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1

Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective: To outline social psychological principles that could influence the psychosocial and behavioural effects of tobacco warning labels, and to inform the development of more effective tobacco warning labels. Data sources: PsycInfo and Medline literature searches and expert guided selection of principles and theories in social psychology and of tobacco warning labels, including articles, books, and reports. Conclusions: Tobacco warning labels represent a potentially effective method of influencing attitudes and behaviours. This review describes social psychological principles that could be used to guide the creation of more effective warning labels. The potential value of incorporating warning labels into a broader public health education campaign is discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.

Strahan, E; White, K; Fong, G; Fabrigar, L; Zanna, M; Cameron, R

2002-01-01

2

The role of equipment warning labels in the industrial workplace.  

PubMed

Among the many ways in which workers can get safety information, the role of equipment warning labels has not been well articulated. Presumably, warning labels help prevent accidents, but questions remain about how well those labels can be expected to work. This essay describes how contextual analysis can assist our understanding of warning label effectiveness. A contextual approach was conceptualized in terms of underlying communication variables and an exploratory study was conducted in which workers were asked if they noticed and remembered warning labels on an industrial table saw that they used over a 3-month period. Results showed that equipment warning labels had a limited impact on workers. The contextual approach explained the relative effectiveness of multiple sources of information. Implications for safety training and accident liability are discussed. PMID:21375954

McGrath, John M

2011-01-01

3

48 CFR 252.223-7001 - Hazard warning labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following clause: Hazard Warning Labels...Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety...Hazardous Material Identification and Material...instead of the Hazard Communication...a copy of the hazard warning label...Hazardous Material Identification and Material...

2013-10-01

4

Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (?2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention.

Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

2012-01-01

5

Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception.  

PubMed

Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants' smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels. PMID:22419415

Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Ritter, Simone M

2013-02-01

6

Changes in Warnings and Contraindications in Prescription Drug Labeling Due to Liver Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issuing labeling changes is a common practice to warn about important side effects after drug approval. Among the many safety concerns, liver toxicity is frequently a major cause for postapproval labeling changes. To examine labeling changes associated with liver toxicity, safety-related labeling changes due to liver toxicity were reviewed. They were categorized into labeling changes that clarified\\/emphasized existing safety information

Yeong-Liang Lin

2008-01-01

7

21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions §...

2013-04-01

8

Cigarette Warning Label Policy Alternatives and Smoking-Related Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Background Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. Purpose To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. Methods From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Results Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, p<0.001) and effective (5.4 vs 6.8, p<0.001), and as more credible, but only among participants with low health literacy (7.6 vs 8.2, p<0.001). Within the experimental condition, pictorial health warning labels with graphic imagery had significantly higher ratings of credibility, personal relevance, and effectiveness than imagery of human suffering and symbolic imagery. Significant interactions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Conclusions Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach.

Thrasher, James F.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Gray, Kevin M.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B.; Cummings, K. Michael

2012-01-01

9

Graphic Cigarette-Label Warnings Work, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... study published online recently in the journal Health Psychology . Among smokers who paid attention to warning labels, ... about the health risks of smoking. SOURCE: Health Psychology , news release, July 10, 2014 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

10

40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning...large size or bright color, as follows: CAUTION: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER...

2013-07-01

11

Impact of the graphic Canadian warning labels on adult smoking behaviour  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the impact of graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels on current adult smokers. Design: A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted with 616 adult smokers in south western Ontario, Canada in October/November 2001, with three month follow up. Main outcome measures: Smoking behaviour (quitting, quit attempts, and reduced smoking), intentions to quit, and salience of the warning labels. Results: Virtually all smokers (91%) reported having read the warning labels and smokers demonstrated a thorough knowledge of their content. A strong positive relation was observed between a measure of cognitive processing—the extent to which smokers reported reading, thinking about, and discussing the new labels—and smokers' intentions to quit (odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 1.16; p < 0.001). Most important, cognitive processing predicted cessation behaviour at follow up. Smokers who had read, thought about, and discussed the new labels at baseline were more likely to have quit, made a quit attempt, or reduced their smoking three months later, after adjusting for intentions to quit and smoking status at baseline (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Graphic cigarette warning labels serve as an effective population based smoking cessation intervention. The findings add to the growing literature on health warnings and provide strong support for the effectiveness of Canada's tobacco labelling policy.

Hammond, D; Fong, G; McDonald, P; Cameron, R; Brown, K

2003-01-01

12

Do Alcohol Warning Labels Influence Men's and Women's Attempts to Deter Others from Driving When Intoxicated?  

PubMed Central

Research on the federally mandated alcohol warning label has found mixed results, but some findings are consistent with a modest influence on precautionary behaviors to reduce drinkers’ self-reported drunk driving. We hypothesized that warnings would also influence the likelihood of intervening to deter other’s driving after drinking. Using data from 1376 adult drinkers in a US national survey, a conceptual model reflecting effects of exposure to the label’s drunk driving message on taking actions to avert another's driving under the influence was tested in a structural equation modeling framework. For males and females, in structural models with drinking and handling of alcoholic beverages potentially affecting both message recall and intervening, the predicted relationships were found between message recall and actions to deter another’s drinking driving. This finding suggests that an important preventive effect of the alcohol warning label may be to legitimate collateral’s attempts to avert another’s drunk driving.

Tam, Tammy W.; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2009-01-01

13

Perceptions of prescription warning labels within an underserved population  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand how underserved populations attend to prescription warning label (PWL) instructions, examine the importance of PWL instructions to participants and describe the challenges associated with interpreting the information on PWLs. Methods Adults from an underserved population (racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with low income, older adults) who had a history of prescription medication use and were able to understand English took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants were presented with eight different prescription bottles with an attached PWL. Participants were asked, “If this prescription was yours, what information would you need to know about the medicine?” The number of participants who attended to the warning labels was noted. Other questions assessed the importance of PWLs, the challenges with understanding PWLs, and ways a pharmacist could help participant understanding of the PWL. Results There were 103 participants. The mean age was 50.25 years (SD=18.05). Majority attended to the PWL. Participants not currently taking medications and who had limited health literacy were likely to overlook the warning labels. Majority rated the warning instructions to be extremely important (n=86, 83.5 %), wanted the pharmacist to help them understand PWLs by counseling them on the information on the label (n=63, 61.2%), and thought the graphics made the label information easy to understand. Conclusions PWLs are an important method of communicating medication information, as long as they are easily comprehensible to patients. In addition to placing PWLs on prescription bottles, health care providers need to counsel underserved populations on medication warnings, especially individuals with limited health literacy who are not currently using a prescription medication.

Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Meyer, Brittney A.; Locke, Michelle R.; Wettergreen, Sara

14

History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.  

PubMed

There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products. PMID:24518387

Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

2014-04-01

15

Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label.  

PubMed

The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli. PMID:23688859

Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J

2013-09-01

16

Appalachian residents' perspectives on new U.S. cigarette warning labels.  

PubMed

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration revealed new pictorial warning labels in June 2011 for cigarette packages, yet little is known about how these labels are perceived by U.S. residents. We examined the reactions to and attitudes about the new labels among residents of Appalachian Ohio, a region with a high smoking prevalence. We conducted focus groups with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants included healthcare providers (n = 30), community leaders (n = 26), parents (n = 28), and young adult men ages 18-26 (n = 18). Most participants supported the addition of the new labels to U.S. cigarette packages, though many were unaware of the labels prior to the focus groups. Participants did not think the labels would be effective in promoting smoking cessation among smokers in their communities, but they were more positive about the potential of the labels to reduce smoking initiation. Participants reported positive feedback about the more graphic labels, particularly those showing a man with a tracheal stoma or a person with severe oral disease. The labels that include a cartoon image of an ill infant and a man who quit smoking received the most negative feedback. Participants generally supported adding pictorial warning labels to U.S. cigarette packages, but only a few of labels received mostly positive feedback. Results offer early insight into how the new labels may be received if they are put into practice. PMID:22527659

Reiter, Paul L; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Klein, Elizabeth G; Paskett, Electra D; Katz, Mira L

2012-12-01

17

Appalachian Residents' Perspectives on New U.S. Cigarette Warning Labels  

PubMed Central

Introduction The U.S. Food and Drug Administration revealed new pictorial warning labels in June 2011 for cigarette packages, yet little is known about how these labels are perceived by U.S. residents. We examined the reactions to and attitudes about the new labels among residents of Appalachian Ohio, a region with a high smoking prevalence. Methods We conducted focus groups with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants included healthcare providers (n=30), community leaders (n=26), parents (n=28), and young adult men ages 18–26 (n=18). Results Most participants supported the addition of the new labels to U.S. cigarette packages, though many were unaware of the labels prior to the focus groups. Participants did not think the labels would be effective in promoting smoking cessation among smokers in their communities, but they were more positive about the potential of the labels to reduce smoking initiation. Smokers reported positive feedback about the more graphic labels, particularly those showing a man with a tracheal stoma or a person with severe oral disease. The labels that include a cartoon image of an ill infant and a man who quit smoking received the most negative feedback. Conclusions Participants generally supported adding pictorial warning labels to U.S. cigarette packages, but only a few of labels received mostly positive feedback. Results offer early insight into how the new labels may be received if they are put into practice.

Reiter, Paul L.; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Ellen Wewers, Mary; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Paskett, Electra D.; Katz, Mira L.

2012-01-01

18

Low literacy impairs comprehension of prescription drug warning labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients’ literacy and their ability to understand\\u000a medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret\\u000a commonly used prescription medication warning labels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment.

Terry C. Davis; Michael S. Wolf; Pat F. Bass III; Mark Middlebrooks; Estela Kennen; David W. Baker; Charles L. Bennett; Ramon Durazo-Arvizu; Anna Bocchini; Stephanie Savory; Ruth M. Parker

2006-01-01

19

Positive impact of Australian 'blindness' tobacco warning labels: findings from the ITC four country survey  

PubMed Central

Background Smokers with greater knowledge of the health effects of smoking are more likely to quit and remain abstinent. Australia has communicated the causal association of smoking and blindness since the late 1990s. In March 2007, Australia became the first country to include a pictorial warning label on cigarette packages with the message that smoking causes blindness. The current study tested the hypothesis that the introduction of this warning label increased smokers’ knowledge of this important health effect. Methods Six waves of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey were conducted, as a telephone survey of 17,472 adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and the United States, with three waves before and three waves after the blindness health warning was introduced in Australia. The survey measured adult smokers’ knowledge that smoking causes blindness. Results Australian smokers were significantly more likely to report that smoking causes blindness, compared to Canadian, UK and US smokers, where there were neither health campaigns nor health warnings labels about blindness. After the introduction of the blindness warning, Australian smokers were more likely than before the blindness warning to report that they know that smoking causes blindness (62 versus 49 per cent; OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.76, p = 0.04). In Australia, smokers aged over 55 years were less likely than those aged 18 to 24 to report that smoking causes blindness (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.62, p < 0.001). Conclusion While more smokers report that smoking causes blindness in Australia compared to other countries, which have not had national social marketing campaigns, further gains in knowledge were found after pictorial warning labels were introduced in Australia. Findings suggest there is still a need to educate the public about the causal association of smoking and blindness. More education may be needed to redress the knowledge gap in older Australian smokers as the incidence of age-related macular degeneration increases with age.

Kennedy, Ryan David; Spafford, Marlee M; Behm, Ilan; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron

2013-01-01

20

The case for stringent alcohol warning labels: lessons from the tobacco control experience.  

PubMed

Like cigarettes, alcohol is a social drug associated with considerable health and social costs. Relative to cigarettes, regulators worldwide have imposted very modest restrictions in its advertisements. Studies on alcohol health warnings show that they do not have a strong effect on influencing recall, perceptions, and behaviors. Poorly visible and ambiguous health warnings plus the absence of pictorial warnings muddy previous studies. This study takes a different approach, extracting lessons from cigarette health warnings literature for application to the alcohol health warnings' research and practice. I recommend the development of direct health warnings; increase in visibility of the warnings; incorporation of pictorial health warnings; and consideration of plain packaging for alcohol products. A toolkit of these best practices could advance the case for stringent alcohol health warnings policies. PMID:24257632

Al-hamdani, Mohammed

2014-02-01

21

Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: An Investigation on Opinions of Male Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background: Health warning labels on cigarette packages are among the most straightforward and important tools to communicate with smokers and various studies have illustrated their efficacy. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the opinions of male smokers in Mashhad city about the efficacy of health warning labels printed on cigarette packages on the smoking status of smokers. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2013 using a questionnaire. The research population included the male smokers of Mashhad. The participants were selected from the customers referring to the newsstands for cigarettes. The obtained data were analyzed employing SPSS software Version 16, and the statistical tests including Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman, and correlation coefficient of Pearson, Chi Square, Mann-Whitney, and Bonferroni correction were used in this regard. Results: In this research, there were 500 participants with the average age of 25 years. The initiation age of smoking was eight years while the maximum age was reported as 45 years. Results of this research about the effect of these labels on decreasing cigarette consumption rate showed that almost half of the participants believed that these labels were ineffective for them (52.2%) and other smokers (53.8%).Furthermore, significant relationship was found between the age and opinion of the smokers about the influence of these labels on reducing their cigarette consumption (P < 0.001). Conclusions: To promote the effect of printed images on cigarette packages, it is recommended to consider the suitability of labels in the targeted culture. In addition, to be more effective consultation sites to quit smoking should be introduced under the images.

Shojaezadeh, Davoud; Peyman, Nooshin; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohaddes Hakkak, Abbas; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mohaddes Hakkak, Hamid Reza; Shariati, Keivan; Taghipour, Ali

2014-01-01

22

Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

2011-01-01

23

FDA Orders New Warning Labels for Tanning Beds  

MedlinePLUS

... require manufacturers to warn in their advertisements and marketing materials that these and other tanning devices put ... have to apply for FDA approval prior to marketing indoor tanning devices, which until now were exempt ...

24

Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories  

PubMed Central

Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds. Objective To evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Methods All waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Bahrain, Canada, Germany and South Africa. Findings Of the total number of waterpipe tobacco products collected from Lebanon, the majority had textual health warning labels covering on average only 3.5% of total surface area of the package. Misleading descriptors were commonplace on waterpipe tobacco packages and related accessories. Conclusions There are no WHO FCTC compliant waterpipe-specific health warning labels on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Introducing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco products and accessories will probably have worldwide public health benefits.

Khalil, Joanna

2010-01-01

25

Impact of Tobacco-Related Health Warning Labels across Socioeconomic, Race and Ethnic Groups: Results from a Randomized Web-Based Experiment  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. Methods/Findings Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n?=?3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b?=?0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b?=?0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR?=?1.41, 95% CI?=?1.22?1.62), and intention to quit (OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.10?1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p?=?0.057). Conclusions Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities across groups. Policies that establish strong pictorial warning labels on tobacco packaging may be instrumental in reducing the toll of the tobacco epidemic, particularly within vulnerable communities.

Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Thrasher, James F.; Nagler, Rebekah H.; Feirman, Shari P.; Muenz, Larry R.; He, David Y.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

26

Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases.

Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillan, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Perez-Hernandez, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrie, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Pineda, Justino

2012-01-01

27

Children's misunderstandings of hazard warning signs in the new globally harmonized system for classification and labeling.  

PubMed

Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35?000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n?=?49) and a second school provided a control group (n?=?23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p?=?0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention. PMID:23964825

Latham, Garry; Long, Tony; Devitt, Patric

2013-12-01

28

Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWaterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds.ObjectiveTo evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories.MethodsAll waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan,

Rima Nakkash; Joanna Khalil

2010-01-01

29

The Impact of Cigarette Pack Design, Descriptors, and Warning Labels on Risk Perception in the U.S  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., limited evidence exists on the impact of colors and brand imagery used in cigarette pack design. Purpose This study examined the impact of pack design, product descriptors, and health warnings on risk perception and brand appeal. Methods A cross-sectional mall-intercept study was conducted with 197 adult smokers and 200 nonsmokers in Buffalo, NY from June to July 2009 (data analysis from July 2009 to December 2010). Participants were shown 12 sets of packs randomly; each set varied by a particular design feature (color, descriptor) or warning label style (text vs graphic, size, attribution, message framing). Packs were rated on criteria including risk perceptions, quit motivation, and purchase interest. Results Participants selected larger, pictorial, and loss-framed warning labels as more likely to attract attention, encourage thoughts about health risks, motivate quitting, and most effective. Participants were more likely to select packs with lighter color shading and descriptors such as light, silver, and smooth as delivering less tar, smoother taste, and lower health risk, compared to darker-shaded or full flavor packs. Additionally, participants were more likely to select the branded compared to plain white pack when asked which delivered the most tar, smoothest taste, was more attractive, appealed to youth aged <18 years, and contained cigarettes of better quality. Conclusions The findings support larger, graphic health warnings that convey loss-framed messages as most effective in communicating health risks to U.S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features.

Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Smith, Philip; Cummings, K. Michael

2011-01-01

30

21 CFR 510.410 - Corticosteroids for oral, injectable, and ophthalmic use in animals; warnings and labeling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for oral, injectable, and ophthalmic use in animals; warnings and labeling requirements. 510...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Requirements for Specific New...

2013-04-01

31

Effects of Single Versus Multiple Warnings on Driver Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore how a single master alarm system affects drivers' responses when compared with multiple, distinct warnings. Background: Advanced driver warning systems are intended to improve safety, yet inappropriate integration may increase the complexity of driving, especially in high workload situations. This study investigated the effects of auditory alarm scheme, reliability, and collision event type on driver performance. Method:

M. L. Cummings; Ryan M. Kilgore; Enlie Wang; Louis Tijerina; Dev S. Kochhar

2007-01-01

32

Effects of Talker Sex and Voice Style of Verbal Cockpit Warnings on Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The effects of talker sex and voice style of verbal cockpit warnings on performance were investigated to help make warning messages distinct from speech on the flight deck. Background: Auditory warnings are used in aircraft to alert the crew to hazards and their associated levels of danger. Failing to comply with a warning has led to aviation incidents and

G. Robert Arrabito

2009-01-01

33

Effects of road surface appearance and low friction warning systems on driver behaviour and confidence in the warning system.  

PubMed

Warning systems for slippery road conditions are a potential newcomer among driver support systems. A total of 75 participants drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator on roads with both visible and invisible ice, to investigate to which extent drivers rely on a low friction warning system. Three experimental groups with different versions of a low friction warning system and a control group without warning system were compared. All drivers ranked the systems according to trust. A system displaying recommended speed received the best ratings. Driving speed was analysed for three particular segments of the route. Generally, lowest speeds were achieved with the recommended speed system. The participants drove more slowly on a slippery segment that looked icy than on the segments that looked dry when they did not receive a low friction warning. When they received a warning for low friction they also lowered their speed for the segment looking like asphalt. The results provide guidelines for how to present low friction warnings to drivers. The design has substantial effects on the resulting behaviour and therefore it can have a high impact on traffic safety. So far, not much research on low friction warning systems has been reported. PMID:18937091

Kircher, Katja; Thorslund, Birgitta

2009-02-01

34

Is the Effectiveness of Tobacco Image-Based Warning Labels Likely to Vary by Socio-Demographic Variable? Findings from an Online Survey of 19,000 Members of the UK Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Smoking continues to be a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. Countries have increasingly adopted the use of images as warnings on cigarette packs. We aimed to investigate the likely differential impact of varied images and messages on sub-groups of the United Kingdom (UK) smoking population. Methods: Forty two images…

Styles, Maggie; Williams, Brian; Humphris, Gerry

2013-01-01

35

Alarm effectiveness in driver-centred collision-warning systems.  

PubMed

The potential use of systems that seek to communicate a warning of impending collision directly to the driver is examined. Technological advances in collision-warning systems include reliable, low-cost radars, sensors with low noise levels, and the development of accurate detection algorithms for particular crash types, e.g. rear-end collisions. However, fundamental practical constraints make perfect sensor detection difficult to achieve. Imperfect detection conflates the false alarm rate and experience with other technologies confirms driver aversion to false warnings. Although sensitive alarm systems with high detection rates and low false alarm rates have been developed, the posterior probability of a collision given an alarm can be quite low because of the low base rate of collision events. As a result, only a small proportion of alarms will represent true collision scenarios. These and other factors can conspire to reduce alarm effectiveness in collision-warning systems. The problem is illustrated analytically and potential solutions are advanced. PMID:9118938

Parasuraman, R; Hancock, P A; Olofinboba, O

1997-03-01

36

Effects of a video warning sign and social modeling on behavioral compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different kinds of video presentations as methods to induce behavioral compliance to safety directives. In Experiment 1, the effects of: 1.(i) a video sign warning alone,2.(ii) a video sign warning plus a role model,3.(iii) a video sign warning plus a role model with an added voice warning were examined with respect

Bernadette M. Racicot; Michael S. Wogalter

1995-01-01

37

Estimating the Impact of Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and the Potential Added Impact of Plain Packaging: Evidence From Experimental Auctions Among Adult Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate differences in demand for cigarette packages with different packaging and health warning label formats. Methods: Adult smokers (n=404) in four states participated in experimental auctions. Participants bid on two of four experimental conditions, each involving a different health warning label format but with the same warning message: 1. text on 50% of pack side; 2. text on

James F. Thrasher; Matthew C. Rousu; David Hammond; Ashley Navarro; Jay R. Corrigan

2011-01-01

38

Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults.

Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

2014-01-01

39

When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.  

PubMed

In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

2014-02-01

40

Legal versus technical evidence of warning signal effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast gulf separates technically from legally compelling proof. Attorneys (if not juries) crave deterministic certainty, simplicity, and self-assurance in expression of technical opinions, while scientists are more accustomed to discussing bandwidth-adjusted signal to noise ratios, working hypotheses, confidence intervals, and full disclosure of the limitations of data collection and theoretical interpretation. Given the many constraints imposed by the adversarial nature of civil litigation, presenting a jury with technically meaningful evidence about the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of acoustic warnings can be a formidable challenge. Favorable factual information and genuine expertise in interpreting it are helpful, but there are no guarantees that a jury can be persuaded that a technical opinion is correct.

Fidell, Sanford

2003-10-01

41

Effect of the Written and Combined Warnings on the Cigarette Pockets on University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the written and combined (written and pictures) warning statements on the cigarette pockets on university students. The sample of the study includes a total of 231 undergraduate students. The participants were divided into two groups: the first group was presented only written warnings,…

Gercek, Cem; Dogan, Nuri

2012-01-01

42

Art and the Craft of Avoidance: Toxic Art Supplies Lack Warnings Despite Federal Labeling Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite federal law requiring that art and craft materials be labeled, many products continue to be sold without adequate identification of their contents. This report summarizes the findings of the U.S. Public Interest Research Group (PIRG) which conducted an investigation in June and July 1991 to determine how art and craft manufacturers comply…

Sikes, Lucinda

43

Off-Label Prescribing, Polypharmacy, and Black-Box Warnings: A Primer for School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychotropic medications are increasingly used to treat children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Between the years 1994 and 2001, there was a 191.7% increase in number of office visits resulting in a psychotropic medication prescription among children and adolescents. Many drugs are prescribed to children "off-label", whereby they…

Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

44

Perceptions of young Jordanian adults to proposed anti-tobacco pictorial warning labels  

PubMed Central

Background In commitment to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), four new pictorial warnings are now being proposed for display on cigarette packages sold in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gauge the immediate perceptions of young Jordanian adults towards these new pictorials and compare these perceptions to those of the pictorial currently being used in the country. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of youth aged 17-26. The interviewer-administered survey gauged participants' perceptions of salience, fear elicitation, and gained information as well as participants' motivation to remain non-smokers or quit smoking after viewing each of the four proposed new pictorials as well as the current pictorial used in Jordan. Perceptions regarding each new pictorial were compared to the current pictorial. Results A total of 450 surveys were included in the analysis. The sample (mean age 20.9) was 51.6% female and 31.3% cigarette (regular or occasional) smokers. In smokers, only one proposed pictorial had significantly more smokers perceiving it as salient or adding to information when compared to the current pictorial. More smokers reported fear when observing the proposed pictorials compared with current pictorial, but overall proportions reporting fear were generally less than 50%. Furthermore, all new pictorials motivated significantly more smokers to consider quitting compared with the current pictorial; however, the overall proportion of smokers reporting motivation was < 25%. Among nonsmokers, significantly more respondents perceived the new pictorials as salient and fear-eliciting compared to the old pictorial, but there were no major differences in information added. Motivation to remain non-smokers was comparable between the old and new pictorials. Conclusion Given the variability of response across both smokers and nonsmokers, and across the three elements of perception (salience, added information, fear) for each pictorial, further testing of the pictorials in a more diverse sample of Jordanian young adults prior to launch is recommended.

2011-01-01

45

Non-Smoking Male Adolescents' Reactions to Cigarette Warnings  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. Methods A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11–17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2×2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer) using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. Results The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were “very much” discouraged, p<.001). Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. Conclusions Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels.

Pepper, Jessica K.; Cameron, Linda D.; Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T.

2013-01-01

46

Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.

Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

1980-01-01

47

Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs  

PubMed Central

Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n?=?338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n?=?63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

2013-01-01

48

The effect of plain packages on the perception of cigarette health warnings.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted with 568 adolescent children (average age 13) to investigate the possible effects upon perceptions of health warnings when cigarettes are presented in plain packaging. A measure of unaided recall was used to reflect participants' attention to the assortment of cues presented on cigarette packs. The presentation of health warnings in the context of plain packs achieved a significantly greater recall rate as opposed to brand packs. When less brand image cues were presented, respondents were able to perceive and recall with more accuracy a greater proportion of 'non-image' information. PMID:1529094

Beede, P; Lawson, R

1992-07-01

49

EFFICIENCY AND SAFETY EVALUATION OF DETECTABLE WARNING SURFACES IN WINTER CONDITIONS: EFFECTS OF COLOR AND MATERIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project is to assess the efficiency and safety of warning tiles for persons who are blind in winter conditions, as well as to determine the effect colors and materials have on tile detection by foot. One of the objectives is to observe if the snow on a darker tile melts faster and if it contributes to

Julie Landry; Agathe Ratelle; Olga Overbury

2010-01-01

50

Effect of government and commercial warnings on reducing prescription misuse: the case of propoxyphene.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed trends in prescribing and overdose deaths related to propoxyphene (e.g., Darvon) before and after a 1978-80 informational campaign carried out by the US Food and Drug Administration and the drug's manufacturer through mailed warnings, face-to-face education of prescribers, press releases, and labeling changes. The goals included a reduction in propoxyphene use with alcohol or other CNS depressants, reduced prescribing of refills, and cessation of prescribing for patients at risk of abuse and misuse (suicide). We conducted time-series analyses of nationwide propoxyphene use data 1974-83 and analyzed data on drug overdose death rates covering a combined population of about 83 million. Segmented regression methods were used to determine if the informational program was associated with changes in trends of prescribing or overdose deaths. Comparison drug series were analyzed to control for other secular trends in prescribing. Nationwide propoxyphene use during the warnings continued a pre-existing decline of about 8 per cent per year, but this decline halted after the warnings. The no-refill recommendation had no impact on refill rates. The risk of overdose death per propoxyphene prescription filled has remained about constant since 1979. Sharper declines in misuse of such drugs will require stronger, more sustained regulatory or educational measures.

Soumerai, S B; Avorn, J; Gortmaker, S; Hawley, S

1987-01-01

51

Effectiveness of pictorial warnings on tobacco packs: Hospital-based study findings from Vikarabad  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, the Indian government introduced pictorial warnings that occupy an important position among different tobacco control initiatives. A study was done to evaluate the opinion of tobacco consumers on the implementation of pictorial warnings on tobacco packs and to compare the effectiveness of these warnings among individuals of varying socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based study carried out among the tobacco-using patients attending the Outpatient Department of Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad, Andhra Pradesh. The number of participants in the survey was 111. Questionnaire method was used for collecting the data. Results: Among the 111 participants, maximum number of study participants using any form of tobacco products were in the age group of 15–24 years, and higher consumption was seen among the lower socioeconomic strata. 88.3% of the participants strongly agreed on strengthening the warnings while 73.2% of them felt that pictures on tobacco packs should occupy 100% of the display area to make them more effective. Conclusion: These results suggest that policy makers should not be reluctant to introduce stronger and vivid pictures.

Rekha, B.; Anjum, S.

2012-01-01

52

Scientists to Evaluate Social Effectiveness of Tsunami Warning Methods  

NSF Publications Database

... News For the News Media Special Reports Research Overviews Priority Areas Speeches & Lectures ... identify the most effective methods to alert the public. "This research is critically important ...

53

Intended and unintended effects of explicit warnings on eyewitness suggestibility: evidence from source identification tests.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that source identification (ID) tests reduce, and in some cases eliminate, eyewitness suggestibility errors. The present study showed that the suggestibility errors participants committed on a source ID test were further reduced when they were given the explicit postwarning that the experimenter was trying to trick them. These postwarnings reduced suggestibility to the same extent as prewarnings, and they did so for both once and repeatedly suggested items. In addition, the benefits of the pre- and postwarnings persisted when participants were retested 1 week later, but only if the suggestions had been repeated. For once-suggested items, the warning had the unintended effect of improving old/new recognition of the suggested information at retest, an effect that offset the improvements in source discrimination accuracy conferred by the warning. The advantages of using source ID tests for investigating group differences in eyewitness suggestibility are discussed. PMID:11913748

Chambers, K L; Zaragoza, M S

2001-12-01

54

Solar Max: Storm Warning - Effects on the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a promotional folder for Sun-Earth Days 2013, containing images and illustrations of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System. Also included is information about the period known as solar maximum, as well as links to Sun-Earth Day resources and the Space Weather Action Center.

55

Memory Saves Lives: Inter-generational Warnings Effectiveness - 13556  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami was a world-class natural disaster. It has been described as the most powerful earthquake ever in Japan, and as one of the most powerful earthquakes ever noted in the world. The toll in terms of human lives lost and property destruction was unimaginable. Even the word 'horrible' is inadequate to describe the suffering and misery that resulted. Nations with nuclear power programs are engaged in, or at least planning to become engaged in, arranging to eventually dispose of their higher-level radioactive waste materials in deep geologic repositories. Geologic repositories are passive safety systems, and if undisturbed isolate these dangerous materials form the biosphere for extremely long times. The key words, however, are 'if undisturbed'. To assure that future generations do not inadvertently drill into repositories, national programs, and the international community (the Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) preservation project of the Nuclear Energy Agency, for example), are proposing to place markers and/or monuments on closed repository sites that say 'do not drill here, and this is why' in various sophisticated ways. Such markers or monuments are attempts at providing passive institutional controls. The effectiveness of messages from past generations to a present generation may give an indication of how effective such passive institutional controls may be. (authors)

Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Shafer, David [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States); Klein, Thomas [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

2013-07-01

56

Tsunami Warning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning resource is a news report by the Science reports on Tsunami warning.The devastating tsunamis that struck South Asia highlighted the need for an early tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean like the one in place in the Pacific Ocean. Correspondent Betty Ann Bowser of the NewsHour's Science Unit reports on the science of tsunami warnings.This report includes a lesson plan and additional coverage

The Science Reports (;)

2005-01-11

57

Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

Beattie, Geoffrey

2012-04-01

58

Power distance and collectivist/individualist strategies in alcohol warnings: effects by gender and ethnicity.  

PubMed

This research examined the responses of 73 Mexican American and Anglo young adults to four televised drinking-and-driving warnings. Warnings were manipulated into collectivist (emphasizing risks to family and friends) and individualist (emphasizing risks to self) appeals, and into high and low power distance appeals by attributing or not attributing warnings to the Surgeon General. Females rated the collectivist warnings, and males the individualist warnings, more believable. Respondents on average responded to the collectivist warnings most positively, regardless of gender or ethnicity. Anglos rated warnings without the Surgeon General as the source more believable than warnings with the Surgeon General as the source; the opposite was true for Latinos. Other interactions were also found. PMID:10790786

Perea, A; Slater, M D

1999-01-01

59

Warning Signs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents various signs that may indicate emotional problems in children or teens, noting that if children exhibit any of the warning signs, it is important to talk to a doctor, counselor, or mental-health professional. The warning signs are categorized as things that trouble the child, things that limit the child, behavior problems, and sudden…

Our Children, 1999

1999-01-01

60

The Effect of Cigarette Plain Packaging on Individuals' Health Warning Recall  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To examine the extent to which increasingly plainer packaging might increase recall of health warnings. Design: A 4 (pack ID levels) x 2 (smoking status: smokers and non-smokers) between-subjects design in which participants were randomly assigned to view one package. Sample: Two hundred and twenty students from three universities in Nova Scotia, Canada, participated in the survey. Measures: Participants were asked to recall the health warning on their package. Analysis: A sequential binary logistic regression test to examine whether plain packaging and/or smoking status affects health warning recall. Results: The odds of recalling the correct health warnings were significantly higher for the two plainest packages relative to the original package. The odds of recalling the correct health warning were also higher for non-smokers relative to smokers. Conclusions: The results provide compelling evidence that health warnings on plain packages can be more easily recalled.

Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

2013-01-01

61

Abandoning a label doesn't make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects.  

PubMed

Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed. PMID:23105148

Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

2013-01-01

62

Abandoning a label doesn't make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects  

PubMed Central

Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed.

Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

2012-01-01

63

Selection of a voice for a speech signal for personalized warnings: the effect of speaker's gender and voice pitch.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in multimodal technology-based warnings, namely those conveying speech-warning statements. This type of warning may be tailored to the situation as well as to the target user's characteristics. However, more information is needed on how to design these warnings in a way that ensures intelligibility, promotes compliance and reduces the potential for annoyance. In this context, this paper reports an exploratory study whose main purpose was to assist the selection of a synthesized voice for a subsequent compliance study with personalized (i.e., using the person's name) technology-based warnings using Virtual Reality. Participants were requested to listen to speech signals, gathered from a speech synthesizer and post-processed in order to change the pitch perception, and then these were evaluated by fulfilling the MOS-X questionnaire. After that, the participants ranked the voices according to their preference. The effects of the speaker's gender and voice pitch, on both ratings and ranking were assessed. The preference of the male and female listeners for a talker's voice gender was also investigated. The results show that participants mostly prefer as first choice the high-pitched female voice, which also gathered the highest overall score in the MOS-X questionnaire. No significant influence of the participants' gender was found on the assessed measures. PMID:22317268

Machado, Sheron; Duarte, Emília; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Lara; Rebelo, Francisco

2012-01-01

64

The Effects of Truncated Dome Detectable Warnings on Travelers Negotiating Curb Ramps in Wheelchairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truncated domes on curb ramps benefit travelers with visual impairments. However, concerns associated with the safety and negotiability of such detectable warnings for other travelers have resulted in much controversy. The findings of the study presented here indicate that detectable warnings did not adversely affect the negotiability of ramps by…

Lee, Helen

2011-01-01

65

The Effectiveness of the Warning Signs Program in Educating Youth about Violence Prevention: A Study with Urban High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the Warning Signs program in educating urban high school youth about the signs of potential violence in themselves and others was stud- ied. No differences were found with exposure to the program. Rather, students in all groups identified certain personality traits that are suggestive of vio- lence, but ignored family, school, and social contribu- tors. Suggestions for

Kristin Schaefer

66

A qualitative exploration of young adult smokers' responses to novel tobacco warnings  

PubMed Central

Background Despite reduced smoking among adolescents, smoking prevalence peaks among young adults aged 18–30, many of whom believe themselves exempt from the health risks of smoking shown in warning labels. We explored how young adult smokers perceived warnings featuring proximal risks, and whether these encouraged cessation more effectively than traditional health messages. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 17 young adult smokers and explored their perceptions of current warnings as well as novel warnings representing short-term health consequences; immediate social risks, and tobacco’s toxicity (denormalizing tobacco as an everyday product). We used a thematic analysis approach to explore how participants rationalized existing warnings and interpreted the novel messages. Results Participants considered the immediate social and physiological benefits they gained from smoking outweighed the distal risks shown in health warnings, which they regarded as improbable and irrelevant. Of the novel warnings, those presenting immediate social risks altered the balance of gains and losses young adults associated with smoking; however, those presenting short-term health risks or depicting tobacco as a toxin were less effective. Conclusions Participants regarded warnings featuring proximal social risks as more salient and they were less likely to rationalise these as irrelevant. Social risk messages merit further investigation to examine their potential as a complement to traditional health warnings.

2013-01-01

67

Desire versus Efficacy in Smokers' Paradoxical Reactions to Pictorial Health Warnings for Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model) that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N?=?3297) to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model’s prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker’s self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser) quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease) intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit.

Romer, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Langleben, Daniel

2013-01-01

68

Desire versus efficacy in smokers' paradoxical reactions to pictorial health warnings for cigarettes.  

PubMed

Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model) that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N?=?3297) to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model's prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker's self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser) quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease) intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit. PMID:23383006

Romer, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A; Langleben, Daniel

2013-01-01

69

Labeling  

MedlinePLUS

... Free" “Cosmeceutical” "Cruelty Free"/"Not Tested on Animals" "Hypoallergenic" "Organic" More on Labeling Claims Expiration Dating There are no regulations or requirements under current United States law that require cosmetic manufacturers to print expiration dates on the labels ...

70

Warnings from the Trenches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, as a retired high school teacher, has some bad news for college professors. In case, they do not already see what is happening. The author wants to warn them of what to expect from the students who will be arriving in one's classroom even if they teach in a highly selective institution. No Child Left Behind went into effect for the…

Bernstein, Kenneth

2013-01-01

71

Windshear warning aerospatiale approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vugraphs and transcribed remarks of a presentation on Aerospatiale's approach to windshear warning systems are given. Information is given on low altitude wind shear probability, wind shear warning models and warning system false alarms.

Bonafe, J. L.

1988-01-01

72

Effects of a slowdown warning system in mixed communication environments : A macroscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current ACC vehicles do not provide the driver with advance information of events occurring far ahead of him\\/her. In this paper, we discuss the concept of a slowdown warning system in automobiles, and analyze the same using PDE models. If a driver on a highway progresses abnormally slowly and\\/or generates large negative velocity gradients on the highway (thereby posing a

Animesh Chakravarthy; Jaime Peraire; Eric Feron

73

The Effectiveness of Reverse Telephon Emergency Warning Systems in the October 2007 San Diego Wildfires  

SciTech Connect

Late in October, 2007, fast-moving wildfires fueled by extreme Santa Ana winds threatened residents and their properties in San Diego County, California. The impacted area also included the City of San Diego within the County s boundaries. It turns out the San Diego firestorms would be the biggest in the County's history, surpassing the devastating 2003 firestorms in intensity, duration, and impacted populations. Both San Diego County and the City of San Diego have installed telephone reverse call-down emergency warning systems. A telephone survey of 1200 households located in areas identified by emergency officials as the evacuation zones for the 2007 fires was conducted in late March and early April 2008 using a random telephone dialing process to determine if people responded to the reverse telephone warning systems calls. Findings indicate that those who received a reverse emergency warning call were much more likely to evacuate than those who did not receive a call. The telephone calls were also the most likely source of first warning.

Sorensen, John H [ORNL; Sorensen, Barbara Vogt [ORNL

2009-01-01

74

Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor  

PubMed Central

The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles.

Yan, Xuedong; Xue, Qingwan; Ma, Lu; Xu, Yongcun

2014-01-01

75

Cigarette package health warnings and interest in quitting smoking --- 14 countries, 2008--2010.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires health warnings on tobacco product packages sold in countries that ratified the WHO FCTC treaty (1). These warnings are expected to 1) describe the harmful effects of tobacco use; 2) be approved by the appropriate national authority; 3) appear on at least 30%, and ideally 50% or more, of the package's principal display areas; 4) be large, clear, visible, and legible in the country's principal language(s); 5) have multiple, rotating messages; and 6) preferably use pictures or pictograms. To assess the effects of cigarette package health warnings on interest in quitting smoking among smokers of manufactured cigarettes aged ?15 years, this report examines 2008--2010 data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 14 WHO FCTC countries. Among men, the prevalence of manufactured cigarette smoking ranged from 9.6% in India to 59.3% in Russia. Among men in 12 of the countries and women in seven countries, >90% of smokers reported noticing a package warning in the previous 30 days. The percentage of smokers thinking about quitting because of the warnings was >50% in six countries and >25% in men and women in all countries except Poland. WHO has identified providing tobacco health information, including graphic health warnings on tobacco packages, as a powerful "best buy" in combating noncommunicable disease (2). Implementing effective warning labels as a component of a comprehensive approach can help decrease tobacco use and its many health consequences. PMID:21617629

2011-05-27

76

Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to investigate about female knowledge of breast cancer and self-reported practice of breast self-examination in Iran. Methods This was a population-based survey carried out in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 questions on demographic status, history of personal and family breast problems, subjective knowledge about breast cancer covering its symptoms, the screening methods and practice of breast self-examination (BSE). A trained female nurse interviewed each respondent. Analysis included descriptive statistics and the Chi-squared test where necessary. Results A total of 1402 women were interviewed. The mean age of respondents was 43.4 (SD = 14.4) years; most were married (85%), and without any personal (94%) and family history (90%) of breast problems. It was found that 64% of the respondents were familiar with breast cancer and 61% (n = 851) believed that 'the disease is relatively common among women in Iran'. Most women (44%) perceived a painless mass as a breast cancer symptom. Overall, 61% of the respondents stated that they knew about breast cancer screening programs and most indicated that electronic media (television 34% and radio 14%) were their source of information. Only 17% of women said that 'they were conducting regular breast self-examination'. The main reason for women not doing breast self-examination was due to the fact that they did not know how to do it (64%). The findings indicated that performing breast self-examination is significantly related to: age, marital status, education, knowledge of breast cancer and knowledge about breast cancer screening programs (p < 0.05), but not to personal (P = 0.2) and family (P = 0.7) history of breast problems. Conclusion This descriptive study provides useful information that could be utilized by both researchers and those involved in public health programmes. The findings indicated that the women awareness of breast cancer warning signs (painless lump, retraction of nipple, and bloody discharge) and effective screening methods i.e. clinical examination, and mammography were very inadequate. Thus, health education programmes to rectify the lack of women awareness is urgently needed. Indeed the focus of primary health care providers should be to raise awareness about breast care among women and to encourage them to report any unusual changes in their breasts to their family or care physicians.

Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Harirchi, Iraj; Harirchi, Amir Mahmood; Sajadian, Akram; Khaleghi, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Haghighat, Shahpar; Jarvandi, Soghra

2008-01-01

77

A cross-sectional survey investigating the desensitisation of graphic health warning labels and their impact on smokers, non-smokers and patients with COPD in a London cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GHWL) in different individuals, including patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Investigating knowledge and attitudes may allow better implementation of future public health policies. We hypothesised that differences in the impact of GHWL exist between non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD, with decreased efficacy in those groups who are longer and more frequently exposed to them. Participants and setting 163 participants (54% male, aged 21–80) including 60 non-smokers, 53 smokers and 50 patients with COPD (Gold stage II–IV), attending London respiratory outpatient clinics, participated in case-controlled surveys (50 items). Outcome measures Ten different GHWL were shown and demographics, smoking history, plans to quit, smoking-risk awareness, emotional response, processing and impact of GHWL on behaviour were recorded. Patients were further asked to prioritise the hypothetical treatment or prevention of five specific smoking-related diseases. Results Smokers, in particular those with COPD, were less susceptible to GHWL than non-smokers; 53.4% of all participants expressed fear when looking at GHWL, non-smokers (71.9%) more so than smokers (39.8%, p<0.001). COPD participants were less aware of the consequences than non-COPD participants (p<0.001), including an awareness of lung cancer (p=0.001). Lung cancer (95%), oral cancer (90.2%), heart disease (84.7%) and stroke (71.2%) were correctly associated with smoking, whereas blindness was least associated (23.9%). However, blindness was prioritised over oral cancer, stroke and in patients with COPD also over heart disease when participants were asked about hypothetical treatment or prevention. Conclusions GHWL are most effective in non-smokers and a desensitisation effect was observed in smokers and patients with COPD. As a consequence, a tailored and concerted public health approach to use such messages is required and ‘blindness’ deserves to be mentioned in this context because of an unexpectedly high-deterring impact.

Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Chisnall, Ben; Drakatos, Panagis; Sivakumar, Sukhanthan; Sivakumar, Bairavie; Barrecheguren, Miriam; Douiri, Abdel; Steier, Joerg

2014-01-01

78

International cigarette labelling practices  

PubMed Central

DESIGN—Cross-sectional study.?PARTICIPANTS—Members of GLOBALink (www.globalink.org), an internet listserve for tobacco activists with members in 56 countries, who were asked to provide specific information on cigarette warning requirements in their countries.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Presence of specific warning labels, overall content score (based on a 0-10 scale with a point for each specific warning mentioned), size of warning label, location of warning label.?RESULTS—Forty-five countries (80%) responded; 40 had mandatory labelling requirements, three had voluntary agreements with the industry and two had no requirements. In general, American companies did no more in foreign countries than required by local law. The average developing country content score was 1.6, compared with 5.0 in developed countries (p = 0.0003). Forty-two per cent of countries either had no warning requirement or had only a very general health warning. The most common warning was for heart disease (49% of countries) and the least common was for addiction (14%). All warnings were more common in developed than developing countries. Warnings in developed country were on average 27% larger than those in developing countries (p = 0.325). Seventy-three per cent of labels in developing countries appeared only on the side of the pack, whereas 78% of labels in developed countries appeared on the front and back (p = 0.003).?CONCLUSIONS—In almost every respect measured, residents in developing countries are receiving inferior information about the hazards of smoking than residents of developed countries. Laws should be promulgated in importing and exporting countries to ensure that, where their labelling laws differ, companies would be required to provide the more comprehensive labelling.???Keywords: health warnings; cigarette pack labelling; legislation

Aftab, M.; Kolben, D.; Lurie, P.

1999-01-01

79

Labeling effects on the isoelectric point of green fluorescent protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of fluorescent labeling on the isoelectric points (pI values) of proteins using capillary isoelectric focusing with laser-induced fluorescence detection (cIEF–LIF). Specifically, we labeled green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria with the fluorogenic dye 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (FQ). cIEF–LIF was used to monitor the native fluorescence of GFP and showed pI changes in GFP’s FQ-labeled products.

Dawn P. Richards; Costas Stathakis; Robert Polakowski; Hossein Ahmadzadeh; Norman J. Dovichi

1999-01-01

80

A Study on Estimation on Flood Warning Trigger Rainfall in medium and small Stream Affected by Urban Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As extreme floods occur frequently in recent years due to global climate changes, an in sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration is becoming the significant danger and loss of life and property in the Korean Peninsula as well as most parts of the world. The desire for living without hazardous damages grows these days, the city strategy to make the safer community has become an issue. Previously most of flood prevention efforts have been made for relatively large watersheds near to channel flow. However, as economical development and the expansion of city near medium and small stream, human casualty and property by flood occurs frequently. Therefore, to reduce the damage of human lives and property by flood, we develop an assessment method for flood warning trigger rainfall considering urban effect. Considering complex land use, HEC-HMS is used for rural area and SWMM is adopted for sewer networks runoff. And relationship between runoff and stream water level, HEC-RAS is accompanied with runoff results. Proposed flood warning trigger rainfall assessment method shows good agreement with gauged data and could be used for another case to mitigate damage. Acknowledgement: "This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-NH-2011-45] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea." Keyword: HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, critical precipitation, medium and small stream

Youngseok, Song; Moojong, Park; JungHo, Lee; HeeSup, Lee

2013-04-01

81

Effective rule induction from labeled graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labeled graphs provide a natural way of representing objects and the way they are connected. They have various applications in different fields, such as for example in computational chemistry. They can be represented by relational structures and thus stored in relational databases. Acyclic conjunctive queries form a practically relevant fragment of database queries that can be evaluated in polynomial time.

Tamás Horváth; Susanne Hoche; Stefan Wrobel

2006-01-01

82

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

83

Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.  

PubMed

In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. PMID:24161300

Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

2014-09-01

84

Framing unauthorized immigrants: the effects of labels on evaluations.  

PubMed

In the U.S. media, unauthorized immigrants are often interchangeably referred to as "illegal aliens," "illegal immigrants," and undocumented immigrants." In spite of formal equivalence, these terms carry different connotations, but the effects of these labels on people's attitudes toward immigrants are not well documented. In this replication study, 274 undergraduate students in psychology responded to one of three randomly distributed versions of a 20-item scale measuring attitudes toward unauthorized immigration. The items in the three scale versions varyingly referred to immigrants using the three terms. Results showed differences in attitudes toward unauthorized immigration between all experimental conditions. The label "illegal immigrants" yielded significantly less positive attitudes compared to the label "undocumented immigrants," and respondents exposed to the label "illegal aliens" showed the most positive attitudes. Furthermore, the effects of the experimental conditions were not moderated by the respondents' patriotism, sex, or own immigrant background. PMID:24897900

Ommundsen, Reidar; Van der Veer, Kees; Larsen, Knud S; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

2014-04-01

85

The Effect of Parallax and Cadence on Asteroid Impact Probabilities and Warning Times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the time evolution of the impact probability for synthetic, but realistic, impacting and close-approaching asteroids detected in a simulated all-sky survey. We use the impact probability to calculate the impact warning time (tw) as the time interval between when an object reaches a Palermo Scale value of -2 and when it impacts Earth. A simple argument shows that tw ? Dx, with the exponent in the range [1.0,1.5], and our derived value was x = 1.3 ± 0.1. The low-precision astrometry from the single simulated all-sky survey could require many days or weeks to establish an imminent impact for asteroids larger than 100 m in diameter that are discovered far from Earth. Most close-approaching asteroids are quickly identified as not being impactors, but a size-dependent percentage, even for those larger than 50 m diameter, have a persistent impact probability of greater than 10-6 on the day of closest approach. Thus, a single all-sky survey can be of tremendous value in identifying Earth-impacting and close-approaching asteroids in advance of their closest approach, but it can not solve the problem on its own: high-precision astrometry from other optical or radar systems is necessary to rapidly establish an object as an impactor or close approacher. We show that the parallax afforded by surveying the sky from two sites is only of benefit for a small fraction of the smallest objects detected within a couple days before impact: probably not enough to justify the increased operating costs of a two-site survey. Finally, the survey cadence within a fixed time span is relatively unimportant to the impact probability calculation. We tested three different reasonable cadences and found that one provided ˜10 times higher (better) value for the impact probability on the discovery night for the smallest (10 m diameter) objects, but the consequences on the overall impact probability calculation are negligible.

Vereš, Peter; Farnocchia, Davide; Jedicke, Robert; Spoto, Federica

2014-05-01

86

40 CFR 82.108 - Placement of warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting...Substances § 82.108 Placement of warning statement...of purchase. Such placement includes, but is...a) Display panel placement. For any affected product or container...

2010-07-01

87

40 CFR 82.108 - Placement of warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting...Substances § 82.108 Placement of warning statement...of purchase. Such placement includes, but is...a) Display panel placement. For any affected product or container...

2009-07-01

88

77 FR 39710 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Organ-Specific Warnings: Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...enforcement discretion with regard to the liver warning required in the labeling. DATES...products to inform consumers about the risk of liver injury when using acetaminophen and the...adults only, must include the following liver warning: Liver warning: This...

2012-07-05

89

Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age  

PubMed Central

AIM The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of children <2 years in Italy and the Netherlands was carried out. Age and country specific prescription prevalence rates were calculated for the period 2005–08. Comparisons of prescription rates in 2005 (pre) and 2008 (post) warnings were done by means of a chi-square test. RESULTS The cohort consisted of 99 176 children <2 years of age. After international warnings, overall prescription rates for CCMs decreased slightly from 83 to 77/1000 person years (P = 0.05) in Italy and increased in the Netherlands from 74 to 92/1000 children per year. Despite the international warnings, prescription rates for nasal sympathomimetics and opium alkaloids increased in the Netherlands (P < 0.01). In Italy a significant decrease in the prescription rates of opium alkaloids and other cough suppressants (P < 0.01) was observed, and also a significant reduction in use of combinations of nasal sympathomimetics. CONCLUSION Despite the international safety warnings and negative benefit-risk profiles, prescription rates of cough and cold medicines remain substantial and were hardly affected by the warnings, especially in the Netherlands where no warning was issued. The hazards of use of these medicines in young children should be explicitly stipulated by the European Medicines Agency and all national agencies, in order to increase awareness amongst physicians and caretakers and reduce heterogeneity across the EU.

Sen, E Fatma; Verhamme, Katia M C; Felisi, Mariagrazia; 't Jong, Geert W; Giaquinto, Carlo; Picelli, Gino; Ceci, Adriana; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

2011-01-01

90

Multitasking in academia: Effective combinations of research, education and public outreach illustrated by a volcanic ash warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science permeates our society. Its role and its perceived importance evolves with time. Scientists today are highly specialized, yet society demands they master a variety of skills requiring not only a number of different competencies but also a broad mindset. Scientists are subjected to a meritocracy in terms of having to produce scientific papers. Peer-reviewed scientific publications used to be sufficient to meet the various laws and regulations with respect to dissemination of scientific results. This has dramatically changed; both expressed directly through public voices (such as in the climate change discourses), but also by politicians and policy makers. In some countries research funding now comes with specific requirements concerning public outreach that go way beyond peer-reviewed publications and presentation at scientific conferences. Science policies encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and scientific questions themselves often cannot be answered without knowledge and information from several scientific areas. Scientists increasingly need to communicate knowledge and results in more general terms as well as educating future generations. A huge challenge lies in developing the knowledge, human capacity and mindset that will allow an individual academician to contribute to education, communicate across scientific fields and sectors in multidisciplinary cross sectoral cooperations and also reach out to the general public while succeeding within the scientific meritocracy. We demonstrate how research, education and communication within and outside academia can effectively be combined through a presentation of the International Airways Volcano Watch that encompasses an operational volcanic ash warning system for the aviation industry. This presentation will show the role of science throughout the information flow, from basic science to the pilots' decision-making. Furthermore, it will illustrate how one can connect specific scientific topics to societal issues such as security and economy. Skills, knowledge and mindset must be developed and nurtured through university curricula and reflected in career awards and other professional appreciations. By using concrete examples of geoscience in practice, such as the volcanic ash warning system, different aspects of science, it's role in society and economic impact is being communicated across sectors and taught simultaneously. The very same information is relevant and appropriate for society at large and thus time saving for academicians. It also serves as a recruiting strategy.

Bye, B. L.; Plag, H.

2011-12-01

91

Speech warnings: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the use and design of speech warnings in terms of ergonomic considerations. Firstly, it considers the benefits of using the auditory channel and technological approaches to producing artificial speech, Secondly, the characteristics of human and machine-generated speech are reviewed: the latter focusing on naturalness, intelligibility, rate of presentation, emotional content and quality. Thirdly, non-speech and speech warnings,

J. M. Noyes; E. Hellier; J. Edworthy

2006-01-01

92

Timely Warning Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complaint received by the Department of Education alleged that Virginia Tech violated the "timely warning" requirements of the Clery Act on April 16, 2007, by not issuing specific campus-wide alerts once senior officials knew of the immediate threat to health and safety. The complaint also alleged that the University's timely warning policy, as…

Stafford, Dolores

2011-01-01

93

Earthquake early warning videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page features videos of the early warning system in action, images of some professional poster presentations, and a description of an in-class kinesthetic activity about how the early warning system works. It also addresses some of the affective aspects of natural disasters.

D'Alessio, Matthew; California State University, Northridge

94

[How would plain packaging and pictorial warning impact on smoking reduction, cessation and initiation?].  

PubMed

The European Commission has proposed a review of the directive on tobacco products on labeling and packaging of tobacco products by introducing warning text with pictorial warning that occupies 75% of the cigarette packages. The aim of the survey was to assess the impact of plain packaging and pictorial warning in smoking reduction, cessation and initiation among a sample of adult. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Rome between September and November 2012. The questionnaires administered were 227, with a response rate of 82.4%. 35.8% (No. 67) of the respondents considered the image of the gangrene the most effective in communicating smoking-related damages, followed by the image on lung cancer (No. 60; 32.1%). Distinguishing between smokers and non-smokers (both former and never smokers), the picture on lung cancer was the most effective for smokers (No. 22; 38.6%); if cigarette packages have pictorial warnings like the ones shown, more than half (No. 33; 57.9%) of smokers would change brand; 66.7% (No. 38) of them would feel uncomfortable in showing the package. Comparing the 3 packagings, classic packaging, plain packaging with textual warning, and plain packaging with both textual and pictorial warning, the majority of people declared that the third is the most effective in preventing smoking initiation (No. 169; 90.9%), in motivating to quit (No. 158; 84.9%), and in changing smoking habits (No. 149; 80.5%). The survey, although its small sample size and being not representative of all strata of Italian population, shows that the plain packaging with pictorial warning is the most convincing in the three outcomes considered. PMID:24548838

Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Mipatrini, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; Terzano, Claudio; La Torre, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

95

Effect Terrorist Labels Have on Military Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research presents an analysis of U.S. laws surrounding terrorism to assess the effect they have on military operations in asymmetric conflicts. Modern conflicts utilize unconventional approaches, such as co- opting or informing, as decisive operation...

L. W. Anglin

2012-01-01

96

Why Might Organic Labels Fail to Influence Consumer Choices? Marginal Labelling and Brand Equity Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organic label offers a market signal for producers of organic food products. In Western economies, the label has gained high recognition, but organic food still represents a small part of total food consumption, which raises questions about the label's efficacy. By considering organic labels as a signal of quality for consumers, this article studies how this signal interacts with

Fabrice Larceneux; Florence Benoît-Moreau; Valérie Renaudin

2012-01-01

97

Negative treatment effects: is it time for a black box warning?  

PubMed

Comments on Negative effects from psychological treatments: A perspective by David Barlow (see record 2009-24989-002). The author addresses negative treatment effects in the psychotherapy field by stating that Barlow provided a historical perspective of clinical psychology's long-standing interest in studying the positive effects of psychotherapy, and he indicated that although negative treatment effects have long been identified, little attention has been paid to them. Barlow also recommended a greater emphasis on more idiographic approaches to studying negative effects. He further added that "this would be best carried out in the context of a strong collaboration among frontline clinicians and clinical scientists". I would argue that this may best be carried out between frontline clinicians and their clients. So the science that we use may not be clinical mandates prohibiting, for example, certain treatments but may simply be the sharing of our scientific knowledge about clinical possibilities so as to better inform clients about the treatment they are considering. PMID:20873889

Boisvert, Charles M

2010-10-01

98

The Incomplete Shield: The Distant Early Warning Line and the Struggle for Effective Continental Air Defense, 1950-1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Distant Early Warning Line was a chain of radar stations built by the United States along the north shore of North America. The DEW Line was the result of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's 1952 Lincoln Laboratory Summer Study Group, which first conceived of the DEW Line as a radar detection and tracking system designed to help protect the

Samuel Edward Twitchell

2011-01-01

99

Suicide Warning Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... Feeling rage or uncontrolled anger or seeking revenge Suicide Warning Signs n Acting reckless or engaging in ... you or someone you love at risk of suicide? Get the facts and take appropriate action. Printed: ...

100

Age differences in the rejection of false memories: the effects of giving warning instructions and slowing the presentation rate.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to examine whether children of different ages differ in their ability to reject associative false memories with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two different types of manipulations that are thought to facilitate false memory rejection in adults-slowing the presentation rate and issuing explicit warnings-were analyzed in younger and older children. The results showed that older children were more able than younger children to reject associative false memories through warnings and by slowing the presentation rate. We conclude that although older children are, in general, more prone to produce false memories with the DRM paradigm, they are also more able to reject them when certain conditions facilitate the editing process. PMID:19875129

Carneiro, Paula; Fernandez, Angel

2010-01-01

101

Effects of the Labels "Mentally Retarded" and "Retarded" on the Social Acceptability of Mentally Retarded Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of the labels "mentally retarded" and "retarded" on 136 fifth- and sixth-grade children's attitudes toward peers were studied. Results indicated that children's attitudes were more positive toward the target child labeled "mentally retarded" than labeled "retarded." Reactions to the two labels were, in part, a function of the physical…

Siperstein, Gary N.; And Others

1980-01-01

102

The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

Silvey, Brian A.

2009-01-01

103

Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment  

SciTech Connect

More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-08-01

104

Disaster warning satellite study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Disaster Warning Satellite System is described. It will provide NOAA with an independent, mass communication system for the purpose of warning the public of impending disaster and issuing bulletins for corrective action to protect lives and property. The system consists of three major segments. The first segment is the network of state or regional offices that communicate with the central ground station; the second segment is the satellite that relays information from ground stations to home receivers; the third segment is composed of the home receivers that receive information from the satellite and provide an audio output to the public. The ground stations required in this system are linked together by two, separate, voice bandwidth communication channels on the Disaster Warning Satellites so that a communications link would be available in the event of disruption of land line service.

1971-01-01

105

Warning Signs for Cardiac Arrest  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Warning Signs for Cardiac Arrest Updated:Oct 5,2011 Cardiac arrest strikes immediately ... content was last reviewed on 07/12/2011." Cardiac Arrest • Home • About Cardiac Arrest • Warning Signs for Cardiac ...

106

Understanding disaster warning responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

When threatened with some type of disaster, how do people respond? What are the social factors that constrain their responses? Receiver characteristics, message characteristics, and social contexts are explained and related to variations in disaster warning responses. Finally, two components of a vision for the future are described: (1) disaster event taxonomies, and (2) implemented social policies.

Thomas E Drabek

1999-01-01

107

Network Congestion Warning Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter presents a systematic approach that composes network congestion warning indices and lights of given power service areas. Based on typical power system analysis methods and engineering judgments, a set of indices and congestion severity measures were developed. The composite indices include the normal condition margin index and the contingency margin index, and each includes three measures with corresponding

T. Y. Hsiao; C. N. Lu; Edwin Liu

2008-01-01

108

64 FR 48024 - Trade Regulation Rule: Labeling and Advertising of Home Insulation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...through the insulation's mass), convection (by air movement within and through...bag label should include warning about convection effect on lighter-density materials...determination of the effects of air convection on R-value and depiction of that...

1999-09-01

109

Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

2012-01-01

110

Effects Of A Nutrition Newsletter For Seniors on Actual and Perceived Knowledge of Food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the effectiveness of a newsletter food label education program for older adults.The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act initiated widespread use of food labels (FL) to guide consumers in making more nutritious food selections. FL are potentially very beneficial to older adults, many of whom are following special diets. However, there are limited data on the impact

K. J. Lancaster; S. Taylor-Davis; H. Smiciklas-Wright; A. Davis; G. L. Jensen

1996-01-01

111

Monitoring and early warning for internet worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Code Red incident in 2001 and the SQL Slammer in January 2003, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet, infects most vulnerable computers before people can take effective countermeasures. The fast spreading nature of worms calls for a worm monitoring and early warning system. In this paper, we propose effective algorithms

Cliff Changchun Zou; Lixin Gao; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

2003-01-01

112

Human Response to Emergency Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

Sorensen, J.

2009-12-01

113

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind - it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal) of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010). While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system) which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG - the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia - which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC) and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG) to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010).

Steinmetz, T.; Raape, U.; Teßmann, S.; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; Kukofka, T.; Riedlinger, T.; Mikusch, E.; Dech, S.

2010-09-01

114

Dangerousness, confidentiality, and the duty to warn.  

PubMed

The Tarasoff decision, by imposing on psychiatrists an obligation to warn the intended victim of threats made by a patient, but only under certain vaguely specified circumstances, may stampede psychiatrists into issuing such warnings to avoid possible legal liability no matter how remote the risk of harm may actually be. The authors suggest that the ill effects of such a reaction by psychiatrists--breach of confidentiality and the attendant erosion of trust and harm to the therapeutic alliance--can often be easily avoided by taking less drastic steps, some of which are illustrated by case presentations. PMID:848576

Roth, L H; Meisel, A

1977-05-01

115

The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

1994-01-01

116

Testosterone Products Must Warn About Risk of Venous Clots: FDA  

MedlinePLUS

... with testosterone treatment. In its statement Friday, the FDA said that after receiving reports of blood clots in the veins unrelated to polycythemia in patients taking testosterone products, it has now decided to require a more general warning on venous blood clots on the labelling. Blood ...

117

Effect of Prematurity Labeling on Caregiver Perceptions of Newborns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined adult attitudes toward infants labeled premature. Fifty-two subjects, including infant specialists, experienced special educators, and preservice special educators, viewed a videotape of 9-month-old infants, each labeled full-term or preterm and male or female. A questionnaire administered after viewing the videotape rated each…

Miller, Cynthia A.

118

Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

2006-01-01

119

The Collaborative Encoding Deficit is Attenuated with Specific Warnings.  

PubMed

Individuals learning together do so less effectively than individuals learning alone, an effect known as the collaborative encoding deficit (Barber, Rajaram, & Aron, 2010). In the present studies we examined whether providing participants with a warning about the collaborative encoding deficit would increase their encoding task performance, and reduce subsequent memory deficits. Across two experiments, specific warnings were beneficial for memory. Collaborating participants who were told about the collaborative encoding deficit, and who received suggestions for how to complete the encoding task, had superior memory than participants who received no warning. This benefit was not due to qualitative changes in encoding task performance, was unrelated to the type of collaboration utilized, was absent when a more general warning was utilized, and was unrelated to self-reported task motivation. Rather, specific warnings appear to protect against the collaborative encoding deficit by increasing time spent on, and attention directed to, the encoding task. PMID:23296389

Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna; Paneerselvam, Bavani

2012-01-01

120

The Collaborative Encoding Deficit is Attenuated with Specific Warnings  

PubMed Central

Individuals learning together do so less effectively than individuals learning alone, an effect known as the collaborative encoding deficit (Barber, Rajaram, & Aron, 2010). In the present studies we examined whether providing participants with a warning about the collaborative encoding deficit would increase their encoding task performance, and reduce subsequent memory deficits. Across two experiments, specific warnings were beneficial for memory. Collaborating participants who were told about the collaborative encoding deficit, and who received suggestions for how to complete the encoding task, had superior memory than participants who received no warning. This benefit was not due to qualitative changes in encoding task performance, was unrelated to the type of collaboration utilized, was absent when a more general warning was utilized, and was unrelated to self-reported task motivation. Rather, specific warnings appear to protect against the collaborative encoding deficit by increasing time spent on, and attention directed to, the encoding task.

Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Paneerselvam, Bavani

2012-01-01

121

Evaluating Warning Sound Urgency With Reaction Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-established that subjective judgments of perceived urgency of alarm sounds can be affected by acoustic parameters. In this study, the authors investigated an objective measurement, the reaction time (RT), to test the effectiveness of temporal parameters of sounds in the context of warning sounds. Three experiments were performed using a RT paradigm, with two different concurrent visuomotor tracking

Clara Suied; Patrick Susini; Stephen McAdams

2008-01-01

122

A SDMS Model: Early Warning Coordination Centres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the tsunami disaster in 2004, the General Secretary of the United Nations (UN) Kofi Annan called for a global early warning system for all hazards and for all communities. He also requested the ISDR (International Strategy fort Disaster Reduction) and its UN partners to conduct a global survey of capacities, gaps and opportunities in relation to early warning systems. The produced report, "Global survey of Early Warning Systems", concluded that there are many gaps and shortcomings and that much progress has been made on early warning systems and great capabilities are available around the world. However, it may be argued that an early warning system (EWS) may not be enough to prevent fatalities due to a natural hazard; i.e., it should be seen as part of a ‘wider' or total system. Furthermore, an EWS may work very well when assessed individually but it is not clear whether it will contribute to accomplish the purpose of the ‘total disaster management system'; i.e., to prevent fatalities. For instance, a regional EWS may only work if it is well co-ordinated with the local warning and emergency response systems that ensure that the warning is received, communicated and acted upon by the potentially affected communities. It may be argued that without these local measures being in place, a regional EWS will have little impact in saving lives. Researchers argued that unless people are warned in remote areas, the technology is useless; for instance McGuire [5] argues that: "I have no doubt that the technical element of the warning system will work very well,"…"But there has to be an effective and efficient communications cascade from the warning centre to the fisherman on the beach and his family and the bar owners." Similarly, McFadden [6] states that: "There's no point in spending all the money on a fancy monitoring and a fancy analysis system unless we can make sure the infrastructure for the broadcast system is there,"… "That's going to require a lot of work. If it's a tsunami, you've got to get it down to the last Joe on the beach. This is the stuff that is really very hard." Given the above, the paper argues that there is a need for a systemic approach to early warning centres. Systemic means looking upon things as a system; systemic means seeing pattern and inter-relationship within a complex whole; i.e., to see events as products of the working of a system. System may be defined as a whole which is made of parts and relationships. Given this, ‘failure' may be seen as the product of a system and, within that, see death/injury/property loss etc. as results of the working of systems. This paper proposes a preliminary model of ‘early warning coordination centres' (EWCC); it should be highlighted that an EWCC is a subsystem of the Systemic Disaster Management System (SDMS) model.

Santos-Reyes, Jaime

2010-05-01

123

Protective Effects of the Label "Mentally Retarded" on Children's Attitudes toward Mentally Retarded Peers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible effect of the label "mentally retarded" to help ameliorate negative attitudes of 126 fourth-sixth graders toward mentally retarded peers with poor social behavior was examined. The label had a protective effect when the retarded child was withdrawn but little effect when the child was aggressive. (Author/CL)

Bak, John J.; Siperstein, Gary N.

1986-01-01

124

30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation...Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation...Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning device systems that use...

2009-07-01

125

30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation...Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation...Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning device systems that use...

2010-07-01

126

Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature  

PubMed Central

Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator–prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, ‘what makes an effective warning signal?’, and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation.

Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D.

2012-01-01

127

Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?  

PubMed

The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. PMID:23701641

Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

2014-02-01

128

Comparison of two warning concepts of an intelligent Curve Warning system for motorcyclists in a simulator study.  

PubMed

Curve crashes are a particular matter of concern regarding motorcycle riding safety. For this reason, an intelligent Curve Warning system has been designed that gives the riders support when negotiating a curve. The system has been tested in a simulator study carried out with 20 test riders. The subjects performed three rides: one without the system (baseline) and two experimental rides using a version of the Curve Warning system, one providing the warnings by a force feedback throttle and one by a haptic glove. The effects of the two system versions were evaluated both in terms of the simulated riding performance and the subjective assessment by the riders. A descriptive analysis of the riders' reactions to the warnings shows that the warnings provided by both system versions provoke an earlier and stronger adaptation of the motorcycle dynamics to the curve than when the riders do not use the system. Riding with the Curve Warning system with the haptic glove furthermore leads to a reduction of critical curve events. The riders' subjective workload level was not affected by the system use, whereas the Curve Warning system with the force feedback throttle required an increased attention. The comparison of the riders' opinions about the system reveals a preference of the Curve Warning system with the haptic glove. The better acceptance of this system version suggests a higher potential in the enhancement of riding safety. PMID:22062345

Huth, Véronique; Biral, Francesco; Martín, Oscar; Lot, Roberto

2012-01-01

129

Effects of EdU Labeling on Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) has recently been employed for tracking mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study we tested whether EdU was cytotoxic and whether it interfered with MSC’s differentiation, cytokine secretion, and migration. Methods EdU labeling was performed by incubating adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) with 10 ?M of EdU for 48 hours. Incorporation of EdU was detected by reaction with azide-conjugated Alexa594. The labeled and unlabeled ADSCs were compared for proliferation and apoptosis as determined by CellTiter and comet assays, respectively. They were also compared for neuron-like and endothelial differentiation as determined by morphology, marker expression, and function. Comparison of their secreted cytokine profile was performed by cytokine antibody array. Comparison of their response to homing factor SDF-1 was performed by migration assay. Results EdU was incorporated into the nucleus in approximately 70% of ADSCs. No significant differences in proliferation and apoptosis rates were observed between EdU-labeled and unlabeled ADSCs. Isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) induced both EdU-labeled and unlabeled ADSCs to assume a neuron-like morphology and to express ?-III tubulin. Endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM2) induced endothelial differentiation in both EdU-labeled and unlabeled ADSCs, including the ability to uptake low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and to form capillary-like structures as well as the expression of vWF, eNOS, and CD31. EdU-labeled and unlabeled ADSCs exhibited identical secreted cytokine profile and identical migratory response to SDF-1. Discussion At the recommended dosage of 10 ?M EdU is non-toxic to ADSCs. EdU label did not interfere with ADSC’s differentiation, cytokine secretion, or migratory response to SDF-1.

Ning, Hongxiu; Albersen, Maarten; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F.; Lin, Ching-Shwun

2012-01-01

130

Labeling Solar-Cell Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photocopying machine produces durable identification label. Process used for double glass photovoltaic-cell modules. Matrix of cells sandwiched between thin, flexible glass mats and covered above and below by protective sheets of glass. Label contains such information as manufacturer, model number, voltage and power ratings, and serial number. May also contain electrical-shock hazard warning and identification of positive and negative terminals. Method saves expense of procuring and applying conventional labels.

Watson, E. G.; Coyle, P. J.

1984-01-01

131

Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

2006-01-01

132

Cost-effective method for the preparation of uniformly labeled myristoylated proteins for NMR measurements.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique for solving protein structures or studying their interactions. However, it requires molecules labeled with NMR sensitive isotopes like carbon (13)C and nitrogen (15)N. The recombinant expression of labeled proteins is simple to perform but requires quite expensive chemicals. When there is a need for special labeled chemicals, like uniformly (13)C-labeled myristic acid, the price significantly rises. Here we describe a cost-effective method for the recombinant expression of uniformly labeled myristoylated proteins in Escherichia coli demonstrated on the production of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus matrix protein. We used the ability of E. coli to naturally synthetize myristic acid. When grown in isotopically labeled medium the myristic acid will be labelled as well. Bacteria were co-transfected with plasmid carrying gene for yeast N-myristoyltransferase which ensures myristoylation of expressed protein. This process provided 1.8mg of the myristoylated, doubly labeled ((13)C/(15)N)M-PMV matrix protein from 1L of (15)N/(13)C labeled M9 medium. The price represents approximately 50% cost reduction of conventional method using commercially available [U-(13)C]myristic acid. PMID:24662511

Kroupa, Tomáš; Prchal, Jan; Doležal, Michal; Ruml, Tomáš; Hrabal, Richard

2014-07-01

133

A Map Based Driver Warning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horizontal PReVENT subproject MAPS&ADAS develops a map based Driver Warning System, consisting of an ADAS map, the Speed Limit Warning and the Hot Spot Warning Application. This application warns the driver in case he is approaching a certain location in the street network in a manner which has a potentially high risk of an accident in the next seconds.

Karsten Heinig; Christoph Hecht; Michel Mittaz

134

Methods for nanoparticle labeling of ricin and effect on toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique optical properties associated with nanostructured materials that support the excitation of surface plasmons offer many new opportunities for the enhanced optical investigation of biological materials that pose a security threat. In particular, ricin is considered a significant bioterrorism risk due to its high toxicity combined with its ready availability as a byproduct in castor oil production. Therefore, the development of optical techniques capable of rapid on-site toxin detection with high molecular specificity and sensitivity continues to be of significant importance. Furthermore, understanding of the ricin cell entry and intracellular pathways remains poor due to a lack of suitable bioanalytical techniques. Initial work aimed at simultaneously tackling both these issues is described where different approaches for the nanoparticle labeling of ricin are investigated along with changes in ricin toxicity associated with the labeling process.

Wark, Alastair W.; Yu, Jun; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Nativo, Paola; Graham, Duncan

2009-09-01

135

Pharmaceutical warnings and direct-to-consumer marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing is a multi-billion dollar enterprise in the United States. DTC marketing presents an important scenario for warnings, as it bypasses the traditional receiver of pharmaceutical warnings, the physician, and provides drug risk and benefit information directly to the patient. We examine the published literature on the effects of DTC marketing in the United States and conduct a

S. Rankin Bohmea

136

Effect of acetaminophen on the leukocyte-labeling efficiency of indium oxine In 111  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acetaminophen on the labeling efficiency of leukocytes with indium oxine In 111 was studied. A blood sample was obtained from eight healthy men before and after they received acetaminophen 650 mg every four hours for 24 hours. After dividing the plasma from each sample into three portions, leukocytes were separated and labeled with indium oxine In 111. In an in vitro study, 200 ml of blood was obtained from one of the men, and the plasma was separated into four portions. Acetaminophen in 95% ethanol was added to three of the plasma fractions to produce acetaminophen concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 micrograms/ml; ethanol was added to the fourth fraction as a control. Each plasma fraction was then subdivided into three aliquots, and leukocytes were labeled as in the in vivo study. Mean leukocyte labeling efficiencies in both studies were calculated from the ratios of leukocyte radioactivity to initial radioactivity in the samples, expressed as percentages. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies before acetaminophen administration ranged from 79 to 85%; after administration, labeling efficiencies ranged from 70 to 87%. No significant differences in mean labeling efficiency before and after acetaminophen administration were noted in any of the subjects. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies in all in vitro plasma fractions were reduced, ranging from 54 to 63%, but no significant differences in labeling efficiency between any of the plasma fractions were found. Using the labeling procedures in this study, exposure of leukocytes from healthy men to acetaminophen in vivo or in vitro does not affect labeling efficiency with indium oxine In 111.

Augustine, S.C.; Schmelter, R.F.; Nelson, K.L.; Petersen, R.J.; Qualfe, M.A.

1983-11-01

137

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

138

16 CFR 1500.14 - Products requiring special labeling under section 3(b) of the act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...such products shall be labeled with the signal word “warning” and the statement “Harmful...such products shall be labeled with the signal word “warning” and the statement “Harmful...such products shall be labeled with the signal word “danger,” the statement of hazard...

2011-01-01

139

16 CFR 1500.14 - Products requiring special labeling under section 3(b) of the act.  

...such products shall be labeled with the signal word “warning” and the statement “Harmful...such products shall be labeled with the signal word “warning” and the statement “Harmful...such products shall be labeled with the signal word “danger,” the statement of hazard...

2014-01-01

140

16 CFR 1500.14 - Products requiring special labeling under section 3(b) of the act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...such products shall be labeled with the signal word “warning” and the statement “Harmful...such products shall be labeled with the signal word “warning” and the statement “Harmful...such products shall be labeled with the signal word “danger,” the statement of hazard...

2012-01-01

141

An advanced missile warning processing suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective missile warning and countermeasures remain an unfulfilled goal for the Air Force and others in the DOD community. To make the expectations a reality, newer sensors exhibiting the required sensitivity, field of regard, and spatial resolution are being developed and transitioned. The largest concern is in the first stage of a missile warning system: detection, in which all targets need to be detected with a high confidence and with very few false alarms. Typical fielded sensors are limited in their detection capability by either lack of sensitivity or by the presence of heavy background clutter, sun glints, and inherent sensor noise. Many threat environments include false alarm sources like burning fuels, flares, exploding ordinance, arc welders, and industrial emitters. Multicolor discrimination has been shown as one of the effective ways to improve the performance of missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. Its utility has been demonstrated in multiple demonstration and fielded systems. New exploitations of background and clutter spectral contents, coupled with advanced spatial and temporal filtering techniques, have resulted in a need to have a new baseline algorithm on which future processing advances may be judged against. This paper describes the AFRL Suite IIIc algorithm chain and its performance against long-range dim targets in clutter.

Montgomery, Joel B.; Sanderson, Richard B.; McCalmont, John F.; Johnson, R. S.; McDermott, D. J.; Taylor, M. J.

2008-05-01

142

Capsular Warning Syndrome Caused By Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis  

PubMed Central

The capsular warning syndrome is a term used to describe recurrent stereotyped lacunar transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). This syndrome is associated with a high risk of developing a completed stroke. The presumed mechanism for this syndrome is angiopathy of a lenticulostriate artery. We describe the case of a 33-year-old man who presented with the capsular warning syndrome who was successfully treated with angioplasty. The patient’s capsular warning syndrome manifested as recurrent episodes of transient left hemiparesis. Symptoms recurred one to three times daily despite treatment with antithrombotics. Cerebral angiography demonstrated stenosis of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) with decreased flow to a dominant lenticulostriate artery. Angioplasty of the right middle cerebral artery increased flow to the lenticulostriate artery and the TIAs resolved following the procedure. In select cases intracranial angioplasty, may be an effective treatment for patients with capsular warning syndrome.

Lee, Jun; Albers, Gregory W; Marks, Michael P; Lansberg, Maarten G

2010-01-01

143

The corrective effects of warning on false memories in the DRM paradigm are limited to full attention conditions.  

PubMed

Effects of attention control and forewarning on the activation and monitoring of experimentally induced false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated in a young adult sample (N=77). We found that reducing the degree of attention during encoding led to a decrease in veridical recall and an increase in non-presented critical lure intrusions. This effect could not be counteracted by a forewarning instruction. However, these findings did not emerge in a (retrieval supportive) recognition task. It seems that divided attention increases false recall when attention control and forewarning have to compete for limited cognitive resources in a generative free recall as opposed to a retrieval supportive recognition task. Forewarning instructions do not always protect young adults against experimentally induced false memories. PMID:18804192

Peters, Maarten J V; Jelicic, Marko; Gorski, Benny; Sijstermans, Kevin; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

2008-10-01

144

Biomonitoring as an early warning system of the effects of energy industry air emissions. Paper 81. 3. 3  

SciTech Connect

The need for monitoring of pollutants in the atmosphere and their effects on soil fauna and flora is explained. There are limits to the absorptive capacity within the earth atmosphere. This review demonstrates the possible value of using biological sensors (biomionitors) to detect high levels of atmospheric contaminants. There is, however, not available a monitor to floride accurate and realistic assessment of air pollution. 53 refs.

Lulman, P.D.

1981-01-01

145

Effects of front-of-package and shelf nutrition labeling systems on consumers.  

PubMed

As standards are considered for nutrition front-of-package (FOP) and shelf-labeling systems in the United States, it is important to know what types of systems are most effective in conveying scientifically accurate and useful information to consumers. A systematic literature review identified 38 empirical studies on consumer response to FOP nutrition labeling and shelf labeling. Studies indicate that consumers can more easily interpret and select healthier products with nutrient-specific FOP nutrition labels that incorporate text and symbolic color to indicate nutrient levels rather than nutrient-specific labels that only emphasize numeric information, such as Guideline Daily Amounts expressed as percentages and/or grams. Summary systems may influence consumers to purchase healthier products. However, more research is needed to assess the influence of nutrient-specific labels on consumers' purchases. This review identified few studies that compared consumers' ability to select healthier products using nutrient-specific systems that incorporate text and color codes with multiple-level summary icons. More research is needed to determine the effects of FOP nutrition labeling on consumers' actual shopping behaviors and dietary intakes. PMID:23282247

Hersey, James C; Wohlgenant, Kelly C; Arsenault, Joanne E; Kosa, Katherine M; Muth, Mary K

2013-01-01

146

The Effects of Symptom Recognition and Diagnostic Labels on Public Beliefs, Emotional Reactions, and Stigmas Associated with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Labels are firmly rejected by the disability rights movement, yet the complex effects of labeling on lay beliefs are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of labeling on the general public's reactions to people with intellectual disabilities. A sample of 1,233 adult members of the UK general population were randomly presented with…

Scior, Katrina; Connolly, Theresa; Williams, Janice

2013-01-01

147

40 CFR 168.65 - Pesticide export label and labeling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...government business is conducted, will be acceptable. (i) Information required to be multilingual. The following labeling information must be multilingual: (A) The warning and caution statements. (B) Where required, the...

2009-07-01

148

40 CFR 168.65 - Pesticide export label and labeling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...government business is conducted, will be acceptable. (i) Information required to be multilingual. The following labeling information must be multilingual: (A) The warning and caution statements. (B) Where required, the...

2010-07-01

149

Heavy water labeling method for measuring the effect of genistein on mammary gland carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy water labeling method was applied to measure the effect of genistein on mammary gland carcinogenesis by incoporating\\u000a 2H from 2H2O into the deoxyribose (dR) moiety of purine deoxyribonucleotides in dividing cells. In the present study, we followed the\\u000a study design of Lamartiniere group to evaluate the efficacy of 2H2O labeling on the measurement of mammary gland carconogenesis. Female Sprague–Dawley

Hyeon-A Kim; Kyu-Shik Jeong; Dae-Hun Park; Jeong-Ae Lee; Won-Il Jeong; Yoo Kyeong Kim

2007-01-01

150

Legibility of health warnings on billboards that advertise cigarettes.  

PubMed

At present only subjective criteria exist to determine the legibility of health warnings on billboards that display advertisements for cigarettes. We constructed a set of objective standards and used them to assess the legibility of warnings on a sample of 37 billboards in Perth, Western Australia. The three features that were analysed were the apparent size of the letters, the colour contrast between the letters and their background, and the obliqueness of the message. We also compared the size and legibility of the health warning with that of the brand name. Health warnings were not legible to passing motorists in 51% of cases and not legible to motorists who were stopped at nearby intersections in 74% of cases, whereas almost all the brand names could be read easily. These results indicate that the present system of voluntary regulation of advertisements for cigarettes has failed to ensure that health warnings on billboards are legible. For health warnings on advertisements to have any useful effect it is essential that they are legible. The only way to ensure legibility is to adopt objective requirements for it. PMID:3367837

Cullingford, R; Da Cruz, L; Webb, S; Shean, R; Jamrozik, K

1988-04-01

151

Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. The first users of the early warning signal will be the Istanbul gas company (IGDAS) and the metro line using the immersed tube tunnel (MARMARAY). Other prospective users are power plants and power distribution systems, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, petroleum facilities and high-rise buildings. In this study, different algorithms based on PGA, CAV and various definitions of instrumental intensity will be discussed and triggering threshold levels of these parameters will be studied. More complex algorithms based on artificial neural networks (ANN) can also be used [Boese et al., 2003]. ANN approach considers the problem of earthquake early-warning as a pattern recognition task. The seismic patterns can be defined by the shape and frequency content of the parts of accelerograms that are available at each time step. ANN can extract the engineering parameters PGA, CAV and instrumental intensity from these patterns, and map them to any location in the surrounded area. Boese M., Erdik, M., Wenzel, F. (2003), Artificial Neural Networks for Earthquake Early Warning, Proceedings AGU2003 Abstracts, S42B-0155

Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

2007-12-01

152

Kinetic isotope effects significantly influence intracellular metabolite (13) C labeling patterns and flux determination.  

PubMed

Rigorous mathematical modeling of carbon-labeling experiments allows estimation of fluxes through the pathways of central carbon metabolism, yielding powerful information for basic scientific studies as well as for a wide range of applications. However, the mathematical models that have been developed for flux determination from (13) C labeling data have commonly neglected the influence of kinetic isotope effects on the distribution of (13) C label in intracellular metabolites, as these effects have often been assumed to be inconsequential. We have used measurements of the (13) C isotope effects on the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme from the literature to model isotopic fractionation at the pyruvate node and quantify the modeling errors expected to result from the assumption that isotope effects are negligible. We show that under some conditions kinetic isotope effects have a significant impact on the (13) C labeling patterns of intracellular metabolites, and the errors associated with neglecting isotope effects in (13) C-metabolic flux analysis models can be comparable in size to measurement errors associated with GC-MS. Thus, kinetic isotope effects must be considered in any rigorous assessment of errors in (13) C labeling data, goodness-of-fit between model and data, confidence intervals of estimated metabolic fluxes, and statistical significance of differences between estimated metabolic flux distributions. PMID:23828762

Wasylenko, Thomas M; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

2013-09-01

153

Kinetic isotope effects significantly influence intracellular metabolite 13C labeling patterns and flux determination  

PubMed Central

Rigorous mathematical modeling of carbon-labeling experiments allows estimation of fluxes through the pathways of central carbon metabolism, yielding powerful information for basic scientific studies as well as for a wide range of applications. However, the mathematical models that have been developed for flux determination from 13C labeling data have commonly neglected the influence of kinetic isotope effects on the distribution of 13C label in intracellular metabolites, as these effects have often been assumed to be inconsequential. We have used measurements of the 13C isotope effects on the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme from the literature to model isotopic fractionation at the pyruvate node and quantify the modeling errors expected to result from the assumption that isotope effects are negligible. We show that under some conditions kinetic isotope effects have a significant impact on the 13C labeling patterns of intracellular metabolites, and the errors associated with neglecting isotope effects in 13C-metabolic flux analysis models can be comparable in size to measurement errors associated with GC–MS. Thus, kinetic isotope effects must be considered in any rigorous assessment of errors in 13C labeling data, goodness-of-fit between model and data, confidence intervals of estimated metabolic fluxes, and statistical significance of differences between estimated metabolic flux distributions.

Wasylenko, Thomas M.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

2014-01-01

154

Effects of Ferumoxides - Protamine Sulfate Labeling on Immunomodulatory Characteristics of Macrophage-like THP-1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) complexed with cationic transfection agent is used to label various mammalian cells. Labeled cells can then be utilized as an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes. However, certain number of in vivo administered labeled cells may be cleared from tissues by the host's macrophages. For successful translation to routine clinical application of SPIO labeling method it is important that this mode of in vivo clearance of iron does not elicit any diverse immunological effects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that SPIO agent ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FePro) incorporation into macrophages does not alter immunological properties of these cells with regard to differentiation, chemotaxis, and ability to respond to the activation stimuli and to modulate T cell response. We used THP-1 cell line as a model for studying macrophage cell type. THP-1 cells were magnetically labeled with FePro, differentiated with 100 nM of phorbol ester, 12-Myristate-13-acetate (TPA) and stimulated with 100 ng/ml of LPS. The results showed 1) FePro labeling had no effect on the changes in morphology and expression of cell surface proteins associated with TPA induced differentiation; 2) FePro labeled cells responded to LPS with slightly higher levels of NF?B pathway activation, as shown by immunobloting; TNF-? secretion and cell surface expression levels of CD54 and CD83 activation markers, under these conditions, were still comparable to the levels observed in non-labeled cells; 3) FePro labeling exhibited differential, chemokine dependent, effect on THP-1 chemotaxis with a decrease in cell directional migration to MCP-1; 4) FePro labeling did not affect the ability of THP-1 cells to down-regulate T cell expression of CD4 and CD8 and to induce T cell proliferation. Our study demonstrated that intracellular incorporation of FePro complexes does not alter overall immunological properties of THP-1 cells. The described experiments provide the model for studying the effects of in vivo clearance of iron particles via incorporation into the host's macrophages that may follow after in vivo application of any type of magnetically labeled mammalian cells. To better mimic the complex in vivo scenario, this model may be further exploited by introducing additional cellular and biological, immunologically relevant, components.

Janic, Branislava; Iskander, A. S. M.; Rad, Ali M.; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Arbab, Ali S.

2008-01-01

155

Effect of labeling on new vegetable dish acceptance in preadolescent children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a food-labeling strategy to introduce new versions of foods to children's diets, in natural lunch settings (school canteens). The proposed food involved two different types of vegetables: carrots (very familiar) and broccoli (less familiar), both being prepared and presented for choice in a 'familiar' (known) versus a 'new' (unknown) version. We assessed whether adding a label (either basic or model-related) to new versions of vegetable dishes would increase the likelihood that 8- to 11-year-old children would select the new dishes rather than the familiar versions. In the first condition (no label/control condition), both the familiar and the new versions of the vegetable dishes were presented with absence of any information. In the second condition (basic label condition), the new dish was presented accompanied by a basic label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe". In the third condition (model-related label condition), the new version of the dish was presented with a model-related label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe, Special Mix for Super Heroes". Results showed that children chose significantly more often the familiar version of the dish when no information was given (control condition). The addition of a descriptive label (whether basic or model-related) led to an increased frequency of choice for the new vegetable dish for carrots only, and not for broccoli. This study suggests that adding a label with the vegetable's name can be used to increase children's willingness to select a new version of a vegetable dish instead of a familiar one, at least when the vegetable is familiar to the children (i.e. carrots). PMID:22664298

Morizet, David; Depezay, Laurence; Combris, Pierre; Picard, Delphine; Giboreau, Agnès

2012-10-01

156

Licorice abuse: time to send a warning message  

PubMed Central

Licorice extract has always been recognized as a sweetener and a thirst quencher. Its nutritive value is overrated by many who consume significant amounts and are prone to complications. Glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite in licorice, inhibits the enzyme 11-ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme type 2 with a resultant cortisol-induced mineralocorticoid effect and the tendency towards the elevation of sodium and reduction of potassium levels. This aldosterone-like action is the fundamental basis for understanding its health benefits and the wide spectrum of adverse effects. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of licorice along with the reported complications related to excess intake. Despite its apparent use in a few clinical scenarios, the daily consumption of licorice is never justified because its benefits are minor compared to the adverse outcomes of chronic consumption. The review highlights the importance of investigating the dietary habits and herbal remedies which are being used worldwide on cultural and habitual bases rather than reliable scientific evidence. Licorice is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food supplement used in many products without precise regulations to prevent toxicity. Increased awareness among the public is required through TV commercials, newspapers, internet sites, magazines and product labels regarding the upper limit of ingestion and health hazards associated with excess intake. We hope that this review will serve as a warning message that should be transmitted from physicians to patients to avoid excessive licorice intake as well as a message to the FDA to start regulating the use of this substance.

Komarova, Irina; El-Ghonemi, Mohamed; Fathy, Ahmed; Rashad, Rania; Abdelmalak, Hany D.; Yerramadha, Muralidhar Reddy; Ali, Yaseen; Helal, Engy; Camporesi, Enrico M.

2012-01-01

157

Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug’s efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File – Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug interaction claims linked to the Drug Interactions section for a drug were potentially novel. The baseline performance characteristics of the proof-of-concept will enable further technical and user-centered research on robust methods for scaling the approach to the many thousands of product labels currently on the market.

2013-01-01

158

Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness.  

PubMed

Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug's efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File - Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug-drug interaction claims linked to the Drug Interactions section for a drug were potentially novel. The baseline performance characteristics of the proof-of-concept will enable further technical and user-centered research on robust methods for scaling the approach to the many thousands of product labels currently on the market. PMID:23351881

Boyce, Richard D; Horn, John R; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Waard, Anita de; Schneider, Jodi; Luciano, Joanne S; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Liakata, Maria

2013-01-01

159

Warning Systems Research Support: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the current warning environment, accordingly updates the requirements for an integrated national warning system, and then specifies a system design that will meet these requirements. Additionally, it discusses in detail various aspect...

A. E. Bornstein N. M. Bosak L. J. Hoddy B. D. Miller M. I. Rosenthal

1966-01-01

160

Disaster warning satellite study update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project planning and research and development by NASA's Lewis Research Center, on a NOAA satellite network system for surveillance of natural disasters is reported. Topics discussed are: (1) number and type of warning channels for the satellite system, (2) number of antenna beams in the satellite system, (3) number of satellites needed for adequate coverage by the satellite system, (4)

E. H. Davison; E. F. Miller; G. Anzic; R. C. Braley; Culp

1976-01-01

161

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The reprinted position statement warns that Earth has a limited capacity to provide for the human race. If we want to avoid our own demise, we urgently need to: clean up our air and land, better manage our water and forestry resources, protect endangered and threatened species, avoid human overpopulation, and help developing nations create environmental policies.

Union of Concerned Scientists (Union of Concerned Scientists;)

1992-11-01

162

GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the GEOSS clearinghouse (or other data portals and clearinghouses) based on its available quality information. Producer and feedback metadata documents are being used to dynamically assess information availability and generate the GEO labels. The producer metadata document can either be a standard ISO compliant metadata record supplied with the dataset, or an extended version of a GeoViQua-derived metadata record, and is used to assess the availability of a producer profile, producer comments, compliance with standards, citations and quantitative quality information. GeoViQua is also currently developing a feedback server to collect and encode (as metadata records) user and producer feedback on datasets; these metadata records will be used to assess the availability of user comments, ratings, expert reviews and user-supplied citations for a dataset. The GEO label will provide drill-down functionality which will allow a user to navigate to a GEO label page offering detailed quality information for its associated dataset. At this stage, we are developing the GEO label service that will be used to provide GEO labels on demand based on supplied metadata records. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the GEO label development process, with specific emphasis on the GEO label implementation and integration into the GEOSS.

Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

2013-04-01

163

Rock Music Gets a Label.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group called Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) has captured the media spotlight with a proposal to have warning labels placed on music albums containing sexually explicit or violent lyrics. Major record companies have agreed to a version of the PMRC's demands for a one-year trial period, beginning in 1986. (RM)

Cutietta, Robert

1986-01-01

164

Social Utility Theory: Guiding Labeling of VNRs as Ethical and Effective Public Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social utility theory suggests that labeling video news release (VNR) source material is the ethical decision (Wulfemeyer & Frazier, 1992), yet the persuasion knowledge model predicts that the effectiveness of VNRs will decrease as people become aware of this PR tactic (Friestad & Wright, 1994). Our study found that positive and negative effects were heightened when subjects read about VNRs

Michelle L. M. Wood; Michelle R. Nelson; Lucy Atkinson

2008-01-01

165

GEO Label Web Services for Dynamic and Effective Communication of Geospatial Metadata Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present demonstrations of the GEO label Web services and their integration into a prototype extension of the GEOSS portal (http://scgeoviqua.sapienzaconsulting.com/web/guest/geo_home), the GMU portal (http://gis.csiss.gmu.edu/GADMFS/) and a GeoNetwork catalog application (http://uncertdata.aston.ac.uk:8080/geonetwork/srv/eng/main.home). The GEO label is designed to communicate, and facilitate interrogation of, geospatial quality information with a view to supporting efficient and effective dataset selection on the basis of quality, trustworthiness and fitness for use. The GEO label which we propose was developed and evaluated according to a user-centred design (UCD) approach in order to maximise the likelihood of user acceptance once deployed. The resulting label is dynamically generated from producer metadata in ISO or FDGC format, and incorporates user feedback on dataset usage, ratings and discovered issues, in order to supply a highly informative summary of metadata completeness and quality. The label was easily incorporated into a community portal as part of the GEO Architecture Implementation Programme (AIP-6) and has been successfully integrated into a prototype extension of the GEOSS portal, as well as the popular metadata catalog and editor, GeoNetwork. The design of the GEO label was based on 4 user studies conducted to: (1) elicit initial user requirements; (2) investigate initial user views on the concept of a GEO label and its potential role; (3) evaluate prototype label visualizations; and (4) evaluate and validate physical GEO label prototypes. The results of these studies indicated that users and producers support the concept of a label with drill-down interrogation facility, combining eight geospatial data informational aspects, namely: producer profile, producer comments, lineage information, standards compliance, quality information, user feedback, expert reviews, and citations information. These are delivered as eight facets of a wheel-like label, which are coloured according to metadata availability and are clickable to allow a user to engage with the original metadata and explore specific aspects in more detail. To support this graphical representation and allow for wider deployment architectures we have implemented two Web services, a PHP and a Java implementation, that generate GEO label representations by combining producer metadata (from standard catalogues or other published locations) with structured user feedback. Both services accept encoded URLs of publicly available metadata documents or metadata XML files as HTTP POST and GET requests and apply XPath and XSLT mappings to transform producer and feedback XML documents into clickable SVG GEO label representations. The label and services are underpinned by two XML-based quality models. The first is a producer model that extends ISO 19115 and 19157 to allow fuller citation of reference data, presentation of pixel- and dataset- level statistical quality information, and encoding of 'traceability' information on the lineage of an actual quality assessment. The second is a user quality model (realised as a feedback server and client) which allows reporting and query of ratings, usage reports, citations, comments and other domain knowledge. Both services are Open Source and are available on GitHub at https://github.com/lushv/geolabel-service and https://github.com/52North/GEO-label-java. The functionality of these services can be tested using our GEO label generation demos, available online at http://www.geolabel.net/demo.html and http://geoviqua.dev.52north.org/glbservice/index.jsf.

Lush, Victoria; Nüst, Daniel; Bastin, Lucy; Masó, Joan; Lumsden, Jo

2014-05-01

166

Influence of affective states on comprehension and hazard perception of warning pictorials.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of positive and negative affective states on comprehension and hazard perception of warning pictorials. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was used to manipulate the affective states of sixty male undergraduate and graduate student participants. We used sixteen standard industrial warning pictorials, which were representative of a variety of industries, to assess changes in comprehension and hazard perception. Participants in the positive affect condition perceived greater hazards from the warning signs than those in the neutral affect condition or the negative affect condition. Post-hoc analyses confirmed this finding. We discuss implications for warning pictorials and future research. PMID:24045098

Jiamsanguanwong, Arisara; Umemuro, Hiroyuki

2014-09-01

167

NWS HotSeat: Weather Warning Decision Simulator (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online simulations, published by the National Weather Service (NWS), place students in the role of weather forecasters who must decide whether and to whom to issue severe weather warnings. They observe archived remote imagery from actual events along with severe weather reports and damage survey photographs to approximate the feel of issuing actual severe weather warnings, and decide which counties and cities must recieve the warnings. The simulations can be used in the form of a game, in which participants receive a score for leadtime, minutes in effect, and type of warning.

168

[Ergonomical study on Chinese speech warning].  

PubMed

Ergonomical experiments on speech warning under noise background were carried out in 40 healthy males, aged 20-33. Through the determination of auditory reaction time to the Chinese speech warning under dual-tasks and the subjective evalution of the suitable time length of main warning voice by the subject, the optimum parameters of Chinese speech warning in accordance with space ergonomics were determined. It was found that: suitable time length of main warning voice is 0.35-0.55s, main interval is 0.15-0.35s, speech speed is 4-6 word/s, and sentence interval is 0.2-0.4s. Meanwhile, the analysis of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) demonstrated that the speech warning using aforementioned parameters didn't increase the operator's work load. The results can serve as the objective ergonomical basis and the evaluation criterion for design of speech warning in manned space vehicle. PMID:11541261

Han, D; Zhou, C; Liu, Y; Zhai, Y

1998-02-01

169

Isolating Effects of Microscopic Nonuniform Distributions of 131I on Labeled and Unlabeled Cells  

PubMed Central

Radiopharmaceuticals are generally distributed nonuniformly in tissue. At the microscopic level, only a fraction of the cells in tissue are labeled. Consequently, the labeled cells receive an absorbed dose from radioactivity within the cell (self-dose) as well as an absorbed dose from radioactivity in surrounding cells (cross-dose). On the other hand, unlabeled cells only receive a cross-dose. This work uses a novel approach to examine the lethal effects of microscopic nonuniformities of 131I individually on the labeled and unlabeled cells. Methods A multicellular tissue model was used to investigate the lethality of microscopic nonuniform distributions of 131I. Mammalian cells (V79) were dyed with CFDA-SE (carboxy fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) and labeled with 131I-iododeoxyuridine (131IdU). The dyed labeled cells were then mixed with equal numbers of unlabeled cells, and 3-dimensional tissue constructs (4 × 106 cells) were formed by centrifugation in a small tube. This resulted in a uniform distribution of 131I at the macroscopic level but nonuniform distribution at the multicellular level, wherein 50% of the cells were labeled. The multicellular clusters were maintained at 10.5°C for 72 h to allow 131I decays to accumulate. The clusters were then dismantled and the labeled (dyed) and unlabeled (undyed) cells were separately seeded for colony formation using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Results The unlabeled cells, which received only a cross-dose, exhibited a mean lethal dose D37 of 4.0 ± 0.3 Gy. In contrast, the labeled cells received both a self-dose and a cross-dose. Isolating the effects of the self-dose resulted in a D37 of 1.2 ± 0.3 Gy, which was about 3.3 times more toxic per unit dose than the cross-dose. The reason for these differences appears to be primarily related to the higher relative biological effectiveness of the self-dose delivered by 131IdU compared with the cross-dose. Theoretical modeling of the killing of labeled and unlabeled cells was achieved by considering the cellular self-doses and cross-doses. Conclusion Cellular self-doses and cross-doses play an important role in determining the biological response of tissue to microscopic nonuniform distributions of 131I. Prediction of the biological response requires that both self-doses and cross-doses be considered along with their relative lethality per unit dose.

Neti, Prasad V.S.V.; Howell, Roger W.

2010-01-01

170

NACA Stall-Warning Indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stall-warning indicator employs a total-head tube located close to the wing surface in a region wherein local stalling occurs before the main portion of the wing stalls. The artificial production of a localized stalled region is accomplished by means of a sharp leading edge extending a few inches along the span. An abrupt drop in the total pressure relative to a static reference taken at some convenient point occurs at the stall in this region. Thin drop in total pressure caused the contraction of a pressure cell to which the total-head tube and the static orifice are connected and closed an electrical circuit that actuates a warning signal.

Thopmson, F L

1938-01-01

171

Evaluation of the effect of the modified early warning system on the nurse-led activation of the rapid response system.  

PubMed

The Modified Early Warning System (MEWS) is a scoring rubric used to detect the earliest signs of a change in a patient's condition. This mixed-methods study used pre- and postintervention data to describe the impact of the MEWS on the frequency of rapid response system activations and cardiopulmonary arrests among patients admitted to medical-surgical units. Focus groups of nursing staff provided insight into the factors that influence how nurses use the MEWS at the bedside as a framework to identify, intervene, and manage patients in need of an advanced level of care. PMID:24859890

Stewart, Jacqueline; Carman, Margaret; Spegman, Adele; Sabol, Valerie K

2014-01-01

172

Effects of different discount levels on healthy products coupled with a healthy choice label, special offer label or both: results from a web-based supermarket experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Two strategies commonly recommended to improve population diets include food labels and food taxes/subsidies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both strategies separately and in combination. Findings An experiment with a 3x3 factorial design was conducted, including: three levels of price reduction (10%; 25%; and 50%) x three labels (‘special offer’, ‘healthy choice’ and ‘special offer & healthy choice’) on healthy foods defined following the Choices front-of-pack nutrition label. N?=?109 participants completed the experiment by conducting a typical weekly shop for their household at a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance. Participants receiving a 50% price discount purchased significantly more healthy foods for their household in a typical weekly shop than the 10% discount (+8.7 items; 95%CI?=?3.8-13.6) and the 25% discount group (+7.7 items; 95%CI?=?2.74 – 12.6). However, the proportion of healthy foods was not significantly higher and the discounts lead to an increased amount of energy purchased. No significant effects of the labels were found. Conclusion This study brings some relevant insights into the effects of price discounts on healthier foods coupled with different labels and shows that price effects over shadowed food labels. However, price discounts seem to have ambiguous effects; they do encourage the purchase of healthy products, but also lead to increased energy purchases. More research is needed to examine how pricing strategies can work in directing consumers towards interchanging unhealthier options for healthier alternatives.

2013-01-01

173

The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

Kulkofsky, Sarah

2010-01-01

174

sluts and wiggers: a study of the effects of derogatory labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated how poor teenage girls from the marginal teenage subculture react to persistent derogatory labeling from higher status teenagers and adult authorities. The research found that a supportive emotional bond with a mother or grandmother insulates a girl from the harmful effects of derogatory stereotyping. Girls, who had an adult to trust for emotional support, did not engage

Jeffrey S. Victor

2004-01-01

175

Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…

Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

2013-01-01

176

Conspicuity, memorability, comprehension, and priming in road hazard warning signs.  

PubMed

This study assessed driver reactions to 16 road hazard warning signs of various formats by projecting life-sized video of road scenes to drivers in a driving simulator. A range of measures, including attentional and search conspicuity, implicit and explicit recognition, dynamic and static comprehension, and sign priming were collected. Of the signs tested, road works and school warning signs were most often detected, remembered, and understood. Slippery surface warnings were associated with some of the lowest detection and comprehension rates. The effectiveness of the different formats depended on the type of hazard sign. In the case of road works warnings, a flashing variable message format was only slightly more conspicuous than the large dimension format, equal in comprehensibility, and perhaps somewhat worse in terms of memorability. For the school warnings, however, the flashing variable message format appeared to convey a greater sense of potential hazard, produced superior search conspicuity and priming, and was equal in terms of memorability and comprehensibility. The range of measures worked well as a whole with the two measures of conspicuity and the measure of static comprehension showing the greatest consistency. PMID:16386230

Charlton, Samuel G

2006-05-01

177

Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan is located in one of the most tectonically active region in the world. We have suffered from many disasters brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. Significant efforts to mitigate disasters have been made as one of the most important national programs. Considering the difficulty of the earthquake prediction in time, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) considers it is important to issue the early warning immediately when the large earthquake occurs. JMA has been developing the "Earthquake Early Warning(EEW)" as a countermeasure to strong motion. JMA's EEW estimates hypocenter and magnitude using initial seismic waveform observed at the stations close to the epicenter, and issues estimated seismic intensity before the strong motion arrival. It also enables prompter issuance of the tsunami warning. We adopt a step-by-step method to improve the accuracy and reliance of the estimated focal parameters as the available data increases as the time lapse, ensuring the promptness of the first estimation at the same time. We estimate the hypocenter using Single Station Method and Network Method. Single Station Method is fitting simple function (Bt*exp(-At)) to the absolute value of acceleration waveform envelope of the first two seconds from the P onset by the cooperative study with Railway Technical Research Institute(RTRI). Network Method is using "territory" and "grid search" in combination. In addition to this procedure, we use the result of "Not Yet Arrived Data Method", a kind of grid search method, from June 2005. This method is developed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention(NIED). After the hypocenter is determined, we estimate the magnitude by using hypocentral distance and maximum displacement amplitudes (Dmax) updated every second and the formula is as follows: M = log (Dmax) + logR + a1*R + a2 (R: Hypocentral distance (km)) We can calculate each site of Seismic Intensity estimation by using up-to-date hypocenter and magnitude in addition. JMA has started test distribution of EEW in Feb. 2004 to specific users to fieldtest the effectiveness of the warning, for the events that occur in the region where JMA has integrated data processing functions at the seismic stations. EEW issued 245 times from Feb. 25th 2004 to Aug 31st 2005 (including 22 times of false alarm almost due to initial artificial mistakes). We will discuss the detail of EEW distribution at the session.

Kiyomoto, M.; Tsukada, S.; Ohtake, K.; Shiozu, Y.; Morimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Sekita, Y.; Doi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Odaka, T.; Ashiya, K.; Horiuchi, S.

2005-12-01

178

Bystander effect in tumor cells produced by Iodine-125 labeled human lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the ability of human lymphocytes labeled with DNA-incorporated 125I to exert an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect on co-cultured human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells in vitro. Materials and methods Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated to synthesize DNA in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and labeled with 5-[125I]iodo-2?-deoxyuridine. Human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells were co-cultured with the 125I-labeled lymphocytes in various ratios for 5 days and the proliferation of the LS174T cells was assessed. Further, the supernatant media from these co-cultures were: (i) Transferred to LS174T cells and their proliferation measured after 5 days, (ii) used to assess the clonogenic survival of LS174T cells, and (iii) screened for factors that suppress growth. Results A significant reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells was observed when co-cultured either with 125I-labeled lymphocytes (56 ± 3.5%) or the supernatant media (52.5 ± 1.3%) obtained from these co-cultures. Clonogenic survival of LS174T cells grown in the supernatant media corroborated the decrease in tumor cell growth. Conclusion The observed reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells in presence of 125I-labeled lymphocytes or media obtained from such co-cultures can be attributed to an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect, probably mediated by factor(s) released from the dying 125I-labeled lymphocytes.

Mamlouk, Omar; Balagurumoorthy, Pichumani; Wang, Ketai; Adelstein, S. James; Kassis, Amin I.

2013-01-01

179

Front-of-pack nutrition labels. Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints.  

PubMed

Although front-of-pack nutrition labeling can help consumers make healthier food choices, lack of attention to these labels limits their effectiveness. This study examines consumer attention to and use of three different nutrition labeling schemes (logo, multiple traffic-light label, and nutrition table) when they face different goals and resource constraints. To understand attention and processing of labels, various measures are used including self-reported use, recognition, and eye-tracking measures. Results of two experiments in different countries show that although consumers evaluate the nutrition table most positively, it receives little attention and does not stimulate healthy choices. Traffic-light labels and especially logos enhance healthy product choice, even when consumers are put under time pressure. Additionally, health goals of consumers increase attention to and use of nutrition labels, especially when these health goals concern specific nutrients. PMID:21554909

van Herpen, Erica; Trijp, Hans C M van

2011-08-01

180

Pharmacy Students' Knowledge of Black Box Warnings  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups.

Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

2010-01-01

181

The Emotional Impact and Ease of Recall of Warning Signs for Suicide: A Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of concerns about potential iatrogenic effects of information about suicide, in the current study we examined the emotional impact of reading a list of warning signs for suicide in comparison to comparable lists for heart attacks and diabetes. All participants read two sets of warning signs, with the experimental group reading the suicide…

Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Berman, Alan L.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Hollar, Daniel

2006-01-01

182

Dyad of Papers Concerning Joint Verification of Severe Local Storm Watches and Warnings during Tornado Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Weather Service issues watches and warnings to alert the public to the threat of severe local storms. The study is based upon a tabulation of whether watches or warnings were in effect during tornado events during 1982-1988. Percentages of to...

P. W. Leftwich J. E. Hales

1990-01-01

183

Effect of ADP on the orientation of spin-labeled myosin heads in muscle fibers: A high-resolution study with deuterated spin labels  

SciTech Connect

We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the effects of ADP on the orientational distribution of nitroxide spin labels attached to myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. To maximize the specificity of labeling, we spin-labeled isolated myosin heads (subfragment 1) on a single reactive thiol (SH1) and diffused them into unlabeled muscle fibers. To maximize spectral and orientational resolution, we used perdeuterated spin labels, 2H-MSL and 2H-IASL, eliminating superhyperfine broadening and thus narrowing the line widths. Two different spin labels were used, with different orientation relative to the myosin head, to ensure that the results are not affected by unfavorable probe orientation. In rigor, a very narrow three-line spectrum was observed for both spin labels, indicating a narrow orientational distribution, as reported previously. ADP induced very slight changes in the spectrum, corresponding to very slight (but significant) changes in the orientational distribution. These changes were quantified by a digital analysis of the spectra, using a two-step simplex fitting procedure. First, the magnetic tensor values and line widths were determined by fitting the spectrum of a randomly oriented sample. Then the spectrum of oriented fibers was fit to a model by assuming a Gaussian distribution of the tilt angle (theta) and twist angle (phi) of the nitroxide principal axes relative to the fiber axis. A single-Gaussian distribution resulted in inadequate fits, but a two-component model gave excellent results. ADP induces a small (less than 5 degrees) rotation of the major components for both spin labels, along with a similarly small increase of disorder about the average positions.

Fajer, P.G.; Fajer, E.A.; Matta, J.J.; Thomas, D.D. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (USA))

1990-06-19

184

Issues Associated with Off Label Use of Medical Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off label use as applied to medical devices is the application of the device for a purpose that is not included as an indication in the FDA and EC approved device labeling. Such applications are also called unapproved or new uses. Beyond a use not being indicated, some off label uses may be expressly contraindicated as well as explicitly warned

Y. David; W. A. Hyman

2007-01-01

185

Effect of different combinations of antibodies and enzyme labels on ELISA of progesterone.  

PubMed

In steroid immunoassays, selection of right combination of antibody and enzyme-labeled antigen determine the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA. Antibodies raised against different positions of progesterone adopting heterologous systems were reported to provide better assays for progesterone. Four different antibodies developed against progesterone-11?-hemiglutarate-BSA (P-11-HG-BSA), progesterone-11?-hemisuccinate-BSA (P-11-HS-BSA), progesterone-3-O-carboxymethyloxime-BSA (P-3-CMO-BSA), and progesterone-3-O-carboxymethyloxime-ovalbumin (P-3-CMO-ova) were tested in combination with enzyme-labeled P-11-HG, P-11-HS, progesterone-11?-carboxymethyl ether (P-11-CME), P-3-CMO, 17-hydroxyprogesterone-3-O-carboxymethyl oxime (17-P-3-CMO), and progesterone-4-carboxymethyl thioether (P-4-CMTE). These were variously labeled with penicillinase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). When antibody developed against P-11-HS-BSA was tested with P-3-CMO labeled separately with penicillinase, ALP, and HRP, the type of enzyme used had no effect on the performance of the assay. It was found that a homologous assay using P-3-CMO-ova as immunogen and P-3-CMO-HRP as label, as well as a heterologous ELISA with antibody raised against P-11-HS-BSA in combination with P-3-CMO-HRP, provided sensitive assays for progesterone. The use of 17?-hydroxy progesterone-3-O-carboxymethyl oxime-HRP with the same antibodies against P-3-CMO-BSA and P-11-HS-BSA also proved to be better than P-3-CMO-HRP. These findings implied that the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA to a great extent depended on the nature of the antibody produced, while the choice of enzyme labels could be manipulated. PMID:24295179

Kumari, G Lakshmi; Pandey, P K; Nathsharma, S S; Sharma, Sudesh K; Kochhar, G

2014-01-01

186

The effects of humor and depression labels on reactions to social comments.  

PubMed

Humor is generally considered to facilitate social relationships, whereas depression has been related to difficulties in relationships. This study investigated the effects of labeling social comments as humorous, as well as labeling the presenter of the comments as feeling depressed, on recipients' reactions to these comments. To this end, 350 university students were presented with vignettes describing four styles of comments (i.e., affiliative, self-enhancing, self-defeating, and aggressive) made by a casual acquaintance. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. These conditions varied in terms of whether the four styles of comments were described as humorous or not, and whether the acquaintance making the comments was described as feeling depressed or not. Findings indicated that humor led to more positive reactions. Labeling the acquaintance as depressed led to more negative reactions than when the acquaintance was labeled non-depressed, particularly when the comments were self-defeating. Interestingly, when the acquaintance was described as feeling depressed, affiliative comments made in a humorous fashion led to more positive reactions than did non-humorous affiliative comments. These findings are discussed in terms of the effects of humor and depression on interpersonal interactions. PMID:21501174

Ibarra-Rovillard, M Sol; Kuiper, Nicholas A

2011-10-01

187

Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation  

SciTech Connect

Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with (/sup 32/P)Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-(5,4-d) azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta.

Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

1982-07-01

188

Compressed Medical Gases - Warning Letters for Specific Violations Covering Liquid and Gaseous Oxygen. Chapter 32A, Drugs Adulterated. Guide 7132A.16.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CPG provides guidance for issuing warning letters to firms processing compressed medical gases in violation of the adulteration, misbranded, and/or new drug provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Labelling and testing requirements for ...

1992-01-01

189

Principles of Warning and Criteria Governing Eligibility of National Warning Systems (NAWAS) Terminals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the guide is to provide civil defense and emergency management personnel with information concerning the basic principles of warning. The guide includes descriptions of the types of warning signals and their meaning, the Emergency Broadcast...

1981-01-01

190

The warning glove - Development and evaluation of a multimodal action-specific warning prototype.  

PubMed

This paper has two objectives: first, to introduce the concept of multimodal action-specific warnings and its prototypic realization in the form of a warning glove and second, to present the main findings of a user study that was conducted to test the warning glove against a conventional warning system. Regarding the first goal, the combination of multimodality and action-specificity was implemented by attaching electronic actuators on a right-handed glove for transmitting visual, auditory and tactile feedback. For the second objective, a user study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the warning glove is capable of obtaining faster responses and to determine the perceptions of the users regarding the appropriateness of the warning glove. The results confirmed the assumption of faster response times and participants perceived the warning glove to be 'fairly appropriate'. These results warrant further development of this multimodal action-specific warning glove. PMID:24119868

Schmuntzsch, Ulrike; Sturm, Christine; Roetting, Matthias

2014-09-01

191

Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to potentially affected groups, and how mitigation strategies can be taken in response. This paper presents an outline of the protocol that was developed in the DEWFORA project, outlining the complementary roles of science, policy and societal uptake in effective drought forecasting and warning. A consensus on the need to emphasise the social component of early warning was reached when testing the DEWFORA early warning system protocol among experts from 18 countries.

Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

2014-05-01

192

Agonist-induced alterations in lymphocyte. beta. -adrenergic receptor photoaffintiy labelling: effects of phenylarsine oxide  

SciTech Connect

In several models, desensitization of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor (..beta..AR) is associated with a decrease in binding of hydrophilic but not hydrophobic ..beta..AR ligands. This suggests a sequestration of cell surface ..beta..AR. Desensitization of the lymphobyte ..beta..AR is also associated with a selective reduction in the photoaffinity labelling of a 55K ..beta..AR protein as compared to a 68K ..beta..AR protein. In order to examine the relationship between sequestration and reduction in labelling of the 55K peptide, the authors have studied the effect of phenylarsine oxide (PAO; an inhibitor of sequestration) on lymphocyte ..beta..AR desensitization. Incubation of cells with PAO prior to desensitization did not block the consequent reduction in isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. However, the agonist-induced reduction in binding of the hydrophilic ..beta..AR ligand CGP-12177 was blocked by PAO (without PAO:57 +/- 4% of control, with PAO: 97 +/- 2% of control). Photolabelling studies with (/sup 125/I) iodocyanopindolol diazirine revealed that PAO pretreatment also blocked the selective loss in labelling of the 55K ..beta..AR protein seen with desensitization. These data suggest that loss of labelling of the 55K protein of the ..beta..AR is closely coupled to ..beta..AR sequestration.

Feldman, R.D.; McArdle, W.; Lai, C.

1986-03-01

193

Voluntary Labeling Program for Household Appliances and Equipment to Effect Energy Conservation: Annual Report for Calendar Year 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Voluntary Labeling Program for Household Appliances and Equipment to Effect Energy Conservation was established in response to an April 18, 1973 Presidential directive. Final procedures for the program became effective October 26, 1973. Only major ene...

B. J. McGuire E. A. Vadelund

1975-01-01

194

Economic Effects of the Consumer-oriented Genetically Modified Products in Markets with a Labelling Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on the literature on the economic effects of the second-generation, consumer-oriented genetically modified products (GMPs). It analyses the market and welfare impacts of the introduction of these new products in markets, like the EU, that mandate the segregation and labelling of the first-generation, producer-oriented GMPs. Developing an empirically relevant model of heterogeneous consumers and producers, the study

Rim Lassoued; Konstantinos Giannakas

2010-01-01

195

Market and Welfare Effects of Mandatory Country-Of-Origin Labeling in the Specialty Crops Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public Law 107-171 of the U.S. Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 required country-of-origin labeling (COOL) for beef, lamb, pork, fish, perishable agricultural commodities (fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables) and peanuts. While a goal of this law was to benefit domestic consumers by allowing them to make informed consumption decisions, the effects of COOL on the interest

Alejandro Plastina; Konstantinos Giannakas

2009-01-01

196

Effect of Gastric Anacidity on the Intestinal Absorption of Liver Bound 57 Co-Labelled Cobalamins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

57 Co-labelled cyanocobalamin injected in rabbit was transformed within the liver to 57 Co-labelled desoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcovalamin. The absorption of 57 Co-labelled liver bound cobalamins could be determined with acceptable accuracy by the do...

E. Kittang

1987-01-01

197

LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of earthquakes, for the monitoring of sea level, ocean

M. Hammitzsch; M. Lendholt; J. Wächter

2009-01-01

198

Volcanic hazard warning system: Persistence and transferability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the normative functioning of the volcano warning system on the Island of Hawaii. The research seeks to identify the combination of factors, both environmental and social, which allows the system to operate with success. On the basis of the findings, several recommendations are offered for improving environmental hazard warning systems.

John H. Sorensen; Philip J. Gersmehl

1980-01-01

199

Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that

Jan A. Zysko

2002-01-01

200

Early Warning of Disastrous Population Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early warning of forced migration resulting from man-made disasters could be used for prevention and relief. Though a substantial capacity for early warning now exists, improved organization of existing facilities and their political integration with new approaches is necessary. (Author/GC)

Gordenker, Leon

1986-01-01

201

The Effect of Peptide Identification Search Algorithms on MS2-Based Label-Free Protein Quantification  

PubMed Central

Abstract Several approaches exist for the quantification of proteins in complex samples processed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by fragmentation analysis (MS2). One of these approaches is label-free MS2-based quantification, which takes advantage of the information computed from MS2 spectrum observations to estimate the abundance of a protein in a sample. As a first step in this approach, fragmentation spectra are typically matched to the peptides that generated them by a search algorithm. Because different search algorithms identify overlapping but non-identical sets of peptides, here we investigate whether these differences in peptide identification have an impact on the quantification of the proteins in the sample. We therefore evaluated the effect of using different search algorithms by examining the reproducibility of protein quantification in technical repeat measurements of the same sample. From our results, it is clear that a search engine effect does exist for MS2-based label-free protein quantification methods. As a general conclusion, it is recommended to address the overall possibility of search engine-induced bias in the protein quantification results of label-free MS2-based methods by performing the analysis with two or more distinct search engines.

Degroeve, Sven; Staes, An; De Bock, Pieter-Jan

2012-01-01

202

Labeling and effectiveness testing; sunscreen drug products for over-the-counter human use. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this document to address labeling and effectiveness testing for certain over-the counter (OTC) sunscreen products containing specified active ingredients and marketed without approved applications. This document addresses labeling and effectiveness testing issues raised by the nearly 2,900 submissions that we received in response to the sunscreen proposed rule of August 27, 2007 (2007 proposed rule). The document also identifies specific claims that render a product that is subject to this rule misbranded or would not be allowed on any OTC sunscreen product marketed without an approved application. The document does not address issues related to sunscreen active ingredients or certain other issues regarding the GRASE determination for sunscreen products. The document requires OTC sunscreen products to comply with the content and format requirements for OTC drug labeling contained in the 1999 Drug Facts final rule (published in the Federal Register of March 17, 1999, by lifting the delay of implementation date for that rule that we published on September 3, 2004). PMID:21682059

2011-06-17

203

Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?  

PubMed Central

Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2012-01-01

204

Adapting ISA system warnings to enhance user acceptance.  

PubMed

Inappropriate speed is a major cause of traffic accidents. Different measures have been considered to control traffic speed, and intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) systems are one of the alternatives. These systems know the speed limits and try to improve compliance with them. This paper deals with an informative ISA system that provides the driver with an advance warning before reaching a road section with singular characteristics that require a lower safe speed than the current speed. In spite of the extensive tests performed using ISA systems, few works show how warnings can be adapted to the driver. This paper describes a method to adapt warning parameters (safe speed on curves, zone of influence of a singular stretch, deceleration process and reaction time) to normal driving behavior. The method is based on a set of tests with and without the ISA system. This adjustment, as well as the analysis of driver acceptance before and after the adaptation and changes in driver behavior (changes in speed and path) resulting from the tested ISA regarding a driver's normal driving style, is shown in this paper. The main conclusion is that acceptance by drivers increased significantly after redefining the warning parameters, but the effect of speed homogenization was not reduced. PMID:22664666

Jiménez, Felipe; Liang, Yingzhen; Aparicio, Francisco

2012-09-01

205

Canine mesenchymal stem cells are effectively labeled with silica nanoparticles and unambiguously visualized in highly autofluorescent tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Development of a method for long-term labeling of cells is critical to elucidate transplanted cell fate and migration as well as the contribution to tissue regeneration. Silica nanoparticles have been recently developed and demonstrated to be biocompatible with a high labeling capacity. Thus, our study was designed to assess the suitability of silica nanoparticles for labeling canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the fluorescence afficiency in highly autofluorescent tissue. Results We examined the effect of silica nanoparticle labeling on stem cell morphology, viability and differentiation as compared with those of unlabeled control cells. After 4?h of incubation with silica nanoparticles, they were internalized by canine MSCs without a change in the morphology of cells compared with that of control cells. The viability and proliferation of MSCs labeled with silica nanoparticles were evaluated by a WST-1 assay and trypan blue exclusion. No effects on cell viability were observed, and the proliferation of canine MSCs was not inhibited during culture with silica nanoparticles. Furthermore, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of silica nanoparticle-labeled canine MSCs was at a similar level compared with that of unlabeled cells, indicating that silica nanoparticle labeling did not alter the differentiation capacity of canine MSCs. Silica nanoparticle-labeled canine MSCs were injected into the kidneys of BALB/c mice after celiotomy, and then the mice were sacrificed after 2 or 3?weeks. The localization of injected MSCs was closely examined in highly autofluorescent renal tissues. Histologically, canine MSCs were uniformly and completely labeled with silica nanoparticles, and were unambiguously imaged in histological sections. Conclusions The results of the current study showed that silica nanoparticles are useful as an effective labeling marker for MSCs, which can elucidate the distribution and fate of transplanted MSCs.

2012-01-01

206

Scientific and public responses to the ongoing volcanic crisis at Popocate??petl Volcano, Mexico: Importance of an effective hazards-warning system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic eruptions and other potentially hazardous natural phenomena occur independently of any human actions. However, such phenomena can cause disasters when a society fails to foresee the hazardous manifestations and adopt adequate measures to reduce its vulnerability. One of the causes of such a failure is the lack of a consistent perception of the changing hazards posed by an ongoing eruption, i.e., with members of the scientific community, the Civil Protection authorities and the general public having diverging notions about what is occurring and what may happen. The problem of attaining a perception of risk as uniform as possible in a population measured in millions during an evolving eruption requires searching for communication tools that can describe-as simply as possible-the relations between the level of threat posed by the volcano, and the level of response of the authorities and the public. The hazards-warning system adopted at Popocate??petl Volcano, called the Volcanic Traffic Light Alert System (VTLAS), is a basic communications protocol that translates volcano threat into seven levels of preparedness for the emergency-management authorities, but only three levels of alert for the public (color coded green-yellow-red). The changing status of the volcano threat is represented as the most likely scenarios according to the opinions of an official scientific committee analyzing all available data. The implementation of the VTLAS was intended to reduce the possibility of ambiguous interpretations of intermediate levels by the endangered population. Although the VTLAS is imperfect and has not solved all problems involved in mass communication and decision-making during a volcanic crisis, it marks a significant advance in the management of volcanic crises in Mexico. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

De la, Cruz-Reyna, S.; Tilling, R. I.

2008-01-01

207

CISN ShakeAlert: Accounting for site amplification effects and quantifying time and spatial dependence of uncertainty estimates in the Virtual Seismologist earthquake early warning algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Seismologist (VS) earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithm is one of 3 EEW approaches being incorporated into the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a prototype EEW system being tested in real-time in California. The VS algorithm, implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich, is a Bayesian approach to EEW, wherein the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likehihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS codes have been running in real-time at the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) since July 2008, and at the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) since February 2009. With the aim of improving the convergence of real-time VS magnitude estimates to network magnitudes, we evaluate various empirical and Vs30-based approaches to accounting for site amplification. Empirical station corrections for SCSN stations are derived from M>3.0 events from 2005 through 2009. We evaluate the performance of the various approaches using an independent 2010 dataset. In addition, we analyze real-time VS performance from 2008 to the present to quantify the time and spatial dependence of VS uncertainty estimates. We also summarize real-time VS performance for significant 2011 events in California. Improved magnitude and uncertainty estimates potentially increase the utility of EEW information for end-users, particularly those intending to automate damage-mitigating actions based on real-time information.

Caprio, M.; Cua, G. B.; Wiemer, S.; Fischer, M.; Heaton, T. H.; CISN EEW Team

2011-12-01

208

Graphic gambling warnings: how they affect emotions, cognitive responses and attitude change.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the effects of graphic warnings related to excessive gambling. It is based upon a theoretical model derived from both the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). We focus on video lottery terminal (VLT), one of the most hazardous format in the gaming industry. Our cohort consisted of 103 actual gamblers who reported previous gambling activity on VLT's on a regular basis. We assess the effectiveness of graphic warnings vs. text-only warnings and the effectiveness of two major arguments (i.e., family vs. financial disruption). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test the direct and combined effects of two variables (i.e., warning content and presence vs. absence of a graphic). It was found that the presence of a graphic enhances both cognitive appraisal and fear, and has positive effects on the Depth of Information Processing. In addition, graphic content combined with family disruptions is more effective for changing attitudes and complying with the warning than other combinations of the manipulated variables. It is proposed that ELM and PMT complement each other to explain the effects of warnings. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22648580

Muñoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Borges, Adilson

2013-09-01

209

FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims  

MedlinePLUS

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Search the Consumer Updates Section Researchers hope ... forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

210

Iodine Deficiency Common in Pregnancy, Pediatricians Warn  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Iodine Deficiency Common in Pregnancy, Pediatricians Warn Processed foods ... pregnant and breast-feeding women are deficient in iodine and should take a daily supplement containing iodide, ...

211

Possible Early Warning of Pregnancy Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Research Planning Scientific Resources Research Research at NICHD Research Supported by NICHD Science Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives Possible Early Warning of Pregnancy Abnormalities Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Ectopic pregnancies ...

212

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until...

2010-10-01

213

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until...

2009-10-01

214

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2013-10-01

215

10 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... care and support services. 10 warning signs of Alzheimer's: Memory changes that disrupt daily life One of the most common signs of Alzheimer's, especially in the early stages, is forgetting recently ...

216

Tsunami early warning in the central Mediterranean: effect of the heterogeneity of the seismic source on the timely detectability of a tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Mediterranean, and in particular the coasts of southern Italy, is one of the areas with the highest tsunami hazard in Europe. Limiting our attention to earthquake-generated tsunamis, the sources of historical events hitting this region, as well as the largest part of the potential tsunamigenic seismic sources mapped there, are found at very short distances from the closest shorelines, reducing the time needed for the tsunami to attack the coasts themselves to few minutes. This represents by itself an issue from the Tsunami Early Warning (TEW) perspective. To make the overall problem even more intriguing and challenging, it is known that large tsunamigenic earthquakes are generally characterized by highly heterogeneous distributions of the slip on the fault. This feature has been recognized clearly, for instance, in the giant Sumatra 2004, Chile 2010, and Japan 2011 earthquakes (magnitude 9.3, 8.8 and 9.0, respectively), but it was a property also of smaller magnitude events occurred in the region considered in this study, like the 28 December 1908 Messina Straits tsunamigenic earthquake (M=7.2). In terms of tsunami impact, the parent fault slip heterogeneity usually determines a high variability of run-up and inundation on the near-field coasts, which further complicates the TEW problem. The information on the details of the seismic source rupture coming from the seismic (and possibly geodetic) networks, though of primary importance, is typically available after a time that is comparable or larger than the time comprised between the generation and the impact of the tsunami. In the framework of the EU-FP7 TRIDEC Project, we investigate how a proper marine sensors coverage both along the coasts and offshore can help posing constraints on the characteristics of the source in near-real time. Our approach consists in discussing numerical tsunami scenarios in the central Mediterranean involving different slip distributions on the parent fault; the tsunamigenic region we take into consideration is the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment located offshore eastern Sicily, where several large historical tsunamigenic earthquakes took place (e.g. 11 January 1693). Starting from different slip configurations on a chosen fault, we compare the time series of wave elevation simulated for tide gauges placed along the coast and for virtual deep sea sensors placed at different distances from the source area. The final goal is to understand whether a properly designed marine sensor network can help determining in real-time the slip characteristics along the parent fault and hence forecasting the pattern of impact of the tsunami especially along the closest coasts.

Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.

2012-04-01

217

THE COMPREHENSIBILITY AND CONTENT OF JUVENILE MIRANDA WARNINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually, more than 1.5 million juvenile offenders are arrested and routinely Mirandized with little consideration regarding the comprehensibility of these warnings. The current investigation examined 122 juvenile Miranda warnings from across the United States regarding their length, reading level, and content. Even more variable than general Miranda warnings, juvenile warnings ranged remarkably from 52 to 526 words; inclusion of Miranda

Richard Rogers; Lisa L. Hazelwood; Kenneth W. Sewell; Daniel W. Shuman; Hayley L. Blackwood

2008-01-01

218

Local early warning systems with LS-radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complement to the local optical early warning system is described. The LS system (LS = optical early warning station) is suggested, using simple marine radars equipped with MTI circuits. It is possible for land based MTI-radar to separate moving target echoes from ground echoes. The LS-radar early warning system gives directly a warning to neighboring local command centers. Advantages

Erik Arvidsson

1988-01-01

219

Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

1996-01-01

220

Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia: an open-label study.  

PubMed

Data on risperidone's efficacy and tolerability in adolescents with schizophrenia are scarce. We found only one prospective, open-label study in this population. The aim of this open-label, prospective study was to estimate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of risperidone treatment in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia. Subjects were adolescent inpatients diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) first-episode schizophrenia by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present Episode version. Most of the patients (10/11) were drug naïve. Improvement was assessed during the first 6 weeks of treatment using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale. Side effects were monitored using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, the Simpson-Angus Scale, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, and the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Eleven adolescents between 15.5 and 20 years of age (mean = 17.27, SD = 1.27 years) were included in this study. Risperidone in an average dose of 3.14 mg/day (SD = 1.60 mg/day) produced a significant improvement on the total PANSS score (28%, p < 0.01), BPRS score (30.11%, p < 0.01), and CGI-Severity score (31.36%, p < 0.01). Risperidone was ineffective in the treatment of negative signs as assessed by the PANSS. The major side effects were extrapyramidal side effects, somnolence, depression, and weight gain. In conclusion risperidone appears to be a safe, acceptably tolerated, and effective antipsychotic medication for the treatment of adolescent-onset schizophrenia. PMID:14642020

Zalsman, Gil; Carmon, Einat; Martin, Andrés; Bensason, Daniela; Weizman, Abraham; Tyano, Samuel

2003-01-01

221

Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.  

PubMed

In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. PMID:24503332

Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

2014-05-01

222

Structure health assessment and warning system (SHAWS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a Structure Health Assessment and Warning System (SHAWS) based on building displacement measurements and wireless communication. SHAWS will measure and predict the stability/instability of a building, determine whether it is safe for emergency responders to enter during an emergency, and provide individual warnings on the condition of the structure. SHAWS incorporates remote sensing nodes (RSNs) installed on the exterior frame of a building. Each RSN includes a temperature sensor, a three-axis accelerometer making static-acceleration measurements, and a ZigBee wireless system (IEEE 802.15.4). The RSNs will be deployed remotely using an air cannon delivery system, with each RSN having an innovative adhesive structure for fast (<10 min) and strong installation under emergency conditions. Once the building has moved past a threshold (~0.25 in./building story), a warning will be issued to emergency responders. In addition to the RSNs, SHAWS will include a base station located on an emergency responder's primary vehicle, a PDA for mobile data display to guide responders, and individual warning modules that can be worn by each responder. The individual warning modules will include visual and audio indicators with a ZigBee receiver to provide the proper degree of warning to each responder.

Bock, Daniel M.; Kim, Keehoon; Mapar, Jalal

2008-04-01

223

Effects of the electrode size and modification protocol on a label-free electrochemical biosensor.  

PubMed

In the present work, the effect of a surface modification protocol along with the electrode size has been investigated for developing an efficient, label-free electrochemical biosensing method for diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) biomarkers. A microdisk electrode array (MDEA) and a macroelectrode with a comb structure (MECS) were modified with an anti-GFAP (GFAP = glial fibrillary acidic protein) antibody using two protocols for optimum and label-free detection of GFAP, a promising acute-phase TBI biomarker. For the MDEA, an array of six microdisks with a 100 ?m diameter and, for the MECS, a 3.2 mm × 5.5 mm electrode 5 ?m wide with 10 ?m spaced comb fingers were modified using an optimized protocol for dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (DSP) self-assembled monolayer formation. Anti-GFAP was covalently bound, and the remaining free DSP groups were blocked using ethanolamine (Ea). Sensors were exposed to solutions with different GFAP concentrations, and a label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to determine the concentration. EIS results confirmed that both types of Ea/anti-GFAP/DSP/Au electrodes modified with an optimized DSP-based protocol can accurately detect GFAP in the range of 1 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1 pg mL(-1). However, the cross-use of the MDEA protocol on the MECS and vice versa resulted in very low sensitivity or poor signal resolution, underscoring the importance of proper matching of the electrode size and type and the surface modification protocol. PMID:23651210

Arya, Sunil K; Pui, Tze Sian; Wong, Chee Chung; Kumar, Sai; Rahman, Abdur Rub Abdur

2013-06-01

224

Inconsistent labeling of food effect for oral agents across therapeutic areas: differences between oncology and non-oncology products  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several recent oral oncology drug labels were labeled to be administered in fasted states despite the fact that food increases their bioavailability. Since this was inconsistent with principles of oral drug delivery, we hypothesized that there were inconsistencies across therapeutic areas. Experimental Design Oral agents approved by US FDA from January 2000 to May 2009 were included in our study. Comparison of the food labeling patterns between oncology and non-oncology drugs was made using Fisher's exact test. Results Of 99 drugs evaluated, 34 showed significant food effects on bioavailability. When food markedly enhanced bioavailability, 8 out of 9 non-oncology drugs were labeled “fed” to take advantage of the food-drug interaction while all oncology drugs (n=3) were labeled to be administered in “fasted” states (Fisher's exact; p= 0.01). Conclusions Drug labeling pattern with respect to food-drug interactions observed with oncology drugs is in contradiction to fundamental pharmacological principles, as exemplified in the labeling of non-oncology drugs.

Kang, Soonmo Peter; Ratain, Mark J.

2010-01-01

225

Explicit warnings reduce but do not eliminate the continued influence of misinformation.  

PubMed

Information that initially is presumed to be correct, but that is later retracted or corrected, often continues to influence memory and reasoning. This occurs even if the retraction itself is well remembered. The present study investigated whether the continued influence of misinformation can be reduced by explicitly warning people at the outset that they may be misled. A specific warning--giving detailed information about the continued influence effect (CIE)--succeeded in reducing the continued reliance on outdated information but did not eliminate it. A more general warning--reminding people that facts are not always properly checked before information is disseminated--was even less effective. In an additional experiment, a specific warning was combined with the provision of a plausible alternative explanation for the retracted information. This combined manipulation further reduced the CIE but still failed to eliminate it altogether. PMID:21156872

Ecker, Ullrich K H; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Tang, David T W

2010-12-01

226

Label-free sub-picomolar protein detection with field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

Proteins mediate the bulk of biological activity and are powerfully assayed in the diagnosis of diseases. Protein detection relies largely on antibodies, which have significant technical limitations especially when immobilized on two-dimensional surfaces. Here, we report the integration of peptide aptamers with extended gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to achieve label-free sub-picomolar target protein detection. Specifically, peptide aptamers that recognize highly related protein partners of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family are immobilized on the transistor gate to enable human CDK2 to be detected at 100 fM or 5 pg/mL, well within the clinically relevant range. The target specificity, ease of fabrication, and scalability of these FET arrays further demonstrate the potential application of the multiplexable field effect format to protein sensing. PMID:20394401

Estrela, Pedro; Paul, Debjani; Song, Qifeng; Stadler, Lukas K J; Wang, Ling; Huq, Ejaz; Davis, Jason J; Ko Ferrigno, Paul; Migliorato, Piero

2010-05-01

227

Label free sensing platform for amyloid fibrils effect on living cells.  

PubMed

This study presents a multiparametric label-free analysis gathering surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for monitoring the progress of a model epithelial cell culture (Madin Darbey Canine Kidney - MDCK) exposed to a peptide with high bio-medical relevance, amyloid ? (A?42). The approach surpasses the limitations in using the SPR angle for analyzing confluent cell monolayers and proposes a novel quantitative analysis of the SPR dip combined with advanced EIS as a tool for dynamic cell assessment. Long, up to 48h time series of EIS and SPR data reveal a biphasic cellular response upon A?42 exposure corresponding to changes in cell-substrate adherence, cell-cell tightening or cytoskeletal remodeling. The equivalent circuit used for fitting the EIS spectra provided substantiation of SPR analysis on the progress of cell adhesion as well as insight on dynamics of cell-cell junction. Complementary endpoint assays: western blot analysis and atomic force microscopy experiments have been performed for validation. The proposed label free sensing of nonlethal effect of model amyloid protein at cellular level provides enhanced resolution on cell-surface and cell-cell interactions modulated by membrane related protein apparatus, applicable as well to other adherent cell types and amyloid compounds. PMID:24035851

Gheorghiu, Mihaela; David, Sorin; Polonschii, Cristina; Olaru, Andreea; Gaspar, Szilveszter; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Bogdan O; Gheorghiu, Eugen

2014-02-15

228

?-Stacking effects on the EPR parameters of a prototypical DNA spin label.  

PubMed

The character and value of spin labels for probing environments like double-stranded DNA depend on the degree of change in the spin Hamiltonian parameters of the spin label induced by the environment. Herein we provide a systematic theoretical investigation of this issue, based on a density functional theory method applied to a spin labeled DNA model system, focusing on the dependence of the EPR properties of the spin label on the ? stacking and hydrogen bonding that occur upon incorporating the spin label into the selected base pair inside DNA. It is found that the EPR spin Hamiltonian parameters of the spin label are only negligibly affected by its incorporation into DNA, when compared to its free form. This result gives a theoretical ground for the common empirical assumption regarding the behaviour of spin Hamiltonian parameters made in EPR based measurements of the distance between spin labels incorporated into DNA. PMID:23685812

Frecus, Bogdan; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ågren, Hans

2013-07-01

229

Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings  

PubMed Central

Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests that Australian prescribers may have acted in response to scientific evidence or international safety warnings (EMA, FDA), prior to the response of the TGA. Minor effects were observed after bladder cancer warnings on pioglitazone utilisation.

2014-01-01

230

Investigating drug repositioning opportunities in FDA drug labels through topic modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Drug repositioning offers an opportunity to revitalize the slowing drug discovery pipeline by finding new uses for currently existing drugs. Our hypothesis is that drugs sharing similar side effect profiles are likely to be effective for the same disease, and thus repositioning opportunities can be identified by finding drug pairs with similar side effects documented in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug labels. The safety information in the drug labels is usually obtained in the clinical trial and augmented with the observations in the post-market use of the drug. Therefore, our drug repositioning approach can take the advantage of more comprehensive safety information comparing with conventional de novo approach. Method A probabilistic topic model was constructed based on the terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) that appeared in the Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions, and Adverse Reactions sections of the labels of 870 drugs. Fifty-two unique topics, each containing a set of terms, were identified by using topic modeling. The resulting probabilistic topic associations were used to measure the distance (similarity) between drugs. The success of the proposed model was evaluated by comparing a drug and its nearest neighbor (i.e., a drug pair) for common indications found in the Indications and Usage Section of the drug labels. Results Given a drug with more than three indications, the model yielded a 75% recall, meaning 75% of drug pairs shared one or more common indications. This is significantly higher than the 22% recall rate achieved by random selection. Additionally, the recall rate grows rapidly as the number of drug indications increases and reaches 84% for drugs with 11 indications. The analysis also demonstrated that 65 drugs with a Boxed Warning, which indicates significant risk of serious and possibly life-threatening adverse effects, might be replaced with safer alternatives that do not have a Boxed Warning. In addition, we identified two therapeutic groups of drugs (Musculo-skeletal system and Anti-infective for systemic use) where over 80% of the drugs have a potential replacement with high significance. Conclusion Topic modeling can be a powerful tool for the identification of repositioning opportunities by examining the adverse event terms in FDA approved drug labels. The proposed framework not only suggests drugs that can be repurposed, but also provides insight into the safety of repositioned drugs.

2012-01-01

231

High efficiency Hall effect micro-biosensor platform for detection of magnetically labeled biomolecules.  

PubMed

Detection of magnetically labeled biomolecules using micro-Hall biosensors is a promising method for monitoring biomolecular recognition processes. The measurement efficiency of standard systems is limited by the time taken for magnetic beads to reach the sensing area of the Hall devices. Here, micro-current lines were integrated with Hall effect structures to manipulate the position of magnetic beads via field gradients generated by localized currents flowing in the current lines. Beads were accumulated onto the sensor surface within seconds of passing currents through the current lines. Real-time detection of magnetic beads using current lines integrated with Hall biosensors was achieved. These results are promising in establishing Hall biosensor platforms as efficient and inexpensive means of monitoring biomolecular reactions for medical applications. PMID:17055242

Sandhu, Adarsh; Kumagai, Yoshimichi; Lapicki, Adam; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Abe, Masanori; Handa, Hiroshi

2007-04-15

232

Do warning calls boost survival of signal recipients? Evidence from a field experiment in a group-living bird species  

PubMed Central

Introduction Warning calls are a widespread anti-predator adaptation, which can signal unprofitability to predators or alert other potential targets of the predator. Although it is tacitly assumed that the recipients of warning calls experience a reduction in predation risk, this crucial assumption remains untested. Here I tested this hypothesis with a field experiment in the group-living Siberian jay, Perisoreus infaustus. I exposed male or female breeding adults that were foraging together with a non-breeder (related or unrelated) to a model of their main predator (goshawk Accipiter gentilis) in autumn. I then recorded the warning call response of breeders as well as the reaction time of non-breeders, and followed the subsequent survival of non-breeders until spring. Results In most experiments (73%), non-breeders were warned by the more experienced breeders. Warning calls almost halved the reaction time of non-breeders during the experiment and influenced the survival of call recipients: non-breeders that were warned had a higher subsequent survival (19 out of 23) than non-breeders that were not warned (2 out of 5). However, neither kinship, group size, the age of the non-breeder, or the habitat structure of the territory had an influence on the survival subsequent to the experiments. Conclusions Since earlier studies showed that breeders are consistent in their warning call investment across different contexts, breeders that did warn non-breeders in the experiment were likely to have done so in subsequent, natural attacks. Consequently non-breeders living with breeders that called had a better chance of surviving predator attacks. Thus, these results suggest that warning calls have the potential to boost the survival of signal recipients, confirming a pivotal, yet hitherto untested assumption of the effect of warning calls.

2013-01-01

233

Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that compensates for temperature variations in the signals generated by the pressure transducer. The microprocessor is programmed to generate a warning or alarm if a cabin pressure altitude exceeding a predetermined threshold is detected. Preferably, the microprocessor generates two different types of warning or alarm outputs, a first early warning or alert when a first pressure altitude is exceeded. and a second more serious alarm condition when either a second. higher pressure altitude is exceeded, or when the first pressure altitude has been exceeded for a predetermined period of time. Multiple types of alarm condition indicators are preferably provided, including visual, audible and tactile. The system is also preferably designed to detect gas concentrations and other ambient conditions, and thus incorporates other sensors, such as oxygen, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia sensors, to provide a more complete characterization and monitoring of the local environment.

Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

234

Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that compensates for temperature variations in the signals generated by the pressure transducer. The microprocessor is programmed to generate a warning or alarm if a cabin pressure altitude exceeding a predetermined threshold is detected. Preferably, the microprocessor generates two different types of warning or alarm outputs, a first early warning or alert when a first pressure altitude is exceeded. and a second more serious alarm condition when either a second. higher pressure altitude is exceeded, or when the first pressure altitude has been exceeded for a predetermined period of time. Multiple types of alarm condition indicators are preferably provided, including visual, audible and tactile. The system is also preferably designed to detect gas concentrations and other ambient conditions, and thus incorporates other sensors, such as oxygen, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia sensors, to provide a more complete characterization and monitoring of the local environment.

Zysko, Jan A.

2002-09-01

235

A Rose is a Rose: Effects of label Change, Education, and Sex on Attitudes Toward Mental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on attitudes toward mental disabilities has shown a consistent, positive effect when accurate information re- garding mental disabilities (i.e., education) is made available. Con- versely, the effects of labelling and sex differences produced in- consistent results. This study approaches such attitudes in terms of the \\

Justin D. MacDonald; Peter D. Maclntyre

236

Buffering of the effect of acid rain on decomposition of C-14-labelled beech leaf litter by saprophagous invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of simulated acid rain on the decomposition of C-14-labelled beech leaf litter (4 months old), and the modification of this effect by litter fragmentation by the millipede Glomeris marginata (Villers) and by the burrowing activity of two earthworm species [Lumbricus castaneus (Savigny) and Octolasion lacteum (Örley)], was studied in laboratory experiments over a period of 168 days. The

S. Scheu; V. Wolters

1991-01-01

237

The effect of an external magnetic force on cell adhesion and proliferation of magnetically labeled mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As the strategy for tissue regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation, it is necessary that MSCs be accumulated and kept in the target area. To accumulate MSCs effectively, we developed a novel technique for a magnetic targeting system with magnetically labeled MSCs and an external magnetic force. In this study, we examined the effect of an external

Toshio Nakamae; Nobuo Adachi; Takaaki Kobayashi; Yoshihiko Nagata; Tomoyuki Nakasa; Nobuhiro Tanaka; Mitsuo Ochi

2010-01-01

238

Direct in vivo characterization of delta 5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: Effect of insulin  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DHLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) was compared in normal subjects and diabetic patients before and after treatment with insulin. The kinetics of the incorporation of deuterium-labeled DHLA and its conversion product, deuterium-labeled AA, was determined in plasma triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, and platelet lipids of subjects after ingestion of 2 g of the labeled precursor. Analysis was performed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using multiple ion detection. In normal subjects, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration rose to 24 to 69 mg/L in plasma triglycerides four to nine hours after ingestion and to 20 to 34 mg/L in plasma phospholipids about four hours later. Deuterium-labeled AA appeared at 12 hours, rose to 2.4 to 3.8 mg/L between 48 and 72 hours in plasma phospholipids, but remained at the limit of detection in plasma triglycerides and was undetectable in platelet lipids. In diabetic patients both before and after insulin treatment, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration in plasma triglycerides and in plasma phospholipids followed the same pattern as in normal subjects. However, the deuterium-labeled arachidonic acid concentration was below 1 mg/L in plasma phospholipids before insulin. After insulin treatment the patients recovered normal DHLA metabolism because deuterium-labeled AA rose in phospholipids to a mean value of 3.5 mg/L, which is in the same range as that observed in normal subjects (3.2 mg/L). The present data provide direct evidence for the conversion of DHLA into AA in humans. The effect of insulin and the data from the literature of animal studies suggest insulin dependence of delta 5 desaturase in humans.

el Boustani, S.; Causse, J.E.; Descomps, B.; Monnier, L.; Mendy, F.; Crastes de Paulet, A.

1989-04-01

239

Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only) were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Results Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. Conclusion More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias.

Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A

2008-01-01

240

A framework for drought early warning systems in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework for drought warning and mitigation in Africa is proposed to assist in establishing policy priorities based on scientific evidence. Overall, a science-based approach is a useful guideline, but a number of challenges are recognized. Risk-based approaches to preparing for drought are focused on acquiring accurate probabilistic information about the events themselves. When this is not possible, the strategy fails. In contrast, understanding and reducing vulnerability does not demand accurate predictions of the incidence of extreme drought. Nevertheless, if may be politically difficult to justify drought vulnerability reduction on economic grounds. The evidence-based approach responds to four major questions: First, what is the science available? We evaluate the detection of the signs of impending drought. Second, what are the societal capacities? We evaluating the institutional framework that enables policy development. Third, how can science be translated into policy? We propose a framework for linking science indicators into definition of risk levels and analysing the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. Here we also respond to the question: Can policy be enforced? Evaluation of policy implementation and giving effect to early warning. Finally, how can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating the provision of information to potentially affected groups. Here we also answer: What should society do with the warnings? In this final step we link the science indicators the actions/interventions that society needs to implement.

Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis

2013-04-01

241

Hydrologic Ensemble Forecasts for Flash Flood Warnings at Ungauged Locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of operational flash flood warning systems is one of the challenges in operational hydrology: flash floods are devastating but difficult to monitor and predict due to their nature. To provide flash flood warnings for ungauged basins, Météo-France and Irstea (formally Cemagref) have developed a discharge-threshold flood warning system called AIGA, which combines radar-gauge rainfall grids with a simplified distributed rainfall-runoff model run every 15 minutes at a 1-km² resolution. Operational since 2005 in the Southern part of France, the AIGA system produces, every 15 minutes, a map of the river network with a color chart indicating the range of the estimated return period of the ongoing flood event. To increase forecast lead time and quantify the forcing input uncertainty, the rainfall-runoff distributed model ingests the 11 precipitation ensemble members from the PEARP ensemble prediction system of Météo-France. Performance of the experimental probabilistic precipitation and flow forecasts is evaluated from a variety of ensemble verification metrics (e.g., Continuous Ranked Probability Skill Score, Relative Operating Characteristic score) for different French basins. We also discuss planned enhancements and challenges to assess other sources of hydrologic uncertainty and effectively communicate the uncertainty information to forecasters for better risk-based decision making.

Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Ramos, Maria-Helena

2013-04-01

242

Self-labeling and its effects among adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders.  

PubMed

While youths are increasingly diagnosed with serious psychiatric disorders, little is known about how they conceptualize their own problems or the impact of mental illness labels on their psychological well-being. These are matters of great concern because of the potential vulnerability of young people to stigma as well as the fact that fear of labels or anticipation of stigma are common barriers to adolescents' ongoing mental health service utilization. This study uses mixed-method interviews with 54 US adolescents receiving integrated mental health services in a mid-sized mid-Western city to examine: (1) the extent to which they use psychiatric terms to refer to their problems ("self-label"), and (2) the relationships between adolescents' self-labeling and indicators of psychological well-being (self-esteem, mastery, depression and self-stigma). Associations between self-labeling and perceived negative treatment by others (public-stigma), clinical and demographic factors are explored to identify which adolescents are more likely to self-label. Based on Modified Labeling Theory [Link, B., Cullen, F., & Struening, E. (1989). A modified labeling theory approach to mental disorders: An empirical assessment. American Sociological Review, 54(3), 400-423.] and Thoits's [(1985). Self-labeling processes in mental illness: The role of emotional deviance. American Journal of Sociology, 91(2), 221-249.] work on self-labeling, it was expected that many youth would not self-label and that self-labelers would demonstrate poorer psychological well-being. As expected, the findings indicated that only a minority of adolescents 'self-labeled'. Most conceptualized their problems in non-pathological terms or demonstrated uncertainty or confusion about the nature of their problems. Adolescent who self-labeled reported higher ratings on self-stigma and depression, and a trend toward a lower sense of mastery, but there was no association with self-esteem. Certain characteristics and experiences were correlated with a greater propensity to self-label including: more perceived public-stigma, younger age at initiation of treatment, and higher socio-economic status. This work contributes to knowledge about the variation of adolescents' experiences with stigmatizing labels and their impacts. PMID:19084313

Moses, Tally

2009-02-01

243

Effect of Labeling with Iron Oxide Particles or Nanodiamonds on the Functionality of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (?0.9 µm) fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green) superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles); and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ?0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo.

Blaber, Sinead P.; Hill, Cameron J.; Webster, Rebecca A.; Say, Jana M.; Brown, Louise J.; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vesey, Graham; Herbert, Benjamin Ross

2013-01-01

244

TRMM Applications for Rainfall-Induced Landslide Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning system (EWS) is the most effective method in saving lives and reducing property damages resulted from the catastrophic landslides if properly implemented in populated areas of landslide-prone nations. For predicting the occurrence of landslides, it requires examination of empirical relationship between rainfall characteristics and past landslide occurrence. In developed countries like Japan and the US, precipitation is monitored by rain radars and ground-based rain gauge matrix. However, in developing regions like Southeast Asian countries, very limited number of rain gauges is available, and there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. Correspondingly, satellite precipitation monitoring could be therefore a possible and promising solution for launching landslide quasi-real-time early warning system in those countries. It is due to the fact that TMPA (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis) can provides a globally calibration-based sequential scheme for combining precipitation estimates from multiple satellites, and gauge analyses where feasible, at fine scales (3-hourly with 0.25°x0.25° spatial resolution). It is available both after and in quasi-real time, calibrated by TRMM Combined Instrument and TRMM Microwave Imager precipitation product. However, validation of ground based rain gauge and TRMM satellite data in the vulnerable regions is still not yet operative. Snake-line/Critical-line and Soil Water Index (SWI) are used for issuing warning of landslide occurrence in Japan; whereas, Caine criterion is preferable in Europe and western nations. Herewith, it presents rainfall behavior which took place in Beichuan city (located on the 2008 Chinese Wenchuan earthquake fault), Hofu and Shobara cities in Japan where localized heavy rainfall attacked in 2009 and 2010, respectively, from TRMM 3B42RT correlated with ground based rain gauge data. The 1-day rainfall intensity and 15-day cumulative rainfall (snake line) were independently plotted to investigate the impact of short-term rainfall intensity and accumulated effective rainfall volume respectively for obtaining some probabilistic threshold. Japanese SWI was also tested to distribute threshold regarding to highly nonlinear rainfall patterns in predicting the landslide occurrence through the plot of total water of 3 serial tank models and daily precipitation. As a result, the snake line plots using TMPA work well for landslide warning in the selected cities; while SWI plots shows unusual peak value on the day of the debris flow occurrence. Graph of daily precipitation vs SWI implies possible zone of critical line, and second peak appearance 1 day before, indicating possibility of early warning.

Dok, A.; Fukuoka, H.; Hong, Y.

2012-04-01

245

GIS-aided avalanche warning in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Avalanche warning for large areas requires the processing of an extensive amount of data. Information relating to the three basic requirements for avalanche warning – knowledge of terrain, the snow conditions, and the weather – needs to be available for the forecaster. The information is highly variable in time. The form and visualization of the data is often decisive for the use by the avalanche forecasters and therefore also for the quality of the produced forecasts. Avalanche warnings can be issued at different scales from national to regional and down to object specific. Often the same warning service is working at different scales and for different clients requiring a flexible and scalable approach. The workflow for producing avalanche forecasts must be extremely efficient – all the way from acquiring observation data, evaluating the situation, down to publishing the new forecast. In this study it has been an aim to include the entire workflow in a single web application. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) solution was chosen to include all data needed by the forecaster for the avalanche danger evaluation. This interactive system of maps features background information for the entire country, such as topographic maps, slope steepness, aspect, hill shades and satellite images. In each avalanche warning area, all active avalanche paths are plotted including information on wind exposure. Each avalanche path is linked to a webpage with more details, such as fall height, release area elevation and pictures. The avalanche path webpage also includes information on the object at risk e.g. buildings, roads, or other objects. Thus, the forecaster can easily get an overview on the overall situation and focus on single avalanche paths to generate detailed avalanche warnings for the client.

Jaedicke, Christian; Syre, Egil; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Kjetil

2014-05-01

246

Lessons from New Zealand's introduction of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packaging.  

PubMed

While international evidence suggests that featuring pictorial health warnings on tobacco packaging is an effective tobacco control intervention, the process used to introduce these new warnings has not been well documented. We examined relevant documents and interviewed officials responsible for this process in New Zealand. We found that, despite tobacco companies' opposition to pictorial health warnings and the resource constraints facing health authorities, the implementation process was generally robust and successful. Potential lessons for other countries planning to introduce or refresh existing pictorial health warnings include: (i) strengthening the link between image research and policy; (ii) requiring frequent image development and refreshment; (iii) using larger pictures (e.g. 80% of the front of the packet); (iv) developing themes that recognize concerns held by different smoker sub-groups; and (v) running integrated mass media campaigns when the warnings are introduced. All countries could also support moves by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's Secretariat to develop an international bank of copyright-free warnings. PMID:21076568

Hoek, Janet; Wilson, Nick; Allen, Matthew; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George; Li, Judy

2010-11-01

247

West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunami warning center for Alaska and the west coast of the United States. Users can access current tsunami information through an interactive map that shows the latest events and information statements. Rolling over the map symbols provides the date and time, location, and preliminary magnitude of earthquakes. Clicking on them provides access to additional information, including a statement of whether a tsunami is expected. There are also links to previous warning messages, Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds with headlines, links to documents and brief information; publications; and links to related sites with additional information.

2010-11-12

248

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

SciTech Connect

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

Schiffbauer, William H. (Connellsville, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01

249

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

DOEpatents

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

1999-08-17

250

Warning: accident at Three Mile Island  

SciTech Connect

A reporter and an engineer reconstruct the events leading up to and following the March, 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island Reactor Number Two. They begin with the compromises and work pace required in designing, siting, and building a nuclear reactor and the warnings from incidents involving other reactors. The authors give a chronological report of the events and responses during the days following the accident. They view Three Mile Island as a warning that all the safety systems may not work in a future accident. 7 figures. (DCK)

Gray, M.; Rosen, I.

1982-01-01

251

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

SciTech Connect

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

1996-12-31

252

The Effect of a Diagnostic Label of Language Delay on Adults' Perceptions of Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults (n=20) who interacted with small groups of preschoolers, including a child with expressive language disorder (ELD), evaluated the ELD child differentially depending on awareness of the child's ELD label. Adults unaware of the label ranked the ELD child as less likable and less productive and predicted less academic competence. Aware adults…

Wood, Michelle; Valdez-Menchaca, Marta C.

1996-01-01

253

Automaticity of Basic-Level Categorization Accounts for Labeling Effects in Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are there consequences of calling objects by their names? Lupyan (2008) suggested that overtly labeling objects impairs subsequent recognition memory because labeling shifts stored memory representations of objects toward the category prototype (representational shift hypothesis). In Experiment 1, we show that processing objects at the basic…

Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

254

Obtaining Reprints--The Effects of Self-Addressed Return Labels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the response rates for obtaining journal reprints from colleagues when the requests are made using postcards with or without a self-addressed return label. Notes that higher response rates were obtained from the cards with the self-addressed return labels, and more women responded than did men, but these differences were not statistically…

Hartley, James

2002-01-01

255

Rapid telemetry and earthquake early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is currently testing algorithms for earthquake early warning on the realtime seismic systems in the state. An earthquake warning system rapidly detects the initiation of earthquakes and assesses the associated hazard. The goal is to provide warning of potentially damaging ground motion in a target region prior to the arrival of seismic waves. The network-based approach to early warning requires station data to be gathered at a central site for joint processing. ElarmS, one network-based approach being tested, currently runs 15 sec behind realtime in order to gather ~90% of station data before processing. Even with this delay the recent Mw 5.4 Alum Rock earthquake near San Jose was detected and an accurate hazard assessment was available before ground shaking in San Francisco. The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method, another network-based approach, is a Bayesian method that incorporates information such as network topology, previously observed seismicity, and the Gutenberg-Richter relationship in magnitude and location estimation. The VS method is currently being transitioned from off-line to real-time testing and will soon be running 15 sec behind real-time, as in the case of ElarmS. We are also testing an on-site warning approach, which is based on single-station observations. On-site systems can deliver earthquake information faster than regional systems, and the warning could possibly reach potential users at much closer epicentral distances before the damaging shaking starts. By definition, on-site systems do not require a central processing facility or delivery of data from a distant seismic station, but they are less robust that networked-based systems and need a fast and reliable telemetry to deliver warnings to local users. The range of possible warning times is typically seconds to tens of seconds and every second of data latency translates into an equal reduction in the available warning time. Minimal latency is therefore important to warning systems. Sources of latency range from data packetization in the digitizer system through telemetry systems to processing at the data (warning) center. As part of the ongoing testing in California, we are assessing the data latencies for the various generations of geophysical equipment currently in use, and find that one large source of delay is the packetization of data by dataloggers prior to transmission. We are also assessing delays caused within telemetry systems ranging from satellite connections through radio, frame relay, cell phone data services and publicly available internet services such as DSL. We are investigating ways to reduce the current delays and formulating specifications for the next generation of geophysical networks that will provide realtime data in a robust fashion.

Allen, R.; Bose, M.; Brown, H.; Cua, G.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Heaton, T.; Hellweg, M.; Jordan, T.; Kireev, A.; Maechling, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Solanki, K.; Zeleznik, M.

2008-05-01

256

Effects of zonisamide on tardive dyskinesia: a preliminary open-label trial.  

PubMed

Once developed, tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a challenging condition to treat. The recent evidence has indicated that zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug indicated for partial-onset seizures, may also have beneficial effects for ameliorating dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. However, this finding has not systematically been tested in psychiatric patients with TD associated with antipsychotic treatment. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of zonisamide against TD in these patients. In this 4-week open-label study, subjects who suffered TD were given 50-100 mg/day of add-on zonisamide. Severity of TD was evaluated at the baseline and endpoint, using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Eleven subjects (6 females; mean±SD age, 75.5±4.7 years; schizophrenia [N=6], bipolar affective disorder [N=2], schizoaffective disorder [N=1], mental retardation [N=1], mental retardation with epilepsy [N=1]; 6 were antipsychotic free at baseline) participated in this study. The AIMS total score (mean±SD) was significantly decreased from 24.1±5.5 to 19.5±5.9, with 36.4% of the subjects (N=4) demonstrating 20% or more decrease in the AIMS total score. Treatment with zonisamide was well-tolerated and no participants dropped out prematurely. In conclusion, zonisamide may be safe and effective for the treatment of TD associated with antipsychotic treatment. These preliminary findings need to be further explored by larger well-designed trials. PMID:22285275

Iwata, Yusuke; Irie, Sachiko; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru

2012-04-15

257

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2013-10-01

258

As Antidepressant Warnings Toughened, Teen Suicide Attempts Rose  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. As Antidepressant Warnings Toughened, Teen Suicide Attempts Rose: Study Overreaction to FDA warning may ... Thursday, June 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Antidepressants Suicide Teen Mental Health WEDNESDAY, June 18, 2014 (HealthDay ...

259

46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards...

2013-10-01

260

49 CFR 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.19 Hazard warning signals. The hazard warning signal...

2013-10-01

261

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning...warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...or nursing infant during the period of pregnancy or nursing. (2) Drugs...

2010-04-01

262

ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in March 2012, initiated by a joint NASA and USDA press release, and followed by a series of training webinars. Almost 60 early-adopter state and federal forest managers attended at least one of the ForWarn rollout webinars. The ForWarn home page has had 2,632 unique visitors since rollout in March 2012, with 39% returning visits. ForWarn was used to map tornado scars from the historic April 27, 2011 tornado outbreak, and detected timber damage within more than a dozen tornado tracks across northern Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. ForWarn is the result of an ongoing, substantive cooperation among four different government agencies: USDA, NASA, USGS, and DOE. Disturbance maps are available on the web through the ForWarn Change Assessment Viewer at http://forwarn.forestthreats.org/fcav.

Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

2012-12-01

263

The effect of protein restricted diets on the clearance of 125I-labelled polyvinyl pyrrolidone in mice  

PubMed Central

Ajax mice pair-fed isocaloric diets in which protein was restricted to 4% had impaired overall phagocytosis (KPVP)—the clearance of 125I-labelled polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). This effect was produced and reversed within 3 days and occurred without effect on growth. In other mouse strains when the KPVP was reduced, ?PVP, perhaps the function of individual macrophages, was increased with protein deprivation. Both these effects showed inter-strain variation.

Coovadia, H. M.; Soothill, J. F.

1976-01-01

264

Flash flood warning system in risky area  

Microsoft Academic Search

h Abstract- This paper proposes a system that can early warn about the upcoming flash flood and also landslide for the upstream and downstream areas. The system uses solar cells together with batteries as the main power and can be split into two parts. The first part is the transmitter installed at the upstream and composes of a data logger,

Yongyut Chonbodeechalermroong; Sombat Chuenchooklin

2011-01-01

265

How helpful are early warning scores?  

PubMed

This article discusses a literature review examining UK practice and the origins, benefits and limitations of early warning scores. An accompanying article (page 15) discusses the introduction of clinical-based trigger questions to help ward-based nurses to identify patients whose condition is deteriorating. PMID:24597202

Carberry, Martin; Clements, Pauline; Headley, Elaine

266

DRUG ABUSE WARNING NETWORK (DAWN) DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is an ongoing drug abuse data collection system sponsored by SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies. DAWN collects data from: (1) hospital emergency departments (EDs) and (2) medical examiners (MEs). The DAWN ED component relies on a nationally r...

267

Validation of the Epileptic Seizure Warning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 15-month study aimed at validating the epileptic seizure warning system designed by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Corporation found it to be reasonably efficient in a test population of 13. Besides the history and description of the study, technical ...

S. S. Viglione

1975-01-01

268

Collision warning design to mitigate driver distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computers and other information technology move into cars and trucks, distraction-related crashes are likely to become an important problem. This paper begins to address this problem by examining how alert strategy (graded and single-stage) and alert modality (haptic and auditory) affect how well collision warning systems mitigate distraction and direct drivers attention to the car ahead when it unexpectedly

John D. Lee; Joshua D. Hoffman; Elizabeth Hayes

2004-01-01

269

Brake wear warning device: A concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat-insulated wire is introduced through brake shoe and partially into brake lining. Wire is connected to positive terminal and light bulb. When brakes wear to critical point, contact between wire and wheel drum grounds circuit and turns on warning light.

Hawkins, S. F.

1973-01-01

270

The importance of RF bandwidth for effective tagging in pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI at 9.4T.  

PubMed

The movement towards MRI at higher field strengths (>7T) has enhanced the appeal of arterial spin labeling (ASL) for many applications due to improved SNR of the measurements. Greater field strength also introduces increased magnetic susceptibility effects resulting in marked B(0) field inhomogeneity. Although B(0) field perturbations can be minimised by shimming over the imaging volume, marked field inhomogeneity is likely to remain within the labeling region for pulsed ASL (PASL). This study highlights a potential source of error in cerebral blood flow quantification using PASL at high field. We show that labeling efficiency in flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) displayed marked sensitivity to the RF bandwidth of the inversion pulse in a rat model at 9.4T. The majority of preclinical PASL studies have not reported the bandwidth of the inversion pulse. We show that a high bandwidth pulse of >?=?15?kHz was required to robustly overcome the field inhomogeneity in the labeling region at high field strength, which is significantly greater than the inversion bandwidth ~2-3?kHz used in previous studies. Unless SAR levels are at their limit, we suggest the use of a high bandwidth labeling pulse for most PASL studies. PMID:22514019

Wells, J A; Siow, B; Lythgoe, M F; Thomas, D L

2012-10-01

271

An NMR Investigation of the Conformational Effect of Nitroxide Spin Labels on Ala-Rich Helical Peptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitroxide spin labels, in conjunction with electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments, are extensively employed to probe the structure and dynamics of biomolecules. One of the most ubiquitous spin labeling reagents is the methanethiosulfonate spin label which attaches a spin label selectively to Cys residues via a disulfide bond (Cys-SL). However, the actual effect of the nitroxide spin label upon the conformation of the peptide or protein cannot be unambiguously determined by ESR. In this study, a series of 16-residue Ala-rich helical peptides was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The C ?H chemical shift analysis, NOEs, and 3JNH?coupling constants for peptides with no Cys, free Cys, and Cys-SL (with the N-O group reduced) were compared. These results indicate that while replacement of an Ala with a Cys residue causes a loss of overall helical structure, the Cys-SL residue is helix supporting, as would be expected for a non-?-branched aliphatic amino acid. Thus, the Cys-SL residue does not perturb helical structure and, instead, exhibits helix-stabilizing characteristics similar to that found for Ala, Met, and Leu.

Bolin, Kimberly A.; Hanson, Paul; Wright, Sarah J.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

1998-04-01

272

Effect of plasmapheresis on the liver uptake of ApoB-lipoproteins labeled with technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

To study liver low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor activity before and after plasmapheresis, ({sup 99m}Tc) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was used. Autologous VLDL was labeled, sterilized by filtration, and administered intravenously to patients under a gamma camera. The uptake of lipoproteins in the liver was measured by scintiscanning. Liver activity curves were generated for each patient. The liver activity in patients with the heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis (SA) without hereditary deficit of LDL receptors was reduced as compared to healthy people. Plasmapheresis enhanced the liver uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled lipoproteins in atherosclerotic patients. Thus, labeled metabolites could presumably be of use in assessing the effect of plasmapheresis on liver function.

Anisimova, O.Ju.; Konovalov, G.A.; Agapov, I.I.; Fuki, I.V.; Sergienko, V.B.; Repin, V.S.; Kukharchuk, V.V. (USSR Cardiology Research Center, Moscow (USSR))

1989-12-01

273

Application of the new zinc-62/copper-62 generator: an effective labeling method for 62Cu-PTSM.  

PubMed

A potential PET flow tracer, 62Cu-labeled pyruvaldehyde bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (62Cu-PTSM), was prepared using a new 62Zn/62Cu generator. With this 62Cu-labeling method based on a ligand exchange reaction, 62Cu-PTSM was quantitatively obtained by simple mixing of the generator eluate, 62Cu-glycine and PTSM solution for a few seconds. The glycine contained in the 62Cu-PTSM injectate had no significant effect in mouse biodistribution studies. The PET studies of 62Cu-PTSM showed brain images that were not visualized by 62Cu-labeled albumin (a plasma pool tracer), in the dog cranium. PMID:1577613

Matsumoto, K; Fujibayashi, Y; Yonekura, Y; Wada, K; Takemura, Y; Konishi, J; Yokoyama, A

1992-01-01

274

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2013-04-01

275

Red Warning Triangles. Vehicle Perceptibility 3. Function, Design and Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document reports on the warning system for vehicles stationary on the highway in Europe--the red warning triangle. Standards to be given for perceptibility and wind stability of the red warning triangles. The report analyses the practical conditions o...

1970-01-01

276

One-Year-Olds Warn Others about Negative Action Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Warning others is a paradigm case of communicative helping and prospective action understanding. The current study addressed the ontogeny of warning in infants' gestural communication. We found that 12- and 18-month-olds ("n" = 84) spontaneously warned an adult by pointing out to her an aversive object hidden in her way…

Knudsen, Birgit; Liszkowski, Ulf

2013-01-01

277

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. ...specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

2009-04-01

278

Reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistor for label-free femtomolar protein detection.  

PubMed

We report reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (R-GO FET) biosensor for label-free ultrasensitive detection of a prostate cancer biomarker, prostate specific antigen/?1-antichymotrypsin (PSA-ACT) complex. The R-GO channel in the device was formed by reduction of graphene oxide nanosheets networked by a self-assembly process. Immunoreaction of PSA-ACT complexes with PSA monoclonal antibodies on the R-GO channel surface caused a linear response in the shift of the gate voltage, V(g,min), where the minimum conductivity occurs. The R-GO FET can detect protein-protein interactions down to femtomolar level with a dynamic range over 6-orders of magnitude in the V(g,min) shift as a sensitivity parameter. High association constants of 3.2 nM(-1) and 4.2 nM(-1) were obtained for the pH 6.2 and pH 7.4 analyte solutions, respectively. The R-GO FET biosensor showed a high specificity to other cancer biomarker in the phosphate buffered saline solutions as well as in the human serum. PMID:23107386

Kim, Duck-Jin; Sohn, Il Yung; Jung, Jin-Heak; Yoon, Ok Ja; Lee, N-E; Park, Joon-Shik

2013-03-15

279

Nanoclusters of iron oxide: effect of core composition on structure, biocompatibility, and cell labeling efficacy.  

PubMed

Inorganic nanocrystals have a variety of applications in medicine. They may serve as contrast agents, therapeutics, and for in vitro diagnostics. Frequently, the synthesis route yields hydrophobically capped nanocrystals, which necessitates their subsequent coating to render a water-soluble and biocompatible probe. Biocompatibility is crucial for cellular imaging applications, which require large quantities of diagnostically active nanoparticles to be loaded into cells. We have previously reported the design and synthesis of a fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging-detectable core-shell nanoparticle that encapsulates hydrophobically coated iron oxide nanocrystals. The core of soybean oil and iron oxide is covered by a shell mixture of phospholipids, some of which contained polyethylene glycol. Despite the biocompatibility of these components, we hypothesize that we can improve this formulation with respect to in vitro toxicity. To this aim, we measured the effect of six different core compositions on nanoparticle structure, cell labeling efficacy, and cell viability, as well as cell tracking potential. We methodically investigated the causes of toxicity and conclude that, even when combining biocompatible materials, the resulting formulation is not guaranteed to be biocompatible. PMID:22471239

van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Cormode, David P; Jarzyna, Peter A; van der Toorn, Annette; van der Pol, Susanne M A; van Bloois, Louis; Fayad, Zahi A; Storm, Gert; Mulder, Willem J M; de Vries, Helga E; Dijkhuizen, Rick M

2012-05-16

280

Direct and indirect effects of functionalised fluorescence-labelled nanoparticles on human osteoclast formation and activity.  

PubMed

Recently, it was demonstrated that phosphonate-functionalised nanoparticles were successfully taken up by mesenchymal stem cells without influencing their viability and differentiation capacity, suggesting that they may provide a promising basis for the development of nanoparticles for drug delivery or cell labelling. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of these nanoparticles on osteoclast formation and activity as well as on the inflammatory response of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The intracellular uptake of the particles by human osteoclasts and osteoblasts was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, carboanhydrase II, cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor and osteoclast-specific vacuolar proton pump subunit TCIRG1 as well as actin ring formation were not significantly altered in osteoclasts by particle treatment, as demonstrated by cytochemical staining and immunostaining. Active calcium phosphate resorption by osteoclasts was also not significantly influenced by the particles. The expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1?) by osteoclasts and osteoblasts and the expression of osteoclast-regulating genes (M-CSF, OPG, RANKL) in osteoblasts were similarly not significantly affected. In conclusion, phosphonate-functionalised nanoparticles did not affect osteoclast formation and activity either directly or indirectly, suggesting that they could provide a promising tool for the development of particle-based treatments for anti-resorptive therapies. PMID:21093909

Tautzenberger, Andrea; Kreja, Ludwika; Zeller, Anke; Lorenz, Steffen; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Ignatius, Anita

2011-02-01

281

Effectiveness and Duration of Effect of Open-Label Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adults With ADHD.  

PubMed

Objectives: (a) Evaluate the efficacy and duration of effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in adult ADHD. (b) Assess the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Medication Smoothness of Effect Scale (AMSES) and Adult ADHD Medication Rebound Scale (AMRS). Method: Adults (N = 40) with ADHD were treated with LDX for up to 12 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). The psychometric properties of the AMSES and AMRS are analyzed and compared with the ADHD-RS, ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) v1.1 Symptom Checklist, and Time-Sensitive ADHD Symptom Scale (TASS). Results: ADHD-RS scores were significantly improved with LDX. The AMSES and AMRS had high internal consistency and were correlated with the ADHD-RS, ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist, and TASS. Conclusion: LDX is effective in treating adult ADHD and has a smooth drug effect throughout the day with limited symptom rebound. The AMSES and AMRS are valid and reliable measures. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23657761

Adler, Lenard A; Lynch, Lauren R; Shaw, David M; Wallace, Samantha P; O'Donnell, Katherine E; Ciranni, Michael A; Briggie, Alexis M; Faraone, Stephen V

2013-05-01

282

Methane production in ruminants: Its effect on the doubly labeled water method  

SciTech Connect

The doubly labeled water (DLW) technique for measuring CO2 production (rCO2) in free-living animals requires an assessment of the elimination of both 2H and 18O from the body over a long period of time. To calculate rCO2, it is necessary to calculate water turnover (rH2O) from the 2H flux rate. In ruminant animals, the accuracy of this calculation is affected by the loss of 2H in methane. We have quantified the effect of methane production (rCH4) on the 2H flux rate, determined in four sheep given 2H2O. The methane produced was depleted in 2H relative to the urine. A relationship between the enrichment of the methane and urine was established. The ratio of urine to methane enrichment was found on average to be 0.6536, and this value was unaffected by the level of rCH4 but showed some dependence on the absolute concentration of 2H in urine. For this reason, the ratio value obtained from four sheep not given 2H2O was different, a mean of 0.6886 was measured, this ratio was unaffected by changes in the diet supplied to the animals. Computer modeling was used to illustrate the dependence of the isotopically derived value for rCO2 on not only rCH4 but also the magnitude of rCO2 itself. The effect of rCH4 on the DLW method can be predicted from the observed ratio of rCO2 to rCH4 and the value of 0.6536 obtained for the ratio of methane to urine enrichment. With the use of data from several studies at this Institute, a limited range of 10 to 20 was found for rCO2/rCH4 in animals fed at or above maintenance.

Midwood, A.J.; Haggarty, P.; McGaw, B.A.; Robinson, J.J. (Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland (England))

1989-12-01

283

Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.  

PubMed

As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

2004-01-01

284

Early Warning for Large Magnitude Earthquakes: Is it feasible?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mega-thrust, Mw 9.0, 2011 Tohoku earthquake has re-opened the discussion among the scientific community about the effectiveness of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems, when applied to such large events. Many EEW systems are now under-testing or -development worldwide and most of them are based on the real-time measurement of ground motion parameters in a few second window after the P-wave arrival. Currently, we are using the initial Peak Displacement (Pd), and the Predominant Period (?c), among other parameters, to rapidly estimate the earthquake magnitude and damage potential. A well known problem about the real-time estimation of the magnitude is the parameter saturation. Several authors have shown that the scaling laws between early warning parameters and magnitude are robust and effective up to magnitude 6.5-7; the correlation, however, has not yet been verified for larger events. The Tohoku earthquake occurred near the East coast of Honshu, Japan, on the subduction boundary between the Pacific and the Okhotsk plates. The high quality Kik- and K- networks provided a large quantity of strong motion records of the mainshock, with a wide azimuthal coverage both along the Japan coast and inland. More than 300 3-component accelerograms have been available, with an epicentral distance ranging from about 100 km up to more than 500 km. This earthquake thus presents an optimal case study for testing the physical bases of early warning and to investigate the feasibility of a real-time estimation of earthquake size and damage potential even for M > 7 earthquakes. In the present work we used the acceleration waveform data of the main shock for stations along the coast, up to 200 km epicentral distance. We measured the early warning parameters, Pd and ?c, within different time windows, starting from 3 seconds, and expanding the testing time window up to 30 seconds. The aim is to verify the correlation of these parameters with Peak Ground Velocity and Magnitude, respectively, as a function of the length of the P-wave window. The entire rupture process of the Tohoku earthquake lasted more than 120 seconds, as shown by the source time functions obtained by several authors. When a 3 second window is used to measure Pd and ?c the result is an obvious underestimation of the event size and final PGV. However, as the time window increases up to 27-30 seconds, the measured values of Pd and ?c become comparable with those expected for a magnitude M?8.5 earthquake, according to the ?c vs. M and the PGV vs. Pd relationships obtained in a previous work. Since we did not observe any saturation effect for the predominant period and peak displacement measured within a P-wave, 30-seconds window, we infer that, at least from a theoretical point of view, the estimation of earthquake damage potential through the early warning parameters is still feasible for large events, provided that a longer time window is used for parameter measurement. The off-line analysis of the Tohoku event records shows that reliable estimations of the damage potential could have been obtained 40-50 seconds after the origin time, by updating the measurements of the early warning parameters in progressively enlarged P-wave time windows from 3 to 30 seconds.

Zollo, A.; Colombelli, S.; Kanamori, H.

2011-12-01

285

Trends in use of antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia: impact of national safety warnings  

PubMed Central

Based on evidence of an increased risk of death, drug agencies issued safety warnings about the use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the elderly with dementia in 2004. This warning was extended to all antipsychotics in 2008. Little is known about the impact of these warnings on use. We conducted a quasi-experimental study (interrupted time-series) in France, for 2003–2011, including subjects aged ?65 with dementia and subjects aged ?65 without dementia in the EGB database (1/97th representative random sample of claims from the main Health Insurance scheme). Outcomes were monthly rates of use of antipsychotics (by class and agent) and of 5 comparison drug classes (antidepressants, benzodiazepines, dermatologicals, antidiabetics, antiasthmatics). Trends were analyzed by joinpoint regression, impact of warnings by linear segmented regression. In patients with dementia (n=7169), there was a 40% reduction in antipsychotic use from 14.2% in 2003 to 10.2% in 2011. The reduction began before 2004 and was unaffected by the warnings. Use of first generation antipsychotics declined over the period, while use of SGAs increased and leveled off from 2007. Use of the 5 comparison drug classes increased on the period. In subjects without dementia (n=91942), rates of overall antipsychotic use decreased from 2.3% in 2003 to 1.8% in 2011 with no effect of the warnings. Meanwhile, use of SGAs continuously increased from 0.37% to 0.64%. Antipsychotic use decreased in the elderly between 2003 and 2011, especially in dementia. The timing of the decrease, however, did not coincide with safety warnings.

Gallini, Adeline; Andrieu, Sandrine; Donohue, Julie M; Oumouhou, Naima; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gardette, Virginie

2014-01-01

286

Saturation transfer electron spin resonance of Ca2(+)-ATPase covalently spin-labeled with beta-substituted vinyl ketone- and maleimide-nitroxide derivatives. Effects of segmental motion and labeling levels.  

PubMed Central

The Ca2(+)-ATPase in native sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes was selectively spin-labeled for saturation transfer electron spin resonance (ESR) studies by prelabeling with N-ethylmaleimide and by using low label/protein ratios. Results with the nitroxide derivative of the standard sulphydryl-modifying reagent, maleimide, were compared with a series of six novel nitroxide beta-substituted vinyl aryl ketone derivatives which differed (with two exceptions) in the substituent at the ketone position. The two exceptions had a different electron withdrawing group at the alpha-carbon, to enhance further the electrophilic character of the beta-carbon. Although differing in their reactivity, all the conjugated unsaturated ketone nitroxide derivatives displayed saturation transfer ESR spectra indicative of much slower motion than did the maleimide derivative. The saturation transfer ESR spectra of maleimide-labeled Ca2(+)-ATPase therefore most likely contain substantial contributions from segmental motion of the labeled group. The effects of the level of spin labeling were also investigated. With increasing degree of spin label incorporation, the linewidths of the conventional ESR spectrum progressively increased and the intensity of the saturation transfer spectrum dropped dramatically, as a result of increasing spin-spin interactions. The hyperfine splittings of the conventional spectrum and the outer lineheight ratios of the saturation transfer spectrum remained relatively unchanged. Extrapolation back to zero labeling level yielded comparable values for the effective rotational correlation times deduced from the saturation transfer spectrum intensities and from the lineheight ratios, for the vinyl ketone label. For the maleimide label the extrapolated values from the integral are significantly lower than those from the lineheight ratios, probably because of the segmental motion. Comparison is made of the effective rotational correlation time for the vinyl ketone label with the predictions of hydrodynamic models for the protein diffusion, in a discussion of the aggregation state of the Ca2(+)-ATPase in the native sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. The implications for the study of protein rotational diffusion and segmental motion, and of the proximity relationships between labeled groups, using saturation transfer ESR spectroscopy are discussed.

Horvath, L I; Dux, L; Hankovszky, H O; Hideg, K; Marsh, D

1990-01-01

287

Cytotoxic effects and specific gene expression alterations induced by I-125-labeled triplex-forming oligonucleotides  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFO) bind to the DNA double helix in a sequence-specific manner. Therefore, TFO seem to be a suitable carrier for Auger electron emitters to damage exclusively targeted DNA sequences, e.g., in tumor cells. We studied the influence of I-125 labeled TFO with regard to cell survival and induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) using TFO with different genomic targets and target numbers. Furthermore, the ability of TFO to alter the gene expression of targeted genes was examined. Materials and methods: TFO were labeled with I-125 using the primer extension method. DNA triplex formation and sequence-specific DSB were demonstrated in vitro. Cell survival was analyzed by colony-forming assay and DNA damage was assessed by microscopic quantification of protein 53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) foci in the human squamous carcinoma cell line II (SCL-II). Quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to analyze gene expression alterations. Results: The sequence-specific induction of a single DSB in a 1695 bp long DNA double stranded fragment was demonstrated in vitro. I-125-labeled TFO binding to single and multiple targets were shown to induce a pronounced decrease in cell survival and an increase of DSB. TFO targeting multiple sites differing in the total target number showed a significant different cell killing per decay that is also in good accordance with the observed induction of DSB. Single gene targeting I-125-labeled TFO significantly decreased cell survival and altered gene expression in the targeted gene. Conclusions: I-125-labeled TFO enable specific targeting of DNA in vitro as well as in a cellular environment and thus induce sequence-specific complex DNA lesions. Therefore I-125-labeled TFO might be a very useful tool for basic DNA repair research.

2012-01-01

288

The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling.

Tang, Kevin S.; Hashmi, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Erik M.

2013-03-01

289

Improved disk-drive failure warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved methods are proposed for disk-drive failure prediction. The SMART (self monitoring and reporting technology) failure prediction system is currently implemented in disk-drives. Its purpose is to predict the near-term failure of an individual hard disk-drive, and issue a backup warning to prevent data loss. Two experimental tests of SMART show only moderate accuracy at low false-alarm rates. (A rate

Gordon F. Hughes; Joseph F. Murray; Kenneth Kreutz-Delgado; Charles Elkan

2002-01-01

290

Labeling Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labeling theory provides a distinctively sociological approach that focuses on the role of social labeling in the development\\u000a of crime and deviance. The theory assumes that although deviant behavior can initially stem from various causes and conditions,\\u000a once individuals have been labeled or defined as deviants, they often face new problems that stem from the reactions of self\\u000a and others

Jón Gunnar Bernburg

291

The Adriatic meteotsunami research and warning network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Destructive meteotsunamis (atmospherically induced long ocean waves in a tsunami frequency band) are known to sporadically hit some of the Adriatic Sea harbours and bays. Especially endangered are well populated middle Adriatic harbours Stari Grad on the island of Hvar and Vela Luka on the island of Kor?ula. A meteotsunami research and warning network has been designed and implemented for these two harbours. Pilot network consists of three microbarograph stations, at which air pressure is measured with one second resolution. Stations normally transmit data once every hour. All data is saved in Oracle data base for subsequent analysis and archiving. Nonetheless, once an air pressure disturbance with a tendency exceeding a threshold tendency is observed at one of the stations, all three stations enter a burst mode, and start transmitting data instantaneously. Providing that an air pressure disturbance is detected at all three stations, angle and speed of propagation of that disturbance are instantly estimated. Angle and speed of propagation are estimated from the arrival times of the disturbance at different stations, using a least square fit method. Based on propagation parameters (tendency, speed and angle) of the disturbance, an adequate warning is issued for the area. To obtain a fully functional warning and research network an installation of tide gauges and open sea buoys is still needed.

Epi?, Jadranka Å.; Vilibi?, Ivica; Ivankovi?, Damir; Marasovi?, Siniša.; Muslim, Stipe

2010-05-01

292

Effects of lutein and cholesterol on alkyl chain bending in lipid bilayers: a pulse electron spin resonance spin labeling study.  

PubMed Central

A short pulse saturation recovery electron spin resonance technique has been used to study the effects of polar carotenoid-lutein and cholesterol on interactions of 14N:15N stearic acid spin-label pairs in fluid-phase phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes. Bimolecular collisions for pairs consisting of various combinations of [14N]-16-, [14N]-10-, [14N]-7-, or [14N]-5-doxylstearate and [15N]-16-doxylstearate in dimyristoyl-PC (DMPC) or egg yolk PC (EYPC) membranes were measured at 27 degrees C. In the absence and presence of lutein or cholesterol for both lipid systems, the collision rates were ordered as 16:5 < 16:7 < 16:10 < 16:16. For all spin-label pairs studied, interaction frequencies were greater in DMPC than in EYPC. Polar carotenoid-lutein reduces the collision frequency for all spin-label pairs, whereas cholesterol reduces the collision frequency for 16:5 and 16:7 pairs and increases the collision frequency in the membrane center for 16:10 and 16:16 pairs. The presence of unsaturated alkyl chains greatly reduces the effect of lutein but magnifies the effect of cholesterol in the membrane center. The observed differences in the effects of these modifiers on alkyl chain bending result from differences in the structure of cholesterol and polar carotenoid and from their different localization within the lipid bilayer membrane. These studies further confirm the occurrence of vertical fluctuations of alkyl chain ends toward the bilayer surface.

Yin, J J; Subczynski, W K

1996-01-01

293

21 CFR 201.56 - Requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3 Nursing mothers 8.4 Pediatric use 8.5 Geriatric use...Storage and Handling 17 Patient Counseling Information ...considered âappropriate pediatric contraindications, warnings, or precautions...reprint any FDA-approved patient labeling at the end of...

2013-04-01

294

Examination of the Evidence for Off-Label Use of Gabapentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: (1) Describe the relevance of off-label use of gabapentin to man- aged care pharmacy; (2) summarize recent FDA warnings and media reports related to off-label gabapentin use; (3) review medical information pertaining to the off-label use of gabapentin; (4) outline alternatives to off-label use of gabapentin in an evidence-based fashion, where literature exists to support such alternatives; and (5)

ALICIA MACK

2003-01-01

295

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

296

Advanced Caution and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current focus of ACAWS is on the needs of the flight controllers. The onboard crew in low-Earth orbit has some of those same needs. Moreover, for future deep-space missions, the crew will need to accomplish many tasks autonomously due to communication time delays. Although we are focusing on flight controller needs, ACAWS technologies can be reused for on-board application, perhaps with a different level of detail and different display formats or interaction methods. We expect that providing similar tools to the flight controllers and the crew could enable more effective and efficient collaboration as well as heightened situational awareness.

Spirkovska, Lilly; Robinson, Peter I.; Liolios, Sotirios; Lee, Charles; Ossenfort, John P.

2013-01-01

297

Examination of Speed Control for Reducing Warning Time in Level-Crossing Control for CBTC System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some level-crossing control methods have been proposed as a subsystem of the Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) system. In this method, the warning starts according to the forecasted time when a train reaches the level crossing; the forecasted time is calculated on the basis of the speed and detected position of the train. Therefore, we have analytically clarified the quantitative relations among the train's position at the start of warning, train-running speed, and maximum train speed, which have not yet been shown. In this paper, we propose a speed-control method for reducing the warning time according to the train-speed characteristics in the train level-crossing control for the CBTC system. In addition, this method has been proposed for reducing the warning time when a train comes from the opposite direction according to the conventional level-crossing control. Therefore, we also propose the application of the speed-control method to the case when a train comes from the opposite direction. In addition, we show the effect of the reduction in the warning time by applying this method for speed control without train delay.

Mizuno, Kenji; Sugahara, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Haruo

298

Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future studies and improvements, enabling the integration of lateral variations of the solid earth, bathymetry or atmosphere, finite model sources, non-linearity of the waves and better attenuation and coupling processes. All these effects are revealed by phase or amplitude discrepancies in selected observations. We then present goals and first results of source inversions, with a focus on estimations of the sea level uplift location and amplitude, either by using GPS networks close from the epicentre or, for tsunamis, GPS of the Hawaii Islands.

Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan

2014-05-01

299

Flood warnings, flood disaster assessments, and flood hazard reduction: the roles of orbital remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital remote sensing of the Earth is now poised to make three fundamental contributions towards reducing the detrimental effects of extreme floods. Effective Flood warning requires frequent radar observation of the Earth's surface through cloud cover. In contrast, both optical and radar wavelengths will increasingly be used for disaster assessment and hazard reduction.

Brakenridge, G. R.; Anderson, E.; Nghiem, S. V.; Caquard, S.; Shabaneh, T. B.

2003-01-01

300

Flood Warnings Flood Disaster Assessments and Flood Hazard Reduction: The Roles of Orbital Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract -Orbital remote sensing of the Earth is now poised to make three fundamental contributions towards reducing the detrimental effects of extreme floods. Effective Flood warning requires frequent (near-daily) radar observation of the Earth's surface through cloud cover. In contrast, both optical and radar wavelengths will increasingly be used for disaster assessment and hazard reduction. These latter tasks are accomplished,

G. R. Brakenridge; E. Andersona; S. V. Nghiemb; S. Caquard; T. B. Shabaneh

301

Effects of orlistat, simvastatin, and orlistat + simvastatin in obese patients with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized, open-label trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many obese patients have comorbidities that worsen their prognoses, particularly if hypercholesterolemia is present. In these patients, dietary restrictions are not sufficient to reduce hypercholesterolemia and lose body weight.Objective: This 1-year, single-center, randomized, open-label study assessed the effects of diet and exercise plus treatment with orlistat, simvastatin, and orlistat + simvastatin on lipid profile, body composition, and blood pressure

Giuseppe Derosa; Amedeo Mugellini; Leonardina Ciccarelli; Andrea Rinaldi; Roberta Fogari

2002-01-01

302

TERMINAL PHOSPHATE LABELED NUCLEOTIDES: SYNTHESIS, APPLICATIONS, AND LINKER EFFECT ON INCORPORATION BY DNA POLYMERASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of terminal phosphate-labeled nucleotides with three or more phosphates and with varied length linkers attached between the terminal phosphate and the dye have been synthesized. These nucleotides have been tested as substrates for different DNA and RNA polymerases. We have also explored their utility in DNA sequencing, SNP analysis, nucleic acid amplification, quantitative PCR, and other biochemical assays.

Shiv Kumar; Anup Sood; Jeffery Wegener; Patrick J. Finn; Satyam Nampalli; John R. Nelson; Anuradha Sekher; Paul Mitsis; John Macklin; Carl W. Fuller

2005-01-01

303

The Effects of Sex-Typed Labeling on Preschool Children's Information-Seeking and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to address this question: When preschool children are exposed to novel objects, will their tactual and verbal information-seeking about these objects and the amount of information they remember about these same objects be influenced by whether an adult labels them as things "for girls" or "for boys"? Thirty-six…

Bradbard, Marilyn R.; Endsley, Richard C.

304

Special Class Placements as Labels: Effects on Children's Attitudes toward Learning Handicapped Peers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in grades four to six (N=77) judged the capabilities of peers traditionally labeled as "learning disabled" or "educable mentally retarded" but depicted in written vignettes only as attending either a resource room or special classroom. Students in special classes were judged significantly less capable than students in resource room…

Bak, John J.; And Others

1987-01-01

305

Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine–dye-labeled oligonucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the fluorescence spectral properties of Cy3- and Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides at various distances from the surface of silver island films. The distance to the surface was controlled by alternating layers of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and avidin, followed by binding of a biotinylated oligonucleotide. The maximum enhancement of fluorescence near a factor of 12 was observed for the

Joanna Malicka; Ignacy Gryczynski; Zygmunt Gryczynski; Joseph R. Lakowicz

2003-01-01

306

Data Fusion Concepts for Tsunami Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami source region for subduction zone earthquakes is near the base of the acreationary wedge. In that region the material properties are weak, and are unable to store significant elastic energy. Therefore, the tsunamigenic rupture is nearly aseismic. Instead, the seismic energy primarily radiates from deeper within the fault; thus resolving or imaging this shallow rupture is extremely difficult, particularly when factoring in the real time requirements of tsunami warning. In the current U.S. Tsunami warning systems, the operational paradigm is to initially determine the most probable source parameters in a maximum likelihood sense, then establish alert level based, and wait for sea level measurements (DART or tide gauge) to validate or cancel the alert. This approach results in numerous false alarms, with some missed tsunamis based on the initial alert. In fact, the maximum likelihood approach works well for typical events; however, the tsunamigenic events are outliers; in the last 30 years, there have been about 130 events of size and location that would warrant a expanding warning. Of those events, 43 were associated with tsunamis of greater than 1 m; however, most of those were local, with only 13 events having significant far field tsunamis. So, even for large events, tsunamigenic earthquakes are statistical outliers. To address this issue, we have conceptualized a data fusion based approach to tsunami warning that will incorporate multiple data types simultaneously to provide better, rapid estimates of tsunami source, partially by identifying "statistical outliers" and partially by running multiple hypothesis of tsunami sources. For example, we can test to see the error bias of the preliminary magnitude estimate; that is, is the system more likely underestimating or overestimating the magnitude. In addition, incorporating non-seismic data, such as hydroactoustic (T-phase) and GPS data may improve the ability to image the shallow rupture. The approach also allows for the incorporation of evidence for slumping/landslides, including anomalous long period Rayleigh waves (e.g., Eksrom, 2006) and hydroacoustic signals. In summary, a fusion approach to tsunami warning should provide for lower false alarm rates while increasing the probability of detection of the events in time period prior to sea level measurements.

Hebenstreit, G. T.; Salzberg, D. H.

2007-12-01

307

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have also been identified. To help mitigate the risk of potential tsunamis on the coastal communities of Puerto Rico, with initial funding from the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000. Three of the main tasks are to evaluate the possibility of establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), prepare tsunami flood maps and education. The need to establish a system of rapid notification for tsunami alerting in the Caribbean region has been recognized by the emergency management and scientific community. Presently, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag\\x81ez is establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) for PR/VI. Part of the TWS is the EarlyBird system, developed by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, which has been running in the PRSN since January, 2003. This program automatically locates and disseminates information on potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes. Also, the existing protocol for exchanging data and information on potentially tsunamigenic events in the PR/VI is currently being reviewed by the concerned institutions. Tsunami flood maps were prepared for all of Puerto Rico, including the island municipalities of Vieques and Culebra. These flood maps were generated in three phases. First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios on the basis of the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes were developed. Secondly, each of these earthquakes source scenarios was simulated. The third step was to determine the worst case scenario for a tectonically generated tsunami throughout Puerto Rico. The runups were drawn on GIS referenced topographic maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by the local, state and federal emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Based on these maps tsunami warning signs are being installed throughout the potentially affected zones and are a very important component of the TWS.

Huerfano, V. A.; Mercado, A.; von Hillebrandt, C. G.

2003-12-01

308

Early warning tools for ecotoxicity assessment based on Phaeodactylum tricornutum.  

PubMed

Phaeodactylum tricornutum was exposed to various toxic substances (zinc, copper or dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt) in accordance with the AlgalToxkit(®) protocol based on the UNI EN ISO 10253 method in order to quantitatively compare the responses obtained by traditional growth-rate inhibition tests with morphological (biovolume) and physiological (chlorophyll-a, phaeophytin ratio) endpoints. A novel approach is proposed for detecting early and sub-lethal effects based on biovolume quantification using confocal microscopy coupled with an image analysis system. The results showed that effects on both biovolume and the photosynthetic complex are sensitive and powerful early warning tools for evaluating sub-lethal effects of exposure. Specifically, biovolume showed significant sensitive and early responses for the tested surfactant. Qualitatively, we also observed structural anomalies and effects on natural auto-fluorescence in exposed cells that also represent potentially useful tools for ecotoxicological studies. PMID:24838657

Renzi, Monia; Roselli, Leonilde; Giovani, Andrea; Focardi, Silvano E; Basset, Alberto

2014-08-01

309

Early Warning Signs in Social-Ecological Networks  

PubMed Central

A number of social-ecological systems exhibit complex behaviour associated with nonlinearities, bifurcations, and interaction with stochastic drivers. These systems are often prone to abrupt and unexpected instabilities and state shifts that emerge as a discontinuous response to gradual changes in environmental drivers. Predicting such behaviours is crucial to the prevention of or preparation for unwanted regime shifts. Recent research in ecology has investigated early warning signs that anticipate the divergence of univariate ecosystem dynamics from a stable attractor. To date, leading indicators of instability in systems with multiple interacting components have remained poorly investigated. This is a major limitation in the understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological networks. Here, we develop a theoretical framework to demonstrate that rising variance—measured, for example, by the maximum element of the covariance matrix of the network—is an effective leading indicator of network instability. We show that its reliability and robustness depend more on the sign of the interactions within the network than the network structure or noise intensity. Mutualistic, scale free and small world networks are less stable than their antagonistic or random counterparts but their instability is more reliably predicted by this leading indicator. These results provide new advances in multidimensional early warning analysis and offer a framework to evaluate the resilience of social-ecological networks.

Suweis, Samir; D'Odorico, Paolo

2014-01-01

310

Demographic characteristics, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit as possible determinants of smoking behaviors and acceptability of shocking warnings in Italy.  

PubMed

Introduction. This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures) to quit or reduce tobacco use. Methods. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc.) the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. Results. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (<45 years), who are more motivated to quit (Mondor's score ? 12), and females showed a higher effectiveness of shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P < 0.05. Conclusions. This study suggests that pictorial warnings on cigarette packages are more likely to be noticed and rated as effective by Italian smokers. Female and younger smokers appear to be more involved by shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior. PMID:24900980

Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Conti, Vittoria; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Paone, Gregorino; Cafolla, Maria; Saulle, Rosella; Bulzomì, Vincenzo; Antici, Daniele; Cuccurullo, Pasquale; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Terzano, Claudio

2014-01-01

311

Demographic Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Motivation to Quit as Possible Determinants of Smoking Behaviors and Acceptability of Shocking Warnings in Italy  

PubMed Central

Introduction. This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures) to quit or reduce tobacco use. Methods. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc.) the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. Results. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (<45 years), who are more motivated to quit (Mondor's score ? 12), and females showed a higher effectiveness of shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P < 0.05. Conclusions. This study suggests that pictorial warnings on cigarette packages are more likely to be noticed and rated as effective by Italian smokers. Female and younger smokers appear to be more involved by shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior.

Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Conti, Vittoria; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Paone, Gregorino; Cafolla, Maria; Saulle, Rosella; Bulzomi, Vincenzo; Antici, Daniele; Cuccurullo, Pasquale; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Terzano, Claudio

2014-01-01

312

[sup 90]Y-labeled antibody uptake by human tumor xenografts and the effect of systemic administration of EDTA  

SciTech Connect

A human tumor xenograft model was used to compare the tumor and normal tissue uptake of a tumor-associated monoclonal antibody radiolabeled with [sup 125]I or [sup 90]Y. Nude mice bearing SC xenografts of the human colon adenocarcinoma, HT29, were injected with a mixture of [sup 125]I- and [sup 90]Y-DTPA-labeled AUA1 monoclonal antibody, which recognizes an antigen expressed on the surface of the tumor cells. In addition, the effect of systemic ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) administration on [sup 90]Y-labeled antibody clearance, tumor uptake of antibody and bone accumulation of [sup 90]Y was studied in a nude mouse model of intraperitoneal cancer. Both the absolute amount (%id[center dot]g[sup -1]) and the tumor:normal tissue ratios were superior for the [sup 90]Y-labeled antibody, compared with the iodinated antibody, with the notable exception of bone. These results suggest that [sup 90]Y is a preferable isotope to iodine for radioimmunotherapy of solid masses, but that myelotoxicity due to bone uptake of released [sup 90]Y will limit the radiation dose which can be given when DTPA is used to chelate the [sup 90]Y. The [sup 90]Y-labeled antibody showed similar serum stability in vitro in the presence or absence of EDTA after incubation for up to 48 h. In vivo, urine excretion of [sup 90]Y was significantly enhanced in mice receiving daily injections of 20 mg EDTA for 3 days, commencing 2 h after intraperitoneal antibody administration, compared with control mice. There was no significant difference in the tumor uptake of [sup 90]Y-labeled antibody in EDTA-treated and control mice at any time-point up to 9 days postinjection. However, the bone levels of [sup 90]Y were significantly reduced in EDTA-treated mice at all times from 1 to 9 days. Based on these results, it should be possible to increase the amount of [sup 90]Y-labeled antibody administered, by chelating the released [sup 90]Y with systemic EDTA to facilitate its excretion. 50 refs., 5 figs.

Rowlinson-Busza, G.; Snook, D.; Epenetos, A.A. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (United Kingdom))

1994-03-30

313

A tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is an abstract. Using tidal gauge data from the time of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the authors were able to reconstruct the height and speed of the waves and the time it took them to reach coastal regions. Readings from the tidal gauges could have given advance warning to some areas hit by the tsunami, had a warning system been in place. Suggestions for creating a tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean region are given.

Al., Merrifield E.; Agu

314

Spacecraft design sensitivity for a disaster warning satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A disaster warning satellite (DWS) is described for warning the general public of impending natural catastrophes. The concept is responsive to NOAA requirements and maximizes the use of ATS-6 technology. Upon completion of concept development, the study was extended to establishing the sensitivity of the DWSS spacecraft power, weight, and cost to variations in both warning and conventional communications functions. The results of this sensitivity analysis are presented.

Maloy, J. E.; Provencher, C. E.; Leroy, B. E.; Braley, R. C.; Shumaker, H. A.

1977-01-01

315

The impact of paediatric early warning systems.  

PubMed

The child who is ill enough to be admitted to a children's ward has the potential to deteriorate rapidly. If this deterioration is not recognised and acted on in a timely manner, such children may require cardiopulmonary resuscitation, high dependency or intensive care. A paediatric early warning tool used with routine nursing observations will alert staff to the need for increased monitoring, the support of an associated outreach team or emergency medical attention. If the tool is used, a nurse can provide objective, transparent evidence of the child's condition to experienced clinicians. Appropriate education and supervision of staff should be ensured through the use of an outreach team. PMID:23167014

Naddy, Catherine

2012-10-01

316

Meteoalarm - Latest developments for weather warnings in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather warnings for high impact weather play a more crucial role than ever. With rising vulnerability impact and damages continue to rise. The meteoalarm platform brought producers of warnings (National Meteorological and Hydrological Services) and their users closer together. The users come in high numbers from the general public, but also from public institutions within Civil Protection, who looks for conditions outside their own country. Their feedback suggested more hazards to be integrated, a shift from warnings for hazards to impact and longer forecast periods/lead times for warnings. The shift from hazard warnings to a more impact orientated perspective would also be reflected the relevant UNISDR and UN Hyogo Framework of Actions concepts. Recent developments within meteoalarm try to cover these needs while maintaining a good balance between existing national procedures for warnings and the needs of Europeans and others who travel or act professionally outside their own country and expect homogenous warning procedures. A welldesigned communication process outside the meteoalarm platform itself is neeeded to attract relevant users from the public and private institutions. Warnings for coastal sea areas are one step in this direction, a heat index assessing the Thermal Environment of the Human Being will be another way to cover user needs. Closer co-operation between meteorological and hydrological services and possible flood warnings within meteoalarm also underline the importance of connecting pure meteorology with other applications.

Staudinger, M.; Koppe, C.; Heikinheimo, M.; Kroonenberg, F.

2009-09-01

317

Inpatient nursing care and early warning scores: a workflow mismatch.  

PubMed

Early warning scores calculated by registered nurses (RNs) are used in hospitals to enhance the recognition of and communication about patient deterioration. This study evaluated workflow variables surrounding calculation and documentation of one pediatric hospital's use of an early warning score. Results indicated that there were significant delays in documentation of early warning scores by RNs and inconsistencies between the early warning scores and vital signs collected and documented by non-RN personnel. These findings reflected information obtained from the RNs about how they prioritize tasks and use work-arounds to specific systems issues regarding assessment and documentation in the electronic medical record. PMID:24569518

Watson, Anne; Skipper, Chantel; Steury, Rachel; Walsh, Heather; Levin, Amanda

2014-01-01

318

Recall of health warnings in smokeless tobacco ads  

PubMed Central

Design: Subjects examined two distracter ads and one of nine randomly assigned smokeless tobacco ads varying in health warning presence, size (8 to 18 point font), and contrast (low versus high)—including no health warning. They were then interviewed about ad content using recall and recognition questions. Subjects: A convenience sample of 895 English speaking males aged 16–24 years old who were intercepted at seven shopping malls throughout Massachusetts during May 2000. Main outcome measures: Proven aided recall, or recall of a health warning and correct recognition of the warning message among distracters, and false recall. Results: Controlling for covariates such as education, employment/student status, and Hispanic background, proven aided recall increased significantly with font size; doubling size from 10 to 20 point font would increase recall from 63% to 76%. Although not statistically significant, recall was somewhat better for high contrast warnings. Ten per cent of the sample mistakenly recalled the warning where none existed. Conclusions: As demonstrated by substantially greater recall among ads that included health warnings over ads that had none, health warnings retained their value to consumers despite years of exposure (that can produce false recall). Larger health warnings would enhance recall, and the proposed model can be used to estimate potential recall that affects communication, perceived health risk, and behaviour modification.

Truitt, L; Hamilton, W; Johnston, P; Bacani, C; Crawford, S; Hozik, L; Celebucki, C

2002-01-01

319

Warnings: a supplement not a substitute for other approaches to safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warnings in the workplace are analysed from the global perspective that they are not a substitute for, but rather a supplement to, good product design, employee selection, training, job design, supervision, and the provision of other forms of safety information including written procedures and checklists. An explanation is given for when and why these latter approaches will be more effective

M. LEHTO; G. SALVENDY

1995-01-01

320

A Sustainable Early Warning System for Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this era of rapid social and technological change leading to interesting life complexity and environmental displacement, both positive and negative effects among ecosystems call for a balance in which there are impacts by climate changes. Early warning systems for climate change impacts are necessary in order to allow society as a whole to properly and usefully assimilate the masses

T. Lee; C. Tung; N. Chung

2007-01-01

321

REVELATIONS FROM 21 YEARS OF PROVIDING FLASH FLOOD WARNING SUPPORT IN DENVER, COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an operational perspective on the effectiveness of local flood warning programs in the urban areas and mountain regions surrounding Denver, Colorado. Many lessons have been learned during the program's 21-year history by building close working relationships with public and private weather forecast services; local emergency managers; public works and engineering departments; emergency response agencies; elected officials; researchers;

KEVIN G. STEWART

322

Interior Communications Supervised Alarm and Warning Systems: Validation of Instructional Materials. Fiscal Year 1977, Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An empirical study was conducted using Navy trainees to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional modules designed to train Interior Communications electricians in the maintenance and repair of alarm and warning systems installed in ships to signal unsafe conditions. These modules, each containing six lessons, were developed to augment or…

Van Kekerix, Donald L.; And Others

323

Dose Dependent Side Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Labeling on Cell Motility in Two Fetal Stem Cell Populations  

PubMed Central

Multipotent stem cells (SCs) could substitute damaged cells and also rescue degeneration through the secretion of trophic factors able to activate the endogenous SC compartment. Therefore, fetal SCs, characterized by high proliferation rate and devoid of ethical concern, appear promising candidate, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide nanoparticles (SPIOn), routinely used for pre-clinical cell imaging and already approved for clinical practice, allow tracking of transplanted SCs and characterization of their fate within the host tissue, when combined with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In this work we investigated how SPIOn could influence cell migration after internalization in two fetal SC populations: human amniotic fluid and chorial villi SCs were labeled with SPIOn and their motility was evaluated. We found that SPIOn loading significantly reduced SC movements without increasing production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Moreover, motility impairment was directly proportional to the amount of loaded SPIOn while a chemoattractant-induced recovery was obtained by increasing serum levels. Interestingly, the migration rate of SPIOn labeled cells was also significantly influenced by a degenerative surrounding. In conclusion, this work highlights how SPIOn labeling affects SC motility in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, shedding the light on an important parameter for the creation of clinical protocols. Establishment of an optimal SPIOn dose that enables both a good visualization of grafted cells by MRI and the physiological migration rate is a main step in order to maximize the effects of SC therapy in both animal models of neurodegeneration and clinical studies.

Diana, Valentina; Bossolasco, Patrizia; Moscatelli, Davide; Silani, Vincenzo; Cova, Lidia

2013-01-01

324

Synergizing nucleic acid aptamers with 1-dimensional nanostructures as label-free field-effect transistor biosensors.  

PubMed

Since the introduction by Gold et al. in 1990, nucleic acid aptamers had evolved to become a true contender in biosensors for protein and cell detections. Aptamers are short strands of synthetically designed DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can be self-assembled into unique 3-dimensional structures and can bind to different proteins, cells or even small molecules at a high level of specificity and affinity. In recent years, there had been many reports in literature in using aptamers in place of conventional antibodies as capture biomolecules on the surface. This is mainly due to the better thermal stability properties and ease in production. Consequently, also these characteristics allowed the aptamers to find use in field effect transistors (FETs) based upon 1D nanostructured (1D-NS) as label-free biosensing. In terms of designing label-free platforms for biosensors applications, 1D-NS FET had been an attractive option due to reported high sensitivities toward protein targets arising from the large surface area for detection as well as to their label-free nature. Since the first aptamer-based 1D-NS FET biosensor had surfaced in 2005, there had been many more improvements in the overall design and sensitivity in recent years. In this review, the latest developments in synergizing these two interesting areas of research (aptamers and 1D-NS FET) will be discussed for a range of different nanowire types as well as for the detection results. PMID:23872609

Lung Khung, Yit; Narducci, Dario

2013-12-15

325

An electrophysiological study of the impact of a Forward Collision Warning System in a simulator driving task.  

PubMed

Driver distraction has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential rear-end collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS and of its reliability according to the driver's attentional state by recording both behavioral and electrophysiological data. Participants drove following a lead motorcycle in a simplified simulator with or without a warning system which gave forewarning of the preceding vehicle braking. Participants had to perform this driving task either alone (simple task) or simultaneously with a secondary cognitive task (dual task). Behavioral and electrophysiological data contributed to revealing a positive effect of the warning system. Participants were faster in detecting the brake light when the system was perfect or imperfect, and the time and attentional resources allocation required for processing the target at higher cognitive level were reduced when the system was completely reliable. When both tasks were performed simultaneously, warning effectiveness was considerably affected at both performance and neural levels; however, the analysis of the brain activity revealed fewer differences between distracted and undistracted drivers when using the warning system. These results show that electrophysiological data could be a valuable tool to complement behavioral data and to have a better understanding of how these systems impact the driver. PMID:22765914

Bueno, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; Deleurence, Philippe; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

2012-08-27

326

Effect of redox label tether length and flexibility on sensor performance of displacement-based electrochemical DNA sensors.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the sensor performance of four electrochemical DNA sensors that exploit the recently developed displacement-replacement sensing motif. In the absence of the target, the capture probe is partially hybridized to the signaling probe at the distal end, positioning the redox label, methylene blue (MB), away from the electrode. In the presence of the target, the MB-modified signaling probe is released; one type of probe is capable of assuming a stem-loop probe (SLP) conformation, whereas the other type adopts a linear probe (LP) conformation. Independent of the sensor architecture, all four sensors showed "signal-on" sensor behavior. Unlike the previous report, here we focused on elucidating the effect of the redox label tether length and flexibility on sensor sensitivity, specificity, selectivity, and reusability. For both SLP and LP sensors, the limit of detection was 10 pM for sensors fabricated using a signaling probe with three extra thymine (T3) bases linked to the MB label. A limit of detection of 100 pM was determined for sensors fabricated using a signaling probe with five extra thymine (T5) bases. The linear dynamic range was between 10 pM and 100 nM for the T3 sensors, and between 100 pM and 100 nM for the T5 sensors. When compared to the LP sensors, the SLP sensors showed higher signal enhancement in the presence of the full-complement target. More importantly, the SLP-T5 sensor was found to be highly specific; it is capable of discriminating between the full complement and single-base mismatch targets even when employed in undiluted blood serum. Overall, these results highlight the advantages of using oligo-T(s) as a tunable linker to control flexibility of the tethered redox label, so as to achieve the desired sensor response. PMID:24491779

Yu, Zhi-gang; Zaitouna, Anita J; Lai, Rebecca Y

2014-02-17

327

How soon is too soon? When to cancel a warning after a damaging tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following an earthquake a tsunami warning center (TWC) must determine if a coastal evacuation is necessary and must do so fast enough for the warning to be useful to affected coastlines. Once a damaging tsunami has arrived, the TWC must decide when to cancel its warning, a task often more challenging than the initial hazard assessment. Here we demonstrate the difficulties by investigating the impact of the Tohoku tsunami of 11 March 2011 on the State of Hawaii, which relies on the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) for tsunami hazard guidance. PTWC issued a Tsunami Watch for Hawaii at 10 March 1956 HST (10 minutes after the earthquake) and upgraded to a Tsunami Warning at 2131 HST. The tsunami arrived in Hawaii just before 0300 HST the next day, reached a maximum runup of over 5 m, and did roughly $50 million in damage throughout the state. PTWC downgraded the Warning to an Advisory at 0730 HST, and canceled the Advisory at 1140 HST. The timing of the downgrade was appropriate—by then it was safe for coastal residents to re-enter the evacuation zone but not to enter the water—but in retrospect PTWC cancelled its Advisory too early. By late morning tide gauges throughout the state had all registered maximum wave heights of 30 cm or less for a couple of hours, so PTWC cancelled. The Center was unaware, however, of ocean behavior at locations without instruments. At Ma'alaea Harbor on the Island of Maui, for example, sea level oscillations exposed the harbor bottom every 20 minutes for several hours after the cancellation. At Waikiki on Oahu, lifeguards rescued 25 swimmers (who had either ignored or were unaware of the cancellation message's caution about hazardous currents) in the hours after the cancellation and performed CPR on one near-drowning victim. Fortunately, there were no deaths. Because of dangerous surges, ocean safety officials closed Hanauma Bay, a popular snorkeling spot on Oahu, for a full day after the tsunami hit. They reassessed the bay the following morning just as waves reflected from South America started to arrive (36 hours after the earthquake), and prudently chose to keep the bay closed for two further days. The Tohoku tsunami showed that resonances and trapped waves in shallow water can last for many hours and that energy reflected from distant shorelines can rejuvenate them. PTWC's real-time simulation of the tsunami, including animation of its propagation, now helps to identify which reflections will be most troublesome and should permit the Center to specify in advance how long a Warning should remain in effect. The current open-ended warnings, which specify when the tsunami will arrive but not how long the Warning should last, should be replaced with warnings active for a specified time ("until 3 a.m. tomorrow"), with PTWC adjusting the projected cancellation time based on coastal sea-level observations. Such warnings should greatly reduce public misconceptions and state and local government expectations about how long the hazard will last. The National Weather Service, parent agency of the US TWCs, already issues weather Warnings and Advisories active for specific durations, so this message format is already familiar to both the public and emergency managers.

Fryer, G. J.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Weinstein, S.; Richards, K.

2012-12-01

328

France's heat health watch warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in France to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. The system was developed on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data in fourteen pilot cities. Several meteorological indicators were tested in relation to levels of excess mortality. Computations of sensibility and specificity were used to choose the meteorological indicators and the cut-offs. An indicator that mixes minimum and maximum temperatures was chosen. The cut-offs were set in order to anticipate events resulting in an excess mortality above 100% in the smallest cities and above 50% in Paris, Lyon, Marseille and Lille. The system was extended nationwide using the 98th percentile of the distribution of minimum and maximum temperatures. A national action plan was set up, using this watch warning system. It was activated on 1st June 2004 on a national scale. The system implies a close cooperation between the French Weather Bureau (Météo France), the National Institute of Health Surveillance (InVS) and the Ministry of Health. The system is supported by a panel of preventive actions, to prevent the sanitary impact of heat waves.

Pascal, Mathilde; Laaidi, Karine; Ledrans, Martine; Baffert, Elsa; Caserio-Schönemann, Céline; Le Tertre, Alain; Manach, Jacques; Medina, Sylvia; Rudant, Jérémie; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal

2006-01-01

329

Vulnerability analysis for a drought Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are often based on risk models that do not, or marginally, take into account the vulnerability factor. The multifaceted nature of drought (hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. The latter, together with the complexity of impacts generated by this hazard, causes the current underdevelopment of drought EWS compared to other hazards. In Least Developed Countries, where drought events causes the highest numbers of affected people, the importance of correct monitoring and forecasting is considered essential. Existing early warning and monitoring systems for drought produced at different geographic levels, provide only in a few cases an actual spatial model that tries to describe the cause-effect link between where the hazard is detected and where impacts occur. Integrate vulnerability information in such systems would permit to better estimate affected zones and livelihoods, improving the effectiveness of produced hazard-related datasets and maps. In fact, the need of simplification and, in general, of a direct applicability of scientific outputs is still a matter of concern for field experts and early warning products end-users. Even if the surplus of hazard related information produced right after catastrophic events has, in some cases, led to the creation of specific data-sharing platforms, the conveyed meaning and usefulness of each product has not yet been addressed. The present work is an attempt to fill this gap which is still an open issue for the scientific community as well as for the humanitarian aid world. The study aims at conceiving a simplified vulnerability model to embed into an existing EWS for drought, which is based on the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters and the Standardized Precipitation Index, both produced using free satellite derived datasets. The proposed vulnerability model includes (i) a pure agricultural vulnerability and (ii) a systemic vulnerability. The first considers the agricultural potential of terrains, the diversity of cultivated crops and the percentage of irrigated area as main driving factors. The second vulnerability aspect consists of geographic units in which a set of socio-economic factors are modeled geographically on the basis of the physical accessibility to market centers in one case, and according to a spatial gravity model of market areas in another case. Results of the model applied to a case study (Niger) and evaluated with food insecurity data, are presented.

Angeluccetti, Irene; Demarchi, Alessandro; Perez, Francesca

2014-05-01

330

Early warning of geohazards using space technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The societal impact of geological hazards is enormous. Every year volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence claim thousands of lives, injure many thousands more, devastate peoples' homes and destroy their livelihoods. The costs of damaged infrastructure are taken higher still by insurance premiums and run into the billions in any currency. This affects rich and poor alike, but with a disproportionate impact on the developing world. As the human population increases and more people live in hazardous areas, this impact grows unsustainably. It must be reduced and that requires increased understanding of the geohazards, improved preparedness for disasters and better ways to manage them when they occur. The inter-related disasters that comprise geohazards are all driven directly by geological processes and share ground deformation as a common thread. This means that they can be addressed using similar technology and understood using related scientific modelling processes. Geohazards are a complex phenomenon and no one method can provide all the necessary information and understanding. It is essential that Earth Observation data are integrated with airborne data, in-situ observations and associated historical data archives, and then analysed using GIS and other modelling tools if these hazards are to be understood and managed. Geohazards occur in one form or another in every country. They do not respect national boundaries and have the potential to cause changes in the atmosphere that will be truly global in effect, requiring a global observing infrastructure to monitor them. The current situation in space research of early warning of geohazards indicates a few phenomena, related with geohazard processes: Earth's deformation, surface temperature, gas and aerosol emission, electromagnetic disturbances in ionosphere. Both horizontal and vertical deformations scaled about tens centimetres and meters measured after the shock. Such deformations are recorded by InSAR technique with confidence. Pre-earthquake deformation are rather small - centimetres. A few cases of deformation mapping after the shock using satellite data are known at present time. Volcanoes, landslides and subsidence indicate clear deformations in centimetre scale before the event. Future development lays in precision SAR systems with medium spatial resolution and combination with GPS technique. Temperature growth is one of the reliable signs of preparing volcano eruption. A few current operational systems using geostationary and polar satellites for volcano monitoring are on duty. There are numerous observations of surface and near surface temperature growth on 3-5 Ñ prior to Earth's crust earthquakes. Modern IR satellite systems simply record such thermal anomalies. Methods of earthquake predictions are developing using thermal IR survey. Gas emission before the eruption is well-known phenomena. A few cases of gas and aerosol content change in atmosphere before the earthquake were described. Satellite methods allow to restore the concentrations of gases in atmosphere: O3, CH4, CO2, CO, H2S, SO2, HCl and aerosol. However the spatial resolution and sensitivity of modern systems are still low. First promising results were obtained only for ozone. Electromagnetic researches of ionosphere in relation with earthquake are widely spread now. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained. A few new ionospheric satellites are prepared for launch. Other auxiliary space technologies are developed: oxygen luminescence, unusual clouds, atmosphere sounding. Thus, we can declarate the need of Integrated Global Observation Strategy for Geohazards - IGOS-Geohazard. Such initiative is developed now under UNESCO patronage.

Tronin, A.

331

ADHD Medication Use Following FDA Risk Warnings  

PubMed Central

Background In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated cardiac and psychiatric risks associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication use. Aims of the Study To examine how disclosure of safety risks affected pediatric ADHD use, and to assess news media coverage of the issue to better understand trends in treatment patterns. Methods We used the AHRQ’s Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative household panel survey, to calculate unadjusted rates of pediatric ADHD use from 2002 to 2008 overall and by parents’ education. We examined whether children (ages 0 to 20) filled a prescription for any ADHD medication during the calendar year. Next, we used content analysis methods to analyze news coverage of the issue in 10 high-circulation newspapers, the 3 major television networks and a major cable news network in the U.S. We examined 6 measures capturing information conveyed on risk and benefits of ADHD medication use. Results No declines in medication use following FDA safety warnings overall or by parental education level were observed. News media coverage was relatively balanced in its portrayal of the risks and benefits of ADHD medication use by children. Discussion ADHD risk warnings were not associated with large declines in medication use, and balanced news coverage may have contributed to the treatment patterns observed. Self-reported surveys like the MEPS rely on the recall of respondents and may be subject to reporting bias. However, the validity of these data is supported by their consistency with other data on drug use from other sources. Implications for Health Care Provision and Use These findings are in direct contrast to the substantial declines in use observed after pediatric antidepressant risk warnings in the context of a news media environment that emphasized risks over benefits. Implications for Health Policies Our findings are relevant to the ongoing discussion about improving the FDA’s ability to monitor drug safety. Safety warnings occur amid ongoing concern that the agency has insufficient authority and resources to fulfill its mission to protect the public’s health. Efforts to bolster the FDA’s postmarketing surveillance system have the potential to incorporate more data in decision making to allow for earlier detection of health risks. Implications for Further Research Further research is needed to assess whether other treatment changes occurred following risk warnings. For example, it is important to determine whether an increase in cardiac screening prior to medication initiation occurred. Likewise, the FDA advises that children experiencing hallucinations or other psychiatric responses to medication be discontinued from drug treatment. If it is determined that instead of being discontinued from medication treatment, children experiencing hallucinations are put on additional medication (e.g., antipsychotics), additional efforts by the FDA to better inform the public are warranted.

Barry, Colleen L.; Martin, Andres; Busch, Susan H.

2013-01-01

332

The effect of the state of differentiation on labeling of epidermal cell surface glycoproteins  

SciTech Connect

Epidermal cells were grown in a medium in which the Ca++ concentration controlled the stage of differentiation. Cell surface molecules of differentiated and undifferentiated cells were compared by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination, by the interaction with /sup 125/I-lectins, and by the metabolic incorporation of L-(/sup 3/H)-fucose. Molecular weights of the labeled components were determined by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. After lactoperoxidase iodination, most of the radioactivity was found in polypeptide bands of 79,000, 65,000 and 56,000 daltons. The 79,000 band is the most intense for undifferentiated cells but disappears as differentiation proceeds. The 56,000 band is present in normal cells at all stages of differentiation but is absent from neoplastic cells. Glycoproteins reacted with /sup 125/I-lectins were found at 180,000, 130,000 and 85,000 daltons. The 130,000 band was the most prominent for differentiated cells labeled with wheat germ agglutinin but was essentially absent from the undifferentiated cells. With Ricinus communis agglutinin, this band was weaker for undifferentiated than for differentiated cells but was the most intense for both. After metabolic incorporation of tritiated fucose, radioactive glycoproteins were found at 130,000 and 85,000 daltons, with comparable intensities for differentiated and undifferentiated cells.

Brysk, M.M.; Snider, J.M.

1982-05-01

333

The effect of biochar amendment on the soil microbial community - PLFA analyses and 13C labeling results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of biochar amendment on plant growth and on the chemical / physical soil characteristics are well explored but only few studies have investigated the impact on soil microorganisms. The response of the soil microbial community to biochar amendment was investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis in (i) a large scale pot experiment, (ii) a small scale pot experiment using 13C labeled biochar and (iii) an incubation study using 13C labeled biochar. In the large scale pot experiment, three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four different types of biochar were investigated. In total, 25 treatments with 5 replicates each were set up and monitored over a year. The results from the pot experiments showed no significant influence of biochar amendment on the total microbial biomass in the first 100 days after biochar addition. However, discriminant analysis showed a distinction of biochar and control soils as well as a strong effect of the pyrolysis temperature on the microbial composition. The effect of biochar was dependent on the type of soil. In the Planosol, some PLFAs were affected positively, especially when adding biochar with a low pyrolysis temperature, in the first month. In the long term, microbial community composition altered. Growth of fungi and gram negative bacteria was enhanced. In the Chernozem, PLFAs from various microbial groups decreased in the long term. Variability in the incubation study was low. Consequently, many PLFAs were significantly affected by biochar amendment. Again, in the Planosol, gram negative bacteria, actinomycetes and, after 2 weeks, gram positive bacteria increased under biochar amendment whereas in the chernozem total microbial biomass and gram positive bacteria were negatively affected in the long term. The 13C labeling studies confirmed the low degradability of the biochar, i.e. no alteration of the content and the ?13C in the soil organic matter within 100 days, decreased CO2 emission after biochar addition and little 13C signature from the biochar in the respired CO2. The uptake of the labeled biochar into the microbial PLFAs was analysed and will provide an evidence if biochar was used as a carbon source. In addition, the long term effect of biochar amendment (beyond 100 days) on the soil microbial community is currently investigated. These results will be also presented in the oncoming meeting.

Watzinger, A.; Feichtmair, S.; Rempt, F.; Anders, E.; Wimmer, B.; Kitzler, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Horacek, M.; Zehetner, F.; Kloss, S.; Richoz, S.; Soja, G.

2012-04-01

334

The Predictive Validity of the Early Warning System Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Warning System is a tool developed by the National High School Center to collect data on indicators including attendance, grade point average, course failures, and credits earned. These indicators have been found to be highly predictive of a student's likelihood of dropping out of high school in large, urban areas. The Early Warning

Johnson, Evelyn; Semmelroth, Carrie

2010-01-01

335

Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT), the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys) for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean. Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP) and event-driven architecture (EDA)) are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

Wächter, J.; Babeyko, A.; Fleischer, J.; Häner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Kloth, A.; Lendholt, M.

2012-06-01

336

LEP and SPS Evacuation Systems and Beam Imminent Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evacuation system was installed in 1989 in the LEP collider. Its purpose was to make people aware of a dangerous situation and to request them to exit from the area rapidly. In 1998, a new feature was added, a final warning now being generated in the radiation-controlled areas before the injection of high-energy particle beams. This Beam Imminent Warning

F Bonthond

2000-01-01

337

Parental Discretion Advised: Televised Warning Statements and Parental Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the influence on parents of televised warnings about content unsuitable for children and to determine parents' attitudes toward such warnings. Researchers conducted interviews in 422 homes and distributed questionnaires with Likert-type and frequency scale items. While parents recognized and observed the…

Slater, Dan; Thompson, Teresa L.

338

Feasibility study of using satellites for a disaster warning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of requirements for the Disaster Warning System (DWS) was investigated in relation to the National Weather Service. Conceptual communication traffic flow patterns for the future of the NWS are studied to determine the impact of the DWS on the MWS. The planned warning systems, and satellite communications are discussed along with data collection, and communication services.

1973-01-01

339

Warning Reliability and Driving Performance in Naturalistic Driving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this study is to examine how driver behavior is influenced by the reliability of an in-vehicle warning system under naturalistic driving conditions. Driver responses to lateral drift warnings were examined to determine if the latency to initia...

J. M. Sullivan O. Tsimhoni S. Bogard

2007-01-01

340

Multitarget and background simulation of infrared warning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multi-targets and Backgrounds Simulation (MTBS) was a computer model which generated infrared dynamic images detected by the shipborne infrared warning system in battlefield situations. A 3D scene was built. The targets distributed in a hemisphere whose center was the sensor of the infrared warning system. The background ought to be the sky or the sea. It could analyze the

Xuewei Wang; Tongsheng Shen; Xiaodong Zhou

2001-01-01

341

Early Warning Signals for Critical Transitions: A Generalized Modeling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical transitions are sudden, often irreversible, changes that can occur in a large variety of complex systems; signals that warn of critical transitions are therefore highly desirable. We propose a new method for early warning signals that integrates multiple sources of information and data about the system through the framework of a generalized model. We demonstrate our proposed approach through

Steven J. Lade; Thilo Gross

2012-01-01

342

An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

the warning theory is introduced in the study of groundwater pollution in this paper. Groundwater pollution early warning is performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality changing trend and groundwater pollution risk. The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell, the values of three factors, that is inherent

Zhang Weihong; Zhao YongshengRw; Dong Jun; Hong Mei

2011-01-01

343

Comparison of three acute care pediatric early warning scoring tools.  

PubMed

Pediatric Early Warning (PEW) scoring tools effectively identify hospitalized children at risk for clinical deterioration. The study compared the predictability of three previously validated PEW scoring tools. A retrospective case-control design was used that identified the PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) as a stronger predictor of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) than either the PEW Tool (C. Haines, M. Perrott, & P. Weir, 2006) or the Bedside PEW System Score (C. Parshuram, J. Hutchison, & K. Middaugh, 2009). The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) demonstrated a greater sensitivity (86.6%) and specificity (72.9%) at a score of five. The PEW System Score (H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, & C. Parshuram, 2006) could benefit healthcare providers in potentially averting CPA. PMID:23276507

Robson, Mary-Ann J; Cooper, Carole L; Medicus, Lori A; Quintero, Mary J; Zuniga, Stephen A

2013-01-01

344

Towards Early Warning Systems - Challenges, Technologies and Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the architecture of an automatic early warning system (EWS) that aims at providing predictions and advice regarding security threats in information and communication technology without incorporation of cognitive abilities of humans and forms the basis for drawing a situation picture. Our EWS particularly targets the growing malware threat and shall achieve the required capabilities by combining malware collectors, malware analysis systems, malware behavior clustering, signature generation and distribution and malware/misuse detection system into an integrated process chain. The quality and timeliness of the results delivered by the EWS are influenced by the number and location of participating partners that share information on security incidents. In order to enable such a cooperation and an effective deployment of the EWS, interests and confidentiality requirements of the parties involved need to be carefully examined. We discuss technical details of the EWS components, evaluate alternatives and examine the interests of all parties involved in the anticipated deployment scenario.

Apel, Martin; Biskup, Joachim; Flegel, Ulrich; Meier, Michael

345

Congressional Science Fellow warns— stand and be counted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The House Republicans' Contract with America has served as a political wake-up call for many geoscientists. If the recommended budget cuts accompanying the Contract are passed, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Mines would be eliminated and the Minerals Management Service would be reduced by 50%.These are just a few of the many cuts being called for by House Budget Committee Chairman John Kasich (R-Ohio). The National Science Foundation (NSF) would see an increase in funding but at a rate fixed below inflation, resulting in an effective decrease in constant dollars. And while the chairman of the newly renamed House Science Committee, Bob Walker (R-Penn.), has been a vocal supporter of basic research, his committee has warned officials at NSF, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the Environmental Protection Agency that they should expect less money and more cuts in the coming year.

Applegate, David

346

32 CFR 806b.27 - When to include a Privacy Act warning statement in publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Privacy Act warning statement in publications. 806b.27 Section 806b...Privacy Act warning statement in publications. Include a Privacy Act Warning Statement in each Air Force publication that requires collecting or...

2013-07-01

347

46 CFR 35.30-1 - Warning signals and signs-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Red warning signals. During transfer of bulk cargo while fast to a dock, a red signal (flag by day and electric lantern...2 inches high substantially as follows: Warning No open lights. No smoking. No visitors. (c) Warning sign in...

2013-10-01

348

21 CFR 369.20 - Drugs; recommended warning and caution statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Warning and Caution Statements for Drugs § 369.20 Drugs; recommended warning...

2009-04-01

349

21 CFR 369.20 - Drugs; recommended warning and caution statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Warning and Caution Statements for Drugs § 369.20 Drugs; recommended warning...

2010-04-01

350

21 CFR 369.21 - Drugs; warning and caution statements required by regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Warning and Caution Statements for Drugs § 369.21 Drugs; warning and caution...

2010-04-01

351

21 CFR 369.21 - Drugs; warning and caution statements required by regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Warning and Caution Statements for Drugs § 369.21 Drugs; warning and caution...

2009-04-01

352

Tsunami Warning Criteria for Cascadia events based on Tsunami models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial tsunami warning, advisory, and watch zones for potential Cascadia earthquakes have been revised based on maximum expected threat for tsunamis generated by earthquakes in this region. Presently, alert zones are initially based on travel time for earthquakes greater than magnitude 7.8 with all areas less than three hours away from the source being put into a tsunami warning. The impact of this change is to reduce the length of coastline which is immediately put it into a warning status. Tsunami Warning Centers often delineate initial tsunami alert zones based on pre-set criteria dependent on earthquake magnitude, location, depth, and tsunami travel time. In many cases, this approach can lead to over-warning. Over the last several years, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) has attempted to refine the amount of coastline immediately placed in a warning status based on maximum expected threat instead of travel time. Tsunami forecast models used to predict impacts during events (for example, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM), Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT), and Rapid Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis (RIFT)) can also be used a-priori to delineate zones at-risk for specified source zones. forecast models have proven reasonably accurate during recent events. For the Cascadia Subduction zone, several rupture scenarios ranging from magnitude 7.9 to 9.2, were computed. Forecasted wave heights at various points are then used to set the initial Warning/Watch/Advisory regions. This procedure is more efficient than a blanket warning - or a refined warning based on travel times - as appropriate threat levels are assigned based on expected impact. For example, after a magnitude 8.7 earthquake in the southern Cascadia Subduction zone, southern and most of central California can be left out of the warning zone and placed in an advisory, as none of this region contains expected impacts in the warning threshold (tsunami amplitude over 1m). Under previous criteria, these zones would have been placed in a warning. Several examples are shown which help refine criteria used by the Tsunami Warning Center during hypothetical Cascadia events.

Huang, P. Y.; Nyland, D. L.; Knight, W.; Gately, K.; Hale, D.; Urban, G.; Waddell, J.; Carrick, J.; Popham, C.; Bahng, B.; Kim, Y.; Burgy, M.; Langley, S.; Preller, C. C.; Whitmore, P.

2013-12-01

353

Special issue on warnings: Advances in delivery, application, and methods.  

PubMed

This special issue of Applied Ergonomics concerns the topic of warnings, safety communications designed to decrease harm to people and property. The field has evolved over time, and with it there has been advancement in knowledge and application. The current special issue contains 14 articles that reflect three distinguishable areas within the warnings literature where such changes are taking place in the laboratories and workplaces of our international colleagues: (1) multimodality of warning delivery, (2) emerging application areas, and (3) new methodology. This special issue brings together a set of studies investigating various factors that might impact safety behavior in diverse settings and domains where warnings are likely to be encountered. It is our hope that the special issue will motivate to development and exploration of new ideas regarding warning design and their use in a variety of applications that improve safety. PMID:24636729

Mayhorn, Christopher B; Wogalter, Michael S; Laughery, Kenneth R

2014-09-01

354

Early warning of climate tipping points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climate 'tipping point' occurs when a small change in forcing triggers a strongly nonlinear response in the internal dynamics of part of the climate system, qualitatively changing its future state. Human-induced climate change could push several large-scale 'tipping elements' past a tipping point. Candidates include irreversible melt of the Greenland ice sheet, dieback of the Amazon rainforest and shift of the West African monsoon. Recent assessments give an increased probability of future tipping events, and the corresponding impacts are estimated to be large, making them significant risks. Recent work shows that early warning of an approaching climate tipping point is possible in principle, and could have considerable value in reducing the risk that they pose.

Lenton, Timothy M.

2011-07-01

355

Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island.

Not Available

1992-05-04

356

Tipping Points: Early warning and wishful thinking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate changes and especially the risk of rapid and irreversible changes is of great socioeconomic concern. Abrupt transitions from one statistically steady state to another occur in many complex dynamical systems. Common for these are that crossing a critical threshold can lead to a structural change of the system. This is mathematically described as a bifurcation, which gives the hope that the generic dynamical behavior at bifurcation- or tipping points may be observed even with only imperfect knowledge of the dynamics of the system. It would be especially useful if early warning signals prior to a climate transition could be identified, and perhaps even prevented. The two generic characteristics of the approach to a bifurcation point is increased variance of the observed signal, following from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the corresponding increased autocorrelation, related to critical slow down. These two signals are connected, and the detection of only one and not the other, cannot be taken as a sign of an approaching tipping point. This is contrary to what was recently claimed (Dakos et al., PNAS, 105, 14308-14312, 2008; Scheffer et al.,Nature, 461, 53-59, 2009). We shall in the following show this, assess the statistical significance and examine these two signals for the most pronounced observed climate jumps, the Dansgaard-Oeschger events and the termination of the last glacial period. The conclusions drawn is that these most probably are not generated by bifurcations: They are noise induced transitions without early warning signals. This means that it is necessary to understand the full non-linear structure of the climate system, including assessing the influence by an external perturbation (such as increased greenhouse gas concentrations) on the short time scale fluctuations (noise), which might push the system into a different (quasi-)stationary state.

Ditlevsen, Peter

2010-05-01

357

No duty to warn in California: now unambiguously solely a duty to protect.  

PubMed

In 2013, legislation went into effect clarifying that the Tarasoff duty in California is now unambiguously solely a duty to protect. Warning the potential victim and the police is not a requirement, but a clinician can obtain immunity from liability by using this safe harbor. In situations in which a therapist believes warning might exacerbate the patient's risk, however, alternative protective actions can satisfy the duty to protect. For a clinician to be found liable, those alternative actions would have to be proven negligent. This flexibility can sometimes be crucial in protecting potential victims and thereby, indirectly, patients from the consequences of dangerous action. Explaining the reasoning for the action chosen should obviate any significant liability risk of doing the right thing, even without immunity. Legislation was enacted in 2007 as an attempt to clarify the requirement, but the revised immunity statute at the time retained the phrase 'duty to warn and protect', which perpetuated the now-eliminated confusion. Correctly understanding the California law is important to avoid having the restored flexibility eroded again by belief in a nonexistent duty to warn. The Tarasoff duty originated in California, but since many other states later established similar duties, the developments in California may have national implications. PMID:24618525

Weinstock, Robert; Bonnici, Daniel; Seroussi, Ariel; Leong, Gregory B

2014-01-01

358

Microsimulation modelling of driver behaviour towards alternative warning devices at railway level crossings.  

PubMed

Level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety issues, due to the addition of rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. The differences in the operational characteristics of different warning devices together with varying crossing, traffic or/and train characteristics, cause different driver behaviour at crossings. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign) at railway level crossings using microsimulation modelling. Two safety performance indicators directly related to collision risks, violation and time-to-collision, were adopted. Results indicated the active systems were more effective at reducing likely collisions compared to passive devices. With the combined application of driving simulation and traffic microsimulation modelling, traffic safety performance indicators for a level crossing can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived, or even for absolute safety evaluation with proper calibration from field investigations. PMID:24929822

Tey, Li-Sian; Zhu, Sicong; Ferreira, Luis; Wallis, Guy

2014-10-01

359

Impact of Teachers' Dogmatism and Pessimistic Stereotype on the Effect of EMR-Class Label on Teachers' Judgments in Finland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finnish special-education teachers (n=135) rated five sentences written by an 11-year-old student either labeled or not labeled as being in a special class for educable mentally retarded (EMR) students. Results indicated that the EMR label diminished teachers' ratings and that teacher dogmatism and pessimistic stereotype correlated negatively with…

Moberg, Sakari

1995-01-01

360

The effect of dose loading and of double labelling with 57 Co and 125 I on the tissue distribution in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose loading effects upon the peformance of 57Co-bleomycin as a tumor localizing agent have been investigated in Rhabdomyosarcoma bearing Wag\\/Ry rats. The addition of non-radioactively labelled Co-bleomycin increased the relative uptake of 57Co-bleomycin in rapid growing tumors, but the addition of non-chelated bleomycin had no influence at all. In our experimental system, iodinated bleomycin generally labelled by reaction with ICl,

C. M. Vos; G. Westera; P. J. Jagt; B. Zanten

1979-01-01

361

Effects of 15 N-labelled ammonium nitrate and urea on soil nitrogen during growth of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of 15N-labelled ammonium nitrate and urea on the yield and uptake of labelled and unlabelled N by wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Mexi-Pak-65) in a field experiment. The dry matter and N yields were significantly increased with fertilizer N application compared to those from unfertilized soil. The wheat crop used 33.6–51.5 and 30.5–40.9% of the N

A. Hamid; M. Ahmad

1994-01-01

362

21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. 201...201.22 Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. (a) Sulfites are chemical substances that are...

2009-04-01

363

21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. 201...201.22 Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. (a) Sulfites are chemical substances that are...

2010-04-01

364

Warning Color Changes in Response to Food Deprivation in the Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor  

PubMed Central

Predation on distasteful animals should favor warning coloration that is relatively conspicuous and phenotypically invariable. However, even among similarly colored individuals there can be variation in their warning signals. In butterflies, individual differences in larval feeding history could cause this variation. The warning signal of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) consists of both a blue iridescent patch and pigmentbased orange spots on the ventral hindwing. B. philenor males also display a dorsal surface iridescent patch that functions as a sexual indicator signal. A previous study of iridescence in B. philenor found that the iridescent blue on both the dorsal and ventral hind wings is variable and significantly different between lab-reared and field-caught individuals. These differences could be the result of larval food deprivation in the field. Through experimental manipulation of larval diet, larval food deprivation was evaluated as a potential cause of the differences observed between lab and field individuals, and if food deprivation is a source of inter-individual variation in warning signals. B. philenor larvae were food restricted starting at two points in the last larval instar, and one group was fed through pupation. Adult coloration was then compared. Food deprivation led to poorer adult condition, as indicated by lower adult body mass, forewing length, and fat content of stressed individuals. As the level of food deprivation increased, the hue of the iridescent patches on both the dorsal and ventral hind wing shifted to shorter wavelengths, and the chroma of the orange spots decreased. The shifts in iridescent color did not match the differences previously found between lab and field individuals. However, the treatment differences indicate that food deprivation may be a significant source of warning color variation. The differences between the treatment groups are likely detectable by predators, but the effect of the variation on signal effectiveness and function remains to be empirically explored.

Pegram, Kimberly V.; Nahm, Alexandra C.; Rutowski, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

365

Continuous estimates on the earthquake early warning magnitude by use of the near-field acceleration records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the seismic records of Japan's Kik-net are selected to measure the acceleration, displacement, and effective peak acceleration of each seismic record within a certain time after P wave, then a continuous estimation is given on earthquake early warning magnitude through statistical analysis method, and Wenchuan earthquake record is utilized to check the method. The results show that the reliability of earthquake early warning magnitude continuously increases with the increase of the seismic information, the biggest residual happens if the acceleration is adopted to fit earthquake magnitude, which may be caused by rich high-frequency components and large dispersion of peak value in acceleration record, the influence caused by the high-frequency components can be effectively reduced if the effective peak acceleration and peak displacement is adopted, it is estimated that the dispersion of earthquake magnitude obviously reduces, but it is easy for peak displacement to be affected by long-period drifting. In various components, the residual enlargement phenomenon at vertical direction is almost unobvious, thus it is recommended in this article that the effective peak acceleration at vertical direction is preferred to estimate earthquake early warning magnitude. Through adopting Wenchuan strong earthquake record to check the method mentioned in this article, it is found that this method can be used to quickly, stably, and accurately estimate the early warning magnitude of this earthquake, which shows that this method is completely applicable for earthquake early warning.

Li, Jun; Jin, Xing; Wei, Yongxiang; Zhang, Hongcai

2013-10-01

366

Effect of functionalised fluorescence-labelled nanoparticles on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.  

PubMed

The combined use of nanoparticles and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in regenerative medicine requires the incorporation of the particles and, at the same time, undisturbed cell viability and maintenance of the multi-lineage potential of MSC. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of novel phosphonate-functionalised polystyrene nanoparticles prepared by miniemulsion polymerisation. After exposition of human MSC to the particles, their uptake and localisation were analysed by flow cytometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential was examined by analysing representative marker genes by RT-PCR. Flow cytometry revealed that after 5 and 16 days more than 98% of the MSC and of the cells, which underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were positive for particle association. CLSM and TEM demonstrated the successful intracellular incorporation of the particles without using any transfection agents and their presence over the cultivation period. The cell viability was found to be unaffected. Particle treated MSC maintained their potential for osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. It was concluded that the surface functionalisation with phosphonate groups provides a promising basis for the development of nanoparticles with high intracellular uptake rates for drug delivery or cell labelling. PMID:20004969

Tautzenberger, Andrea; Lorenz, Steffen; Kreja, Ludwika; Zeller, Anke; Musyanovych, Anna; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Landfester, Katharina; Mailänder, Volker; Ignatius, Anita

2010-03-01

367

Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability of snow avalanches) or trigger events (e.g. heavy snow fall) to predict spontaneous hazard events in advance. They encompass regional or national measuring networks and satisfy additional demands such as the standardisation of the measuring stations. The developed classification and the characteristics, which were revealed for each class, yield a valuable input to quantifying the reliability of warning and alarm systems. Importantly, this will facilitate to compare them with well-established standard mitigation measures such as dams, nets and galleries within an integrated risk management approach.

Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

2013-04-01

368

Adipose derived stem cells: efficiency, toxicity, stability of BrdU labeling and effects on self-renewal and adipose differentiation.  

PubMed

5-bromo-2-deoxyurudine (BrdU) can be used as a methodological tool for in vivo investigations following in vitro prelabeling of isolated stem cells for subsequent cell tracking within the recipient host. The objective of this study was to determine how useful BrdU may be as a labeling modality for adipose derived stem cells (ASC) by examining BrdU toxicity, BrdU intracellular stability, and potential effects on ASC differentiation. Porcine and human ASC (pASC and hASC, respectively) were labeled with BrdU at 5 or 10 ?M for 2, 6, 24, and 48 h. BrdU toxicity and stability over time in monolayer cultures, in 3-D collagen scaffolds implanted to a porcine model and after thawing from long-term storage were evaluated by MTT assays and immunohistochemistry. ASC differentiation was evaluated by Oil Red O staining. BrdU was not cytotoxic at all tested concentrations and incubation times. BrdU color intensity within each cell and the number of ASC labeled with BrdU decreased as a function of both incubation time and BrdU concentrations. Labeling intensities decreased over time and were undetectable after 6 passages for pASC and 4 passages for hASC. In 3-D scaffolds, BrdU-labeled ASC were identifiable after 90 days of in vitro cultures and for 30 days in a porcine model. BrdU did not prevent preadipocyte differentiation and BrdU labeling was still detectable after subsequent thawing after long-term storage of ASC. BrdU is an excellent candidate reagent to label and track ASC that will allow distinction between BrdU-labeled donor cells and host cells. The data provides a foundation for conducting future tissue engineering projects using BrdU-labeled ASC. PMID:21246262

Lequeux, Charlotte; Oni, Georgette; Mojallal, Ali; Damour, Odile; Brown, Spencer A

2011-05-01

369

Effect of interdome spacing on the resonance properties of plasmonic nanodome arrays for label-free optical sensing.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report on experimental and theoretical studies that investigate how the structural properties of plasmonic nanodome array devices determine their optical properties and sensing performance. We examined the effect of the interdome gap spacing within the plasmonic array structures on the performance for detection of change in local refractive index environment for label-free capture affinity biosensing applications. Optical sensing properties were characterized for nanodome array devices with interdome spacings of 14 nm, 40 nm, and 79 nm, as well as for a device where adjacent domes are in contact. For each interdome spacing, the extinction spectrum was measured using a broadband reflection instrumentation, and finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulation was used to model the local electric field distribution associated with the resonances. Based on these studies, we predict that nanodome array devices with gap between 14 nm to 20 nm provide optimal label-free capture affinity biosensing performances, where the dipole resonance mode exhibits the highest overall surface sensitivity, as well as the lowest limit of detection. PMID:24514341

Choi, Charles J; Semancik, Steve

2013-11-18

370

Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

1982-09-01

371

Effects of targeting moiety, linker, bifunctional chelator, and molecular charge on biological properties of 64Cu-labeled triphenylphosphonium cations.  

PubMed

In this report, we present the synthesis and evaluation of six new 64Cu-labeled triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations. Biodistribution studies were performed using the athymic nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts to explore the impact of TPP moieties, linkers, bifunctional chelators (BFCs), and molecular charge on biological properties of 64Cu radiotracers. On the basis of the results from this study, it is concluded that (1) mTPP (tris(4-methoxyphenyl)phosphonium) is a better mitochondrion-targeting molecule than TPP and 3mTPP (tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium); (2) DO3A (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-4,7,10-triacetic acid) and DO2A (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-4,7-diacetic acid) are suitable BFCs for the 64Cu-labeling of TPP cations; (3) NOTA-Bn ( S-2-(4-thioureidobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) has a significant adverse effect on the radiotracer tumor uptake and tumor-to-background ratios; and (4) monoanionic BFCs should be avoided to ensure that 64Cu chelate has a neutral or negative charge. Considering the tumor uptake and tumor/liver ratios, 64Cu(DO2A-xy-TPP)+ is the best candidate for more extensive evaluations in different tumor-bearing animal models. PMID:18419113

Kim, Young-Seung; Yang, Chang-Tong; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Lijun; Li, Zi-Bo; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang

2008-05-22

372

Development of a Patient-Centered Bilingual Prescription Drug Label  

PubMed Central

Research shows that prescription drug labels are often difficult for patients to understand, which contributes to medication errors and nonadherence. In this study, the authors developed and qualitatively evaluated an evidence-based bilingual prescription container label designed to improve understanding. The authors developed several prototypes in English only or in English and Spanish. The labels included an image of the drug, an icon to show its purpose, and plain-language instructions presented in a 4-time-of-day table. In 5 focus groups and interviews that included 57 participants, patients and pharmacists critically reviewed the designs and compared them with traditional medication labels and reformatted labels without illustrations. Patients strongly preferred labels that grouped patient-relevant content, highlighted key information, and included drug indication icons. They also preferred having the 4-time-of-day table and plain-language text instructions as opposed to either one alone. Patients preferred having pertinent warnings on the main label instead of auxiliary labels. Pharmacists and Latino patients valued having Spanish and English instructions on the label, so both parties could understand the content. The final label design adheres to the latest national- and state-level recommendations for label format and incorporates additional improvements on the basis of patient and pharmacist input. This design may serve as a prototype for improving prescription drug labeling.

Mohan, Arun; Riley, M. Brian; Boyington, Dane; Johnston, Phillip; Trochez, Karen; Jennings, Callie; Mashburn, Jennie; Kripalani, Sunil

2013-01-01

373

Development of a patient-centered bilingual prescription drug label.  

PubMed

Research shows that prescription drug labels are often difficult for patients to understand, which contributes to medication errors and nonadherence. In this study, the authors developed and qualitatively evaluated an evidence-based bilingual prescription container label designed to improve understanding. The authors developed several prototypes in English only or in English and Spanish. The labels included an image of the drug, an icon to show its purpose, and plain-language instructions presented in a 4-time-of-day table. In 5 focus groups and interviews that included 57 participants, patients and pharmacists critically reviewed the designs and compared them with traditional medication labels and reformatted labels without illustrations. Patients strongly preferred labels that grouped patient-relevant content, highlighted key information, and included drug indication icons. They also preferred having the 4-time-of-day table and plain-language text instructions as opposed to either one alone. Patients preferred having pertinent warnings on the main label instead of auxiliary labels. Pharmacists and Latino patients valued having Spanish and English instructions on the label, so both parties could understand the content. The final label design adheres to the latest national- and state-level recommendations for label format and incorporates additional improvements on the basis of patient and pharmacist input. This design may serve as a prototype for improving prescription drug labeling. PMID:24093345

Mohan, Arun; Riley, M Brian; Boyington, Dane; Johnston, Phillip; Trochez, Karen; Jennings, Callie; Mashburn, Jennie; Kripalani, Sunil

2013-01-01

374

Influence of warning information changes on emergency response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation and risk reduction of natural hazards is significantly related to the possibility of predicting the actual event. Some hazards can already be forecasted several days in advance. For these hazards, early warning systems have been developed, installed and improved over the years. The formation of winter storms for example can be recognized up to one week before they pass through Central Europe. This relative long early warning time has the advantage that forecasters can concretise the warnings over time. Therefore, warnings can even be adapted to alternating conditions within the process, the observation or changes in its modelling. Emergency managers are one group of warning recipients in the civil protection sector. They have to prepare or initiate prevention or response measures at a specific point of time, depending on the required lead time of the referring actions. At this point of time already, the forecast and its equivalent warning, has to be assumed as a stage of reality, hence the decision-makers have to come to a conclusion. These decisions are based on spatial and temporal knowledge of the forecasted event and the consequential situation of risk. With incoming warning updates, the detailed status of information is permanently being alternated. Consequently, decisions can be influenced by the development of the warning situation and the inherent tendency before a certain point of time. They can also be adapted to updates later on, according to the changing 'decision reality'. The influence of these dynamic hazard situations on operational planning and response by emergency managers is investigated in case studies on winter storms for Berlin, Germany. Therefore, the issued warnings by the weather service and data of operation of Berlin Fire Brigades are analysed and compared. This presentation shows and discusses first results.

Heisterkamp, Tobias; Ulbrich, Uwe; Glade, Thomas; Tetzlaff, Gerd

2014-05-01

375

Effect of intratumoral administration on biodistribution of 64Cu-labeled nanoshells  

PubMed Central

Background Gold nanoshells are excellent agents for photothermal ablation cancer therapy and are currently under clinical trial for solid tumors. Previous studies showed that passive delivery of gold nanoshells through intravenous administration resulted in limited tumor accumulation, which represents a major challenge for this therapy. In this report, the impact of direct intratumoral administration on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the nanoshells was systematically investigated. Methods The gold nanoshells were labeled with the radionuclide, copper-64 (64Cu). Intratumoral infusion of 64Cu-nanoshells and two controls, ie, 64Cu-DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazaciclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) and 64Cu-DOTA-PEG (polyethylene glycol), as well as intravenous injection of 64Cu-nanoshells were performed in nude rats, each with a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft. The pharmacokinetics was determined by radioactive counting of serial blood samples collected from the rats at different time points post-injection. Using positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, the in vivo distribution of 64Cu-nanoshells and the controls was monitored at various time points after injection. Organ biodistribution in the rats at 46 hours was analyzed by radioactive counting and compared between the different groups. Results The resulting pharmacokinetic curves indicated a similar trend between the intratumorally injected agents, but a significant difference with the intravenously injected 64Cu-nanoshells. Positron emission tomography images and organ biodistribution results on rats after intratumoral administration showed higher retention of 64Cu-nanoshells in tumors and less concentration in other healthy organs, with a significant difference from the controls. It was also found that, compared with intravenous injection, tumor concentrations of 64Cu-nanoshells improved substantially and were stable at 44 hours post-injection. Conclusion There was a higher intratumoral retention of 64Cu-nanoshells and a lower concentration in other healthy tissues, suggesting that intratumoral administration is a potentially better approach for nanoshell-based photothermal therapy.

Xie, Huan; Goins, Beth; Bao, Ande; Wang, Zheng Jim; Phillips, William T

2012-01-01

376

Label-free detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions using nanoscale field-effect transistor biosensors.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate-protein interactions play a significant role in cell communication, cell adhesion, cell trafficking, and immune responses. Many efforts have been made to demonstrate detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions. However, the existing methods are still tedious and expensive. Therefore, the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is of great significance, and new, efficient methods are required for fast and sensitive recognition testing. In this report, we, for the first time, developed the silicon nanowire (SiNW)-based biosensor capable of label-free electrical detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions with high selectivity and sensitivity by covalently immobilizing unmodified carbohydrates on the sensor surface. We fabricated new SiNW sensor chips with more SiNW arrays for potential detection of multiple analytes. In order to realize the immobilization of the unmodified carbohydrates on the SiNW surface, we used X-ray photoelectron spectra and fluorescence microscopy to verify the successful surface functionalization on the silicon surface. Furthermore, we demonstrated real-time detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions using the carbohydrate-modified SiNW sensor chips. The results show good specificity between galactose-lectin EC and mannose-Con A, which is in good agreement with that reported previously. Finally, the results also show that we are able to use the galactose-modified SiNW biosensor to detect lectin EC as low as 100 fg/mL, which is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that reported by other technologies. We believe that the developed SiNW biosensor paves a novel way for studying carbohydrate-protein interactions. PMID:23577836

Zhang, Guo-Jun; Huang, Min Joon; Ang, Jun'An Jason; Yao, Qunfeng; Ning, Yong

2013-05-01

377

The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling  

PubMed Central

Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184?mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820?mg black tea solids containing 184?mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820?mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2?hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF.

Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

2013-01-01

378

Early Warning at the Gradenbach Mass Movement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gradenbach mass movement (GMM) is an example of a deep seated gravitational slope deformation in the crystalline rocks of the Eastern Alps (12.85° E, 47.00° N). The main body of the GMM covers an area of 1.7km2 and comprises a volume of 0.12km3. The main scarp is located below the mountain crest at an elevation of 2235m. The toe is at 1200m elevation in the Gradenbach valley. The GMM became active during the second half of the 19th century according to historic documents. Quantitative data about the movement are available since 1962. Quasi-stationary phases of creep or slow sliding were interrupted by accelerations in 1965-1966, 1975, 2001, and 2009 yielding a total displacement of about 20m. The cumulative displacement during the high velocity phases was about 8m in 1965/66 and about 1m in 2001 and 2009. A transition to rapid and catastrophic sliding cannot be excluded during the acceleration phases in the future. The early warning system of the Gradenbach Observatory at the GMM consists of a geodetic, a hydro-meteorological, and a seismological component. The geodetic component comprises a GPS network with stations distributed over the whole GMM and two wire-extensometers recording the displacement at the toe of the landslide relative to the opposite slope. The GPS data are available in real time. The extensometer data are currently transmitted in weekly intervals. The hydro-meteorological component comprises the real time registration and data transmission of precipitation and temperature at one station on the GMM. The water equivalent of the snow cover is weekly determined at 15 profiles. Snow melt and infiltration into the GMM are estimated from this data. The hydrostatic water level is measured at two borehole gauges. A proxy of the hydrostatic water level at the surface of rupture is derived from the hydro-meteorological data and related to the velocity of the GMM by a power law. Investigations show that a variation of the hydrostatic water level at the surface of rupture is delayed to the actual input of precipitation and snow melt. The velocity of the GMM can therefore be predicted more than one month in advance. The seismological component at the GMM is based on measurements of the seismic activity with a local seismic monitoring network with near real time data transmission. The acceleration phase in 2009 was preceded by an increase of the ambient noise and the occurrence of micro-earthquakes which also continued during the acceleration phase. The noise analysis can be supplied in near real time. The backbone of the early warning system at GMM is the geodetic component. However, the hydro-meteorological prediction and the seismic precursors enhance the preparedness and allow for a better judgement of an incipient acceleration. So far the early warning system is based only on the experiences from a relatively short monitoring period. Continued monitoring will further improve its performance and reliability in the future.

Lienhart, Werner; Lang, Erich; Mertl, Stefan; Stary, Ulrike; Brückl, Ewald

2013-04-01

379

A space-based concept for a collision warning sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a concept for a space-based collision warning sensor experiment, the Debris Collision Warning Sensor (DCWS) experiment, in which the sensor will rely on passive sensing of debris in optical and IR passband. The DCWS experiment will be carried out under various conditions of solar phase angle and pass geometry; debris from 1.5 m to 1 mm diam will be observable. The mission characteristics include inclination in the 55-60 deg range and an altitude of about 500 km. The results of the DCWS experiment will be used to generate collision warning scenarios for the Space Station Freedom.

Talent, David L.; Vilas, Faith

1990-01-01

380

Monitoring the effects of dexamethasone treatment by MRI using in vivo iron oxide nanoparticle-labeled macrophages  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease causing recurring inflammatory joint attacks. These attacks are characterized by macrophage infiltration contributing to joint destruction. Studies have shown that RA treatment efficacy is correlated to synovial macrophage number. The aim of this study was to experimentally validate the use of in vivo superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) labeled macrophages to evaluate RA treatment by MRI. Methods The evolution of macrophages was monitored with and without dexamethasone (Dexa) treatment in rats. Two doses of 3 and 1 mg/kg Dexa were administered two and five days following induction of antigen induced arthritis. SPIONs (7 mg Fe/rat) were injected intravenously and the knees were imaged in vivo on days 6, 10 and 13. The MR images were scored for three parameters: SPION signal intensity, SPION distribution pattern and synovial oedema. Using 3D semi-automated software, the MR SPION signal was quantified. The efficacy of SPIONs and gadolinium chelate (Gd), an MR contrast agent, in illustrating treatment effects were compared. Those results were confirmed through histological measurements of number and area of macrophages and nanoparticle clusters using CD68 immunostaining and Prussian blue staining respectively. Results Results show that the pattern and the intensity of SPION-labeled macrophages on MRI were altered by Dexa treatment. While the Dexa group had a uniform elliptical line surrounding an oedema pocket, the untreated group showed a diffused SPION distribution on day 6 post-induction. Dexa reduced the intensity of SPION signal 50-60% on days 10 and 13 compared to controls (P?=?0.00008 and 0.002 respectively). Similar results were found when the signal was measured by the 3D tool. On day 13, the persisting low grade arthritis progression could not be demonstrated by Gd. Analysis of knee samples by Prussian blue and CD68 immunostaining confirmed in vivo SPION uptake by macrophages. Furthermore, CD68 immunostaining revealed that Dexa treatment significantly decreased the area and number of synovial macrophages. Prussian blue quantification corresponded to the macrophage measurements and both were in agreement with the MRI findings. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of MRI tracking of in vivo SPION-labeled macrophages to assess RA treatment effects.

2014-01-01

381

Label-free electrical detection of pyrophosphate generated from DNA polymerase reactions on field-effect devices†  

PubMed Central

We introduce a label-free approach for sensing polymerase reactions on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using a chelator-modified silicon-on-insulator field-effect transistor (SOI-FET) that exhibits selective and reversible electrical response to pyrophosphate anions. The chemical modification of the sensor surface was designed to include rolling-circle amplification (RCA) DNA colonies for locally enhanced pyrophosphate (PPi) signal generation and sensors with immobilized chelators for capture and surface-sensitive detection of diffusible reaction by-products. While detecting arrays of enzymatic base incorporation reactions is typically accomplished using optical fluorescence or chemiluminescence techniques, our results suggest that it is possible to develop scalable and portable PPi-specific sensors and platforms for broad biomedical applications such as DNA sequencing and microbe detection using surface-sensitive electrical readout techniques.

Su, Xing; Wu, Kai; Elibol, Oguz H.; Liu, David J.; Reddy, Bobby; Tsai, Ta-Wei; Dorvel, Brian R.; Daniels, Jonathan S.

2012-01-01

382

Therapeutic effect of transplanting magnetically labeled bone marrow stromal stem cells in a liver injury rat model with 70%-hepatectomy  

PubMed Central

Summary Background There are only few reports about the use of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) for the treatment of traumatic liver injury. This study aimed to study the therapeutic effect of fluorescence-labeled BMSCs administered to rats subject to traumatic liver injury. Material/Methods Male SD rats with a 70% resection of the liver were injected with feridex-labeled BMSCs which could be induced to functional hepatocytes in vitro. Liver function was assayed and the liver scanned by 1.5-T MRI at 12 hrs and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 post-operation. The pathological changes of liver sections were monitored. Results The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, direct bilirubin, and total bilirubin in the transplantation group were significantly lower than the control group. The MRI showed rats of the transplantation group had an oval low signal area at 12 hr after operation; the low signal range gradually expanded and the signal intensity gradually decreased over 14 days after operation. The low signal range in the control group disappeared 12 hr after the operation. After Prussian blue staining, rats of the transplantation group contained blue granules with no significant hypertrophy or edema in hepatocytes, while the control group showed no blue granules with significant hypertrophy and edema. Conclusions The BMSCs transplanted into the injured rat liver gradually migrate to the surrounding liver tissue and partially repair the liver surgical injury in rats. BMSCs may represent an effective therapeutic approach for acute liver injury.

Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhu, Da-Jian; Ju, Yong-Le; Zhou, Shu-Feng

2012-01-01

383

Epileptic Seizure Detection and Warning Device  

SciTech Connect

Flint Hills Scientific, L.L.C. (FHS) has invented what is believed to be the first real-time epileptic seizure detection and short-term prediction method in the world. They have demonstrated an IBM PC prototype with a multi-channel EEG monitoring configuration. This CRADA effort applied AlliedSignal FM and T hardware design, manufacturing miniaturization, and high quality manufacturing expertise in converting the prototype into a small, portable, self-contained, multi-channel EEG epileptic seizure detection and warning device. The purpose of this project was to design and build a proof-of-concept miniaturized prototype of the FHS-developed PC-based prototype. The resultant DSP prototype, measuring 4'' x 6'' x 2'', seizure detection performance compared favorably with the FHS PC prototype, thus validating the DSP design goals. The very successful completion of this project provided valuable engineering information for FHS for future prototype commercialization as well as providing AS/FM and T engineers DSP design experience.

Elarton, J.K.; Koepsel, K.L.

1999-06-21

384

Precipitation nowcasting and warning at European scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent production of OPERA radar mosaics at European scale in real time has enabled the possibility of operational precipitation nowcasting based on the extrapolation of radar mosaics over the Continent at the resolution of radar mosaics (4 km and every 15 minutes). This study analyzes the performance of the nowcasting technique in the period June-October 2012. The results show: (1) the impact of some artifacts contaminating the radar precipitation maps, (2) a clear spatial variability of the nowcasting skill, and (3) the dependence of the nowcasting performance on the meteorological situation. Also, the ensemble nowcasting technique SBMcast (Berenguer et al. 2011) has been adapted to the use of OPERA mosaics. The performance of this probabilistic technique has been evaluated over a number of cases, also focusing on its ability to assess the uncertainty in the generated nowcasts. The final goal of this work, carried out within the framework of the Project on Prevention of the EC Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection "HAZARD Assessment based on rainfall European nowcasts"(HAREN), is using the generated nowcasts for issuing intense rainfall warnings when the observed and nowcasted values exceed the thresholds used throughout Europe. REFERENCES Berenguer, M., D. Sempere-Torres, and G. G. S. Pegram, 2011: SBMcast - An ensemble nowcasting technique to assess the uncertainty in rainfall forecasts by Lagrangian extrapolation. Journal of Hydrology, 404, 226-240.

Berenguer, Marc; Sempere-Torres, Daniel

2013-04-01

385

The Presidential Initiative on Shared Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 1998, President Clinton and President Yeltsin issued a statement that our two countries would develop a system to share data from our respective early warning systems. The purpose of the initiative is to further reduce the risk of ballistic missile launches occurring in response to a misunderstanding about the data from such systems. The proposal includes a permanent center for sharing such data, located in Moscow, separate from but communicating with the strategic command-and-control centers of each country. It also includes development of a system of pre-launch notifications, which is expected to eventually provide notification of a broad class of launches, on a voluntary basis, including launches by all the countries that engage in missile and space activities. The status, progress, and prognosis for the work will be discussed. The presentation will address the experience gained from the operation of the Center for Y2K Strategic Stability in Colorado Springs (12/99 - 01/00), which tested many of our ideas for a joint center sharing both pre- launch and sensor data on worldwide launches. In addition, the potential of the initiative -- the first arms control effort involving active and continuing U.S.-Russian joint operations -- to provide a model for future arms control opportunities will be discussed.

Pettis, Roy

2000-04-01

386

Drug Abuse Warning Network Methodology Report, 2010 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes the methodologies used by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), a program of the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), to collect, prepa...

2012-01-01

387

Drug Abuse Warning Network Methodology Report, 2011 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes the methodologies used by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), a program of the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), to collect, prepa...

2013-01-01

388

30 CFR 36.28 - Signal or warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT...28 Signal or warning device. All mobile diesel-powered transportation...

2013-07-01

389

13. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF METERED WARNING BELL (PRIOR TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF METERED WARNING BELL (PRIOR TO ARRIVAL OF TRAINS), LOCATED IN TICKET OFFICE, SOUTHWEST WALL - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station, Laurel, 101 Lafayette Avenue, Laurel, Prince George's County, MD

390

Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View to north - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

391

Alternative Power-Line Proximity-Warning Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance requirements for a powerline proximity-warning (PLPW) system include high probability of detection at a dependable alarm range, low probability of false alarm, no setup or calibration, and little maintenance or adjustment. These requiremen...

F. H. Raab

1982-01-01

392

40 CFR 205.173-3 - Warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.173-3 Warning statement. ...product should be checked for repair or replacement if the motorcycle noise has increased significantly through use....

2013-07-01

393

Lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range and the technology it uses. The report outlines each of the system's individual components and the information each contributes.

Smith, R

1992-07-01

394

13. LOOKING AT "SAFETY FENCE" AND "WARNING NOTICE" AND AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. LOOKING AT "SAFETY FENCE" AND "WARNING NOTICE" AND AT BUILDING "A" FACE WITH WATER CANNON IN BACKGROUND. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 30° WEST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

395

46 CFR 105.45-15 - Warning signals and signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-15 Warning signals and signs. (a) During transfer of...

2013-10-01

396

Most Women Don't Know Warning Signs of Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... suggest that efforts to improve stroke warning sign recognition among women has the potential to reduce treatment ... better at spotting a stroke? "The lack of recognition of classic stroke symptoms is not just limited ...

397

21 CFR 369.10 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and...

2013-04-01

398

21 CFR 369.7 - Warnings required by official compendia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations...by official compendia. Any drug included in the official...

2013-04-01

399

Guide to Drug Abuse Warning Network Trend Tables, 2011 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Trend Tables provide estimates of drug-related visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) for different groups of patients, different years, and different geographic locations. Each year DAWN produces an updated set o...

2013-01-01

400

Guide to Drug Abuse Warning Network Trend Tables, 2010 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Trend Tables provide estimates of drug-related visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) for different groups of patients, different years, and different geographic locations. Each year DAWN produces an updated set o...

2012-01-01

401

14 CFR 23.703 - Takeoff warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.703 Takeoff warning system. For all airplanes with a maximum weight...takeoff performance of the airplane would not give an...

2014-01-01

402

CDC Issues Travel Warning as West Africa Ebola Outbreak Worsens  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. CDC Issues Travel Warning as West Africa Ebola Outbreak Worsens Agency also plans to send ... bottom line is that Ebola is worsening in West Africa," CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden told reporters in ...

403

40 CFR 156.66 - Child hazard warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...example, an industrial use product); or (2) The pesticide is approved for use on children (for example, an insect repellent). (c) EPA may approve an alternative child hazard warning that more appropriately reflects the nature of...

2013-07-01

404

Effects of Modafinil in Children With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Open-Label Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the effect of once-daily dosing of modafinil, a stimulant that has a long duration of action, on clinical features of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children.

THOMAS A. RUGINO; TERESA C. COPLEY

2001-01-01

405

Label-free biosensing of a gene mutation using a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (NWFET) that allows deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biosensing. The nanowire (NW) was fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer to provide effective ohmic contact. The NWFET sensor displayed n-channel depletion characteristics. To demonstrate the sensing capacity of the NWFET, we employed the BRAFV599E mutation gene, which correlates to the occurrence of cancers, as the target

Chi-Chang Wu; Fu-Hsiang Ko; Yuh-Shyong Yang; Der-Ling Hsia; Bo-Syuan Lee; Ting-Siang Su

2009-01-01

406

101. View of transmitter building no. 102, missile warning operation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

101. View of transmitter building no. 102, missile warning operation center, close up view of DRED (detection radar environmental display) console in operation showing target. Official photograph BMEWS Project by Hansen, 14 March 1963, clear as negative no. A-8803. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

407

Application of Seismic Array Processing to Earthquake Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that can issue warnings prior to the arrival of strong ground shaking during an earthquake are essential in mitigating seismic hazard. Many of the currently operating EEW systems work on the basis of empirical magnitude-amplitude/frequency scaling relations for a point source. This approach is of limited effectiveness for large events, such as the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, for which ignoring finite source effects may result in underestimation of the magnitude. Here, we explore the concept of characterizing rupture dimensions in real time for EEW using clusters of dense low-cost accelerometers located near active faults. Back tracing the waveforms recorded by such arrays allows the estimation of the earthquake rupture size, duration and directivity in real-time, which enables the EEW of M > 7 earthquakes. The concept is demonstrated with the 2004 Parkfield earthquake, one of the few big events (M>6) that have been recorded by a local small-scale seismic array (UPSAR array, Fletcher et al, 2006). We first test the approach against synthetic rupture scenarios constructed by superposition of empirical Green's functions. We find it important to correct for the bias in back azimuth induced by dipping structures beneath the array. We implemented the proposed methodology to the mainshock in a simulated real-time environment. After calibrating the dipping-layer effect with data from smaller events, we obtained an estimated rupture length of 9 km, consistent with the distance between the two main high frequency subevents identified by back-projection using all local stations (Allman and Shearer, 2007). We proposed to deploy small-scale arrays every 30 km along the San Andreas Fault. The array processing is performed in local processing centers at each array. The output is compared with finite fault solutions based on real-time GPS system and then incorporated into the standard ElarmS system. The optimal aperture and array geometry is also investigated by balancing the array waveform coherency and resolution limits. The cost of such system can be significantly reduced by using recently developed low-cost accelerometers.

Meng, L.; Allen, R. M.; Ampuero, J. P.

2013-12-01

408

The role of integrating natural and social science concepts for risk governance and the design of people-centred early warning systems. Case study from the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System Project (GITEWS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of early warning systems are one of the key domains of adaptation to global environmental change and contribute very much to the development of societal reaction and adaptive capacities to deal with extreme events. Especially, Indonesia is highly exposed to tsunami. In average every three years small and medium size tsunamis occur in the region causing damage and death. In the aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004, the German and Indonesian government agreed on a joint cooperation to develop a People Centered End-to-End Early Warning System (GITEWS). The analysis of risk and vulnerability, as an important step in risk (and early warning) governance, is a precondition for the design of effective early warning structures by delivering the knowledge base for developing institutionalized quick response mechanisms of organizations involved in the issuing of a tsunami warning, and of populations exposed to react to warnings and to manage evacuation before the first tsunami wave hits. Thus, a special challenge for developing countries is the governance of complex cross-sectoral and cross-scale institutional, social and spatial processes and requirements for the conceptualization, implementation and optimization of a people centered tsunami early warning system. In support of this, the risk and vulnerability assessment of the case study aims at identifying those factors that constitute the causal structure of the (dis)functionality between the technological warning and the social response system causing loss of life during an emergency situation: Which social groups are likely to be less able to receive and respond to an early warning alert? And, are people able to evacuate in due time? Here, only an interdisciplinary research approach is capable to analyze the socio-spatial and environmental conditions of vulnerability and risk and to produce valuable results for decision makers and civil society to manage tsunami risk in the early warning context. This requires the integration of natural / spatial and social science concepts, methods and data: E.g. a scenario based approach for tsunami inundation modeling was developed to provide decision makers with options to decide up to what level they aim to protect their people and territory, on the contrary household surveys were conducted for the spatial analysis of the evacuation preparedness of the population as a function of place specific hazard, risk, warning and evacuation perception; remote sensing was applied for the spatial analysis (land-use) of the socio-physical conditions of a city and region for evacuation; and existing social / population statistics were combined with land-use data for the precise spatial mapping of the population exposed to tsunami risks. Only by utilizing such a comprehensive assessment approach valuable information for risk governance can be generated. The results are mapped using GIS and designed according to the specific needs of different end-users, such as public authorities involved in the design of warning dissemination strategies, land-use planners (shelter planning, road network configuration) and NGOs mandated to provide education for the general public on tsunami risk and evacuation behavior. The case study of the city of Padang (one of the pilot areas of GITEWS), Indonesia clearly show, that only by intersecting social (vulnerability) and natural hazards research a comprehensive picture on tsunami risk can be provided with which risk governance in the early warning context can be conducted in a comprehensive, systemic and sustainable manner.

Gebert, Niklas; Post, Joachim

2010-05-01

409

Development and Application of a Message Metric for NOAA NWS Tsunami Warnings and Recommended Guidelines for the NWS TsunamiReady Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving the quality and effectiveness of tsunami warning messages and the TsunamiReady community preparedness program of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service's (NWS), Tsunami Program are two key objectives of a three year project (Award NA10NWS4670015) to help integrate social science into the NWS' Tsunami Program and improve the preparedness of member states and territories of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Research was conducted in collaboration with state and local emergency managers. Based on findings from focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa), and upon review of research literature on behavioral response to warnings, we developed a warning message metric to help guide revisions to tsunami warning messages issued by the NWS' West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, Alaska and Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, Hawaii. The metric incorporates factors that predict response to warning information, which are divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the meaning of metric factors and assigning a maximum score of one point per factor. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. From focus groups that gathered information on the usefulness and achievability of tsunami preparedness actions, we developed recommendations for revisions to the proposed draft guidelines of the TsunamiReady Improvement Program. Proposed key revisions include the incorporation of community vulnerability to distant (far-field) versus local (near-field) tsunamis as a primary determinant of mandatory actions, rather than community population. Our team continues to work with NWS personnel, including a NWS Tsunami Warning Improvement Team, and the focus group participants to finalize and pilot test prototype warning products and the draft TsunamiReady guidelines.

Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Ricthie, L.; Meinhold, S.; Johnson, V.; Scott, C.; Farnham, C.; Houghton, B. F.; Horan, J.; Gill, D.

2012-12-01

410

Early Warning Indicators for HIV Drug Resistance in Cameroon during the Year 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI) may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control

Serge C. Billong; Joseph Fokam; Armand S. Nkwescheu; Etienne Kembou; Pascal Milenge; Zephirin Tsomo; Grace Ngute Dion; Avelin F. Aghokeng; Eitel N. Mpoudi; Peter M. Ndumbe; Vittorio Colizzi; Jean B. Elat Nfetam

2012-01-01

411

Towards an Earthquake Monitoring System for Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004, generated a tsunami that effected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230,000 fatalities. The German human aid program for the Indian Ocean region started immediately after the disaster with substantial funding of 45M Euro for the proposed German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). In this presentation we describe

T. Kraft; W. Hanka; J. Saul; A. Heinloo; J. Reinhardt; B. Weber; J. Becker; H. Thoms; D. Pahlke

2006-01-01

412

Effects of Risperidone on Core Symptoms of Autistic Disorder Based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale: An Open Label Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including “relating to others”, “communication skills”, and “stereotyped behaviors” based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001). At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively). However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

Ghaeli, Padideh; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Alimadadi, Abbas; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

2014-01-01

413

Effects of Ethanol on Conformational Changes of Akt Studied by Chemical Cross-Linking, Mass Spectrometry, and 18O Labeling  

PubMed Central

Although PI3K/Akt signaling that regulates neuronal survival has been implicated in the deleterious effects of ethanol on the central nervous system, underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Akt–membrane interaction is a prerequisite step for Akt activation since it induces interdomain conformational changes to an open conformer that allows Akt phosphorylation by upstream kinases. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on Akt activation by quantitatively probing Akt conformation using chemical cross-linking, 18O labeling. and mass spectrometry. We found that ethanol at pharmacologically relevant concentrations (20 or 170 mM) directly interacts with Akt and alters the local pleckstrin homology domain configuration near the PIP3-binding site. We also found that ethanol significantly impairs subsequent membrane-induced interdomain conformational changes needed for Akt activation. The observed alteration of Akt conformation caused by ethanol during the activation sequence provides a new molecular basis for the effects of ethanol on Akt signaling. The in vitro conformation-based approach employed in this study should also be useful in probing the molecular mechanisms for the action of ethanol or drugs on other signaling proteins, particularly for those undergoing dramatic conformational change during activation processes such as members of AGC kinase super family.

Huang, Bill X.; Kim, Hee-Yong

2012-01-01

414

Brief Report: Labelling Effects on the Perceived Deleterious Consequences of Pop Music Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several correlational studies have supported the claim of conservative protestors that there exists a positive relationship between listening to pop music and adolescent problem behaviours. However, research on the so-called 'prestige effects' has shown that experimental participants' responses to music can be mediated by manipulations of prior…

North, A.C.; Hargreaves, D.J.

2005-01-01

415

Early Warning Signals - conceptual limitations and opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to potentially large positive feedbacks in the climate system, the existence of tipping points is under debate. At these points, small changes in forcing can lead to abrupt climate change due to the destabilising feedbacks. In order to predict such abrupt changes or to distinguish changes in stability from random state transitions, it has been proposed to exploit statistical precursors of instabilities, also called early warning signals (EWS). However, we argue that the limitations of the underlying concept generally do not allow conclusions on the mechanism of abrupt changes without substantial physical knowledge - the burden of proof lies with the applier of EWS. We demonstrate these limitations with examples from vegetation dynamics and sea ice cover change in models of very different complexity. Apart from the practical problem of short and non-stationary time-series, statistical properties such as variance and autocorrelation usually change for reasons unrelated to the system's stability. In particular, it has to be known, how the natural variability (noise) in a system is caused and how it propagates through the system. A further fundamental limitation is imposed by the large number of spatial degrees of freedom. The benefit of EWS has only been shown in idealised systems of predefined spatial extent. In a more general context like a complex climate system model, the critical subsystem that exhibits a loss in stability (hotspot) and the critical mode of the transition may be unknown. An abrupt change can therefore come as a surprise. However, we suggest that EWS can be applied as a diagnostic tool to find the hotspot of a sudden transition and to distinguish this hotspot from regions experiencing an induced tipping. For this purpose we present a scheme which identifies a hotspot as a certain combination of grid cells which maximise an EWS. The method can provide information on the causality of sudden transitions and may help to improve the knowledge on the susceptibility of climate models and other systems.

Bathiany, Sebastian; Claussen, Martin; Fraedrich, Klaus

2014-05-01

416

Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events

Alexander Star; Eugene Tu; Joseph Niemann; Jean-Christophe P. Gabriel; C. Steve Joiner; Christian Valcke

2006-01-01

417

Research and implement of remote vehicle monitoring and early-warning system based on GPS/GPRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerning the problem of road traffic safety, remote monitoring and early-warning of vehicle states was the key to prevent road traffic accidents and improve the transportation effectiveness. Through the embedded development technology, a remote vehicle monitoring and early-warning system was developed based on UNO2170 industrial computer of Advantech with WinCE operating system using Embedded Visual C++ (EVC), which combined with multisensor data acquisition technology, global positioning system (GPS) and general packet radio service (GPRS). It achieved the remote monitoring and early-warning of commercial vehicle. This system was installed in a CA1046L2 light truck. Through many road tests, test results showed that the system reacted rapidly for abnormal vehicle states and had stable performance.

Li, Shiwu; Tian, Jingjing; Yang, Zhifa; Qiao, Feiyan

2013-03-01

418

Design and evaluation of security multimedia warnings for children's smartphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes primarily the development and empiric validation of a design for security warning messages on smartphones for primary school children (7-10 years old). Our design approach for security warnings for children uses a specific character and is based on recommendations of a paediatrician expert. The design criteria are adapted to children's skills, e.g. their visual, acoustic, and haptic perception and their literacy. The developed security warnings are prototypically implemented in an iOS application (on the iPhone 3G/4G) where children are warned by a simulated anti-malware background service, while they are busy with another task. For the evaluation we select methods for empiric validation of the design approach from the field of usability testing ("think aloud" test, questionnaires, log-files, etc.). Our security warnings prototype is evaluated in an empiric user s