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1

Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective: To outline social psychological principles that could influence the psychosocial and behavioural effects of tobacco warning labels, and to inform the development of more effective tobacco warning labels. Data sources: PsycInfo and Medline literature searches and expert guided selection of principles and theories in social psychology and of tobacco warning labels, including articles, books, and reports. Conclusions: Tobacco warning labels represent a potentially effective method of influencing attitudes and behaviours. This review describes social psychological principles that could be used to guide the creation of more effective warning labels. The potential value of incorporating warning labels into a broader public health education campaign is discussed, and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:12198266

Strahan, E; White, K; Fong, G; Fabrigar, L; Zanna, M; Cameron, R

2002-01-01

2

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2010-01-01

3

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2013-01-01

4

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2011-01-01

5

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2012-01-01

6

10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...following information: DANGER BERYLLIUM CAN CAUSE LUNG DAMAGE CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels...DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning signs and labels...

2014-01-01

7

The impact of specific toy warning labels.  

PubMed

According to the 1980 Consumer Product Safety Commission's small parts standard, toys with small parts that pose a choking hazard cannot be marketed for children under the age of 3 years. To comply with the standard, toy manufacturers place age labels on packaging to indicate the ages for which toys with small parts are recommended. We conducted a survey of 199 toy buyers to determine the degree to which they understood such labels as warnings and whether more explicit warning labels would affect toy buyers' willingness to purchase toys with small parts for children between 2 and 3 years of age. Forty-four percent of respondents said they would buy for a child between 2 and 3 years of age a toy with the label "Recommended for 3 and up"; only 5% said they would buy for a young child a toy with the label "Not recommended for below 3--small parts." These findings indicate that a change in the small parts standard to require more specific labeling might substantially reduce potentially hazardous toy purchases. PMID:2033742

Langlois, J A; Wallen, B A; Teret, S P; Bailey, L A; Hershey, J H; Peeler, M O

1991-06-01

8

Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (?2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention. PMID:22704744

Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

2012-01-01

9

The instrumental role of product information: a study of warning labels for non-prescription drugs.  

PubMed

The study extends work in informative labeling, fear appeals, and negative information effects. Respondents were given two labels from two packages, one of which contained the experimental treatment. Warning strength was manipulated at three levels: weak, medium, and strong. The data show that, unlike labels on prescription medications, non-prescription warning labels tend to discourage use of the product. Results have implications for information theorists, marketers, and public policy makers. PMID:10124787

Discenza, R; Ferguson, J M

1992-01-01

10

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2010-04-01

11

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2011-04-01

12

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2014-04-01

13

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2013-04-01

14

19 CFR 18.4 - Sealing conveyances and compartments; labeling packages; warning cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. 18...compartments; labeling packages; warning cards. ...conveyances, compartments, or packages must meet Customs standards...and attach to each such package a warning label on...

2012-04-01

15

Interpretations of Cigarette Advertisement Warning Labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications

Nancy Morris; Dawn R. Gilpin; Melissa Lenos; Renee Hobbs

2011-01-01

16

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2010-07-01

17

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2013-07-01

18

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2014-07-01

19

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2011-07-01

20

29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee comprehension of signs and...

2012-07-01

21

Adult Smokers’ Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers’ reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Results: Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers’ reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. Conclusions: The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking. PMID:23291637

2013-01-01

22

Do the ends justify the means? A test of alternatives to the FDA proposed cigarette warning labels.  

PubMed

Three studies provide empirical, social scientific tests of alternatives to the originally proposed U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cigarette package warning labels on health risk beliefs, perceived fear, and effectiveness. Our research addresses questions at the root of the legal disputes surrounding FDA regulation of cigarette package warning labels. Specifically, we describe results from three studies that investigate the mediating role of health beliefs and perceived fear in shaping message effectiveness and intentions to quit. The first study featured nonsmoking young adults, while the second and third studies sampled adult daily smokers. Each study was a randomized experiment with five warning-label image conditions: full-color graphic warning labels, black-and-white graphic warning labels, warning text (no graphic image), Surgeon General's warning labels, and no warning. Results consistently indicate that graphic warning labels (in both color and black-and-white) promote increased perceptions of fear, which in turn are associated with greater (perceived and actual) effectiveness. We conclude with a discussion of the results, highlighting implications, public policy considerations, and suggestions for future research. PMID:25119144

Byrne, Sahara; Katz, Sherri Jean; Mathios, Alan; Niederdeppe, Jeff

2015-07-01

23

Reactions of Nepali Adults to Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: A Survey with Employee and Medical Students of a Tertiary Care Medical College of Western Region of Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background: For the past 30 years, there have been no changes in the text-only cigarette warning labels in Nepal. During this same time period, other countries placed large graphic warning labels on cigarette packages. The purpose of the current study was primarily to compare the differences in reactions to different types of warning labels on cigarette packages, with a specific focus on whether the new warning label adopted by WHO FCTC was better than the text only label used by Nepal. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital (GMCTH) in 2012, in a tertiary care hospital located in the western region of Nepal. Eligible study participants included in this survey were those aged 18 years and over and those who are studying MBBS/Nursing or who were employees of GMCTH. 500 participants finished the survey. Participants were shown nine types of warning labels found on cigarette packages.They comprised one text only warning label used within Nepalese market and eight foreign brand labels. Participants were asked about the impact of the warning labels on: their knowledge of harm from smoking, giving cigarettes as a gift, and quitting smoking. Results: On comparing the Nepalese warning label with other foreign labels with regards to providing knowledge of harm warning, impact of quitting smoking and giving cigarettes as a gift, the overseas labels were found to be more effective. Both smokers and non–smokers thought that warning labels with text plus graphics were substantially more of a deterrent than text-only labels. Conclusion: The findings from this study support previous research that has found that text-plus graphic warning labels were more salient and potentially more effective than text-only labels.Warning labels are one of the component of comprehensive tobacco control and smoking cessation efforts. Stronger warnings on cigarette packages need to be part of a larger Nepalese public health educational efforts. PMID:24298480

Paudel, Badri; Paudel, Klara; Timilsina, Deepa

2013-01-01

24

Are heat warning systems effective?  

PubMed Central

Heatwaves are associated with significant health risks particularly among vulnerable groups. To minimize these risks, heat warning systems have been implemented. The question therefore is how effective these systems are in saving lives and reducing heat-related harm. We systematically searched and reviewed 15 studies which examined this. Six studies asserted that fewer people died of excessive heat after the implementation of heat warning systems. Demand for ambulance decreased following the implementation of these systems. One study also estimated the costs of running heat warning systems at US$210,000 compared to the US$468 million benefits of saving 117 lives. The remaining eight studies investigated people’s response to heat warning systems and taking appropriate actions against heat harms. Perceived threat of heat dangers emerged as the main factor related to heeding the warnings and taking proper actions. However, barriers, such as costs of running air-conditioners, were of significant concern, particularly to the poor. The weight of the evidence suggests that heat warning systems are effective in reducing mortality and, potentially, morbidity. However, their effectiveness may be mediated by cognitive, emotive and socio-demographic characteristics. More research is urgently required into the cost-effectiveness of heat warning systems’ measures and improving the utilization of the services. PMID:23561265

2013-01-01

25

Responses of young adults to graphic warning labels for cigarette packages  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a series of 36 graphic warning labels for cigarette packages. We sought to evaluate the effects of the labels on fear-related emotions about health consequences of smoking and smoking motivations of young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in 2010–2011 with 325 smokers and non-smokers ages 18–30 years whom we recruited through community distribution lists in North Carolina and through a national survey company. Each participant viewed 27 labels (18 of the proposed labels with graphic images and text warnings and 9 with text-only warnings) in a random order, evaluating each label on understandability and its effects on fear-related reactions and discouragement from wanting to smoke. Results Respondents found most of the proposed labels easy to understand. Of the 36 labels, 64% induced greater fear-related reactions and 58% discouraged respondents from wanting to smoke more than the corresponding text-only labels did. Labels with the greatest effects had photographs (as compared with drawings or other art graphics) or depicted diseased body parts or suffering or dead people. In almost every comparison, smokers reported lower fear-related reactions and feeling less discouraged from wanting to smoke relative to non-smokers. Conclusions Most of the proposed labels enhanced fear-related reactions about health consequences of smoking and reduced motivations to smoke relative to text-only labels, although some had larger effects than others. All but one of the nine warning labels recently adopted by the FDA enhanced fear-related reactions and reduced smoking motivations. PMID:23624558

Cameron, Linda D.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Brewer, Noel T.

2013-01-01

26

Interpretations of cigarette advertisement warning labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans.  

PubMed

This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications regarding the possibility of wide variations in message interpretations and (b) support the call for public health messages to be carefully tested for effectiveness among different social groups. The article's focus on Puerto Ricans addresses the problem of misleading conclusions that can arise from aggregating all Latino subpopulations into one group. The use of a naturalistic setting to examine interpretations of messages about smoking departs from the experimental methods typically used for such research and provides new evidence that even a seemingly straightforward message can be interpreted in multiple ways. Understanding and addressing differences in message interpretation can guide public health campaigns aimed at reducing health disparities. PMID:21534024

Morris, Nancy; Gilpin, Dawn R; Lenos, Melissa; Hobbs, Renee

2011-09-01

27

The evolution of health warning labels on cigarette packs: the role of precedents, and tobacco industry strategies to block diffusion  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyse the evolution and diffusion of health warnings on cigarette packs around the world, including tobacco industry attempts to block this diffusion. Methods We analysed tobacco industry documents and public sources to construct a database on the global evolution and diffusion of health warning labels from 1966 to 2012, and also analysed industry strategies. Results Health warning labels, especially labels with graphic elements, threaten the tobacco industry because they are a low-cost, effective measure to reduce smoking. Multinational tobacco companies did not object to voluntary innocuous warnings with ambiguous health messages, in part because they saw them as offering protection from lawsuits and local packaging regulations. The companies worked systematically at the international level to block or weaken warnings once stronger more specific warnings began to appear in the 1970s. Since 1985 in Iceland, the tobacco industry has been aware of the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GWHL). The industry launched an all-out attack in the early 1990s to prevent GHWLs, and was successful in delaying GHWLs internationally for nearly 10 years. Conclusions Beginning in 2005, as a result of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), GHWLs began to spread. Effective implementation of FCTC labelling provisions has stimulated diffusion of strong health warning labels despite industry opposition. PMID:23092884

Hiilamo, Heikki; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

2013-01-01

28

Perceptions of prescription warning labels within an underserved population  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand how underserved populations attend to prescription warning label (PWL) instructions, examine the importance of PWL instructions to participants and describe the challenges associated with interpreting the information on PWLs. Methods Adults from an underserved population (racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with low income, older adults) who had a history of prescription medication use and were able to understand English took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants were presented with eight different prescription bottles with an attached PWL. Participants were asked, “If this prescription was yours, what information would you need to know about the medicine?” The number of participants who attended to the warning labels was noted. Other questions assessed the importance of PWLs, the challenges with understanding PWLs, and ways a pharmacist could help participant understanding of the PWL. Results There were 103 participants. The mean age was 50.25 years (SD=18.05). Majority attended to the PWL. Participants not currently taking medications and who had limited health literacy were likely to overlook the warning labels. Majority rated the warning instructions to be extremely important (n=86, 83.5 %), wanted the pharmacist to help them understand PWLs by counseling them on the information on the label (n=63, 61.2%), and thought the graphics made the label information easy to understand. Conclusions PWLs are an important method of communicating medication information, as long as they are easily comprehensible to patients. In addition to placing PWLs on prescription bottles, health care providers need to counsel underserved populations on medication warnings, especially individuals with limited health literacy who are not currently using a prescription medication. PMID:24644523

Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Meyer, Brittney A.; Locke, Michelle R.; Wettergreen, Sara

29

Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label.  

PubMed

The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli. PMID:23688859

Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J

2013-09-01

30

40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

2014-07-01

31

40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

2011-07-01

32

40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

2010-07-01

33

40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

2012-07-01

34

40 CFR 82.112 - Removal of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Removal of label bearing warning statement. 82.112 Section...Substances § 82.112 Removal of label bearing warning statement. (a) Prohibition...product that is accompanied by a label bearing the warning statement may...

2013-07-01

35

Implementation of effective cigarette health warning labels among low and middle income countries: state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity.  

PubMed

We investigates the effects of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FTCT), state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity on the implementation of effective health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packs among low and middle income countries (LMIC). Using logistic regression in separate analyses for FCTC Article 11 compliant HWLs and graphic HWLs (GHWL), we found that the odds of FCTC compliance increased by a factor of 1.31 for each year after FCTC entered into force in the country (p < 0.01). The odds of passing GHWLs increased by a factor of 1.46 (p < 0.05) per year after FCTC entered into force. The weaker the capacity of the states were, the less likely they were to have implemented FCTC compliant HWLs (p < 0.05). The countries with voluntary HWLs in 1992 were less likely (OR = 0.19, p < 0.01) to comply with FCTC 21 years later (in 2013). The FCTC has promoted HWL policies among LMICs. Public health regulations require investments in broader state capacity. As the theory of path-dependency predicts voluntary agreements have long lasting influence on the direction of tobacco control in a country. Adopting voluntary HWL policies reduced likelihood of having FCTC compliant HWLs decades later. The fact that voluntary agreements delayed effective tobacco regulations suggests that policymakers must be careful of accepting industry efforts for voluntary agreements in other areas of public health as well, such as alcohol and junk food. PMID:25462428

Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

2015-01-01

36

The Efficacy of Cigarette Warning Labels on Health Beliefs in the United States and Mexico  

PubMed Central

Concern over health risks is the most common motivation for quitting smoking. Health warnings on tobacco packages are among the most prominent interventions to convey the health risks of smoking. Face-to-face surveys were conducted in Mexico (n=1,072), and a web-based survey was conducted in the US (n=1,449) to examine the efficacy of health warning labels on health beliefs. Respondents were randomly assigned to view two sets of health warnings (each with one text-only warning and 5–6 pictorial warnings) for two different health effects. Respondents were asked whether they believed smoking caused 12 different health effects. Overall, the findings indicate high levels of health knowledge in both countries for some health effects, although significant knowledge gaps remained; for example: less than half of respondents agreed that smoking causes impotence and less than one third agreed that smoking causes gangrene. Mexican respondents endorsed a greater number of correct beliefs about the health impact of smoking than the US sample. In both countries, viewing related health warning labels increased beliefs about the health risks of smoking, particularly for less well-known health effects, such as gangrene, impotence, and stroke. PMID:23905611

MUTTI, SEEMA; HAMMOND, DAVID; REID, JESSICA L.; THRASHER, JAMES F.

2013-01-01

37

16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. 1205.6 Section 1205.6...REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General....

2013-01-01

38

EFFECT OF THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL AND VOLUNTARY INDUSTRY HEALTH WARNING LABELS ON PASSAGE OF MANDATED CIGARETTE WARNING LABELS 1965 TO 2012: TRANSITION PROBABILITY AND EVENT HISTORY ANALYSES  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper quantifies the pattern and rate of passage of HWLs on cigarette packages, including the effect of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and HWLs voluntarily implemented by tobacco companies. Methods Transition probability matrices were used to describe the pattern of HWL passage and rate of change in four time periods. Event history analysis was used to estimate the effect of the FCTC on adoption and to compare that effect between countries with voluntary HWLs and those with mandatory HWLs. Results The number of HWLs passed during each time period accelerated, from a transition rate among countries that changed from 2.42/year in 1965–1977 to 6.71/year in 1977–1984, 8.42/year in 1984–2003, and 22.33/year in 2003–2012. The FCTC significantly accelerated passage of FCTC compliant HWLs for countries with initially mandatory policies with a hazard of 1.27/year (95% CI=1.11–1.45), but only marginally increased the hazard for countries that had an industry voluntary HWL 1.68/year (.95–2.97). Conclusions Passage of HWLs is accelerating, with the FCTC being associated with further acceleration of the passage of HWLS. Industry voluntary HWLs slowed mandated HWLs. PMID:24028248

Sanders-Jackson, Ashley N.; Song, Anna V.; Hillamo, Heikki

2013-01-01

39

Israeli Arab and Jewish youth knowledge and opinion about alcohol warning labels: pre-intervention data.  

PubMed

This article presents baseline data on the opinion toward alcohol beverage warning labels and on levels of knowledge of the risks discussed in the contents of the labels prior to the labels' introduction, and on levels of knowledge of additional alcohol-related hazards not included in the proposed warning labels, among a sample of 3065 adolescents of four religions living in the northern region of Israel. About 2220 Arab participants (Moslems, Christians and Druze) and 845 Jewish respondents answered in the winter of 1996 a Hebrew version of an American questionnaire, which had been used to measure levels of knowledge of the label in the United States. More respondents were in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than on advertisements. Arabs as a group were more in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than Jews. The initial knowledge levels among the participants were not very high, especially concerning the item 'Drinking impairs the ability to operate machinery' (74.4%) which is included on the proposed warning label, and concerning two hazards which are not included: 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' (54.6%) and 'Drinking increases risk of high blood pressure' (60.4%). Abstainers knew more than drinkers that 'Pregnant women should not drink', 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' and 'Alcohol in combination with other drugs is hazardous'. Implications for public health are discussed and alternative warning messages that might be used to inform the Israeli public of several less well-known hazards are suggested. PMID:9199725

Weiss, S

1997-01-01

40

Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

2011-01-01

41

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2012-07-01

42

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2011-07-01

43

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2010-07-01

44

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2013-07-01

45

40 CFR 82.110 - Form of label bearing warning statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...typography, layout, and color with other printed matter on the label. The warning statement shall...requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on a light red background,...

2014-07-01

46

Marlene Haffner For the vast majority of us, the labels on food packaging warning `this  

E-print Network

Marlene Haffner For the vast majority of us, the labels on food packaging warning `this product disease, which can cause brain damage if not managed properly, led to this increased labeling of consumer to create `normal-looking' food for those with PKU, thus helping them stick to the correct regimen

Cai, Long

47

Impact of Tobacco-Related Health Warning Labels across Socioeconomic, Race and Ethnic Groups: Results from a Randomized Web-Based Experiment  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. Methods/Findings Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n?=?3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b?=?0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b?=?0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR?=?1.41, 95% CI?=?1.22?1.62), and intention to quit (OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.10?1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p?=?0.057). Conclusions Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities across groups. Policies that establish strong pictorial warning labels on tobacco packaging may be instrumental in reducing the toll of the tobacco epidemic, particularly within vulnerable communities. PMID:23341895

Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Thrasher, James F.; Nagler, Rebekah H.; Feirman, Shari P.; Muenz, Larry R.; He, David Y.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

48

Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

2012-01-01

49

Changes in Reported Awareness of Product Warning Labels and Messages in Cohorts of California Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort of 777 Hispanics and 234 non-Hispanic Whites were interviewed in San Francisco, California, over the telephone in 1991 and again 1 year later. Overall, both Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites showed an increase in awareness of a general product warning label for beer and wine containers but a decrease in awareness of a product warning label for cigarettes. High-

Gerardo Marin; Raymond J. Gamba

1997-01-01

50

The association between adolescents' receiver characteristics and exposure to the alcohol warning label  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between receiver characteristics and awareness of, exposure to, memory for, and beliefs about the alcohol warning label were examined. The receiver characteristics studied were sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, school grades, religious service attendance, alcohol use, friends' alcohol use, drinking from the alcohol container, and television viewing. Independent cross- sectional samples of 12th-grade students completed a (n 5 6,391)

Liva Nohre; David P. MacKinnon; Alan W. Stacy; Mary Ann Pentz

1999-01-01

51

The Impact of Cigarette Pack Design, Descriptors, and Warning Labels on Risk Perception in the U.S  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., limited evidence exists on the impact of colors and brand imagery used in cigarette pack design. Purpose This study examined the impact of pack design, product descriptors, and health warnings on risk perception and brand appeal. Methods A cross-sectional mall-intercept study was conducted with 197 adult smokers and 200 nonsmokers in Buffalo, NY from June to July 2009 (data analysis from July 2009 to December 2010). Participants were shown 12 sets of packs randomly; each set varied by a particular design feature (color, descriptor) or warning label style (text vs graphic, size, attribution, message framing). Packs were rated on criteria including risk perceptions, quit motivation, and purchase interest. Results Participants selected larger, pictorial, and loss-framed warning labels as more likely to attract attention, encourage thoughts about health risks, motivate quitting, and most effective. Participants were more likely to select packs with lighter color shading and descriptors such as light, silver, and smooth as delivering less tar, smoother taste, and lower health risk, compared to darker-shaded or full flavor packs. Additionally, participants were more likely to select the branded compared to plain white pack when asked which delivered the most tar, smoothest taste, was more attractive, appealed to youth aged <18 years, and contained cigarettes of better quality. Conclusions The findings support larger, graphic health warnings that convey loss-framed messages as most effective in communicating health risks to U.S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features. PMID:21565661

Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Smith, Philip; Cummings, K. Michael

2011-01-01

52

Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Strasser, Andrew A; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Langleben, Daniel D

2015-03-01

53

Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: effects on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.  

PubMed

Recent proposals across a number of Western countries have suggested that idealised media images should carry some sort of disclaimer informing readers when these images have been digitally enhanced. The present studies aimed to experimentally investigate the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of the addition of such warning labels to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 120 and 114 female undergraduate students in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 respectively. In both experiments, participants viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no warning label, a generic warning label, or a specific more detailed warning label. In neither experiment was there a significant effect of type of label. However, state appearance comparison was found to predict change in body dissatisfaction irrespective of condition. Unexpectedly, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of label on body dissatisfaction, such that for women high on trait appearance comparison, exposure to specific warning labels actually resulted in increased body dissatisfaction. In sum, the present results showed no benefit of warning labels in ameliorating the known negative effect of viewing thin-ideal media images, and even suggested that one form of warning (specific) might be harmful for some individuals. Accordingly, it was concluded that more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of disclaimer labels. PMID:22947622

Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Bury, Belinda; Hawkins, Kimberley; Firth, Bonny

2013-01-01

54

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

55

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

56

A qualitative content analysis of cigarette health warning labels in australia, Canada, the United kingdom, and the United States.  

PubMed

The legislation of health warning labels on cigarette packaging is a major focus for tobacco control internationally and is a key component of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This population-level intervention is broadly supported as a vital measure for warning people about the health consequences of smoking. However, some components of this approach warrant close critical inspection. Through a qualitative content analysis of the imagery used on health warning labels from 4 countries, we consider how this imagery depicts people that smoke. By critically analyzing this aspect of the visual culture of tobacco control, we argue that this imagery has the potential for unintended consequences, and obscures the social and embodied contexts in which smoking is experienced. PMID:25521883

Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone

2015-02-01

57

Is the Effectiveness of Tobacco Image-Based Warning Labels Likely to Vary by Socio-Demographic Variable? Findings from an Online Survey of 19,000 Members of the UK Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Smoking continues to be a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. Countries have increasingly adopted the use of images as warnings on cigarette packs. We aimed to investigate the likely differential impact of varied images and messages on sub-groups of the United Kingdom (UK) smoking population. Methods: Forty two images…

Styles, Maggie; Williams, Brian; Humphris, Gerry

2013-01-01

58

Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels.  

PubMed

In the evolving landscape of tobacco use, it remains unclear how tobacco control efforts should be designed and promoted for maximum impact. The current study links the identification of latent classes of young adult combustible tobacco users with anticipated responses to graphic health warning labels (HWLs). Data were collected in January 2012 using an online address-based panel as part of the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study, and analyses were conducted in 2013. Latent class analyses identified five groups of tobacco users in a national sample of 4,236 young adults aged 18-34years: (1) little cigar/cigarillo/bidi (LCC) and hookah users (4%); (2) nonusers, open to smoking (3%); (3) daily smokers who self-identify as "smokers" (11%); (4) nondaily, light smokers who self-identify as "social or occasional smokers" (9%); and (5) nonusers closed to smoking (73%). Of the nonusers closed to smoking, 23% may be better characterized as at risk for tobacco initiation. Results indicate differences in the potential effectiveness of HWLs across classes. Compared to the daily "smokers," LCC and hookah users (RRR=2.35) and nonusers closed to smoking (RRR=2.33) were more than twice as likely to report that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking. This study supports the potential of graphic HWLs to prevent young nonusers from using tobacco products. It suggests that the extension of prominent HWLs to other tobacco products, including LCCs and hookah tobacco, may also serve a prevention function. PMID:25437268

Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

2015-03-01

59

The communication triangle: elements of an effective warning message  

SciTech Connect

The lack of good communication is a very real problem in mine emergencies. To counter communication breakdowns, researchers at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory developed the Emergency Communication Triangle. It is a training intervention designed to help those giving a warning to provide the right sort of information and those receiving a warning to ask the right questions. The Triangle has six ordered components with the first three considered most important. The Emergency Communication is packaged as a short safety talk to be given by supervisors at the start of a shift. It was first tested in 1998 with a group of 236 workers at an underground mine in Colorado, and proved effective. It was followed up in 2003 and again in 2004. Now, more than half the miners would report who was affected by an event, 60% would report in its severity, and 70% would say what had been done so far. 3 figs.

Vaught, C.; Brnich, M.J. Jr.; Mallett, L. [NIOSH-PRL (United States)

2007-01-15

60

Adolescents' Attention to Traditional and Graphic Tobacco Warning Labels: An Eye-Tracking Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would 1) increase visual…

Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin

2010-01-01

61

The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

2011-01-01

62

Effects of Single versus Multiple Warnings on Driver Performance  

E-print Network

Objective: To explore how a single master alarm system affects drivers’ responses when compared to multiple, distinct warnings. Background: Advanced driver warning systems are intended to improve safety, yet inappropriate ...

Cummings, M. L.

2007-01-01

63

Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

2014-01-01

64

When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus  

PubMed Central

In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

2014-01-01

65

The Impact of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels and Smoke-Free Law on Health Awareness and Thoughts of Quitting in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the impact of Taiwan's graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on awareness of the health hazards of smoking and thoughts of quitting smoking. National representative samples of 1074 and 1094 people, respectively, were conducted successfully by telephone in July 2008 (pre-law) and March 2009 (post-law).…

Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-yu

2011-01-01

66

Off-Label Prescribing, Polypharmacy, and Black-Box Warnings: A Primer for School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychotropic medications are increasingly used to treat children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Between the years 1994 and 2001, there was a 191.7% increase in number of office visits resulting in a psychotropic medication prescription among children and adolescents. Many drugs are prescribed to children "off-label", whereby they…

Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

67

Effect of the Written and Combined Warnings on the Cigarette Pockets on University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the written and combined (written and pictures) warning statements on the cigarette pockets on university students. The sample of the study includes a total of 231 undergraduate students. The participants were divided into two groups: the first group was presented only written warnings,…

Gercek, Cem; Dogan, Nuri

2012-01-01

68

Quantifying Age-Related Differences in Information Processing Behaviors When Viewing Prescription Drug Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant problem in health care. While effective warnings have the potential to reduce the prevalence of ADEs, little is known about how patients access and use prescription labeling. We investigated the effectiveness of prescription warning labels (PWLs, small, colorful stickers applied at the pharmacy) in conveying warning information to two groups of patients (young

Raghav Prashant Sundar; Mark W. Becker; Nora M. Bello; Laura Bix

2012-01-01

69

Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.

Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

1980-01-01

70

Examining the conspicuousness and prominence of two required warnings on OTC pain relievers.  

PubMed

The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is critical to their safe and effective use, and certain warnings are meant to be read at the point of purchase (POP). Examples include (i) warnings that alert consumers to the fact that the package is not child-resistant and (ii) warnings that alert consumers to potential product tampering. U.S. law mandates these warnings be "conspicuous" and "prominent" so that it is likely that consumers will read them before leaving the store. Our objective was to quantify the relative prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Sixty-one participants reviewed the packages of 5 commercially available analgesics to evaluate the prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Evaluated data included (i) the time spent examining the warnings compared with other areas of the label (using a bright pupil eye tracker), (ii) the ability to recall information from the OTCs viewed, and (iii) the legibility of the warnings relative to other elements of the labels (as measured by ASTM D7298-06). Eye-tracking data indicated that warnings were viewed by fewer participants and for less time than other elements of the packages. Recall and legibility data also indicated that the warning statements compared unfavorably with other elements of the labels tested. Evidence presented in this study suggests that 2 required warnings on 5 different OTCs are not prominent or conspicuous when compared with other elements of tested labels. PMID:19332798

Bix, Laura; Bello, Nora M; Auras, Rafael; Ranger, Jon; Lapinski, Maria K

2009-04-21

71

Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: a longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Canada, Australia and Mexico  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Methods Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to maintain sample sizes of 1000 participants in each country at each wave. Country-stratified logistic Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of citing HWLs as a source of information on quitlines and cessation websites. GEE models also regressed having called the quitline, and having visited a cessation website, on awareness of these resources because of HWLs. Results At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about quitlines was highest in Canada, followed by Australia and Mexico (33%, 19% and 16%, respectively). Significant increases over time were only evident in Australia and Mexico. In all countries, citing HWLs as a source of quitline information was significantly associated with self-report of having called a quitline. At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was higher in Canada than in Australia (14% and 6%, respectively; Mexico was excluded because HWLs do not include website information), but no significant changes over time were found for either country. Citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was significantly associated with having visited a website in both Canada and Australia. Conclusions HWLs are an important source of cessation information. PMID:25052860

Thrasher, James F; Osman, Amira; Moodie, Crawford; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James

2015-01-01

72

Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

2015-02-01

73

An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation  

PubMed Central

The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging and, most recently, of a proposed rule that would assert FDA’s authority over tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Given the controversy over the FDA's approach to assessing net economic benefits in its proposed and final rules on GWLs and the importance of having economic impact analyses prepared in accordance with sound economic analysis, a group of prominent economists met in early 2014 to review that approach and, where indicated, to offer suggestions for an improved analysis. We concluded that the analysis of the impact of GWLs on smoking substantially underestimated the benefits and overestimated the costs, leading the FDA to substantially underestimate the net benefits of the GWLs. We hope that the FDA will find our evaluation useful in subsequent analyses, not only of GWLs but also of other regulations regarding tobacco products. Most of what we discuss applies to all instances of evaluating the costs and benefits of tobacco product regulation and, we believe, should be considered in FDA's future analyses of proposed rules. PMID:25550419

Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemo?lu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

2015-01-01

74

An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation.  

PubMed

The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging and, most recently, of a proposed rule that would assert FDA's authority over tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Given the controversy over the FDA's approach to assessing net economic benefits in its proposed and final rules on GWLs and the importance of having economic impact analyses prepared in accordance with sound economic analysis, a group of prominent economists met in early 2014 to review that approach and, where indicated, to offer suggestions for an improved analysis. We concluded that the analysis of the impact of GWLs on smoking substantially underestimated the benefits and overestimated the costs, leading the FDA to substantially underestimate the net benefits of the GWLs. We hope that the FDA will find our evaluation useful in subsequent analyses, not only of GWLs but also of other regulations regarding tobacco products. Most of what we discuss applies to all instances of evaluating the costs and benefits of tobacco product regulation and, we believe, should be considered in FDA's future analyses of proposed rules. PMID:25550419

Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemo?lu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

2015-03-01

75

Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

2012-01-01

76

Warning Young Adults Against Tobacco Consumption Through Ad Parodies: its Effects on Cigarette Brands Attitude  

E-print Network

, published in "EMAC, United States (2012)" #12;In the attempt to reduce the number of smokers, antiWarning Young Adults Against Tobacco Consumption Through Ad Parodies: its Effects on Cigarette Brands Attitude Abstract This paper compares the effects of anti-tobacco ad parodies and visual cigarette

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Synthesized speech rate and pitch effects on intelligibility of warning messages for pilots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In civilian and military operations, a future threat-warning system with a voice display could warn pilots of other traffic, obstacles in the flight path, and/or terrain during low-altitude helicopter flights. The present study was conducted to learn whether speech rate and voice pitch of phoneme-synthesized speech affects pilot accuracy and response time to typical threat-warning messages. Helicopter pilots engaged in an attention-demanding flying task and listened for voice threat warnings presented in a background of simulated helicopter cockpit noise. Performance was measured by flying-task performance, threat-warning intelligibility, and response time. Pilot ratings were elicited for the different voice pitches and speech rates. Significant effects were obtained only for response time and for pilot ratings, both as a function of speech rate. For the few cases when pilots forgot to respond to a voice message, they remembered 90 percent of the messages accurately when queried for their response 8 to 10 sec later.

Simpson, C. A.; Marchionda-Frost, K.

1984-01-01

78

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2013-04-01

79

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2012-04-01

80

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2011-04-01

81

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2014-04-01

82

21 CFR 740.1 - Establishment of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.1...Establishment of warning statements. (a) The label of a cosmetic product shall bear a warning statement...

2010-04-01

83

A SECOND LOOK AT THE SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM  

E-print Network

-1- A SECOND LOOK AT THE SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM in both directions of Interstate 5 near Myrtle Creek, Oregon. For the evaluation, two measures approaching the curve based on these detected speeds. The original analysis evaluated the change in mean speed

Bertini, Robert L.

84

74 FR 19385 - Organ-Specific Warnings; Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and Antirheumatic Drug Products for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...labeling informs consumers about the risk of liver injury when using acetaminophen and the risk...Labeling Required for OTC Acetaminophen A. Liver Warning B. Concomitant Use Warning C. Liver Disease Warning D. Drug Interaction...

2009-04-29

85

February 2001 Flood Warning Services in Victoria  

E-print Network

of flood events and the advantages of an effective flood warning service are well documented. Flood warning for development, upgrade and management of services is well recognised by the Victorian Flood Warning ConsultativeFebruary 2001 Flood Warning Services in Victoria Arrangements for VICTORIAN FLOOD WARNING

Greenslade, Diana

86

Use of an auditory signal in a rear-end collision warning system: effects on braking force and reaction time  

E-print Network

This simulator experiment is a preliminary study examining the effects of different auditory signals on braking force and reaction time in a rear-end collision warning system. A driving simulator was built in which subjects operated a computer...

Hopkins, Jennifer Susan

1995-01-01

87

Solar Max: Storm Warning - Effects on the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a promotional folder for Sun-Earth Days 2013, containing images and illustrations of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System. Also included is information about the period known as solar maximum, as well as links to Sun-Earth Day resources and the Space Weather Action Center.

2013-02-11

88

Neural biomarkers for assessing different types of imagery in pictorial health warning labels for cigarette packaging: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective Countries around the world have increasingly adopted pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) for tobacco packages to warn consumers about smoking-related risks. Research on how pictorial HWLs work has primarily analysed self-reported responses to HWLs; studies at the neural level comparing the brain's response to different types of HWLs may provide an important complement to prior studies, especially if self-reported responses are systematically biased. In this study we characterise the brain's response to three types of pictorial HWLs for which prior self-report studies indicated different levels of efficacy. Methods Current smokers rated pictorial HWLs and then observed the same HWLs during functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Fifty 18–50-year-old current adult smokers who were free from neurological disorders were recruited from the general population and participated in the study. Demographics, smoking-related behaviours and self-reported ratings of pictorial HWL stimuli were obtained prior to scanning. Brain responses to HWLs were assessed using fMRI, focusing on a priori regions of interest. Results Pictorial HWL stimuli elicited activation in a broad network of brain areas associated with visual processing and emotion. Participants who rated the stimuli as more emotionally arousing also showed greater neural responses at these sites. Conclusions Self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs are correlated with neural responses in brain areas associated with visual and emotional processing. Study results cross-validate self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs and provide insights into how pictorial HWLs are processed. PMID:25552613

Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Thrasher, James F; Fridriksson, Johann; Brixius, William; Froeliger, Brett; Hammond, David; Cummings, Michael K

2014-01-01

89

Memory Saves Lives: Inter-generational Warnings Effectiveness - 13556  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami was a world-class natural disaster. It has been described as the most powerful earthquake ever in Japan, and as one of the most powerful earthquakes ever noted in the world. The toll in terms of human lives lost and property destruction was unimaginable. Even the word 'horrible' is inadequate to describe the suffering and misery that resulted. Nations with nuclear power programs are engaged in, or at least planning to become engaged in, arranging to eventually dispose of their higher-level radioactive waste materials in deep geologic repositories. Geologic repositories are passive safety systems, and if undisturbed isolate these dangerous materials form the biosphere for extremely long times. The key words, however, are 'if undisturbed'. To assure that future generations do not inadvertently drill into repositories, national programs, and the international community (the Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) preservation project of the Nuclear Energy Agency, for example), are proposing to place markers and/or monuments on closed repository sites that say 'do not drill here, and this is why' in various sophisticated ways. Such markers or monuments are attempts at providing passive institutional controls. The effectiveness of messages from past generations to a present generation may give an indication of how effective such passive institutional controls may be. (authors)

Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Shafer, David [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States); Klein, Thomas [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)] [URS Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 S. National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

2013-07-01

90

Evaluation of a sudden brake warning system: effect on the response time of the following driver.  

PubMed

This study used a video-based braking simulation dual task to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the effect of a sudden brake warning system (SBWS) in a leading passenger vehicle on the response time of the following driver. The primary task required the participants (N=25, 16 females, full NZ license holders) to respond to sudden braking manoeuvres of a lead vehicle during day and night driving, wet and dry conditions and in rural and urban traffic, while concurrently performing a secondary tracking task using a computer mouse. The SBWS in the lead vehicle consisted of g-force controlled activation of the rear hazard lights (the rear indicators flashed), in addition to the standard brake lights. Overall, the results revealed that responses to the braking manoeuvres of the leading vehicles when the hazard lights were activated by the warning system were 0.34 s (19%) faster compared to the standard brake lights. The SBWS was particularly effective when the simulated braking scenario of the leading vehicle did not require an immediate and abrupt braking response. Given this, the SBWS may also be beneficial for allowing smoother deceleration, thus reducing fuel consumption. These preliminary findings justify a larger, more ecologically valid laboratory evaluation which may lead to a naturalistic study in order to test this new technology in 'real world' braking situations. PMID:20034608

Isler, Robert B; Starkey, Nicola J

2010-07-01

91

The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

92

Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.  

PubMed

Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation. PMID:25795524

Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

2015-05-01

93

Labeling  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Cosmetics Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Cosmetics Labeling Labeling The following are resources on cosmetic ...

94

A qualitative exploration of young adult smokers’ responses to novel tobacco warnings  

PubMed Central

Background Despite reduced smoking among adolescents, smoking prevalence peaks among young adults aged 18–30, many of whom believe themselves exempt from the health risks of smoking shown in warning labels. We explored how young adult smokers perceived warnings featuring proximal risks, and whether these encouraged cessation more effectively than traditional health messages. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 17 young adult smokers and explored their perceptions of current warnings as well as novel warnings representing short-term health consequences; immediate social risks, and tobacco’s toxicity (denormalizing tobacco as an everyday product). We used a thematic analysis approach to explore how participants rationalized existing warnings and interpreted the novel messages. Results Participants considered the immediate social and physiological benefits they gained from smoking outweighed the distal risks shown in health warnings, which they regarded as improbable and irrelevant. Of the novel warnings, those presenting immediate social risks altered the balance of gains and losses young adults associated with smoking; however, those presenting short-term health risks or depicting tobacco as a toxin were less effective. Conclusions Participants regarded warnings featuring proximal social risks as more salient and they were less likely to rationalise these as irrelevant. Social risk messages merit further investigation to examine their potential as a complement to traditional health warnings. PMID:23800292

2013-01-01

95

The effects of warning cues and attention-capturing stimuli on the sustained attention to response task.  

PubMed

Performance on the sustained attention to response task (SART) is often characterized by a speed-accuracy trade-off, and SART performance may be influenced by strategic factors (Head and Helton Conscious Cogn 22: 913-919, 2013). Previous research indicates a significant difference between reliable and unreliable warning cues on response times and errors (commission and omission), suggesting that SART tasks are influenced by strategic factors (Helton et al. Conscious Cogn 20: 1732-1737, 2011; Exp Brain Res 209: 401-407, 2011). With regards to warning stimuli, we chose to use cute images (exhibiting infantile features) during a SART, as previous literature indicates cute images cause participants to engage attention. If viewing cute things makes the viewer exert more attention than normal, then exposure to cute stimuli during the SART should improve performance if SART performance is a measure of perceptual coupling. Reliable warning cues were shown to reduce both response time and errors of commission, and increase errors of omission, relative to unreliable warning cues. Cuteness of the warning stimuli, however, had no significant effect on SART performance. These results suggest the importance of strategic factors in SART performance, not increased attention, and add to the growing literature which suggests the SART is not a good measure of sustained attention, vigilance or perceptual coupling. PMID:25537468

Finkbeiner, Kristin M; Wilson, Kyle M; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

2015-04-01

96

The Effects of Truncated Dome Detectable Warnings on Travelers Negotiating Curb Ramps in Wheelchairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truncated domes on curb ramps benefit travelers with visual impairments. However, concerns associated with the safety and negotiability of such detectable warnings for other travelers have resulted in much controversy. The findings of the study presented here indicate that detectable warnings did not adversely affect the negotiability of ramps by…

Lee, Helen

2011-01-01

97

Using Fear Appeals in Warning Labels to Promote Responsible Gambling Among VLT Players: The Key Role of Depth of Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous.\\u000a Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The\\u000a present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial\\u000a design experiment was used

Yaromir Munoz; Jean-Charles Chebat; Jacob Amnon Suissa

2010-01-01

98

Effects of Labels on Visual Perceptions  

E-print Network

that labels carrying specific categories of meaning are particularly more powerful in changing our perception. In two experiments, participants were presented with a triad of morphed human faces paired with arbitrary labels. The meanings of these labels... condition might describe ?Infaduenza? as someone?s last name. Participants were shown a triad of human faces (Figure 1a) and were asked to judge which face, bottom left or bottom right, was more similar to the target face on the top. This method followed...

Lara, Frankie

2009-06-09

99

The Effects of the FDA Warning on the Use of Droperidol by U.S. Emergency Physicians  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine if emergency physicians’ (EP) use of droperidol has changed since the United States Food and Drag Administration (FDA) warning of December 2001 concerning QT interval prolongation, torsade de pointes, and sudden death; and to query EP opinions regarding droperidol before and after the FDA warning and regarding potential alternative drugs. Methods: An internet-based survey was designed with questions regarding droperidol use in the emergency department (ED). Data collected included EP demographics, use of droperidol before and after the FDA warning, use of alternative drugs, and incidence of arrhythmias. A representative sample of EPs were contacted by e-mail and asked to complete the survey. Results: A total of 2,000 e-mails resulted in 506 (25%) completed surveys. There was no second mailing. Responders’ average years practicing was 12.6 ± 9.2. EP responders worked in private/community (n=278, 55%), academic/county (n=187, 37%), and HMO (n=41, 8%) hospitals. The. majority (n=455, 90%) used droperidol and were aware of the FDA warning (n=460, 91%). Droperidol was no longer available at 122 (24%) of the respondents’ EDs as a result of the FDA warning. Prior to the FDA warning, EPs who had used droperidol used it as an antiemetic (n=408, 90%), for control of agitation (n=330, 73%), for treatment of headache (n=247, 54%), and for treatment of vertigo (n=106, 23%). After the FDA warning, 387 (85%) of EPs reported their use of droperidol had decreased or ceased altogether, and 68 (15%) always obtained an electrocardiogram prior to administration. Of those who used droperidol for agitation, 137 (42%) felt there were no other drugs with greater efficacy. Haloperidol was the most cited alternative agent (n=260, 79%) followed by benzodiazepines (n=223, 68%). Of those who used droperidol for antiemesis, 116 (28%) felt there were no other drugs with greater efficacy than droperidol; promethazine was the most cited alternative agent (n=260, 64%). Two (0.4%) EPs reported arrhythmias in patients who received droperidol. Only 37 (8%) EPs reported they were unconcerned with potential loss of droperidol from the market. Conclusion: Based on this survey, EP use of droperidol has decreased dramatically as a result of the FDA warning. However, EPs believe that there are few or no alternative antiemetic drugs that have an improved adverse effect profile. PMID:20852711

Richards, John R.; Weiss, Steven J.; Bretz, Stephen W.; Schneir, Aaron B.; Rinetti, Dauna; Derlet, Robert W.

2003-01-01

100

24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

2010-04-01

101

24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

2013-04-01

102

24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

2014-04-01

103

24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

2012-04-01

104

24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning...specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The...

2011-04-01

105

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

106

International cigarette labelling practices  

PubMed Central

DESIGN—Cross-sectional study.?PARTICIPANTS—Members of GLOBALink (www.globalink.org), an internet listserve for tobacco activists with members in 56 countries, who were asked to provide specific information on cigarette warning requirements in their countries.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Presence of specific warning labels, overall content score (based on a 0-10 scale with a point for each specific warning mentioned), size of warning label, location of warning label.?RESULTS—Forty-five countries (80%) responded; 40 had mandatory labelling requirements, three had voluntary agreements with the industry and two had no requirements. In general, American companies did no more in foreign countries than required by local law. The average developing country content score was 1.6, compared with 5.0 in developed countries (p = 0.0003). Forty-two per cent of countries either had no warning requirement or had only a very general health warning. The most common warning was for heart disease (49% of countries) and the least common was for addiction (14%). All warnings were more common in developed than developing countries. Warnings in developed country were on average 27% larger than those in developing countries (p = 0.325). Seventy-three per cent of labels in developing countries appeared only on the side of the pack, whereas 78% of labels in developed countries appeared on the front and back (p = 0.003).?CONCLUSIONS—In almost every respect measured, residents in developing countries are receiving inferior information about the hazards of smoking than residents of developed countries. Laws should be promulgated in importing and exporting countries to ensure that, where their labelling laws differ, companies would be required to provide the more comprehensive labelling.???Keywords: health warnings; cigarette pack labelling; legislation PMID:10629241

Aftab, M.; Kolben, D.; Lurie, P.

1999-01-01

107

Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy.  

PubMed

An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification. PMID:20523852

Stevens, Catherine J; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare

2009-01-01

108

Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy  

PubMed Central

An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification. PMID:20523852

Stevens, Catherine J.; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare

2009-01-01

109

Effects of Verbal Warning on Compliant and Transition Behavior of Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With each child serving as his or her own control, 20 male and 20 female preschool children were tested on two occasions in a free-play situation. Results indicated that verbal warning before activity change facilitated transition and compliant behavior. (Author/MP)

Zeece, Pauline Davey; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper

1982-01-01

110

Effects of a slowdown warning system in mixed communication environments : A macroscopic study  

E-print Network

cause of multiple car crashes, especially during bad weather conditions [1], [2], [3], [4]. The cause the occurrence of car pile-up crashes and the shock waves occurring in compressible flow dynamics. The earliest to alleviate the possibil- ity of car pile-up crashes. For this, we discuss a slowdown warning concept, whereby

Peraire, Jaime

111

The Effectiveness of Reverse Telephon Emergency Warning Systems in the October 2007 San Diego Wildfires  

SciTech Connect

Late in October, 2007, fast-moving wildfires fueled by extreme Santa Ana winds threatened residents and their properties in San Diego County, California. The impacted area also included the City of San Diego within the County s boundaries. It turns out the San Diego firestorms would be the biggest in the County's history, surpassing the devastating 2003 firestorms in intensity, duration, and impacted populations. Both San Diego County and the City of San Diego have installed telephone reverse call-down emergency warning systems. A telephone survey of 1200 households located in areas identified by emergency officials as the evacuation zones for the 2007 fires was conducted in late March and early April 2008 using a random telephone dialing process to determine if people responded to the reverse telephone warning systems calls. Findings indicate that those who received a reverse emergency warning call were much more likely to evacuate than those who did not receive a call. The telephone calls were also the most likely source of first warning.

Sorensen, John H [ORNL; Sorensen, Barbara Vogt [ORNL

2009-01-01

112

A cross-sectional survey investigating the desensitisation of graphic health warning labels and their impact on smokers, non-smokers and patients with COPD in a London cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels (GHWL) in different individuals, including patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Investigating knowledge and attitudes may allow better implementation of future public health policies. We hypothesised that differences in the impact of GHWL exist between non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD, with decreased efficacy in those groups who are longer and more frequently exposed to them. Participants and setting 163 participants (54% male, aged 21–80) including 60 non-smokers, 53 smokers and 50 patients with COPD (Gold stage II–IV), attending London respiratory outpatient clinics, participated in case-controlled surveys (50 items). Outcome measures Ten different GHWL were shown and demographics, smoking history, plans to quit, smoking-risk awareness, emotional response, processing and impact of GHWL on behaviour were recorded. Patients were further asked to prioritise the hypothetical treatment or prevention of five specific smoking-related diseases. Results Smokers, in particular those with COPD, were less susceptible to GHWL than non-smokers; 53.4% of all participants expressed fear when looking at GHWL, non-smokers (71.9%) more so than smokers (39.8%, p<0.001). COPD participants were less aware of the consequences than non-COPD participants (p<0.001), including an awareness of lung cancer (p=0.001). Lung cancer (95%), oral cancer (90.2%), heart disease (84.7%) and stroke (71.2%) were correctly associated with smoking, whereas blindness was least associated (23.9%). However, blindness was prioritised over oral cancer, stroke and in patients with COPD also over heart disease when participants were asked about hypothetical treatment or prevention. Conclusions GHWL are most effective in non-smokers and a desensitisation effect was observed in smokers and patients with COPD. As a consequence, a tailored and concerted public health approach to use such messages is required and ‘blindness’ deserves to be mentioned in this context because of an unexpectedly high-deterring impact. PMID:24996914

Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Chisnall, Ben; Drakatos, Panagis; Sivakumar, Sukhanthan; Sivakumar, Bairavie; Barrecheguren, Miriam; Douiri, Abdel; Steier, Joerg

2014-01-01

113

Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor  

PubMed Central

The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles. PMID:24566631

Yan, Xuedong; Xue, Qingwan; Ma, Lu; Xu, Yongcun

2014-01-01

114

Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. Study design A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Methods Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. Results An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) <100 lifetime cigarettes smoked; 3) gaze position successfully tracked for > 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p < 0.001). There was no evidence that this effect varied based on the type of warning label (black & white text vs. colour text vs. colour image & text; interaction p = 0.295). Conclusions During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. PMID:25542740

Shankleman, M.; Sykes, C.; Mandeville, K.L.; Di Costa, S.; Yarrow, K.

2015-01-01

115

Flash Flood Early Warning System Reference Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flash Flood Warning System Reference Guide is intended to promote the implementation of flash flood early warning systems based upon proven and effective methods already in use in flash-flood prone nations around the world. Both governmental and non-governmental decision makers can use it to better understand flash floods and the elements that constitute a robust, end-to-end flash flood early warning system. The guide includes chapters on Flash Flood Science, Flash Flood Forecasting Methods, Monitoring Networks, Technology Infrastructure, Warning Dissemination and Notification, and Community-based Disaster Management, and offers several examples of warning systems.

COMET

2011-10-18

116

Airburst warning and response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is virtually certain (probability>99%) that the next destructive NEO event will be an airburst. Planetary defense is usually assumed to have the primary goal of maximizing the number of lives saved, but it can be argued that more emphasis should be placed on maximizing the probability of saving lives. For the latter goal, it is far more effective to create an early warning and civil defense plan than a mitigation plan that involves deflecting a large NEO. Because early warning and civil defense will almost certainly be needed long before the first deflection is ever required, the credibility of the planetary defense community and its recommendations will be put to its first serious test by an airburst. Successful response to an airburst event will make it much more likely that recommendations for mitigation by deflection will be accepted by decision makers and the public. Focusing more attention on the second goal will, as a side effect, benefit the primary goal.

Boslough, Mark

2014-10-01

117

Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia: Safety and Effectiveness in a 12-Week, Open-Label Trial.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: Varenicline was approved by the FDA in 2006. In 2009, based largely on case reports, the FDA issued a warning of possible adverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior for varenicline and bupropion. Prospective trials of varenicline have not reported increased incidence of psychiatric adverse events other than sleep disturbance, but smokers with major mental illness have been excluded from large prospective trials of varenicline to date. We sought to evaluate the effect of a standard open-label 12-week varenicline trial on prospectively assessed safety and smoking outcomes in stable, treated adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and nicotine dependence. METHODS: One-hundred-and-twelve stable outpatients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day participated in a 12-week, open-label, smoking cessation trial of varenicline and weekly group cognitive behavioral therapy. Participants took varenicline for 4 weeks before attempting cessation. Trained raters collected safety and smoking outcome data weekly. RESULTS: Participants demonstrated improved psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms and nicotine withdrawal symptoms from baseline to week 12 or early termination. At the end of 12 weeks open label treatment, the 14- and 28-day continuous abstinence rates were 47.3 and 34%, respectively. Expired CO declined significantly during treatment in those who did not achieve abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study suggests that varenicline may be well-tolerated and effective for smoking cessation in combination with group CBT in stable outpatients with schizophrenia, a group with high rates of smoking and smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality. PMID:22888309

Pachas, Gladys N; Cather, Corinne; Pratt, Sarah A; Hoeppner, Bettina; Nino, Johanna; Carlini, Sara V; Achtyes, Eric D; Lando, Harry; Mueser, Kim T; Rigotti, Nancy A; Goff, Donald C; Evins, A Eden

2012-01-01

118

Temporal framing and consideration of future consequences: effects on smokers' and at-risk nonsmokers' responses to cigarette health warnings.  

PubMed

This research examines the influence of temporal framing (long-term vs. short-term) and individual difference in consideration of future consequences (CFC) on the effectiveness of cigarette health warnings among smokers and at-risk nonsmokers in a college population. An online experiment (N = 395) revealed a three-way interaction among temporal framing, CFC, and smoking status. The results among at-risk nonsmokers supported the temporal fit hypothesis--those high in CFC responded more favorably to long-term framing, whereas those low in CFC responded more positively to short-term framing. The findings among smokers revealed a different pattern in which short-term framing was more effective among high-CFC smokers, whereas among low-CFC smokers the framing effect was not distinct. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25470442

Zhao, Xiaoquan; Nan, Xiaoli; Iles, Irina Alexandra; Yang, Bo

2015-01-01

119

A Study on Estimation on Flood Warning Trigger Rainfall in medium and small Stream Affected by Urban Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As extreme floods occur frequently in recent years due to global climate changes, an in sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration is becoming the significant danger and loss of life and property in the Korean Peninsula as well as most parts of the world. The desire for living without hazardous damages grows these days, the city strategy to make the safer community has become an issue. Previously most of flood prevention efforts have been made for relatively large watersheds near to channel flow. However, as economical development and the expansion of city near medium and small stream, human casualty and property by flood occurs frequently. Therefore, to reduce the damage of human lives and property by flood, we develop an assessment method for flood warning trigger rainfall considering urban effect. Considering complex land use, HEC-HMS is used for rural area and SWMM is adopted for sewer networks runoff. And relationship between runoff and stream water level, HEC-RAS is accompanied with runoff results. Proposed flood warning trigger rainfall assessment method shows good agreement with gauged data and could be used for another case to mitigate damage. Acknowledgement: "This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-NH-2011-45] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea." Keyword: HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, critical precipitation, medium and small stream

Youngseok, Song; Moojong, Park; JungHo, Lee; HeeSup, Lee

2013-04-01

120

Effect of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Policy Decisions on Off-Label Use in Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anemia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as an off-label indication. In early 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released safety alerts and mandated label changes, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a National Coverage Determination (NCD) in August 2007, dramatically restricting ESA coverage based on specific clinical parameters in non-MDS patients. We sought to determine the effect on ESA use in MDS, examining both treatment initiation and concordance with guidelines designed to target patients most likely to benefit from therapy. Methods We determined receipt of ESA within 6 months of diagnosis. For ESA recipients, we operationalized three National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines: serum erythropoietin determination before ESA initiation, transfusion-independent at ESA initiation, and initial ESA treatment episode of >= 8 weeks. Logistic regression models tested the effect of time (half-year increments pre-post the August ‘07 CMS NCD implementation), controlling for demographics and health status. Results 17,491 (61.1%) of 28,627 beneficiaries with MDS received ESAs. ESA use increased prior to the reference period (Jan.–July 2007), but declined beginning in August 2007, the date of NCD implementation (marginal probability =–0.05, p-value<0.01). Concordance with treatment guidelines changed during the observation period, with increased rates of serum erythropoietin levels, but declined in the other two guidelines. Conclusion These results suggest a mixed pattern of change in the face of the FDA safety warnings and CMS NCD in MDS and highlight the importance of monitoring for unintended consequences of policy changes. PMID:25485173

Hendrick, Franklin; Davidoff, Amy J.; Zeidan, Amer M.; Gore, Steven D.; Baer, Maria R.

2014-01-01

121

Warning systems and public warning response  

SciTech Connect

This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

Sorensen, J.H.

1993-09-01

122

The Effects of Band Labels on Evaluators' Judgments of Musical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of band labels on evaluators' judgments of musical performance. High school concert band members (n = 72), wind ensemble members ( n = 77), and band directors (n = 8) were randomly assigned to a band label or no label group. Only the band label group was given evaluation forms that specified the group playing…

Silvey, Brian A.

2009-01-01

123

40 CFR 82.106 - Warning statement requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances...subpart, each container or product identified in § 82.102...requirements of this subpart for placement and form: WARNING: Contains...requirement. The following products need not bear a warning...

2013-07-01

124

40 CFR 82.106 - Warning statement requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances...subpart, each container or product identified in § 82.102...requirements of this subpart for placement and form: WARNING: Contains...requirement. The following products need not bear a warning...

2011-07-01

125

40 CFR 82.106 - Warning statement requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances...subpart, each container or product identified in § 82.102...requirements of this subpart for placement and form: WARNING: Contains...requirement. The following products need not bear a warning...

2014-07-01

126

40 CFR 82.106 - Warning statement requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances...subpart, each container or product identified in § 82.102...requirements of this subpart for placement and form: WARNING: Contains...requirement. The following products need not bear a warning...

2012-07-01

127

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

128

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2012-04-01

129

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2013-04-01

130

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2011-04-01

131

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2010-04-01

132

21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2...section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package is too small to accommodate the...

2014-04-01

133

Effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell labeling index  

SciTech Connect

The effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell turnover was studied. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of fundic and antral mucosa were obtained from duodenal ulcer patients before and after 4 wk of therapy with cimetidine 1.2 g/day or misoprostol 800 micrograms/day. Biopsy specimens were incubated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Glandular column length and number of labeled cells were determined after autoradiography. There was no significant difference in column length of antral or fundic glands before or after therapy with cimetidine and misoprostol. The number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly decreased after misoprostol treatment (3.6 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.4, mean +/- SE), as opposed to their respective number before therapy (6.9 +/- 0.5 and 8.3 +/- 0.8) (p less than 0.01). On the other hand, after treatment with cimetidine, the number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly higher (11.8 +/- 0.9 and 7.5 +/- 1.0, respectively) as compared with their number before therapy (5.7 +/- 0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.6, respectively). The decreased gastric cell turnover induced by misoprostol indicates that the trophic effect of prostanoids on gastric mucosa is not due to an increase in cellular kinetics. The increased gastric cell turnover induced by cimetidine may contribute to its therapeutic effect in peptic ulcer disease.

Fich, A.; Arber, N.; Sestieri, M.; Zajicek, G.; Rachmilewitz, D.

1985-07-01

134

Global Warming Local Warning  

E-print Network

Global Warming Local Warning The Greens I European Free Alliance in the European Parliament Dr;2 Global Warming, Local Warning contents Foreword 3 Introduction 4 Section 1 ­ Climate Change 5 Section 2 Cornwall. Taken by Cherry Puddicombe. #12;Global Warming, Local Warning 3 foreword O ver the coming years

Williams, Paul

135

77 FR 39710 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Organ-Specific Warnings: Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...enforcement discretion with regard to the liver warning required in the labeling. DATES...products to inform consumers about the risk of liver injury when using acetaminophen and the...adults only, must include the following liver warning: Liver warning: This...

2012-07-05

136

Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.  

PubMed

In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. PMID:24161300

Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

2014-09-01

137

Tsunami Warning Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tsunami Warning Systems describes the processes involved in anticipating, detecting, and warning for a tsunami by summarizing data collection, modeling, analysis, and alert procedures used at NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers. A simulated event and past tsunami occurrences are used to highlight warning system processes for determining the tsunami threat based on seismic and sea level data and tsunami forecast models. Message communication and local response are also addressed as final components of any warning system. The module is intended for Weather Forecast Office staff and emergency managers who require a better understanding of the technical aspects of tsunami warning delivery. The module will also benefit anyone wanting to learn more about the components of tsunami warning systems.

2014-09-14

138

[How would plain packaging and pictorial warning impact on smoking reduction, cessation and initiation?].  

PubMed

The European Commission has proposed a review of the directive on tobacco products on labeling and packaging of tobacco products by introducing warning text with pictorial warning that occupies 75% of the cigarette packages. The aim of the survey was to assess the impact of plain packaging and pictorial warning in smoking reduction, cessation and initiation among a sample of adult. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Rome between September and November 2012. The questionnaires administered were 227, with a response rate of 82.4%. 35.8% (No. 67) of the respondents considered the image of the gangrene the most effective in communicating smoking-related damages, followed by the image on lung cancer (No. 60; 32.1%). Distinguishing between smokers and non-smokers (both former and never smokers), the picture on lung cancer was the most effective for smokers (No. 22; 38.6%); if cigarette packages have pictorial warnings like the ones shown, more than half (No. 33; 57.9%) of smokers would change brand; 66.7% (No. 38) of them would feel uncomfortable in showing the package. Comparing the 3 packagings, classic packaging, plain packaging with textual warning, and plain packaging with both textual and pictorial warning, the majority of people declared that the third is the most effective in preventing smoking initiation (No. 169; 90.9%), in motivating to quit (No. 158; 84.9%), and in changing smoking habits (No. 149; 80.5%). The survey, although its small sample size and being not representative of all strata of Italian population, shows that the plain packaging with pictorial warning is the most convincing in the three outcomes considered. PMID:24548838

Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Mipatrini, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; Terzano, Claudio; La Torre, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

139

THE EFFECT OF NEW FOOD LABELING ON NUTRIENT INTAKES: AN ENDOGENOUS SWITCHING REGRESSION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of the new labeling regulations on nutrient intakes using an endogenous switching regression model. Using the 1994 - 96 CSFII\\/DHKS, we evaluate the impact of food label use on intakes of selected nutrients.

Sung-Yong Kim; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.; Oral Capps Jr.

1999-01-01

140

To label or not to label, the GMO food paradox Is labeling of foods containing GMOs a consumer right? Or does labeling of GMO  

E-print Network

To label or not to label, the GMO food paradox Is labeling of foods containing GMOs a consumer right? Or does labeling of GMO foods create a false warning? Are voluntary initiatives sufficient and government agencies? As States and the nation grapple with the GMO labeling paradox, the Finding Common

Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

141

Tobacco health warning messages on plain cigarette packs and in television campaigns: a qualitative study with Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.  

PubMed

Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health risk and cessation benefit messages. Six focus groups were conducted over September 2012-April 2013 with adult clients of welfare organizations in regional New South Wales, Australia who were current smokers (n = 51). Participants discussed HWLs, plain packaging and anti-smoking television advertisements. Discussions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Highly emotive warnings delivering messages of negative health effects were most likely to capture the attention of the study participants; however, these warning messages did not prompt quit attempts and participants were sceptical about the effectiveness of cessation programmes such as telephone quitlines. Active avoidance of health warning messages was common, and many expressed false and self-exempting beliefs towards the harms of tobacco. Careful consideration of message content and medium is required to communicate the anti-smoking message to disadvantaged smokers who consider themselves desensitized to warnings. Health communication strategies should continue to address false beliefs about smoking and educate on cessation services that are currently underutilized. PMID:24966335

Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

2015-02-01

142

21 CFR 332.30 - Labeling of antiflatulent drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established... (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) relating...accidental overdose warning. The labeling for antiflatulent...

2010-04-01

143

Multitasking in academia: Effective combinations of research, education and public outreach illustrated by a volcanic ash warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science permeates our society. Its role and its perceived importance evolves with time. Scientists today are highly specialized, yet society demands they master a variety of skills requiring not only a number of different competencies but also a broad mindset. Scientists are subjected to a meritocracy in terms of having to produce scientific papers. Peer-reviewed scientific publications used to be sufficient to meet the various laws and regulations with respect to dissemination of scientific results. This has dramatically changed; both expressed directly through public voices (such as in the climate change discourses), but also by politicians and policy makers. In some countries research funding now comes with specific requirements concerning public outreach that go way beyond peer-reviewed publications and presentation at scientific conferences. Science policies encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and scientific questions themselves often cannot be answered without knowledge and information from several scientific areas. Scientists increasingly need to communicate knowledge and results in more general terms as well as educating future generations. A huge challenge lies in developing the knowledge, human capacity and mindset that will allow an individual academician to contribute to education, communicate across scientific fields and sectors in multidisciplinary cross sectoral cooperations and also reach out to the general public while succeeding within the scientific meritocracy. We demonstrate how research, education and communication within and outside academia can effectively be combined through a presentation of the International Airways Volcano Watch that encompasses an operational volcanic ash warning system for the aviation industry. This presentation will show the role of science throughout the information flow, from basic science to the pilots' decision-making. Furthermore, it will illustrate how one can connect specific scientific topics to societal issues such as security and economy. Skills, knowledge and mindset must be developed and nurtured through university curricula and reflected in career awards and other professional appreciations. By using concrete examples of geoscience in practice, such as the volcanic ash warning system, different aspects of science, it's role in society and economic impact is being communicated across sectors and taught simultaneously. The very same information is relevant and appropriate for society at large and thus time saving for academicians. It also serves as a recruiting strategy.

Bye, B. L.; Plag, H.

2011-12-01

144

Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age  

PubMed Central

AIM The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of children <2 years in Italy and the Netherlands was carried out. Age and country specific prescription prevalence rates were calculated for the period 2005–08. Comparisons of prescription rates in 2005 (pre) and 2008 (post) warnings were done by means of a chi-square test. RESULTS The cohort consisted of 99 176 children <2 years of age. After international warnings, overall prescription rates for CCMs decreased slightly from 83 to 77/1000 person years (P = 0.05) in Italy and increased in the Netherlands from 74 to 92/1000 children per year. Despite the international warnings, prescription rates for nasal sympathomimetics and opium alkaloids increased in the Netherlands (P < 0.01). In Italy a significant decrease in the prescription rates of opium alkaloids and other cough suppressants (P < 0.01) was observed, and also a significant reduction in use of combinations of nasal sympathomimetics. CONCLUSION Despite the international safety warnings and negative benefit-risk profiles, prescription rates of cough and cold medicines remain substantial and were hardly affected by the warnings, especially in the Netherlands where no warning was issued. The hazards of use of these medicines in young children should be explicitly stipulated by the European Medicines Agency and all national agencies, in order to increase awareness amongst physicians and caretakers and reduce heterogeneity across the EU. PMID:21564162

Sen, E Fatma; Verhamme, Katia M C; Felisi, Mariagrazia; 't Jong, Geert W; Giaquinto, Carlo; Picelli, Gino; Ceci, Adriana; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

2011-01-01

145

Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

2012-01-01

146

The Effect of Labeling on Preschool Children's Performance in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that experimenter-induced labeling of test cards improves preschoolers' performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task (DCCS), a measure of flexible rule use. Three experiments attempted to further clarify how labeling aids performance on the DCCS. Experiment 1 examined the nature of the labeling effect but failed…

Muller, Ulrich; Zelazo, Philip D.; Lurye, Leah E.; Liebermann, Dana P.

2008-01-01

147

Automatic Construction of an Effective Training Set for Prioritizing Static Analysis Warnings  

E-print Network

achieve high effectiveness but suffer from low effi- ciency (i.e., high cost), existing automatic.2 [Semantics of Programming Languages]: Pro- gram analysis; G.3 [Probability and Statistics]: Correlation effectiveness but suffers from low efficiency (i.e., high

Xie, Tao

148

Publicity bans and health warnings: a 74-nation resume of oppression.  

PubMed

A tabulation of official or officially inspired restrictions on tobacco advertising and of rules governing health warnings in 74 countries, based on data compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health, shows that restrictions are widespread in many advanced countries but less prevalent elsewhere. 37 countries, primarily in developing areas but including Bulgaria, Greece, and Portugal, had no present or pending restrictions on advertising or requirements for health warnings. In addition, advertising restrictions were absent but pending in Brazil, Israel, and Mexico, and daytime advertising restrictions on television and radio were in effect in Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru. 20 developed countries plus Burma, Iraq, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Turkey, and Zambia ban television and radio advertising of cigarettes; 11 countries ban cigarette advertising in the press; 14 countries ban television and radio advertising of other tobacco products; and 8 countries ban advertising of other tobacco products in the press. Health warnings are required on cigarette packs only in Canada, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Ireland, New Zealand, Japan, Panama, Peru, the UK, the US, and some areas of Australia. No countries require health warning labels on other tobacco products, and only Australia, Canada, Panama, Peru, and the UK require health warnings in advertisements. PMID:12312153

1974-01-01

149

21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...warning is to be used in place of the warning in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.) (ii) “Do not use for diaper rash.” (d) Directions. The labeling of the product contains the following statements under the heading...

2014-04-01

150

21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...warning is to be used in place of the warning in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.) (ii) “Do not use for diaper rash.” (d) Directions. The labeling of the product contains the following statements under the heading...

2012-04-01

151

21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...warning is to be used in place of the warning in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.) (ii) “Do not use for diaper rash.” (d) Directions. The labeling of the product contains the following statements under the heading...

2013-04-01

152

21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...warning is to be used in place of the warning in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.) (ii) “Do not use for diaper rash.” (d) Directions. The labeling of the product contains the following statements under the heading...

2011-04-01

153

Fluorescent Labeling and Its Effect on Hybridization of Oligodeoxyribonucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biophysical labeling involves selective modification of biological objects with various types of labels capable of providing\\u000a information on their structure, molecular dynamics, and mechanism of actions. Nowadays, biophysical labeling methods are being\\u000a used to solve a number of structural problems. These include methods of spin, triplet, photochromic, electron scattering,\\u000a Mossbauer and NMR, radioactive and fluorescent labeling 1. The most widely

Ramendra K. Singh; Shipra Agarwal

154

Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants  

PubMed Central

Background Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans’ health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners’ socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. Methods We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. Conclusions If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious – probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did little for those consumers who were already more knowledgeable about health and nutrition. To reach a broader group of diners, a symbolic calorie label may be preferred as it reduced caloric intake across all levels of health consciousness. PMID:23394433

2013-01-01

155

Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

2013-12-01

156

FDA Warns of Cardiac Effect When Heart Drug Mixed with Hepatitis C Meds  

MedlinePLUS

... Cardiac Effect When Heart Drug Mixed With Hepatitis C Meds Adding Harvoni or Sovaldi to amiodarone could ... 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Arrhythmia Drug Reactions Hepatitis C WEDNESDAY, March 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A potentially ...

157

Airlock caution and warning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Caution and warning system, used to monitor performance and warn of hazards or out-of-limit conditions on space vehicles, may have application to aircraft and railway transit systems. System consists of caution and warning subsystem and emergency subsystem.

Mayfield, W. J.; Cork, L. Z.; Malchow, R. G.; Hornback, G. L.

1972-01-01

158

Emphasized warning reduces salt intake: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Excessive salt intake is a major cardiovascular risk factor. At variance to the developed countries, the main source of sodium in transitional and developing countries is salt added while cooking and/or at the table. The objective of this trial was to examine the impact of warning labels placed on home salt containers on daily salt intake.A sample of treated hypertensives (n = 150) was randomized in two subgroups, one receiving just a leaflet about the harmful effects of excessive salt intake (control; n = 74), and the other one receiving in addition warning stickers for household salt containers (intervention; n = 76). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (Na24) were measured in all the subjects at the start of the trial, and 1 month and 2 months later. The average starting Na24 was 207 ± 71 mmol in the control group and 211 ± 85 mmol in the intervention group (P = .745). One month and 2 months later, a significant decrease was observed in the intervention group (to 183 ± 63 mmol and 176 ± 55 mmol; P < .0001), as opposed to the control group (203 ± 60 mmol and 200 ± 58 mmol; P = .1466). Initial BP was 143.7/84.1 mm Hg in the control, and 142.9/84.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P = .667). One month and 2 months later, a significant drop in BP, by 5.3/2.9 mm Hg, was observed in the intervention group as opposed to the control group (0.4/0.9 mm Hg). Decrease in Na24 positively correlated to BP lowering (r(2) = 0.5989; P < .0001). A significant reduction in 24Na and BP is achieved with warning labels on harmful effects of excessive salt intake. Decreasing daily salt input by 35 mmol may result in an extra BP lowering by some 5-6/2-3 mm Hg. PMID:25659228

Pinjuh Markota, Nina; Rumboldt, Mirjana; Rumboldt, Zvonko

2015-03-01

159

Mandatory cancer risk warnings on alcoholic beverages: what are the ethical issues?  

PubMed

The link between alcohol consumption and cancer is well established, but public awareness of the risk remains low. Mandated warning labels have been suggested as a way of ensuring "informed choice" about alcohol consumption. In this article we explore various ethical issues that may arise in connection with cancer warning labels on alcoholic beverages; in particular we highlight the potentially questionable autonomy of alcohol consumption decisions (either with or without labels) and consider the implications if the autonomy of drinking behavior is substantially compromised. Our discussion demonstrates the need for the various ethical issues to be considered and addressed in any decision to mandate cancer warning labels. PMID:25786002

Louise, Jennie; Eliott, Jaklin; Olver, Ian; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

2015-03-01

160

Timely Warning Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complaint received by the Department of Education alleged that Virginia Tech violated the "timely warning" requirements of the Clery Act on April 16, 2007, by not issuing specific campus-wide alerts once senior officials knew of the immediate threat to health and safety. The complaint also alleged that the University's timely warning policy, as…

Stafford, Dolores

2011-01-01

161

Earthquake early warning videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page features videos of the early warning system in action, images of some professional poster presentations, and a description of an in-class kinesthetic activity about how the early warning system works. It also addresses some of the affective aspects of natural disasters.

Matthew d'Alessio

162

Effect of Non-linear Deep Architecture in Sequence Labeling  

E-print Network

If we compare the widely used Conditional Random Fields (CRF) with newly proposed “deep architecture ” sequence models (Collobert et al., 2011), there are two things changing: from linear architecture to nonlinear, and from discrete feature representation to distributional. It is unclear, however, what utility non-linearity offers in conventional feature-based models. In this study, we show the close connection between CRF and “sequence model ” neural nets, and present an empirical investigation to compare their performance on two sequence labeling tasks – Named Entity Recognition and Syntactic Chunking. Our results suggest that non-linear models are highly effective in low-dimensional distributional spaces. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that a non-linear architecture offers no benefits in a high-dimensional discrete feature space. 1.

Mengqiu Wang; Christopher D. Manning

163

People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and

S. Haß; K. Asch; T. Fernandez-Steeger; C. Arnhardt

2009-01-01

164

Why People Don't Listen to Warnings: With Discussion of Implications for Futurists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document reviews recent literature on warning processes, evaluates the effectiveness of warnings in changing public policy and personal behavior, and applies warning literature to specific problem areas. Warning is interpreted to include a statement of the problem and a proposed course of action. The document is presented in six parts. Part…

Koster, Fran

165

Communication architecture of an early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS) in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009) on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

Angermann, M.; Guenther, M.; Wendlandt, K.

2010-11-01

166

Consumer involvement: effects on information processing from over-the-counter medication labels.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumer involvement on information processing from over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels. A sample of 256 students evaluated simulated OTC product labels for two product categories (headache and cold) in random order. Each participant evaluated labels after reading a scenario to simulate high and low involvement respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect data on variables such as label comprehension, attitude-towards-product label, product evaluation, and purchase intention. The results indicate that when consumers are involved in their purchase of OTC medications they are significantly more likely to understand information from the label and evaluate it accordingly. However, involvement does not affect attitude-towards-product label nor does it enhance purchase intention. PMID:11727293

Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S; Sansgiry, S

2001-01-01

167

'Retouch free': The effect of labelling media images as not digitally altered on women's body dissatisfaction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effect of 'retouch free' labels on thin ideal fashion images on women's body dissatisfaction. This represents an experimental analogue to current practice by some fashion magazines. Participants were 224 female undergraduates who viewed a set of fashion shoots with either no label, or a label indicating that the image had not been digitally altered. Results indicated that, although body dissatisfaction increased after exposure to the thin ideal images, there was no significant effect of label type on mood or body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that labelling images as digitally unaltered appears neither helpful nor harmful in terms of body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of labels. PMID:24094477

Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Smyth, Veronica

2014-01-01

168

Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

2006-01-01

169

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Bulloo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

170

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nerang River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

171

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Barron River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

172

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Norman River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

173

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the KOLAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Kolan River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

174

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Noosa River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

175

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Paroo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

176

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOONIE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Moonie River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

177

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Peter Faust Dam

Greenslade, Diana

178

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW\\/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW\\/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser

D. Hilland; G. Phipps; C. Jingle; G. Newton

1997-01-01

179

Satellite threat warning and attack reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory's Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW\\/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW\\/AR program objectives are: (1) Develop cost-effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (2) Demonstrate innovative, lightweight, low-power, RF and

D. H. Hilland; G. S. Phipps; C. M. Jingle; G. Newton

1998-01-01

180

Suicide Warning Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... Feeling rage or uncontrolled anger or seeking revenge Suicide Warning Signs n Acting reckless or engaging in ... you or someone you love at risk of suicide? Get the facts and take appropriate action. Printed: ...

181

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-print Network

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT 25 February 2008 This communication is prepared as part of the Timely-in's and at least three burglaries. The purpose of this communication is to not only alert the campus community

Hardy, Christopher R.

182

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-print Network

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT April 5, 2007 This communication is prepared as part of the Timely wandering the halls. Two alert students reported the suspicious activity to the police as the suspects fled

Hardy, Christopher R.

183

A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings: does the warning need to be linked to the collision event?  

PubMed

Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface) can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs). The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV). Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming) vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards) or away (downwards) from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal. PMID:24475225

Gray, Rob; Ho, Cristy; Spence, Charles

2014-01-01

184

Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment  

SciTech Connect

More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-08-01

185

Effect of preparation procedures on intensity of radioautographic labeling is studied  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of tissue preparation and extractive procedures on the intensity of radioautographic labeling are presented in terms of mean grain count per cell in cells labeled with tritiated precursors of proteins or nucleic acids. This information would be of interest to medical researchers and cytologists.

Baserga, R.; Kisieleski, W. E.

1967-01-01

186

The Effects of Labeling and Social Desirability on Perceived Success of a Learning Disabled Student  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the effects of specific learning disability labels and participant social desirability scores on peer judgments of a target person's social and academic success. Participants were given a description of a fictitious high school student who was labeled as either dyslexic, ADHD, or needing glasses. Participants then made judgments of the student's social and academic success and completed

Faith G. Hunt

2006-01-01

187

Disaster warning satellite study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Disaster Warning Satellite System is described. It will provide NOAA with an independent, mass communication system for the purpose of warning the public of impending disaster and issuing bulletins for corrective action to protect lives and property. The system consists of three major segments. The first segment is the network of state or regional offices that communicate with the central ground station; the second segment is the satellite that relays information from ground stations to home receivers; the third segment is composed of the home receivers that receive information from the satellite and provide an audio output to the public. The ground stations required in this system are linked together by two, separate, voice bandwidth communication channels on the Disaster Warning Satellites so that a communications link would be available in the event of disruption of land line service.

1971-01-01

188

76 FR 44475 - Labeling for Bronchodilators To Treat Asthma; Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...additional warnings (e.g., an ``Asthma alert'') and to revise the indications, warnings...labeling as follows: Add an ``Asthma alert'' section. This proposed section lists...for excessive dosing). The ``Asthma alert'' should appear as the first...

2011-07-26

189

WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2011: Warning about the dangers of tobacco  

E-print Network

health warning labels have an impact on adolescents’ smoking-related beliefssmoking- related beliefs, intentions, and behavior. American Journal of Public Health,beliefs about waterpipe smoking: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health,

WHO

2011-01-01

190

The effects of nutrition labeling on consumer food choice: a psychological experiment and computational model.  

PubMed

The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes. PMID:24913496

Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R

2014-12-01

191

Modeling warning times for the Israel's earthquake early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2012, the Israeli government approved the offer of the creation of an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) that would provide timely alarms for schools and colleges in Israel. A network configuration was chosen, consisting of a staggered line of ˜100 stations along the main regional faults: the Dead Sea fault and the Carmel fault, and an additional ˜40 stations spread more or less evenly over the country. A hybrid approach to the EEWS alarm was suggested, where a P-wave-based system will be combined with the S-threshold method. The former utilizes first arrivals to several stations closest to the event for prompt location and determination of the earthquake's magnitude from the first 3 s of the waveform data. The latter issues alarms, when the acceleration of the surface movement exceeds a threshold for at least two neighboring stations. The threshold will be chosen to be a peak acceleration level corresponding to a magnitude 5 earthquake at a short distance range (5-10 km). The warning times or lead times, i.e., times between the alarm signal arrival and arrival of the damaging S-waves, are considered for the P, S, and hybrid EEWS methods. For each of the approaches, the P- and the S-wave travel times and the alarm times were calculated using a standard 1D velocity model and some assumptions regarding the EEWS data latencies. Then, a definition of alarm effectiveness was introduced as a measure of the trade-off between the warning time and the shaking intensity. A number of strong earthquake scenarios, together with anticipated shaking intensities at important targets, namely cities with high populations, are considered. The scenarios demonstrated in probabilistic terms how the alarm effectiveness varies depending on the target distance from the epicenter and event magnitude.

Pinsky, Vladimir

2014-09-01

192

Modeling warning times for the Israel's earthquake early warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2012, the Israeli government approved the offer of the creation of an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) that would provide timely alarms for schools and colleges in Israel. A network configuration was chosen, consisting of a staggered line of ˜100 stations along the main regional faults: the Dead Sea fault and the Carmel fault, and an additional ˜40 stations spread more or less evenly over the country. A hybrid approach to the EEWS alarm was suggested, where a P-wave-based system will be combined with the S-threshold method. The former utilizes first arrivals to several stations closest to the event for prompt location and determination of the earthquake's magnitude from the first 3 s of the waveform data. The latter issues alarms, when the acceleration of the surface movement exceeds a threshold for at least two neighboring stations. The threshold will be chosen to be a peak acceleration level corresponding to a magnitude 5 earthquake at a short distance range (5-10 km). The warning times or lead times, i.e., times between the alarm signal arrival and arrival of the damaging S-waves, are considered for the P, S, and hybrid EEWS methods. For each of the approaches, the P- and the S-wave travel times and the alarm times were calculated using a standard 1D velocity model and some assumptions regarding the EEWS data latencies. Then, a definition of alarm effectiveness was introduced as a measure of the trade-off between the warning time and the shaking intensity. A number of strong earthquake scenarios, together with anticipated shaking intensities at important targets, namely cities with high populations, are considered. The scenarios demonstrated in probabilistic terms how the alarm effectiveness varies depending on the target distance from the epicenter and event magnitude.

Pinsky, Vladimir

2015-01-01

193

Laser threat warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military lasers against which threat warning systems are most urgently required are comparatively low in energy and primarily employed in association with a conventional weapon system for rangefinding and fire control. The detection of laser illumination will therefore indicate the imminent arrival of a shell or missile. Attention is presently given to imaging, nonimaging, interferometric, and scatter detector devices

C. I. Coleman

1986-01-01

194

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Maroochy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

195

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River. Pioneer River at Mirani Contained in this document is information about: (Last updated April 2014) Flood

Greenslade, Diana

196

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Daintree River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

197

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Flinders River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

198

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Diamantina River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

199

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burnett River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

200

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Haughton River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

201

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Fitzroy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

202

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mooloolah River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

203

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Warrego River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

204

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Herbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

205

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GILBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GILBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Gilbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

206

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Johnstone River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

207

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Leichhardt River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

208

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burdekin River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

209

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nicholson River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

210

Methods for nanoparticle labeling of ricin and effect on toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique optical properties associated with nanostructured materials that support the excitation of surface plasmons offer many new opportunities for the enhanced optical investigation of biological materials that pose a security threat. In particular, ricin is considered a significant bioterrorism risk due to its high toxicity combined with its ready availability as a byproduct in castor oil production. Therefore, the development of optical techniques capable of rapid on-site toxin detection with high molecular specificity and sensitivity continues to be of significant importance. Furthermore, understanding of the ricin cell entry and intracellular pathways remains poor due to a lack of suitable bioanalytical techniques. Initial work aimed at simultaneously tackling both these issues is described where different approaches for the nanoparticle labeling of ricin are investigated along with changes in ricin toxicity associated with the labeling process.

Wark, Alastair W.; Yu, Jun; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Nativo, Paola; Graham, Duncan

2009-09-01

211

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2010-04-01

212

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2011-04-01

213

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2013-04-01

214

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2014-04-01

215

21 CFR 660.45 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.45 Labeling...the product is capable of transmitting hepatitis and should be handled accordingly...warnings as to possible hazards, including hepatitis transmitted in handling the product...

2012-04-01

216

27 CFR 20.134 - Labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to the proof strength, and (iv) shall have the warning “For external use only. If taken internally, will cause serious gastric disturbances.” An alcohol rub made from any other material, such as isopropyl alcohol, shall not be labeled “Rubbing...

2010-04-01

217

Monitoring and early warning for internet worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Code Red incident in 2001 and the SQL Slammer in January 2003, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet, infects most vulnerable computers before people can take effective countermeasures. The fast spreading nature of worms calls for a worm monitoring and early warning system. In this paper, we propose effective algorithms

Cliff Changchun Zou; Lixin Gao; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

2003-01-01

218

Uniform stable-isotope labeling in mammalian cells: formulation of a cost-effective culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniform stable-isotope labeling of mammalian cells is achieved via a novel formulation of a serum-free cell culture medium\\u000a that is based on stable-isotope-labeled autolysates and lipid extracts of various microbiological origin. Yeast autolysates\\u000a allow complete replacement of individual amino acids and organic acids in a chemically defined medium (DMEM\\/F12), enabling\\u000a a cost-effective formulation of a stable-isotope-labeled culture medium for mammalian

Tatiana A. Egorova-Zachernyuk; Giel J. C. G. M. Bosman; Willem J. DeGrip

2011-01-01

219

Can serving-size labels reduce the portion-size effect? A pilot study.  

PubMed

Research has shown that the bigger the portion that people are served, the more food they eat; this phenomenon is referred to as the portion-size effect. Providing objective serving-size information on food products has been shown to reduce the influence of external food cues on people's eating behavior. The current study examined whether providing objective serving-size information would also reduce the portion-size effect. 100 female participants were served either a small or large portion of pizza in the context of a taste test. The large portion was either unlabeled, labeled as "Contains 2 servings," or labeled as "Contains 4 servings." Food intake was lower when the large portion was labeled "Contains 4 servings" compared to when it was labeled "Contains 2 servings." Moreover, participants' intake in the large portion/4 servings condition was statistically similar to the intake of participants in the small portion condition. Thus, the standard portion-size effect was observed when the large portion was unlabeled or was labeled as "Contains 2 servings," but not when the large portion was labeled as "Contains 4 servings". These findings suggest that providing serving-size information can reduce the portion-size effect, but that the specific content (and not just the presence) of serving-size information is important in determining food intake. PMID:25464065

Spanos, Samantha; Kenda, Andree S; Vartanian, Lenny R

2015-01-01

220

Design of early warning flood detection systems for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, flooding due to natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes results in massive loss of life and property. Warning communities of the incoming flood provides an effective solution to this by giving people sufficient time to evacuate and protect their property. However, the range of early warning system solutions introduces a tangle of conflicting requirements including cost

E. Basha; D. Rus

2007-01-01

221

Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1  

E-print Network

Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1 and Alberto Michelini2] Effective tsunami early warning for coastlines near a tsunamigenic earthquake requires notification within 5, greater than about 50 s. Here we show that T0 gives more information on tsunami importance than moment

Rawlinson, Nick

222

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind - it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal) of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010). While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system) which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG - the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia - which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC) and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG) to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010).

Steinmetz, T.; Raape, U.; Teßmann, S.; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; Kukofka, T.; Riedlinger, T.; Mikusch, E.; Dech, S.

2010-09-01

223

Human Response to Emergency Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

Sorensen, J.

2009-12-01

224

The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

1994-01-01

225

Effect of labeling on new vegetable dish acceptance in preadolescent children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a food-labeling strategy to introduce new versions of foods to children's diets, in natural lunch settings (school canteens). The proposed food involved two different types of vegetables: carrots (very familiar) and broccoli (less familiar), both being prepared and presented for choice in a 'familiar' (known) versus a 'new' (unknown) version. We assessed whether adding a label (either basic or model-related) to new versions of vegetable dishes would increase the likelihood that 8- to 11-year-old children would select the new dishes rather than the familiar versions. In the first condition (no label/control condition), both the familiar and the new versions of the vegetable dishes were presented with absence of any information. In the second condition (basic label condition), the new dish was presented accompanied by a basic label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe". In the third condition (model-related label condition), the new version of the dish was presented with a model-related label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe, Special Mix for Super Heroes". Results showed that children chose significantly more often the familiar version of the dish when no information was given (control condition). The addition of a descriptive label (whether basic or model-related) led to an increased frequency of choice for the new vegetable dish for carrots only, and not for broccoli. This study suggests that adding a label with the vegetable's name can be used to increase children's willingness to select a new version of a vegetable dish instead of a familiar one, at least when the vegetable is familiar to the children (i.e. carrots). PMID:22664298

Morizet, David; Depezay, Laurence; Combris, Pierre; Picard, Delphine; Giboreau, Agnès

2012-10-01

226

Effect of tumor mass and antigenic nature on the biodistribution of labeled monoclonal antibodies in mice  

SciTech Connect

The effect of tumor mass and antigenic nature on the biodistribution of 111In- and 125I-labeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) was studied using F(ab')2 fragments of three representative anti-tumor MoAbs and SW1116 human colorectal carcinoma grown in nude mice. The 19-9, F33-104 anti-CEA, and 17-1A MoAbs showed specific binding to SW1116 cells. The former two MoAbs recognize circulating CA 19-9 with molecular weights of more than 5,000,000 and CEA of Mr 170,000-180,000, respectively, whereas 17-1A reacts with a nonshedding antigen. Both percentage injected dose per gram tumor and tumor-to-blood ratios were inversely proportional to the tumor mass in nude mice administered 111In- and 125I-labeled 19-9, but liver uptake increased as tumor size increased. Analysis of serum samples and tumor homogenates demonstrated the presence of a high-molecular-weight species, probably due to the antibody binding to CA 19-9. In the case of 111In-labeled anti-CEA MoAb, tumor uptake also decreased and liver uptake increased with tumor size, but this effect was less obvious than that of 19-9. In contrast, tumor and liver uptake of 125I-labeled anti-CEA MoAb, 111In- and 125I-labeled 17-1A and control antibodies were independent of tumor mass. The absolute tumor uptake and tumor-to-blood ratios of all 125I-labeled antibodies were lower than those of the 111In-labeled ones. And the effect of tumor mass was also weaker with 125I-labeled antibodies, probably due to in vivo dehalogenation. These results indicate that the effect of tumor size on the incorporation of labeled MoAb into tumors is dependent on the antigenic nature to be targeted and/or radionuclides used for labeling and that high concentrations of circulating high molecular weight antigens may limit in vivo use of MoAb conjugates.

Watanabe, Y.; Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Saga, T.; Sakahara, H.; Kuroki, M.; Matsuoka, Y.; Konishi, J.

1989-06-01

227

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2011-04-01

228

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2013-04-01

229

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2010-04-01

230

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2014-04-01

231

21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements...

2012-04-01

232

A SDMS Model: Early Warning Coordination Centres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the tsunami disaster in 2004, the General Secretary of the United Nations (UN) Kofi Annan called for a global early warning system for all hazards and for all communities. He also requested the ISDR (International Strategy fort Disaster Reduction) and its UN partners to conduct a global survey of capacities, gaps and opportunities in relation to early warning systems. The produced report, "Global survey of Early Warning Systems", concluded that there are many gaps and shortcomings and that much progress has been made on early warning systems and great capabilities are available around the world. However, it may be argued that an early warning system (EWS) may not be enough to prevent fatalities due to a natural hazard; i.e., it should be seen as part of a ‘wider' or total system. Furthermore, an EWS may work very well when assessed individually but it is not clear whether it will contribute to accomplish the purpose of the ‘total disaster management system'; i.e., to prevent fatalities. For instance, a regional EWS may only work if it is well co-ordinated with the local warning and emergency response systems that ensure that the warning is received, communicated and acted upon by the potentially affected communities. It may be argued that without these local measures being in place, a regional EWS will have little impact in saving lives. Researchers argued that unless people are warned in remote areas, the technology is useless; for instance McGuire [5] argues that: "I have no doubt that the technical element of the warning system will work very well,"…"But there has to be an effective and efficient communications cascade from the warning centre to the fisherman on the beach and his family and the bar owners." Similarly, McFadden [6] states that: "There's no point in spending all the money on a fancy monitoring and a fancy analysis system unless we can make sure the infrastructure for the broadcast system is there,"… "That's going to require a lot of work. If it's a tsunami, you've got to get it down to the last Joe on the beach. This is the stuff that is really very hard." Given the above, the paper argues that there is a need for a systemic approach to early warning centres. Systemic means looking upon things as a system; systemic means seeing pattern and inter-relationship within a complex whole; i.e., to see events as products of the working of a system. System may be defined as a whole which is made of parts and relationships. Given this, ‘failure' may be seen as the product of a system and, within that, see death/injury/property loss etc. as results of the working of systems. This paper proposes a preliminary model of ‘early warning coordination centres' (EWCC); it should be highlighted that an EWCC is a subsystem of the Systemic Disaster Management System (SDMS) model.

Santos-Reyes, Jaime

2010-05-01

233

The effect of fluorescent labels on protein sorption in polymer hydrogels.  

PubMed

Hydrogels are an increasingly important class of medical device materials that enable diverse and unique function, but can also be subject to significant biofouling and contamination. Although it is challenging to accurately quantify protein biofouling in hydrogels, spectroscopic detection of fluorescently labeled proteins is one method with the potential to provide direct, sensitive quantitation in transparent materials. Therefore, it is important to understand how fluorophores can affect protein-material interactions in hydrogels. This work uses an independent method, native ultraviolet fluorescence (native UV) of proteins, in conjunction with labeled protein fluorescence and the bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA), to assess the effect of fluorescent labels on protein sorption in polymer hydrogels. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LY) were labeled with two common but structurally different fluorophores and used as model biofouling proteins in three contact lens hydrogel materials. Native UV was used to directly measure both labeled and unlabeled protein sorption, while orthogonal measurements were performed with extrinsic fluorescence and BCA assay to compare with the native UV results. Sorption of labeled proteins was found to be <2-fold higher than unlabeled proteins on most protein-material combinations, while differences of up to 10-fold were observed for labeled BSA in more hydrophobic hydrogels. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) also showed that the fluorescent label chemistry can significantly affect surface adsorption of sorbed proteins on the internal surfaces of hydrogels. This study reveals the complex nature of fluorophore-protein-material interactions and shows the potential of native UV for investigating unlabeled protein biofouling in hydrogels. PMID:25209202

Guan, Allan; Li, Zhenyu; Phillips, K Scott

2014-11-01

234

Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature  

PubMed Central

Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator–prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research has centred on understanding the initial evolution of aposematism, despite the fact that these studies often tell us little about the form and diversity of real warning signals in nature. In contrast, less attention has been given to the mechanistic basis of aposematic markings; that is, ‘what makes an effective warning signal?’, and the efficacy of warning signals has been neglected. Furthermore, unlike other areas of adaptive coloration research (such as camouflage and mate choice), studies of warning coloration have often been slow to address predator vision and psychology. Here, we review the current understanding of warning signal form, with an aim to comprehend the diversity of warning signals in nature. We present hypotheses and suggestions for future work regarding our current understanding of several inter-related questions covering the form of warning signals and their relationship with predator vision, learning, and links to broader issues in evolutionary ecology such as mate choice and speciation. PMID:22113031

Stevens, Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D.

2012-01-01

235

GEO Label Web Services for Dynamic and Effective Communication of Geospatial Metadata Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present demonstrations of the GEO label Web services and their integration into a prototype extension of the GEOSS portal (http://scgeoviqua.sapienzaconsulting.com/web/guest/geo_home), the GMU portal (http://gis.csiss.gmu.edu/GADMFS/) and a GeoNetwork catalog application (http://uncertdata.aston.ac.uk:8080/geonetwork/srv/eng/main.home). The GEO label is designed to communicate, and facilitate interrogation of, geospatial quality information with a view to supporting efficient and effective dataset selection on the basis of quality, trustworthiness and fitness for use. The GEO label which we propose was developed and evaluated according to a user-centred design (UCD) approach in order to maximise the likelihood of user acceptance once deployed. The resulting label is dynamically generated from producer metadata in ISO or FDGC format, and incorporates user feedback on dataset usage, ratings and discovered issues, in order to supply a highly informative summary of metadata completeness and quality. The label was easily incorporated into a community portal as part of the GEO Architecture Implementation Programme (AIP-6) and has been successfully integrated into a prototype extension of the GEOSS portal, as well as the popular metadata catalog and editor, GeoNetwork. The design of the GEO label was based on 4 user studies conducted to: (1) elicit initial user requirements; (2) investigate initial user views on the concept of a GEO label and its potential role; (3) evaluate prototype label visualizations; and (4) evaluate and validate physical GEO label prototypes. The results of these studies indicated that users and producers support the concept of a label with drill-down interrogation facility, combining eight geospatial data informational aspects, namely: producer profile, producer comments, lineage information, standards compliance, quality information, user feedback, expert reviews, and citations information. These are delivered as eight facets of a wheel-like label, which are coloured according to metadata availability and are clickable to allow a user to engage with the original metadata and explore specific aspects in more detail. To support this graphical representation and allow for wider deployment architectures we have implemented two Web services, a PHP and a Java implementation, that generate GEO label representations by combining producer metadata (from standard catalogues or other published locations) with structured user feedback. Both services accept encoded URLs of publicly available metadata documents or metadata XML files as HTTP POST and GET requests and apply XPath and XSLT mappings to transform producer and feedback XML documents into clickable SVG GEO label representations. The label and services are underpinned by two XML-based quality models. The first is a producer model that extends ISO 19115 and 19157 to allow fuller citation of reference data, presentation of pixel- and dataset- level statistical quality information, and encoding of 'traceability' information on the lineage of an actual quality assessment. The second is a user quality model (realised as a feedback server and client) which allows reporting and query of ratings, usage reports, citations, comments and other domain knowledge. Both services are Open Source and are available on GitHub at https://github.com/lushv/geolabel-service and https://github.com/52North/GEO-label-java. The functionality of these services can be tested using our GEO label generation demos, available online at http://www.geolabel.net/demo.html and http://geoviqua.dev.52north.org/glbservice/index.jsf.

Lush, Victoria; Nüst, Daniel; Bastin, Lucy; Masó, Joan; Lumsden, Jo

2014-05-01

236

Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events were confirmed by using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and then were further explored for label-free DNA detection at picomolar to micromolar concentrations. We have also observed a strong effect of DNA counterions on the electronic response, thus suggesting a charge-based mechanism of DNA detection using NTNFET devices. Implementation of label-free electronic detection assays using NTNFETs constitutes an important step toward low-cost, low-complexity, highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostics. hemochromatosis | SNP | biosensor

Star, Alexander; Tu, Eugene; Niemann, Joseph; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P.; Joiner, C. Steve; Valcke, Christian

2006-01-01

237

76 FR 55923 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Submission of Warning Plans for Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...under the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act, as amended by the Family Smoking...of the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) when that requirement...warning plans for cigarette packaging and advertising to FDA. Section 204 of the...

2011-09-09

238

74 FR 61512 - Organ-Specific Warnings; Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and Antirheumatic Drug Products for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...labeling informs consumers about the risk of liver injury when using acetaminophen and the...provides some optional wording to clarify the liver injury warning on OTC acetaminophen products...labeling informs consumers about the risk of liver injury when using acetaminophen and...

2009-11-25

239

Warning Signs of Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Jan 12,2015 By themselves, any one sign of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But ... content was last reviewed on 08/20/2012." Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Warning Signs of Heart ...

240

Effects of Labeling on Preschoolers' Explicit False Belief Performance: Outcomes of Cognitive Flexibility or Inhibitory Control?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and…

Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

2012-01-01

241

Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…

Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

2013-01-01

242

Rock Music Gets a Label.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group called Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) has captured the media spotlight with a proposal to have warning labels placed on music albums containing sexually explicit or violent lyrics. Major record companies have agreed to a version of the PMRC's demands for a one-year trial period, beginning in 1986. (RM)

Cutietta, Robert

1986-01-01

243

Bystander effect in tumor cells produced by Iodine-125 labeled human lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the ability of human lymphocytes labeled with DNA-incorporated 125I to exert an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect on co-cultured human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells in vitro. Materials and methods Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated to synthesize DNA in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and labeled with 5-[125I]iodo-2?-deoxyuridine. Human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T cells were co-cultured with the 125I-labeled lymphocytes in various ratios for 5 days and the proliferation of the LS174T cells was assessed. Further, the supernatant media from these co-cultures were: (i) Transferred to LS174T cells and their proliferation measured after 5 days, (ii) used to assess the clonogenic survival of LS174T cells, and (iii) screened for factors that suppress growth. Results A significant reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells was observed when co-cultured either with 125I-labeled lymphocytes (56 ± 3.5%) or the supernatant media (52.5 ± 1.3%) obtained from these co-cultures. Clonogenic survival of LS174T cells grown in the supernatant media corroborated the decrease in tumor cell growth. Conclusion The observed reduction in the proliferation of LS174T cells in presence of 125I-labeled lymphocytes or media obtained from such co-cultures can be attributed to an inhibitory (antiproliferative) bystander effect, probably mediated by factor(s) released from the dying 125I-labeled lymphocytes. PMID:22712702

Mamlouk, Omar; Balagurumoorthy, Pichumani; Wang, Ketai; Adelstein, S. James; Kassis, Amin I.

2013-01-01

244

Volcano's Deadly Warning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site highlights the Nova television program Volcano's Deadly Warning broadcast in November of 2002. In addition to a description of the program, which included information on the eruptions of Galeras and Nevado del Ruiz in Columbia and Popocatepetl in Mexico, the site has four other sections. There is an interactive slide show that includes information about ash, lava flow, lava domes, lava, vents, tephra, calderas, lahars, fissures, dikes, and magmas; a section where one can discover the hidden signatures that volcanologists seek in the noise emanating from a restless volcano; a section where Bernard Chouet of the United States Geological Surveys Volcano Hazard Team describes the mysterious seismic signal he discovered that hints when a volcano might blow; and an interview with Dan Miller of the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program discussing their work with other countries, including the success at Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991.

245

76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions AGENCY: Food and Drug...controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The black box warning mitigates the risk to...

2011-03-23

246

76 FR 82129 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions AGENCY: Food and Drug...controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The black box warning mitigates the risk to...

2011-12-30

247

Directing gaze: the effect of disclaimer labels on women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements.  

PubMed

In an effort to combat the known negative effects of exposure to unrealistic thin ideal images, there is increasing worldwide pressure on fashion, media and advertising industries to disclose when images have been digitally altered. The current study used eye tracking technology to investigate experimentally how digital alteration disclaimer labels impact women's visual attention to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 60 female undergraduate students who viewed four thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a specific more detailed disclaimer. It was established that women did attend to the disclaimers. The nature of the disclaimer had no effect on time spent looking at particular body parts, but did affect the direction of gaze following reading of the disclaimer. This latter effect was found to be greater for women high on trait appearance comparison. Further research is paramount in guiding effective policy around the use of disclaimer labels. PMID:24997284

Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

2014-09-01

248

Quantifying age-related differences in information processing behaviors when viewing prescription drug labels.  

PubMed

Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a significant problem in health care. While effective warnings have the potential to reduce the prevalence of ADEs, little is known about how patients access and use prescription labeling. We investigated the effectiveness of prescription warning labels (PWLs, small, colorful stickers applied at the pharmacy) in conveying warning information to two groups of patients (young adults and those 50+). We evaluated the early stages of information processing by tracking eye movements while participants interacted with prescription vials that had PWLs affixed to them. We later tested participants' recognition memory for the PWLs. During viewing, participants often failed to attend to the PWLs; this effect was more pronounced for older than younger participants. Older participants also performed worse on the subsequent memory test. However, when memory performance was conditionalized on whether or not the participant had fixated the PWL, these age-related differences in memory were no longer significant, suggesting that the difference in memory performance between groups was attributable to differences in attention rather than differences in memory encoding or recall. This is important because older adults are recognized to be at greater risk for ADEs. These data provide a compelling case that understanding consumers' attentive behavior is crucial to developing an effective labeling standard for prescription drugs. PMID:22719955

Sundar, Raghav Prashant; Becker, Mark W; Bello, Nora M; Bix, Laura

2012-01-01

249

The Effect of Labels Only and Labels with Instruction on the Concept Attainment of Educable Mentally Retarded and Normally Developing Boys of School Age. Technical Report No. 301.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined were the effects of verbal labels alone and in combination with two types of instruction on the concept attainment of 80 educable mentally retarded and 80 normal boys of school age matched for mental age. For learning the concept "equilateral triangle" Ss were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatment conditions: verbal…

Gargiulo, Richard Michael

250

The effects of humor and depression labels on reactions to social comments.  

PubMed

Humor is generally considered to facilitate social relationships, whereas depression has been related to difficulties in relationships. This study investigated the effects of labeling social comments as humorous, as well as labeling the presenter of the comments as feeling depressed, on recipients' reactions to these comments. To this end, 350 university students were presented with vignettes describing four styles of comments (i.e., affiliative, self-enhancing, self-defeating, and aggressive) made by a casual acquaintance. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. These conditions varied in terms of whether the four styles of comments were described as humorous or not, and whether the acquaintance making the comments was described as feeling depressed or not. Findings indicated that humor led to more positive reactions. Labeling the acquaintance as depressed led to more negative reactions than when the acquaintance was labeled non-depressed, particularly when the comments were self-defeating. Interestingly, when the acquaintance was described as feeling depressed, affiliative comments made in a humorous fashion led to more positive reactions than did non-humorous affiliative comments. These findings are discussed in terms of the effects of humor and depression on interpersonal interactions. PMID:21501174

Ibarra-Rovillard, M Sol; Kuiper, Nicholas A

2011-10-01

251

Menu Labels Displaying the Kilocalorie Content or the Exercise Equivalent: Effects on Energy Ordered and Consumed in Young Adults.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . Determine the effect of menu labels displaying the energy content of food items or the exercise equivalent on energy ordered and consumed at lunch and energy intake for the remainder of the day in young adults. Design . Subjects were randomized to a menu with no labels (no-labels), menu with kilocalorie labels displaying the energy content of the food items (kcal-labels), or menu with exercise labels displaying the minutes of brisk walking needed to burn the food energy (exercise-labels). Setting . The study was conducted in one dining area located in a metabolic kitchen at the University and another located in a residence occupied by graduate students. Subjects . Of the 300 subjects, 55.7% were female, 77.3% were college students, 88% were white, and 88% were non-Hispanic. Mean body mass index and age were 24.2 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) and 21.9 ± 2.3 years, respectively. Intervention . All menus contained the same food/beverage choices. Subjects ordered and consumed foods/beverages for lunch from the menu to which they were assigned. Subjects were blinded to study purpose. Measures . Energy ordered and consumed at lunch were assessed from the weight of the food ordered and consumed, respectively, and the energy content of the same foods available on the restaurant Web site. Postlunch energy intake was assessed by food recall. Analysis . Analysis of covariance, adjusted for premeal hunger levels and gender, determined the effect of menu type on energy ordered and consumed and postlunch energy intake. Results . Significant menu effect was observed for energy ordered (p = .008) and consumed (p = .04) at lunch. The exercise-labels group ordered significantly (p = .002) less energy (adjusted mean [confidence intervals]: 763 [703, 824] kcal) at lunch, compared to the no-labels group (902 [840, 963] kcal) but not compared to the kcal-labels group (827 [766, 888] kcal). The exercise-labels group also consumed significantly (p = .01) less energy (673 [620, 725] kcal) at lunch, compared to the no-labels group (770 (717, 823) kcal) but not compared to the kcal-labels group (722 [669, 776] kcal). Energy ordered and consumed were not different between kcal-labels and no-labels groups. There was no difference in postlunch energy intake by menu type. Conclusion . The menu with exercise-labels resulted in less energy ordered and consumed and this did not lead to greater energy consumption post lunch, compared to the menu with no-labels in young adults largely made up of normal-weight, non-Hispanic white college students. PMID:24575727

James, Ashlei; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Shah, Meena

2014-02-27

252

Brief report: Labelling effects on the perceived deleterious consequences of pop music listening.  

PubMed

Several correlational studies have supported the claim of conservative protestors that there exists a positive relationship between listening to pop music and adolescent problem behaviours. However, research on the so-called 'prestige effects' has shown that experimental participants' responses to music can be mediated by manipulations of prior information concerning that music. This study investigated whether perceptions of deleterious effects of pop songs on listeners may be attributable to prior labelling of those stimuli as 'problem music'. Eighty undergraduates were played songs that they were told were either suicide-inducing or life-affirming. Subsequent ratings of the songs indicated that those presented as 'suicide-inducing' were perceived as such, whereas presentation of the same songs in a 'life-affirming' frame led to the perception of them as such. These findings indicate that censorship and the subsequent labelling of certain songs as 'problematic' might itself cause these songs to have deleterious effects on listeners. PMID:15925693

North, Adrian C; Hargreaves, David J

2005-06-01

253

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bremer

Greenslade, Diana

254

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Eyre

Greenslade, Diana

255

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM CONDAMINE RIVER TO WARWICK  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the CONDAMINE RIVER TO WARWICK This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding

Greenslade, Diana

256

Pharmaceutical warnings and direct-to-consumer marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing is a multi-billion dollar enterprise in the United States. DTC marketing presents an important scenario for warnings, as it bypasses the traditional receiver of pharmaceutical warnings, the physician, and provides drug risk and benefit information directly to the patient. We examine the published literature on the effects of DTC marketing in the United States and conduct a

S. Rankin Bohmea

257

Warning! Swallowed Magnets Are Dangerous  

MedlinePLUS

Warning! SWALLOWED MAGNETS ARE DANGEROUS Powerful, rare earth (neodymium) magnets are widely available in consumer and industrial products o Desk or ... o If your toddler or child swallows these magnets, immediately call your doctor or go to the ...

258

Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

2006-01-01

259

N-Sulfonyl-?-lactam hapten as an effective labeling reagent for aldolase mAb.  

PubMed

Utilization of chemically programmed antibodies (cpAbs) is regarded to be one of the most efficient methods for the development of therapeutic systems. cpAbs can extend the half-life of programming reagents, activate immune systems via the Fc region of antibodies and achieve universal vaccination by attaching varieties of small, programmed molecules. In the current study, we aimed to develop a novel labeling reagent for the preparation of cpAbs and found that N-sulfonyl-?-lactams (NSBLs) were optimal. NSBL can be synthesized from readily available 4-(bromomethyl)benzenesulfonyl chloride via few simple manipulations and can label the aldolase monoclonal antibody (mAb) 84G3, which could not be labeled effectively by the conventional labeling reagent, N-acyl-?-lactam (NABL). We also demonstrated that the conjugate, which consists of mAb 84G3 and an NSBL bearing a biotin moiety, maintained strong binding activity to streptavidin. In addition, the stability assay of NSBL revealed that NSBLs can tolerate aqueous media without significant decomposition over 24h. PMID:25791455

Inokuma, Tsubasa; Fuller, Roberta P; Barbas, Carlos F

2015-04-15

260

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (P <0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

1982-02-01

261

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

1982-02-01

262

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool.  

PubMed

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM. PMID:7057254

Thakur, M L; Walsh, L J; Zaret, B L; Gottschalk, A

1982-02-01

263

Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

264

[Psychological study of parameter selection for Chinese speech warning].  

PubMed

To study the effects of the parameters of Chinese speech warning on cognitive property, and to obtain the optimal parameters in accordance with cognitive property, experiments of cognitive property for Chinese speech warning was carried out in 20 healthy males. Combining our study on the sensation-reaction time, the optimal parameters in accordance with space ergonomics [correction of ergonormics] and cognitive property were determined: suitable time length of prewarning sound is 0.35 approximately 0.55 s; prewarning interval is 0.3-0.4 s; interval between sentences is 0.3-0.4 s; word number of warning sentence < or = 7. The result can serve as the objective ergonomical basis for the design of Chinese speech warning system in manned space vehicle, and as the evaluation criterion. PMID:11541419

Han, D; Zhou, C; Liu, Y; Zhai, Y

1998-06-01

265

The effect of fluorescent labeling on calcium-induced fusion of fusogenic carrot protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various fluorescent compounds — carboxyfluorescein, scopoletin, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC), rhodamine 123, and rhodamine B ethyl ester — were used to study their effects on calcium-induced fusion of fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. These protoplasts normally fused at a high percentage (50–60%) in response to 10 mM calcium, pH 6.0; however, if cells had been labeled

Kamnoon Kanchanapoom; Wendy F. Boss

1986-01-01

266

27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commission. The Consumer Product Safety Commission has promulgated...require warning labels for products containing certain specified...commodities” generally means products intended for retail sale to an individual for personal or household use. The F.T.C....

2010-04-01

267

27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commission. The Consumer Product Safety Commission has promulgated...require warning labels for products containing certain specified...commodities” generally means products intended for retail sale to an individual for personal or household use. The F.T.C....

2012-04-01

268

27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Commission. The Consumer Product Safety Commission has promulgated...require warning labels for products containing certain specified...commodities” generally means products intended for retail sale to an individual for personal or household use. The F.T.C....

2014-04-01

269

27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commission. The Consumer Product Safety Commission has promulgated...require warning labels for products containing certain specified...commodities” generally means products intended for retail sale to an individual for personal or household use. The F.T.C....

2011-04-01

270

27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commission. The Consumer Product Safety Commission has promulgated...require warning labels for products containing certain specified...commodities” generally means products intended for retail sale to an individual for personal or household use. The F.T.C....

2013-04-01

271

Rooting out institutional corruption to manage inappropriate off-label drug use.  

PubMed

Prescribing drugs for uses that the FDA has not approved - off-label drug use - can sometimes be justified but is typically not supported by substantial evidence of effectiveness. At the root of inappropriate off-label drug use lie perverse incentives for pharmaceutical firms and flawed oversight of prescribing physicians. Typical reform proposals such as increased sanctions for manufacturers might reduce the incidence of unjustified off-label use, but they do not remove the source of the problem. Public policy should address the cause and control the practice. To manage inappropriate off-label drug use, off-label prescriptions must be tracked in order to monitor the risks and benefits and the manufacturers' conduct. Even more important, reimbursement rules should be changed so that manufacturers cannot profit from off-label sales. When off-label sales pass a critical threshold, manufacturers should also be required to pay for independent testing of the safety and effectiveness of off-label drug uses and for the FDA to review the evidence. Manufacturers should also finance, under FDA supervision, programs designed to warn physicians and the public about the risks of off-label drug use. PMID:24088156

Rodwin, Marc A

2013-01-01

272

Experimental evaluation of fog warning system.  

PubMed

Highway safety is a major concern to the public and to transportation professionals, so the number of crashes caused by poor visibility due to fog form an alarming statistic. Drivers respond to poor visibility conditions in different ways: some slow down; others do not. Many drivers simply follow the taillights of the vehicle ahead. Accordingly, hazardous conditions are created in which speeds are both too high for the prevailing conditions and highly variable. Findings are presented from a study of traffic crashes due to fog in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of fog detection and warning system on driver behavior regarding speed and headway. This warning system includes visibility sensors that automatically activate a variable message sign that posts an advisory speed when hazardous conditions due to fog occur. The system was installed on a 2 km section of a two-lane, rural highway. A data set of 36,013 observations from both experimental and control sections at two study sites was collected and analyzed. The data included vehicle speed, volume, and classification; time headway, time of day, and visibility distance. Although the warning system was ineffective in reducing speed variability, mean speed throughout the experimental sections was reduced by about 6.5 kph. This reduction indicates that the warning system appeared to have a positive effect on driver behavior in fog even though the observed mean speeds were still higher than the posted advisory speed. From relationships found in the literature between mean driving speed and number of crashes, a speed reduction of only 5 kph would yield a 15% decrease in the number of crashes. PMID:17920827

Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

2007-11-01

273

Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical contamination would be useful. Based on the individual biomarker results’ contributing towards the distinct groupings it is possible to conclude that Site 1 is subjected to organic pollutants, whereas Sites 2 and 3 undergo a combination of metallic and organic pollutant stress. However, it is essential that a rapid and sensitive biomarker that is representative of the responses of a suite of biomarkers be tested before ABM can be implemented as a routine biomonitoring practice in water resource management.

Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

274

Tsunami Early Warning: Introducing single frequency GPS receiver into the Tsunami Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M. Ramatschi (1), C. Falck (1), M. Bartsch (1), A. Merx (1), J. Hoeberechts (1), G. Schmidt (1) Abstract After the disastrous tsunami event in Sumatra in 2004 the German government initiated the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) which was inaugurated in 2008 and is now known as the Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia (INA-TEWS). Within GITEWS, some new technologies were introduced into the Tsunami early warning, such as geodetic dual frequency GNSS receiver, which are installed on open sea buoys, coastal tide gauges and inland reference stations. This technology is able to support tsunami early warning systems, e.g., by detection of ground motions due to earthquakes. The major drawback of this sensor type is its high expense. Under certain circumstances cost effective single frequency receiver could achieve the same quality, as long as the network topology allows a precise data processing. In our presentation we will review the GNSS part of GITEWS to demonstrate the integration of the newly designed, low power single frequency GPS sensor station with respect to the real-time data flow and the precise near real-time data processing. Technical aspects of data transmission will be addressed as well. Benefits of a small GPS sensor array located next to the Sumatra trench will be discussed in detail. (1) GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 17, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany

Ramatschi, M.; Falck, C.

2009-12-01

275

Effect of histocompatibility factors on pulmonary retention of indium-111-labeled granulocytes  

SciTech Connect

Granulocyte transfusions are associated with a number of side effects including febrile transfusion reactions and occasionally pulmonary infiltrates. There is evidence that the presence of preformed antibodies may be a cause of these complications. In this study, allogeneic 111Indium-labeled granulocytes were used to evaluate the pulmonary retention of radioactivity in alloimmunized and non-alloimmunized patients in an attempt to assess antibody effect on granulocyte migration. After injection of labeled allogeneic granulocytes into neutropenic patients, the ratios of lung to heart activity were calculated for the first 30 min of scanning. There was significantly greater retention of radioactivity from cells in the lungs of patients who were alloimmunized, having both lymphocytotoxic (anti-HLA) and leuko-agglutinating antibodies, compared to the activity in the lungs of non-alloimmunized patients (P less than .001) or of patients receiving autologous granulocytes (P less than .001). This study demonstrates that labeled, mismatched granulocytes may be retained in the lungs for a significantly longer time in patients with preformed antibodies. This implies that transfusion of large numbers of such mismatched granulocytes, i.e., granulocyte transfusions, may also be retained in the lungs of alloimmunized patients, which could lead to pulmonary compromise. Therefore, granulocyte transfusions from random donors should not be given to alloimmunized patients.

Dutcher, J.P.; Riggs, C. Jr.; Fox, J.J.; Johnston, G.S.; Norris, D.; Wiernik, P.H.; Schiffer, C.A. (Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (USA))

1990-04-01

276

The use of the effective dose equivalent, HE, for 99mTc labelled radiopharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

Using the concept of effective dose equivalent, HE, it is shown that a knowledge of the detailed biodistribution data in most organs and tissues taking up 99mTc labelled radiopharmaceuticals is unnecessary for the calculation of radiation risk. Reasonably precise dosimetry (+/- 25%) can be obtained from urine excretion data alone providing there is no significant uptake within the gonads or the thyroid. Special attention should only be paid to absorbed dose measurements in red bone marrow, skin, lungs, gonads and thyroid, with the greatest attention directed toward the retention and dosimetric aspects of radioactivity in the latter two organs. An example HE calculation for 99mTc labelled d,1-HMPAO is presented to illustrate the importance of these specific five organs to radiation risk. PMID:2753049

Huda, W; Sandison, G A

1989-01-01

277

99m-Technetium-labelled peptide-HYNIC conjugates: effects of lipophilicity and stability on biodistribution.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of lipophilicity and stability on the biodistribution of 99mTc labelled peptides through the use of different co-ligands. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was coupled to the somatostatin analogue RC160 and radiolabelled using a range of ethylendiaminediacetic acid (EDDA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) derivatives as well as tricine and pyridine/tricine as co-ligands. After labelling with technetium-99m, chromatographic, stability, protein-binding, and rat biodistribution studies were performed. For most co-ligands, biodistribution correlated well with in vitro properties. Lipophilic substitution on EDDA resulted in higher protein binding, increased liver uptake, and intestinal excretion. Stabilisation of tricine with pyridines reduced blood levels and lowered liver uptake. EDTA derivatives showed high instability in vitro and in vivo. PMID:10382842

Decristoforo, C; Mather, S J

1999-05-01

278

Two-step OFFGEL approach for effective peptide separation compatible with iTRAQ labeling.  

PubMed

Shotgun proteomic analyses are increasingly becoming methods of choice for complex samples. The development of effective methods for fractionating peptides to reduce the complexity of the sample before mass analysis is a key point in this strategy. The OFFGEL technology has recently become a tool of choice in proteomic analysis at peptide level. This OFFGEL electrophoresis (OGE) approach allows the in-solution separation of peptides from various biological sources by isoelectric focusing in highly resolved 24 fractions. It was also demonstrated that OGE technology is a filtering tool for pI-based validation of peptide identification. As peptide OGE is compatible with iTRAQ labeling, OGE is finding valuable applications in quantitative proteomics as well. The aim of this study is to explain a new 2D-OGE approach that improves the proteomic coverage of complex mixtures such as colorectal cell line lysates, and which is compatible with iTRAQ labeling. PMID:24115339

Rideau, Alexis; Besson, Damien; Boissard, Alice; Coqueret, Olivier; Guette, Catherine

2013-11-01

279

forthcoming in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics Effects of the Private-Label Invasion in Food Industries  

E-print Network

forthcoming in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics Effects of the Private-Label Invasion, supermarket Michael B. Ward, Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and member of the Giannini Foundation, University

Perloff, Jeffrey M.

280

Forecasting Length of Time before Tsunami Warning or Advisory Cancellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) is to evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of large offshore earthquakes and to provide advance warning of tsunamis to coastal communities, emergency managers, and government officials. A Tsunami Warning is issued if the earthquake's magnitude exceeds a specific threshold level, and the epicenter is located within a region that could potentially generate a tsunami. Once a Warning has been disseminated, scientists at the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) begin to monitor tide gauges and DART buoys. This sea level information is then used to calibrate forecast models that compute the probable tsunami wave amplitudes at various locations along the coast. The observed sea level data, along with arrival time and coastal amplitude forecasts, are distributed to the appropriate government agencies. During a major event, the WCATWC will issue Warning or Advisory messages at frequency of 1 to 2 per hour. In addition, conference calls are conducted with State Emergency Managers every 1- 2 hours to provide emergency managers more detailed information and an estimate of the time that the Warning or Advisory will remain in effect Estimating the length of time the Warning and Advisory would stay in effect proved difficult during the 2011 Japan Tsunami Warning. To address the problem, WCATWC developed a technique to estimate the time when the tsunami levels will fall below the Warning or Advisory thresholds. In many harbors along Alaska and the West Coast of North America the tsunami envelope will decay exponentially after the arrival of the maximum value. To estimate the time it will take before wave heights drop below Advisory levels the real time data is first filtered to remove the effects of tidal variations. A series of peaks occurring past the tsunami envelope peak are used to obtain a least squares fit to an exponential function. This method yields a decay constant which may be used to calculate the time that the wave height will fall below the advisory threshold of 0.3 meters. For example when this technique was applied to the Tohoku tsunami at Adak, Alaska, an accurate estimate of the time to the cancelation could be made 9.0 hours before the actual cancelation. Unfortunately, not all harbors demonstrate a uniform exponential decay. For these cases a series of exponential decay curves beginning at the envelope peak are superimposed on the real time tide data. An analyst can then monitor the sea level data and, with aid of the decay curves, obtain an estimated cancelation time for the event. This information may then be given to emergency managers during subsequent conference calls to assist with long range planning.

Nyland, D. L.; Huang, P.

2011-12-01

281

Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. The first users of the early warning signal will be the Istanbul gas company (IGDAS) and the metro line using the immersed tube tunnel (MARMARAY). Other prospective users are power plants and power distribution systems, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, petroleum facilities and high-rise buildings. In this study, different algorithms based on PGA, CAV and various definitions of instrumental intensity will be discussed and triggering threshold levels of these parameters will be studied. More complex algorithms based on artificial neural networks (ANN) can also be used [Boese et al., 2003]. ANN approach considers the problem of earthquake early-warning as a pattern recognition task. The seismic patterns can be defined by the shape and frequency content of the parts of accelerograms that are available at each time step. ANN can extract the engineering parameters PGA, CAV and instrumental intensity from these patterns, and map them to any location in the surrounded area. Boese M., Erdik, M., Wenzel, F. (2003), Artificial Neural Networks for Earthquake Early Warning, Proceedings AGU2003 Abstracts, S42B-0155

Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

2007-12-01

282

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required...

2012-04-01

283

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required...

2014-04-01

284

21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required Warnings...obtained from the electronic images contained in “Cigarette Required...

2013-04-01

285

33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section; (2) Can be seen from the shore and the...

2014-07-01

286

Characterizing the pigment composition of a variable warning signal of Parasemia plantaginis larvae  

E-print Network

, suggesting that warning signal expression may be constrained by opposing selection pressures. If effective). Therefore, predator psychology and its relationship to the effectiveness of warning signals have gained. Author Received: No. of pages: 8 PE: Ulagammal *Correspondence author. E-mail: carita.lindstedt@jyu.fi Ã?

Giron, David - Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, Université François Rabelais

287

Ab initio g-tensor calculations of hydrogen bond effects on a nitroxide spin label  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen bonding effects on the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) g-tensor of a nitroxide spin label was investigated by quantum chemical calculations. The restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (ROHF) linear response method with the atomic mean field approximation (AMFI) was used in the calculations. The results show that hydrogen bonding reduces the g-tensor component directed along the NO bond, gxx. This decrease is traced to higher excitation energy and lower spin-orbit coupling and angular momentum matrix elements for the n-? * excitation. The calculations show that the g-tensor is practically invariable when hydrogen bonding was modeled with methanol instead of water.

Engström, Maria; Owenius, Rikard; Vahtras, Olav

2001-04-01

288

Effect of tumor mass and antigenic nature on the biodistribution of labeled monoclonal antibodies in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tumor mass and antigenic nature on the biodistribution of 111In- and 125I-labeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) was studied using F(ab')2 fragments of three representative anti-tumor MoAbs and SW1116 human colorectal carcinoma grown in nude mice. The 19-9, F33-104 anti-CEA, and 17-1A MoAbs showed specific binding to SW1116 cells. The former two MoAbs recognize circulating CA 19-9 with molecular

Yuji Watanabe; Keigo Endo; Mitsuru Koizumi; Yasutaka Kawamura; Tsuneo Saga; Harumi Sakahara; Masahide Kuroki; Yuji Matsuoka; Junji Konishi

1989-01-01

289

GITEWS -- The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is the implementation of an effective Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean. It is a component part of an Early Warning System that will also be capable of registering other natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The system integrates terrestrial observation networks of seismology und geodesy with marine measurements techniques and satellite observations. The required R & D work will be realized within the framework of a stage-plan, which will, within a short time span of 1-3 years, be able to provide effective warning on the one hand and, which will also allow for an integration of technological developments, currently undergoing further research. The initiative is coordinated by the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (HGF), represented by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ). In view of the geological situation one has to bear in mind that Indonesia especially, due to the fact that the main islands are located next to and above the Sunda seismogenic zone, could most frequently and most intensively in the future be prone to catastrophic Tsunami events. The envisaged Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean consists of different components as broadband seismometers, GPS, tide gauges, ocean-bottom pressure sensors and GPS-Buoys. On the basis of the data and recordings registered a warning can be generated. This presentation gives insight into the creation of the 26 December 2004 Tsunami, introduces the planned technical realization of the Early Warning System, shows first model scenarios and gives an overview of the planned realization of an Early Warning System in the Indian Ocean. http://www.gfz-potsdam.de

Lauterjung, J.; Rudloff, A.

2005-12-01

290

Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.  

PubMed

In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. PMID:24503332

Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

2014-05-01

291

People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and their immediate response on how to act in case of emergency. Hence early warning systems have to be regarded in the context of an integrated and holistic risk management. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures include people-centred, timely and understandable warning. Further responsible authorities have to be identified in advance and standards for risk communication have to be established. Up to now, hazard and risk assessment for geohazards focuses on the development of inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. But often, especially in Europe, there are no institutional structures for managing geohazards and in addition there is a lack of an authority that is legally obliged to alarm on landslides at national or regional level. One of the main characteristics within the warning process for natural hazards e.g. in Germany is the split of responsibility between scientific authorities (wissenschaftliche Fachbehörde) and enforcement authorities (Vollzugsbehörde). The scientific authority provides the experts who define the methods and measures for monitoring and evaluate the hazard level. The main focus is the acquisition and evaluation of data and subsequently the distribution of information. The enforcement authority issues official warnings about dangerous natural phenomena. Hence the information chain in the context of early warning ranges over two different institutions, the forecast service and the warning service. But there doesn't exist a framework for warning processes in terms of landslides as yet. The concept for managing natural disasters is often reduced to hazard assessment and emergency response. Great importance is attached to the scientific understanding of hazards and protective structures, while analysis of socio-economic impacts and risk assessment are not considered enough. The reduction of vulnerability has to be taken into greater account. Also the information needs of different stakeholders have to be identified at an early stage and should be integrated in the development of early warning systems. The content of the warning message must be simple, understandable and should cover instructions on how to react. Further the timeliness of the messages has to be guarented. In this context the aim of the landslide monitoring and early warning system SLEWS (Sensor Based Landslide Early Warning System) is to integrate the above mentioned aspects of a holistic disaster and risk management. The technology of spatial data infrastructures and web services provides the use of multiple communication channels within an early warning system. Thus people-centred early warning messages and information about slope stability can be sent in nearly real-time. It has to be underlined that the technological information process is just one element of an effective warning system. Moreover the warning system has also to be considered as a social system and has to make allowance to socio-economic and gender aspects : «[...] Develop early warning systems that are people centered, in particular systems whose warnings are timely and understandable to those at risk, which take into account the demographic, gender, cultural and livelihood characteristics of the target audiences, including guidance on how to act upon warnings, and that support effective operations by disaster managers and other decision makers » (Hyogo Framework, 2005) References : UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION SECRETARIAT (UNISDR) (2006): Developing early warning systems: a checklist, Third international conference on early warning (EWC III): from concept to action: 27-29 March 2006, Bonn, Germany. Geneva, Switzerland: International Strate

Haß, S.; Asch, K.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Arnhardt, C.

2009-04-01

292

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government,  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Don River at Bowen, Feb 1999 Contained

Greenslade, Diana

293

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government,  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MARY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Gympie during the Feb 1999 flood Photograph

Greenslade, Diana

294

NWS HotSeat: Weather Warning Decision Simulator (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online simulations, published by the National Weather Service (NWS), place students in the role of weather forecasters who must decide whether and to whom to issue severe weather warnings. They observe archived remote imagery from actual events along with severe weather reports and damage survey photographs to approximate the feel of issuing actual severe weather warnings, and decide which counties and cities must recieve the warnings. The simulations can be used in the form of a game, in which participants receive a score for leadtime, minutes in effect, and type of warning.

295

How reaction to cigarette packet health warnings influence quitting: Findings from the ITC Four Country survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine prospectively the impact of health warnings on quitting activity. Design Five waves (2002–2006) of a cohort survey where reactions to health warnings at one survey wave are used to predict cessation activity at the next wave, controlling for country (proxy for warning differences) and other factors. These analyses were replicated on four wave-to-wave transitions. Setting and participants Smokers from Australia, Canada, the UK and USA. Samples were Waves 1–2: n=6525; Waves 2–3: n=5257; Waves 3–4:n=4439; and Waves 4–5: n=3993. Measures Warning salience, cognitive responses (thoughts of harm and of quitting), forgoing of cigarettes and avoidance of warnings were examined as predictors of quit attempts, and of quitting success among those who tried (1 month sustained abstinence), replicated across four wave-to-wave transitions. Results All four responses to warnings were independently predictive of quitting activity in bivariate analyses. In multivariate analyses, forgoing cigarettes and cognitive responses to the warnings both prospectively predicted making quit attempts in all replications. However, avoiding warnings did not consistently add predictive value, and there was no consistent pattern for warning salience. There were no interactions by country. Some, but not all, of the effects were mediated by quitting intentions. There were no consistent effects on quit success. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence that forgoing cigarettes as a result of noticing warnings and quit-related cognitive reactions to warnings are consistent prospective predictors of making quit attempts. This work strengthens the evidence base for governments to go beyond the FCTC to mandate health warnings on tobacco products that stimulate the highest possible levels of these reactions. PMID:19215595

Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Wilson, Nick; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Michael Cummings, K.; Hosking, Warwick; McNeill, Ann

2015-01-01

296

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The reprinted position statement warns that Earth has a limited capacity to provide for the human race. If we want to avoid our own demise, we urgently need to: clean up our air and land, better manage our water and forestry resources, protect endangered and threatened species, avoid human overpopulation, and help developing nations create environmental policies.

Union of Concerned Scientists (Union of Concerned Scientists; )

1992-11-01

297

Vantage point - Early warning flaws.  

PubMed

USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment. PMID:25167111

Swinden, Donna

2014-08-28

298

Is More Better? — Night Vision Enhancement System’s Pedestrian Warning Modes and Older Drivers  

PubMed Central

Pedestrian fatalities as a result of vehicle collisions are much more likely to happen at night than during day time. Poor visibility due to darkness is believed to be one of the causes for the higher vehicle collision rate at night. Existing studies have shown that night vision enhancement systems (NVES) may improve recognition distance, but may increase drivers’ workload. The use of automatic warnings (AW) may help minimize workload, improve performance, and increase safety. In this study, we used a driving simulator to examine performance differences of a NVES with six different configurations of warning cues, including: visual, auditory, tactile, auditory and visual, tactile and visual, and no warning. Older drivers between the ages of 65 and 74 participated in the study. An analysis based on the distance to pedestrian threat at the onset of braking response revealed that tactile and auditory warnings performed the best, while visual warnings performed the worst. When tactile or auditory warnings were presented in combination with visual warning, their effectiveness decreased. This result demonstrated that, contrary to general sense regarding warning systems, multi-modal warnings involving visual cues degraded the effectiveness of NVES for older drivers. PMID:21050616

Brown, Timothy; He, Yefei; Roe, Cheryl; Schnell, Thomas

2010-01-01

299

Earthquake Early Warning: Tools for System Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful earthquake early warning requires a fast, reliable network of seismic stations and a fast, accurate analysis algorithm to produce useful warnings in a timely manner. Developers and operators of earthquake early warning systems must constantly assess the health of their network and the performance of their algorithms. Hardware and telemetry of the seismic network are evaluated based on station

I. Lim; R. M. Allen; H. Brown; M. Hellweg; D. S. Neuhauser; O. Khainovsky

2010-01-01

300

Rapid magnitude determination for earthquake early warning  

E-print Network

The goal of an earthquake early warning system is to provide notification of ground shaking hazard before significant ground motion is felt. An operational system requires four components: (1) seismic network infrastructure, (2) rapid event characterization, (3) spatial hazard prediction, and (4) a notification system to warn of hazard. Here I present an overview of such an early warning system

unknown authors

301

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MULGRAVE AND RUSSELL RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MULGRAVE AND RUSSELL RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mulgrave and Russell Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

302

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Ross, Bohle and Black Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

303

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Macintyre and Weir Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

304

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Pine and Caboolture Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

305

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Tully-Murray Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

306

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Logan and Albert Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

307

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burrum and Cherwell Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

308

Expert-Recommended Warnings for Medical Marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many U.S. states. At present there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings,

John M. Malouff; Sally E. Rooke

2013-01-01

309

The Warning Decision Support System Integrated Information  

E-print Network

The Warning Decision Support System ­ Integrated Information Valliappa Lakshmanan1,2 , Travis Smith #12;Abstract The Warning Decision Support System ­ Integrated Information (WDSS-II) is the second Warning Decision Support System -- Integrated Information}, journal = {Weather and Forecasting}, year

Lakshmanan, Valliappa

310

Labeling with Indium-111 has detrimental effects on human lymphocytes: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

When lymphocytes from human peripheral blood were labeled with In-111 oxinate, several of their properties appeared to be affected. The spontaneous release of the radionuclide was found to be relatively high. Labeled lymphocytes showed a decreased proliferative capacity, dependent on the dose of the label. Cytogenetic studies revealed that In-111 oxinate induces severe chromosomal aberrations. These results emphasize the need for great caution in the use of the In-111 label for studies on lymphocyte traffic in humans.

ten Berge, R.J.M.; (Central Lab. of the Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Amsterdam); Natarajan, A.T.; Hardeman, M.R.; van Royen, E.A.; Schellekens, P.T.A.

1983-07-01

311

Radar-based rainfall thresholds for debris flow warning: A review of opportunities, effect of estimation uncertainties, and assessment of key challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing availability of weather radar precipitation products provides new opportunities to improve upon existing methods for debris flow warning. The aim of this work is to examine how different characteristics of precipitation products, derived either from raingauges or from weather radar, may impact on the identification and use of precipitation thresholds that are used for debris flow warning. Precipitation exhibits space and time variability at all scales leading to high uncertainty in raingauge-based rain estimation. One distinct feature of the precipitation estimation problem for raingauge-based threshold relationship identification and use, is that the triggering precipitation to be estimated at the debris flow location exceeds an actual threshold which is likely not to be exceeded at the measuring raingauges. Recent results has shown that these characteristics may lead to biased precipitation threshold identification and low warning efficiency. Weather radar monitoring represent an interesting alternative for precipitation threshold identification, overcoming the sampling problem of point measurements. However, despite long-standing efforts, radar derived estimates are still affected by considerable uncertainties, particularly in the rough topography terrain typical of debris flows. It is therefore important to understand how uncertainties due to either rainfall sampling (typical of raingauges) or to rainfall estimation (typical of weather radar) propagates through the precipitation threshold identification methodology. Results are presented for a set of 10 high intensity debris-flow triggering storms that impacted the Southern Tyrol Region (Eastern Italian Alps) during the last decade. The region is characterized by rough orography, with elevation ranging from 300 to 4000 m asl, and it is monitored by a raingauge network with an average density of 1/70 km2 and a well calibrated and maintained C-band Doppler radar. High quality radar rainfall estimations are obtained taking into account both vertical (VPR) and radial (attenuation, screening) sources of error, and are adjusted with raingauges to provide reference rainfall estimates at the ground. Radar- and raingauge- based precipitation thresholds are identified and are compared, showing that a bias arises when using raingauge measurements for threshold assessment. The bias is related to the spatial variability characteristics of the considered storms and to the relative geometry of raingauges and debris flows. Even though the weather radar estimation uncertainty also impact the precipitation threshold identification methodology, no bias is reported for this last case. This provides a basis to identify opportunities in the use of radar-based estimates for debris flow warning in alpine regions. Key challenges are also identified, including the requirement for high quality, high resolution radar-based precipitation reanalyses and problems in areas with mixed or poor radar-coverage.

Marra, F.; Nikolopoulos, E.; Borga, M.; Creutin, J. D.

2013-12-01

312

Effects of the electrode size and modification protocol on a label-free electrochemical biosensor.  

PubMed

In the present work, the effect of a surface modification protocol along with the electrode size has been investigated for developing an efficient, label-free electrochemical biosensing method for diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) biomarkers. A microdisk electrode array (MDEA) and a macroelectrode with a comb structure (MECS) were modified with an anti-GFAP (GFAP = glial fibrillary acidic protein) antibody using two protocols for optimum and label-free detection of GFAP, a promising acute-phase TBI biomarker. For the MDEA, an array of six microdisks with a 100 ?m diameter and, for the MECS, a 3.2 mm × 5.5 mm electrode 5 ?m wide with 10 ?m spaced comb fingers were modified using an optimized protocol for dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (DSP) self-assembled monolayer formation. Anti-GFAP was covalently bound, and the remaining free DSP groups were blocked using ethanolamine (Ea). Sensors were exposed to solutions with different GFAP concentrations, and a label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to determine the concentration. EIS results confirmed that both types of Ea/anti-GFAP/DSP/Au electrodes modified with an optimized DSP-based protocol can accurately detect GFAP in the range of 1 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1 pg mL(-1). However, the cross-use of the MDEA protocol on the MECS and vice versa resulted in very low sensitivity or poor signal resolution, underscoring the importance of proper matching of the electrode size and type and the surface modification protocol. PMID:23651210

Arya, Sunil K; Pui, Tze Sian; Wong, Chee Chung; Kumar, Sai; Rahman, Abdur Rub Abdur

2013-06-01

313

[Ergonomical study on Chinese speech warning].  

PubMed

Ergonomical experiments on speech warning under noise background were carried out in 40 healthy males, aged 20-33. Through the determination of auditory reaction time to the Chinese speech warning under dual-tasks and the subjective evalution of the suitable time length of main warning voice by the subject, the optimum parameters of Chinese speech warning in accordance with space ergonomics were determined. It was found that: suitable time length of main warning voice is 0.35-0.55s, main interval is 0.15-0.35s, speech speed is 4-6 word/s, and sentence interval is 0.2-0.4s. Meanwhile, the analysis of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) demonstrated that the speech warning using aforementioned parameters didn't increase the operator's work load. The results can serve as the objective ergonomical basis and the evaluation criterion for design of speech warning in manned space vehicle. PMID:11541261

Han, D; Zhou, C; Liu, Y; Zhai, Y

1998-02-01

314

Design of Early Warning Indicator System for Enterprise Logistics Risks Based on Balanced Scorecard  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recognition of the necessity for effectively preventing and minimizing enterprise logistics risks, this paper seeks to propose an early warning indicators system (EWIS) for enterprise logistics risks based on the balanced scorecard (BSC) in order to maximize the possibilities of desired performance. This paper is the first attempt to apply the BSC framework on the early warning indicators

Liu Yongsheng; Ji Li

2010-01-01

315

Developing warning and disaster response capacity in the tourism sector in coastal Washington, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There has been a considerable effort over the last decade to increase awareness of the tsunami risk in coastal Washington, USA. However, contemporary research on warning systems spawned by the recent Indian Ocean tsunami tragedy highlights the need for development of an effective tsunami warning system for both residents and transient populations, including visitors and tourists. This study

David Johnston; Julia Becker; Chris Gregg; Bruce Houghton; Douglas Paton; Graham Leonard; Ruth Garside

2007-01-01

316

The Emotional Impact and Ease of Recall of Warning Signs for Suicide: A Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of concerns about potential iatrogenic effects of information about suicide, in the current study we examined the emotional impact of reading a list of warning signs for suicide in comparison to comparable lists for heart attacks and diabetes. All participants read two sets of warning signs, with the experimental group reading the suicide…

Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Berman, Alan L.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Hollar, Daniel

2006-01-01

317

Food labeling  

MedlinePLUS

Nutrition labeling ... made, those nutrients must be listed on the nutrition label. Percent daily value: The amounts of vitamins ... listed as a Percent Daily Value on the nutrition label. The Percent Daily Value for vitamins and ...

318

Licorice abuse: time to send a warning message  

PubMed Central

Licorice extract has always been recognized as a sweetener and a thirst quencher. Its nutritive value is overrated by many who consume significant amounts and are prone to complications. Glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite in licorice, inhibits the enzyme 11-ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme type 2 with a resultant cortisol-induced mineralocorticoid effect and the tendency towards the elevation of sodium and reduction of potassium levels. This aldosterone-like action is the fundamental basis for understanding its health benefits and the wide spectrum of adverse effects. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of licorice along with the reported complications related to excess intake. Despite its apparent use in a few clinical scenarios, the daily consumption of licorice is never justified because its benefits are minor compared to the adverse outcomes of chronic consumption. The review highlights the importance of investigating the dietary habits and herbal remedies which are being used worldwide on cultural and habitual bases rather than reliable scientific evidence. Licorice is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food supplement used in many products without precise regulations to prevent toxicity. Increased awareness among the public is required through TV commercials, newspapers, internet sites, magazines and product labels regarding the upper limit of ingestion and health hazards associated with excess intake. We hope that this review will serve as a warning message that should be transmitted from physicians to patients to avoid excessive licorice intake as well as a message to the FDA to start regulating the use of this substance. PMID:23185686

Komarova, Irina; El-Ghonemi, Mohamed; Fathy, Ahmed; Rashad, Rania; Abdelmalak, Hany D.; Yerramadha, Muralidhar Reddy; Ali, Yaseen; Helal, Engy; Camporesi, Enrico M.

2012-01-01

319

Direct in vivo characterization of delta 5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: Effect of insulin  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DHLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) was compared in normal subjects and diabetic patients before and after treatment with insulin. The kinetics of the incorporation of deuterium-labeled DHLA and its conversion product, deuterium-labeled AA, was determined in plasma triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, and platelet lipids of subjects after ingestion of 2 g of the labeled precursor. Analysis was performed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using multiple ion detection. In normal subjects, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration rose to 24 to 69 mg/L in plasma triglycerides four to nine hours after ingestion and to 20 to 34 mg/L in plasma phospholipids about four hours later. Deuterium-labeled AA appeared at 12 hours, rose to 2.4 to 3.8 mg/L between 48 and 72 hours in plasma phospholipids, but remained at the limit of detection in plasma triglycerides and was undetectable in platelet lipids. In diabetic patients both before and after insulin treatment, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration in plasma triglycerides and in plasma phospholipids followed the same pattern as in normal subjects. However, the deuterium-labeled arachidonic acid concentration was below 1 mg/L in plasma phospholipids before insulin. After insulin treatment the patients recovered normal DHLA metabolism because deuterium-labeled AA rose in phospholipids to a mean value of 3.5 mg/L, which is in the same range as that observed in normal subjects (3.2 mg/L). The present data provide direct evidence for the conversion of DHLA into AA in humans. The effect of insulin and the data from the literature of animal studies suggest insulin dependence of delta 5 desaturase in humans.

el Boustani, S.; Causse, J.E.; Descomps, B.; Monnier, L.; Mendy, F.; Crastes de Paulet, A.

1989-04-01

320

Effect of the label of oligosaccharide acceptors on the kinetic parameters of nasturtium seed xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET).  

PubMed

Fluorescently labeled derivatives of a xyloglucan (XG) nonasaccharide Glc(4)Xyl(3)Gal(2) (XLLG) were used as glycosyl acceptors in assays of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) from germinated nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) seeds. We have investigated how the type of the oligosaccharide label influences the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The fluorescent probes used to label XLLG were anthranilic acid (AA), 8-aminonaphtalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (ANTS), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and sulforhodamine (SR), respectively. The obtained data were compared with those of the reactions where aldose and/or alditol forms of tritium-labeled xyloglucan-derived nonasaccharide served as the respective acceptors. Modification at C-1 of the reducing-end glucose in XLLG by substitution with the fluorophore markedly affected the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The Michaelis constants K(m) for individual acceptors increased in the order [1-(3)H]XLLGXLLG-SR>XLLG-ANTS>[1-(3)H]XLLGol>[1-(3)H]XLLG>XLLG-AA. Catalytic efficiency (expressed as k(cat)/K(m)) with XLLG labeled with SR or FITC was 15 and 28 times, respectively, higher than with the tritium-labeled natural substrate [1-(3)H]XLLG. Comparison of the kinetic parameters found with acceptors labeled with different types of labels enables to select the most effective substrates for the high-throughput assays of XET. PMID:21146161

Kosík, Ond?ej; Garajová, So?a; Matulová, Mária; Rehulka, Pavel; Stratilová, Eva; Farkaš, Vladimír

2011-02-01

321

Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan is located in one of the most tectonically active region in the world. We have suffered from many disasters brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. Significant efforts to mitigate disasters have been made as one of the most important national programs. Considering the difficulty of the earthquake prediction in time, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) considers it is important to issue the early warning immediately when the large earthquake occurs. JMA has been developing the "Earthquake Early Warning(EEW)" as a countermeasure to strong motion. JMA's EEW estimates hypocenter and magnitude using initial seismic waveform observed at the stations close to the epicenter, and issues estimated seismic intensity before the strong motion arrival. It also enables prompter issuance of the tsunami warning. We adopt a step-by-step method to improve the accuracy and reliance of the estimated focal parameters as the available data increases as the time lapse, ensuring the promptness of the first estimation at the same time. We estimate the hypocenter using Single Station Method and Network Method. Single Station Method is fitting simple function (Bt*exp(-At)) to the absolute value of acceleration waveform envelope of the first two seconds from the P onset by the cooperative study with Railway Technical Research Institute(RTRI). Network Method is using "territory" and "grid search" in combination. In addition to this procedure, we use the result of "Not Yet Arrived Data Method", a kind of grid search method, from June 2005. This method is developed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention(NIED). After the hypocenter is determined, we estimate the magnitude by using hypocentral distance and maximum displacement amplitudes (Dmax) updated every second and the formula is as follows: M = log (Dmax) + logR + a1*R + a2 (R: Hypocentral distance (km)) We can calculate each site of Seismic Intensity estimation by using up-to-date hypocenter and magnitude in addition. JMA has started test distribution of EEW in Feb. 2004 to specific users to fieldtest the effectiveness of the warning, for the events that occur in the region where JMA has integrated data processing functions at the seismic stations. EEW issued 245 times from Feb. 25th 2004 to Aug 31st 2005 (including 22 times of false alarm almost due to initial artificial mistakes). We will discuss the detail of EEW distribution at the session.

Kiyomoto, M.; Tsukada, S.; Ohtake, K.; Shiozu, Y.; Morimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Sekita, Y.; Doi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Odaka, T.; Ashiya, K.; Horiuchi, S.

2005-12-01

322

Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only) were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Results Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. Conclusion More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias. PMID:18950529

Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A

2008-01-01

323

Human factors research problems in electronic voice warning system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The speech messages issued by voice warning systems must be carefully designed in accordance with general principles of human decision making processes, human speech comprehension, and the conditions in which the warnings can occur. The operator's effectiveness must not be degraded by messages that are either inappropriate or difficult to comprehend. Important experimental variables include message content, linguistic redundancy, signal/noise ratio, interference with concurrent tasks, and listener expectations generated by the pragmatic or real world context in which the messages are presented.

Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

1975-01-01

324

Effect of Labeling with Iron Oxide Particles or Nanodiamonds on the Functionality of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (?0.9 µm) fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green) superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles); and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ?0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo. PMID:23301012

Blaber, Sinead P.; Hill, Cameron J.; Webster, Rebecca A.; Say, Jana M.; Brown, Louise J.; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vesey, Graham; Herbert, Benjamin Ross

2013-01-01

325

Effect of labeling with iron oxide particles or nanodiamonds on the functionality of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (~0.9 µm) fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green) superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles); and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ~0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo. PMID:23301012

Blaber, Sinead P; Hill, Cameron J; Webster, Rebecca A; Say, Jana M; Brown, Louise J; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vesey, Graham; Herbert, Benjamin Ross

2013-01-01

326

Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals.  

PubMed

In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested. PMID:23220355

Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

2013-03-01

327

Effect of HSA coated iron oxide labeling on human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are known for self-renewal and differentiation into cells of various lineages like bone, cartilage and fat. They have been used in biomedical applications to treat degenerative disorders. However, to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells, there is a requirement of sensitive non-invasive imaging techniques which will offer the ability to track transplanted cells, bio-distribution, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have analyzed the efficacy of human serum albumin coated iron oxide nanoparticles (HSA-IONPs) on the differentiation of hUC-MSCs. The colloidal stability of the HSA-IONPs was tested over a long period of time (?20 months) and the optimized concentration of HSA-IONPs for labeling the stem cells was 60 ?g ml?1. Detailed in vitro assays have been performed to ascertain the effect of the nanoparticles (NPs) on stem cells. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay showed minimum release of LDH depicting the least disruptions in cellular membrane. At the same time, mitochondrial impairment of the cells was also not observed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry analysis revealed lesser generation of reactive oxygen species in HSA-IONPs labeled hUC-MSCs in comparison to bare and commercial IONPs. Transmission electron microscopy showed endocytic engulfment of the NPs by the hUC-MSCs. During the process, the gross morphologies of the actin cytoskeleton were found to be intact as shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Also, the engulfment of the HSA-IONPs did not show any detrimental effect on the differentiation potential of the stem cells into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, thereby confirming that the inherent properties of stem cells were maintained.

Sanganeria, Purva; Chandra, Sudeshna; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Khanna, Aparna

2015-03-01

328

Real-Time Evolutionary Earthquake Location for Seismic Early Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective early-warning system must provide probabilistic estimates of the location and size of a potentially destructive earthquake within a few seconds after the event is first detected. In this work we present an evolutionary, real-time location technique based on an equal differential time (EDT) formulation and a probabilistic approach for describing the hypocenter estimation. The algorithm, at each timestep,

Claudio Satriano; Anthony Lomax; Aldo Zollo

2008-01-01

329

The speeding of voluntary reaction by a warning signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warning signals can shorten reaction time (RT) via either a top-down mechanism, temporal attention, or a bottom-up one, phasic arousal. The goal of this review article is to identify the locus at which these processes influence RT. Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence indicate that the chronometric locus for both modulatory effects lies mainly within a narrow window at the center of

Steven A. Hackley

2009-01-01

330

Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to potentially affected groups, and how mitigation strategies can be taken in response. This paper presents an outline of the protocol that was developed in the DEWFORA project, outlining the complementary roles of science, policy and societal uptake in effective drought forecasting and warning. A consensus on the need to emphasise the social component of early warning was reached when testing the DEWFORA early warning system protocol among experts from 18 countries.

Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

2014-05-01

331

The warning glove - development and evaluation of a multimodal action-specific warning prototype.  

PubMed

This paper has two objectives: first, to introduce the concept of multimodal action-specific warnings and its prototypic realization in the form of a warning glove and second, to present the main findings of a user study that was conducted to test the warning glove against a conventional warning system. Regarding the first goal, the combination of multimodality and action-specificity was implemented by attaching electronic actuators on a right-handed glove for transmitting visual, auditory and tactile feedback. For the second objective, a user study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the warning glove is capable of obtaining faster responses and to determine the perceptions of the users regarding the appropriateness of the warning glove. The results confirmed the assumption of faster response times and participants perceived the warning glove to be 'fairly appropriate'. These results warrant further development of this multimodal action-specific warning glove. PMID:24119868

Schmuntzsch, Ulrike; Sturm, Christine; Roetting, Matthias

2014-09-01

332

Effects of Categorical Labels on Similarity Judgments: A Critical Analysis of Similarity-Based Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our goal in the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children's judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked…

Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

2012-01-01

333

Women's Relationship to Feminism: Effects of Generation and Feminist Self-Labeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative importance to feminism of generation and feminist self-labeling was explored in a sample of 667 women riding buses to a 1992 March on Washington for Reproductive Rights. Specifically, generational (Generation X vs. Baby Boomers) and feminist self-labeling (strong feminists vs. weak feminists vs. nonfeminists) similarities and…

Duncan, Lauren E.

2010-01-01

334

Self-labeling and its effects among adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

While youths are increasingly diagnosed with serious psychiatric disorders, little is known about how they conceptualize their own problems or the impact of mental illness labels on their psychological well-being. These are matters of great concern because of the potential vulnerability of young people to stigma as well as the fact that fear of labels or anticipation of stigma are

Tally Moses

2009-01-01

335

A Tracer Dose of Technetium99m ^ Labeled Liposomes Can Estimate the Effect of Hyperthermia on Intratumoral Doxil Extravasation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: A noninvasive method to monitor intratumoral Doxil delivery in individual patients during targeted tumor therapy is important to predict treatment response. The purpose of this study was to determine if a small tracer dose of technetium-99m (99mTc) ^ labeled liposomes could be used to quantify the effect of local hyperthermia on intratumoral Doxil extravasation. Experimental Design: Experiments were carried

Miriam M. Kleiter; Daohai Yu; Lenore A. Mohammadian; Nelsen Niehaus; Ivan Spasojevic; Linda Sanders; Benjamin L. Viglianti; Pavel S. Yarmolenko; Marlene Hauck; Neil A. Petry; Terence Z. Wong; Donald E. Thrall

2006-01-01

336

Inserting GM Products into the Food Chain: The Market and Welfare Effects of Different Labeling and Regulatory Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine the system-wide effects of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products with and without labeling and to compare these two regimes to a third regime where GM products are not present either because they have not yet been developed or because they have been banned. For each regime, the decisions and welfare

Murray Fulton; Konstantinos Giannakas

2004-01-01

337

Same Faces, Different Labels: Generating the Cross-Race Effect in Face Memory with Social Category Information  

PubMed Central

Recognition of own-race faces is superior to recognition of other-race faces. In the present experiments, we explore the role of top-down social information in the encoding and recognition of racially ambiguous faces. Hispanic and African-American participants studied and were tested on computer-generated, ambiguous-race faces (composed of 50% Hispanic and 50% African-American features; MacLin & Malpass, 2001). In Experiment 1, faces were randomly assigned to two study blocks. In each block, a group label was provided that indicated that those faces belonged to African-American or to Hispanic individuals. Both participant groups exhibited superior memory for faces studied in the block with the own-race label. In Experiment 2, faces were studied in a single block with no labels, but tested in two blocks in which labels were provided. Recognition performance was not influenced by the labeled race at test. Taken together, these results confirm the claim that purely top-down information can yield the well documented cross-race effect in recognition, and additionally suggest that the bias takes place at encoding rather than testing. PMID:23546969

Hourihan, Kathleen L.; Fraundorf, Scott H.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

2013-01-01

338

A Personal Storm Warning Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although lightning detection systems operated by government agencies, utilities and other businesses provide storm warnings, this information often does not reach the public until some time after the observations have been made. A low-cost personal lightning detector offers a significant safety advantage to private flyers, boaters, golfers and others. Developed by Airborne Research Associates, the detectors originated in Space Shuttle tests of an optical lightning detection technique. The commercial device is pointed toward a cloud to detect invisible intracloud lightning by sensing subtle changes in light presence. The majority of the sales have been to golf courses. Additional products and more advanced applications are in progress.

1994-01-01

339

Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

Bivens, Courtland C. (inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (inventor); Lee, Burnett (inventor)

1994-01-01

340

FLOOD WARNING This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Commonwealth Bureau of  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING in QUEENSLAND This brochure describes the flood warning system operated for managing and responding to flood disasters to understand the flood warning system. More details are given in flood at Surat, Queensland. January 1996. Photo courtesy of Wimera Aviation. Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

341

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2011-01-01

342

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2010-01-01

343

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2013-01-01

344

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2012-01-01

345

9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...C. or stated as not over 45 °F. or 7 °C. (5) Full instructions for the proper use of the product, including vaccination schedules, warnings, cautions, and the like: Provided, That in the case of very small final container labels or...

2014-01-01

346

Contraceptive sponge patient insert warns of TSS.  

PubMed

The Today contraceptive sponge patient insert is being revised to reflect concerns about the possible relationship between toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and the vaginal contraceptive sponge. The sponge was first marketed over-the-counter in June 1983. It is made of polyurethane impregnated with the spermicide nonoxynol-9 and is intended to provide 24 hours of contraception. At the time of approval, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required a patient insert containing a warning that clinical trials had not been large enough to assess the risk of TSS, and that users should seek medical care if they developed the listed symptoms of TSS. In February 1984, 4 cases of confirmed TSS were reported to be associated with sponge use. Of these, 2 occurred in women who had difficulty removing the product, 1 occurred in a woman 37 days postpartum, and 1 occurred in a woman who had left the sponge in place for 5 days. All were nonmenstruating white women, 20-29 years of age. As of July 1, 1984 there had been 4 additional confirmed nonmenstruating cases of TSS with the contraceptive sponge. The manufacturer of the sponge, VLI Corporation, added a warning in February on the outside packaging and in the patient insert. It advises the user to consult her physician or clinic immediately if she experiences 2 or more of the warning signs of TSS, to remove the sponge within the specified time limit, and to consult one's physician or clinic before using this product after childbirth, miscarriage, or abortion. The data should be regarded as preliminary, but the rate of TSS in nonmenstruating women using the contraceptive sponge is estimated to be less than that in menstruating women using tampons but more than the background rate for nonmenstruating women. TSS patients should be managed as those suffering from other forms of shock. Large volumes of fluid and supportive care should be used as needed. A vaginal examination should be performed with removal of any tampon or vaginal contraceptive. There is no evidence that antibiotics are effective in treating active TSS cases, but beta-lactamase-resistant antistaphylococcal antibiotics seem to be effective in preventing recurrences. PMID:6479516

1984-08-01

347

A Comparison of Tactile, Visual, and Auditory Warnings for Rear-End Collision Prevention in Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of rear-end collision warnings presented in different sensory modalities as a function of warning timing in a driving simulator. Background: The proliferation of in-vehicle information and entertainment systems threatens driver attention and may increase the risk of rear-end collisions. Collision warning systems have been shown to improve inattentive and\\/or distracted driver response time (RT)

J. J. Scott; Robert Gray

2008-01-01

348

Systematic ranging and late warning asteroid impacts  

E-print Network

We describe systematic ranging, an orbit determination technique especially suitable to assess the near-term Earth impact hazard posed by newly discovered asteroids. For these late warning cases, the time interval covered by the observations is generally short, perhaps a few hours or even less, which leads to severe degeneracies in the orbit estimation process. The systematic ranging approach gets around these degeneracies by performing a raster scan in the poorly-constrained space of topocentric range and range rate, while the plane of sky position and motion are directly tied to the recorded observations. This scan allows us to identify regions corresponding to collision solutions, as well as potential impact times and locations. From the probability distribution of the observation errors, we obtain a probability distribution in the orbital space and then estimate the probability of an Earth impact. We show how this technique is effective for a number of examples, including 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA, the only tw...

Farnocchia, D; Micheli, M

2015-01-01

349

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. ...specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

2014-04-01

350

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. ...specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

2012-04-01

351

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. ...specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

2013-04-01

352

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. ...specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

2011-04-01

353

21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201...Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. ...specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

2010-04-01

354

A National Implementation Panel for Detectable Warnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes meetings by a panel of travel, access, and public transit professionals to discuss detectable warning systems (devices to notify individuals with visual impairments of hazards along their path of travel). Recommendations of the panel for universal design standards and educating communities about detectable warning systems are…

Joffee, E.

1996-01-01

355

Forward collision warning with a single camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large number of rear end collisions due to driver inattention has been identified as a major automotive safety issue. Even a short advance warning can significantly reduce the number and severity of the collisions. This paper describes a vision based forward collision warning (FCW) system for highway safety. The algorithm described in this paper computes time to contact (TTC)

Erez Dagan; Ofer Mano; Gideon P. Stein; Amnon Shashua

2004-01-01

356

Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that

Jan A. Zysko

2002-01-01

357

Urban Flood Warning Systems using Radar Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been an increasing number of urban areas that rely on weather radars to provide accurate precipitation information for flood warning purposes. As non-structural tools, radar-based flood warning systems can provide accurate and timely warnings to the public and private entities in urban areas that are prone to flash floods. The wider spatial and temporal coverage from radar increases flood warning lead-time when compared to rain and stream gages alone. The Third Generation Rice and Texas Medical Center (TMC) Flood Alert System (FAS3) has been delivering warning information with 2 to 3 hours of lead time and a R2 value of 93% to facility personnel in a readily understood format for more than 50 events in the past 15 years. The current FAS utilizes NEXRAD Level II radar rainfall data coupled with a real-time hydrologic model (RTHEC-1) to deliver warning information. The system has a user-friendly dashboard to provide rainfall maps, Google Maps based inundation maps, hydrologic predictions, and real-time monitoring at the bayou. This paper will evaluate its reliable performance during the recent events occurring in 2012 and 2013 and the development of a similar radar-based flood warning system for the City of Sugar Land, Texas. Having a significant role in the communication of flood information, FAS marks an important step towards the establishment of an operational and reliable flood warning system for flood-prone urban areas.

Fang, N.; Bedient, P. B.

2013-12-01

358

Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?  

PubMed

Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984-1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response. PMID:22745628

Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

2012-01-01

359

Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.  

PubMed

As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

2004-01-01

360

Label-free field-effect-based single-molecule detection of DNA hybridization kinetics  

PubMed Central

Probing biomolecules at the single-molecule level can provide useful information about molecular interactions, kinetics and motions that is usually hidden in ensemble measurements. Techniques with improved sensitivity and time resolution are required to explore fast biomolecular dynamics. Here, we report the first observation of DNA hybridization at the single-molecule level using a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. By covalently attaching a single-stranded probe DNA sequence to a point defect in a carbon nanotube, we are able to measure two-level fluctuations in the nanotube conductance due to reversible hybridizing and melting of a complementary DNA target. The kinetics are studied as a function of temperature, allowing the measurement of rate constants, melting curves and activation energies for different sequences and target concentrations. The kinetics show non-Arrhenius behavior, in agreement with DNA hybridization experiments using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. This technique is label-free and has the potential for studying single-molecule dynamics at sub-microsecond time-scales. PMID:21258331

Sorgenfrei, Sebastian; Chiu, Chien-yang; Gonzalez, Ruben L.; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin; Shepard, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

361

Scientific and public responses to the ongoing volcanic crisis at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico: Importance of an effective hazards-warning system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic eruptions and other potentially hazardous natural phenomena occur independently of any human actions. However, such phenomena can cause disasters when a society fails to foresee the hazardous manifestations and adopt adequate measures to reduce its vulnerability. One of the causes of such a failure is the lack of a consistent perception of the changing hazards posed by an ongoing eruption, i.e., with members of the scientific community, the Civil Protection authorities and the general public having diverging notions about what is occurring and what may happen. The problem of attaining a perception of risk as uniform as possible in a population measured in millions during an evolving eruption requires searching for communication tools that can describe—as simply as possible—the relations between the level of threat posed by the volcano, and the level of response of the authorities and the public. The hazards-warning system adopted at Popocatépetl Volcano, called the Volcanic Traffic Light Alert System(VTLAS), is a basic communications protocol that translates volcano threat into seven levels of preparedness for the emergency-management authorities, but only three levels of alert for the public (color coded green–yellow–red). The changing status of the volcano threat is represented as the most likely scenarios according to the opinions of an official scientific committee analyzing all available data. The implementation of the VTLAS was intended to reduce the possibility of ambiguous interpretations of intermediate levels by the endangered population. Although the VTLAS is imperfect and has not solved all problems involved in mass communication and decision-making during a volcanic crisis, it marks a significant advance in the management of volcanic crises in Mexico.

de la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Tilling, Robert I.

2008-01-01

362

Scientific and public responses to the ongoing volcanic crisis at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico: Importance of an effective hazards-warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions and other potentially hazardous natural phenomena occur independently of any human actions. However, such phenomena can cause disasters when a society fails to foresee the hazardous manifestations and adopt adequate measures to reduce its vulnerability. One of the causes of such a failure is the lack of a consistent perception of the changing hazards posed by an ongoing eruption, i.e., with members of the scientific community, the Civil Protection authorities and the general public having diverging notions about what is occurring and what may happen. The problem of attaining a perception of risk as uniform as possible in a population measured in millions during an evolving eruption requires searching for communication tools that can describe—as simply as possible—the relations between the level of threat posed by the volcano, and the level of response of the authorities and the public. The hazards-warning system adopted at Popocatépetl Volcano, called the Volcanic Traffic Light Alert System (VTLAS), is a basic communications protocol that translates volcano threat into seven levels of preparedness for the emergency-management authorities, but only three levels of alert for the public (color coded green-yellow-red). The changing status of the volcano threat is represented as the most likely scenarios according to the opinions of an official scientific committee analyzing all available data. The implementation of the VTLAS was intended to reduce the possibility of ambiguous interpretations of intermediate levels by the endangered population. Although the VTLAS is imperfect and has not solved all problems involved in mass communication and decision-making during a volcanic crisis, it marks a significant advance in the management of volcanic crises in Mexico.

De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Tilling, Robert I.

2008-02-01

363

Tsunami Modeling, Forecast and Warning (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami is an infrequent natural hazard; however, once it happens, the effects are devastating and can be on global scale, as demonstrated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Deterministic modeling of tsunami generation, propagation and coastal behavior has become popular, at least for earthquake tsunamis. Once the earthquake parameters are specified, tsunami arrival times, heights and current velocity at specific coastal points, and inland inundation area can be estimated. Such modeling has been used to make hazard maps usually by assuming largest possible earthquakes. However, smaller tsunamis than such a worst-case scenario occur more frequently. If the hazard maps are used incorrectly, it may lose reliability of coastal residents. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments, similar to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, have been made for some coasts. The output is tsunami hazard curves, i.e. annual probability (or return period) for specified coastal tsunami heights. A hazard curve is obtained by integration over the aleatory uncertainties, and a large number of hazard curves are made for each branch of logic tress representing epistemic uncertainty. Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis is used for design of critical facilities but not popularly used for disaster mitigation. Tsunami warning systems, which have been significantly developed since 2004, rely on seismic and sea-level monitoring and pre-made numerical simulation. Real-time data assimilation of offshore sea level measurements can be used to update the warning levels. Tsunami from the February 2010 Chilean earthquake was recorded on many tide gauges and ocean bottom pressure gauges in the Pacific, before it arrived on the Japanese coast about 22 hours after the earthquake. The tsunami height was up to 2 m on the Japanese coast, causing fishery damage amounting 60 million US dollars, but did not cause any human damage.

Satake, K.

2010-12-01

364

Graphic gambling warnings: how they affect emotions, cognitive responses and attitude change.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the effects of graphic warnings related to excessive gambling. It is based upon a theoretical model derived from both the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). We focus on video lottery terminal (VLT), one of the most hazardous format in the gaming industry. Our cohort consisted of 103 actual gamblers who reported previous gambling activity on VLT's on a regular basis. We assess the effectiveness of graphic warnings vs. text-only warnings and the effectiveness of two major arguments (i.e., family vs. financial disruption). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test the direct and combined effects of two variables (i.e., warning content and presence vs. absence of a graphic). It was found that the presence of a graphic enhances both cognitive appraisal and fear, and has positive effects on the Depth of Information Processing. In addition, graphic content combined with family disruptions is more effective for changing attitudes and complying with the warning than other combinations of the manipulated variables. It is proposed that ELM and PMT complement each other to explain the effects of warnings. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22648580

Muñoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Borges, Adilson

2013-09-01

365

Economics of Food Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal intervention in food labeling is often proposed with the aim of achieving a social goal such as improving human health and safety, mitigating environmental hazards, averting international trade disputes, or supporting domestic agricultural and food manufacturing industries. Economic theory suggests, however, that mandatory food-labeling requirements are best suited to alleviating problems of asymmetric information and are rarely effective in

Elise Golan; Fred Kuchler; Lorraine Mitchell; Cathy Greene; Amber Jessup

2001-01-01

366

A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform forming the upstream information flow, the DEWS project focused on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Based on these results, TRIDEC continues this task focusing on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data.

Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

2012-04-01

367

The effect of cryoprotection on the use of PLGA encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic cell labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic PLGA nanoparticles are a significant advancement in the quest to translate MRI-based cell tracking to the clinic. The benefits of these types of particles are that they encapsulate large amounts of iron oxide nanocrystals within an FDA-approved polymer matrix, combining the best aspects of inert micron-sized iron oxide particles, or MPIOs, and biodegradable small particles of iron oxide, or SPIOs. Practically, PLGA nanoparticle fabrication and storage requires some form of cryoprotectant to both protect the particle during freeze drying and to promote resuspension. While this is a commonly employed procedure in the fabrication of drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles, it has yet to be investigated for magnetic particles and what effect this might have on internalization of magnetic particles. As such, in this study, magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated with various concentrations of two common cryoprotectants, dextrose and sucrose, and analyzed for their ability to magnetically label cells. It was found that cryoprotection with either sugar significantly enhanced the ability to resuspend nanoparticles without aggregation. Magnetic cell labeling was impacted by sugar concentration, with higher sugar concentrations used during freeze drying more significantly reducing magnetic cell labeling than lower concentrations. These studies suggest that cryoprotection with 1% dextrose is an optimal compromise that preserves monodispersity following resuspension and high magnetic cell labeling.

Tang, Kevin S.; Hashmi, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Erik M.

2013-03-01

368

Tsunami early warning in the central Mediterranean: effect of the heterogeneity of the seismic source on the timely detectability of a tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Mediterranean, and in particular the coasts of southern Italy, is one of the areas with the highest tsunami hazard in Europe. Limiting our attention to earthquake-generated tsunamis, the sources of historical events hitting this region, as well as the largest part of the potential tsunamigenic seismic sources mapped there, are found at very short distances from the closest shorelines, reducing the time needed for the tsunami to attack the coasts themselves to few minutes. This represents by itself an issue from the Tsunami Early Warning (TEW) perspective. To make the overall problem even more intriguing and challenging, it is known that large tsunamigenic earthquakes are generally characterized by highly heterogeneous distributions of the slip on the fault. This feature has been recognized clearly, for instance, in the giant Sumatra 2004, Chile 2010, and Japan 2011 earthquakes (magnitude 9.3, 8.8 and 9.0, respectively), but it was a property also of smaller magnitude events occurred in the region considered in this study, like the 28 December 1908 Messina Straits tsunamigenic earthquake (M=7.2). In terms of tsunami impact, the parent fault slip heterogeneity usually determines a high variability of run-up and inundation on the near-field coasts, which further complicates the TEW problem. The information on the details of the seismic source rupture coming from the seismic (and possibly geodetic) networks, though of primary importance, is typically available after a time that is comparable or larger than the time comprised between the generation and the impact of the tsunami. In the framework of the EU-FP7 TRIDEC Project, we investigate how a proper marine sensors coverage both along the coasts and offshore can help posing constraints on the characteristics of the source in near-real time. Our approach consists in discussing numerical tsunami scenarios in the central Mediterranean involving different slip distributions on the parent fault; the tsunamigenic region we take into consideration is the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment located offshore eastern Sicily, where several large historical tsunamigenic earthquakes took place (e.g. 11 January 1693). Starting from different slip configurations on a chosen fault, we compare the time series of wave elevation simulated for tide gauges placed along the coast and for virtual deep sea sensors placed at different distances from the source area. The final goal is to understand whether a properly designed marine sensor network can help determining in real-time the slip characteristics along the parent fault and hence forecasting the pattern of impact of the tsunami especially along the closest coasts.

Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.

2012-04-01

369

A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Isolated fucoidans from brown marine algae have been shown to have a range of anti-inflammatory effects.\\u000aPurpose: This present study tested a Maritech® extract formulation, containing a blend of extracts from three different species of brown algae, plus nutrients in an open label combined phase I and II pilot scale study to determine both acute safety and efficacy in

Stephen P Myers; Joan OConnor; J Helen Fitton; Lyndon O Brooks; Margaret I Rolfe; Paul A Connellan; Hans Wohlmuth; Phillip A Cheras; Carol A Morris

2010-01-01

370

Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. METHODS: To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast

Lisa J Harnack; Simone A French; J Michael Oakes; Mary T Story; Robert W Jeffery; Sarah A Rydell

2008-01-01

371

Biodistribution of Fluorescently Labeled PAMAM Dendrimers in Neonatal Rabbits: Effect of Neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Dendrimers are being explored in many preclinical studies as drug, gene, and imaging agent delivery systems. Understanding their detailed organ, tissue, cellular uptake, and retention can provide valuable insights into their effectiveness as delivery vehicles and the associated toxicity. This work explores a fluorescence-quantification based assay that enables simultaneous quantitative biodistribution and imaging of dendrimers with a single agent. We have labeled an ethylenediamine-core generation-4 hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer using the fluorescent photostable, near-IR cyanine dye (Cy5) and performed quantitative and qualitative biodistribution of the dendrimer-Cy5 conjugates (D-Cy5) in healthy neonatal rabbits and neonatal rabbits with cerebral palsy (CP). The biodistribution of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 dye was evaluated in newborn rabbits, based on the developed quantification methods using fluorescence spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and supported by microscopic imaging. The uptake was assessed in the brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, blood serum, and urine. Results obtained based on these three independent methods are in good agreement and indicate the fast renal clearance of D-Cy5 and free Cy5 with relatively higher organs accumulation of the D-Cy5 conjugate. Following systemic administration, the D-Cy5 mainly accumulated in kidneys and bladder at 24 h. The quantitative biodistribution is in good agreement with previous studies based on radiolabeling. These methods for dendrimers quantification are easier and more practical, provide excellent sensitivity (reaching 0.1 ng per gram of tissue), and allow for quantification of dendrimers in different organs over longer time periods without concerns for radioactive decay, while also enabling tissue and cellular imaging in the same animal. In kits with fetal-neuroinflammation induced CP, there was a significantly higher uptake of D-Cy5 in the brain, while biodistribution in other organs was similar to that of healthy kits. PMID:24116950

Lesniak, Wojciech G.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Jyoti, Amar; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Zhang, Fan; Nance, Elizabeth; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

2014-01-01

372

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM THOMSON, BARCOO RIVERS AND COOPER CREEK  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the THOMSON, BARCOO RIVERS AND COOPER CREEK This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Thomson Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods

Greenslade, Diana

373

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BRISBANE RIVER BELOW WIVENHOE DAM TO BRISBANE CITY This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during

Greenslade, Diana

374

Labeling Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labeling theory provides a distinctively sociological approach that focuses on the role of social labeling in the development\\u000a of crime and deviance. The theory assumes that although deviant behavior can initially stem from various causes and conditions,\\u000a once individuals have been labeled or defined as deviants, they often face new problems that stem from the reactions of self\\u000a and others

Jón Gunnar Bernburg

375

Laser labeling and its effect on the storage quality of citrus fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Etching the required information on the skins of fruits and vegetables is an alternative way to label produce. A low energy CO2 laser beam etches the outermost layer of the epidermis revealing the contrasting underneath layer while forming alphanumerical characters. These etched areas represent brea...

376

The differential effect of epilepsy labels on employer perceptions: report of a pilot study.  

PubMed

A multimethod pilot study is described in which employers' and human resource professionals' perceptions of three labels used for epilepsy -- epilepsy, seizure disorder, and seizure condition -- were explored. Ninety-three participants were presented with a list of 10 chronic conditions or disabilities, including one of these epilepsy labels, and asked to rank-order the likelihood that a person with each condition would be hired for an assembly/production position. The participants also ranked cover letters from fictional applicants for a customer service representative position. The fictional applicants disclosed their condition using one of the three epilepsy labels. The participants then ranked which applicant would most likely be hired. Participants were also asked whether applicants should disclose their disability in a cover letter. Rasch and chi(2) analyses were used to analyze the results. Findings suggest that epilepsy was more positively perceived than the other two labels. Almost all of the participants stated that applicants should not disclose their disability in a cover letter. The results have important implications for employment seeking and disclosure practices. PMID:17904911

Bishop, Malachy; Stenhoff, Donald M; Bradley, Kelly D; Allen, Chase A

2007-11-01

377

EFFECTS OF ADDITIONAL QUALITY ATTRIBUTES ON CONSUMER WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY FOR FOOD LABELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contingent valuation (CV), choice experiment (CE) and experimental auction (EA) or the combinations of the three methods are often used by researchers to elicit consumer willingness to pay for food attributes (food labels). One concern about using these approaches is that quality attributes of food provided to respondents are assumed independent of other attributes which are not provided to respondents

Zhifeng Gao; Ted C. Schroeder

2007-01-01

378

Effects of laser labeling on the quality of citrus fruit during storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Etching the required information on fruit and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser etches the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for pathogen entry. Studies were conducted to measur...

379

Effects of laser labeling on the quality of tangerines during storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Etching the required information on fruit and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser etches the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for pathogen entry. Studies were conducted to measur...

380

National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Wx Outlooks RSS Feeds E-Mail Alerts Weather Information Storm Reports Exp. Storm Reports NWS Hazards ... Watch/Warning Map National RADAR Product Archive NOAA Weather Radio Research Non-op. Products Forecast Tools Svr. ...

381

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2011-10-01

382

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2014-10-01

383

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2013-10-01

384

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2010-10-01

385

49 CFR 229.113 - Warning notice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.113 Warning notice. Whenever any steam generator has been shut down because of defects...conspicuously attached near the steam generator starting controls until the...

2012-10-01

386

FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims  

MedlinePLUS

... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Search the Consumer Updates Section Researchers hope ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

387

Dog Flu Outbreak Unleashes Warnings from Veterinarians  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dog Flu Outbreak Unleashes Warnings From Veterinarians Pay attention ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- With more than 1,000 dogs sickened by a highly contagious dog flu in ...

388

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

389

Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings  

PubMed Central

Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests that Australian prescribers may have acted in response to scientific evidence or international safety warnings (EMA, FDA), prior to the response of the TGA. Minor effects were observed after bladder cancer warnings on pioglitazone utilisation. PMID:24708579

2014-01-01

390

The coevolution of warning signals.  

PubMed Central

It has long been recognized that defended prey tend to be conspicuous. Current theories suggest that the association ('aposematism') has arisen because predators more readily learn to avoid attacking defended phenotypes when they are conspicuous. In this paper, I consider why such psychology has evolved. In particular, I argue that aposematism may have evolved not because of an independent and pre-existing receiver bias, but because the conspicuousness of a prey item provides a reliable indicator of its likelihood of being defended. To develop my case I consider how warning signals might coevolve in a system containing a number of predators, whose foraging behaviour is also subject to selection. In these cases, models readily show that the greater the conspicuousness of a novel prey item, the more likely that it has been encountered by other predators and survived. As a consequence, naive predators should be less likely to attack highly conspicuous novel prey on encounter, or at least more inclined to attack them cautiously. This adaptive predator behaviour will greatly facilitate the spread of aposematic phenotypes from extreme rarity, which in turn will enhance selection for forms of predator behaviour under which aposematism will coevolve even more readily. PMID:11934367

Sherratt, Thomas N

2002-01-01

391

Bayesian networks for tsunami early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various uncertainties in the earthquake-triggered tsunami threat assessment are difficult to quantify and/or integrate into the tsunami early warning process. Uncertainties in the (seismic) input parameters and the lack of knowledge about the earthquake slip distribution contribute most to the total uncertainty in real-time evaluated tsunami assessment. We present a method how to integrate and quantify these uncertainties in the warning process by evaluating a tsunami warning level probability distribution with a Bayesian network (BN) approach. As soon as an earthquake is detected, the seismic source parameter estimates are evaluated and a probabilistic overview on different tsunami warning levels is provided, feasible to support a decision maker at a warning center with important additional data. A BN system has been developed exemplarily for the region Sumatra. In this paper, we describe the method of BN generation by ancestral sampling, we critically analyse the assumptions made and weight the pro and cons of the BN approach. A case study demonstrates the workflow of the BN system in real-time and reveals the promising power of a BN analysis in the framework of early warning.

Blaser, L.; Ohrnberger, M.; Riggelsen, C.; Babeyko, A.; Scherbaum, F.

2011-06-01

392

Use of warning messages to modify gambling beliefs and behavior in a laboratory investigation.  

PubMed

This laboratory study assessed the effectiveness of warning messages intended to aid in the control of gambling. Participants were 120 undergraduate students from an urban state university who reported previous gambling activity. They were recruited to play a computerized roulette game with imaginary money. Money left at the end of play was exchanged for raffle tickets for a prize drawing. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions. In the warning-message condition, participants received an educational component discussing common irrational beliefs expressed by gamblers and, while playing roulette, viewed brief messages that addressed irrational gambling beliefs. In the control condition, participants received an educational component on the history of roulette but no warning messages. Participants in the warning-message condition reported significantly fewer irrational beliefs and demonstrated less risky gambling behavior than those in the control condition. PMID:16536667

Floyd, Kim; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W

2006-03-01

393

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

PubMed

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

394

Tsunami Early Warning Within Five Minutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis are most destructive at near to regional distances, arriving within 20-30 min after a causative earthquake; effective early warning at these distances requires notification within 15 min or less. The size and impact of a tsunami also depend on sea floor displacement, which is related to the length, L, width, W, mean slip, D, and depth, z, of the earthquake rupture. Currently, the primary seismic discriminant for tsunami potential is the centroid-moment tensor magnitude, M {w/CMT}, representing the product LWD and estimated via an indirect inversion procedure. However, the obtained M {w/CMT} and the implied LWD value vary with rupture depth, earth model, and other factors, and are only available 20-30 min or more after an earthquake. The use of more direct discriminants for tsunami potential could avoid these problems and aid in effective early warning, especially for near to regional distances. Previously, we presented a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using two, simple measurements on P-wave seismograms—the predominant period on velocity records, T d , and the likelihood, T {50/Ex}, that the high-frequency, apparent rupture-duration, T 0, exceeds 50-55 s. We have shown that T d and T 0 are related to the critical rupture parameters L, W, D, and z, and that either of the period-duration products T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex} gives more information on tsunami impact and size than M {w/CMT}, M wp, and other currently used discriminants. These results imply that tsunami potential is not directly related to the product LWD from the "seismic" faulting model, as is assumed with the use of the M {w/CMT} discriminant. Instead, information on rupture length, L, and depth, z, as provided by T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex}, can constrain well the tsunami potential of an earthquake. We introduce here special treatment of the signal around the S arrival at close stations, a modified, real-time, M wpd(RT) magnitude, and other procedures to enable early estimation of event parameters and tsunami discriminants. We show that with real-time data currently available in most regions of tsunami hazard, event locations, m b and M wp magnitudes, and the direct, period-duration discriminant, T d T {50/Ex} can be determined within 5 min after an earthquake occurs, and T 0, T d T 0, and M wpd(RT) within approximately 10 min. This processing is implemented and running continuously in real-time within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it). We also show that the difference m b - log10( T d T 0) forms a rapid discriminant for slow, tsunami earthquakes. The rapid availability of these measurements can aid in faster and more reliable tsunami early warning for near to regional distances.

Lomax, Anthony; Michelini, Alberto

2013-09-01

395

An optical labeling-based proliferation assay system reveals the paracrine effect of interleukin-6 in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Proliferation analysis is one of the basic approaches to characterize various cell types. In conventional cell proliferation assays, the same sample cannot be observed over time, nor can a specific group within a heterogeneous population of cells, for example, cancerous cells, be analyzed separately. To overcome these limitations, we established an optical labeling-based proliferation assay system with the Kaede protein, whose fluorescence can be irreversibly photo converted from green to red by irradiation. After a single non-toxic photoconversion event, the intensity of red fluorescence in each cell is reduced by cell division. From this, we developed a simple method to quantify cell proliferation by monitoring reduction of red fluorescence over time. This study shows that the optical labeling-based proliferation assay is a viable novel method to analyze cell proliferation, and could enhance our understanding of mechanisms regulating cell proliferation machinery. We used this newly established system to analyze the functions of secreted interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cancer cell proliferation, which had not been fully characterized. Reduction in proliferation was observed following IL-6 knockdown. However, after co-culturing with IL-6-expressing cells, the proliferation of Kaede-labeled IL-6-knockdown cells was restored. These data indicate that in basal-like breast cancer cells, IL-6 exhibits a paracrine effect to positively regulate cell proliferation. Our results thus demonstrate that cancer cells can secrete signaling molecules, such as IL-6, to support the proliferation of other cancer cells. PMID:25305574

Itou, Junji; Tanaka, Sunao; Sato, Fumiaki; Akiyama, Ryutaro; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Toi, Masakazu

2015-01-01

396

Do warning calls boost survival of signal recipients? Evidence from a field experiment in a group-living bird species  

PubMed Central

Introduction Warning calls are a widespread anti-predator adaptation, which can signal unprofitability to predators or alert other potential targets of the predator. Although it is tacitly assumed that the recipients of warning calls experience a reduction in predation risk, this crucial assumption remains untested. Here I tested this hypothesis with a field experiment in the group-living Siberian jay, Perisoreus infaustus. I exposed male or female breeding adults that were foraging together with a non-breeder (related or unrelated) to a model of their main predator (goshawk Accipiter gentilis) in autumn. I then recorded the warning call response of breeders as well as the reaction time of non-breeders, and followed the subsequent survival of non-breeders until spring. Results In most experiments (73%), non-breeders were warned by the more experienced breeders. Warning calls almost halved the reaction time of non-breeders during the experiment and influenced the survival of call recipients: non-breeders that were warned had a higher subsequent survival (19 out of 23) than non-breeders that were not warned (2 out of 5). However, neither kinship, group size, the age of the non-breeder, or the habitat structure of the territory had an influence on the survival subsequent to the experiments. Conclusions Since earlier studies showed that breeders are consistent in their warning call investment across different contexts, breeders that did warn non-breeders in the experiment were likely to have done so in subsequent, natural attacks. Consequently non-breeders living with breeders that called had a better chance of surviving predator attacks. Thus, these results suggest that warning calls have the potential to boost the survival of signal recipients, confirming a pivotal, yet hitherto untested assumption of the effect of warning calls. PMID:23941356

2013-01-01

397

Technetium-99m somatostatin analogues: effect of labelling methods and peptide sequence.  

PubMed

In this paper the preclinical evaluation of the somatostatin analogue RC160 labelled with technetium-99m using bifunctional chelators (BFCs) based on the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and N(3)S system is described and a comparison made with [Tyr(3)]-octreotide (TOC). Conjugates of both peptides with HYNIC, and of RC160 with benzoyl-MAG(3) and an N(3)S-adipate derivative were prepared and radiolabelling performed at high specific activities using tricine, tricine/nicotinic acid and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. All conjugates and (99m)Tc-labelled peptides showed preserved binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor (IC50, Kd<5 nM). The biodistribution was markedly dependent on the BFC and co-ligand used, with the amidothiol ligands showing a greater degree of hepatobiliary clearance, the HYNIC/tricine complex higher blood levels and the HYNIC/EDDA complex the highest level of renal excretion and lowest blood levels. All peptide conjugates showed receptor-mediated uptake in tumour xenografts, but tumour uptake was significantly lower for the (99m)Tc-RC160 derivatives compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr(3)]-octreotide (0.2%-3.5%ID/g vs 9.7%ID/g) and correlated well with the reduced internalisation rate for RC160 derivatives. Our results show that the selection of the labelling approach as well as the right choice of the peptide structure are crucial for labelling peptides with (99m)Tc to achieve complexes with favourable biodistribution. Despite the relatively low tumour uptake compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr(3)]-octreotide, (99m)Tc-RC160 could play a role in imaging tumours that do not bind octreotide derivatives. PMID:10436200

Decristoforo, C; Mather, S J

1999-08-01

398

Tsunami Generation Modelling for Early Warning Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre and the Institute of Meteorology in Portugal, a complete analytical tool to support Early Warning Systems is being developed. The tool will be part of the Portuguese National Early Warning System and will be used also in the frame of the UNESCO North Atlantic Section of the Tsunami Early Warning System. The system called Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) includes a worldwide scenario database that has been pre-calculated using the SWAN-JRC code (Annunziato, 2007). This code uses a simplified fault generation mechanism and the hydraulic model is based on the SWAN code (Mader, 1988). In addition to the pre-defined scenario, a system of computers is always ready to start a new calculation whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismic networks (such as USGS or EMSC) and is judged capable to generate a Tsunami. The calculation is performed using minimal parameters (epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake): the programme calculates the rupture length and rupture width by using empirical relationship proposed by Ward (2002). The database calculations, as well the newly generated calculations with the current conditions are therefore available to TAT where the real online analysis is performed. The system allows to analyze also sea level measurements available worldwide in order to compare them and decide if a tsunami is really occurring or not. Although TAT, connected with the scenario database and the online calculation system, is at the moment the only software that can support the tsunami analysis on a global scale, we are convinced that the fault generation mechanism is too simplified to give a correct tsunami prediction. Furthermore short tsunami arrival times especially require a possible earthquake source parameters data on tectonic features of the faults like strike, dip, rake and slip in order to minimize real time uncertainty of rupture parameters. Indeed the earthquake parameters available right after an earthquake are preliminary and could be inaccurate. Determining which earthquake source parameters would affect the initial height and time series of tsunamis will show the sensitivity of the tsunami time series to seismic source details. Therefore a new fault generation model will be adopted, according to the seismotectonics properties of the different regions, and finally included in the calculation scheme. In order to do this, within the collaboration framework of Portuguese authorities, a new model is being defined, starting from the seismic sources in the North Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Cadiz. As earthquakes occurring in North Atlantic and Caribbean sources may affect Portugal mainland, the Azores and Madeira archipelagos also these sources will be included in the analysis. Firstly we have started to examine the geometries of those sources that spawn tsunamis to understand the effect of fault geometry and depths of earthquakes. References: Annunziato, A., 2007. The Tsunami Assesment Modelling System by the Joint Research Center, Science of Tsunami Hazards, Vol. 26, pp. 70-92. Mader, C.L., 1988. Numerical modelling of water waves, University of California Press, Berkeley, California. Ward, S.N., 2002. Tsunamis, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Vol. 17, pp. 175-191, ed. Meyers, R.A., Academic Press.

Annunziato, A.; Matias, L.; Ulutas, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Carrilho, F.

2009-04-01

399

Assessment of flash flood warning procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of four alternate flash flood warning procedures was conducted to ascertain their suitability for forecast operations using radar-rainfall imagery. The procedures include (1) areal mean basin effective rainfall, (2) unit hydrograph, (3) time-area, and (4) 2-D numerical modeling. The Buffalo Creek flash flood of July 12, 1996, was used as a case study for application of each of the procedures. A significant feature of the Buffalo Creek event was a forest fire that occurred a few months before the flood and significantly affected watershed runoff characteristics. Objectives were to assess the applicability of the procedures for watersheds having spatial and temporal scale similarities to Buffalo Creek, to compare their technical characteristics, and to consider forecaster usability. Geographic information system techniques for hydrologic database development and flash flood potential computations are illustrated. Generalizations of the case study results are offered relative to their suitability for flash flood forecasting operations. Although all four methods have relative advantages, their application to the Buffalo Creek event resulted in mixed performance. Failure of any method was due primarily to uncertainties of the land surface response (i.e., burn area imperviousness). Results underscore the need for model calibration; a difficult requirement for real-time forecasting.

Johnson, Lynn E.

2000-01-01

400

Assessment of the warning system against floods on a rural area: the case of the lower Siret River (Romania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of non-structural measures such as an early warning system, across the Europe, in flood risk management, requires a better understanding of the public involved and of the territory threatened. This paper aims to conduct an assessment of early warning and information to people with an analysis of the population's behaviour, presented in a form of an event tree. The objective is to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the warning system during a deadly flood in the lower Siret River (Romania) in 2005 and to demonstrate that each warning system has to be adapted to the territory in which it is effective. The behavioural model aims to determine to what extent the warning system can be improved but also to suggest ways to adapt risk education to the study area.

Salit, F.; Zaharia, L.; Beltrando, G.

2013-02-01

401

The effect of biochar amendment on the soil microbial community - PLFA analyses and 13C labeling results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of biochar amendment on plant growth and on the chemical / physical soil characteristics are well explored but only few studies have investigated the impact on soil microorganisms. The response of the soil microbial community to biochar amendment was investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis in (i) a large scale pot experiment, (ii) a small scale pot experiment using 13C labeled biochar and (iii) an incubation study using 13C labeled biochar. In the large scale pot experiment, three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four different types of biochar were investigated. In total, 25 treatments with 5 replicates each were set up and monitored over a year. The results from the pot experiments showed no significant influence of biochar amendment on the total microbial biomass in the first 100 days after biochar addition. However, discriminant analysis showed a distinction of biochar and control soils as well as a strong effect of the pyrolysis temperature on the microbial composition. The effect of biochar was dependent on the type of soil. In the Planosol, some PLFAs were affected positively, especially when adding biochar with a low pyrolysis temperature, in the first month. In the long term, microbial community composition altered. Growth of fungi and gram negative bacteria was enhanced. In the Chernozem, PLFAs from various microbial groups decreased in the long term. Variability in the incubation study was low. Consequently, many PLFAs were significantly affected by biochar amendment. Again, in the Planosol, gram negative bacteria, actinomycetes and, after 2 weeks, gram positive bacteria increased under biochar amendment whereas in the chernozem total microbial biomass and gram positive bacteria were negatively affected in the long term. The 13C labeling studies confirmed the low degradability of the biochar, i.e. no alteration of the content and the ?13C in the soil organic matter within 100 days, decreased CO2 emission after biochar addition and little 13C signature from the biochar in the respired CO2. The uptake of the labeled biochar into the microbial PLFAs was analysed and will provide an evidence if biochar was used as a carbon source. In addition, the long term effect of biochar amendment (beyond 100 days) on the soil microbial community is currently investigated. These results will be also presented in the oncoming meeting.

Watzinger, A.; Feichtmair, S.; Rempt, F.; Anders, E.; Wimmer, B.; Kitzler, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Horacek, M.; Zehetner, F.; Kloss, S.; Richoz, S.; Soja, G.

2012-04-01

402

A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and capabilities of different dissemination channels such as SMS, email and television, have bearing on the information processing required for delivery and consumption of a DEWS EDXL-DE/CAP message over each dissemination channel. These messages may include additional information in the form of maps, graphs, documents, sensor observations, etc. Therefore, the generated messages are pre-processed by channel adaptors in the information dissemination services converting it into a format that is suitable for end-to-end delivery over the dissemination channels without any semantic distortion. The approach followed by DEWS for disseminating warnings not only relies on traditional communication ways used by the already established early warnings such as the delivery of faxes and phone calls but takes into consideration the use of other broadly used communication channels such as SMS, email, narrowcast and broadcast television, instant messaging, Voice over IP, and radio. It also takes advantage of social media channels like RSS feeds, Facebook, Twitter, etc., enabling a multiplier effect, like in the case of radio and television, and thus allowing to create mash-ups by aggregating other sources of information to the original message. Finally, status information is also important in order to assess and understand whether the process of disseminating the warning to the message consumers has been successfully completed or the process failed at some point of the dissemination chain. To that end, CAP-based messages generated within the information dissemination services provide the semantics for those fields that are of interest within the context of reporting the warning dissemination status in DEWS.

Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

2012-04-01

403

Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that compensates for temperature variations in the signals generated by the pressure transducer. The microprocessor is programmed to generate a warning or alarm if a cabin pressure altitude exceeding a predetermined threshold is detected. Preferably, the microprocessor generates two different types of warning or alarm outputs, a first early warning or alert when a first pressure altitude is exceeded. and a second more serious alarm condition when either a second. higher pressure altitude is exceeded, or when the first pressure altitude has been exceeded for a predetermined period of time. Multiple types of alarm condition indicators are preferably provided, including visual, audible and tactile. The system is also preferably designed to detect gas concentrations and other ambient conditions, and thus incorporates other sensors, such as oxygen, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia sensors, to provide a more complete characterization and monitoring of the local environment.

Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

404

Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that compensates for temperature variations in the signals generated by the pressure transducer. The microprocessor is programmed to generate a warning or alarm if a cabin pressure altitude exceeding a predetermined threshold is detected. Preferably, the microprocessor generates two different types of warning or alarm outputs, a first early warning or alert when a first pressure altitude is exceeded. and a second more serious alarm condition when either a second. higher pressure altitude is exceeded, or when the first pressure altitude has been exceeded for a predetermined period of time. Multiple types of alarm condition indicators are preferably provided, including visual, audible and tactile. The system is also preferably designed to detect gas concentrations and other ambient conditions, and thus incorporates other sensors, such as oxygen, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia sensors, to provide a more complete characterization and monitoring of the local environment.

Zysko, Jan A.

2002-09-01

405

Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen.  

PubMed

Healthier meal selections at restaurants and canteens are often limited and not actively promoted. In this Danish study the effectiveness of a healthy labelling certification program in improving dietary intake and influencing edible plate waste was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study design. Employees from an intervention worksite canteen and a matched control canteen were included in the study at baseline (February 2012), after completing the certification process (end-point) and six month from end-point (follow-up) (total n=270). In order to estimate nutrient composition of the consumed lunch meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (P<0.001). No significant changes were seen with regard to food satisfaction and plate waste. In the control canteen no positive nutritional effects were observed. The results of the study highlight the potential of using healthy labelling certification programs as a possible driver for increasing both the availability and awareness of healthy meal choices, thereby improving dietary intake when eating out. PMID:24373732

Lassen, A D; Beck, A; Leedo, E; Andersen, E W; Christensen, T; Mejborn, H; Thorsen, A V; Tetens, I

2014-04-01

406

Cost–Effective Prediction of Gender-Labeling Errors and Estimation of Gender-Labeling Error Rates in Candidate-Gene Association Studies  

PubMed Central

We describe a statistical approach to predict gender-labeling errors in candidate-gene association studies, when Y-chromosome markers have not been included in the genotyping set. The approach adds value to methods that consider only the heterozygosity of X-chromosome SNPs, by incorporating available information about the intensity of X-chromosome SNPs in candidate genes relative to autosomal SNPs from the same individual. To our knowledge, no published methods formalize a framework in which heterozygosity and relative intensity are simultaneously taken into account. Our method offers the advantage that, in the genotyping set, no additional space is required beyond that already assigned to X-chromosome SNPs in the candidate genes. We also show how the predictions can be used in a two-phase sampling design to estimate the gender-labeling error rates for an entire study, at a fraction of the cost of a conventional design. PMID:22303327

Qu, Conghui; Schuetz, Johanna M.; Min, Jeong Eun; Leach, Stephen; Daley, Denise; Spinelli, John J.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Graham, Jinko

2011-01-01

407

Effectiveness of the Food Guide Pyramid, the Nutrition Facts Food Label, and Work Site Wellness Program in the Task of Making Healthy Food Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the effectiveness of the Food Guide Pyramid, the Nutrition Facts Food Label and work-site Wellness Programs in teaching consumers to make healthy food choices.The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of participation in work-site Wellness Programs and awareness of and knowledge of the Food Guide Pyramid and the Nutrition Facts Food Label to

NT Sheehan; ES Parham

1997-01-01

408

Does Inclusion of a Disclaimer versus Warning Reduce the Effects of Exposure to Thin-Ideal Media Images on Body Dissatisfaction and Intent to Diet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between exposure to media images of ultra-thin models and body dissatisfaction has been documented in numerous correlational and experimental studies. Given the association between body dissatisfaction and negative outcomes such as eating disorders, prevention and intervention programs have sought to minimize the effects of the media on body dissatisfaction by, for example, providing education on the air-brushing techniques

Rheanna Nichole Ata

2012-01-01

409

A survey of early warning technologies  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a survey of technologies useful in providing early warning in physical security systems. Early warning is important in virtually all types of security systems whether they are used for temporary (tactical, portable, or semi-permanent) applications, border warning, fixed-site detection, or standoff surveillance detection. With the exception of the standoff surveillance detection systems, all systems discussed in this paper usually involve a moving target. The fact that a person(s) to be detected in a standoff surveillance scenario is not moving presents challenging problems and requires different applications of technology. The technologies commonly used to detect moving targets and some suggestions for detection of stationary targets are addressed in this paper.

Smith, G.D.; Arlowe, H.D.; Williams, J.D.

1995-07-01

410

Severe weather warnings predict fracture epidemics.  

PubMed

Winter epidemics of fractures have been described that greatly exceed normal seasonal variations and overwhelm resources. We investigated the relationship between severe weather warnings, the frequency of fractures, and fracture related workload. There was a significant increase in fractures with cold and inclement weather, mostly low-energy fractures treated with day-case surgery or in fracture clinics. The number of patients treated as inpatients for fractures did not increase. Hip fractures were not associated with weather. Severe weather warnings for icy roads were predictive of fracture epidemics (p<0.01) with an associated 40% (95% confidence limits 20-52%) increase in fractures. Meteorological Office issued severe weather warnings can provide a trigger to plan for an increased workload of low-energy fractures, with opportunities for anticipatory public health measures. PMID:21295303

Murray, Iain R; Howie, Colin R; Biant, Leela C

2011-07-01

411

Effect of diabetes on in vivo metabolism of (/sup 35/S)-labeled glomerular basement membrane  

SciTech Connect

Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of (/sup 35/S)-sulfate into normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the GBM was determined from the specific activity of (/sup 35/S) after pronase digestion of basement membranes purified from glomeruli isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radiolabeling of both normal and diabetic GBM occurred 24 h after injection and, when corrected for differences in serum sulfate specific activities, was less in diabetic than in normal samples. The specific activity of GBM sulfate, expressed as cpm/microgram uronic acid, progressively diminished over the ensuing period of study in both normal and diabetic samples. The rate of decrease in specific activity of (/sup 35/S)-labeled GBM was not significantly different in diabetic preparations compared with that in normal controls. The findings are compatible with diminished sulfation and/or production but normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans in the renal GBM in experimental diabetes.

Cohen, M.P.; Surma, M.L.

1984-01-01

412

Effects of ancillary ligands on selectivity of protein labeling with platinum(II) chloro complexes  

SciTech Connect

Potassium (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylato)chloroplatinate(II) was synthesized. The molecular structure of the complex in (n-Bu){sub 4}N(Pt(dipic)Cl){center dot}0.5H{sub 2}O was determined by x-ray crystallography. The (Pt(dipic)Cl){sup {minus}} is essentially planar and contains a Pt(II) atom, a tridentate dipicolinate dianion ligand, and a unidentate Cl{sup {minus}} ligand. The bis(bidentate) complex trans-(Pt(dipic){sub 2}){sup 2{minus}} was also observed by {sup 1}H NMR. A red gel-like substance was observed when the yellow aqueous solution of K(Pt(dipic)Cl) was cooled or concentrated. The K(Pt(dipic)Cl) molecules form stacks in the solid state and gel-like substance but remain monomeric over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. The reactivity and selectivity of(Pt(dipic)Cl){sup {minus}} toward cytochromes c from horse and tuna were studied. The new transition-metal reagent is specific for methionine residues. Di(2-pyridyl-{beta}-ethyl)sulfidochloroplatinum(II) chloride dihydrate was also synthesized. This complex labels histidine and methionine residues in cytochrome c. The ancillary ligands in these platinum(II) complexes clearly determine the selectivity of protein labeling. 106 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Zhou, Xia-Ying.

1990-02-01

413

ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in March 2012, initiated by a joint NASA and USDA press release, and followed by a series of training webinars. Almost 60 early-adopter state and federal forest managers attended at least one of the ForWarn rollout webinars. The ForWarn home page has had 2,632 unique visitors since rollout in March 2012, with 39% returning visits. ForWarn was used to map tornado scars from the historic April 27, 2011 tornado outbreak, and detected timber damage within more than a dozen tornado tracks across northern Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. ForWarn is the result of an ongoing, substantive cooperation among four different government agencies: USDA, NASA, USGS, and DOE. Disturbance maps are available on the web through the ForWarn Change Assessment Viewer at http://forwarn.forestthreats.org/fcav.

Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

2012-12-01

414

Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

2009-01-01

415

West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunami warning center for Alaska and the west coast of the United States. Users can access current tsunami information through an interactive map that shows the latest events and information statements. Rolling over the map symbols provides the date and time, location, and preliminary magnitude of earthquakes. Clicking on them provides access to additional information, including a statement of whether a tsunami is expected. There are also links to previous warning messages, Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds with headlines, links to documents and brief information; publications; and links to related sites with additional information.

416

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

SciTech Connect

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

Schiffbauer, William H. (Connellsville, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01

417

Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system  

DOEpatents

A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

1999-08-17

418

Rapid telemetry and earthquake early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is currently testing algorithms for earthquake early warning on the realtime seismic systems in the state. An earthquake warning system rapidly detects the initiation of earthquakes and assesses the associated hazard. The goal is to provide warning of potentially damaging ground motion in a target region prior to the arrival of seismic waves. The network-based approach to early warning requires station data to be gathered at a central site for joint processing. ElarmS, one network-based approach being tested, currently runs 15 sec behind realtime in order to gather ~90% of station data before processing. Even with this delay the recent Mw 5.4 Alum Rock earthquake near San Jose was detected and an accurate hazard assessment was available before ground shaking in San Francisco. The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method, another network-based approach, is a Bayesian method that incorporates information such as network topology, previously observed seismicity, and the Gutenberg-Richter relationship in magnitude and location estimation. The VS method is currently being transitioned from off-line to real-time testing and will soon be running 15 sec behind real-time, as in the case of ElarmS. We are also testing an on-site warning approach, which is based on single-station observations. On-site systems can deliver earthquake information faster than regional systems, and the warning could possibly reach potential users at much closer epicentral distances before the damaging shaking starts. By definition, on-site systems do not require a central processing facility or delivery of data from a distant seismic station, but they are less robust that networked-based systems and need a fast and reliable telemetry to deliver warnings to local users. The range of possible warning times is typically seconds to tens of seconds and every second of data latency translates into an equal reduction in the available warning time. Minimal latency is therefore important to warning systems. Sources of latency range from data packetization in the digitizer system through telemetry systems to processing at the data (warning) center. As part of the ongoing testing in California, we are assessing the data latencies for the various generations of geophysical equipment currently in use, and find that one large source of delay is the packetization of data by dataloggers prior to transmission. We are also assessing delays caused within telemetry systems ranging from satellite connections through radio, frame relay, cell phone data services and publicly available internet services such as DSL. We are investigating ways to reduce the current delays and formulating specifications for the next generation of geophysical networks that will provide realtime data in a robust fashion.

Allen, R.; Bose, M.; Brown, H.; Cua, G.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Heaton, T.; Hellweg, M.; Jordan, T.; Kireev, A.; Maechling, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Solanki, K.; Zeleznik, M.

2008-05-01

419

Watson-Crick Petri net languages: The effect of labeling strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Watson-Crick automaton is an automaton that works on tapes which are double stranded sequences of symbols related by Watson-Crick complementarity that are similar to the DNA molecules. However, this automaton cannot exploit the other fundamental features of DNA molecules such as the massive parallelism. Watson-Crick automata can be related to a model known as the Petri net. Petri net is a model based on the concepts of asynchronous and concurrent operation by the parts of a system and the realization by the parts can be represented by a graph or a net. From the relation between Watson-Crick automata and Petri net, a new model namely Watson-Crick Petri net has been developed. The language generated by Watson-Crick Petri net is a set of labeled sequences corresponding to the occurrence sequences of the model. In this research, some properties of languages generated by Watson-Crick Petri net are investigated.

Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

2014-07-01

420

Carbon Nanostructure-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Label-Free Chemical/Biological Sensors  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structure, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability, carbon nanotube and graphene based electrical devices have been widely developed for high performance label-free chemical/biological sensors. Here, we review the latest developments of carbon nanostructure-based transistor sensors in ultrasensitive detection of chemical/biological entities, such as poisonous gases, nucleic acids, proteins and cells. PMID:22399927

Hu, PingAn; Zhang, Jia; Li, Le; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William; Estrela, Pedro

2010-01-01

421

Integrating automobile multiple intelligent warning systems : performance and policy implications  

E-print Network

Intelligent driver warning systems can be found in many high-end vehicles on the road today, which will likely rapidly increase as they become standard equipment. However, introducing multiple warning systems into vehicles ...

Ho, Angela Wei Ling

2006-01-01

422

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

423

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

424

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

425

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

426

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

427

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

428

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

429

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

430

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

431

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

432

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

433

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

434

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2011-10-01

435

47 CFR 95.653 - Instructions and warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representative of users of those services. (3) Warnings concerning the replacement of any transmitter component (crystal, semiconductor, etc.) that could result in a violation of the rules. (4) For a CMRS transmitter, warnings concerning...

2010-10-01

436

14 CFR 121.354 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01...2012-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...354 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...121.354 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2012-01-01

437

14 CFR 135.154 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01...2011-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...154 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...135.154 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2011-01-01

438

14 CFR 121.354 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01...2011-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...354 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...121.354 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2011-01-01

439

14 CFR 121.354 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01...2014-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...354 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...121.354 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2014-01-01

440

14 CFR 135.154 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01...2012-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...154 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...135.154 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2012-01-01

441

14 CFR 135.154 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01...2014-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...154 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...135.154 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2014-01-01

442

14 CFR 121.354 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01...2013-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...354 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...121.354 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2013-01-01

443

14 CFR 135.154 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01...2013-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...154 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...135.154 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2013-01-01

444

14 CFR 121.354 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01...2010-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...354 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...121.354 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2010-01-01

445

14 CFR 135.154 - Terrain awareness and warning system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01...2010-01-01 false Terrain awareness and warning system...154 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...135.154 Terrain awareness and warning system...an approved terrain situational awareness...

2010-01-01

446

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment...29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a...are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts...

2012-01-01

447

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment...29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a...are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts...

2010-01-01

448

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment...29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a...are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts...

2014-01-01

449

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment...29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a...are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts...

2013-01-01

450

14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment...29.1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a...are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts...

2011-01-01

451

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

452

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

453

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

454

Missile Warning Operations Center (MWOC) Beale Air Force Base, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Missile Warning Operations Center (MWOC) - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

455

Effect of thiazole orange doubly labeled thymidine on DNA duplex formation.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid oligonucleotides are widely used in hybridization experiments for specific detection of complementary nucleic acid sequences. For design and application of oligonucleotides, an understanding of their thermodynamic properties is essential. Recently, exciton-controlled hybridization-sensitive fluorescent oligonucleotides (ECHOs) were developed as uniquely labeled DNA oligomers containing commonly one thymidine having two covalently linked thiazole orange dye moieties. The fluorescent signal of an ECHO is strictly hybridization-controlled, where the dye moieties have to intercalate into double-stranded DNA for signal generation. Here we analyzed the hybridization thermodynamics of ECHO/DNA duplexes, and thermodynamic parameters were obtained from melting curves of 64 ECHO/DNA duplexes measured by ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence. Both methods demonstrated a substantial increase in duplex stability (??G°(37) ~ -2.6 ± 0.7 kcal mol(-1)) compared to that of DNA/DNA duplexes of the same sequence. With the exception of T·G mismatches, this increased stability was mostly unaffected by other mismatches in the position opposite the labeled nucleotide. A nearest neighbor model was constructed for predicting thermodynamic parameters for duplex stability. Evaluation of the nearest neighbor parameters by cross validation tests showed higher predictive reliability for the fluorescence-based than the absorbance-based parameters. Using our experimental data, a tool for predicting the thermodynamics of formation of ECHO/DNA duplexes was developed that is freely available at http://genome.gsc.riken.jp/echo/thermodynamics/. It provides reliable thermodynamic data for using the unique features of ECHOs in fluorescence-based experiments. PMID:22765348

Kimura, Yasumasa; Hanami, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yuki; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Soma, Takahiro; Harbers, Matthias; Lezhava, Alexander; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Usui, Kengo

2012-08-01

456

21 CFR 1141.12 - Incorporation by reference of required warnings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS; (Eff. 9-22-12) Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings...of required warnings. “Cigarette Required Warnings” Edition...June 2011), consisting of electronic files, U.S....

2012-04-01

457

Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets  

PubMed Central

As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established. PMID:24191134

Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhen-Jun

2013-01-01

458

Development of a Patient-Centered Bilingual Prescription Drug Label  

PubMed Central

Research shows that prescription drug labels are often difficult for patients to understand, which contributes to medication errors and nonadherence. In this study, the authors developed and qualitatively evaluated an evidence-based bilingual prescription container label designed to improve understanding. The authors developed several prototypes in English only or in English and Spanish. The labels included an image of the drug, an icon to show its purpose, and plain-language instructions presented in a 4-time-of-day table. In 5 focus groups and interviews that included 57 participants, patients and pharmacists critically reviewed the designs and compared them with traditional medication labels and reformatted labels without illustrations. Patients strongly preferred labels that grouped patient-relevant content, highlighted key information, and included drug indication icons. They also preferred having the 4-time-of-day table and plain-language text instructions as opposed to either one alone. Patients preferred having pertinent warnings on the main label instead of auxiliary labels. Pharmacists and Latino patients valued having Spanish and English instructions on the label, so both parties could understand the content. The final label design adheres to the latest national- and state-level recommendations for label format and incorporates additional improvements on the basis of patient and pharmacist input. This design may serve as a prototype for improving prescription drug labeling. PMID:24093345

Mohan, Arun; Riley, M. Brian; Boyington, Dane; Johnston, Phillip; Trochez, Karen; Jennings, Callie; Mashburn, Jennie; Kripalani, Sunil

2013-01-01

459

Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

1982-09-01

460

The spatial effect of protein deuteration on nitroxide spin-label relaxation: Implications for EPR distance measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) coupled with site-directed spin labeling is a powerful technique for the elucidation of protein or nucleic acid, macromolecular structure and interactions. The intrinsic high sensitivity of electron paramagnetic resonance enables measurement on small quantities of bio-macromolecules, however short relaxation times impose a limit on the sensitivity and size of distances that can be measured using this technique. The persistence of the electron spin-echo, in the PELDOR experiment, is one of the most crucial limitations to distance measurement. At a temperature of around 50 K one of the predominant factors affecting persistence of an echo, and as such, the sensitivity and measurable distance between spin labels, is the electron spin echo dephasing time (Tm). It has become normal practice to use deuterated solvents to extend Tm and recently it has been demonstrated that deuteration of the underlying protein significantly extends Tm. Here we examine the spatial effect of segmental deuteration of the underlying protein, and also explore the concentration and temperature dependence of highly deuterated systems.

El Mkami, Hassane; Ward, Richard; Bowman, Andrew; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Norman, David G.

2014-11-01

461

The spatial effect of protein deuteration on nitroxide spin-label relaxation: Implications for EPR distance measurement  

PubMed Central

Pulsed electron–electron double resonance (PELDOR) coupled with site-directed spin labeling is a powerful technique for the elucidation of protein or nucleic acid, macromolecular structure and interactions. The intrinsic high sensitivity of electron paramagnetic resonance enables measurement on small quantities of bio-macromolecules, however short relaxation times impose a limit on the sensitivity and size of distances that can be measured using this technique. The persistence of the electron spin-echo, in the PELDOR experiment, is one of the most crucial limitations to distance measurement. At a temperature of around 50 K one of the predominant factors affecting persistence of an echo, and as such, the sensitivity and measurable distance between spin labels, is the electron spin echo dephasing time (Tm). It has become normal practice to use deuterated solvents to extend Tm and recently it has been demonstrated that deuteration of the underlying protein significantly extends Tm. Here we examine the spatial effect of segmental deuteration of the underlying protein, and also explore the concentration and temperature dependence of highly deuterated systems. PMID:25310878

El Mkami, Hassane; Ward, Richard; Bowman, Andrew; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Norman, David G.

2014-01-01

462

Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich  

E-print Network

Ocean Warning: Avoid Drowning Mark Heinrich School of EECS University of Central Florida Orlando Ithaca, NY 14853 Email: mainak@csl.cornell.edu Abstract-- Ocean is a popular program from the SPLASH-2 parallel benchmark suite. A complete application, as opposed to a computational kernel, Ocean is often used

Heinrich, Mark

463

Earthquake Early Warning: Tools for System Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful earthquake early warning requires a fast, reliable network of seismic stations and a fast, accurate analysis algorithm to produce useful warnings in a timely manner. Developers and operators of earthquake early warning systems must constantly assess the health of their network and the performance of their algorithms. Hardware and telemetry of the seismic network are evaluated based on station latencies and the numbers of station P-wave triggers. Software and event processing performance can be analyzed by considering the number of successful event detections, of false alarms (alerts generated for nonexistent events), and of missed events (real events for which no alert was generated). Additional parameters for evaluation are the speed of delivery of the alerts and accuracy of magnitude, location and ground shaking estimates. For rapid assessment of system performance, it is useful to provide automatically prepared summaries for review. We present new tools for viewing and assessing performance of the earthquake early warning system from data collection through telemetry to alert delivery in a graphical, intuitive format. The data is collected into a KMZ file for easy viewing in Google Earth. We will show some example of these tools as part of our evaluation of the CISN ShakeAlert system. We will continue to improve automatic procedures for CISN ShakeAlert system.

Lim, I.; Allen, R. M.; Brown, H.; Hellweg, M.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Khainovsky, O.

2010-12-01

464

33 CFR 127.207 - Warning alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...207 Warning alarms. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a rotating or flashing amber light with a minimum...below the horizontal plane. (b) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a siren with a minimum 1/3 -octave band...

2010-07-01

465

Warning signals, receiver psychology and predator memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review identifies four receiver psychology perspectives that are likely to be important in the design and evolution of warning signals. Three of these perspectives (phobia, learning and prey recognition) have been studied in detail, and I include a brief review of recent work. The fourth, a memory perspective, has received little attention and is developed here. A memory perspective

Michael P. Speed

2000-01-01

466

Brake wear warning device: A concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat-insulated wire is introduced through brake shoe and partially into brake lining. Wire is connected to positive terminal and light bulb. When brakes wear to critical point, contact between wire and wheel drum grounds circuit and turns on warning light.

Hawkins, S. F.

1973-01-01

467

Toward earthquake early warning in northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake early warning systems are an approach to earthquake hazard mitigation which takes advantage of the rapid availability of earthquake information to quantify the hazard associated with an earthquake and issue a prediction of impending ground motion prior to its arrival in populated or otherwise sensitive areas. One such method, Earthquake Alarm Systems (ElarmS) has been under development in southern

Gilead Wurman; Richard M. Allen; Peter Lombard

2007-01-01

468

DRUG ABUSE WARNING NETWORK (DAWN) DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is an ongoing drug abuse data collection system sponsored by SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies. DAWN collects data from: (1) hospital emergency departments (EDs) and (2) medical examiners (MEs). The DAWN ED component relies on a nationally r...

469

The development and application of Financial Warning Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial warning management system, which is based on the enterprise information infrastructure, is a management system supervising enterprise management activities of the potential financial risks. With information technology development, the study on the financial warning system, especially in the computer how to achieve the financial warning system is a very important practical significance to the issue.

Tao Gu; Zhongliang Guan; Siqiang Wang

2008-01-01

470

14 CFR 121.289 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 121.289 ...Airworthiness Requirements § 121.289 Landing gear: Aural warning device. (a) Except...1992, each airplane must have a landing gear aural warning device that functions...

2010-01-01

471

14 CFR 125.187 - Landing gear: Aural warning device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear: Aural warning device. 125.187 ...Airworthiness Requirements § 125.187 Landing gear: Aural warning device. (a) Except...1992, each airplane must have a landing gear aural warning device that functions...

2010-01-01

472

Millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has developed a millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing for use in the nation's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS, formerly IVHS). The Safety Warning System TU (SWS) utilizes a homodyne radar that operates at 24.1 GHz as both a radar and a system to transmit highway safety messages. The warning message is received by

G. Greneker

1998-01-01

473

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2011-04-01

474

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2012-04-01

475

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2010-04-01

476

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2014-04-01

477

21 CFR 330.2 - Pregnancy-nursing warning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pregnancy-nursing warning. 330.2 Section 330.2 Food... General Provisions § 330.2 Pregnancy-nursing warning. A pregnancy-nursing warning for OTC drugs is set forth under §...

2013-04-01

478

Evaluating critical links in early warning systems for natural hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early warning systems (EWSs) are extensive systems that integrate different components of disaster risk reduction for the provision of timely warnings to minimize loss of life and to reduce economic and social impact on vulnerable populations. Historically, empirical research has focused on the individual components or sub-systems of EWSs, such as hazard monitoring, risk assessment, forecasting tools and warning dissemination.

Carolina Garcia; Carina J. Fearnley

2012-01-01

479

One-Year-Olds Warn Others about Negative Action Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Warning others is a paradigm case of communicative helping and prospective action understanding. The current study addressed the ontogeny of warning in infants' gestural communication. We found that 12- and 18-month-olds ("n" = 84) spontaneously warned an adult by pointing out to her an aversive object hidden in her way…

Knudsen, Birgit; Liszkowski, Ulf

2013-01-01

480

Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings -an exploration  

E-print Network

Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings - an exploration H. Bloemink De Bilt, 2013 | Internal report; IR 2013-01 #12;#12;Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings - an exploration Version 1.0 Date January 2013 Status Final #12;#12;Static electricity measurements for lightning warnings

Haak, Hein