work has primarily analysed self-reported responses to HWLs; studies at the neural level comparing the brain's response to different types of HWLs may provide an important complement to prior studies, especially if self-reported responses are systematically biased. In this study we characterise the brain's response to three types of pictorial HWLs for which prior self-report studies indicated different levels of efficacy. Methods Current smokers rated pictorial HWLs and then observed the same HWLs during functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Fifty 18–50-year-old current adult smokers who were free from neurological disorders were recruited from the general population and participated in the study. Demographics, smoking-related behaviours and self-reported ratings of pictorial HWL stimuli were obtained prior to scanning. Brain responses to HWLs were assessed using fMRI, focusing on a priori regions of interest. Results Pictorial HWL stimuli elicited activation in a broad network of brain areas associated with visual processing and emotion. Participants who rated the stimuli as more emotionally arousing also showed greater neural responses at these sites. Conclusions Self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs are correlated with neural responses in brain areas associated with visual and emotional processing. Study results cross-validate self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs and provide insights into how pictorial HWLs are processed. PMID:25552613

  12. The effects of noise on speech and warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Alice H.

    1989-06-01

    To assess the effects of noise on speech communication it is necessary to examine certain characteristics of the speech signal. Speech level can be measured by a variety of methods, none of which has yet been standardized, and it should be kept in mind that vocal effort increases with background noise level and with different types of activity. Noise and filtering commonly degrade the speech signal, especially as it is transmitted through communications systems. Intelligibility is also adversely affected by distance, reverberation, and monaural listening. Communication systems currently in use may cause strain and delays on the part of the listener, but there are many possibilities for improvement. Individuals who need to communicate in noise may be subject to voice disorders. Shouted speech becomes progressively less intelligible at high voice levels, but improvements can be realized when talkers use clear speech. Tolerable listening levels are lower for negative than for positive S/Ns, and comfortable listening levels should be at a S/N of at least 5 dB, and preferably above 10 dB. Popular methods to predict speech intelligibility in noise include the Articulation Index, Speech Interference Level, Speech Transmission Index, and the sound level meter's A-weighting network. This report describes these methods, discussing certain advantages and disadvantages of each, and shows their interrelations.

  13. Tobacco industry argues domestic trademark laws and international treaties preclude cigarette health warning labels, despite consistent legal advice that the argument is invalid

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the tobacco industry’s use of international trade agreements to oppose policies to strengthen health warning labels (HWLs). Design A review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation and international treaties. Results During the early 1990s, the tobacco industry became increasingly alarmed about the advancement of HWLs on cigarettes packages. In response, it requested legal opinions from British American Tobacco’s law firms in Australia and England, Britain’s Department of Trade and Industry and the World Intellectual Property Organisation on the legality of restricting and prohibiting the use of their trademarks, as embodied in cigarette packages. The consistent legal advice, privately submitted to the companies, was that international treaties do not shield trademark owners from government limitations (including prohibition) on the use of their trademarks. Despite receiving this legal advice, the companies publicly argued that requiring large HWLs compromised their trademark rights under international treaties. The companies successfully used these arguments as part of their successful effort to deter Canadian and Australian governments from enacting laws requiring the plan packaging of cigarettes, which helped delay large graphic HWLs, including ‘plain’ packaging, for over a decade. Conclusions Governments should not be intimidated by tobacco company threats and unsubstantiated claims, and carefully craft HWL laws to withstand the inevitable tobacco industry lawsuits with the knowledge that the companies’ own lawyers as well as authoritative bodies have told the companies that the rights they claim do not exist. PMID:23179728

  14. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  15. The Effects of Parental Advisory Labels on Adolescent Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the effect of parental advisory labels (on album covers) on the music taste and preference of adolescent students 12 to 15 years old. Finds that labeled music was liked less than unlabeled music. (SR)

  16. The Effect of Cigarette Plain Packaging on Individuals' Health Warning Recall

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which increasingly plainer packaging might increase recall of health warnings. Design: A 4 (pack ID levels) x 2 (smoking status: smokers and non-smokers) between-subjects design in which participants were randomly assigned to view one package. Sample: Two hundred and twenty students from three universities in Nova Scotia, Canada, participated in the survey. Measures: Participants were asked to recall the health warning on their package. Analysis: A sequential binary logistic regression test to examine whether plain packaging and/or smoking status affects health warning recall. Results: The odds of recalling the correct health warnings were significantly higher for the two plainest packages relative to the original package. The odds of recalling the correct health warning were also higher for non-smokers relative to smokers. Conclusions: The results provide compelling evidence that health warnings on plain packages can be more easily recalled. PMID:23968628

  17. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  18. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  19. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  20. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  1. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic...

  2. Selection of a voice for a speech signal for personalized warnings: the effect of speaker's gender and voice pitch.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sheron; Duarte, Emília; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Lara; Rebelo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in multimodal technology-based warnings, namely those conveying speech-warning statements. This type of warning may be tailored to the situation as well as to the target user's characteristics. However, more information is needed on how to design these warnings in a way that ensures intelligibility, promotes compliance and reduces the potential for annoyance. In this context, this paper reports an exploratory study whose main purpose was to assist the selection of a synthesized voice for a subsequent compliance study with personalized (i.e., using the person's name) technology-based warnings using Virtual Reality. Participants were requested to listen to speech signals, gathered from a speech synthesizer and post-processed in order to change the pitch perception, and then these were evaluated by fulfilling the MOS-X questionnaire. After that, the participants ranked the voices according to their preference. The effects of the speaker's gender and voice pitch, on both ratings and ranking were assessed. The preference of the male and female listeners for a talker's voice gender was also investigated. The results show that participants mostly prefer as first choice the high-pitched female voice, which also gathered the highest overall score in the MOS-X questionnaire. No significant influence of the participants' gender was found on the assessed measures. PMID:22317268

  3. The Effects of Truncated Dome Detectable Warnings on Travelers Negotiating Curb Ramps in Wheelchairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Truncated domes on curb ramps benefit travelers with visual impairments. However, concerns associated with the safety and negotiability of such detectable warnings for other travelers have resulted in much controversy. The findings of the study presented here indicate that detectable warnings did not adversely affect the negotiability of ramps by…

  4. A qualitative exploration of young adult smokers’ responses to novel tobacco warnings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite reduced smoking among adolescents, smoking prevalence peaks among young adults aged 18–30, many of whom believe themselves exempt from the health risks of smoking shown in warning labels. We explored how young adult smokers perceived warnings featuring proximal risks, and whether these encouraged cessation more effectively than traditional health messages. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 17 young adult smokers and explored their perceptions of current warnings as well as novel warnings representing short-term health consequences; immediate social risks, and tobacco’s toxicity (denormalizing tobacco as an everyday product). We used a thematic analysis approach to explore how participants rationalized existing warnings and interpreted the novel messages. Results Participants considered the immediate social and physiological benefits they gained from smoking outweighed the distal risks shown in health warnings, which they regarded as improbable and irrelevant. Of the novel warnings, those presenting immediate social risks altered the balance of gains and losses young adults associated with smoking; however, those presenting short-term health risks or depicting tobacco as a toxin were less effective. Conclusions Participants regarded warnings featuring proximal social risks as more salient and they were less likely to rationalise these as irrelevant. Social risk messages merit further investigation to examine their potential as a complement to traditional health warnings. PMID:23800292

  5. An evaluation of warning habits and beliefs across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Hancock, H E; Rogers, W A; Fisk, A D

    2001-01-01

    Beliefs about warnings and habits associated with reading them were assessed for 863 individuals of various ages. Information gathered for various common household products included (a) how frequently people attend to warning information, (b) the degree of risk they believe is involved during product usage, and (c) how important they believe warnings are for different product types. Also assessed were perceived helpfulness and comprehension for symbols commonly found on product labels or on signs in the environment. Respondents 55 years and older reported reading product warnings more frequently than did younger adults, although they generally perceived warnings as less important. However, no overall age-related differences were found for perceived level of risk involved in using different product types. Although older adults generally perceived symbols to be very helpful when using a particular product, their comprehension levels were poorer than those of younger adults for half of the symbols. Overall, these data suggest that adults of all ages do read warnings on a variety of product types and that they believe warning information is important. This research illustrates the importance of including older adults in usability studies during the development of warning systems, given age-related effects may be associated with some aspects of the warning processing but not others. PMID:11866191

  6. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Mohammed; Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises. PMID:26273642

  7. Investigating the effects of repeated Miranda warnings: do they perform a curative function on common Miranda misconceptions?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Fiduccia, Chelsea E; Robinson, Emily V; Steadham, Jennifer A; Drogin, Eric Y

    2013-01-01

    In Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court of the United States required that custodial suspects be apprised of their Constitutional rights against self-incrimination. The Court could not have anticipated the rampant popularization of Miranda warnings in subsequent movies and television dramas. Influenced by public media, many arrestees assume that they already "know" their rights, with no awareness of their misconceptions. The current investigation examines whether repeated exposures to Miranda warnings performs any "curative" function (i.e., dispelling common Miranda misconceptions held by pretrial defendants). The accumulative effects of five different Miranda warnings were tested over a several-hour period on 260 detainees. For the nearly half (113 or 43.5%) with three or more misconceptions, improvement (i.e., ≥2 fewer misconceptions) occurred for only 35 defendants. Predictably, this improved group also tended to display a better understanding of Miranda-relevant vocabulary words and a better recall of the administered Miranda warnings than their unimproved counterparts. On average, the improved group also performed better on general measures of intelligence, and listening and reading comprehension, while still evidencing substantial cognitive deficits. The curative function of Miranda advisements is considered in light of these findings. PMID:23670943

  8. PILOT RESULTS ON FORWARD COLLISION WARNING SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS IN OLDER DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Benjamin D.; Sager, Lauren N.; Dawson, Jeffrey; Hacker, Sarah D.; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew; Kitazaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have largely been developed with a “one-size-fits-all” approach. This approach neglects the large inter-individual variability in perceptual and cognitive abilities that affect aging ADAS users. We investigated the effectiveness of a forward collision warning (FCW) with fixed response parameters in young and older drivers with differing levels of cognitive functioning. Drivers responded to a pedestrian stepping into the driver’s path on a simulated urban road. Behavioral metrics included response times (RT) for pedal controls and two indices of risk penetration (e.g., maximum deceleration and minimum time-to-collision (TTC)). Older drivers showed significantly slower responses at several time points compared to younger drivers. The FCW facilitated response times (RTs) for older and younger drivers. However, older drivers still showed smaller safety gains compared to younger drivers at accelerator pedal release and initial brake application when the FCW was active. No significant differences in risk metrics were observed within the condition studied. The results demonstrate older drivers likely differ from younger drivers using a FCW with a fixed parameter set. Finally, we briefly discuss how future research should examine predictive relationships between domains of cognitive functioning and ADAS responses to develop parameter sets to fit the individual. PMID:27135061

  9. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the...

  10. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the...

  11. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the...

  12. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the...

  13. 21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1 Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent... for a cosmetic. Any such petition shall include an adequate factual basis to support the...

  14. [Pictorial health warnings on tobacco products packages as a part of tobacco epidemic control].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozie?, Anna; Mi?kiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    The use of tobacco products has been described by the World Health Organization as the risk factor responsible for six out of eight causes of death in the world. Informing about the harm of smoking may be presented in many ways like media campaigns, text warnings, or graphic warnings placed on tobacco products. The aim of this article is to describe the role of graphic warnings placed on tobacco products in light of tobacco control. In this work, the available current data, including researches and reports of WHO, have been used. Graphic warnings may be a very valuable source of knowledge about health consequences of smoking. They are also much more visible, draw attention much better compared with text warnings and more clearly communicate the threats of tobacco use. They also have a stronger impact, are better memorized and better motivate to quit smoking. Pictorial warnings are also approved by the society. Smokers themselves perceive them as more effective than text warnings. Moreover, this kind of labeling makes tobacco products less attractive. The introduction of legal regulations enforcing these types of warnings does not cost anybody but the tobacco companies. This kind of solution helps to gain public acceptance for other methods of tobacco control like totally free tobacco smoke places. PMID:19999044

  15. Warnings from the Trenches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The author, as a retired high school teacher, has some bad news for college professors. In case, they do not already see what is happening. The author wants to warn them of what to expect from the students who will be arriving in one's classroom even if they teach in a highly selective institution. No Child Left Behind went into effect for the…

  16. The Effectiveness of Reverse Telephon Emergency Warning Systems in the October 2007 San Diego Wildfires

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, John H; Sorensen, Barbara Vogt

    2009-01-01

    Late in October, 2007, fast-moving wildfires fueled by extreme Santa Ana winds threatened residents and their properties in San Diego County, California. The impacted area also included the City of San Diego within the County s boundaries. It turns out the San Diego firestorms would be the biggest in the County's history, surpassing the devastating 2003 firestorms in intensity, duration, and impacted populations. Both San Diego County and the City of San Diego have installed telephone reverse call-down emergency warning systems. A telephone survey of 1200 households located in areas identified by emergency officials as the evacuation zones for the 2007 fires was conducted in late March and early April 2008 using a random telephone dialing process to determine if people responded to the reverse telephone warning systems calls. Findings indicate that those who received a reverse emergency warning call were much more likely to evacuate than those who did not receive a call. The telephone calls were also the most likely source of first warning.

  17. Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare

    2009-01-01

    An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification. PMID:20523852

  18. A cross-sectional survey investigating the desensitisation of graphic health warning labels and their impact on smokers, non-smokers and patients with COPD in a London cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Chisnall, Ben; Drakatos, Panagis; Sivakumar, Sukhanthan; Sivakumar, Bairavie; Barrecheguren, Miriam; Douiri, Abdel; Steier, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GHWL) in different individuals, including patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Investigating knowledge and attitudes may allow better implementation of future public health policies. We hypothesised that differences in the impact of GHWL exist between non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD, with decreased efficacy in those groups who are longer and more frequently exposed to them. Participants and setting 163 participants (54% male, aged 21–80) including 60 non-smokers, 53 smokers and 50 patients with COPD (Gold stage II–IV), attending London respiratory outpatient clinics, participated in case-controlled surveys (50 items). Outcome measures Ten different GHWL were shown and demographics, smoking history, plans to quit, smoking-risk awareness, emotional response, processing and impact of GHWL on behaviour were recorded. Patients were further asked to prioritise the hypothetical treatment or prevention of five specific smoking-related diseases. Results Smokers, in particular those with COPD, were less susceptible to GHWL than non-smokers; 53.4% of all participants expressed fear when looking at GHWL, non-smokers (71.9%) more so than smokers (39.8%, p<0.001). COPD participants were less aware of the consequences than non-COPD participants (p<0.001), including an awareness of lung cancer (p=0.001). Lung cancer (95%), oral cancer (90.2%), heart disease (84.7%) and stroke (71.2%) were correctly associated with smoking, whereas blindness was least associated (23.9%). However, blindness was prioritised over oral cancer, stroke and in patients with COPD also over heart disease when participants were asked about hypothetical treatment or prevention. Conclusions GHWL are most effective in non-smokers and a desensitisation effect was observed in smokers and patients with COPD. As a consequence, a tailored and concerted public health approach to use such messages is required and ‘blindness’ deserves to be mentioned in this context because of an unexpectedly high-deterring impact. PMID:24996914

  19. Effect of different children's menu labeling designs on family purchases.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ashley S; Serrano, Elena L; Machin, Jane E; Duetsch, Thomas; Davis, George C

    2013-03-01

    The majority of labeling studies at restaurants have focused on adults, not children, and utilized cross-sectional data with one menu labeling design, typically calorie information. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effect of three different menu labeling designs for children's meals on total calories and fat selected by families. Each menu was implemented for 2months. Patrons' purchases were tracked from a control menu (with no nutrition information) through all three theoretically-based designs: calorie and fat information; followed by symbols denoting healthier choices; then nutrition bargain price. All menus were created specifically for the study. They featured six combination meals (pre-determined entrees and side items) and a la carte items (entrees and side items that could be ordered separately). Only combination meals contained labeling. Fixed effects models were estimated to detect changes in sales for each menu labeling design compared to the control. Overall, menu labeling did not result in a positive net effect on total calories or fat purchased by families, but resulted in significant shifts in purchases of combination and a la carte meals and healthy and unhealthy options. The most significant impact was seen for nutrition bargain price labeling, the last design. PMID:22664301

  20. The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

  1. Cigarette package health warnings and interest in quitting smoking --- 14 countries, 2008--2010.

    PubMed

    2011-05-27

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires health warnings on tobacco product packages sold in countries that ratified the WHO FCTC treaty (1). These warnings are expected to 1) describe the harmful effects of tobacco use; 2) be approved by the appropriate national authority; 3) appear on at least 30%, and ideally 50% or more, of the package's principal display areas; 4) be large, clear, visible, and legible in the country's principal language(s); 5) have multiple, rotating messages; and 6) preferably use pictures or pictograms. To assess the effects of cigarette package health warnings on interest in quitting smoking among smokers of manufactured cigarettes aged ≥15 years, this report examines 2008--2010 data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 14 WHO FCTC countries. Among men, the prevalence of manufactured cigarette smoking ranged from 9.6% in India to 59.3% in Russia. Among men in 12 of the countries and women in seven countries, >90% of smokers reported noticing a package warning in the previous 30 days. The percentage of smokers thinking about quitting because of the warnings was >50% in six countries and >25% in men and women in all countries except Poland. WHO has identified providing tobacco health information, including graphic health warnings on tobacco packages, as a powerful "best buy" in combating noncommunicable disease (2). Implementing effective warning labels as a component of a comprehensive approach can help decrease tobacco use and its many health consequences. PMID:21617629

  2. Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Xue, Qingwan; Ma, Lu; Xu, Yongcun

    2014-01-01

    The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles. PMID:24566631

  3. Representation, Exemplification, and Risk: Resonance of Tobacco Graphic Health Warnings Across Diverse Populations.

    PubMed

    Bigman, Cabral A; Nagler, Rebekah H; Viswanath, K

    2016-08-01

    As countries implement Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, graphic warning labels that use images of people and their body parts to illustrate the consequences of smoking are being added to cigarette packs. According to exemplification theory, these case examples-exemplars-can shape perceptions about risk and may resonate differently among demographic subpopulations. Drawing on data from eight focus groups (N = 63) with smokers and nonsmokers from vulnerable populations, this qualitative study explores whether people considered exemplars in their reactions to and evaluations of U.S. graphic health warning labels initially proposed by the Food and Drug Administration. Participants made reference to prior and concurrent mass media messages and exemplars during the focus groups and used demographic cues in making sense of the images on the warning labels. Participants were particularly sensitive to age of the exemplars and how it might affect label effectiveness and beliefs about smoking. Race and socioeconomic status also were salient for some participants. We recommend that exemplars and exemplification be considered when selecting and evaluating graphic health warnings for tobacco labels and associated media campaigns. PMID:26757354

  4. [Warnings on cigarette packs in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Vincent, A L

    1993-06-01

    This study evaluated the content of health warning labels on 240 varieties of cigarettes sold in 28 countries of South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Warning practices in the different countries were compared, with special attention to the phrasing of the message and the product origin: imported, national, or foreign brands made in the country under a manufacturing permit. It was found that cigarette packages in the largest countries regularly carried warning labels, but in other countries such labeling was infrequent or nonexistent. In 12 countries, imported cigarettes had no warning label or were labeled only in the language of the country of origin. Another 12 countries with permits to manufacture foreign products locally added their own warning label. In three other countries, no warning labels were found, either on domestic cigarettes or locally made foreign brands. The content of the warnings varied considerably from one country to another. In many cases a tendency was observed to use wording that was not forceful and did not provide sufficient information to the consumer. The author believes that the warnings could be improved if their content and presentation were changed. PMID:8373529

  5. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shankleman, M.; Sykes, C.; Mandeville, K.L.; Di Costa, S.; Yarrow, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. Study design A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Methods Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. Results An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) <100 lifetime cigarettes smoked; 3) gaze position successfully tracked for > 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p < 0.001). There was no evidence that this effect varied based on the type of warning label (black & white text vs. colour text vs. colour image & text; interaction p = 0.295). Conclusions During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. PMID:25542740

  6. The effect of parallax and cadence on asteroid impact probabilities and warning times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vere, P.; Farnocchia, D.; Jedicke, R.; Spoto, F.

    2014-07-01

    We study the time evolution of the impact probability for synthetic but realistic impacting (Vere et al., 2009) and close-approaching (Bottke et al., 2002) asteroids detected in a simulated all-sky survey (Tonry, 2011). We use the impact probability to calculate the impact warning time (t_{warn}) as the time interval between when an object reaches a Palermo Scale value of -2 and when it impacts the Earth. A simple argument shows that t_{warn} ? D^x with the exponent in the range of [1.0,1.5] and our derived value being x=1.3 0.1. The low-precision astrometry from the single simulated all-sky survey could require many days or weeks to establish an imminent impact for asteroids larger than 100 m in diameter that are discovered far from the Earth. Most close-approaching asteroids are quickly identified as not being impactors, but a size-dependent percentage, even for those larger than 50 m in diameter, have a persistent impact probability of greater than 10^{-6} on the day of the closest approach. Thus, a single all-sky survey can be of tremendous value in identifying Earth-impacting and close-approaching asteroids in advance of their closest approach but it cannot solve the problem on its own: high-precision astrometry from other optical or radar systems is necessary to rapidly establish an object as an impactor or close-approacher. We show that the parallax afforded by surveying the sky from two sites is only of benefit for a small fraction of the smallest objects detected within a couple days before impact: probably not enough to justify the increased operating costs of a 2-site survey. Finally, the survey cadence within a fixed time span is relatively unimportant to the impact probability calculation. We tested three different reasonable cadences and found that one provided 10 times higher (better) value for the impact probability on the discovery night for the smallest (10 m in diameter) objects but the consequences on the overall impact-probability calculation is negligible.

  7. Misinformation effects in eyewitness memory: the presence and absence of memory impairment as a function of warning and misinformation accessibility.

    PubMed

    Eakin, Deborah K; Schreiber, Thomas A; Sergent-Marshall, Susan

    2003-09-01

    The authors report 5 experiments investigating how exposure to misleading postevent information affects people's ability to remember details from a witnessed event. In each experiment the authors tested memory using the modified opposition test, which was designed to isolate retrieval-blocking effects. The findings indicate that retrieval blocking occurs regardless of whether the misleading information is presented before or after the witnessed event. In addition, when people are warned immediately about the presence of misleading information, they can counteract retrieval-blocking effects but only if the misinformation is relatively low in accessibility. The authors discuss the findings in terms of the retrieval-blocking hypothesis and a hypothetical suppression mechanism that can counteract retrieval-blocking effects in some circumstances. PMID:14516215

  8. Warning systems and public warning response

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  9. Embedded Alcohol Messages in Television Series: The Interactive Effect of Warnings and Audience Connectedness on Viewers' Alcohol Beliefs*

    PubMed Central

    RUSSELL, DALE W.; RUSSELL, CRISTEL ANTONIA

    2014-01-01

    Objective This research investigates whether warning viewers about the presence of embedded messages in the content of a television episode affects viewers' drinking beliefs and whether audi ence connectedness moderates the warning's impact. Method Two hun dred fifty college students participated in a laboratory experiment approximating a real-life television viewing experience. They viewed an actual television series episode containing embedded alcohol messages, and their subsequent beliefs about alcohol consequences were measured. Experimental conditions differed based on a 2 (Connectedness Level: low vs high) × 2 (Timing of the Warning: before or after the episode) × 2 (Emphasis of Warning: advertising vs health message) design. Connectedness was measured, and the timing and emphasis of the warnings were manipulated. The design also included a control condition where there was no warning. Results The findings indicate that warning view ers about embedded messages in the content of a program can yield sig nificant differences in viewers' beliefs about alcohol. However, the warning's impact differs depending on the viewers' level of connectedness to the program. In particular, in comparison with the no-warning control condition, the advertising prewarning produced lower positive beliefs about alcohol and its consequences but only for the low-connected viewers. Highly connected viewers were not affected by a warning emphasizing advertising messages embedded in the program, but a warning emphasizing health produced significantly higher negative be liefs about drinking than in the control condition. Conclusions The presence of many positive portrayals of drinking and alcohol product placements in television series has led many to suggest ways to counter their influence. However, advocates of warnings should be conscious of their differential impact on high- and low-connected viewers. PMID:18432390

  10. Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia: Safety and Effectiveness in a 12-Week, Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pachas, Gladys N.; Cather, Corinne; Pratt, Sarah A.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Nino, Johanna; Carlini, Sara V.; Achtyes, Eric D.; Lando, Harry; Mueser, Kim T.; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Goff, Donald C.; Evins, A. Eden

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Varenicline was approved by the FDA in 2006. In 2009, based largely on case reports, the FDA issued a warning of possible adverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior for varenicline and bupropion. Prospective trials of varenicline have not reported increased incidence of psychiatric adverse events other than sleep disturbance, but smokers with major mental illness have been excluded from large prospective trials of varenicline to date. We sought to evaluate the effect of a standard open-label 12-week varenicline trial on prospectively assessed safety and smoking outcomes in stable, treated adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and nicotine dependence. Methods One-hundred-and-twelve stable outpatients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day participated in a 12-week, open-label, smoking cessation trial of varenicline and weekly group cognitive behavioral therapy. Participants took varenicline for 4 weeks before attempting cessation. Trained raters collected safety and smoking outcome data weekly. Results Participants demonstrated improved psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms and nicotine withdrawal symptoms from baseline to week 12 or early termination. At the end of 12 weeks open label treatment, the 14- and 28-day continuous abstinence rates were 47.3 and 34%, respectively. Expired CO declined significantly during treatment in those who did not achieve abstinence. Conclusions This prospective study suggests that varenicline may be well-tolerated and effective for smoking cessation in combination with group CBT in stable outpatients with schizophrenia, a group with high rates of smoking and smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality. PMID:22888309

  11. Effect of information education and communication (IEC) programme on knowledge of pregnant mothers regarding prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Takoo, Sarla; Chhugani, Manju; Sharma, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an Information, Education and Communication (IEC) programme on knowledge of pregnant mothers regarding prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy in a selected health care setting at New Delhi. An evaluative research approach with one group pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the present study. A structured interview schedule was prepared. Purposive non-probability sampling technique was employed to interview 30 pregnant mothers who attended antenatal clinic. Data gathered was analysed and interpreted using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that there was maximum knowledge deficit regarding warning signs of pregnancy. IEC programme was effective in enhancing the knowledge of pregnant mothers on prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy. PMID:24974534

  12. The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

  13. The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing

  14. Detectable Warning Surfaces at Curb Ramps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauger, J. S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four tests evaluated the need for and effectiveness of detectable warning surfaces at curb ramps for pedestrians with blindness. Results found that the effectiveness of the detectable warning surfaces depended on other aspects of the design of the intersections and on factors such as the density of traffic and the traveler's skills. (CR)

  15. Effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell labeling index

    SciTech Connect

    Fich, A.; Arber, N.; Sestieri, M.; Zajicek, G.; Rachmilewitz, D.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell turnover was studied. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of fundic and antral mucosa were obtained from duodenal ulcer patients before and after 4 wk of therapy with cimetidine 1.2 g/day or misoprostol 800 micrograms/day. Biopsy specimens were incubated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Glandular column length and number of labeled cells were determined after autoradiography. There was no significant difference in column length of antral or fundic glands before or after therapy with cimetidine and misoprostol. The number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly decreased after misoprostol treatment (3.6 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.4, mean +/- SE), as opposed to their respective number before therapy (6.9 +/- 0.5 and 8.3 +/- 0.8) (p less than 0.01). On the other hand, after treatment with cimetidine, the number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly higher (11.8 +/- 0.9 and 7.5 +/- 1.0, respectively) as compared with their number before therapy (5.7 +/- 0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.6, respectively). The decreased gastric cell turnover induced by misoprostol indicates that the trophic effect of prostanoids on gastric mucosa is not due to an increase in cellular kinetics. The increased gastric cell turnover induced by cimetidine may contribute to its therapeutic effect in peptic ulcer disease.

  16. The Effect of Parallax and Cadence on Asteroid Impact Probabilities and Warning Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vere, Peter; Farnocchia, Davide; Jedicke, Robert; Spoto, Federica

    2014-05-01

    We study the time evolution of the impact probability for synthetic, but realistic, impacting and close-approaching asteroids detected in a simulated all-sky survey. We use the impact probability to calculate the impact warning time (tw) as the time interval between when an object reaches a Palermo Scale value of -2 and when it impacts Earth. A simple argument shows that tw vprop Dx, with the exponent in the range [1.0,1.5], and our derived value was x = 1.3 0.1. The low-precision astrometry from the single simulated all-sky survey could require many days or weeks to establish an imminent impact for asteroids larger than 100 m in diameter that are discovered far from Earth. Most close-approaching asteroids are quickly identified as not being impactors, but a size-dependent percentage, even for those larger than 50 m diameter, have a persistent impact probability of greater than 10-6 on the day of closest approach. Thus, a single all-sky survey can be of tremendous value in identifying Earth-impacting and close-approaching asteroids in advance of their closest approach, but it can not solve the problem on its own: high-precision astrometry from other optical or radar systems is necessary to rapidly establish an object as an impactor or close approacher. We show that the parallax afforded by surveying the sky from two sites is only of benefit for a small fraction of the smallest objects detected within a couple days before impact: probably not enough to justify the increased operating costs of a two-site survey. Finally, the survey cadence within a fixed time span is relatively unimportant to the impact probability calculation. We tested three different reasonable cadences and found that one provided ~10 times higher (better) value for the impact probability on the discovery night for the smallest (10 m diameter) objects, but the consequences on the overall impact probability calculation are negligible.

  17. Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

    2014-09-01

    In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. PMID:24161300

  18. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  19. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  20. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  1. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  2. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  3. Effect of hazard warning on workers' attitudes and risk taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Farid, M I; Lirtzman, S I

    1991-04-01

    Until recently, the issue of job hazards has been largely ignored as a research and theoretical topic in business and management disciplines although workers' perceptions and assessments of job hazards are of significance to managers. In this paper are reported results of an experiment conducted in Egyptian chemical firms to test the generality of an implicit rational model used to explain employees' reactions to and perceptions of job hazards. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) workers' subjective estimates of their job hazards are positively related to the objective hazard, (2) workers' subjective estimates of a prospective new job hazard will vary directly with the extent of hazard communicated by the new product label, (3) workers' demand for new hazard wage premiums will vary directly with perceived prospective new work hazards, (4) workers' intention to quit the job will vary directly with subjective and objective estimates of job hazards. All hypotheses were supported. The rational worker model appears to be a general explanation for workers' responses to hazardous jobs and information on hazards. This model not only holds for USA workers but also for those in a nonwestern culture. Implications for management and the industrial setting are discussed. PMID:1862197

  4. Testing warning messages on smokers’ cigarette packages: A standardized protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Noel T.; Hall, Marissa G.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Peebles, Kathryn; Noar, Seth M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Lab experiments on cigarette warnings typically use a brief one-time exposure that is not paired with the cigarette packs smokers use every day, leaving open the question of how repeated warning exposure over several weeks may affect smokers. This proof of principle study sought to develop a new protocol for testing cigarette warnings that better reflects real-world exposure by presenting them on cigarette smokers’ own packs. Methods We tested a cigarette pack labeling protocol with 76 US smokers ages 18 and older. We applied graphic warnings to the front and back of smokers’ cigarette packs. Results Most smokers reported that at least 75% of the packs of cigarettes they smoked during the study had our warnings. Nearly all said they would participate in the study again. Using cigarette packs with the study warnings increased quit intentions (p<.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest a feasible pack labeling protocol with six steps: (1) schedule appointments at brief intervals; (2) determine typical cigarette consumption; (3) ask smokers to bring a supply of cigarette packs to study appointments; (4) apply labels to smokers’ cigarette packs; (5) provide participation incentives at the end of appointments; and (6) refer smokers to cessation services at end of the study. When used in randomized controlled trials in settings with real-world message exposure over time, this protocol may help identify the true impact of warnings and thus better inform tobacco product labeling policy. PMID:25564282

  5. Multitasking in academia: Effective combinations of research, education and public outreach illustrated by a volcanic ash warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.; Plag, H.

    2011-12-01

    Science permeates our society. Its role and its perceived importance evolves with time. Scientists today are highly specialized, yet society demands they master a variety of skills requiring not only a number of different competencies but also a broad mindset. Scientists are subjected to a meritocracy in terms of having to produce scientific papers. Peer-reviewed scientific publications used to be sufficient to meet the various laws and regulations with respect to dissemination of scientific results. This has dramatically changed; both expressed directly through public voices (such as in the climate change discourses), but also by politicians and policy makers. In some countries research funding now comes with specific requirements concerning public outreach that go way beyond peer-reviewed publications and presentation at scientific conferences. Science policies encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and scientific questions themselves often cannot be answered without knowledge and information from several scientific areas. Scientists increasingly need to communicate knowledge and results in more general terms as well as educating future generations. A huge challenge lies in developing the knowledge, human capacity and mindset that will allow an individual academician to contribute to education, communicate across scientific fields and sectors in multidisciplinary cross sectoral cooperations and also reach out to the general public while succeeding within the scientific meritocracy. We demonstrate how research, education and communication within and outside academia can effectively be combined through a presentation of the International Airways Volcano Watch that encompasses an operational volcanic ash warning system for the aviation industry. This presentation will show the role of science throughout the information flow, from basic science to the pilots' decision-making. Furthermore, it will illustrate how one can connect specific scientific topics to societal issues such as security and economy. Skills, knowledge and mindset must be developed and nurtured through university curricula and reflected in career awards and other professional appreciations. By using concrete examples of geoscience in practice, such as the volcanic ash warning system, different aspects of science, it's role in society and economic impact is being communicated across sectors and taught simultaneously. The very same information is relevant and appropriate for society at large and thus time saving for academicians. It also serves as a recruiting strategy.

  6. Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Sen, E Fatma; Verhamme, Katia M C; Felisi, Mariagrazia; 't Jong, Geert W; Giaquinto, Carlo; Picelli, Gino; Ceci, Adriana; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of children <2 years in Italy and the Netherlands was carried out. Age and country specific prescription prevalence rates were calculated for the period 2005–08. Comparisons of prescription rates in 2005 (pre) and 2008 (post) warnings were done by means of a chi-square test. RESULTS The cohort consisted of 99 176 children <2 years of age. After international warnings, overall prescription rates for CCMs decreased slightly from 83 to 77/1000 person years (P = 0.05) in Italy and increased in the Netherlands from 74 to 92/1000 children per year. Despite the international warnings, prescription rates for nasal sympathomimetics and opium alkaloids increased in the Netherlands (P < 0.01). In Italy a significant decrease in the prescription rates of opium alkaloids and other cough suppressants (P < 0.01) was observed, and also a significant reduction in use of combinations of nasal sympathomimetics. CONCLUSION Despite the international safety warnings and negative benefit-risk profiles, prescription rates of cough and cold medicines remain substantial and were hardly affected by the warnings, especially in the Netherlands where no warning was issued. The hazards of use of these medicines in young children should be explicitly stipulated by the European Medicines Agency and all national agencies, in order to increase awareness amongst physicians and caretakers and reduce heterogeneity across the EU. PMID:21564162

  7. Negative Treatment Effects: Is It Time for a Black Box Warning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisvert, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on Negative effects from psychological treatments: A perspective by David Barlow. The author addresses negative treatment effects in the psychotherapy field by stating that Barlow provided a historical perspective of clinical psychology's long-standing interest in studying the positive effects of psychotherapy, and he indicated that…

  8. [How would plain packaging and pictorial warning impact on smoking reduction, cessation and initiation?].

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Mipatrini, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; Terzano, Claudio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission has proposed a review of the directive on tobacco products on labeling and packaging of tobacco products by introducing warning text with pictorial warning that occupies 75% of the cigarette packages. The aim of the survey was to assess the impact of plain packaging and pictorial warning in smoking reduction, cessation and initiation among a sample of adult. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Rome between September and November 2012. The questionnaires administered were 227, with a response rate of 82.4%. 35.8% (No. 67) of the respondents considered the image of the gangrene the most effective in communicating smoking-related damages, followed by the image on lung cancer (No. 60; 32.1%). Distinguishing between smokers and non-smokers (both former and never smokers), the picture on lung cancer was the most effective for smokers (No. 22; 38.6%); if cigarette packages have pictorial warnings like the ones shown, more than half (No. 33; 57.9%) of smokers would change brand; 66.7% (No. 38) of them would feel uncomfortable in showing the package. Comparing the 3 packagings, classic packaging, plain packaging with textual warning, and plain packaging with both textual and pictorial warning, the majority of people declared that the third is the most effective in preventing smoking initiation (No. 169; 90.9%), in motivating to quit (No. 158; 84.9%), and in changing smoking habits (No. 149; 80.5%). The survey, although its small sample size and being not representative of all strata of Italian population, shows that the plain packaging with pictorial warning is the most convincing in the three outcomes considered. PMID:24548838

  9. Immediate effects of plain packaging health warnings on quitting intention and potential mediators: Results from two ecological momentary assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Natalie; Eid, Michael; Schüz, Benjamin; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the immediate, everyday impact of health warnings on cigarette packages on potential smoking cessation mediators and to test for differences in immediate reactions to branded and plain tobacco packaging during the transition phase when plain packs where first introduced in Australia. Two Ecological Momentary Assessment studies tested whether smokers report higher risk appraisals, self-efficacy, and quitting intentions immediately after seeing a warning compared to random times of the day (Study 1), and whether smoking from plain packs results in higher quitting intention, risk appraisal, and self-efficacy than smoking from branded packs (Study 2). There was no immediate increase in self-efficacy, risk appraisal, or intention after encountering health warnings, and no differences in cognitions when using plain compared with branded packs. Moreover, cognitions were not different when warnings were encountered in proximity to smoking compared to nonsmoking events. However, self-efficacy and risk appraisal were significantly associated with quitting intention. Current health warnings do not seem to have an immediate impact on important predictors of quitting intention and might benefit from including messages that place a stronger focus on increasing smokers' confidence that they can quit. Replication of the results with larger sample and cluster sizes is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999353

  10. Pictorial Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs in the United States: An Experimental Evaluation of the Proposed FDA Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jessica L.; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed 36 proposed health warnings for cigarette packages, from which 9 were subsequently selected for implementation. The current study aimed to evaluate the perceived efficacy of the 36 proposed FDA warnings. Methods: Web-based surveys were conducted with 783 adult smokers and 510 youth in United States. Participants were randomized to view and rate two sets of 6–7 warnings, each set corresponding to one of nine health effect statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. Warnings included all 36 FDA-proposed warnings and additional warnings for comparison. Results: Youth and adults rated individual warnings similarly; in all cases where differences were found, youth perceived warnings as more effective. Comparisons on specific elements indicated that warnings were perceived as more effective if they were: full color (vs. black and white), featured real people (vs. comic book style), contained graphic images (vs. nongraphic), and included a telephone “quitline” number or personal information. Few sociodemographic differences were observed in overall perceived effectiveness: younger respondents, non-White respondents, and smokers intending to quit rated warnings higher. Conclusions: Seven of the nine health warnings selected by the FDA for implementation were among the proposed warnings rated as most effective in the current study. However, the warning(s) added for comparison were rated higher than the FDA-selected warning for five of the nine sets, suggesting some warnings could be improved for greater impact. The findings support the inclusion of a telephone “quitline” number and reinforce the importance of depicting “real” people and health effects. PMID:22505660

  11. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs

  12. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  13. The Effect of Labeling on Preschool Children's Performance in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ulrich; Zelazo, Philip D.; Lurye, Leah E.; Liebermann, Dana P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that experimenter-induced labeling of test cards improves preschoolers' performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS), a measure of flexible rule use. Three experiments attempted to further clarify how labeling aids performance on the DCCS. Experiment 1 examined the nature of the labeling effect but failed…

  14. Timely Warning Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    A complaint received by the Department of Education alleged that Virginia Tech violated the "timely warning" requirements of the Clery Act on April 16, 2007, by not issuing specific campus-wide alerts once senior officials knew of the immediate threat to health and safety. The complaint also alleged that the University's timely warning policy, as

  15. Timely Warning Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    A complaint received by the Department of Education alleged that Virginia Tech violated the "timely warning" requirements of the Clery Act on April 16, 2007, by not issuing specific campus-wide alerts once senior officials knew of the immediate threat to health and safety. The complaint also alleged that the University's timely warning policy, as…

  16. Tobacco health warning messages on plain cigarette packs and in television campaigns: a qualitative study with Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health risk and cessation benefit messages. Six focus groups were conducted over September 2012-April 2013 with adult clients of welfare organizations in regional New South Wales, Australia who were current smokers (n = 51). Participants discussed HWLs, plain packaging and anti-smoking television advertisements. Discussions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Highly emotive warnings delivering messages of negative health effects were most likely to capture the attention of the study participants; however, these warning messages did not prompt quit attempts and participants were sceptical about the effectiveness of cessation programmes such as telephone quitlines. Active avoidance of health warning messages was common, and many expressed false and self-exempting beliefs towards the harms of tobacco. Careful consideration of message content and medium is required to communicate the anti-smoking message to disadvantaged smokers who consider themselves desensitized to warnings. Health communication strategies should continue to address false beliefs about smoking and educate on cessation services that are currently underutilized. PMID:24966335

  17. Effects of a New Type of Psychological Treatment on Smokers' Resistance to Warnings about Health Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Harvey D., Jr.; Janis, Irving L.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the study indicate that the awareness-of-rationalizations procedure is more effective in convincing discontented smokers of the personal relevance of the health hazards of smoking than the control procedure, which presents the same specific information to refute typical rationalizations. (Author/PC)

  18. Emolabeling effectively reduces the influence of ambiguous labeling on food packages among grocery store shoppers.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Brown, Caitlin J; Gillespie, James J

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased regulations and policy enforcement for nutrition labeling, ambiguous labels on food items can still have deleterious effects on consumer perceptions of health. The present study used a counterbalanced within-subjects design to test if emolabeling - the use of emoticons to convey health information (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy) - will reduce the effects of ambiguous labels on consumer perceptions of the healthfulness of a food item. 85 grocery store shoppers were shown nutrition labels for a low calorie (LC) and a high calorie (HC) food with/without emolabels, and with an ambiguous label that either implied the food was healthy or unhealthy. Results showed that emolabels reduced the effectiveness of ambiguous labels: consumers rated the LC food as healthier and the HC food as less healthy when emolabels were added. The results suggest that, if implemented, this image-based emolabeling system could possibly be an effective buffer against the use of ambiguous labeling by food manufacturers. PMID:25946913

  19. THE EFFECTS ON DRIVING SPEED OF A HEAD-UP DISPLAY OF ROAD WARNINGS (1).

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Chun-Wen

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the superimposition of the projected markings on the road with head-up display, as well as their effects on the driver's speed. Two experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, driving operations were simulated with a desktop computer to assess 18 deceleration markings (from the factors position, shape, and color) and determined the factors and levels influencing driving speeds. Based on the results of Exp. 1, six deceleration markings (from the factors shape and color) were selected in the driving simulator for conducting Exp. 2. The results of Exp. 1 showed that markings at the sides were better than the markings in the center. In Exp. 2, there was no significant difference between the effects of the arrangement of markings and the change of shape and color on driving stability. Yellow and white colors had no significant effect on speed; however, bar markings were better than zigzag markings. The results indicated that the projection of markings on a head-up display was helpful for indicating necessary deceleration. PMID:26474437

  20. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  1. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  2. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  3. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  4. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  5. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  6. Atmospheric effects on voice command intelligibility from acoustic hail and warning devices.

    PubMed

    Bostron, Jason H; Brungart, Timothy A; Barnard, Andrew R; McDevitt, Timothy E

    2011-04-01

    Voice command sound pressure levels (SPLs) were recorded at distances up to 1500 m. Received SPLs were related to the meteorological condition during sound propagation and compared with the outdoor sound propagation standard ISO 9613-2. Intelligibility of received signals was calculated using ANSI S3.5. Intelligibility results for the present voice command indicate that meteorological condition imposes little to no effect on intelligibility when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low (<-9 dB) or high (>0 dB). In these two cases the signal is firmly unintelligible or intelligible, respectively. However, at moderate SNRs, variations in received SPL can cause a fully intelligible voice command to become unintelligible, depending on the meteorological condition along the sound propagation path. These changes in voice command intelligibility often occur on time scales as short as minutes during upward refracting conditions, typically found above ground during the day or upwind of a sound source. Reliably predicting the intelligibility of a voice command in a moderate SNR environment can be challenging due to the inherent variability imposed by sound propagation through the atmosphere. PMID:21476678

  7. Emphasized warning reduces salt intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinjuh Markota, Nina; Rumboldt, Mirjana; Rumboldt, Zvonko

    2015-03-01

    Excessive salt intake is a major cardiovascular risk factor. At variance to the developed countries, the main source of sodium in transitional and developing countries is salt added while cooking and/or at the table. The objective of this trial was to examine the impact of warning labels placed on home salt containers on daily salt intake.A sample of treated hypertensives (n = 150) was randomized in two subgroups, one receiving just a leaflet about the harmful effects of excessive salt intake (control; n = 74), and the other one receiving in addition warning stickers for household salt containers (intervention; n = 76). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (Na24) were measured in all the subjects at the start of the trial, and 1 month and 2 months later. The average starting Na24 was 207 ± 71 mmol in the control group and 211 ± 85 mmol in the intervention group (P = .745). One month and 2 months later, a significant decrease was observed in the intervention group (to 183 ± 63 mmol and 176 ± 55 mmol; P < .0001), as opposed to the control group (203 ± 60 mmol and 200 ± 58 mmol; P = .1466). Initial BP was 143.7/84.1 mm Hg in the control, and 142.9/84.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P = .667). One month and 2 months later, a significant drop in BP, by 5.3/2.9 mm Hg, was observed in the intervention group as opposed to the control group (0.4/0.9 mm Hg). Decrease in Na24 positively correlated to BP lowering (r(2) = 0.5989; P < .0001). A significant reduction in 24Na and BP is achieved with warning labels on harmful effects of excessive salt intake. Decreasing daily salt input by 35 mmol may result in an extra BP lowering by some 5-6/2-3 mm Hg. PMID:25659228

  8. Mandatory cancer risk warnings on alcoholic beverages: what are the ethical issues?

    PubMed

    Louise, Jennie; Eliott, Jaklin; Olver, Ian; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The link between alcohol consumption and cancer is well established, but public awareness of the risk remains low. Mandated warning labels have been suggested as a way of ensuring "informed choice" about alcohol consumption. In this article we explore various ethical issues that may arise in connection with cancer warning labels on alcoholic beverages; in particular we highlight the potentially questionable autonomy of alcohol consumption decisions (either with or without labels) and consider the implications if the autonomy of drinking behavior is substantially compromised. Our discussion demonstrates the need for the various ethical issues to be considered and addressed in any decision to mandate cancer warning labels. PMID:25786002

  9. Effects of labeling on preschoolers' explicit false belief performance: outcomes of cognitive flexibility or inhibitory control?

    PubMed

    Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and protagonist-perspective labeled conditions compared to the child-perspective and nondescript labeling conditions. In Experiment 2 with 3-year-olds (N = 53), labeling the nondominant belief only biased attentional inertia. In Experiment 3 testing generalization in 4-year-olds (N = 38), labeling manipulations translated to improved performance on a second label-free explicit false belief task. These outcomes fit a cognitive flexibility account whereby age changes in the effects of labeling turn on formulating sophisticated conceptual representations. PMID:22364371

  10. Effect of Prematurity Labeling on Caregiver Perceptions of Newborns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia A.

    This study examined adult attitudes toward infants labeled premature. Fifty-two subjects, including infant specialists, experienced special educators, and preservice special educators, viewed a videotape of 9-month-old infants, each labeled full-term or preterm and male or female. A questionnaire administered after viewing the videotape rated each…

  11. Effect of Prematurity Labeling on Caregiver Perceptions of Newborns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia A.

    This study examined adult attitudes toward infants labeled premature. Fifty-two subjects, including infant specialists, experienced special educators, and preservice special educators, viewed a videotape of 9-month-old infants, each labeled full-term or preterm and male or female. A questionnaire administered after viewing the videotape rated each

  12. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  13. Consumer involvement: effects on information processing from over-the-counter medication labels.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S; Sansgiry, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumer involvement on information processing from over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels. A sample of 256 students evaluated simulated OTC product labels for two product categories (headache and cold) in random order. Each participant evaluated labels after reading a scenario to simulate high and low involvement respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect data on variables such as label comprehension, attitude-towards-product label, product evaluation, and purchase intention. The results indicate that when consumers are involved in their purchase of OTC medications they are significantly more likely to understand information from the label and evaluate it accordingly. However, involvement does not affect attitude-towards-product label nor does it enhance purchase intention. PMID:11727293

  14. Age differences in the rejection of false memories: the effects of giving warning instructions and slowing the presentation rate.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Paula; Fernandez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether children of different ages differ in their ability to reject associative false memories with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two different types of manipulations that are thought to facilitate false memory rejection in adults-slowing the presentation rate and issuing explicit warnings-were analyzed in younger and older children. The results showed that older children were more able than younger children to reject associative false memories through warnings and by slowing the presentation rate. We conclude that although older children are, in general, more prone to produce false memories with the DRM paradigm, they are also more able to reject them when certain conditions facilitate the editing process. PMID:19875129

  15. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Marissa G; Peebles, Kathryn; Bach, Laura E; Noar, Seth M; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-10-01

    The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers' social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2) talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87%) and spouses/significant others (34%/42%). Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05). Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior. PMID:26506363

  16. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marissa G.; Peebles, Kathryn; Bach, Laura E.; Noar, Seth M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2) talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87%) and spouses/significant others (34%/42%). Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05). Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior. PMID:26506363

  17. Why People Don't Listen to Warnings: With Discussion of Implications for Futurists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Fran

    The document reviews recent literature on warning processes, evaluates the effectiveness of warnings in changing public policy and personal behavior, and applies warning literature to specific problem areas. Warning is interpreted to include a statement of the problem and a proposed course of action. The document is presented in six parts. Part

  18. Why People Don't Listen to Warnings: With Discussion of Implications for Futurists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Fran

    The document reviews recent literature on warning processes, evaluates the effectiveness of warnings in changing public policy and personal behavior, and applies warning literature to specific problem areas. Warning is interpreted to include a statement of the problem and a proposed course of action. The document is presented in six parts. Part…

  19. [Are graphic warnings on cigarette packs useful?].

    PubMed

    Etter, J F; Cornuz, J

    2009-07-01

    Based on the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommendations, health warnings and messages should be printed on cigarettes packages. Scientific data show that such messages are effective by delivering important information directly to smokers, who believe these messages more and remember better than they do public education campaigns. These warnings also increase the chance of quitting. This narrative review summarizes the data at the time Switzerland requires such pictures on tobacco products. PMID:19634535

  20. 77 FR 72868 - Compliance Guidance for Small Business Entities on Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... (76 FR 35620) regarding labeling and testing requirements for OTC sunscreen drug products. Under the... and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Notice of... ``Labeling and Effectiveness Testing: Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Small...

  1. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. PMID:23701641

  2. Communicating with whom? The effectiveness of appliance energy labels in the U.S. and Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Pont, P. du

    1998-07-01

    The proliferation of household appliances is a global energy problem, and this comparative study of appliance energy labeling in the US and Thailand offers opportunities to learn from the implementation of programs in countries with different income levels and cultural and political climates. In the US, the author conducted participant observation in an appliance store and interviewed 16 policymakers, 14 salespeople, and 100 consumers. In Thailand, he interviewed 11 policymakers, 53 salespeople, and 62 consumers, and carried out a national survey of 971 consumers. This study is the first time that energy labels have been examined primarily as a problem of consumer cognition in context--that is, how consumers read, interpret, and think about energy labels in the retail environment. After just three years of implementation, the Thai appliance labeling program is having a significantly greater impact on the consumer appliance market than is the 20-year-old US program. While Thai salespeople report that more than 60% of consumers ask about or look at the label, the corresponding number for the US is just 20%. Energy efficiency was reported among the top-three purchase priorities by 28% of Thai appliance consumers, compared to just 11% of US consumers. In his in-store tests of label cognition, the US EnergyGuide label fared poorly, and the Thai appliance label was more effective at helping consumers to identify efficient models. Yet both labels suffer from the problem of too much detailed product information, which hinders label comprehension.

  3. Disaster warning satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Disaster Warning Satellite System is described. It will provide NOAA with an independent, mass communication system for the purpose of warning the public of impending disaster and issuing bulletins for corrective action to protect lives and property. The system consists of three major segments. The first segment is the network of state or regional offices that communicate with the central ground station; the second segment is the satellite that relays information from ground stations to home receivers; the third segment is composed of the home receivers that receive information from the satellite and provide an audio output to the public. The ground stations required in this system are linked together by two, separate, voice bandwidth communication channels on the Disaster Warning Satellites so that a communications link would be available in the event of disruption of land line service.

  4. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mileti, D.S. ); Sorensen, J.H. )

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  6. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  7. Effects of Labeling and Teacher Certification Type on Recall and Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Jane M.; Krueger, Lacy E.; Jones, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how labels and prior training affect teachers of students with a disability is a step toward creating effective educational environments. Two goals of the present study were to examine how teacher training (special education vs. general education training) and labeling of students (either as having attention deficit hyperactivity…

  8. How Public Relations Professionals Can Use Food Labels as Effective Communication Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerick, Nancy; Weir, Lee

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes a panel of graphic arts education experts to review suggested Food and Drug Administration label guidelines--if the participants thought that "graphic problems" existed in the guidelines, they were asked to make suggestions to indicate how food labels could be prepared more effectively, at no additional cost. (PA)

  9. The Unintended Effects of Interactive Objects and Labels in the Science Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Leslie J.; Velez, Lisanne; Goudy, David; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2009-01-01

    What effects do different setups of museum exhibits have on visitors' conversations and interactions? The study reported here is an investigation of the role that labels and associated materials play in visitors' conversations and interactions at a heat camera exhibit. After we introduced a label to help visitors explore the insulating properties…

  10. Effect of preparation procedures on intensity of radioautographic labeling is studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baserga, R.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Effects of tissue preparation and extractive procedures on the intensity of radioautographic labeling are presented in terms of mean grain count per cell in cells labeled with tritiated precursors of proteins or nucleic acids. This information would be of interest to medical researchers and cytologists.

  11. The Unintended Effects of Interactive Objects and Labels in the Science Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Leslie J.; Velez, Lisanne; Goudy, David; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2009-01-01

    What effects do different setups of museum exhibits have on visitors' conversations and interactions? The study reported here is an investigation of the role that labels and associated materials play in visitors' conversations and interactions at a heat camera exhibit. After we introduced a label to help visitors explore the insulating properties

  12. Retesting after initial failure, coaching rumors, and warnings against faking in online personality measures for selection.

    PubMed

    Landers, Richard N; Sackett, Paul R; Tuzinski, Kathy A

    2011-01-01

    A large sample (N = 32,311) of applicants for managerial positions at a nationwide retailer completed a personality test online over the course of several years. A new type of faking was observed in their responses: the use of only extreme responses (all 1s and 5s), which is labeled blatant extreme responding (BER). An increase in BER over time was observed for internal but not for external applicants, suggesting the presence of a coaching rumor. A subsample of internal applicants chose to retake the test after initial failure. These individuals showed substantial increases in both test scores and rate of BER, with higher prevalence of faking at retest than the main sample. To reduce faking, an interactive warning was implemented one year after the initial administration. Differing patterns of faking were observed before and after warnings, allowing for an examination of warning effectiveness in the presence of a coaching rumor. Results suggest that faking increases over time as the coaching rumor spreads but that warnings deter this spread. Evidence suggests that faking is indeed a problem in real-world selection settings. PMID:20718510

  13. Effects of Labeling and Group Category of Evaluators on Evaluations of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Teraguchi, Tsukasa; Kugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether the effect of labeling on people’s evaluation of aggression varies according to the group category of the evaluators (i.e., whether they are ingroup members or third parties). Two labeling strategies—the negative labeling of victims (NL strategy) and the positive labeling of aggressors (PL strategy)–were adopted. We conducted an experiment using the hot sauce paradigm, as a way to assess aggressive intent that includes behavioral measures of evaluations. The results suggested that the NL strategy causes ingroup members to evaluate aggression in a more positive light, while the PL strategy has the same effect but on third parties instead. Thus, labeling strategies may increase the severity of aggressors’ reaction and could also be a factor that can escalate a war or conflict. PMID:26646836

  14. Effects of Labeling and Group Category of Evaluators on Evaluations of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Teraguchi, Tsukasa; Kugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether the effect of labeling on people's evaluation of aggression varies according to the group category of the evaluators (i.e., whether they are ingroup members or third parties). Two labeling strategies--the negative labeling of victims (NL strategy) and the positive labeling of aggressors (PL strategy)--were adopted. We conducted an experiment using the hot sauce paradigm, as a way to assess aggressive intent that includes behavioral measures of evaluations. The results suggested that the NL strategy causes ingroup members to evaluate aggression in a more positive light, while the PL strategy has the same effect but on third parties instead. Thus, labeling strategies may increase the severity of aggressors' reaction and could also be a factor that can escalate a war or conflict. PMID:26646836

  15. Modeling warning times for the Israel's earthquake early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Israeli government approved the offer of the creation of an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) that would provide timely alarms for schools and colleges in Israel. A network configuration was chosen, consisting of a staggered line of ˜100 stations along the main regional faults: the Dead Sea fault and the Carmel fault, and an additional ˜40 stations spread more or less evenly over the country. A hybrid approach to the EEWS alarm was suggested, where a P-wave-based system will be combined with the S-threshold method. The former utilizes first arrivals to several stations closest to the event for prompt location and determination of the earthquake's magnitude from the first 3 s of the waveform data. The latter issues alarms, when the acceleration of the surface movement exceeds a threshold for at least two neighboring stations. The threshold will be chosen to be a peak acceleration level corresponding to a magnitude 5 earthquake at a short distance range (5-10 km). The warning times or lead times, i.e., times between the alarm signal arrival and arrival of the damaging S-waves, are considered for the P, S, and hybrid EEWS methods. For each of the approaches, the P- and the S-wave travel times and the alarm times were calculated using a standard 1D velocity model and some assumptions regarding the EEWS data latencies. Then, a definition of alarm effectiveness was introduced as a measure of the trade-off between the warning time and the shaking intensity. A number of strong earthquake scenarios, together with anticipated shaking intensities at important targets, namely cities with high populations, are considered. The scenarios demonstrated in probabilistic terms how the alarm effectiveness varies depending on the target distance from the epicenter and event magnitude.

  16. Modeling warning times for the Israel's earthquake early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Vladimir

    2014-09-01

    In June 2012, the Israeli government approved the offer of the creation of an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) that would provide timely alarms for schools and colleges in Israel. A network configuration was chosen, consisting of a staggered line of ˜100 stations along the main regional faults: the Dead Sea fault and the Carmel fault, and an additional ˜40 stations spread more or less evenly over the country. A hybrid approach to the EEWS alarm was suggested, where a P-wave-based system will be combined with the S-threshold method. The former utilizes first arrivals to several stations closest to the event for prompt location and determination of the earthquake's magnitude from the first 3 s of the waveform data. The latter issues alarms, when the acceleration of the surface movement exceeds a threshold for at least two neighboring stations. The threshold will be chosen to be a peak acceleration level corresponding to a magnitude 5 earthquake at a short distance range (5-10 km). The warning times or lead times, i.e., times between the alarm signal arrival and arrival of the damaging S-waves, are considered for the P, S, and hybrid EEWS methods. For each of the approaches, the P- and the S-wave travel times and the alarm times were calculated using a standard 1D velocity model and some assumptions regarding the EEWS data latencies. Then, a definition of alarm effectiveness was introduced as a measure of the trade-off between the warning time and the shaking intensity. A number of strong earthquake scenarios, together with anticipated shaking intensities at important targets, namely cities with high populations, are considered. The scenarios demonstrated in probabilistic terms how the alarm effectiveness varies depending on the target distance from the epicenter and event magnitude.

  17. Hydrometeorological Prediction for Real Time Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, K. P.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated hydrometeorological prediction is reviewed with emphasis on effective warnings and water management operations. Site-specific data-intense designs for supporting real time warning and water management, and distributed hydrologic modeling applications using remotely sensed data and distributed precipitation forecasts under a variety of real time data availability options are exemplified through regional applications worldwide. The effect of prediction scale on prediction reliability is suggested. Cooperation of forecasters with disaster managers is key for effective warnings, as is the cooperation of forecasters and water managers for effective operational water management. Designs that encourage this and allow for resilience to real time data uncertainty and intermittence are discussed through applications. Examples are drawn from real time systems in operation in Southern Africa, Central America, Southeast Asia and the United States.

  18. The effects of nutrition knowledge on food label use. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition information on food labels is an important source of nutrition information but is typically underutilized by consumers. This review examined whether consumer nutrition knowledge is important for communication of nutrition information through labels on packaged foods. A cognitive processing model posits that consumers with prior knowledge are more likely to use label information effectively, that is, focus on salient information, understand information, and make healthful decisions based on this information. Consistent with this model, the review found that nutrition knowledge provides support for food label use. However, nutrition knowledge measures varied widely in terms of the dimensions they included and the extensiveness of the assessment. Relatively few studies investigated knowledge effects on the use of ingredient lists and claims, compared to nutrition facts labels. We also found an overreliance on convenience samples relying on younger adults, limiting our understanding of how knowledge supports food label use in later life. Future research should 1) investigate which dimensions, or forms, of nutrition knowledge are most critical to food label use and dietary decision making and 2) determine whether increases in nutrition knowledge can promote great use of nutrition information on food labels. PMID:26025086

  19. 19 CFR 122.115 - Labeling of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.115 Labeling of cargo. A warning label, as required by § 18.4(e) of this chapter, shall be attached to all transit air cargo...

  20. New Labeling Offers More Protection for Meat Lovers

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159079.html New Labeling Offers More Protection for Meat Lovers Warns ... this Memorial Day weekend, you might notice a new safety label on the package. This month, the ...

  1. Methods for nanoparticle labeling of ricin and effect on toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, Alastair W.; Yu, Jun; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Nativo, Paola; Graham, Duncan

    2009-09-01

    The unique optical properties associated with nanostructured materials that support the excitation of surface plasmons offer many new opportunities for the enhanced optical investigation of biological materials that pose a security threat. In particular, ricin is considered a significant bioterrorism risk due to its high toxicity combined with its ready availability as a byproduct in castor oil production. Therefore, the development of optical techniques capable of rapid on-site toxin detection with high molecular specificity and sensitivity continues to be of significant importance. Furthermore, understanding of the ricin cell entry and intracellular pathways remains poor due to a lack of suitable bioanalytical techniques. Initial work aimed at simultaneously tackling both these issues is described where different approaches for the nanoparticle labeling of ricin are investigated along with changes in ricin toxicity associated with the labeling process.

  2. Effect of acetaminophen on the leukocyte-labeling efficiency of indium oxine In 111

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, S.C.; Schmelter, R.F.; Nelson, K.L.; Petersen, R.J.; Qualfe, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    The effect of acetaminophen on the labeling efficiency of leukocytes with indium oxine In 111 was studied. A blood sample was obtained from eight healthy men before and after they received acetaminophen 650 mg every four hours for 24 hours. After dividing the plasma from each sample into three portions, leukocytes were separated and labeled with indium oxine In 111. In an in vitro study, 200 ml of blood was obtained from one of the men, and the plasma was separated into four portions. Acetaminophen in 95% ethanol was added to three of the plasma fractions to produce acetaminophen concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 micrograms/ml; ethanol was added to the fourth fraction as a control. Each plasma fraction was then subdivided into three aliquots, and leukocytes were labeled as in the in vivo study. Mean leukocyte labeling efficiencies in both studies were calculated from the ratios of leukocyte radioactivity to initial radioactivity in the samples, expressed as percentages. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies before acetaminophen administration ranged from 79 to 85%; after administration, labeling efficiencies ranged from 70 to 87%. No significant differences in mean labeling efficiency before and after acetaminophen administration were noted in any of the subjects. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies in all in vitro plasma fractions were reduced, ranging from 54 to 63%, but no significant differences in labeling efficiency between any of the plasma fractions were found. Using the labeling procedures in this study, exposure of leukocytes from healthy men to acetaminophen in vivo or in vitro does not affect labeling efficiency with indium oxine In 111.

  3. Emolabeling Effectively Reduces the Influence of Ambiguous Labeling on Food Packages Among Grocery Store Shoppers

    PubMed Central

    Privitera, Gregory J.; Brown, Caitlin J.; Gillespie, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased regulations and policy enforcement for nutrition labeling, ambiguous labels on food items can still have deleterious effects on consumer perceptions of health. The present study used a counterbalanced within-subjects design to test if emolabeling—the use of emoticons to convey health information (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy)—will reduce the effects of ambiguous labels on consumer perceptions of the healthfulness of a food item. 85 grocery store shoppers were shown nutrition labels for a low calorie (LC) and a high calorie (HC) food with/without emolabels, and with an ambiguous label that either implied the food was healthy or unhealthy. Results showed that emolabels reduced the effectiveness of ambiguous labels: consumers rated the LC food as healthier and the HC food as less healthy when emolabels were added. The results suggest that, if implemented, this image-based emolabeling system could possibly be an effective buffer against the use of ambiguous labeling by food manufacturers. PMID:25946913

  4. The effects of nutrition labeling on consumer food choice: a psychological experiment and computational model.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes. PMID:24913496

  5. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed. PMID:25393768

  6. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  7. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  8. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  9. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  10. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator...

  11. Graphic Cigarette Warnings May Target Brain's 'Quit Centers'

    MedlinePlus

    ... scans, the smokers were shown non-graphic and graphic pictures used on cigarette pack warning labels. For example, one image included an open mouth with rotten teeth and a tumor on the lower lip. The images were accompanied by ... the graphic pictures triggered activity in areas of the brain ...

  12. 40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Child hazard warning. 156.66 Section... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.66 Child... Out of Reach of Children.” That statement, or any alternative statement approved by EPA, must...

  13. 40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Child hazard warning. 156.66 Section... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.66 Child... Out of Reach of Children.” That statement, or any alternative statement approved by EPA, must...

  14. 40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Child hazard warning. 156.66 Section... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.66 Child... Out of Reach of Children.” That statement, or any alternative statement approved by EPA, must...

  15. 40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child hazard warning. 156.66 Section... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.66 Child... Out of Reach of Children.” That statement, or any alternative statement approved by EPA, must...

  16. 40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Child hazard warning. 156.66 Section... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.66 Child... Out of Reach of Children.” That statement, or any alternative statement approved by EPA, must...

  17. The Effects of Symptom Recognition and Diagnostic Labels on Public Beliefs, Emotional Reactions, and Stigmas Associated with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scior, Katrina; Connolly, Theresa; Williams, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Labels are firmly rejected by the disability rights movement, yet the complex effects of labeling on lay beliefs are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of labeling on the general public's reactions to people with intellectual disabilities. A sample of 1,233 adult members of the UK general population were randomly presented with…

  18. Effects of front-of-package and shelf nutrition labeling systems on consumers.

    PubMed

    Hersey, James C; Wohlgenant, Kelly C; Arsenault, Joanne E; Kosa, Katherine M; Muth, Mary K

    2013-01-01

    As standards are considered for nutrition front-of-package (FOP) and shelf-labeling systems in the United States, it is important to know what types of systems are most effective in conveying scientifically accurate and useful information to consumers. A systematic literature review identified 38 empirical studies on consumer response to FOP nutrition labeling and shelf labeling. Studies indicate that consumers can more easily interpret and select healthier products with nutrient-specific FOP nutrition labels that incorporate text and symbolic color to indicate nutrient levels rather than nutrient-specific labels that only emphasize numeric information, such as Guideline Daily Amounts expressed as percentages and/or grams. Summary systems may influence consumers to purchase healthier products. However, more research is needed to assess the influence of nutrient-specific labels on consumers' purchases. This review identified few studies that compared consumers' ability to select healthier products using nutrient-specific systems that incorporate text and color codes with multiple-level summary icons. More research is needed to determine the effects of FOP nutrition labeling on consumers' actual shopping behaviors and dietary intakes. PMID:23282247

  19. Classification of benzoyl peroxide as safe and effective and revision of labeling to drug facts format; topical acne drug products for over-the-counter human use; final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    We, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are issuing this final rule to include benzoyl peroxide as a generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) active ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) topical acne drug products. In addition, this final rule includes new warnings and directions required for OTC acne drug products containing benzoyl peroxide. We are also revising labeling for OTC topical acne drug products containing resorcinol, resorcinol monoacetate, salicylic acid and/or sulfur to meet OTC drug labeling content and format requirements in a certain FDA regulation. This final rule is part of our ongoing review of OTC drug products and represents our conclusions on benzoyl peroxide in OTC acne drug products. PMID:20383916

  20. Human Response to Emergency Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, J.

    2009-12-01

    Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

  1. Can serving-size labels reduce the portion-size effect? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Samantha; Kenda, Andree S; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the bigger the portion that people are served, the more food they eat; this phenomenon is referred to as the portion-size effect. Providing objective serving-size information on food products has been shown to reduce the influence of external food cues on people's eating behavior. The current study examined whether providing objective serving-size information would also reduce the portion-size effect. 100 female participants were served either a small or large portion of pizza in the context of a taste test. The large portion was either unlabeled, labeled as "Contains 2 servings," or labeled as "Contains 4 servings." Food intake was lower when the large portion was labeled "Contains 4 servings" compared to when it was labeled "Contains 2 servings." Moreover, participants' intake in the large portion/4 servings condition was statistically similar to the intake of participants in the small portion condition. Thus, the standard portion-size effect was observed when the large portion was unlabeled or was labeled as "Contains 2 servings," but not when the large portion was labeled as "Contains 4 servings". These findings suggest that providing serving-size information can reduce the portion-size effect, but that the specific content (and not just the presence) of serving-size information is important in determining food intake. PMID:25464065

  2. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, T.; Raape, U.; Teßmann, S.; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; Kukofka, T.; Riedlinger, T.; Mikusch, E.; Dech, S.

    2010-09-01

    An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind - it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal) of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010). While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system) which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG - the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia - which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC) and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG) to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010).

  3. Longer term impact of cigarette package warnings in Australia compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK warnings was higher than the Australian and Canadian pictorial warnings, this did not lead to greater levels of cognitive reactions, forgoing or avoiding. There was no difference in ratings between the Australian and UK warnings for cognitive responses and forgoing, but the Canadian warnings were responded to more strongly. Avoidance of the Australian warnings was greater than to UK ones, but less than to the Canadian warnings. The impact of warnings declined over time in all three countries. Declines were comparable between Australia and the United Kingdom on all measures except avoiding, where Australia had a greater rate of decline; and for salience where the decline was slower in Canada. Having two rotating sets of warnings does not appear to reduce wear-out over a single set of warnings. Warning size may be more important than warning type in preventing wear-out, although both probably contribute interactively. PMID:25492056

  4. Longer term impact of cigarette package warnings in Australia compared with the United Kingdom and Canada.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M; Thrasher, James F; Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK warnings was higher than the Australian and Canadian pictorial warnings, this did not lead to greater levels of cognitive reactions, forgoing or avoiding. There was no difference in ratings between the Australian and UK warnings for cognitive responses and forgoing, but the Canadian warnings were responded to more strongly. Avoidance of the Australian warnings was greater than to UK ones, but less than to the Canadian warnings. The impact of warnings declined over time in all three countries. Declines were comparable between Australia and the United Kingdom on all measures except avoiding, where Australia had a greater rate of decline; and for salience where the decline was slower in Canada. Having two rotating sets of warnings does not appear to reduce wear-out over a single set of warnings. Warning size may be more important than warning type in preventing wear-out, although both probably contribute interactively. PMID:25492056

  5. Effects of Quantum Dot Labeling on Endothelial Progenitor Cell Function and Viability

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Matyas; Friberg, Peter; Fu, Ying; Brisslert, Mikeal; Adams, Michael; Chen, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) play an important role in repairing damaged endothelium. An effective imaging method for in vivo tracking of EPCs is essential for understanding EPC-based cell therapy. Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have attractive optical characteristics such as extreme brightness and photostability. QDs are currently being investigated as probes for stem cell labeling; however, there is concern about whether QDs can be used safely. We investigated whether quantum dot (QD) labeling would influence EPC viability and function. Rat bone marrow-derived EPCs were cultured and characterized. The cells were labeled with near-infrared-emitting, carboxyl-coated QDs (8 nM) for 24 h. QD labeling efficiency was higher than 97%. Using WST-1 assay, we showed that the viability of the QD-labeled EPCs was not different from that of the control EPCs. Moreover, QD labeling did not influence the ability of EPCs to form capillary tubes on Matrigel and to migrate. The percentage of QD-positive cells decreased with time, probably due to the rapid division of EPCs. These data suggest that the carboxyl-coated QD705 can be useful for labeling EPCs without interrupting their viability and functions. PMID:26966634

  6. Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles-Labeling on Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Hamed; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Movassaghpour, Aliakbar; Akbarzadeh, Parvin; Amoghli Tabrizi, Bahram; Dehdilani, Nima; Lotfinegad, Parisa; Soleimanloo, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been used to label mammalian cells and to monitor their fate in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the effectiveness of phenotype of labeled cells by SPIONs is still a matter of question. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency and biological effects of labeled mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) using ferumoxide- protamine sulfate complex. Materials and Methods In an experimental study, undifferentiated mESCs, C571 line, a generous gift of Stem Cell Technology Company, were cultured on gelatin-coated flasks. The proliferation and viability of SPION-labeled cells were compared with control. ESCs and embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from differentiated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were analyzed for stage-specific cell surface markers using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Results Our observations showed that SPIONs have no effect on the self-renewal ability of mESCs. Reverse microscopic observations and prussian blue staining revealed 100% of cells were labeled with iron particles. SPION-labeled mESCs did not significantly alter cell viability and proliferation activity. Furthermore, labeling did not alter expression of representative surface phenotypic markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1) and cluster of differentiation 117 (CD117) on undifferentiated ESC and CD34, CD38 on HSCs, as measured by flowcytometry. Conclusion According to the results of the present study, SPIONs-labeling method as MRI agents in mESCs has no negative effects on growth, morphology, viability, proliferation and differentiation that can be monitored in vivo, noninvasively. Noninvasive cell tracking methods are considered as new perspectives in cell therapy for clinical use and as an easy method for evaluating the placement of stem cells after transplantation. PMID:26199901

  7. Early warning signals in complex ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, I. S.; Dyke, J. G.

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential for elements of the Earth system to undergo rapid, hard to reverse changes in state, there is a pressing need to establish robust methods to produce early warning signals of such events. Here we present a conceptual ecosystem model in which a diversity of stable states emerge, along with rapid changes, referred to as critical transitions, as a consequence of external driving and non-linear ecological dynamics. We are able to produce robust early warning signals that precede critical transitions. However, we show that there is no correlation between the magnitude of the signal and magnitude or reversibility of any individual critical transition. We discuss these findings in the context of ecosystem management prior to and post critical transitions. We argue that an understanding of the dynamics of the systems is necessary both for management prior and post critical transitions and the effective interpretation of any early warning signal that may be produced for that system.

  8. Automatic earthquake confirmation for early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyuk, H. S.; Colombelli, S.; Zollo, A.; Allen, R. M.; Erdik, M. O.

    2015-07-01

    Earthquake early warning studies are shifting real-time seismology in earthquake science. They provide methods to rapidly assess earthquakes to predict damaging ground shaking. Preventing false alarms from these systems is key. Here we developed a simple, robust algorithm, Authorizing GRound shaking for Earthquake Early warning Systems (AGREEs), to reduce falsely issued alarms. This is a network threshold-based algorithm, which differs from existing approaches based on apparent velocity of P and S waves. AGREEs is designed to function as an external module to support existing earthquake early warning systems (EEWSs) and filters out the false events, by evaluating actual shaking near the epicenter. Our retrospective analyses of the 2009 L'Aquila and 2012 Emilia earthquakes show that AGREEs could help an EEWS by confirming the epicentral intensity. Furthermore, AGREEs is able to effectively identify three false events due to a storm, a teleseismic earthquake, and broken sensors in Irpinia Seismic Network, Italy.

  9. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC Labeling Format)” and shall be directed to... pregnancy) and all warnings for persons experiencing certain symptoms. The warnings under this heading are...) The pregnancy/breast-feeding warning set forth in § 201.63(a); the third trimester warning set...

  10. Dangerousness, confidentiality, and the duty to warn.

    PubMed

    Roth, L H; Meisel, A

    1977-05-01

    The Tarasoff decision, by imposing on psychiatrists an obligation to warn the intended victim of threats made by a patient, but only under certain vaguely specified circumstances, may stampede psychiatrists into issuing such warnings to avoid possible legal liability no matter how remote the risk of harm may actually be. The authors suggest that the ill effects of such a reaction by psychiatrists--breach of confidentiality and the attendant erosion of trust and harm to the therapeutic alliance--can often be easily avoided by taking less drastic steps, some of which are illustrated by case presentations. PMID:848576

  11. The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

  12. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels, warning label message framing, and plain cigarette packaging on young adult smokers’ motivation to quit. Methods Smokers ages 18–30 (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomized to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of 4 cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease, and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning message framing (gain versus loss) and packaging (branded versus plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behavior, covariates, and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Results Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pre-test motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer, and mortality warnings (p < 0.05), compared with loss-framed warnings on plain packs. Conclusions Warnings combining pictorial depictions of smoking-related health risks with text-based messages about how quitting reduces risks may achieve better outcomes among young adults, especially in countries considering or implementing plain packaging regulations. PMID:24420310

  13. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent Labeling on Parent Fast Food Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Menu labels displaying food energy in physical activity calorie equivalents (PACE) is a possible strategy to encourage ordering meals with fewer calories and promoting physical activity. Potential effects of such labeling for children have never been examined. METHODS: We conducted a national survey of 1000 parents randomized to 1 of 4 fast food menus: no labels, calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles needed to walk to burn the calories. Respondents were asked to imagine they were in a fast food restaurant and place an order for their child. At the surveys conclusion, all respondents were shown a calorie-only label and both PACE labels and asked to rate the likelihood each label would influence them to encourage their child to exercise. RESULTS: We excluded respondents whose meals totaled 0 calories or >4000 calories, leaving 823 parents in the analysis. The mean age of the child for whom the meal was ordered was 9.5 years. Parents whose menus displayed no label ordered an average of 1294 calories, whereas those shown calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles ordered 1066, 1060, and 1099 calories, respectively (P = .0001). Only 20% of parents reported that calories-only labeling would be very likely to prompt them to encourage their children to exercise versus 38% for calories plus minutes (P < .0001) and 37% for calories plus miles (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: PACE labeling may influence parents decisions on what fast food items to order for their children and encourage them to get their children to exercise. PMID:25624379

  14. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  15. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  16. Evaluating Warning Sound Urgency with Reaction Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suied, Clara; Susini, Patrick; McAdams, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    It is well-established that subjective judgments of perceived urgency of alarm sounds can be affected by acoustic parameters. In this study, the authors investigated an objective measurement, the reaction time (RT), to test the effectiveness of temporal parameters of sounds in the context of warning sounds. Three experiments were performed using a…

  17. The Collaborative Encoding Deficit is Attenuated with Specific Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Paneerselvam, Bavani

    2012-01-01

    Individuals learning together do so less effectively than individuals learning alone, an effect known as the collaborative encoding deficit (Barber, Rajaram, & Aron, 2010). In the present studies we examined whether providing participants with a warning about the collaborative encoding deficit would increase their encoding task performance, and reduce subsequent memory deficits. Across two experiments, specific warnings were beneficial for memory. Collaborating participants who were told about the collaborative encoding deficit, and who received suggestions for how to complete the encoding task, had superior memory than participants who received no warning. This benefit was not due to qualitative changes in encoding task performance, was unrelated to the type of collaboration utilized, was absent when a more general warning was utilized, and was unrelated to self-reported task motivation. Rather, specific warnings appear to protect against the collaborative encoding deficit by increasing time spent on, and attention directed to, the encoding task. PMID:23296389

  18. A SDMS Model: Early Warning Coordination Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Reyes, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Following the tsunami disaster in 2004, the General Secretary of the United Nations (UN) Kofi Annan called for a global early warning system for all hazards and for all communities. He also requested the ISDR (International Strategy fort Disaster Reduction) and its UN partners to conduct a global survey of capacities, gaps and opportunities in relation to early warning systems. The produced report, "Global survey of Early Warning Systems", concluded that there are many gaps and shortcomings and that much progress has been made on early warning systems and great capabilities are available around the world. However, it may be argued that an early warning system (EWS) may not be enough to prevent fatalities due to a natural hazard; i.e., it should be seen as part of a ‘wider' or total system. Furthermore, an EWS may work very well when assessed individually but it is not clear whether it will contribute to accomplish the purpose of the ‘total disaster management system'; i.e., to prevent fatalities. For instance, a regional EWS may only work if it is well co-ordinated with the local warning and emergency response systems that ensure that the warning is received, communicated and acted upon by the potentially affected communities. It may be argued that without these local measures being in place, a regional EWS will have little impact in saving lives. Researchers argued that unless people are warned in remote areas, the technology is useless; for instance McGuire [5] argues that: "I have no doubt that the technical element of the warning system will work very well,"…"But there has to be an effective and efficient communications cascade from the warning centre to the fisherman on the beach and his family and the bar owners." Similarly, McFadden [6] states that: "There's no point in spending all the money on a fancy monitoring and a fancy analysis system unless we can make sure the infrastructure for the broadcast system is there,"… "That's going to require a lot of work. If it's a tsunami, you've got to get it down to the last Joe on the beach. This is the stuff that is really very hard." Given the above, the paper argues that there is a need for a systemic approach to early warning centres. Systemic means looking upon things as a system; systemic means seeing pattern and inter-relationship within a complex whole; i.e., to see events as products of the working of a system. System may be defined as a whole which is made of parts and relationships. Given this, ‘failure' may be seen as the product of a system and, within that, see death/injury/property loss etc. as results of the working of systems. This paper proposes a preliminary model of ‘early warning coordination centres' (EWCC); it should be highlighted that an EWCC is a subsystem of the Systemic Disaster Management System (SDMS) model.

  19. 30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for container labels. 47.41 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41 Requirement for container labels. (a) The operator must ensure that each container of a hazardous chemical has a label. If...

  20. GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

  1. Using warnings to reduce categorical false memories in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Anna M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    Warnings about memory errors can reduce their incidence, although past work has largely focused on associative memory errors. The current study sought to explore whether warnings could be tailored to specifically reduce false recall of categorical information in both younger and older populations. Before encoding word pairs designed to induce categorical false memories, half of the younger and older participants were warned to avoid committing these types of memory errors. Older adults who received a warning committed fewer categorical memory errors, as well as other types of semantic memory errors, than those who did not receive a warning. In contrast, young adults' memory errors did not differ for the warning versus no-warning groups. Our findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of warnings at reducing categorical memory errors in older adults, perhaps by supporting source monitoring, reduction in reliance on gist traces, or through effective metacognitive strategies. PMID:26274627

  2. Effect of tumor mass and antigenic nature on the biodistribution of labeled monoclonal antibodies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y.; Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Saga, T.; Sakahara, H.; Kuroki, M.; Matsuoka, Y.; Konishi, J.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of tumor mass and antigenic nature on the biodistribution of 111In- and 125I-labeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) was studied using F(ab')2 fragments of three representative anti-tumor MoAbs and SW1116 human colorectal carcinoma grown in nude mice. The 19-9, F33-104 anti-CEA, and 17-1A MoAbs showed specific binding to SW1116 cells. The former two MoAbs recognize circulating CA 19-9 with molecular weights of more than 5,000,000 and CEA of Mr 170,000-180,000, respectively, whereas 17-1A reacts with a nonshedding antigen. Both percentage injected dose per gram tumor and tumor-to-blood ratios were inversely proportional to the tumor mass in nude mice administered 111In- and 125I-labeled 19-9, but liver uptake increased as tumor size increased. Analysis of serum samples and tumor homogenates demonstrated the presence of a high-molecular-weight species, probably due to the antibody binding to CA 19-9. In the case of 111In-labeled anti-CEA MoAb, tumor uptake also decreased and liver uptake increased with tumor size, but this effect was less obvious than that of 19-9. In contrast, tumor and liver uptake of 125I-labeled anti-CEA MoAb, 111In- and 125I-labeled 17-1A and control antibodies were independent of tumor mass. The absolute tumor uptake and tumor-to-blood ratios of all 125I-labeled antibodies were lower than those of the 111In-labeled ones. And the effect of tumor mass was also weaker with 125I-labeled antibodies, probably due to in vivo dehalogenation. These results indicate that the effect of tumor size on the incorporation of labeled MoAb into tumors is dependent on the antigenic nature to be targeted and/or radionuclides used for labeling and that high concentrations of circulating high molecular weight antigens may limit in vivo use of MoAb conjugates.

  3. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system...

  4. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system...

  5. The effect of fluorescent labels on protein sorption in polymer hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Guan, Allan; Li, Zhenyu; Phillips, K Scott

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogels are an increasingly important class of medical device materials that enable diverse and unique function, but can also be subject to significant biofouling and contamination. Although it is challenging to accurately quantify protein biofouling in hydrogels, spectroscopic detection of fluorescently labeled proteins is one method with the potential to provide direct, sensitive quantitation in transparent materials. Therefore, it is important to understand how fluorophores can affect protein-material interactions in hydrogels. This work uses an independent method, native ultraviolet fluorescence (native UV) of proteins, in conjunction with labeled protein fluorescence and the bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA), to assess the effect of fluorescent labels on protein sorption in polymer hydrogels. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LY) were labeled with two common but structurally different fluorophores and used as model biofouling proteins in three contact lens hydrogel materials. Native UV was used to directly measure both labeled and unlabeled protein sorption, while orthogonal measurements were performed with extrinsic fluorescence and BCA assay to compare with the native UV results. Sorption of labeled proteins was found to be <2-fold higher than unlabeled proteins on most protein-material combinations, while differences of up to 10-fold were observed for labeled BSA in more hydrophobic hydrogels. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) also showed that the fluorescent label chemistry can significantly affect surface adsorption of sorbed proteins on the internal surfaces of hydrogels. This study reveals the complex nature of fluorophore-protein-material interactions and shows the potential of native UV for investigating unlabeled protein biofouling in hydrogels. PMID:25209202

  6. The model beetle Tribolium castaneum can be used as an early warning system for transgenerational epigenetic side effects caused by pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bingsohn, Linda; Knorr, Eileen; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are not currently tested for transgenerational and epigenetic side effects. The use of vertebrates as preclinical research models is limited by their long generation times, low numbers of progeny and ethical concerns. In contrast, invertebrates such as insects breed rapidly, produce many offspring and are more ethically acceptable, allowing them to be used for high-throughput screening. Here, we established Tribolium castaneum as a model to screen for the effect of drugs on complex fitness parameters and the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes. We tested diets supplemented with the psychoactive drug valproic acid (VPA), which is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, or the antioxidant curcumin, which is a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor. We found that VPA delayed development, reduced longevity, and increased female body weight compared to a control diet. Fertility and fecundity declined and the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes was induced in the untreated F1 generation. In contrast, curcumin did not affect development or body weight, but it increased longevity, caused a significant reduction in fertility, and induced the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes mostly in the treated F0 generation. VPA and curcumin administered to vertebrate models have similar effects to those we observed in T. castaneum, confirming that this beetle is potentially useful as an alternative model to screen for the epigenetic effect of drugs. T. castaneum also provides a valuable early warning system for transgenerational epigenetic risk factors that are difficult to detect in mammals. PMID:26972758

  7. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  12. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  13. Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2012-02-01

    Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator-prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, 'what makes an effective warning signal?', and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation. PMID:22113031

  14. Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D.

    2012-01-01

    Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator–prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, ‘what makes an effective warning signal?’, and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation. PMID:22113031

  15. GEO Label Web Services for Dynamic and Effective Communication of Geospatial Metadata Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, Victoria; Nüst, Daniel; Bastin, Lucy; Masó, Joan; Lumsden, Jo

    2014-05-01

    We present demonstrations of the GEO label Web services and their integration into a prototype extension of the GEOSS portal (http://scgeoviqua.sapienzaconsulting.com/web/guest/geo_home), the GMU portal (http://gis.csiss.gmu.edu/GADMFS/) and a GeoNetwork catalog application (http://uncertdata.aston.ac.uk:8080/geonetwork/srv/eng/main.home). The GEO label is designed to communicate, and facilitate interrogation of, geospatial quality information with a view to supporting efficient and effective dataset selection on the basis of quality, trustworthiness and fitness for use. The GEO label which we propose was developed and evaluated according to a user-centred design (UCD) approach in order to maximise the likelihood of user acceptance once deployed. The resulting label is dynamically generated from producer metadata in ISO or FDGC format, and incorporates user feedback on dataset usage, ratings and discovered issues, in order to supply a highly informative summary of metadata completeness and quality. The label was easily incorporated into a community portal as part of the GEO Architecture Implementation Programme (AIP-6) and has been successfully integrated into a prototype extension of the GEOSS portal, as well as the popular metadata catalog and editor, GeoNetwork. The design of the GEO label was based on 4 user studies conducted to: (1) elicit initial user requirements; (2) investigate initial user views on the concept of a GEO label and its potential role; (3) evaluate prototype label visualizations; and (4) evaluate and validate physical GEO label prototypes. The results of these studies indicated that users and producers support the concept of a label with drill-down interrogation facility, combining eight geospatial data informational aspects, namely: producer profile, producer comments, lineage information, standards compliance, quality information, user feedback, expert reviews, and citations information. These are delivered as eight facets of a wheel-like label, which are coloured according to metadata availability and are clickable to allow a user to engage with the original metadata and explore specific aspects in more detail. To support this graphical representation and allow for wider deployment architectures we have implemented two Web services, a PHP and a Java implementation, that generate GEO label representations by combining producer metadata (from standard catalogues or other published locations) with structured user feedback. Both services accept encoded URLs of publicly available metadata documents or metadata XML files as HTTP POST and GET requests and apply XPath and XSLT mappings to transform producer and feedback XML documents into clickable SVG GEO label representations. The label and services are underpinned by two XML-based quality models. The first is a producer model that extends ISO 19115 and 19157 to allow fuller citation of reference data, presentation of pixel- and dataset- level statistical quality information, and encoding of 'traceability' information on the lineage of an actual quality assessment. The second is a user quality model (realised as a feedback server and client) which allows reporting and query of ratings, usage reports, citations, comments and other domain knowledge. Both services are Open Source and are available on GitHub at https://github.com/lushv/geolabel-service and https://github.com/52North/GEO-label-java. The functionality of these services can be tested using our GEO label generation demos, available online at http://www.geolabel.net/demo.html and http://geoviqua.dev.52north.org/glbservice/index.jsf.

  16. Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: a meta-analysis of experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Seth M; Hall, Marissa G; Francis, Diane B; Ribisl, Kurt M; Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-01-01

    Objective To inform international research and policy, we conducted a meta-analysis of the experimental literature on pictorial cigarette pack warnings. Data sources We systematically searched 7 computerised databases in April 2013 using several search terms. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. Study selection We included studies that used an experimental protocol to test cigarette pack warnings and reported data on both pictorial and text-only conditions. 37 studies with data on 48 independent samples (N=33 613) met criteria. Data extraction and synthesis Two independent coders coded all study characteristics. Effect sizes were computed from data extracted from study reports and were combined using random effects meta-analytic procedures. Results Pictorial warnings were more effective than text-only warnings for 12 of 17 effectiveness outcomes (all p<0.05). Relative to text-only warnings, pictorial warnings (1) attracted and held attention better; (2) garnered stronger cognitive and emotional reactions; (3) elicited more negative pack attitudes and negative smoking attitudes and (4) more effectively increased intentions to not start smoking and to quit smoking. Participants also perceived pictorial warnings as being more effective than text-only warnings across all 8 perceived effectiveness outcomes. Conclusions The evidence from this international body of literature supports pictorial cigarette pack warnings as more effective than text-only warnings. Gaps in the literature include a lack of assessment of smoking behaviour and a dearth of theory-based research on how warnings exert their effects. PMID:25948713

  17. Comparison of two warning concepts of an intelligent Curve Warning system for motorcyclists in a simulator study.

    PubMed

    Huth, Véronique; Biral, Francesco; Martín, Oscar; Lot, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Curve crashes are a particular matter of concern regarding motorcycle riding safety. For this reason, an intelligent Curve Warning system has been designed that gives the riders support when negotiating a curve. The system has been tested in a simulator study carried out with 20 test riders. The subjects performed three rides: one without the system (baseline) and two experimental rides using a version of the Curve Warning system, one providing the warnings by a force feedback throttle and one by a haptic glove. The effects of the two system versions were evaluated both in terms of the simulated riding performance and the subjective assessment by the riders. A descriptive analysis of the riders' reactions to the warnings shows that the warnings provided by both system versions provoke an earlier and stronger adaptation of the motorcycle dynamics to the curve than when the riders do not use the system. Riding with the Curve Warning system with the haptic glove furthermore leads to a reduction of critical curve events. The riders' subjective workload level was not affected by the system use, whereas the Curve Warning system with the force feedback throttle required an increased attention. The comparison of the riders' opinions about the system reveals a preference of the Curve Warning system with the haptic glove. The better acceptance of this system version suggests a higher potential in the enhancement of riding safety. PMID:22062345

  18. Effect of labeling density and time post labeling on quality of antibody-based super resolution microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittel, Amy M.; Saldivar, Isaac; Dolman, Nicholas; Nickerson, Andrew K.; Lin, Li-Jung; Nan, Xiaolin; Gibbs, Summer L.

    2015-03-01

    Super resolution microscopy (SRM) has overcome the historic spatial resolution limit of light microscopy, enabling fluorescence visualization of intracellular structures and multi-protein complexes at the nanometer scale. Using single-molecule localization microscopy, the precise location of a stochastically activated population of photoswitchable fluorophores is determined during the collection of many images to form a single image with resolution of ~10-20 nm, an order of magnitude improvement over conventional microscopy. One of the key factors in achieving such resolution with single-molecule SRM is the ability to accurately locate each fluorophore while it emits photons. Image quality is also related to appropriate labeling density of the entity of interest within the sample. While ease of detection improves as entities are labeled with more fluorophores and have increased fluorescence signal, there is potential to reduce localization precision, and hence resolution, with an increased number of fluorophores that are on at the same time in the same relative vicinity. In the current work, fixed microtubules were antibody labeled using secondary antibodies prepared with a range of Alexa Fluor 647 conjugation ratios to compare image quality of microtubules to the fluorophore labeling density. It was found that image quality changed with both the fluorophore labeling density and time between completion of labeling and performance of imaging study, with certain fluorophore to protein ratios giving optimal imaging results.

  19. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  20. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  1. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. 201.315 Section 201.315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315...

  2. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 201.316 - Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.316 Drugs with thyroid hormone activity for human use; required warning. (a)...

  4. Car Gestures - Advisory warning using additional steering wheel angles.

    PubMed

    Maag, Christian; Schneider, Norbert; Lübbeke, Thomas; Weisswange, Thomas H; Goerick, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advisory warning systems (AWS) notify the driver about upcoming hazards. This is in contrast to the majority of currently deployed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that manage emergency situations. The target of this study is to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and controllability of a specific kind of AWS that uses the haptic information channel for warning the driver. This could be beneficial, as alternatives for using the visual modality can help to reduce the risk of visual overload. The driving simulator study (N=24) compared an AWS based on additional steering wheel angle control (Car Gestures) with a visual warning presented in a simulated head-up display (HUD). Both types of warning were activated 3.5s before the hazard object was reached. An additional condition of unassisted driving completed the experimental design. The subjects encountered potential hazards in a variety of urban situations (e.g. a pedestrian standing on the curbs). For the investigated situations, subjective ratings show that a majority of drivers prefer visual warnings over haptic information via gestures. An analysis of driving behavior indicates that both warning approaches guide the vehicle away from the potential hazard. Whereas gestures lead to a faster lateral driving reaction (compared to HUD warnings), the visual warnings result in a greater safety benefit (measured by the minimum distance to the hazard object). A controllability study with gestures in the wrong direction (i.e. leading toward the hazard object) shows that drivers are able to cope with wrong haptic warnings and safety is not reduced compared to unassisted driving as well as compared to (correct) haptic gestures and visual warnings. PMID:26264518

  5. Front-of-pack nutrition labels. Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints.

    PubMed

    van Herpen, Erica; Trijp, Hans C M van

    2011-08-01

    Although front-of-pack nutrition labeling can help consumers make healthier food choices, lack of attention to these labels limits their effectiveness. This study examines consumer attention to and use of three different nutrition labeling schemes (logo, multiple traffic-light label, and nutrition table) when they face different goals and resource constraints. To understand attention and processing of labels, various measures are used including self-reported use, recognition, and eye-tracking measures. Results of two experiments in different countries show that although consumers evaluate the nutrition table most positively, it receives little attention and does not stimulate healthy choices. Traffic-light labels and especially logos enhance healthy product choice, even when consumers are put under time pressure. Additionally, health goals of consumers increase attention to and use of nutrition labels, especially when these health goals concern specific nutrients. PMID:21554909

  6. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health

  7. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  8. Label-free cell aggregate formation based on the magneto-Archimedes effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Yoshitake; Morishima, Keisuke

    2011-04-01

    This letter demonstrates formation of cell aggregates by a label-free three-dimensional (3D) cell assembly method, which is based on the magneto-Archimedes effect. Gadolinium complex was added to the culturing medium to enhance the diamagnetic property of the cells, by which label-free magnetic manipulation became possible. Cytotoxicity of the gadolinium complex was confirmed to be sufficiently low for exposure less than one day. With this method, the cells aggregated into an egg-shape in about 20 min and became a spheroid in one day. These results suggest that this method is a promising approach to construct arbitrarily-shaped 3D tissues.

  9. Effects of different discount levels on healthy products coupled with a healthy choice label, special offer label or both: results from a web-based supermarket experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two strategies commonly recommended to improve population diets include food labels and food taxes/subsidies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both strategies separately and in combination. Findings An experiment with a 3x3 factorial design was conducted, including: three levels of price reduction (10%; 25%; and 50%) x three labels (‘special offer’, ‘healthy choice’ and ‘special offer & healthy choice’) on healthy foods defined following the Choices front-of-pack nutrition label. N = 109 participants completed the experiment by conducting a typical weekly shop for their household at a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance. Participants receiving a 50% price discount purchased significantly more healthy foods for their household in a typical weekly shop than the 10% discount (+8.7 items; 95%CI = 3.8-13.6) and the 25% discount group (+7.7 items; 95%CI = 2.74 – 12.6). However, the proportion of healthy foods was not significantly higher and the discounts lead to an increased amount of energy purchased. No significant effects of the labels were found. Conclusion This study brings some relevant insights into the effects of price discounts on healthier foods coupled with different labels and shows that price effects over shadowed food labels. However, price discounts seem to have ambiguous effects; they do encourage the purchase of healthy products, but also lead to increased energy purchases. More research is needed to examine how pricing strategies can work in directing consumers towards interchanging unhealthier options for healthier alternatives. PMID:23680347

  10. Heavy atom labeled nucleotides for measurement of kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Benjamin P; Li, Nan-Sheng; York, Darrin; Harris, Michael; Piccirilli, Joseph A

    2015-11-01

    Experimental analysis of kinetic isotope effects represents an extremely powerful approach for gaining information about the transition state structure of complex reactions not available through other methodologies. The implementation of this approach to the study of nucleic acid chemistry requires the synthesis of nucleobases and nucleotides enriched for heavy isotopes at specific positions. In this review, we highlight current approaches to the synthesis of nucleic acids enriched site specifically for heavy oxygen and nitrogen and their application in heavy atom isotope effect studies. This article is part of a special issue titled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment. PMID:25828952

  11. Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or

  12. 76 FR 30093 - Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics... veterinary biological products, as well as other interested individuals, that we will be holding a public... veterinary biologics labeling. We are also making the concept paper available for review and comment....

  13. The Differential Effects of Labelling: How Do "Dyslexia" and "Reading Difficulties" Affect Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Simon; Elliott, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a survey of primary school teachers' beliefs about working with poor readers. The primary research question was "does the way difficulties with reading are labelled affect the teachers' beliefs about their ability to intervene effectively?" An opportunity sample of teachers was surveyed using 2 questionnaires. One…

  14. The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

  15. Effects of Labeling on Preschoolers' Explicit False Belief Performance: Outcomes of Cognitive Flexibility or Inhibitory Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and…

  16. Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…

  17. Earthquake early warning performance tests for Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khler, N.; Wenzel, F.; Erdik, M.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Marmara Region is the most densily populated region in Turkey. The greater area of the mega-city Istanbul inhabits about 14 million people. The city is located in the direct vicinity of the Main Marmara Fault, a dextral strike-slip fault system intersecting the Sea of Marmara, which is the western continuation of the North Anatolian Fault [Le Pichon et al., 2001]. Its closest distance to the city of Istanbul ranges between 15 and 20 km. Recent estimates by Parsons [2004] give a probability of more than 40% of a M ? 7 earthquake that will affect Istanbul within the next 30 years. Due to this high seismic risk, earthquake early warning is an important task in disaster management and seismic risk reduction, increasing the safety of millions of people living in and around Istanbul and reducing economic losses. The Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System (IERREWS) includes a set of 10 strong-motion sensors used for early warning which are installed between Istanbul and the Main Marmara Fault. The system works on the exceedance of amplitude thresholds, whereas three alarm levels are defined at three different thresholds [Erdik et al., 2003]. In the context of the research project EDIM (Earthquake Disaster Information System for the Marmara Region, Turkey), the early warning network is planned to be extended by an additional set of 10 strong-motion sensors installed around the Sea of Marmara to include the greater Marmara Region into the early warning process. We present performance tests of both the existing and the planned extended early warning network using ground motion simulations for 280 synthetic earthquakes along the Main Marmara Fault with moment magnitudes between 4.5 and 7.5. We apply the amplitude thresholds of IERREWS, as well as, for comparison, an early warning algorithm based on artificial neural networks which estimates hypocentral location and magnitude of the occurring earthquake. The estimates are updated continuously with proceeding time. Applying the amplitude thresholds increase the number of alarms by 6.5% for alarm level 1, by 6% for alarm level 2, and by 4% for alarm level 3, mainly due to false alarms caused by earthquakes further away from Istanbul but closer to the additional stations. However, applying the neural network algorithm to the extended network increases the reliability of source parameter estimates by 8% already 2 seconds after the first station triggers, and by 19% after 5 seconds. We analyse the effects of the network extension to the greater region and discuss possible advantages as well as arising problems.

  18. Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Methods Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only warnings were assessed, while at Wave 2 new large graphic warnings were assessed. In Malaysia, during both waves small text only warnings were in effect. Reactions were used to predict interest in quitting, and to predict making quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Results Multivariate predictors of “interest in quitting” were comparable across countries, but predictors of quit attempts varied. In both countries, cognitive reactions to warnings (adjusted ORs; 1.57 & 1.69 for Malaysia at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively and 1.29 & 1.19 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), forgoing a cigarette (except Wave 2 in Malaysia) (adjusted ORs; 1.77 for Malaysia at wave 1 and 1.54 & 2.32 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), and baseline knowledge (except wave 2 in both countries) (adjusted ORs; 1.71 & 1.51 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively) were positively associated with interest in quitting at that wave. In Thailand only, “cognitive reactions to warnings” (adjusted ORs; 1.12 & 1.23 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), “forgoing a cigarette” (adjusted OR = 1.55 at wave 2 only) and “an interest in quitting” (adjusted ORs; 1.61 & 2.85 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively) were positively associated with quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Salience was negatively associated with subsequent quit attempts in both Malaysia and Thailand, but at Wave 2 only (adjusted ORs; 0.89 & 0.88 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively). Conclusion Warnings appear to have common mechanisms for influencing quitting regardless of warning strength. The larger and more informative Thai warnings were associated with higher levels of reactions predictive of quitting and stronger associations with subsequent quitting, demonstrating their greater potency. PMID:24330614

  19. Facilitative effects of labeling on preschool children's copying of simple geometric forms.

    PubMed

    Stiles, J; Tada, W; Whipple, T

    1990-04-01

    A total of 150 children between 2.5 and 5 yr. of age were tested on one of three conditions (one experimental and two control) of a copying task adapted from the 1982 Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration of Beery. In the experimental condition, the geometric forms were labeled with the names of familiar objects. Analysis of scores indicated that introduction of verbal labels on the copying task facilitated preschool children's ability to reproduce geometric forms. The effect was consistent across the ages tested but was limited in that facilitation was observed only for those forms just beyond the child's demonstrated level of mastery. These results suggested that the verbal labels evoked a representational context which provided children with additional information necessary for accurate reproduction of the forms. Two alternative interpretations of this finding are discussed. PMID:2342871

  20. Bystander effect in tumor cells produced by Iodine-125 labeled human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mamlouk, Omar; Balagurumoorthy, Pichumani; Wang, Ketai; Adelstein, S. James; Kassis, Amin I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the ability of human lymphocytes labeled with DNA-incorporated 125I to exert an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect on co-cultured human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells in vitro. Materials and methods Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated to synthesize DNA in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and labeled with 5-[125I]iodo-2′-deoxyuridine. Human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells were co-cultured with the 125I-labeled lymphocytes in various ratios for 5 days and the proliferation of the LS174T cells was assessed. Further, the supernatant media from these co-cultures were: (i) Transferred to LS174T cells and their proliferation measured after 5 days, (ii) used to assess the clonogenic survival of LS174T cells, and (iii) screened for factors that suppress growth. Results A significant reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells was observed when co-cultured either with 125I-labeled lymphocytes (56 ± 3.5%) or the supernatant media (52.5 ± 1.3%) obtained from these co-cultures. Clonogenic survival of LS174T cells grown in the supernatant media corroborated the decrease in tumor cell growth. Conclusion The observed reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells in presence of 125I-labeled lymphocytes or media obtained from such co-cultures can be attributed to an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect, probably mediated by factor(s) released from the dying 125I-labeled lymphocytes. PMID:22712702

  1. Reactions to graphic health warnings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nonnemaker, James M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C

    2015-02-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24 and (iii) youth aged 13-17 who are current smokers or who may be susceptible to initiation of smoking. Participants were randomly assigned to be exposed to a pack of cigarettes with one of nine graphic health warnings or with a text-only warning statement. All three age groups had overall strong negative emotional (ß = 4.7, P < 0.001 for adults; ß = 4.6, P < 0.001 for young adults and ß = 4.0, P < 0.001 for youth) and cognitive (ß = 2.4, P < 0.001 for adults; ß = 3.0, P < 0.001 for young adults and ß = 4.6, P < 0.001 for youth) reactions to the proposed labels. The strong negative emotional and cognitive reactions following a single exposure to the graphic health warnings suggest that, with repeated exposures over time, graphic health warnings may influence smokers' beliefs, intentions and behaviors. PMID:24974219

  2. 42 CFR 84.257 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Labeling requirements. (a) A warning shall be placed on the label of each gas mask, chemical-cartridge... performance of any gas mask, chemical-cartridge respirator, or powered air-purifying respirator approved under... this subpart shall be specified as follows: Chemical-cartridge respirator 1 hour. Gas mask 4...

  3. 42 CFR 84.257 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Labeling requirements. (a) A warning shall be placed on the label of each gas mask, chemical-cartridge... performance of any gas mask, chemical-cartridge respirator, or powered air-purifying respirator approved under... this subpart shall be specified as follows: Chemical-cartridge respirator 1 hour. Gas mask 4...

  4. 42 CFR 84.257 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Labeling requirements. (a) A warning shall be placed on the label of each gas mask, chemical-cartridge... performance of any gas mask, chemical-cartridge respirator, or powered air-purifying respirator approved under... this subpart shall be specified as follows: Chemical-cartridge respirator 1 hour. Gas mask 4...

  5. 42 CFR 84.257 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Labeling requirements. (a) A warning shall be placed on the label of each gas mask, chemical-cartridge... performance of any gas mask, chemical-cartridge respirator, or powered air-purifying respirator approved under... this subpart shall be specified as follows: Chemical-cartridge respirator 1 hour. Gas mask 4...

  6. Effect of ADP on the orientation of spin-labeled myosin heads in muscle fibers: A high-resolution study with deuterated spin labels

    SciTech Connect

    Fajer, P.G.; Fajer, E.A.; Matta, J.J.; Thomas, D.D. )

    1990-06-19

    We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the effects of ADP on the orientational distribution of nitroxide spin labels attached to myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. To maximize the specificity of labeling, we spin-labeled isolated myosin heads (subfragment 1) on a single reactive thiol (SH1) and diffused them into unlabeled muscle fibers. To maximize spectral and orientational resolution, we used perdeuterated spin labels, 2H-MSL and 2H-IASL, eliminating superhyperfine broadening and thus narrowing the line widths. Two different spin labels were used, with different orientation relative to the myosin head, to ensure that the results are not affected by unfavorable probe orientation. In rigor, a very narrow three-line spectrum was observed for both spin labels, indicating a narrow orientational distribution, as reported previously. ADP induced very slight changes in the spectrum, corresponding to very slight (but significant) changes in the orientational distribution. These changes were quantified by a digital analysis of the spectra, using a two-step simplex fitting procedure. First, the magnetic tensor values and line widths were determined by fitting the spectrum of a randomly oriented sample. Then the spectrum of oriented fibers was fit to a model by assuming a Gaussian distribution of the tilt angle (theta) and twist angle (phi) of the nitroxide principal axes relative to the fiber axis. A single-Gaussian distribution resulted in inadequate fits, but a two-component model gave excellent results. ADP induces a small (less than 5 degrees) rotation of the major components for both spin labels, along with a similarly small increase of disorder about the average positions.

  7. Directing gaze: the effect of disclaimer labels on women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements.

    PubMed

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-09-01

    In an effort to combat the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal images, there is increasing worldwide pressure on fashion, media and advertising industries to disclose when images have been digitally altered. The current study used eye tracking technology to investigate experimentally how digital alteration disclaimer labels impact women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 60 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a specific more detailed disclaimer. It was established that women did attend to the disclaimers. The nature of the disclaimer had no effect on time spent looking at particular body parts, but did affect the direction of gaze following reading of the disclaimer. This latter effect was found to be greater for women high on trait appearance comparison. Further research is paramount in guiding effective policy around the use of disclaimer labels. PMID:24997284

  8. Designing Fatigue Warning Systems: The perspective of professional drivers.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Peng, Qijia; Li, Musen; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Professional drivers have been characterized as experiencing heavy fatigue resulting from long driving time in their daily work. This study aimed to explore the potential demand of Fatigue Warning Systems (FWSs) among professional drivers as a means of reducing the danger of fatigue driving and to examine their opinions regarding the design of FWSs. Six focus groups with 35 participants and a questionnaire survey with 600 respondents were conducted among Chinese truck and taxi drivers to collect qualitative and quantitative data concerning the current situation of fatigue driving and opinions regarding the design of FWSs. The results revealed that both truck and taxi drivers had a positive attitude toward FWSs, and they hoped this system could not only monitor and warn them regarding their fatigue but also somewhat relieve their fatigue before they could stop and rest. As for warning signals, participants preferred auditory warnings, as opposed to visual, vibrotactile or electric stimuli. Interestingly, it was proposed that verbal warnings involving the information regarding consequences of fatigue driving or the wishes of drivers' family members would be more effective. Additionally, different warning patterns, including graded, single and continuous warnings, were discussed in the focus group. Finally, the participants proposed many other suggestions, as well as their concerns regarding FWSs, which will provide valuable information for companies who wish to develop FWSs for professional drivers. PMID:26482894

  9. Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

  10. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:May 4,2016 By themselves, any one ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  11. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  12. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    SciTech Connect

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with (/sup 32/P)Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-(5,4-d) azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta.

  13. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259... time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every... devices that accurately determine actual warning time may be used in performing such tests....

  14. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259... time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every... devices that accurately determine actual warning time may be used in performing such tests....

  15. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259... time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every... devices that accurately determine actual warning time may be used in performing such tests....

  16. 21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (2) The required warning shall be obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette... electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings,” which is incorporated by reference at § 1141.12... PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings §...

  17. 21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (2) The required warning shall be obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette... electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings,” which is incorporated by reference at § 1141.12... PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings §...

  18. The corrective effects of warning on false memories in the DRM paradigm are limited to full attention conditions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Maarten J V; Jelicic, Marko; Gorski, Benny; Sijstermans, Kevin; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2008-10-01

    Effects of attention control and forewarning on the activation and monitoring of experimentally induced false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated in a young adult sample (N=77). We found that reducing the degree of attention during encoding led to a decrease in veridical recall and an increase in non-presented critical lure intrusions. This effect could not be counteracted by a forewarning instruction. However, these findings did not emerge in a (retrieval supportive) recognition task. It seems that divided attention increases false recall when attention control and forewarning have to compete for limited cognitive resources in a generative free recall as opposed to a retrieval supportive recognition task. Forewarning instructions do not always protect young adults against experimentally induced false memories. PMID:18804192

  19. Brief report: Labelling effects on the perceived deleterious consequences of pop music listening.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Hargreaves, David J

    2005-06-01

    Several correlational studies have supported the claim of conservative protestors that there exists a positive relationship between listening to pop music and adolescent problem behaviours. However, research on the so-called 'prestige effects' has shown that experimental participants' responses to music can be mediated by manipulations of prior information concerning that music. This study investigated whether perceptions of deleterious effects of pop songs on listeners may be attributable to prior labelling of those stimuli as 'problem music'. Eighty undergraduates were played songs that they were told were either suicide-inducing or life-affirming. Subsequent ratings of the songs indicated that those presented as 'suicide-inducing' were perceived as such, whereas presentation of the same songs in a 'life-affirming' frame led to the perception of them as such. These findings indicate that censorship and the subsequent labelling of certain songs as 'problematic' might itself cause these songs to have deleterious effects on listeners. PMID:15925693

  20. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique. PMID:10903389

  1. LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Wächter, J.

    2009-12-01

    The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean floor events, and ground displacements. Based on the upstream information flow DEWS focuses on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Multiple telecommunication channels will be used for the dissemination of warning messages. Wherever possible, existing standards have been integrated. The Command and Control User Interface (CCUI), a rich client application based on Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform) [4] and the open source GIS uDig [5], integrates various OGC services. Using WMS (Web Map Service) [6] and WFS (Web Feature Service) [7] spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture and to integrate a simulation system via WPS (Web Processing Service) [8] to identify affected areas. Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS [9] CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) [10] standard together with addressing information defined via EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element) [11]. Internal interfaces are realized with SOAP [12] web services. Based on results of GITEWS [13] - in particular the GITEWS Tsunami Service Bus [14] - the DEWS approach provides an implementation for tsunami early warning systems. The introductory part of the demonstration briefly explains the DEWS project, the CCUI in conjunction with operators’ workflow, the system architecture, details of information logistics and the virtual scenario of live demonstration. The live demonstration exhibits the CCUI on screen and the service environment of DEWS working in the background. The demonstration runs through a virtual Tsunami threat located in the Andaman Sea in front of Thailand; Beginning with the detection of an earthquake of critical magnitude and the calculation of early Tsunami predictions; Continuing with sea level measurements and the refinement of Tsunami predictions; Finally reaching the dissemination of warning messages via SMS, mail and other channels. REFERENCES [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the reconstruction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

  2. Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

    Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical contamination would be useful. Based on the individual biomarker results’ contributing towards the distinct groupings it is possible to conclude that Site 1 is subjected to organic pollutants, whereas Sites 2 and 3 undergo a combination of metallic and organic pollutant stress. However, it is essential that a rapid and sensitive biomarker that is representative of the responses of a suite of biomarkers be tested before ABM can be implemented as a routine biomonitoring practice in water resource management.

  3. Agonist-induced alterations in lymphocyte. beta. -adrenergic receptor photoaffintiy labelling: effects of phenylarsine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, R.D.; McArdle, W.; Lai, C.

    1986-03-01

    In several models, desensitization of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor (..beta..AR) is associated with a decrease in binding of hydrophilic but not hydrophobic ..beta..AR ligands. This suggests a sequestration of cell surface ..beta..AR. Desensitization of the lymphobyte ..beta..AR is also associated with a selective reduction in the photoaffinity labelling of a 55K ..beta..AR protein as compared to a 68K ..beta..AR protein. In order to examine the relationship between sequestration and reduction in labelling of the 55K peptide, the authors have studied the effect of phenylarsine oxide (PAO; an inhibitor of sequestration) on lymphocyte ..beta..AR desensitization. Incubation of cells with PAO prior to desensitization did not block the consequent reduction in isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. However, the agonist-induced reduction in binding of the hydrophilic ..beta..AR ligand CGP-12177 was blocked by PAO (without PAO:57 +/- 4% of control, with PAO: 97 +/- 2% of control). Photolabelling studies with (/sup 125/I) iodocyanopindolol diazirine revealed that PAO pretreatment also blocked the selective loss in labelling of the 55K ..beta..AR protein seen with desensitization. These data suggest that loss of labelling of the 55K protein of the ..beta..AR is closely coupled to ..beta..AR sequestration.

  4. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Hilland, D.; Phipps, G.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  5. 27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations to administer the Federal Hazardous Substances Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter II require... containing strong chemicals should refer to 16 CFR Chapter II for warning label requirements. (c) Federal... Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter I affect packaging and labeling...

  6. 27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulations to administer the Federal Hazardous Substances Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter II require... containing strong chemicals should refer to 16 CFR Chapter II for warning label requirements. (c) Federal... Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter I affect packaging and labeling...

  7. 27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulations to administer the Federal Hazardous Substances Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter II require... containing strong chemicals should refer to 16 CFR Chapter II for warning label requirements. (c) Federal... Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter I affect packaging and labeling...

  8. 27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulations to administer the Federal Hazardous Substances Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter II require... containing strong chemicals should refer to 16 CFR Chapter II for warning label requirements. (c) Federal... Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter I affect packaging and labeling...

  9. 27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulations to administer the Federal Hazardous Substances Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter II require... containing strong chemicals should refer to 16 CFR Chapter II for warning label requirements. (c) Federal... Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. The regulations in 16 CFR Chapter I affect packaging and labeling...

  10. Near infrared missile warning testbed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, D. J.; Johnson, R. S.; Montgomery, J. B.; Sanderson, R. B.; McCalmont, J. F.; Taylor, M. J.

    2008-04-01

    Multicolor discrimination is one of the most effective ways of improving the performance of infrared missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. A new tactical airborne multicolor missile warning testbed was developed and fielded as part of a continuing Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) initiative focusing on clutter and missile signature measurements for effective missile warning algorithms. The developed sensor test bed is a multi-camera system 1004x1004 FPA coupled with optimized spectral filters integrated with the optics; a reduced form factor microprocessor-based video data recording system operating at 48 Hz; and a real time field programmable gate array processor for algorithm and video data processing capable of 800B Multiply/Accumulates operations per second. A detailed radiometric calibration procedure was developed to overcome severe photon-limited operating conditions due to the sub-nanometer bandwidth of the spectral filters. This configuration allows the collection and real-time processing of temporally correlated, radiometrically calibrated video data in multiple spectral bands. The testbed was utilized to collect false alarm sources spectra and Man-Portable Air Defense System (MANPADS) signatures under a variety of atmospheric and solar illuminating conditions. Signatures of approximately 100 missiles have been recorded.

  11. Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

    1982-02-01

    The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

  12. The effect of food preparation on the bioavailability of carotenoids from carrots using intrinsic labelling.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Abdollah; Coward, W Andy; Bluck, Les J C

    2012-05-01

    A strategy to reduce the incidence of vitamin A deficiency is to improve precursor bioavailability from meals. Since vitamin A precursors are fat-soluble, we noted that carotenoids are more easily absorbed from food if prepared in such a way that the food matrix containing provitamin A (β-carotene) is sufficiently fat rich. To quantify this effect, we have developed a stable isotope methodology. By regular watering with 2H-labelled water, we were able to produce several kg of intrinsically labelled carrots, with carotenoids labelled to 0.63 % excess 2H. These were divided into 100 g portions and fed to a small group of healthy subjects both raw and stir-fried. To normalise for inter-individual variation in absorption and subsequent metabolism, small quantities of extrinsically 13C-labelled β-carotene and 2H-labelled retinol acetate were also incorporated into the meal. After ingestion of the carrots, blood lipids were monitored for a period of 3 d in order to determine the kinetics of β-carotene and retinol. From kinetic data, it was estimated that the bioavailability of carrot-derived β-carotene compared with pure β-carotene was about 11 % for raw carrots, but 75 % when the carrots were stir-fried. Conversely, there was a slight reduction in the bioconversion to retinol from β-carotene when the latter was derived from the stir-fried meal compared with that from raw carrots. When these two factors are combined, the yield of retinol from the carotene in carrots was found to be enhanced by a factor of 6.5 by stir-frying. PMID:21923982

  13. 27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.21 Mandatory label information. There shall be stated on... not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects. (2)...

  14. 27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.21 Mandatory label information. There shall be stated on... not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects. (2)...

  15. 27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.21 Mandatory label information. There shall be stated on... not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects. (2)...

  16. 27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.21 Mandatory label information. There shall be stated on... not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects. (2)...

  17. 27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.21 Mandatory label information. There shall be stated on... not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects. (2)...

  18. Tsunami Early Warning: Introducing single frequency GPS receiver into the Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramatschi, M.; Falck, C.

    2009-12-01

    M. Ramatschi (1), C. Falck (1), M. Bartsch (1), A. Merx (1), J. Hoeberechts (1), G. Schmidt (1) Abstract After the disastrous tsunami event in Sumatra in 2004 the German government initiated the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) which was inaugurated in 2008 and is now known as the Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia (INA-TEWS). Within GITEWS, some new technologies were introduced into the Tsunami early warning, such as geodetic dual frequency GNSS receiver, which are installed on open sea buoys, coastal tide gauges and inland reference stations. This technology is able to support tsunami early warning systems, e.g., by detection of ground motions due to earthquakes. The major drawback of this sensor type is its high expense. Under certain circumstances cost effective single frequency receiver could achieve the same quality, as long as the network topology allows a precise data processing. In our presentation we will review the GNSS part of GITEWS to demonstrate the integration of the newly designed, low power single frequency GPS sensor station with respect to the real-time data flow and the precise near real-time data processing. Technical aspects of data transmission will be addressed as well. Benefits of a small GPS sensor array located next to the Sumatra trench will be discussed in detail. (1) GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 17, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany

  19. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11: packaging and labelling of tobacco products].

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC. PMID:25744790

  20. Degradation of surface-labeled hepatoma membrane polypeptides: effect of inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hare, J.F.; Huston, M.

    1984-09-01

    When their membrane proteins were labeled with 125I by lactoperoxidase, dividing hepatoma cells lost radioactivity to the medium in a biphasic manner (T1/2 . 16-26 h, greater than 40 h). Lysosomotropic weak bases, chloroquine, and NH4Cl inhibited the rapid phase by 59%. More than 50% of the radioactivity which accumulates in the media from dividing cells during the first 4 h after labeling was trichloroacetic acid-soluble, and was identified as iodotyrosine. Iodotyrosine release from labeled membrane proteins was 60-71% inhibited by lysosomotropic agents chloroquine and NH4Cl as well as the sodium-proton ionophore, monensin. The inhibitory effect of NH4Cl and monensin was reversible. Inhibitors of microtubule and microfilament function and transglutamination had no effect on release of iodotyrosine to the medium, but trypsin-like protease inhibitors, p-aminobenzamidine, tosyl-L-lysine/chloromethylketone, and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, as well as the cathepsin B inhibitor, leupeptin, inhibited by 21-24%. Iodotyrosine release showed a biphasic Arrhenius plot with an activation energy of 17 kcal/mol above but 27 kcal/mol below 20 degrees C. These results indicate that cell membrane polypeptides require a temperature-limiting event as well as passage through an ion-sensitive compartment prior to their complete degradation to constituent amino acids. In contrast to other lysosomal-mediated events, however, iodinated membrane proteins of dividing cells are degraded in a manner insensitive to agents which disrupt the cytoskeleton.

  1. Effect of "Pink Eye" Label on Parents' Intent to Use Antibiotics and Perceived Contagiousness.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura D; Finan, Caitlin; Simancek, Dalton; Finkelstein, Jerome I; Tarini, Beth A

    2016-06-01

    Parents of children who presented for a pediatrics appointment responded to a clinical vignette that described a child with symptoms consistent with acute viral conjunctivitis. In a 2 × 2 randomized survey design, the physician in the vignette either used the term "pink eye" or "eye infection" to describe the symptoms, and either told parents that antibiotics are likely ineffective at treating the symptoms or did not discuss effectiveness. When the symptoms were referred to as "pink eye," parents remained interested in antibiotics, despite being informed about their ineffectiveness. By contrast, when the symptoms were referred to as an "eye infection," information about antibiotic ineffectiveness significantly reduced interest, Mdiff = 1.63, P < .001. Parents who received the "pink eye" label also thought that the symptoms were more contagious and were less likely to believe that their child could go to child care, compared with parents who received the "eye infection" label, Mdiff = 0.37, P = .38. PMID:26294761

  2. Rooting out institutional corruption to manage inappropriate off-label drug use.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing drugs for uses that the FDA has not approved - off-label drug use - can sometimes be justified but is typically not supported by substantial evidence of effectiveness. At the root of inappropriate off-label drug use lie perverse incentives for pharmaceutical firms and flawed oversight of prescribing physicians. Typical reform proposals such as increased sanctions for manufacturers might reduce the incidence of unjustified off-label use, but they do not remove the source of the problem. Public policy should address the cause and control the practice. To manage inappropriate off-label drug use, off-label prescriptions must be tracked in order to monitor the risks and benefits and the manufacturers' conduct. Even more important, reimbursement rules should be changed so that manufacturers cannot profit from off-label sales. When off-label sales pass a critical threshold, manufacturers should also be required to pay for independent testing of the safety and effectiveness of off-label drug uses and for the FDA to review the evidence. Manufacturers should also finance, under FDA supervision, programs designed to warn physicians and the public about the risks of off-label drug use. PMID:24088156

  3. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. The first users of the early warning signal will be the Istanbul gas company (IGDAS) and the metro line using the immersed tube tunnel (MARMARAY). Other prospective users are power plants and power distribution systems, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, petroleum facilities and high-rise buildings. In this study, different algorithms based on PGA, CAV and various definitions of instrumental intensity will be discussed and triggering threshold levels of these parameters will be studied. More complex algorithms based on artificial neural networks (ANN) can also be used [Boese et al., 2003]. ANN approach considers the problem of earthquake early-warning as a pattern recognition task. The seismic patterns can be defined by the shape and frequency content of the parts of accelerograms that are available at each time step. ANN can extract the engineering parameters PGA, CAV and instrumental intensity from these patterns, and map them to any location in the surrounded area. Boese M., Erdik, M., Wenzel, F. (2003), Artificial Neural Networks for Earthquake Early Warning, Proceedings AGU2003 Abstracts, S42B-0155

  4. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... not quite right” about their thinking, feelings or behavior before one of these illnesses appears in its full-blown form. One half of all mental illness begins by age 14 and 75% begins by age 24. Learning about developing symptoms, or early warning signs, and ...

  5. 21 CFR 201.320 - Warning statements for drug products containing or manufactured with chlorofluorocarbons or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immediate container, its outer packaging, or other labeling in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR... labeling in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR part 82 and appear with such prominence and... notice similar to the above WARNING has been placed in the information for the patient of this...

  6. Effects of nutrition label format and product assortment on the healthfulness of food choice.

    PubMed

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans C M; Bialkova, Svetlana; Raats, Monique M; Hodgkins, Charo; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers' food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivation and perceived capability of making healthful choices. One thousand German and Polish consumers participated in the study that manipulated the format of nutrition labels. All labels referred to the content of calories and four negative nutrients and were presented on savoury and sweet snacks. The different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers' motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers' perceived capability of making healthful choices. While the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices. PMID:23891558

  7. 14 CFR 23.207 - Stall warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stall warning. 23.207 Section 23.207... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.207 Stall warning. (a) There must be a clear and distinctive stall warning, with the flaps and landing gear in...

  8. 14 CFR 23.207 - Stall warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stall warning. 23.207 Section 23.207... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.207 Stall warning. (a) There must be a clear and distinctive stall warning, with the flaps and landing gear in...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above... approach persons, crossings, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the train...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... trains approach persons, crossing, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... trains approach persons, crossing, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... trains approach persons, crossing, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above... approach persons, crossings, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the train...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... trains approach persons, crossing, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above... approach persons, crossings, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the train...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible... trains approach persons, crossing, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above... approach persons, crossings, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the train...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above... approach persons, crossings, other trains on adjacent tracks; and (c) Any place where the train...

  19. 16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Scope § 307.2 Required warnings. The Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 is the law that requires the enactment of these... MAY CAUSE MOUTH CANCER WARNING: THIS PRODUCT MAY CAUSE GUM DISEASE AND TOOTH LOSS WARNING:...

  20. 47 CFR 3.71 - Warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warnings. 3.71 Section 3.71 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.71 Warnings. The Commission may issue written warnings or forfeitures...

  1. Kinetics of RNA Labeling in Toad Bladder Epithelium: Effects of Aldosterone and Related Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Rossier, B. C.; Wilce, P. A.; Edelman, I. S.

    1974-01-01

    Sucrose gradient analysis revealed an aldosterone-dependent increase in the incorporation of [3H]uridine into a nonmethylated, rapidly labeled RNA that sedimented at 9-12 S. This effect was antagonized by an anti-mineralocorticoid, spironolactone (SC 9420), and was not elicited either by a glucocorticoid, cortisol, or by the inactive isomer, 17-α-isoaldosterone. These findings are in accord with the inference that mRNA is induced by aldosterone during the latent period and that the induced mRNA mediates the action on sodium transport. Images PMID:4213212

  2. FDA Orders Warning Labels on Prescription Narcotic Painkillers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention announced tough new guidelines to doctors for "opioid" drugs such as Oxycontin, Percocet and Vicodin. "We ... death." A new prescribing guideline that immediate-release opioids "should be reserved for pain severe enough to ...

  3. 48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with the Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200 et seq). The Standard requires that the...) The Contractor shall also comply with MIL-STD-129, Marking for Shipment and Storage...

  4. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. PMID:24503332

  5. Inconsistent labeling of food effect for oral agents across therapeutic areas: differences between oncology and non-oncology products

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soonmo Peter; Ratain, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Several recent oral oncology drug labels were labeled to be administered in fasted states despite the fact that food increases their bioavailability. Since this was inconsistent with principles of oral drug delivery, we hypothesized that there were inconsistencies across therapeutic areas. Experimental Design Oral agents approved by US FDA from January 2000 to May 2009 were included in our study. Comparison of the food labeling patterns between oncology and non-oncology drugs was made using Fisher's exact test. Results Of 99 drugs evaluated, 34 showed significant food effects on bioavailability. When food markedly enhanced bioavailability, 8 out of 9 non-oncology drugs were labeled “fed” to take advantage of the food-drug interaction while all oncology drugs (n=3) were labeled to be administered in “fasted” states (Fisher's exact; p= 0.01). Conclusions Drug labeling pattern with respect to food-drug interactions observed with oncology drugs is in contradiction to fundamental pharmacological principles, as exemplified in the labeling of non-oncology drugs. PMID:20736327

  6. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Gnter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mck, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning context has been worked out. The generated results contribute significantly in the fields of (1) warning decision and warning levels, (2) warning dissemination and warning message content, (3) early warning chain planning, (4) increasing response capabilities and protective systems, (5) emergency relief and (6) enhancing communities' awareness and preparedness towards tsunami threats. Additionally examples will be given on the potentials of an operational use of risk information in early warning systems as first experiences exist for the tsunami early warning center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Beside this the importance of linking national level early warning information with tsunami risk information available at the local level (e.g. linking warning message information on expected intensity with respective tsunami hazard zone maps at community level for effective evacuation) will be demonstrated through experiences gained in three pilot areas in Indonesia. The presentation seeks to provide new insights on benefits using risk information in early warning and will provide further evidence that practical use of risk information is an important and indispensable component of end-to-end early warning.

  7. Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Giang, Kim Bao; Chung, Le Hong; Minh, Hoang Van; Kien, Vu Duy; Giap, Vu Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers. PMID:27087187

  8. Severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauhala, Jenni; Schultz, David M.

    This study summarizes the current severe thunderstorm warning and forecast operations in different European National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMSs), and, in doing so, suggests ways for countries developing their own warning service to learn from experiences in other countries, as well as from the warning operations in the United States of America, the longest-lived severe thunderstorm warning operations in the world. This study is based on a questionnaire sent to 39 European NHMSs of which thirty-three (85%) responded. Currently, many European NHMSs are actively developing their severe thunderstorm forecast process and warning services with 26 (79%) of respondent countries issuing severe thunderstorm warnings and 8 (24%) issuing tornado warnings. Both warning criteria and methodologies used in the warning process vary from country to country. Lead-times range from 30 min to 96 h, indicating a range of different warning philosophies for each country. Major challenges toward improving the warning operations include obtaining observations of severe weather for real-time forecasting and post-event verification, educating forecasters, and having access to state-of-the-art forecaster workstations. An additional challenge is in communicating anticipated or ongoing severe thunderstorms, both internationally between NHMSs and nationally with media and emergency authorities.

  9. Effects of Ferumoxides – Protamine Sulfate Labeling on Immunomodulatory Characteristics of Macrophage-like THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Janic, Branislava; Iskander, A. S. M.; Rad, Ali M.; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Arbab, Ali S.

    2008-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) complexed with cationic transfection agent is used to label various mammalian cells. Labeled cells can then be utilized as an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes. However, certain number of in vivo administered labeled cells may be cleared from tissues by the host's macrophages. For successful translation to routine clinical application of SPIO labeling method it is important that this mode of in vivo clearance of iron does not elicit any diverse immunological effects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that SPIO agent ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FePro) incorporation into macrophages does not alter immunological properties of these cells with regard to differentiation, chemotaxis, and ability to respond to the activation stimuli and to modulate T cell response. We used THP-1 cell line as a model for studying macrophage cell type. THP-1 cells were magnetically labeled with FePro, differentiated with 100 nM of phorbol ester, 12-Myristate-13-acetate (TPA) and stimulated with 100 ng/ml of LPS. The results showed 1) FePro labeling had no effect on the changes in morphology and expression of cell surface proteins associated with TPA induced differentiation; 2) FePro labeled cells responded to LPS with slightly higher levels of NFκB pathway activation, as shown by immunobloting; TNF-α secretion and cell surface expression levels of CD54 and CD83 activation markers, under these conditions, were still comparable to the levels observed in non-labeled cells; 3) FePro labeling exhibited differential, chemokine dependent, effect on THP-1 chemotaxis with a decrease in cell directional migration to MCP-1; 4) FePro labeling did not affect the ability of THP-1 cells to down-regulate T cell expression of CD4 and CD8 and to induce T cell proliferation. Our study demonstrated that intracellular incorporation of FePro complexes does not alter overall immunological properties of THP-1 cells. The described experiments provide the model for studying the effects of in vivo clearance of iron particles via incorporation into the host's macrophages that may follow after in vivo application of any type of magnetically labeled mammalian cells. To better mimic the complex in vivo scenario, this model may be further exploited by introducing additional cellular and biological, immunologically relevant, components. PMID:18575575

  10. 77 FR 39710 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Organ-Specific Warnings: Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ..., 2006 (71 FR 77314), FDA published a proposed rule on organ-specific warnings and related labeling for OTC IAAA drug products. In the Federal Register of April 29, 2009 (74 FR 19385), FDA published the final rule (2009 final rule). In the Federal Register of November 25, 2009 (74 FR 61512), FDA...

  11. Effects of the electrode size and modification protocol on a label-free electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Pui, Tze Sian; Wong, Chee Chung; Kumar, Sai; Rahman, Abdur Rub Abdur

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, the effect of a surface modification protocol along with the electrode size has been investigated for developing an efficient, label-free electrochemical biosensing method for diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) biomarkers. A microdisk electrode array (MDEA) and a macroelectrode with a comb structure (MECS) were modified with an anti-GFAP (GFAP = glial fibrillary acidic protein) antibody using two protocols for optimum and label-free detection of GFAP, a promising acute-phase TBI biomarker. For the MDEA, an array of six microdisks with a 100 μm diameter and, for the MECS, a 3.2 mm × 5.5 mm electrode 5 μm wide with 10 μm spaced comb fingers were modified using an optimized protocol for dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (DSP) self-assembled monolayer formation. Anti-GFAP was covalently bound, and the remaining free DSP groups were blocked using ethanolamine (Ea). Sensors were exposed to solutions with different GFAP concentrations, and a label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to determine the concentration. EIS results confirmed that both types of Ea/anti-GFAP/DSP/Au electrodes modified with an optimized DSP-based protocol can accurately detect GFAP in the range of 1 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1 pg mL(-1). However, the cross-use of the MDEA protocol on the MECS and vice versa resulted in very low sensitivity or poor signal resolution, underscoring the importance of proper matching of the electrode size and type and the surface modification protocol. PMID:23651210

  12. Regional Warning Center Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstedt, Henrik

    RWC-Sweden is operated by the Lund division of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics located at IDEON, a Science Research Technology Park. The Institute of Technology of Lund and Lund University are just adjacent to IDEON. This creates a lot of synergy effects. Copenhagen, with the Danish National Space Center DNSC), and Atmosphere Space Research Division of Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), is 45 min away via the bridge. The new LOIS Space Centre is located two hours away by car, north of Lund and just outside V¨xj¨. The IRF Lund a o division is aiming at becoming a "Solar and Space Weather Center". We focus on solar magnetic activity, its influence on climate and on space weather effects such the effect of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC). Basic research: A PostDoc position on "Solar Magnetic Activity: Topology and Predictions has recently been created. Research is carried on to improve predictions of solar magnetic activity. Preparations for using upcoming SDO vector magnetic fields are ongoing. Predictions: RWC-Sweden offers real-time forecasts of space weather and space weather effects based on neural networks. We participated in the NASA/NOAA Cycle 24 Prediction Panel. We have also participated in several ESA/EU solar-climate projects New observation facilities: Distributed, wide-area radio facility (LOIS) for solar (and other space physics) observations and a guest prof: Radio facility about 200 km distant, outside V¨xj¨ (Sm˚ a o aland), in Ronneby (Blekinge) and Lund (Sk˚ ane) is planned to be used for tracking of CMEs and basic solar physics studies of the corona. The LOIS station outside V¨xj¨ has a o been up and running for the past three years. Bo Thidé has joined the Lund division e as a guest prof. A new magnetometer at Risinge LOIS station has been installed an calibrated and expected to be operational in March, 2008.

  13. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  14. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  15. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  16. An early warning technique.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1986-01-01

    During budget preparation, forecasts of inpatient utilization for the coming year play a pivotal role. Use of ancillary services and nursing care is a function of the number of admissions and patient days expected. With DRG payment, the average length of stay has decreased, as has the amount of ancillary service per case. Utilization experience should be reviewed after the budget utilization forecast is made. If it is likely to be lower than the forecast, management should respond as soon as possible. The earlier these responses are made, the more effective they are. PMID:10275078

  17. Towards a nationwide Early Warning System in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, A.; Ionescu, C.; Manea, L.

    2012-04-01

    The need to use early warning methods to reduce natural risks in modern societies is related to their unprecedented dependence upon technology. The strong deep events originating from Vrancea-Romania (Mw =7.5) area and shallow events originating from Banat-Romania or Shabla-Bulgaria areas can generate destructive effects in Romania and neighbor countries, and may seriously affect high risk manmade structures. EWS for deep Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. For the shallow events several methodologies to rapidly estimate earthquake magnitude are under testing. NIEP developed an early warning system that is able to evaluate rapidly earthquake magnitude after detection in the epicenter. In the last years, NIEP upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. The early warning system consists of seismic stations that allow rapid communication of data, several software modules developed at NIEP and a communication network. The system allows estimation of earthquake magnitude and permits to send earthquake alarm very fast to users. The early warning software modules minimize communication latencies present in other communication protocols in order to have a rapid magnitude determination. This software was developed by NIEP and is running in present at our institute in real time.

  18. The Financial Benefit of Early Flood Warnings in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Parker, Dennis J.; Richardson, David; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    Effective disaster risk management relies on science based solutions to close the gap between prevention and preparedness measures. The outcome of consultations on the UNIDSR post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction highlight the need for cross-border early warning systems to strengthen the preparedness phases of disaster risk management in order to save people's lives and property and reduce the overall impact of severe events. In particular, continental and global scale flood forecasting systems provide vital information to various decision makers with which early warnings of floods can be made. Here the potential monetary benefits of early flood warnings using the example of the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) are calculated based on pan-European Flood damage data and calculations of potential flood damage reductions. The benefits are of the order of 400 Euro for every 1 Euro invested. Because of the uncertainties which accompany the calculation, a large sensitivity analysis is performed in order to develop an envelope of possible financial benefits. Current EFAS system skill is compared against perfect forecasts to demonstrate the importance of further improving the skill of the forecasts. Improving the response to warnings is also essential in reaping the benefits of flood early warnings.

  19. Dynamic Vibrotactile Signals for Forward Collision Avoidance Warning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanxing; Gray, Rob; Ho, Cristy; Ahtamad, Mujthaba

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Four experiments were conducted in order to assess the effectiveness of dynamic vibrotactile collision-warning signals in potentially enhancing safe driving. Background: Auditory neuroscience research has demonstrated that auditory signals that move toward a person are more salient than those that move away. If this looming effect were found to extend to the tactile modality, then it could be utilized in the context of in-car warning signal design. Method: The effectiveness of various vibrotactile warning signals was assessed using a simulated car-following task. The vibrotactile warning signals consisted of dynamic toward-/away-from-torso cues (Experiment 1), dynamic versus static vibrotactile cues (Experiment 2), looming-intensity- and constant-intensity-toward-torso cues (Experiment 3), and static cues presented on the hands or on the waist, having either a low or high vibration intensity (Experiment 4). Results: Braking reaction times (BRTs) were significantly faster for toward-torso as compared to away-from-torso cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and static cues (Experiment 2). This difference could not have been attributed to differential responses to signals delivered to different body parts (i.e., the waist vs. hands; Experiment 4). Embedding a looming-intensity signal into the toward-torso signal did not result in any additional BRT benefits (Experiment 3). Conclusion: Dynamic vibrotactile cues that feel as though they are approaching the torso can be used to communicate information concerning external events, resulting in a significantly faster reaction time to potential collisions. Application: Dynamic vibrotactile warning signals that move toward the body offer great potential for the design of future in-car collision-warning system. PMID:25850161

  20. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  1. Licorice abuse: time to send a warning message

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Irina; El-Ghonemi, Mohamed; Fathy, Ahmed; Rashad, Rania; Abdelmalak, Hany D.; Yerramadha, Muralidhar Reddy; Ali, Yaseen; Helal, Engy; Camporesi, Enrico M.

    2012-01-01

    Licorice extract has always been recognized as a sweetener and a thirst quencher. Its nutritive value is overrated by many who consume significant amounts and are prone to complications. Glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite in licorice, inhibits the enzyme 11-ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme type 2 with a resultant cortisol-induced mineralocorticoid effect and the tendency towards the elevation of sodium and reduction of potassium levels. This aldosterone-like action is the fundamental basis for understanding its health benefits and the wide spectrum of adverse effects. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of licorice along with the reported complications related to excess intake. Despite its apparent use in a few clinical scenarios, the daily consumption of licorice is never justified because its benefits are minor compared to the adverse outcomes of chronic consumption. The review highlights the importance of investigating the dietary habits and herbal remedies which are being used worldwide on cultural and habitual bases rather than reliable scientific evidence. Licorice is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food supplement used in many products without precise regulations to prevent toxicity. Increased awareness among the public is required through TV commercials, newspapers, internet sites, magazines and product labels regarding the upper limit of ingestion and health hazards associated with excess intake. We hope that this review will serve as a warning message that should be transmitted from physicians to patients to avoid excessive licorice intake as well as a message to the FDA to start regulating the use of this substance. PMID:23185686

  2. 30 CFR 75.1103-5 - Automatic fire warning devices; actions and response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level reaches 10 parts per million above the established ambient level at any sensor location, automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall provide an effective warning signal at the following... endangered and (ii) A map or schematic that shows the locations of sensors, and the intended air...

  3. The Emotional Impact and Ease of Recall of Warning Signs for Suicide: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Berman, Alan L.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Hollar, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In light of concerns about potential iatrogenic effects of information about suicide, in the current study we examined the emotional impact of reading a list of warning signs for suicide in comparison to comparable lists for heart attacks and diabetes. All participants read two sets of warning signs, with the experimental group reading the suicide…

  4. 46 CFR 194.10-35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under provisions of 49 CFR 176.137 shall bear the additional statements on each side: MAGAZINE WARNING... against the background. On small chests the labeling size may be reduced to that consistent with the size of the chest so that the inscription may be placed in its entirety on the side or top. (b) The...

  5. 46 CFR 194.10-35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under provisions of 49 CFR 176.137 shall bear the additional statements on each side: MAGAZINE WARNING... against the background. On small chests the labeling size may be reduced to that consistent with the size of the chest so that the inscription may be placed in its entirety on the side or top. (b) The...

  6. 46 CFR 194.10-35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under provisions of 49 CFR 176.137 shall bear the additional statements on each side: MAGAZINE WARNING... against the background. On small chests the labeling size may be reduced to that consistent with the size of the chest so that the inscription may be placed in its entirety on the side or top. (b) The...

  7. 46 CFR 194.10-35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... under provisions of 49 CFR 176.137 shall bear the additional statements on each side: MAGAZINE WARNING... against the background. On small chests the labeling size may be reduced to that consistent with the size of the chest so that the inscription may be placed in its entirety on the side or top. (b) The...

  8. 21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling. In... capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly. (d) The package shall include a... test methods, and (3) warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling...

  9. 21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling. In... capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly. (d) The package shall include a... test methods, and (3) warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling...

  10. 21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling. In... capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly. (d) The package shall include a... test methods, and (3) warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling...

  11. 21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling. In... capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly. (d) The package shall include a... test methods, and (3) warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling...

  12. Direct in vivo characterization of delta 5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: Effect of insulin

    SciTech Connect

    el Boustani, S.; Causse, J.E.; Descomps, B.; Monnier, L.; Mendy, F.; Crastes de Paulet, A.

    1989-04-01

    The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DHLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) was compared in normal subjects and diabetic patients before and after treatment with insulin. The kinetics of the incorporation of deuterium-labeled DHLA and its conversion product, deuterium-labeled AA, was determined in plasma triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, and platelet lipids of subjects after ingestion of 2 g of the labeled precursor. Analysis was performed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using multiple ion detection. In normal subjects, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration rose to 24 to 69 mg/L in plasma triglycerides four to nine hours after ingestion and to 20 to 34 mg/L in plasma phospholipids about four hours later. Deuterium-labeled AA appeared at 12 hours, rose to 2.4 to 3.8 mg/L between 48 and 72 hours in plasma phospholipids, but remained at the limit of detection in plasma triglycerides and was undetectable in platelet lipids. In diabetic patients both before and after insulin treatment, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration in plasma triglycerides and in plasma phospholipids followed the same pattern as in normal subjects. However, the deuterium-labeled arachidonic acid concentration was below 1 mg/L in plasma phospholipids before insulin. After insulin treatment the patients recovered normal DHLA metabolism because deuterium-labeled AA rose in phospholipids to a mean value of 3.5 mg/L, which is in the same range as that observed in normal subjects (3.2 mg/L). The present data provide direct evidence for the conversion of DHLA into AA in humans. The effect of insulin and the data from the literature of animal studies suggest insulin dependence of delta 5 desaturase in humans.

  13. 16 CFR 1213.5 - Marking and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and labeling. 1213.5 Section 1213.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY... following warning label shall be permanently attached to the inside of an upper bunk bed end structure in...

  14. Malaria epidemic early warning and detection in African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Abeku, Tarekegn A.; Hay, Simon I.; Ochola, Samuel; Langi, Peter; Beard, Brian; de Vlas, Sake J.; Cox, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Malaria epidemics have long been known to recur in the African highlands. Efforts to develop systems of early warning and detection for epidemics are outlined here with special emphasis on the Highland Malaria Project (HIMAL). This project has been conducting research on the operational implementation of a district-based surveillance and epidemic-monitoring system using a network of sentinel sites in four pilot districts of Kenya and Uganda. The potential use of weather monitoring as well as disease surveillance for effective early warning is being investigated. PMID:15324728

  15. Human factors research problems in electronic voice warning system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The speech messages issued by voice warning systems must be carefully designed in accordance with general principles of human decision making processes, human speech comprehension, and the conditions in which the warnings can occur. The operator's effectiveness must not be degraded by messages that are either inappropriate or difficult to comprehend. Important experimental variables include message content, linguistic redundancy, signal/noise ratio, interference with concurrent tasks, and listener expectations generated by the pragmatic or real world context in which the messages are presented.

  16. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A

    2008-01-01

    Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only) were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Results Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. Conclusion More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias. PMID:18950529

  17. 77 FR 27591 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... proposed rule (72 FR 49070 at 49073, August 27, 2007) and the 1999 sunscreen final rule (64 FR 27666 at... Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35620). The final rule establishes labeling and effectiveness.... The final rule published at 76 FR 35620 on June 17, 2011, remains effective June 18, 2012....

  18. Effect of Labeling with Iron Oxide Particles or Nanodiamonds on the Functionality of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Blaber, Sinead P.; Hill, Cameron J.; Webster, Rebecca A.; Say, Jana M.; Brown, Louise J.; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vesey, Graham; Herbert, Benjamin Ross

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (∼0.9 µm) fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green) superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles); and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ∼0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo. PMID:23301012

  19. Effect of HSA coated iron oxide labeling on human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanganeria, Purva; Chandra, Sudeshna; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Khanna, Aparna

    2015-03-01

    Human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are known for self-renewal and differentiation into cells of various lineages like bone, cartilage and fat. They have been used in biomedical applications to treat degenerative disorders. However, to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells, there is a requirement of sensitive non-invasive imaging techniques which will offer the ability to track transplanted cells, bio-distribution, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have analyzed the efficacy of human serum albumin coated iron oxide nanoparticles (HSA-IONPs) on the differentiation of hUC-MSCs. The colloidal stability of the HSA-IONPs was tested over a long period of time (≥20 months) and the optimized concentration of HSA-IONPs for labeling the stem cells was 60 μg ml-1. Detailed in vitro assays have been performed to ascertain the effect of the nanoparticles (NPs) on stem cells. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay showed minimum release of LDH depicting the least disruptions in cellular membrane. At the same time, mitochondrial impairment of the cells was also not observed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry analysis revealed lesser generation of reactive oxygen species in HSA-IONPs labeled hUC-MSCs in comparison to bare and commercial IONPs. Transmission electron microscopy showed endocytic engulfment of the NPs by the hUC-MSCs. During the process, the gross morphologies of the actin cytoskeleton were found to be intact as shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Also, the engulfment of the HSA-IONPs did not show any detrimental effect on the differentiation potential of the stem cells into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, thereby confirming that the inherent properties of stem cells were maintained.

  20. Effect of HSA coated iron oxide labeling on human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sanganeria, Purva; Chandra, Sudeshna; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Khanna, Aparna

    2015-03-27

    Human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are known for self-renewal and differentiation into cells of various lineages like bone, cartilage and fat. They have been used in biomedical applications to treat degenerative disorders. However, to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells, there is a requirement of sensitive non-invasive imaging techniques which will offer the ability to track transplanted cells, bio-distribution, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have analyzed the efficacy of human serum albumin coated iron oxide nanoparticles (HSA-IONPs) on the differentiation of hUC-MSCs. The colloidal stability of the HSA-IONPs was tested over a long period of time (≥20 months) and the optimized concentration of HSA-IONPs for labeling the stem cells was 60 μg ml(-1). Detailed in vitro assays have been performed to ascertain the effect of the nanoparticles (NPs) on stem cells. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay showed minimum release of LDH depicting the least disruptions in cellular membrane. At the same time, mitochondrial impairment of the cells was also not observed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry analysis revealed lesser generation of reactive oxygen species in HSA-IONPs labeled hUC-MSCs in comparison to bare and commercial IONPs. Transmission electron microscopy showed endocytic engulfment of the NPs by the hUC-MSCs. During the process, the gross morphologies of the actin cytoskeleton were found to be intact as shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Also, the engulfment of the HSA-IONPs did not show any detrimental effect on the differentiation potential of the stem cells into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, thereby confirming that the inherent properties of stem cells were maintained. PMID:25744689

  1. 16 CFR 1205.2 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.2 Effective date. This standard applies to all rotary walk behind power lawn mowers manufactured after June 30, 1982, except § 1205.6 Warning labels, applies to rotary and reel-type walk-behind power lawn mowers manufactured after December...

  2. 16 CFR 1205.2 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.2 Effective date. This standard applies to all rotary walk behind power lawn mowers manufactured after June 30, 1982, except § 1205.6 Warning labels, applies to rotary and reel-type walk-behind power lawn mowers manufactured after December...

  3. 16 CFR 1205.2 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.2 Effective date. This standard applies to all rotary walk behind power lawn mowers manufactured after June 30, 1982, except § 1205.6 Warning labels, applies to rotary and reel-type walk-behind power lawn mowers manufactured after December...

  4. 16 CFR 1205.2 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.2 Effective date. This standard applies to all rotary walk behind power lawn mowers manufactured after June 30, 1982, except § 1205.6 Warning labels, applies to rotary and reel-type walk-behind power lawn mowers manufactured after December...

  5. 16 CFR 1205.2 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.2 Effective date. This standard applies to all rotary walk behind power lawn mowers manufactured after June 30, 1982, except § 1205.6 Warning labels, applies to rotary and reel-type walk-behind power lawn mowers manufactured after December...

  6. Warning signals are under positive frequency-dependent selection in nature.

    PubMed

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Arias, Mónica; Joron, Mathieu

    2016-02-23

    Positive frequency-dependent selection (FDS) is a selection regime where the fitness of a phenotype increases with its frequency, and it is thought to underlie important adaptive strategies resting on signaling and communication. However, whether and how positive FDS truly operates in nature remains unknown, which hampers our understanding of signal diversity. Here, we test for positive FDS operating on the warning color patterns of chemically defended butterflies forming multiple coexisting mimicry assemblages in the Amazon. Using malleable prey models placed in localities showing differences in the relative frequencies of warningly colored prey, we demonstrate that the efficiency of a warning signal increases steadily with its local frequency in the natural community, up to a threshold where protection stabilizes. The shape of this relationship is consistent with the direct effect of the local abundance of each warning signal on the corresponding avoidance knowledge of the local predator community. This relationship, which differs from purifying selection acting on each mimetic pattern, indicates that predator knowledge, integrated over the entire community, is saturated only for the most common warning signals. In contrast, among the well-established warning signals present in local prey assemblages, most are incompletely known to local predators and enjoy incomplete protection. This incomplete predator knowledge should generate strong benefits to life history traits that enhance warning efficiency by increasing the effective frequency of prey visible to predators. Strategies such as gregariousness or niche convergence between comimics may therefore readily evolve through their effects on predator knowledge and warning efficiency. PMID:26858416

  7. Italian landslide early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M.

    2009-04-01

    In Italy, intense or prolonged rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides, and rainfall-induced slope failures occur every year, claiming lives, causing economic disruption, and producing different environmental problems. The national Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) is responsible for the protection of individuals, communities and their properties, against natural hazards, including landslides, and for rescuing people if a catastrophic event should occur. The main tasks of the DPC are the issuing of meteorological, hydrological, and landslide warnings and the determination of landslide hazards and risk at different geographical scales. In 2007, the DPC asked IRPI, a research institute of the Italian National Research Council, to design and implement a prototype system for the quasi-real-time forecast of rainfall induced landslides in Italy. The system - under development - is based on two main components: (i) a set of national, regional and local rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of landslides, and (ii) a synoptic (small scale) assessment of landslide hazards and the associated risk in Italy. The system attempt to predict rainfall induced landslides using existing and new rainfall thresholds. The new rainfall thresholds, chiefly of the intensity-duration (ID) and normalized-ID types, will be defined analyzing a catalogue of rainfall events that have or have not resulted in landslides. The thresholds will be established using objective statistical techniques. The assessment of landslide hazards and risk will be performed using statistical models based on small scale thematic information and catalogues of historical landslides and historical landslides with human consequences in Italy, in the period from 1900 to 2005. The catalogues were compiled through a thorough literature and archive search. The two individual system components will be then combined to form a national landslide warning system. A preliminary version of a software tool for the early warning system, comparing rain gauge network measurements with existing and new national rainfall thresholds, has been implemented. In this version, information on landslide spatial and temporal probability at the national scale have been made available. Future versions of the system: (i) will use new Italian regional and local rainfall thresholds, (ii) will consider rainfall estimates obtained from ground-based weather radars, meteorological satellites, and numerical weather forecasts, and (iii) will implement new criteria for the issue of warning based on the combination of rainfall thresholds and statistical models of landslide hazard and risk.

  8. A Personal Storm Warning Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Although lightning detection systems operated by government agencies, utilities and other businesses provide storm warnings, this information often does not reach the public until some time after the observations have been made. A low-cost personal lightning detector offers a significant safety advantage to private flyers, boaters, golfers and others. Developed by Airborne Research Associates, the detectors originated in Space Shuttle tests of an optical lightning detection technique. The commercial device is pointed toward a cloud to detect invisible intracloud lightning by sensing subtle changes in light presence. The majority of the sales have been to golf courses. Additional products and more advanced applications are in progress.

  9. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1113 Warning signs....

  10. 33 CFR 127.1207 - Warning alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1207 Warning alarms. (a) Each...

  11. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer...

  12. 33 CFR 127.207 - Warning alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.207 Warning alarms. (a) The...

  13. Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

    2014-05-01

    Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to potentially affected groups, and how mitigation strategies can be taken in response. This paper presents an outline of the protocol that was developed in the DEWFORA project, outlining the complementary roles of science, policy and societal uptake in effective drought forecasting and warning. A consensus on the need to emphasise the social component of early warning was reached when testing the DEWFORA early warning system protocol among experts from 18 countries.

  14. Automaticity of Basic-Level Categorization Accounts for Labeling Effects in Visual Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Are there consequences of calling objects by their names? Lupyan (2008) suggested that overtly labeling objects impairs subsequent recognition memory because labeling shifts stored memory representations of objects toward the category prototype (representational shift hypothesis). In Experiment 1, we show that processing objects at the basic…

  15. Women's Relationship to Feminism: Effects of Generation and Feminist Self-Labeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    The relative importance to feminism of generation and feminist self-labeling was explored in a sample of 667 women riding buses to a 1992 March on Washington for Reproductive Rights. Specifically, generational (Generation X vs. Baby Boomers) and feminist self-labeling (strong feminists vs. weak feminists vs. nonfeminists) similarities and

  16. Women's Relationship to Feminism: Effects of Generation and Feminist Self-Labeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    The relative importance to feminism of generation and feminist self-labeling was explored in a sample of 667 women riding buses to a 1992 March on Washington for Reproductive Rights. Specifically, generational (Generation X vs. Baby Boomers) and feminist self-labeling (strong feminists vs. weak feminists vs. nonfeminists) similarities and…

  17. Effects of Categorical Labels on Similarity Judgments: A Critical Analysis of Similarity-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children's judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked

  18. Labels of Giftedness and Gender-Typicality: Effects on Adults' Judgments of Children's Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Jennifer J.; Luria, Zella

    1989-01-01

    College students (n=80) rated children labeled as male/female, "gifted"/"average" and gender-typical/gender-atypical in academic interests on 30 adjective scales. Children labeled "gifted" were rated closer to "odd" than to "fits in well." Gender-atypical boys were considered more "odd" and gender-atypical girls were rated less "odd" than were…

  19. Effectiveness of tizanidine in neuropathic pain: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Semenchuk, M R; Sherman, S

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research trial is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of tizanidine in neuropathic pain. In an open-label study, patients with neuropathic pain received 1 to 4 mg of tizanidine once daily for 7 days, followed by weekly dose escalation of 2 to 8 mg to his/her effective or maximum tolerated dose or a maximum of 36 mg over an 8-week period. Treatment effects were assessed, using average weekly pain scores as well as biweekly scores for patient global assessment of pain relief, the neuropathic pain scale, and wisconsin brief pain inventory. Frequency and severity of adverse events were examined also. Twenty-three patients were enrolled. The mean average weekly pain score at baseline was 6.9, which decreased by 1.7 points at the end of week 8 to 5.2 (p < or =.01). A total of 15 patients (68%) reported that their pain relief was improved or much improved with tizanidine therapy, and 2 of these patients became completely pain-free. The following neuropathic pain qualities were significantly lower at week 8 compared with baseline: intense, sharp, hot, dull, cold, sensitive, unpleasant, and deep pain. There was a significant decline in pain quantity and interference of pain on quality of life from baseline to week 8. The mean effective or maximum tolerated dose was 23 mg/day (range 6 to 36 mg/day). Side effects consisted primarily of dizziness/lightheadedness (52%), drowsiness (48%), fatigue/weakness (43%), dry mouth (39%), gastrointestinal upset (30%), and sleep difficulty (22%). One patient developed significant elevation in liver function tests (LFTS) With symptoms at week 4. Tizanidine therapy was discontinued. LFTS returned to normal in 3 weeks. Tizanidine might be an effective treatment for neuropathic pain, offering an alternative for patients poorly responsive to other medications. A larger, randomized placebo-controlled trial is recommended. In addition, comparative studies with alternative agents should be sought. PMID:14622612

  20. Same faces, different labels: generating the cross-race effect in face memory with social category information.

    PubMed

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Fraundorf, Scott H; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2013-10-01

    Recognition of own-race faces is superior to recognition of other-race faces. In the present experiments, we explored the role of top-down social information in the encoding and recognition of racially ambiguous faces. Hispanic and African American participants studied and were tested on computer-generated ambiguous-race faces (composed of 50 % Hispanic and 50 % African American features; MacLin & Malpass, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 7:98-118, 2001). In Experiment 1, the faces were randomly assigned to two study blocks. In each block, a group label was provided that indicated that those faces belonged to African American or to Hispanic individuals. Both participant groups exhibited superior memory for faces studied in the block with their own-race label. In Experiment 2, the faces were studied in a single block with no labels, but tested in two blocks in which labels were provided. Recognition performance was not influenced by the labeled race at test. Taken together, these results confirm the claim that purely top-down information can yield the well-documented cross-race effect in recognition, and additionally they suggest that the bias takes place at encoding rather than testing. PMID:23546969

  1. Prosocial Television and Young Children: The Effects of Verbal Labeling and Role Playing on Learning and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Lynette K.; Stein, Aletha H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a study designed to test (1) the effects of an educational prosocial television program on learning and behavior of kindergarten children; and (2) two types of training, verbal labeling and role playing, designed to help children learn the content of the program. Children were able to generalize learning. (ED)

  2. What Contributes to the Split-Attention Effect? The Role of Text Segmentation, Picture Labelling, and Spatial Proximity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florax, Mareike; Ploetzner, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In the split-attention effect spatial proximity is frequently considered to be pivotal. The transition from a spatially separated to a spatially integrated format not only involves changes in spatial proximity, but commonly necessitates text segmentation and picture labelling as well. In an experimental study, we investigated the influence of

  3. What Contributes to the Split-Attention Effect? The Role of Text Segmentation, Picture Labelling, and Spatial Proximity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florax, Mareike; Ploetzner, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In the split-attention effect spatial proximity is frequently considered to be pivotal. The transition from a spatially separated to a spatially integrated format not only involves changes in spatial proximity, but commonly necessitates text segmentation and picture labelling as well. In an experimental study, we investigated the influence of…

  4. 76 FR 38975 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 201 (formerly Docket No. 1978N-0038) RIN 0910-AF43 Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human...

  5. Effect of plasmapheresis on the liver uptake of ApoB-lipoproteins labeled with technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimova, O.Ju.; Konovalov, G.A.; Agapov, I.I.; Fuki, I.V.; Sergienko, V.B.; Repin, V.S.; Kukharchuk, V.V. )

    1989-12-01

    To study liver low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor activity before and after plasmapheresis, ({sup 99m}Tc) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was used. Autologous VLDL was labeled, sterilized by filtration, and administered intravenously to patients under a gamma camera. The uptake of lipoproteins in the liver was measured by scintiscanning. Liver activity curves were generated for each patient. The liver activity in patients with the heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis (SA) without hereditary deficit of LDL receptors was reduced as compared to healthy people. Plasmapheresis enhanced the liver uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled lipoproteins in atherosclerotic patients. Thus, labeled metabolites could presumably be of use in assessing the effect of plasmapheresis on liver function.

  6. The effect of digital alteration disclaimer labels on social comparison and body image: Instructions and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2016-06-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of digital alteration disclaimer labels appended to fashion magazine advertisements, as well as instructional condition, on women's social comparison and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 378 female undergraduate students who viewed 11 thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a more detailed specific disclaimer. There were three instructional conditions: neutral, distractor, and social comparison. Disclaimer labels did not affect appearance comparison or body dissatisfaction, but instructional condition did, with the social comparison instructions producing the highest appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction. In addition, there was a three-way interaction with trait appearance comparison, such that women high on trait appearance comparison who saw specifically worded disclaimers in the distractor instructional condition experienced increased body dissatisfaction, whereas women low on this trait experienced decreased body dissatisfaction. It seems that both instructions and individual differences may influence responses to disclaimer labels. PMID:27061258

  7. Investigating drug repositioning opportunities in FDA drug labels through topic modeling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug repositioning offers an opportunity to revitalize the slowing drug discovery pipeline by finding new uses for currently existing drugs. Our hypothesis is that drugs sharing similar side effect profiles are likely to be effective for the same disease, and thus repositioning opportunities can be identified by finding drug pairs with similar side effects documented in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug labels. The safety information in the drug labels is usually obtained in the clinical trial and augmented with the observations in the post-market use of the drug. Therefore, our drug repositioning approach can take the advantage of more comprehensive safety information comparing with conventional de novo approach. Method A probabilistic topic model was constructed based on the terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) that appeared in the Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions, and Adverse Reactions sections of the labels of 870 drugs. Fifty-two unique topics, each containing a set of terms, were identified by using topic modeling. The resulting probabilistic topic associations were used to measure the distance (similarity) between drugs. The success of the proposed model was evaluated by comparing a drug and its nearest neighbor (i.e., a drug pair) for common indications found in the Indications and Usage Section of the drug labels. Results Given a drug with more than three indications, the model yielded a 75% recall, meaning 75% of drug pairs shared one or more common indications. This is significantly higher than the 22% recall rate achieved by random selection. Additionally, the recall rate grows rapidly as the number of drug indications increases and reaches 84% for drugs with 11 indications. The analysis also demonstrated that 65 drugs with a Boxed Warning, which indicates significant risk of serious and possibly life-threatening adverse effects, might be replaced with safer alternatives that do not have a Boxed Warning. In addition, we identified two therapeutic groups of drugs (Musculo-skeletal system and Anti-infective for systemic use) where over 80% of the drugs have a potential replacement with high significance. Conclusion Topic modeling can be a powerful tool for the identification of repositioning opportunities by examining the adverse event terms in FDA approved drug labels. The proposed framework not only suggests drugs that can be repurposed, but also provides insight into the safety of repositioned drugs. PMID:23046522

  8. Effect of salt on the structure of middle phase microemulsions using the spin-label technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, C.; Vijayan, S.; Shah, D.O.

    1980-06-12

    The middle phases obtained by varying the sodium chloride concentration in surfactant formulations containing 5:3 (wt/wt) TRS 10-410 (a petroleum sulfonate)-isobutyl alcohol and equal volumes of aqueous and oil phases were studied by using spin-labeling techniques. Two different spin-labels, one partially water soluble (5-doxylstearic acid label) and the other water insoluble (3-doxylcholestane label), were used. Extensive measurements of electrical conductivity and phase volumes of the middle phases were also carried out. These physical property results corroborated the spin-label studies in that below 2.0 wt % NaCl the middle phase was essentially a microemulsion of the water external type. Beyond 2.3% NaCl the appearance of a signal component typical of a free label (ketostearic acid) in an oil environment and changes in correlation time characteristics (cholestane label) coupled with physical property data underlined a qualitative change in the microemulsion system. It is believed that these changes are consistent with a transition from a water-external type to an oil-external type microemulsion system. This transition is estimated to be around 2 to 2.3% NaCl. The results are further substantiated by ascorbic acid reduction rate studies. Possible mechanisms of this transition are discussed.

  9. Chemical Ligation and Isotope Labeling to Locate Dynamic Effects during Catalysis by Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Luk, Louis Y P; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Adesina, Aduragbemi S; Loveridge, E Joel; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vincent; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2015-07-27

    Chemical ligation has been used to alter motions in specific regions of dihydrofolate reductase from E. coli and to investigate the effects of localized motional changes on enzyme catalysis. Two isotopic hybrids were prepared; one with the mobile N-terminal segment containing heavy isotopes ((2) H, (13) C, (15) N) and the remainder of the protein with natural isotopic abundance, and the other one with only the C-terminal segment isotopically labeled. Kinetic investigations indicated that isotopic substitution of the N-terminal segment affected only a physical step of catalysis, whereas the enzyme chemistry was affected by protein motions from the C-terminal segment. QM/MM studies support the idea that dynamic effects on catalysis mostly originate from the C-terminal segment. The use of isotope hybrids provides insights into the microscopic mechanism of dynamic coupling, which is difficult to obtain with other studies, and helps define the dynamic networks of intramolecular interactions central to enzyme catalysis. PMID:26079622

  10. Label Propagation Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Based on Clinical Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is an important topic for public health, and thus attracts attention from both academia and industry. Here we hypothesize that clinical side effects (SEs) provide a human phenotypic profile and can be translated into the development of computational models for predicting adverse DDIs. We propose an integrative label propagation framework to predict DDIs by integrating SEs extracted from package inserts of prescription drugs, SEs extracted from FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, and chemical structures from PubChem. Experimental results based on hold-out validation demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In addition, the new algorithm also ranked drug information sources based on their contributions to the prediction, thus not only confirming that SEs are important features for DDI prediction but also paving the way for building more reliable DDI prediction models by prioritizing multiple data sources. By applying the proposed algorithm to 1,626 small-molecule drugs which have one or more SE profiles, we obtained 145,068 predicted DDIs. The predicted DDIs will help clinicians to avoid hazardous drug interactions in their prescriptions and will aid pharmaceutical companies to design large-scale clinical trial by assessing potentially hazardous drug combinations. All data sets and predicted DDIs are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/ddi.html. PMID:26196247

  11. Highly effective detection of inflamed cells using a modified bradykinin ligand labeled with FITC fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Ki Baek; Kim, Hyong Bai; Choi, Yoo Seong; Pack, Seung Pil

    2016-01-01

    Detection of inflammation in live cells is important because long-lasting inflammation is considered to be a primary cause of several diseases. However, few reports have been published on imaging analysis of inflammation in live cells. In this study, we developed an effective imaging system for detection of inflamed cells using a bradykinin ligand (BK) or a modified BK (mBK), which has specific affinity with the cellular B1R receptor. Synthetic BK or mBK labeled with FITC at the N-terminus was employed for discriminating between inflamed and normal cells; this method was found to be effective for detection of inflammation in live cells. In addition, using the mBK-based cell imaging system, we successfully performed flow-based analysis of live cell inflammation on a micro-chip channel, composed of a Starna flow cell and PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) walls. The BK-based cell imaging methods designed here would be a useful platform for development of a high-throughput live cell analysis system for investigating the factors underlying inflammation or for screening of anti-inflammation candidate drugs. PMID:26672467

  12. The effects of individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Escolano, C; Navarro-Gil, M; Garcia-Campayo, J; Congedo, M; Minguez, J

    2014-12-01

    Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individually determined using the alpha peak frequency as an anchor point. 20 ADHD children underwent 18 training sessions. Clinical and neurophysiological variables were measured pre- and post-training. EEG was recorded pre- and post-training, and pre- and post-training trials within each session, in both eyes closed resting state and eyes open task-related activity. A power EEG analysis assessed long-term and within-session effects, in the trained parameter and in all the sensors in the (1-30) Hz spectral range. Learning curves over sessions were assessed as well. Parents rated a clinical improvement in children regarding inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Neurophysiological tests showed an improvement in working memory, concentration and impulsivity (decreased number of commission errors in a continuous performance test). Relative and absolute upper alpha power showed long-term enhancement in task-related activity, and a positive learning curve over sessions. The analysis of within-session effects showed a power decrease ("rebound" effect) in task-related activity, with no significant effects during training trials. We conclude that the enhancement of the individual upper alpha power is effective in improving several measures of clinical outcome and cognitive performance in ADHD. This is the first NF study evaluating such a protocol in ADHD. A controlled evaluation seems warranted due to the positive results obtained in the current study. PMID:25199660

  13. Consumer testing of the acceptability and effectiveness of front-of-pack food labelling systems for the Australian grocery market.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hughes, Clare; Chapman, Kathy; Louie, Jimmy Chun-Yu; Dixon, Helen; Crawford, Jennifer; King, Lesley; Daube, Mike; Slevin, Terry

    2009-06-01

    The placement of nutrition information on the front of food packages has been proposed as a method of providing simplified and visible nutrition information. This study aimed to determine the most acceptable and effective front-of-pack food labelling system for Australian consumers. Consumers' preferences and ability to compare the healthiness of mock food products were assessed for different front-of-pack labelling systems. Four systems were tested, including two variations of the Percentage Daily Intake system (Monochrome %DI and Colour-Coded %DI), which displays the proportion of daily nutrient contribution that a serve of food provides; and two variations of the Traffic Light (TL) system (Traffic Light and Traffic Light + Overall Rating), which uses colour-coding to indicate nutrient levels. Intercept surveys with 790 consumers were conducted, where each participant was exposed to a single labelling system for performance testing. Participants indicated strong support for the inclusion of nutrient information on total fat, saturated fat, sugar and sodium on the front of packages, and a consistent labelling format across all products. Using the TL system, participants were five times more likely to identify healthier foods compared with the Monochrome %DI system [odds ratio (OR) = 5.18; p < 0.001], and three times more likely compared with the Colour-Coded %DI system (OR = 3.01; p < 0.05). Consumers supported the introduction of consistent front-of-pack food labelling. The TL system was the most effective in assisting consumers to identify healthier foods. Mandatory TL labelling regulations are recommended to assist consumers in making healthy food choices. PMID:19336501

  14. 49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects, a distinctive warning notice giving reasons for the shut-down shall be conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the necessary repairs have been made. The locomotive in which the steam...

  15. Urban Flood Warning Systems using Radar Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N.; Bedient, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    There have been an increasing number of urban areas that rely on weather radars to provide accurate precipitation information for flood warning purposes. As non-structural tools, radar-based flood warning systems can provide accurate and timely warnings to the public and private entities in urban areas that are prone to flash floods. The wider spatial and temporal coverage from radar increases flood warning lead-time when compared to rain and stream gages alone. The Third Generation Rice and Texas Medical Center (TMC) Flood Alert System (FAS3) has been delivering warning information with 2 to 3 hours of lead time and a R2 value of 93% to facility personnel in a readily understood format for more than 50 events in the past 15 years. The current FAS utilizes NEXRAD Level II radar rainfall data coupled with a real-time hydrologic model (RTHEC-1) to deliver warning information. The system has a user-friendly dashboard to provide rainfall maps, Google Maps based inundation maps, hydrologic predictions, and real-time monitoring at the bayou. This paper will evaluate its reliable performance during the recent events occurring in 2012 and 2013 and the development of a similar radar-based flood warning system for the City of Sugar Land, Texas. Having a significant role in the communication of flood information, FAS marks an important step towards the establishment of an operational and reliable flood warning system for flood-prone urban areas.

  16. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices...

  17. 49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects, a distinctive warning notice giving reasons for the shut-down shall be conspicuously attached near the steam...

  18. A National Implementation Panel for Detectable Warnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffee, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes meetings by a panel of travel, access, and public transit professionals to discuss detectable warning systems (devices to notify individuals with visual impairments of hazards along their path of travel). Recommendations of the panel for universal design standards and educating communities about detectable warning systems are…

  19. 49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects, a distinctive warning notice giving reasons for the shut-down shall be conspicuously attached near the steam...

  20. 49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects, a distinctive warning notice giving reasons for the shut-down shall be conspicuously attached near the steam...

  1. 21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings,” which is incorporated by reference at § 1141.12... PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS; (Eff. 9-22-12) Cigarette Package and Advertising... cigarettes the package of which fails to bear, in accordance with section 4 of the Federal Cigarette...

  2. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods, which are typically triggered by severe rainfall events, are difficult to monitor and predict at the spatial and temporal scales of interest due to large meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) need to be taken into account to provide skillful flash flood warnings with increased warning lead time. In France, the AIGA discharge-threshold flood warning system is currently being enhanced to ingest high-resolution ensemble QPFs from convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as well as probabilistic QPEs, to improve flash flood warnings for small-to-medium (from 10 to 1000 km²) ungauged basins. The current deterministic AIGA system is operational in the South of France since 2005. It ingests the operational radar-gauge QPE grids from Météo-France to run a simplified hourly distributed hydrologic model at a 1-km² resolution every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). This produces real-time peak discharge estimates along the river network, which are subsequently compared to regionalized flood frequency estimates of given return periods. Warnings are then provided to the French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) and regional flood forecasting offices, based on the estimated severity of ongoing events. The calibration and regionalization of the hydrologic model has been recently enhanced to implement an operational flash flood warning system for the entire French territory. To quantify the QPF uncertainty, the COSMO-DE-EPS rainfall ensembles from the Deutscher Wetterdienst (20 members at a 2.8-km resolution for a lead time of 21 hours), which are available on the North-eastern part of France, were ingested in the hydrologic model of the AIGA system. Streamflow ensembles were produced and probabilistic flash flood warnings were derived for the Meuse and Moselle river basins and for significant events of the 2010-2013 period. The evaluation showed significant improvements in terms of flash flood event detection and effective warning lead-time, compared to warnings from the current AIGA setup (without any future precipitation). Various verification metrics (e.g., Relative Mean Error, Continuous Rank Probability Skill Score) show the skill of ensemble precipitation and flow forecasts compared to single-valued persistency benchmarks. In addition to propagating the QPF uncertainty to streamflow forecasts, we discuss how to account for other sources of forecast uncertainty, including precipitation observational uncertainty (Caseri et al. 2014) and hydrologic uncertainties. Planned enhancements include ingesting other probabilistic nowcast and NWP products from Météo-France's convection-permitting AROME model, as well as developing comprehensive observational and post-event damage database to determine decision-relevant thresholds for flood magnitude and probability. Caseri, A., Javelle, P., Ramos, M.H., Leblois, E., 2014. Generating precipitation ensembles for flood alert and risk management. Journal of Flood Risk Management (submitted). Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D., Arnaud, P., 2014. Evaluating flash flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system. Hydrological Sciences Journal. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2014.923970

  3. Scientific and public responses to the ongoing volcanic crisis at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico: Importance of an effective hazards-warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Tilling, Robert I.

    2008-02-01

    Volcanic eruptions and other potentially hazardous natural phenomena occur independently of any human actions. However, such phenomena can cause disasters when a society fails to foresee the hazardous manifestations and adopt adequate measures to reduce its vulnerability. One of the causes of such a failure is the lack of a consistent perception of the changing hazards posed by an ongoing eruption, i.e., with members of the scientific community, the Civil Protection authorities and the general public having diverging notions about what is occurring and what may happen. The problem of attaining a perception of risk as uniform as possible in a population measured in millions during an evolving eruption requires searching for communication tools that can describe—as simply as possible—the relations between the level of threat posed by the volcano, and the level of response of the authorities and the public. The hazards-warning system adopted at Popocatépetl Volcano, called the Volcanic Traffic Light Alert System (VTLAS), is a basic communications protocol that translates volcano threat into seven levels of preparedness for the emergency-management authorities, but only three levels of alert for the public (color coded green-yellow-red). The changing status of the volcano threat is represented as the most likely scenarios according to the opinions of an official scientific committee analyzing all available data. The implementation of the VTLAS was intended to reduce the possibility of ambiguous interpretations of intermediate levels by the endangered population. Although the VTLAS is imperfect and has not solved all problems involved in mass communication and decision-making during a volcanic crisis, it marks a significant advance in the management of volcanic crises in Mexico.

  4. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults. Methods The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), and a “no label” condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests. Results The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the “no label” situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001). Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels. Conclusions The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products’ nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly. PMID:26509679

  5. Effects of categorical labels on similarity judgments: A critical analysis of similarity-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children’s judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked to make perceptual judgments about identical items judge discriminable items less accurately when making subsequent similarity judgments. Thus, labels do not generally affect children’s perceptual similarity judgments; rather, children’s reliance on labels to make similarity judgments appears to be attributable to flaws in the methodological approaches used in prior studies. These results have implications for the role of perceptual and conceptual information in children’s categorization and induction. PMID:22059447

  6. Adapting ISA system warnings to enhance user acceptance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Felipe; Liang, Yingzhen; Aparicio, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Inappropriate speed is a major cause of traffic accidents. Different measures have been considered to control traffic speed, and intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) systems are one of the alternatives. These systems know the speed limits and try to improve compliance with them. This paper deals with an informative ISA system that provides the driver with an advance warning before reaching a road section with singular characteristics that require a lower safe speed than the current speed. In spite of the extensive tests performed using ISA systems, few works show how warnings can be adapted to the driver. This paper describes a method to adapt warning parameters (safe speed on curves, zone of influence of a singular stretch, deceleration process and reaction time) to normal driving behavior. The method is based on a set of tests with and without the ISA system. This adjustment, as well as the analysis of driver acceptance before and after the adaptation and changes in driver behavior (changes in speed and path) resulting from the tested ISA regarding a driver's normal driving style, is shown in this paper. The main conclusion is that acceptance by drivers increased significantly after redefining the warning parameters, but the effect of speed homogenization was not reduced. PMID:22664666

  7. Supplementing Menu Labeling With Calorie Recommendations to Test for Facilitation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jessica; Wansink, Brian; Loewenstein, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effect on food purchases of adding recommended calorie intake per day or per meal to the mandated calorie information posted on chain restaurant menus. Methods. Before and after New York City implemented calorie posting on chain restaurant menus in 2008, we provided daily, per-meal, or no calorie recommendations to randomized subsets of adult lunchtime customers (n = 1121) entering 2 McDonald’s restaurants, in Manhattan and Brooklyn, and collected receipts and survey responses as they exited. In linear and logistic regressions, with adjustment for gender, race, age, and day, we tested for simple differences in calories consumed and interactions between variables. Results. Posting calorie benchmarks had no direct impact, nor did it moderate the impact of calorie labels on food purchases. The recommendation appeared to promote a slight increase in calorie intake, attributable to increased purchases of higher-calorie entrées. Conclusions. These results do not support the introduction of calorie recommendations as a means of enhancing the impact of posted calorie information or reducing the contribution of restaurant dining to the obesity epidemic. PMID:23865657

  8. Nanoclusters of iron oxide: effect of core composition on structure, biocompatibility and cell labeling efficacy

    PubMed Central

    van Tilborg, Geralda A.F.; Cormode, David P.; Jarzyna, Peter A.; van der Toorn, Annette; van der Pol, Susanne M.A.; van Bloois, Louis; Fayad, Zahi A.; Storm, Gert; Mulder, Willem J.M.; de Vries, Helga E.; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals have a variety of applications in medicine. They may serve as contrast agents, therapeutics and for in vitro diagnostics. Frequently, the synthesis route yields hydrophobically capped nanocrystals, which necessitates their subsequent coating to render a water-soluble and biocompatible probe. Biocompatibility is crucial for cellular imaging applications, which require large quantities of diagnostically active nanoparticles to be loaded into cells. We have previously reported the design and synthesis of a fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging-detectable core-shell nanoparticle that encapsulates hydrophobically coated iron oxide nanocrystals. The core of soybean oil and iron oxide is covered by a shell mixture of phospholipids, some of which contained polyethylene glycol. Despite the biocompatibility of these components, we hypothesize that we can improve this formulation with respect to in vitro toxicity. To this aim, we measured the effect of six different core compositions on nanoparticle structure, cell labeling efficacy and cell viability, as well as cell tracking potential. We methodically investigated the causes of toxicity and conclude that, even when combining biocompatible materials, the resulting formulation is not guaranteed to be biocompatible. PMID:22471239

  9. Label-free field-effect-based single-molecule detection of DNA hybridization kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Sorgenfrei, Sebastian; Chiu, Chien-yang; Gonzalez, Ruben L.; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Probing biomolecules at the single-molecule level can provide useful information about molecular interactions, kinetics and motions that is usually hidden in ensemble measurements. Techniques with improved sensitivity and time resolution are required to explore fast biomolecular dynamics. Here, we report the first observation of DNA hybridization at the single-molecule level using a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. By covalently attaching a single-stranded probe DNA sequence to a point defect in a carbon nanotube, we are able to measure two-level fluctuations in the nanotube conductance due to reversible hybridizing and melting of a complementary DNA target. The kinetics are studied as a function of temperature, allowing the measurement of rate constants, melting curves and activation energies for different sequences and target concentrations. The kinetics show non-Arrhenius behavior, in agreement with DNA hybridization experiments using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. This technique is label-free and has the potential for studying single-molecule dynamics at sub-microsecond time-scales. PMID:21258331

  10. Direct and indirect effects of functionalised fluorescence-labelled nanoparticles on human osteoclast formation and activity.

    PubMed

    Tautzenberger, Andrea; Kreja, Ludwika; Zeller, Anke; Lorenz, Steffen; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Ignatius, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that phosphonate-functionalised nanoparticles were successfully taken up by mesenchymal stem cells without influencing their viability and differentiation capacity, suggesting that they may provide a promising basis for the development of nanoparticles for drug delivery or cell labelling. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of these nanoparticles on osteoclast formation and activity as well as on the inflammatory response of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The intracellular uptake of the particles by human osteoclasts and osteoblasts was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, carboanhydrase II, cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor and osteoclast-specific vacuolar proton pump subunit TCIRG1 as well as actin ring formation were not significantly altered in osteoclasts by particle treatment, as demonstrated by cytochemical staining and immunostaining. Active calcium phosphate resorption by osteoclasts was also not significantly influenced by the particles. The expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β) by osteoclasts and osteoblasts and the expression of osteoclast-regulating genes (M-CSF, OPG, RANKL) in osteoblasts were similarly not significantly affected. In conclusion, phosphonate-functionalised nanoparticles did not affect osteoclast formation and activity either directly or indirectly, suggesting that they could provide a promising tool for the development of particle-based treatments for anti-resorptive therapies. PMID:21093909

  11. Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

    2004-01-01

    As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

  12. Increasing Warning Times for the Onsite Earthquake Early Warning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Hauksson, E.; Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.

    2014-12-01

    A significant source of alert latency in earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms, which can possibly be reduced, is the duration of the time window used to estimate EEW parameters following a P wave detection. We investigate whether the detection time for the τc-Pd Onsite algorithm can be reduced by estimating EEW parameters using shorter waveform windows. The Onsite algorithm is currently one of three EEW algorithms implemented in ShakeAlert, the earthquake early warning system being developed for the west coast of the United States. Onsite uses the ground-motion period parameter (τc) and peak initial displacement parameter (Pd) to estimate the magnitude and expected ground shaking of an ongoing earthquake. The current implementation of Onsite requires a 3 second window of the P waveform before issuing magnitude estimates. We use a large suite of waveform records of local earthquakes (M>3) recorded in southern California to examine the performance for a range of window lengths between 1-5 s. We examine source-to-station distances up to 300 km and focus on the results for distances less than 100 km. We find that Pd shows a stronger correlation with magnitude than is observed for τc, for all tested window lengths. τc does not correlate with magnitude for earthquakes with M<4; however, we do not apply any quality metrics to remove bad or noisy records (e.g. Böse et al., 2012). The broadband waveforms give more reliable Pd and τc measurements than strong motion waveforms, at least for moderate sized earthquakes, likely because of higher signal to noise ratios. However, these results may be biased since the dataset does not include many waveforms for earthquakes with M>6. Overall, preliminary results suggest that it may be feasible to use shorter window lengths (1 sec) without significantly degrading the magnitude estimate in the Onsite algorithm. We will determine the optimal waveform window that provides both fast and reliable estimates of τc and Pd for use in the Onsite algorithm, and will work with spatially varying station density. Further, we will investigate if sliding window lengths can be used to improve the τc and Pd estimates continuously.

  13. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction. PMID:27085112

  14. Tsunami early warning in the central Mediterranean: effect of the heterogeneity of the seismic source on the timely detectability of a tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.

    2012-04-01

    The central Mediterranean, and in particular the coasts of southern Italy, is one of the areas with the highest tsunami hazard in Europe. Limiting our attention to earthquake-generated tsunamis, the sources of historical events hitting this region, as well as the largest part of the potential tsunamigenic seismic sources mapped there, are found at very short distances from the closest shorelines, reducing the time needed for the tsunami to attack the coasts themselves to few minutes. This represents by itself an issue from the Tsunami Early Warning (TEW) perspective. To make the overall problem even more intriguing and challenging, it is known that large tsunamigenic earthquakes are generally characterized by highly heterogeneous distributions of the slip on the fault. This feature has been recognized clearly, for instance, in the giant Sumatra 2004, Chile 2010, and Japan 2011 earthquakes (magnitude 9.3, 8.8 and 9.0, respectively), but it was a property also of smaller magnitude events occurred in the region considered in this study, like the 28 December 1908 Messina Straits tsunamigenic earthquake (M=7.2). In terms of tsunami impact, the parent fault slip heterogeneity usually determines a high variability of run-up and inundation on the near-field coasts, which further complicates the TEW problem. The information on the details of the seismic source rupture coming from the seismic (and possibly geodetic) networks, though of primary importance, is typically available after a time that is comparable or larger than the time comprised between the generation and the impact of the tsunami. In the framework of the EU-FP7 TRIDEC Project, we investigate how a proper marine sensors coverage both along the coasts and offshore can help posing constraints on the characteristics of the source in near-real time. Our approach consists in discussing numerical tsunami scenarios in the central Mediterranean involving different slip distributions on the parent fault; the tsunamigenic region we take into consideration is the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment located offshore eastern Sicily, where several large historical tsunamigenic earthquakes took place (e.g. 11 January 1693). Starting from different slip configurations on a chosen fault, we compare the time series of wave elevation simulated for tide gauges placed along the coast and for virtual deep sea sensors placed at different distances from the source area. The final goal is to understand whether a properly designed marine sensor network can help determining in real-time the slip characteristics along the parent fault and hence forecasting the pattern of impact of the tsunami especially along the closest coasts.

  15. Methane production in ruminants: Its effect on the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Midwood, A.J.; Haggarty, P.; McGaw, B.A.; Robinson, J.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) technique for measuring CO2 production (rCO2) in free-living animals requires an assessment of the elimination of both 2H and 18O from the body over a long period of time. To calculate rCO2, it is necessary to calculate water turnover (rH2O) from the 2H flux rate. In ruminant animals, the accuracy of this calculation is affected by the loss of 2H in methane. We have quantified the effect of methane production (rCH4) on the 2H flux rate, determined in four sheep given 2H2O. The methane produced was depleted in 2H relative to the urine. A relationship between the enrichment of the methane and urine was established. The ratio of urine to methane enrichment was found on average to be 0.6536, and this value was unaffected by the level of rCH4 but showed some dependence on the absolute concentration of 2H in urine. For this reason, the ratio value obtained from four sheep not given 2H2O was different, a mean of 0.6886 was measured, this ratio was unaffected by changes in the diet supplied to the animals. Computer modeling was used to illustrate the dependence of the isotopically derived value for rCO2 on not only rCH4 but also the magnitude of rCO2 itself. The effect of rCH4 on the DLW method can be predicted from the observed ratio of rCO2 to rCH4 and the value of 0.6536 obtained for the ratio of methane to urine enrichment. With the use of data from several studies at this Institute, a limited range of 10 to 20 was found for rCO2/rCH4 in animals fed at or above maintenance.

  16. Digital warning system for geologic hazards in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. J.; Stefansson, R.; Hvannberg, E. Th.; Jonsson, B. G.; Halldorsson, P.; Magnusson, H. S.; Gudmundsson, G. B.; Thorbjarnardottir, B. S.; Gunnarsdottir, S.; Sveinbjornsson, H.

    2003-04-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) monitors and maintains an automated network of 42 digital seismic stations, which provides near real-time seismicity measurements for an area encompassing terrestrial and near-shore regions of Iceland (see http://www.vedur.is/ja). Additionally, digital data are received continuously from six borehole strain meters and 17 differential GPS stations. Collectively, these geophysical data allow unique insight into tectonic processes responsible for earthquake and volcanic activity in Iceland. To enable more precise, verifiable short- and long-term forecasts of geologic hazard potential in Iceland, the IMO is currently developing an Internet-based warning system. In this presentation, we describe the conceptual and technical design of the warning system and supporting geo-database. Specifically, we (i) explain how IMO data are stored to allow fast information retrieval via the Internet; (ii) summarise the design of the user interface, data options and display formats, and the software responsible for handling data requests; and (iii) illustrate how the warning system is providing unique overview capabilities that permit advanced recognition of anomalous geologic processes. The main advantage of the warning system is the ease and speed at which multi-parameter historic and real-time geophysical data can be evaluated on-screen. Besides the ability to visualise processed field data, a resource database is accessible from the system interface. This database comprises digital information in the form of scientific publications, customised hazard summaries, pre-processed information for civil defence purposes, and annotated map and image resources. Although the warning system will be used primarily by the IMO, it is anticipated that allied research institutions, civil defence personnel, and the public will benefit from Internet access to geophysical data and related hazard information. However, to ensure clear and effective information dissemination, varying access levels will be imposed. The warning system also serves as a platform for accessing environmental data from other institutions, and as an interface for public and scientific communication of observations. The IMO digital warning system is a state-of-the-art example of synergy between geophysical data and information technology for the purpose of geologic hazard mitigation.

  17. A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform forming the upstream information flow, the DEWS project focused on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Based on these results, TRIDEC continues this task focusing on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data.

  18. Human factors field evaluation of automotive headway maintenance/collision warning devices.

    PubMed

    Dingus, T A; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N; Jahns, S K; Carney, C; Hankey, J M

    1997-06-01

    Three on-road studies were conducted to determine how headway maintenance and collision warning displays influence driver behavior. Visual perspective, visual perspective with a pointer, visual perspective combined with an auditory warning, discrete visual warning, and discrete auditory warning were assessed during both coupled headway and deceleration events. Results indicate that when drivers are provided with salient visual information regarding safe headways, they utilize the information and increase their headway when appropriate. Auditory warnings were less effective than visual warnings for increasing headways but may be helpful for improving reaction time during events that require deceleration. Drivers were somewhat insensitive to false alarm rates, at least during short-term use. Finally, and most important, driver headway maintenance increased by as much as 0.5 s when the appropriate visual display was used. However, a study to investigate the longterm effects of such displays on behavior is strongly recommended prior to mass marketing of headway maintenance/collision warning devices. PMID:9302889

  19. The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kevin S.; Hashmi, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling.

  20. Effectiveness and Duration of Effect of Open-Label Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Lynch, Lauren R; Shaw, David M; Wallace, Samantha P; O'Donnell, Katherine E; Ciranni, Michael A; Briggie, Alexis M; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-05-01

    Objectives: (a) Evaluate the efficacy and duration of effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in adult ADHD. (b) Assess the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Medication Smoothness of Effect Scale (AMSES) and Adult ADHD Medication Rebound Scale (AMRS). Method: Adults (N = 40) with ADHD were treated with LDX for up to 12 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). The psychometric properties of the AMSES and AMRS are analyzed and compared with the ADHD-RS, ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) v1.1 Symptom Checklist, and Time-Sensitive ADHD Symptom Scale (TASS). Results: ADHD-RS scores were significantly improved with LDX. The AMSES and AMRS had high internal consistency and were correlated with the ADHD-RS, ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist, and TASS. Conclusion: LDX is effective in treating adult ADHD and has a smooth drug effect throughout the day with limited symptom rebound. The AMSES and AMRS are valid and reliable measures. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23657761

  1. Label-free DNA sensors using ultrasensitive diamond field-effect transistors in solution.

    PubMed

    Song, Kwang-Soup; Zhang, Gou-Jun; Nakamura, Yusuke; Furukawa, Kei; Hiraki, Takahiro; Yang, Jung-Hoon; Funatsu, Takashi; Ohdomari, Iwao; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    Charge detection biosensors have recently become the focal point of biosensor research, especially field-effect-transistors (FETs) that combine compactness, low cost, high input, and low output impedances, to realize simple and stable in vivo diagnostic systems. However, critical evaluation of the possibility and limitations of charge detection of label-free DNA hybridization using silicon-based ion-sensitive FETs (ISFETs) has been introduced recently. The channel surface of these devices must be covered by relatively thick insulating layers ( SiO2, Si3N4, Al2O3, or Ta2O5) to protect against the invasion of ions from solution. These thick insulating layers are not suitable for charge detection of DNA and miniaturization, as the small capacitance of thick insulating layers restricts translation of the negative DNA charge from the electrolyte to the channel surface. To overcome these difficulties, thin-gate-insulator FET sensors should be developed. Here, we report diamond solution-gate FETs (SGFETs), where the DNA-immobilized channels are exposed directly to the electrolyte solution without gate insulator. These SGFETs operate stably within the large potential window of diamond (>3.0 V). Thus, the channel surface does not need to be covered by thick insulating layers, and DNA is immobilized directly through amine sites, which is a factor of 30 more sensitive than existing Si-ISFET DNA sensors. Diamond SGFETs can rapidly detect complementary, 3-mer mismatched (10 pM) and has a potential for the detection of single-base mismatched oligonucleotide DNA, without biological degradation by cyclically repeated hybridization and denature. PMID:17155108

  2. Label-free DNA sensors using ultrasensitive diamond field-effect transistors in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang-Soup; Zhang, Gou-Jun; Nakamura, Yusuke; Furukawa, Kei; Hiraki, Takahiro; Yang, Jung-Hoon; Funatsu, Takashi; Ohdomari, Iwao; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    Charge detection biosensors have recently become the focal point of biosensor research, especially field-effect-transistors (FETs) that combine compactness, low cost, high input, and low output impedances, to realize simple and stable in vivo diagnostic systems. However, critical evaluation of the possibility and limitations of charge detection of label-free DNA hybridization using silicon-based ion-sensitive FETs (ISFETs) has been introduced recently. The channel surface of these devices must be covered by relatively thick insulating layers ( SiO2 , Si3N4 , Al2O3 , or Ta2O5 ) to protect against the invasion of ions from solution. These thick insulating layers are not suitable for charge detection of DNA and miniaturization, as the small capacitance of thick insulating layers restricts translation of the negative DNA charge from the electrolyte to the channel surface. To overcome these difficulties, thin-gate-insulator FET sensors should be developed. Here, we report diamond solution-gate FETs (SGFETs), where the DNA-immobilized channels are exposed directly to the electrolyte solution without gate insulator. These SGFETs operate stably within the large potential window of diamond (>3.0V) . Thus, the channel surface does not need to be covered by thick insulating layers, and DNA is immobilized directly through amine sites, which is a factor of 30 more sensitive than existing Si-ISFET DNA sensors. Diamond SGFETs can rapidly detect complementary, 3-mer mismatched (10pM) and has a potential for the detection of single-base mismatched oligonucleotide DNA, without biological degradation by cyclically repeated hybridization and denature.

  3. Biodistribution of Fluorescently Labeled PAMAM Dendrimers in Neonatal Rabbits: Effect of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lesniak, Wojciech G.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Jyoti, Amar; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Zhang, Fan; Nance, Elizabeth; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2014-01-01

    Dendrimers are being explored in many preclinical studies as drug, gene, and imaging agent delivery systems. Understanding their detailed organ, tissue, cellular uptake, and retention can provide valuable insights into their effectiveness as delivery vehicles and the associated toxicity. This work explores a fluorescence-quantification based assay that enables simultaneous quantitative biodistribution and imaging of dendrimers with a single agent. We have labeled an ethylenediamine-core generation-4 hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer using the fluorescent photostable, near-IR cyanine dye (Cy5) and performed quantitative and qualitative biodistribution of the dendrimer-Cy5 conjugates (D-Cy5) in healthy neonatal rabbits and neonatal rabbits with cerebral palsy (CP). The biodistribution of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 dye was evaluated in newborn rabbits, based on the developed quantification methods using fluorescence spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and supported by microscopic imaging. The uptake was assessed in the brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, blood serum, and urine. Results obtained based on these three independent methods are in good agreement and indicate the fast renal clearance of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 with relatively higher organs accumulation of the D-Cy5 conjugate. Following systemic administration, the D-Cy5 mainly accumulated in kidneys and bladder at 24 h. The quantitative biodistribution is in good agreement with previous studies based on radiolabeling. These methods for dendrimers quantification are easier and more practical, provide excellent sensitivity (reaching 0.1 ng per gram of tissue), and allow for quantification of dendrimers in different organs over longer time periods without concerns for radioactive decay, while also enabling tissue and cellular imaging in the same animal. In kits with fetal-neuroinflammation induced CP, there was a significantly higher uptake of D-Cy5 in the brain, while biodistribution in other organs was similar to that of healthy kits. PMID:24116950

  4. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section, bear the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each... centimeters (3 inches) high. (c) The words “No Smoking” and “No Open Lights” may be omitted when the...

  5. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section, bear the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each... centimeters (3 inches) high. (c) The words “No Smoking” and “No Open Lights” may be omitted when the...

  6. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section, bear the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each... centimeters (3 inches) high. (c) The words “No Smoking” and “No Open Lights” may be omitted when the...

  7. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section, bear the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each... centimeters (3 inches) high. (c) The words “No Smoking” and “No Open Lights” may be omitted when the...

  8. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... If your child's eyes become misaligned, let your child's doctor know right away. However, vision problems such as a lazy eye (amblyopia) may have no warning signs, and your child may not complain of vision problems. Thus it's ...

  9. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shore and the water; and (3) Have the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No Visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each letter in the words on the sign must be— (1) Block style; (2) Black on a...

  10. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  11. A new strategy for label-free electrochemical immunoassay based on "gate-effect" of β-cyclodextrin modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huan; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Yun; Pan, Hongcheng; Xu, Guobao

    2016-07-01

    A novel label-free electrochemical immunoassay was developed for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) detection via using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) assembled layer created gates for the electron transfer of probe. To construct the sensor, a gold electrode was self-assembled with monoclonal anti-PSA antibody labeled 6-mercapto-β-cyclodextrin. Interspaces among β-CD molecules in the layer were automatically formed on gold electrode, which act as the channel of the electron transfer of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) probe. When PSA bind with anti-PSA, it can block these channels on the electrode surface due to their steric hindrance effect, resulting in the decrease in redox current of the probe. Through such a gate-controlled effect, ultra trace amount of PSA may make the currents change greatly after the immunoreaction, which enhanced the signal-to-noise ratio to achieve the amplification effect. By evaluating the logarithm of PSA concentrations, the immunosensor had a good linear response to the current changes with a detection limit of 0.3 pg/mL (S/N = 3) when PSA concentration ranged from 1.0 pg/mL to 1.0 ng/mL. The label-free immunosensor exhibited satisfactory performances in sensitivity, repeatability as well as specificity. PMID:27216392

  12. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  13. Duty-to-Warn: Implications for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richard L.; Rogers, Larry; Fier, Sara M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical dilemmas concerning "duty-to-warn" laws (the duty of school personnel to warn an intended known victim of impending harm, thus breaking bonds of confidentiality). Presents selected relevant court cases that have influenced duty-to-warn applications, and discusses AIDS and duty-to-warn. Offers working guidelines for school…

  14. Laser labeling and its effect on the storage quality of citrus fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Etching the required information on the skins of fruits and vegetables is an alternative way to label produce. A low energy CO2 laser beam etches the outermost layer of the epidermis revealing the contrasting underneath layer while forming alphanumerical characters. These etched areas represent brea...

  15. Labeling Process and Its Effect on Teachers' Interactions with Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Elfriede Ch.

    Sixty-eight kindergarten teachers (from a town in Austria) who had previously labeled selected students in their classes as either aggressive or socially competent completed a questionnaire and were observed in their classroom interactions. The questionnaire yielded biographical and sociographical data of the teachers, assessed teacher attitudes,…

  16. The Effects of Sex-Labelling on Adult-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Suzy; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The influence of sex-labelling on adult-infant interactions is explored in this study. It is hypothesized that, when introduced to a single infant identified as either male or female, adults will (1) offer more masculine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to be male; (2) offer more feminine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to…

  17. The Effects of Sex-Typed Labeling on Preschool Children's Information-Seeking and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbard, Marilyn R.; Endsley, Richard C.

    The main purpose of this study was to address this question: When preschool children are exposed to novel objects, will their tactual and verbal information-seeking about these objects and the amount of information they remember about these same objects be influenced by whether an adult labels them as things "for girls" or "for boys"? Thirty-six…

  18. Effects of laser labeling on the quality of citrus fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Etching the required information on fruit and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser etches the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for pathogen entry. Studies were conducted to measur...

  19. Stratum corneum protein dynamics as evaluated by a spin-label maleimide derivative: effect of urea.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, A; dos Santos, W P; Leonor, S J; dos Santos, J G; Tabak, M

    2001-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) protein dynamics in the sulfhydryl group regions was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of a covalently attached maleimide derivative spin label. A two-state model for the nitroxide described the coexistence of two spectral components in the EPR spectra. The so-called strongly immobilized component arises from a spin-label fraction with the nitroxide moiety hydrogen-bonded to protein (rigid structure) and the weakly immobilized component is provided by the spin labels with higher mobility (approximately 10 times greater) exposed to the aqueous environment. The relative populations between these two states are in thermodynamic equilibrium. The apparent energetic gain for the nitroxide to form a hydrogen bond with the backbone rather than to be dissolved in the local environment was approximately 10 kcal/mol in the temperature range of 2-30 degrees C and approximately 6 kcal/mol in the range of 30-70 degrees C. Urea treatment caused a drastic increase in the segmental motion of the polypeptide chains that was completely reversible by its removal. Our analyses also indicated that the urea induced unfolding of the SC proteins opening the thiol group cavities. This work can also be useful to improve the spectral analysis of site-directed spin-labeling, especially for a more quantitative description of the nitroxide side chain mobility. PMID:11721017

  20. Speaking the Same Language: The Cooperative Effects of Labeling in the Prisoner's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Chen-Bo; Loewenstein, Jeffrey; Murnighan, J. Keith

    2007-01-01

    The long history of experimental research on the prisoner's dilemma (PD) has primarily used a methodology that eliminates cues to participants. Researchers, however, have interpreted participants' choices as cooperative or competitive. The authors' research shows that giving participants researchers' interpretive labels of the game, the choices,