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Sample records for effector xopn suppresses

  1. Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Induced Rice Innate Immune Responses Are Suppressed by the Type 3 Secretion System Effectors XopN, XopQ, XopX and XopZ of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dipanwita; Gupta, Mahesh Kumar; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Ranjan, Ashish; Sonti, Ramesh V.

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune responses are induced in plants and animals through perception of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns. These immune responses are suppressed by pathogens during infection. A number of studies have focussed on identifying functions of plant pathogenic bacteria that are involved in suppression of Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. In comparison, there is very little information on functions used by plant pathogens to suppress Damage Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae, a gram negative bacterial pathogen of rice, secretes hydrolytic enzymes such as LipA (Lipase/Esterase) that damage rice cell walls and induce innate immune responses. Here, we show that Agrobacterium mediated transient transfer of the gene for XopN, a X. oryzae pv. oryzae type 3 secretion (T3S) system effector, results in suppression of rice innate immune responses induced by LipA. A xopN- mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae retains the ability to suppress these innate immune responses indicating the presence of other functionally redundant proteins. In transient transfer assays, we have assessed the ability of 15 other X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S secreted effectors to suppress rice innate immune responses. Amongst these proteins, XopQ, XopX and XopZ are suppressors of LipA induced innate immune responses. A mutation in any one of the xopN, xopQ, xopX or xopZ genes causes partial virulence deficiency while a xopN- xopX- double mutant exhibits a greater virulence deficiency. A xopN- xopQ- xopX- xopZ- quadruple mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae induces callose deposition, an innate immune response, similar to a X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S- mutant in rice leaves. Overall, these results indicate that multiple T3S secreted proteins of X. oryzae pv. oryzae can suppress cell wall damage induced rice innate immune responses. PMID:24086651

  2. Bacterial effector HopF2 interacts with AvrPto and suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity at the plasma membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogenic bacteria inject a cocktail of effector proteins into host plant cells to modulate the host immune response, thereby promoting pathogenicity. How or whether these effectors work cooperatively is largely unknown. The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses the host plan...

  3. Pseudomonas syringae Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Immunity by Targeting BAK1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinggeng; Wu, Shujing; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chenglong; Sheen, Jen; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas syringae delivers a plethora of effector proteins into host cells to sabotage immune responses and modulate physiology to favor infection. We have previously shown that P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity triggered by multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) at the plasma membrane. We show here that HopF2 possesses distinct mechanisms in the suppression of two branches of MAMP-activated MAP kinase (MPK) cascades. Besides blocking MKK5 (MPK kinase 5) activation in the MEKK1/MEKKs-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascade, HopF2 targets additional component(s) upstream of MEKK1 in the MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 cascade and plasma membrane-localized receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 and its homologs. We further show that HopF2 directly targets BAK1, a plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase involved in multiple MAMP signaling. The interaction between BAK1 and HopF2 or two other P. syringae effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB, was confirmed in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with BAK1 as a physiological target of AvrPto, AvrPtoB and HopF2, the strong growth defects or lethality associated with ectopic expression of these effectors in wild-type Arabidopsis transgenic plants were largely alleviated in bak1 mutant plants. Thus, our results provide genetic evidence to further support that BAK1 is a physiological target of AvrPto, AvrPtoB and HopF2. Identification of BAK1 as an additional target of HopF2 virulence not only explains HopF2 suppression of multiple MAMP signaling at the plasma membrane, but also supports the notion that pathogen virulence effectors act through multiple targets in host cells. PMID:24237140

  4. A novel nematode effector suppresses plant immunity by activating host reactive oxygen species-scavenging system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Borong; Zhuo, Kan; Chen, Shiyan; Hu, Lili; Sun, Longhua; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lian-Hui; Liao, Jinling

    2016-02-01

    Evidence is emerging that plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effectors to interfere with the host immune response, but it remains unknown how these effectors can conquer host immune responses. Here, we depict a novel effector, MjTTL5, that could suppress plant immune response. Immunolocalization and transcriptional analyses showed that MjTTL5 is expressed specifically within the subventral gland of Meloidogyne javanica and up-regulated in the early parasitic stage of the nematode. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing MjTTL5 were significantly more susceptible to M.javanica infection than wild-type plants, and vice versa, in planta silencing of MjTTL5 substantially increased plant resistance to M.javanica. Yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays showed that MjTTL5 interacts specifically with Arabidopsis ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase catalytic subunit (AtFTRc), a key component of host antioxidant system. The expression of AtFTRc is induced by the infection of M.javanica. Interaction between AtFTRc and MjTTL could drastically increase host reactive oxygen species-scavenging activity, and result in suppression of plant basal defenses and attenuation of host resistance to the nematode infection. Our results demonstrate that the host ferredoxin:thioredoxin system can be exploited cunningly by M.javanica, revealing a novel mechanism utilized by plant-parasitic nematodes to subjugate plant innate immunity and thereby promoting parasitism. PMID:26484653

  5. Subversion of plant cellular functions by bacterial type-III effectors: beyond suppression of immunity.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P

    2016-04-01

    51 I. 51 II. 52 III. 53 IV. 53 V. 54 VI. 54 55 References 56 SUMMARY: Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins directly inside plant cells. These T3Es manipulate host cellular processes in order to create a permissive niche for bacterial proliferation, allowing development of the disease. An important role of T3Es in plant pathogenic bacteria is the suppression of plant immune responses. However, in recent years, research has uncovered T3E functions different from direct immune suppression, including the modulation of plant hormone signaling, metabolism or organelle function. This insight article discusses T3E functions other than suppression of immunity, which may contribute to the modulation of plant cells in order to promote bacterial survival, nutrient release, and bacterial replication and dissemination. PMID:26306858

  6. Phytophthora sojae effector PsCRN70 suppresses plant defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Nasir Ahmed; Zhang, Meixiang; Ru, Yanyan; Liu, Tingli; Xu, Jing; Liu, Li; Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen, produces a large number of effector proteins that enter into host cells. The Crinklers (Crinkling and Necrosis, CRN) are cytoplasmic effectors that are conserved in oomycete pathogens and their encoding genes are highly expressed at the infective stages in P. sojae. However, their roles in pathogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterized an effector PsCRN70 by transiently and stably overexpressing it in Nicotiana benthamiana. We demonstrated that PsCRN70 was localized to the plant cell nucleus and suppressed cell death elicited by all the tested cell death-inducing proteins, including BAX, PsAvh241, PsCRN63, PsojNIP and R3a/Avr3a. Overexpression of the PsCRN70 gene in N. benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to P. parasitica. The H2O2 accumulation in the PsCRN70-transgenic plants was reduced compared to the GFP-lines. The transcriptional levels of the defense-associated genes, including PR1b, PR2b, ERF1 and LOX, were also down-regulated in the PsCRN70-transgenic lines. Our results suggest that PsCRN70 may function as a universal suppressor of the cell death induced by many elicitors, the host H2O2 accumulation and the expression of defense-associated genes, and therefore promotes pathogen infection. PMID:24858571

  7. Multiple Candidate Effectors from the Oomycete Pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Suppress Host Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fabro, Georgina; Steinbrenner, Jens; Coates, Mary; Ishaque, Naveed; Baxter, Laura; Studholme, David J.; Krner, Evelyn; Allen, Rebecca L.; Piquerez, Sophie J. M.; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Greenshields, David; Lei, Rita; Badel, Jorge L.; Caillaud, Marie-Cecile; Sohn, Kee-Hoon; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Parker, Jane E.; Beynon, Jim; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of Hpa isolate Emoy2 (HaRxLs) were able to manipulate host defenses in different Arabidopsis accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS) of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000-LUX (Pst-LUX) and assessing changes in Pst-LUX growth in planta on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (?70%) of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to Pst-LUX growth on more than one accession indicating that Hpa virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a Pst mutant (?CEL) showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced Pst-LUX growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased Pst-LUX growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced Pst growth on turnip, a non-host for Hpa, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against Hpa could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in Arabidopsis a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to Hpa and attenuation of Arabidopsis PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in Hpa virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether candidate effectors from eukaryotic pathogens can suppress/trigger plant defense mechanisms and to rank their effectiveness prior to subsequent mechanistic investigation. PMID:22072967

  8. Suppression of the microRNA pathway by bacterial effector proteins

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Lionel; Jay, Florence; Nomura, Kinya; He, Sheng Yang; Voinnet, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Plants and animals sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and in turn differentially regulate a subset of microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the extent to which the miRNA pathway contributes to innate immunity remains unknown. Here, we show that miRNA-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis partly restore growth of a type-three secretion-defective mutant of Pseudomonas syringae. These mutants also sustained growth of non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli strains, implicating miRNAs as key components of plant basal defense. Accordingly, we have identified P. syringae effectors that suppress transcriptional activation of some PAMP-responsive miRNAs, miRNA biogenesis, stability or activity. These results provide compelling evidence that, like viruses, bacteria have evolved to suppress RNA silencing to cause disease. PMID:18703740

  9. The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Gawehns, F; Houterman, P M; Ichou, F Ait; Michielse, C B; Hijdra, M; Cornelissen, B J C; Rep, M; Takken, F L W

    2014-04-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins). Most Six proteins are unique to F. oxysporum, but Six6 is an exception; a homolog is also present in two Colletotrichum spp. SIX6 expression was found to require living host cells and a knockout of SIX6 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici compromised virulence, classifying it as a genuine effector. Heterologous expression of SIX6 did not affect growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana toward Verticillium dahliae, Pseudomonas syringae, or F. oxysporum, suggesting a specific function for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Six6 in the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici- tomato pathosystem. Remarkably, Six6 was found to specifically suppress I-2-mediated cell death (I2CD) upon transient expression in N. benthamiana, whereas it did not compromise the activity of other cell-death-inducing genes. Still, this I2CD suppressing activity of Six6 does not allow the fungus to overcome I-2 resistance in tomato, suggesting that I-2-mediated resistance is independent from cell death. PMID:24313955

  10. Ultraviolet B Suppresses Immunity by Inhibiting Effector and Memory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sabita; Byrne, Scott Napier; MacDonald, Linda Joanne; Chan, Carling Yan-Yan; Halliday, Gary Mark

    2008-01-01

    Contact hypersensitivity is a T-cell-mediated response to a hapten. Exposing C57BL/6 mice to UV B radiation systemically suppresses both primary and secondary contact hypersensitivity responses. The effects of UVB on in vivo T-cell responses during UVB-induced immunosuppression are unknown. We show here that UVB exposure, before contact sensitization, inhibits the expansion of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in skin-draining lymph nodes and reduces the number of CD4+ and IFN-?+ CD8+ T cells infiltrating challenged ear skin. In the absence of UVB, at 10 weeks after initial hapten exposure, the ear skin of sensitized mice was infiltrated by dermal effector memory CD8+ T cells at the site of challenge. However, if mice were previously exposed to UVB, this cell population was absent, suggesting an impaired development of peripheral memory T cells. This finding occurred in the absence of UVB-induced regulatory CD4+ T cells and did not involve prostaglandin E2, suggesting that the importance of these two factors in mediating or initiating UVB-induced immunosuppression is dependent on UVB dose. Together these data indicate that in vivo T-cell responses are prone to immunoregulation by UVB, including a novel effect on both the activated T-cell pool size and the development of memory T cells in peripheral compartments. PMID:18292235

  11. Prophage-Encoded Peroxidase in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Is a Secreted Effector That Suppresses Plant Defenses.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Fleites, Laura A; Gabriel, Dean W

    2015-12-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' is transmitted by psyllids and causes huanglongbing (HLB), a lethal disease of citrus. Most pathogenic 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strains carry two nearly identical prophages similar to SC1 and SC2 in strain UF506. SC2 was observed to replicate as a moderately high-copy excision plasmid encoding a reactive oxygen species-scavenging peroxidase (SC2_gp095), a predicted lysogenic conversion factor. SC2_gp095 was expressed at significantly higher levels in periwinkle than in citrus and was suppressed in psyllids. SC2_gp095 was cloned in a shuttle vector and transformed into Escherichia coli and Liberibacter crescens, a culturable proxy for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Transformed L. crescens cells showed 20 to 25% enhanced resistance to H₂O₂on agar plates, 47% greater enzymatic activity, and enhanced growth in liquid cultures. A nonclassical secretion potential was predicted for SC2_gp095 and secretion from L. crescens was confirmed by enzymatic and Western blot analyses. Transient expression of SC2_gp095 in planta resulted in strong transcriptional downregulation of RbohB, the key gatekeeper of the H₂O₂-mediated defense signaling in plants, helping explain the surprisingly long incubation period (years) before HLB symptoms appear in 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' peroxidase is likely a secreted, horizontally acquired effector that suppresses host symptom development, a tactic used by most biotrophic plant pathogens. PMID:26313412

  12. Neutrophil effector responses are suppressed by secretory phospholipase A2 modified HDL

    PubMed Central

    Curcic, Sanja; Holzer, Michael; Frei, Robert; Pasterk, Lisa; Schicho, Rudolf; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) generates bioactive lysophospholipids implicated in acute and chronic inflammation, but the pathophysiologic role of sPLA2 is poorly understood. Given that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is the major substrate for sPLA2 in plasma, we investigated the effects of sPLA2-mediated modification of HDL (sPLA2-HDL) on neutrophil function, an essential arm of the innate immune response and atherosclerosis. Treatment of neutrophils with sPLA2-HDL rapidly prevented agonist induced neutrophil activation, including shape change, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, CD11b activation, adhesion under flow and migration of neutrophils. The cholesterol-mobilizing activity of sPLA2-HDL was markedly increased when compared to native HDL, promoting a significant reduction of cholesterol-rich signaling microdomains integral to cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, sPLA2-HDL effectively suppressed agonist-induced rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels. Native HDL showed no significant effects and removing lysophospholipids from sPLA2-HDL abolished all anti-inflammatory activities. Overall, our studies suggest that the increased cholesterol-mobilizing activity of sPLA2-HDL and suppression of rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels are likely mechanisms that counteract agonist induced-activation of neutrophils. These counterintuitive findings imply that neutrophil trafficking and effector responses are altered by sPLA2-HDL during inflammatory conditions. PMID:25463476

  13. Erwinia amylovora effector protein Eop1 suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity in Malus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea) utilizes a type three secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Several Ea effectors have been identified based on their sequence similarity to plant and animal bacterial pathogen effectors; however, the function of the majority of Ea effecto...

  14. Functionally Redundant RXLR Effectors from Phytophthora infestans Act at Different Steps to Suppress Early flg22-Triggered Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fraiture, Malou; Liu, Xiaoyu; Boevink, Petra C.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Chen, Ying; Kandel, Kabindra; Sessa, Guido; Birch, Paul R. J.; Brunner, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequences of several economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes have revealed the presence of large families of so-called RXLR effectors. Functional screens have identified RXLR effector repertoires that either compromise or induce plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying the modes of action of these effectors in planta. The perception of highly conserved pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs), such as flg22, triggers converging signaling pathways recruiting MAP kinase cascades and inducing transcriptional re-programming, yielding a generic anti-microbial response. We used a highly synchronizable, pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify a set of RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans (PiRXLRs), the causal agent of potato and tomato light blight that manipulate early stages of flg22-triggered signaling. Of thirty-three tested PiRXLR effector candidates, eight, called Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response (SFI), significantly suppressed flg22-dependent activation of a reporter gene under control of a typical MAMP-inducible promoter (pFRK1-Luc) in tomato protoplasts. We extended our analysis to Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-host plant species of P. infestans. From the aforementioned eight SFI effectors, three appeared to share similar functions in both Arabidopsis and tomato by suppressing transcriptional activation of flg22-induced marker genes downstream of post-translational MAP kinase activation. A further three effectors interfere with MAMP signaling at, or upstream of, the MAP kinase cascade in tomato, but not in Arabidopsis. Transient expression of the SFI effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans and, for the most potent effector, SFI1, nuclear localization is required for both suppression of MAMP signaling and virulence function. The present study provides a framework to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the manipulation of host MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI) by P. infestans and to understand the basis of host versus non-host resistance in plants towards P. infestans. PMID:24763622

  15. T cell development. Precursors and inducer requirements of helper effector and feedback suppression inducer cell sets.

    PubMed

    Shen, F W; McDougal, J S; Bard, J; Cort, S P

    1981-09-01

    The surface phenotypes and differentiative history of specific helper-effector (HE) and specific feedback suppression-inducer (FBSI) cell sets were further defined in reference to the Qa-1 and I-J marker systems by culture of selected sets of cortisone-resistant nylon-purified thymocytes with antigen on primed macrophages. The generation of Ly-1:HE and Ly-1:FBSI cell sets required, in each case, two initiating sets: a precursor set and a differentiation-inducing set. Precursor sets were distinguished from inducer sets by genetic markers. Accordingly, HE cells, phenotype Ly-1:Qa-1-:I-J-, differentiated from Ly-123:Qa-1- cells in the presence of Ly-1:Qa-1+:I-J+ inducer cells; and FBSI cells, phenotype Ly-1:Qa-1+:I-J+, differentiated from Ly-123:Qa-1- in the presence of Ly-1:Qa-1+:I-J+ inducer cells. The Ly-123:Qa-1-precursors of HE and FBSI cells have been distinguished from one another previously but there is as yet no evidence whether differentiation of these precursor sets requires the same or different Ly-1:Qa-1+:I-J+ inducer sets. PMID:6456324

  16. Piceatannol inhibits effector T cell functions by suppressing TcR signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Gab; Park, Hong-Jai; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Choi, Je-Min

    2015-04-01

    Piceatannol, a metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine and grapes, displays a wide spectrum of biological activity. Although the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumorigenesis activity of piceatannol has been extensively studied, its role in the adaptive immune response has received less attention. Here we investigated the role of piceatannol, a well-known Syk inhibitor, in T cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation using isolated murine splenic T cells from C57BL/6 mice. Piceatannol treatment inhibited surface expression of CD4 and CD8 T cell activation markers CD25 and CD69, reduced production of cytokines IFN?, IL-2, and IL-17, and suppressed proliferation of activated T cells. Moreover, piceatannol treatment significantly inhibited differentiation of CD4(+)CD25(-)CD62L(+) nave CD4 T cells into Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, presumably due to inhibition of TcR signaling through p-Erk, p-Akt, and p-p38. Piceatannol appears to be a useful nutritional or pharmacological biomolecule that regulates effector T cell functions such as cytokine production, differentiation, and proliferation. PMID:25676533

  17. Restoring oxidant signaling suppresses proarthritogenic T cell effector functions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Shen, Yi; Oishi, Hisashi; Matteson, Eric L; Tian, Lu; Goronzy, Jörg J; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2016-03-23

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), CD4(+)T cells hyperproliferate during clonal expansion, differentiating into cytokine-producing effector cells that contribute to disease pathology. However, the metabolic underpinnings of this hyperproliferation remain unclear. In contrast to healthy T cells, naïve RA T cells had a defect in glycolytic flux due to the up-regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Excess G6PD shunted glucose into the pentose phosphate pathway, resulting in NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) consumption. With surplus reductive equivalents, RA T cells insufficiently activated the redox-sensitive kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), bypassed the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint, and hyperproliferated. Moreover, insufficient ATM activation biased T cell differentiation toward the T helper 1 (TH1) and TH17 lineages, imposing a hyperinflammatory phenotype. We have identified several interventions that replenish intracellular ROS, which corrected the abnormal proliferative behavior of RA T cells and successfully suppressed synovial inflammation. Thus, rebalancing glucose utilization and restoring oxidant signaling may provide a therapeutic strategy to prevent autoimmunity in RA. PMID:27009267

  18. An Arabidopsis and tomato mesophyll protoplast system for fast identification of early MAMP-triggered immunity-suppressing effectors.

    PubMed

    Fraiture, Malou; Zheng, Xiangzi; Brunner, Frdric

    2014-01-01

    Transient expression in plant mesophyll protoplasts allows rapid characterisation of gene functions in vivo in a simplified and synchronized manner without bias due to the use of bacteria-based gene or protein delivery systems. It offers the possibility to test whether microbial effectors can subvert early events of plant immune signaling that are activated upon recognition of Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), the so-called MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Here, we describe the isolation and transfection with effector genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum lycopersicum mesophyll protoplasts, the use of a non-invasive luciferase reporter assay and a simple method to detect activated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) to identify and study, in a medium-throughput manner, new effectors suppressing early signal transduction events of MTI. PMID:24643564

  19. Homologous RXLR effectors from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Phytophthora sojae suppress immunity in distantly related plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse pathogens secrete effector proteins into plant cells to manipulate host cellular processes. Oomycete pathogens contain very large complements of predicted effector genes defined by an RXLR host cell entry motif. The genome of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa, downy mildew of Arabidopsis) ...

  20. Molecular determinants of resistance activation and suppression by Phytophthora infestans effector IPI-O

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is able to rapidly evolve to overcome resistance genes. The pathogen accomplishes this by secreting an arsenal of proteins, termed effectors, that function to modify host cells. Although hundreds of candidate effectors have been identified in ...

  1. Candidate effector proteins of the necrotrophic apple canker pathogen Valsa mali can suppress BAX-induced PCD

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengpeng; Yin, Zhiyuan; Fan, Yanyun; Xu, Ming; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Canker caused by the Ascomycete Valsa mali is the most destructive disease of apple in Eastern Asia, resulting in yield losses of up to 100%. This necrotrophic fungus induces severe necrosis on apple, eventually leading to the death of the whole tree. Identification of necrosis inducing factors may help to unravel the molecular bases for colonization of apple trees by V. mali. As a first step toward this goal, we identified and characterized the V. mali repertoire of candidate effector proteins (CEPs). In total, 193 secreted proteins with no known function were predicted from genomic data, of which 101 were V. mali-specific. Compared to non-CEPs predicted for the V. mali secretome, CEPs have shorter sequence length and a higher content of cysteine residues. Based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana performed for 70 randomly selected CEPs, seven V. mali Effector Proteins (VmEPs) were shown to significantly suppress BAX-induced PCD. Furthermore, targeted deletion of VmEP1 resulted in a significant reduction of virulence. These results suggest that V. mali expresses secreted proteins that can suppress PCD usually associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI in turn may play an important role in the V. mali–apple interaction. The ability of V. mali to suppress plant ETI sheds a new light onto the interaction of a necrotrophic fungus with its host plant. PMID:26284095

  2. A Virulence Essential CRN Effector of Phytophthora capsici Suppresses Host Defense and Induces Cell Death in Plant Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Ma, Huifei; Zhang, Meixiang; Xu, Jing; He, Feng; Ye, Tingyue; Shen, Danyu; Chen, Yanyu; Rajput, Nasir Ahmed; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a soil-borne plant pathogen with a wide range of hosts. The pathogen secretes a large array of effectors during infection of host plants, including Crinkler (CRN) effectors. However, it remains largely unknown on the roles of these effectors in virulence especially in P. capsici. In this study, we identified a cell death-inducing CRN effector PcCRN4 using agroinfiltration approach. Transient expression of PcCRN4 gene induced cell death in N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and Solanum lycopersicum. Overexpression of the gene in N. benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to P. capsici. Subcellular localization results showed that PcCRN4 localized to the plant nucleus, and the localization was required for both of its cell death-inducing activity and virulent function. Silencing PcCRN4 gene in P. capsici significantly reduced pathogen virulence. The expression of the pathogenesis-related gene PR1b in N. benthamiana was significantly induced when plants were inoculated with PcCRN4-silenced P. capsici transformant compared to the wilt-type. Callose deposits were also abundant at sites inoculated with PcCRN4-silenced transformant, indicating that silencing of PcCRN4 in P. capsici reduced the ability of the pathogen to suppress plant defenses. Transcriptions of cell death-related genes were affected when PcCRN4-silenced line were inoculated on Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that PcCRN4 may induce cell death by manipulating cell death-related genes. Overall, our results demonstrate that PcCRN4 is a virulence essential effector and it needs target to the plant nucleus to suppress plant immune responses. PMID:26011314

  3. A Virulence Essential CRN Effector of Phytophthora capsici Suppresses Host Defense and Induces Cell Death in Plant Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Ma, Huifei; Zhang, Meixiang; Xu, Jing; He, Feng; Ye, Tingyue; Shen, Danyu; Chen, Yanyu; Rajput, Nasir Ahmed; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a soil-borne plant pathogen with a wide range of hosts. The pathogen secretes a large array of effectors during infection of host plants, including Crinkler (CRN) effectors. However, it remains largely unknown on the roles of these effectors in virulence especially in P. capsici. In this study, we identified a cell death-inducing CRN effector PcCRN4 using agroinfiltration approach. Transient expression of PcCRN4 gene induced cell death in N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and Solanum lycopersicum. Overexpression of the gene in N. benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to P. capsici. Subcellular localization results showed that PcCRN4 localized to the plant nucleus, and the localization was required for both of its cell death-inducing activity and virulent function. Silencing PcCRN4 gene in P. capsici significantly reduced pathogen virulence. The expression of the pathogenesis-related gene PR1b in N. benthamiana was significantly induced when plants were inoculated with PcCRN4-silenced P. capsici transformant compared to the wilt-type. Callose deposits were also abundant at sites inoculated with PcCRN4-silenced transformant, indicating that silencing of PcCRN4 in P. capsici reduced the ability of the pathogen to suppress plant defenses. Transcriptions of cell death-related genes were affected when PcCRN4-silenced line were inoculated on Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that PcCRN4 may induce cell death by manipulating cell death-related genes. Overall, our results demonstrate that PcCRN4 is a virulence essential effector and it needs target to the plant nucleus to suppress plant immune responses. PMID:26011314

  4. Functional Analysis of Plant Defense Suppression and Activation by the Xanthomonas Core Type III Effector XopX.

    PubMed

    Stork, William; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2015-02-01

    Many phytopathogenic type III secretion effector proteins (T3Es) have been shown to target and suppress plant immune signaling but perturbation of the plant immune system by T3Es can also elicit a plant response. XopX is a "core" Xanthomonas T3E that contributes to growth and symptom development during Xanthomonas euvesicatoria infection of tomato but its functional role is undefined. We tested the effect of XopX on several aspects of plant immune signaling. XopX promoted ethylene production and plant cell death (PCD) during X. euvesicatoria infection of susceptible tomato and in transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, which is consistent with its requirement for the development of X. euvesicatoria-induced disease symptoms. Additionally, although XopX suppressed flagellin-induced reactive oxygen species, it promoted the accumulation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) gene transcripts. Surprisingly, XopX coexpression with other PCD elicitors resulted in delayed PCD, suggesting antagonism between XopX-dependent PCD and other PCD pathways. However, we found no evidence that XopX contributed to the suppression of effector-triggered immunity during X. euvesicatoria-tomato interactions, suggesting that XopX's primary virulence role is to modulate PTI. These results highlight the dual role of a core Xanthomonas T3E in simultaneously suppressing and activating plant defense responses. PMID:25338145

  5. Functional analysis of plant defense suppression and activation by the Xanthomonas core type III effector XopX

    PubMed Central

    Stork, William; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Many phytopathogenic type III secretion effectors (T3Es) have been shown to target and suppress plant immune signaling, but perturbation of the plant immune system by T3Es can also elicit a plant response. XopX is a core Xanthomonas T3E that contributes to growth and symptom development during Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe) infection of tomato, but its functional role is undefined. We tested the effect of XopX on several aspects of plant immune signaling. XopX promoted ethylene production and plant cell death (PCD) during Xe infection of susceptible tomato and in transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, which is consistent with its requirement for the development of Xe-induced disease symptoms. Additionally, although XopX suppressed flagellin-induced reactive oxygen species, it promoted the accumulation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) gene transcripts. Surprisingly, XopX co-expression with other PCD elicitors resulted in delayed PCD, suggesting antagonism between XopX-dependent PCD and other PCD pathways. However, we found no evidence that XopX contributed to the suppression of effector-triggered immunity during Xe-tomato interactions, suggesting that XopXs primary virulence role is to modulate PTI. These results highlight the dual role of a core Xanthomonas T3E in simultaneously suppressing and activating plant defense responses. PMID:25338145

  6. Repression of SATB1 in regulatory T cells is required for suppressive function and inhibition of effector differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Marc; Thabet, Yasser; Mller, Roman-Ulrich; Sadlon, Timothy; Classen, Sabine; Lahl, Katharina; Basu, Samik; Zhou, Xuyu; Bailey-Bucktrout, Samantha L.; Krebs, Wolfgang; Schnfeld, Eva A.; Bttcher, Jan; Golovina, Tatiana; Mayer, Christian T.; Hofmann, Andrea; Sommer, Daniel; Debey-Pascher, Svenja; Endl, Elmar; Limmer, Andreas; Hippen, Keli L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Balderas, Robert; Quast, Thomas; Waha, Andreas; Mayer, Gnter; Famulok, Michael; Knolle, Percy A.; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Kolanus, Waldemar; Schermer, Bernhard; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Barry, Simon C.; Sparwasser, Tim; Riley, James L.; Schultze, Joachim L.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Lack of effector T cell (Teff) function and gain of suppressive activity by Treg are dependent on the transcriptional program induced by Foxp3. Here we report repression of SATB1, a genome organizer regulating chromatin structure and gene expression, as crucial for Treg phenotype and function. Foxp3, acting as a transcriptional repressor, directly suppressed the SATB1 locus and indirectly through induction of microRNAs that bound the SATB1 3?UTR. Release of SATB1 from Foxp3 control in Treg caused loss of suppressive function, establishment of transcriptional Teff programs and induction of Teff cytokines. These data support that inhibition of SATB1-mediated modulation of global chromatin remodelling is pivotal for maintaining Treg functionality. PMID:21841785

  7. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC) family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genus Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense responses in N. tabacum, which was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system. PMID:26322064

  8. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato type III effector HopM1 suppresses Arabidopsis defenses independent of suppressing salicylic acid signaling and of targeting AtMIN7.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Anju; Sreerekha, Mysore-Venkatarau; Whitehill, Justin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Mackey, David

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 (Pto) delivers several effector proteins promoting virulence, including HopM1, into plant cells via type III secretion. HopM1 contributes to full virulence of Pto by inducing degradation of Arabidopsis proteins, including AtMIN7, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola strain NPS3121 (Pph) lacks a functional HopM1 and elicits robust defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana, including accumulation of pathogenesis related 1 (PR-1) protein and deposition of callose-containing cell wall fortifications. We have examined the effects of heterologously expressed HopM1Pto on Pph-induced defenses. HopM1 suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression, a widely used marker for salicylic acid (SA) signaling and systemic acquired resistance. Surprisingly, HopM1 reduces PR-1 expression without affecting SA accumulation and also suppresses the low levels of PR-1 expression apparent in SA-signaling deficient plants. Further, HopM1 enhances the growth of Pto in SA-signaling deficient plants. AtMIN7 contributes to Pph-induced PR-1 expression. However, HopM1 fails to degrade AtMIN7 during Pph infection and suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression and callose deposition in wild-type and atmin7 plants. We also show that the HopM1-mediated suppression of PR-1 expression is not observed in plants lacking the TGA transcription factor, TGA3. Our data indicate that HopM1 promotes bacterial virulence independent of suppressing SA-signaling and links TGA3, AtMIN7, and other HopM1 targets to pathways distinct from the canonical SA-signaling pathway contributing to PR-1 expression and callose deposition. Thus, efforts to understand this key effector must consider multiple targets and unexpected outputs of its action. PMID:24324742

  9. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Effector Proteins Suppress Inflammasome Activation by Interfering with Host Autophagy Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Naomi; Toma, Claudia; Koizumi, Yukiko; Nakasone, Noboru; Nohara, Toshitsugu; Masumoto, Junya; Kodama, Toshio; Iida, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens utilize pore-forming toxins or sophisticated secretion systems to establish infection in hosts. Recognition of these toxins or secretion system by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) triggers the assembly of inflammasomes, the multiprotein complexes necessary for caspase-1 activation and the maturation of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1? or IL-18. Here we demonstrate that both the NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes are activated by thermostable direct hemolysins (TDHs) and type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection. Furthermore, we identify T3SS1 secreted effector proteins, VopQ and VopS, which induce autophagy and the inactivation of Cdc42, respectively, to prevent mainly NLRC4 inflammasome activation. VopQ and VopS interfere with the assembly of specks in infected macrophages. These data suggest that bacterial effectors interfere with inflammasome activation and contribute to bacterial evasion from the host inflammatory responses. PMID:23357873

  10. Integrin ?v?8-Mediated TGF-? Activation by Effector Regulatory T Cells Is Essential for Suppression of T-Cell-Mediated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, JohnJ.; Kelly, Aoife; Smedley, Catherine; Bauch, David; Campbell, Simon; Marie, JulienC.; Travis, MarkA.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a pivotal role in suppressing self-harmful Tcell responses, but how Treg cells mediate suppression to maintain immune homeostasis and limit responses during inflammation is unclear. Here we show that effector Treg cells express high amounts of the integrin ?v?8, which enables them to activate latent transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Treg-cell-specific deletion of integrin ?v?8 did not result in a spontaneous inflammatoryphenotype, suggesting that this pathway is not important in Treg-cell-mediated maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, Treg cells lacking expression of integrin ?v?8 were unable to suppress pathogenic Tcell responses during active inflammation. Thus, our results identify a mechanism by which Treg cells suppress exuberant immune responses, highlighting a key role for effector Treg-cell-mediated activation of latent TGF-? in suppression of self-harmful Tcell responses during active inflammation. PMID:25979421

  11. Suppression of IL-7-dependent Effector T-cell Expansion by Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Reading, James L; Vaes, Bart; Hull, Caroline; Sabbah, Shereen; Hayday, Thomas; Wang, Nancy S; DiPiero, Anthony; Lehman, Nicholas A; Taggart, Jen M; Carty, Fiona; English, Karen; Pinxteren, Jef; Deans, Robert; Ting, Anthony E; Tree, Timothy I M

    2015-11-01

    T-cell depletion therapy is used to prevent acute allograft rejection, treat autoimmunity and create space for bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplantation. The evolved response to T-cell loss is a transient increase in IL-7 that drives compensatory homeostatic proliferation (HP) of mature T cells. Paradoxically, the exaggerated form of this process that occurs following lymphodepletion expands effector T-cells, often causing loss of immunological tolerance that results in rapid graft rejection, autoimmunity, and exacerbated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). While standard immune suppression is unable to treat these pathologies, growing evidence suggests that manipulating the incipient process of HP increases allograft survival, prevents autoimmunity, and markedly reduces GVHD. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) are a clinical grade immunomodulatory cell therapy known to alter ?-chain cytokine responses in T-cells. Herein, we demonstrate that MAPC regulate HP of human T-cells, prevent the expansion of Th1, Th17, and Th22 effectors, and block the development of pathogenic allograft responses. This occurs via IL-1?-primed secretion of PGE2 and activates T-cell intrinsic regulatory mechanisms (SOCS2, GADD45A). These data provide proof-of-principle that HP of human T-cells can be targeted by cellular and molecular therapies and lays a basis for the development of novel strategies to prevent immunopathology in lymphodepleted patients. PMID:26216515

  12. The root-knot nematode calreticulin Mi-CRT is a key effector in plant defense suppression.

    PubMed

    Jaouannet, M; Magliano, M; Arguel, M J; Gourgues, M; Evangelisti, E; Abad, P; Rosso, M N

    2013-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are obligate biotrophic parasites that settle close to the vascular tissues in roots, where they induce the differentiation of specialized feeding cells and maintain a compatible interaction for 3 to 8 weeks. Transcriptome analyses of the plant response to parasitic infection have shown that plant defenses are strictly controlled during the interaction. This suggests that, similar to other pathogens, RKN secrete effectors that suppress host defenses. We show here that Mi-CRT, a calreticulin (CRT) secreted by the nematode into the apoplasm of infected tissues, plays an important role in infection success, because Mi-CRT knockdown by RNA interference affected the ability of the nematodes to infect plants. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants producing the secreted form of Mi-CRT were more susceptible to nematode infection than wild-type plants. They were also more susceptible to infection with another root pathogen, the oomycete Phytophthora parasitica. Mi-CRT overexpression in A. thaliana suppressed the induction of defense marker genes and callose deposition after treatment with the pathogen-associated molecular pattern elf18. Our results show that Mi-CRT secreted in the apoplasm by the nematode has a role in the suppression of plant basal defenses during the interaction. PMID:22857385

  13. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC− memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- γ, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

  14. Activation-induced FOXP3 in human T effector cells does not suppress proliferation or cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sarah E; Crome, Sarah Q; Crellin, Natasha K; Passerini, Laura; Steiner, Theodore S; Bacchetta, Rosa; Roncarolo, Maria G; Levings, Megan K

    2007-04-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is currently thought to be the most specific marker for naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells (nTregs). In mice, expression of FoxP3 is strictly correlated with regulatory activity, whereas increasing evidence suggests that in humans, activated T effector cells (Teffs) may also express FOXP3. In order to better define the role of FOXP3 in human Teff cells, we investigated the intensity and kinetics of expression in ex vivo Teff cells, suppressed Teff cells and Teff cell lines. We found that all dividing Teff cells expressed FOXP3, but only transiently, and at levels that were significantly lower than those in suppressive nTregs. This temporary expression in Teff cells was insufficient to suppress expression of reported targets of FOXP3 repressor activity, including CD127, IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and was not correlated with induction of a nTreg phenotype. Thus expression of FOXP3 is a normal consequence of CD4(+) T cell activation and, in humans, it can no longer be used as an exclusive marker of nTregs. These data indicate that our current understanding of how FOXP3 contributes to immune tolerance in humans needs to be re-evaluated. PMID:17329235

  15. The 1,4-benzodiazepine Ro5-4864 (4-chlorodiazepam) suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory mast cell effector functions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Activation of mast cells (MCs) can be achieved by the high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc?RI) as well as by additional receptors such as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor and the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit (stem cell factor [SCF] receptor). Thus, pharmacological interventions which stabilize MCs in response to different receptors would be preferable in diseases with pathological systemic MC activation such as systemic mastocytosis. 1,4-Benzodiazepines (BDZs) have been reported to suppress MC effector functions. In the present study, our aim was to analyze molecularly the effects of BDZs on MC activation by comparison of the effects of the two BDZs Ro5-4864 and clonazepam, which markedly differ in their affinities for the archetypical BDZ recognition sites, i.e., the GABAA receptor and TSPO (previously termed peripheral-type BDZ receptor). Ro5-4864 is a selective agonist at TSPO, whereas clonazepam is a selective agonist at the GABAA receptor. Ro5-4864 suppressed pro-inflammatory MC effector functions in response to antigen (Ag) (degranulation/cytokine production) and LPS and SCF (cytokine production), whereas clonazepam was inactive. Signaling pathway analyses revealed inhibitory effects of Ro5-4864 on Ag-triggered production of reactive oxygen species, calcium mobilization and activation of different downstream kinases. The initial activation of Src family kinases was attenuated by Ro5-4864 offering a molecular explanation for the observed impacts on various downstream signaling elements. In conclusion, BDZs structurally related to Ro5-4864 might serve as multifunctional MC stabilizers without the sedative effect of GABAA receptor-interacting BDZs. PMID:23425659

  16. Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein

    PubMed Central

    Elzinga, Dezi A.; De Vos, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose, and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and Nicotiana benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as yet unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants. PMID:24654979

  17. The Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Stomatal Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Brenden; Lee, Donghyuk; Mott, Adam; Wilton, Michael; Liu, Jun; Liu, Yulu C.; Angers, Stephane; Coaker, Gitta

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae subverts plant immune signalling through injection of type III secreted effectors (T3SE) into host cells. The T3SE HopF2 can disable Arabidopsis immunity through Its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Proteomic analysis of HopF2 interacting proteins identified a protein complex containing ATPases required for regulating stomatal aperture, suggesting HopF2 may manipulate stomatal immunity. Here we report HopF2 can inhibit stomatal immunity independent of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Transgenic expression of HopF2 in Arabidopsis inhibits stomatal closing in response to P. syringae and increases the virulence of surface inoculated P. syringae. Further, transgenic expression of HopF2 inhibits flg22 induced reactive oxygen species production. Intriguingly, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity is dispensable for inhibiting stomatal immunity and flg22 induced reactive oxygen species. Together, this implies HopF2 may be a bifunctional T3SE with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity required for inhibiting apoplastic immunity and an independent function required to inhibit stomatal immunity. PMID:25503437

  18. Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Dezi A; De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2014-07-01

    The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants. PMID:24654979

  19. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis stomatal immunity.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Brenden; Lee, Donghyuk; Mott, Adam; Wilton, Michael; Liu, Jun; Liu, Yulu C; Angers, Stephane; Coaker, Gitta; Guttman, David S; Desveaux, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae subverts plant immune signalling through injection of type III secreted effectors (T3SE) into host cells. The T3SE HopF2 can disable Arabidopsis immunity through Its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Proteomic analysis of HopF2 interacting proteins identified a protein complex containing ATPases required for regulating stomatal aperture, suggesting HopF2 may manipulate stomatal immunity. Here we report HopF2 can inhibit stomatal immunity independent of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Transgenic expression of HopF2 in Arabidopsis inhibits stomatal closing in response to P. syringae and increases the virulence of surface inoculated P. syringae. Further, transgenic expression of HopF2 inhibits flg22 induced reactive oxygen species production. Intriguingly, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity is dispensable for inhibiting stomatal immunity and flg22 induced reactive oxygen species. Together, this implies HopF2 may be a bifunctional T3SE with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity required for inhibiting apoplastic immunity and an independent function required to inhibit stomatal immunity. PMID:25503437

  20. Analysis of Putative Apoplastic Effectors from the Nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and Identification of an Expansin-Like Protein That Can Induce and Suppress Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Gerič; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses. PMID:25606855

  1. SOBER1 phospholipase activity suppresses phosphatidic acid accumulation and plant immunity in response to bacterial effector AvrBsT

    PubMed Central

    Kirik, Angela; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Pi-0 is resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the T3S effector protein AvrBsT. Resistance is due to a loss of function mutation (sober11) in a conserved ?/? hydrolase, SOBER1 (Suppressor of AvrBsT Elicited Resistance1). Members of this superfamily possess phospholipase and carboxylesterase activity with diverse substrate specificity. The nature of SOBER1 enzymatic activity and substrate specificity was not known. SOBER1-dependent suppression of the hypersensitive response (HR) in Pi-0 suggested that it might hydrolyze a plant lipid or precursor required for HR induction. Here, we show that Pi-0 leaves infected with Pst DC3000 expressing AvrBsT accumulated higher levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) compared to leaves infected with Pst DC3000. Phospholipase D (PLD) activity was required for high PA levels and AvrBsT-dependent HR in Pi-0. Overexpression of SOBER1 in Pi-0 reduced PA levels and inhibited HR. These data implicated PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) as potential SOBER1 substrates. Recombinant His6-SOBER1 hydrolyzed PC but not PA or LysoPC in vitro indicating that the enzyme has phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. Chemical inhibition of PLA2 activity in leaves expressing SOBER1 resulted in HR in response to Pst DC3000 AvrBsT. These data are consistent with the model that SOBER1 PLA2 activity suppresses PLD-dependent production of PA in response to AvrBsT elicitation. This work highlights an important role for SOBER1 in the regulation of PA levels generated in plants in response to biotic stress. PMID:19918071

  2. Lactose inhibits regulatory T-cell-mediated suppression of effector T-cell interferon-? and IL-17 production.

    PubMed

    Paasela, Monika; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno

    2014-12-14

    Our interest in lactose as an immunomodulatory molecule results from studies showing that lactose binds to galectin-9, which has been shown to have various regulatory functions in the immune system including regulation of T-cell responses. Impaired regulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 type immune responses and dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg) have been implicated in many human immune-mediated diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lactose on immune regulation using co-cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived Treg and effector T cells (Teff) obtained from twenty healthy adults. Treg, i.e. CD4+CD25+CD127-, were isolated from PBMC by immunomagnetic separation. The fraction of CD4+CD127- cells that was depleted of CD25+ cells was used as Teff. Treg and Teff at a ratio 1:5 were activated and the effects of lactose on the secretion of interferon-? (IFN-?) and IL-17 were analysed using ELISA for protein and quantitative RT-PCR for mRNA. Treg down-regulated the secretion of both IFN-? (8.8-3.9 ng/ml, n 20, P= 0.003) and IL-17 (0.83-0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.04) in co-cultures, while in the presence of lactose the levels of secreted IFN-? and IL-17 remained high and no down-regulation was observed (16.4 v. 3.99 ng/ml, n 20, P< 0.0001, and 0.74 v. 0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.005, respectively). We showed that lactose inhibits human Treg-mediated suppression of Th1 and Th17 immune responses in vitro. PMID:25331548

  3. Foxp3(+) T cells expressing RORγt represent a stable regulatory T-cell effector lineage with enhanced suppressive capacity during intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, B-H; Hagemann, S; Mamareli, P; Lauer, U; Hoffmann, U; Beckstette, M; Föhse, L; Prinz, I; Pezoldt, J; Suerbaum, S; Sparwasser, T; Hamann, A; Floess, S; Huehn, J; Lochner, M

    2016-03-01

    Foxp3 (forkhead box P3 transcription factor)-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for immunological tolerance, best illustrated by uncontrolled effector T-cell responses and autoimmunity upon loss of Foxp3 expression. Tregs can adopt specific effector phenotypes upon activation, reflecting the diversity of functional demands in the different tissues of the body. Here, we report that Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells coexpressing retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt), the master transcription factor for T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, represent a stable effector Treg lineage. Transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling revealed that Foxp3(+)RORγt(+) T cells display signatures of both Tregs and Th17 cells, although the degree of similarity was higher to Foxp3(+)RORγt(-) Tregs than to Foxp3(-)RORγt(+) T cells. Importantly, Foxp3(+)RORγt(+) T cells were significantly demethylated at Treg-specific epigenetic signature genes such as Foxp3, Ctla-4, Gitr, Eos, and Helios, suggesting that these cells have a stable regulatory rather than inflammatory function. Indeed, adoptive transfer of Foxp3(+)RORγt(+) T cells in the T-cell transfer colitis model confirmed their Treg function and lineage stability in vivo, and revealed an enhanced suppressive capacity as compared with Foxp3(+)RORγt(-) Tregs. Thus, our data suggest that RORγt expression in Tregs contributes to an optimal suppressive capacity during gut-specific immune responses, rendering Foxp3(+)RORγt(+) T cells as an important effector Treg subset in the intestinal system. PMID:26307665

  4. Broadly Conserved Fungal Effector BEC1019 Suppresses Host Cell Death and Enhances Pathogen Virulence in Powdery Mildew of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Whigham, Ehren; Qi, Shan; Mistry, Divya; Surana, Priyanka; Xu, Ruo; Fuerst, Gregory; Pliego, Clara; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Spanu, Pietro D; Dickerson, Julie A; Innes, Roger W; Nettleton, Dan; Bogdanove, Adam J; Wise, Roger P

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a well-developed model to investigate resistance and susceptibility to obligate biotrophic pathogens. The 130-Mb Blumeria genome encodes approximately 540 predicted effectors that are hypothesized to suppress or induce host processes to promote colonization. Blumeria effector candidate (BEC)1019, a single-copy gene encoding a putative, secreted metalloprotease, is expressed in haustorial feeding structures, and host-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 restricts haustorial development in compatible interactions. Here, we show that Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 significantly reduces fungal colonization of barley epidermal cells, demonstrating that BEC1019 plays a central role in virulence. In addition, delivery of BEC1019 to the host cytoplasm via Xanthomonas type III secretion suppresses cultivar nonspecific hypersensitive reaction (HR) induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, as well as cultivar-specific HR induced by AvrPphB from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. BEC1019 homologs are present in 96 of 241 sequenced fungal genomes, including plant pathogens, human pathogens, and free-living nonpathogens. Comparative analysis revealed variation at several amino acid positions that correlate with fungal lifestyle and several highly conserved, noncorrelated motifs. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, ETVIC, compromises the HR-suppressing activity of BEC1019. We postulate that BEC1019 represents an ancient, broadly important fungal protein family, members of which have evolved to function as effectors in plant and animal hosts. PMID:25938194

  5. PRC2 Epigenetically Silences Th1-Type Chemokines to Suppress Effector T-Cell Trafficking in Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagarsheth, Nisha; Peng, Dongjun; Kryczek, Ilona; Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Zhao, Ende; Zhao, Lili; Wei, Shuang; Frankel, Timothy; Vatan, Linda; Szeliga, Wojciech; Dou, Yali; Owens, Scott; Marquez, Victor; Tao, Kaixiong; Huang, Emina; Wang, Guobin; Zou, Weiping

    2016-01-15

    Infiltration of tumors with effector T cells is positively associated with therapeutic efficacy and patient survival. However, the mechanisms underlying effector T-cell trafficking to the tumor microenvironment remain poorly understood in patients with colon cancer. The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is involved in cancer progression, but the regulation of tumor immunity by epigenetic mechanisms has yet to be investigated. In this study, we examined the relationship between the repressive PRC2 machinery and effector T-cell trafficking. We found that PRC2 components and demethylase JMJD3-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repress the expression and subsequent production of Th1-type chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, mediators of effector T-cell trafficking. Moreover, the expression levels of PRC2 components, including EZH2, SUZ12, and EED, were inversely associated with those of CD4, CD8, and Th1-type chemokines in human colon cancer tissue, and this expression pattern was significantly associated with patient survival. Collectively, our findings reveal that PRC2-mediated epigenetic silencing is not only a crucial oncogenic mechanism, but also a key circuit controlling tumor immunosuppression. Therefore, targeting epigenetic programs may have significant implications for improving the efficacy of current cancer immunotherapies relying on effective T-cell-mediated immunity at the tumor site. Cancer Res; 76(2); 275-82. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26567139

  6. CTLA4-Ig suppresses development of experimental autoimmune uveitis in the induction and effector phases: Comparison with blockade of interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Iwahashi, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Minoru; Nomura, Shintaro; Serada, Satoshi; Nakai, Kei; Ohguro, Nobuyuki; Nishida, Kohji; Naka, Tetsuji

    2015-11-01

    Recently, a number of biologics have been used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, in the treatment of severe autoimmune uveitis, only TNF-alpha inhibitors are preferably used and the effect of other biologics such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling blockade or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4-immunoglobulin fusion protein (CTLA4-Ig) has not been well studied. Previously, we reported that IL-6 blockade effectively suppresses the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a mouse model for uveitis, by inhibiting Th17 cell development. In this study, we investigated the effect of CTLA4-Ig on EAU development and compared it with the effect of anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody (MR16-1). C57BL/6J mice were immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) and treated once with CTLA4-Ig or MR16-1. Both CTLA4-Ig and MR16-1 administered in the induction phase (the same day as immunization) significantly reduced the clinical and histopathological scores of EAU. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting studies using draining lymph node (LN) cells from EAU mice 10 days after immunization showed that CTLA4-Ig can suppress early T-helper cell activation. CTLA4-Ig administered in the effector phase of the disease (one week after immunization), when IRBP-reactive T cells have been primed, also significantly reduced the clinical and histopathological scores of EAU. In contrast, MR16-1 administered in the effector phase did not ameliorate EAU. To investigate the differences between these biologics in the effector phase, in vitro restimulation analysis of LN cells obtained from EAU mice one week after immunization was performed and revealed that CTLA4-Ig, but not MR16-1, added to culture media could inhibit the proliferation of IRBP-specific CD4(+) T cells which possessed capacities of producing IFN-gamma and/or IL-17. Collectively, CTLA4-Ig ameliorated EAU through preventing initial T-cell activation in the induction phase and suppressing proliferation of IRBP-specific T cells in the effector phase. Blockade of IL-6 signaling did not have such inhibitory effects after T-cell priming. CTLA4-Ig may have therapeutic effects on human chronic uveitis. PMID:26297802

  7. Cutting edge: Genetic variation in TLR1 is associated with Pam3CSK4-induced effector T cell resistance to regulatory T cell suppression.

    PubMed

    Mikacenic, Carmen; Schneider, Anya; Radella, Frank; Buckner, Jane H; Wurfel, Mark M

    2014-12-15

    TLR play essential roles in the initiation and modulation of immune responses. TLR1/TLR2 heterodimers recognize triacylated bacterial lipopeptides, including the synthetic TLR1/2 lipopeptide Pam3CSK4. Genetic variation in TLR1 is associated with outcomes in diseases in which regulatory T cells (Treg) play a role, including asthma and allergy. To determine whether genetic polymorphisms in TLR1 are associated with alterations in Treg suppression of effector T cells (Teff), we performed in vitro suppression assays in healthy individuals with various haplotypes in TLR1. We show that functional genetic polymorphisms in TLR1 modify surface expression of TLR1 on T lymphocytes and confer enhanced Teff resistance to Treg suppression in the presence of Pam3CSK4. These effects are mediated, in part, by IL-6 and inhibited by blocking IL-6 signaling through STAT3. These findings suggest that TLR1 polymorphisms could influence immune-related disease through Teff resistance to Treg suppression. PMID:25378593

  8. Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria effector AvrBsT induces cell death in pepper, but suppresses defense responses in tomato.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Choi, Hyong Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2010-08-01

    A type III effector protein, AvrBsT, is secreted into plant cells from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Bv5-4a, which causes bacterial spot disease on pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). To define the function and recognition of AvrBsT in the two host plants, avrBsT was introduced into the virulent pepper strain X. campestris pv. vesicatoria Ds1. Expression of AvrBsT in Ds1 rendered the strain avirulent to pepper plants. Infection of pepper leaves with Ds1 (avrBsT) expressing AvrBsT but not with near-isogenic control strains triggered a hypersensitive response (HR) accompanied by strong H(2)O(2) generation, callose deposition, and defense-marker gene expressions. Mutation of avrBsT, however, compromised HR induction by X. campestris pv. vesicatoria Bv5-4a, suggesting its avirulence function in pepper plants. In contrast, AvrBsT acted as a virulence factor in tomato plants. Growth of strains Ds1 (avrBsT) and Bv5-4a DeltaavrBsT was significantly enhanced and reduced, respectively, in tomato leaves. X. campestris pv. vesicatoria-expressed AvrBsT also significantly compromised callose deposition and defense-marker gene expression in tomato plants. Together, these results suggest that the X. campestris pv. vesicatoria type III effector AvrBsT is differentially recognized by pepper and tomato plants. PMID:20615117

  9. MicroRNA-187, a downstream effector of TGFβ pathway, suppresses Smad-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feifei; Luo, Yuhao; Shao, Ziyun; Xu, Lijun; Liu, Xiaoxu; Niu, Ya; Shi, Jiaolong; Sun, Xuegang; Liu, Yawei; Ding, Yanqing; Zhao, Liang

    2016-04-10

    Constitutive overactivation of TGFβ signaling is a common event in human cancer progression and acts as a major inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In pre-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, however, this cascade is tightly controlled and the underlying mechanism in TGFβ stimulated hyperactivation of downstream Smad pathway remains elusive. In this study, expression of miR-187 was downregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with adjacent normal tissues. miR-187 could suppress the formation of aggressive phenotype in CRC and inactivate Smad pathway, thus preventing EMT. TGFβ stimulation significantly suppressed the expression of miR-187, and overexpressed miR-187 counteracted the influence of TGFβ on cell phenotype and downstream pathway. Furthermore, we found that miR-187 directly suppressed the expression of SOX4, NT5E and PTK6, which were identified as essential upstream effectors of Smad pathway. Together with the fact that high SOX4 or NT5E levels were associated with poor prognosis, we also demonstrated that downregulation of miR-187 was closely related to tumor metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC. These findings revealed a plausible mechanism for sustained TGFβ activation in cancer progression and might have suggested a novel miR-187-based clinical intervention target for patients with advanced CRC. PMID:26820227

  10. The Magnaporthe oryzae Effector AvrPiz-t Targets the RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligase APIP6 to Suppress Pathogen-Associated Molecular PatternTriggered Immunity in Rice[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Ho; Chen, Songbiao; Shirsekar, Gautam; Zhou, Bo; Khang, Chang Hyun; Songkumarn, Pattavipha; Afzal, Ahmed J.; Ning, Yuese; Wang, Ruyi; Bellizzi, Maria; Valent, Barbara; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Although the functions of a few effector proteins produced by bacterial and oomycete plant pathogens have been elucidated in recent years, information for the vast majority of pathogen effectors is still lacking, particularly for those of plant-pathogenic fungi. Here, we show that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae preferentially accumulates in the specialized structure called the biotrophic interfacial complex and is then translocated into rice (Oryza sativa) cells. Ectopic expression of AvrPiz-t in transgenic rice suppresses the flg22- and chitin-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhances susceptibility to M. oryzae, indicating that AvrPiz-t functions to suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity in rice. Interaction assays show that AvrPiz-t suppresses the ubiquitin ligase activity of the rice RING E3 ubiquitin ligase APIP6 and that, in return, APIP6 ubiquitinates AvrPiz-t in vitro. Interestingly, agroinfection assays reveal that AvrPiz-t and AvrPiz-t Interacting Protein 6 (APIP6) are both degraded when coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of APIP6 in transgenic rice leads to a significant reduction of flg22-induced ROS generation, suppression of defense-related gene expression, and enhanced susceptibility of rice plants to M. oryzae. Taken together, our results reveal a mechanism in which a fungal effector targets the host ubiquitin proteasome system for the suppression of PAMP-triggered immunity in plants. PMID:23204406

  11. CD4+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Impaired Ability to Suppress Effector T Cell Proliferation in Patients with Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Hang-Rae; Lee, Jeong Seon; Jung, Hae Woon; Kim, Hwa Young; Lee, Gyung Min; Lee, Jieun; Sim, Ji Hyun; Oh, Sae Jin; Chung, Doo Hyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether the frequency, phenotype, and suppressive function of CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are altered in young TS patients with the 45,X karyotype compared to age-matched controls. Design and Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young TS patients (n = 24, 17.4–35.9 years) and healthy controls (n = 16) were stained with various Treg markers to characterize their phenotypes. Based on the presence of thyroid autoimmunity, patients were categorized into TS (–) (n = 7) and TS (+) (n = 17). Tregs sorted for CD4+CD25bright were co-cultured with autologous CD4+CD25− target cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and -CD28 antibodies to assess their suppressive function. Results Despite a lower frequency of CD4+ T cells in the TS (-) and TS (+) patients (mean 30.8% and 31.7%, vs. 41.2%; P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively), both groups exhibited a higher frequency of FOXP3+ Tregs among CD4+ T cells compared with controls (means 1.99% and 2.05%, vs. 1.33%; P = 0.029 and P = 0.004, respectively). There were no differences in the expression of CTLA-4 and the frequency of Tregs expressing CXCR3+, and CCR4+CCR6+ among the three groups. However, the ability of Tregs to suppress the in vitro proliferation of autologous CD4+CD25− T cells was significantly impaired in the TS (–) and TS (+) patients compared to controls (P = 0.003 and P = 0.041). Meanwhile, both the TS (–) and TS (+) groups had lower frequencies of naïve cells (P = 0.001 for both) but higher frequencies of effector memory cells (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002) than did the healthy control group. Conclusions The Tregs of the TS patients could not efficiently suppress the proliferation of autologous effector T cells, despite their increased frequency in peripheral CD4+ T cells. PMID:26709833

  12. The Xanthomonas Type III Effector XopD Targets the Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB30 to Suppress Plant Defense[W

    PubMed Central

    Canonne, Joanne; Marino, Daniel; Jauneau, Alain; Pouzet, Ccile; Brire, Christian; Roby, Dominique; Rivas, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Plant and animal pathogens inject type III effectors (T3Es) into host cells to suppress host immunity and promote successful infection. XopD, a T3E from Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria, has been proposed to promote bacterial growth by targeting plant transcription factors and/or regulators. Here, we show that XopD from the B100 strain of X. campestris pv campestris is able to target MYB30, a transcription factor that positively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana defense and associated cell death responses to bacteria through transcriptional activation of genes related to very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism. XopD specifically interacts with MYB30, resulting in inhibition of the transcriptional activation of MYB30 VLCFA-related target genes and suppression of Arabidopsis defense. The helix-loop-helix domain of XopD is necessary and sufficient to mediate these effects. These results illustrate an original strategy developed by Xanthomonas to subvert plant defense and promote development of disease. PMID:21917550

  13. A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during Xanthomonas infection

    PubMed Central

    Roden, Julie Anne; Belt, Brandis; Ross, Jason Barzel; Tachibana, Thomas; Vargas, Joe; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2004-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) uses a type III secretion system (TTSS) to translocate effector proteins into host plant cells. The TTSS is required for Xcv colonization, yet the identity of many proteins translocated through this apparatus is not known. We used a genetic screen to functionally identify Xcv TTSS effectors. A transposon 5 (Tn5)-based transposon construct including the coding sequence for the Xcv AvrBs2 effector devoid of its TTSS signal was randomly inserted into the Xcv genome. Insertion of the avrBs2 reporter gene into Xcv genes coding for proteins containing a functional TTSS signal peptide resulted in the creation of chimeric TTSS effector::AvrBs2 fusion proteins. Xcv strains containing these fusions translocated the AvrBs2 reporter in a TTSS-dependent manner into resistant BS2 pepper cells during infection, activating the avrBs2-dependent hypersensitive response (HR). We isolated seven chimeric fusion proteins and designated the identified TTSS effectors as Xanthomonas outer proteins (Xops). Translocation of each Xop was confirmed by using the calmodulin-dependent adenylate cydase reporter assay. Three xop genes are Xanthomonas spp.-specific, whereas homologs for the rest are found in other phytopathogenic bacteria. XopF1 and XopF2 define an effector gene family in Xcv. XopN contains a eukaryotic protein fold repeat and is required for full Xcv pathogenicity in pepper and tomato. The translocated effectors identified in this work expand our knowledge of the diversity of proteins that Xcv uses to manipulate its hosts. PMID:15545602

  14. A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during Xanthomonas infection

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Anne Roden, Branids Belt, Jason Barzel Ross, Thomas Tachibana, Joe Vargas, Mary Beth Mudgett

    2004-11-23

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) uses a type III secretion system (TTSS) to translocate effector proteins into host plant cells. The TTSS is required for Xcv colonization, yet the identity of many proteins translocated through this apparatus is not known. We used a genetic screen to functionally identify Xcv TTSS effectors. A transposon 5 (Tn5)-based transposon construct including the coding sequence for the Xcv AvrBs2 effector devoid of its TTSS signal was randomly inserted into the Xcv genome. Insertion of the avrBs2 reporter gene into Xcv genes coding for proteins containing a functional TTSS signal peptide resulted in the creation of chimeric TTSS effector::AvrBs2 fusion proteins. Xcv strains containing these fusions translocated the AvrBs2 reporter in a TTSS-dependent manner into resistant BS2 pepper cells during infection, activating the avrBs2-dependent hypersensitive response (HR). We isolated seven chimeric fusion proteins and designated the identified TTSS effectors as Xanthomonas outer proteins (Xops). Translocation of each Xop was confirmed by using the calmodulin-dependent adenylate cydase reporter assay. Three xop genes are Xanthomonas spp.-specific, whereas homologs for the rest are found in other phytopathogenic bacteria. XopF1 and XopF2 define an effector gene family in Xcv. XopN contains a eukaryotic protein fold repeat and is required for full Xcv pathogenicity in pepper and tomato. The translocated effectors identified in this work expand our knowledge of the diversity of proteins that Xcv uses to manipulate its hosts.

  15. The interaction of the novel 30C02 cyst nematode effector protein with a plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase may suppress host defence to promote parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Hamamouch, Noureddine; Hewezi, Tarek; Baum, Thomas J.; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Hussey, Richard S.; Vodkin, Lila O.; Davis, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoparasitic nematodes secrete an array of effector proteins to modify selected recipient plant cells into elaborate and essential feeding sites. The biological function of the novel 30C02 effector protein of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was studied using Arabidopsis thaliana as host and the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, which contains a homologue of the 30C02 gene. Expression of Hg30C02 in Arabidopsis did not affect plant growth and development but increased plant susceptibility to infection by H. schachtii. The 30C02 protein interacted with a specific (AT4G16260) host plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase in both yeast and plant cells, possibly to interfere with its role as a plant pathogenesis-related protein. Interestingly, the peak expression of 30C02 in the nematode and peak expression of At4g16260 in plant roots coincided at around 35 d after root infection by the nematode, after which the relative expression of At4g16260 declined significantly. An Arabidopsis At4g16260 T-DNA mutant showed increased susceptibility to cyst nematode infection, and plants that overexpressed At4g16260 were reduced in nematode susceptibility, suggesting a potential role of host ?-1,3-endoglucanase in the defence response against H. schachtii infection. Arabidopsis plants that expressed dsRNA and its processed small interfering RNA complementary to the Hg30C02 sequence were not phenotypically different from non-transformed plants, but they exhibited a strong RNA interference-mediated resistance to infection by H. schachtii. The collective results suggest that, as with other pathogens, active suppression of host defence is a critical component for successful parasitism by nematodes and a vulnerable target to disrupt the parasitic cycle. PMID:22442414

  16. Reversing tumor immune suppression with intratumoral IL-12: activation of tumor-associated T effector/memory cells, induction of T suppressor apoptosis, and infiltration of CD8+ T effectors.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Mehmet O; Aulakh, Karanvir S; Nair, Raji E; Jones, Stacy A; Alard, Pascale; Kosiewicz, Michele M; Egilmez, Nejat K

    2006-11-15

    A single intratumoral injection of IL-12 and GM-CSF-loaded slow-release microspheres induces T cell-dependent eradication of established primary and metastatic tumors in a murine lung tumor model. To determine how the delivery of cytokines directly to the microenvironment of a tumor nodule induces local and systemic antitumor T cell activity, we characterized therapy-induced phenotypic and functional changes in tumor-infiltrating T cell populations. Analysis of pretherapy tumors demonstrated that advanced primary tumors were infiltrated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with an effector/memory phenotype and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T suppressor cells. Tumor-associated effector memory CD8+ T cells displayed impaired cytotoxic function, whereas CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells effectively inhibited T cell proliferation demonstrating functional integrity. IL-12/GM-CSF treatment promoted a rapid up-regulation of CD43 and CD69 on CD8+ effector/memory T cells, augmented their ability to produce IFN-gamma, and restored granzyme B expression. Importantly, treatment also induced a concomitant and progressive loss of T suppressors from the tumor. Further analysis established that activation of pre-existing effector memory T cells was short-lived and that both the effector/memory and the suppressor T cells became apoptotic within 4 days of treatment. Apoptotic death of pre-existing effector/memory and suppressor T cells was followed by infiltration of the tumor with activated, nonapoptotic CD8+ effector T lymphocytes on day 7 posttherapy. Both CD8+ T cell activation and T suppressor cell purge were mediated primarily by IL-12 and required IFN-gamma. This study provides important insight into how local IL-12 therapy alters the immunosuppressive tumor milieu to one that is immunologically active, ultimately resulting in tumor regression. PMID:17082611

  17. The Xanthomonas campestris Type III Effector XopJ Targets the Host Cell Proteasome to Suppress Salicylic-Acid Mediated Plant Defence

    PubMed Central

    Brnke, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) requires type III effector proteins (T3Es) for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ?xopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ?xopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ?xopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed. PMID:23785289

  18. Phenotypic analysis of apoplastic effectors from the phytopathogenic nematode, Globodera rostochiensis demonstrates that an expansin can induce and suppress host defenses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) is an important pest of potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm to successfully infect their hosts. We have identifie...

  19. The Parasitic Worm Product ES-62 Targets Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88Dependent Effector Mechanisms to Suppress Antinuclear Antibody Production and Proteinuria in MRL/lpr Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, David T; McGrath, Mairi A; Pineda, Miguel A; Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Rzepecka, Justyna; Lumb, Felicity; Harnett, William; Harnett, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Objective The hygiene hypothesis suggests that parasitic helminths (worms) protect against the development of autoimmune disease via a serendipitous side effect of worm-derived immunomodulators that concomitantly promote parasite survival and limit host pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ES-62, a phosphorylcholine-containing glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, protects against kidney damage in an MRL/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods MRL/lpr mice progressively produce high levels of autoantibodies, and the resultant deposition of immune complexes drives kidney pathology. The effects of ES-62 on disease progression were assessed by measurement of proteinuria, assessment of kidney histology, determination of antinuclear antibody (ANA) production and cytokine levels, and flow cytometric analysis of relevant cellular populations. Results ES-62 restored the disrupted balance between effector and regulatory B cells in MRL/lpr mice by inhibiting plasmablast differentiation, with a consequent reduction in ANA production and deposition of immune complexes and C3a in the kidneys. Moreover, by reducing interleukin-22 production, ES-62 may desensitize downstream effector mechanisms in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Highlighting the therapeutic importance of resetting B cell responses, adoptive transfer of purified splenic B cells from ES-62treated MRL/lpr mice mimicked the protection afforded by the helminth product. Mechanistically, this reflects down-regulation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 expression by B cells and also kidney cells, resulting in inhibition of pathogenic cross-talk among Toll-like receptor, C3a-, and immune complexmediated effector mechanisms. Conclusion This study provides the first demonstration of protection against kidney pathology by a parasitic wormderived immunomodulator in a model of SLE and suggests therapeutic potential for drugs based on the mechanism of action of ES-62. PMID:25546822

  20. Short chain fatty acids induce both effector and regulatory T cells by suppression of histone deacetylases and regulation of the mTOR-S6K pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongho; Kim, Myunghoo; Kang, Seung G.; Jannasch, Amber Hopf; Cooper, Bruce; Patterson, John; Kim, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are highly produced in the intestine and potentially regulate the immune system. We studied the function of SCFAs in regulation of T cell differentiation into effector and regulatory T cells. We report that SCFAs can directly promote T cell differentiation into T cells producing IL-17, IFN-γ, and/or IL-10 depending on cytokine milieu. This effect of SCFAs on T cells is independent of GPR41- or GPR43 but dependent on direct histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor activity. Inhibition of HDACs in T cells by SCFAs increased the acetylation of p70 S6 kinase and phosphorylation rS6, regulating the mTOR pathway required for generation of Th17, Th1, and IL-10+ T cells. Acetate (C2) administration enhanced the induction of Th1 and Th17 cells during C. rodentium infection but decreased anti-CD3-induced inflammation in an IL-10-dependent manner. Our results indicate that SCFAs promote T cell differentiation into both effector and regulatory T cells to promote either immunity or immune tolerance depending on immunological milieu. PMID:24917457

  1. Suppression of CD4+ Effector Responses by Naturally Occurring CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Contributes to Experimental Cerebral Malaria.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Anne-Laurence; Keswani, Tarun; Gorgette, Olivier; Bandeira, Antonio; Malissen, Bernard; Cazenave, Pierre-Andr; Pied, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    The role of naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (nTreg) in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM), which involves both pathogenic T cell responses and parasite sequestration in the brain, is still unclear. To assess the contribution and dynamics of nTreg during the neuropathogenesis, we unbalanced the ratio between nTreg and naive CD4(+) T cells in an attenuated model of Plasmodium berghei ANKA-induced experimental CM (ECM) by using a selective cell enrichment strategy. We found that nTreg adoptive transfer accelerated the onset and increased the severity of CM in syngeneic C57BL/6 (B6) P. berghei ANKA-infected mice without affecting the level of parasitemia. In contrast, naive CD4(+) T cell enrichment prevented CM and promoted parasite clearance. Furthermore, early during the infection nTreg expanded in the spleen but did not efficiently migrate to the site of neuroinflammation, suggesting that nTreg exert their pathogenic action early in the spleen by suppressing the protective naive CD4(+) T cell response to P. berghei ANKA infection in vivo in both CM-susceptible (B6) and CM-resistant (B6-CD4(-/-)) mice. However, their sole transfer was not sufficient to restore CM susceptibility in two CM-resistant congenic strains tested. Altogether, these results demonstrate that nTreg are activated and functional during P. berghei ANKA infection and that they contribute to the pathogenesis of CM. They further suggest that nTreg may represent an early target for the modulation of the immune response to malaria. PMID:26553468

  2. Functional Analysis of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis RXLR Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Pel, Michiel J. C.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Cabral, Adriana; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Seidl, Michael F.; Bautor, Jaqueline; Parker, Jane E.; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Pieterse, Corn M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The biotrophic plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis produces a set of putative effector proteins that contain the conserved RXLR motif. For most of these RXLR proteins the role during infection is unknown. Thirteen RXLR proteins from H. arabidopsidis strain Waco9 were analyzed for sequence similarities and tested for a role in virulence. The thirteen RXLR proteins displayed conserved N-termini and this N-terminal conservation was also found in the 134 predicted RXLR genes from the genome of H. arabidopsidis strain Emoy2. To investigate the effects of single RXLR effector proteins on plant defense responses, thirteen H. arabidopsidis Waco9 RXLR genes were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequently, these plants were screened for altered susceptibility to the oomycetes H. arabidopsidis and Phytophthora capsici, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Additionally, the effect of the RXLR proteins on flg22-triggered basal immune responses was assessed. Multifactorial analysis of results collated from all experiments revealed that, except for RXLR20, all RXLR effector proteins tested affected plant immunity. For RXLR9 this was confirmed using a P. syringae ?CEL-mediated effector delivery system. Together, the results show that many H. arabidopsidis RXLR effectors have small effects on the plant immune response, suggesting that suppression of host immunity by this biotrophic pathogen is likely to be caused by the combined actions of effectors. PMID:25375163

  3. Initial fungal effector production is mediated by early endosome motility

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Yujiro

    2015-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogenicity is facilitated by effector proteins that are specifically expressed during infection and are responsible for suppressing plant defense mechanisms. Recent studies have elucidated the detailed molecular mechanisms of effector action throughout fungal infection. However, little is known about the trafficking and secretion of effectors in fungal hyphae during the initial stage of infection. Using state-of-the-art microscopy we have demonstrated that early endosome (EE) motility is required for effector production during fungal infection. Moreover, the MAPK Crk1 has been shown to travel on EEs and to function as a negative regulator of effector expression, suggesting that motile EEs are involved in signal transduction. Here I further discuss possible mechanisms whereby EE motility regulates effector expression in the initial stages of infection. PMID:26480479

  4. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  5. End-effector microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: automated structures assembly facility current control hierarchy; automated structures assembly facility purposed control hierarchy; end-effector software state transition diagram; block diagram for ideal install composite; and conclusions.

  6. Transcriptional Programming and Functional Interactions within the Phytophthora sojae RXLR Effector Repertoire[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qunqing; Han, Changzhi; Ferreira, Adriana O.; Yu, Xiaoli; Ye, Wenwu; Tripathy, Sucheta; Kale, Shiv D.; Gu, Biao; Sheng, Yuting; Sui, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhengguang; Cheng, Baoping; Dong, Suomeng; Shan, Weixing; Zheng, Xiaobo; Dou, Daolong; Tyler, Brett M.; Wang, Yuanchao

    2011-01-01

    The genome of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae contains nearly 400 genes encoding candidate effector proteins carrying the host cell entry motif RXLR-dEER. Here, we report a broad survey of the transcription, variation, and functions of a large sample of the P. sojae candidate effectors. Forty-five (12%) effector genes showed high levels of polymorphism among P. sojae isolates and significant evidence for positive selection. Of 169 effectors tested, most could suppress programmed cell death triggered by BAX, effectors, and/or the PAMP INF1, while several triggered cell death themselves. Among the most strongly expressed effectors, one immediate-early class was highly expressed even prior to infection and was further induced 2- to 10-fold following infection. A second early class, including several that triggered cell death, was weakly expressed prior to infection but induced 20- to 120-fold during the first 12 h of infection. The most strongly expressed immediate-early effectors could suppress the cell death triggered by several early effectors, and most early effectors could suppress INF1-triggered cell death, suggesting the two classes of effectors may target different functional branches of the defense response. In support of this hypothesis, misexpression of key immediate-early and early effectors severely reduced the virulence of P. sojae transformants. PMID:21653195

  7. Robotic end effector

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, Richard L. (23 Pineview Dr., Warrenville, SC 29851)

    1993-01-01

    An end effector for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion.

  8. Robotic end effector

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, R.L.

    1993-10-05

    An end effector is described for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion. 7 figures.

  9. Inflammatory Monocyte Effector Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lauvau, Gregoire; Chorro, Laurent; Spaulding, Emily; Soudja, Saidi M'Homa

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes are blood-derived mononuclear phagocytic cells that traffic throughout the body and can provide rapid innate immune effector responses in response to microbial pathogen infections. Amongst blood monocytes, the most abundant subset in mice is represented by inflammatory Ly6C+ CCR2+ monocytes and is the functional equivalent of the CD14+ monocytes in humans. Herein we focus on published evidence describing the exquisite functional plasticity of these cells, and we extend this overview to their multiples roles in vivo during host immune defenses against microbial pathogen infections, as antigen-presenting cells, inflammatory cells or Trojan horse cells. PMID:25205002

  10. Transgenic expression of Erwinia amylovora effectors eopB1 and hopCEa in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea), the causal agent of fire blight, uses a type three secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Once inside the host cell, these effector proteins are thought to be involved with suppressing host defense responses, redirecting normal host metab...

  11. The haustorial transcriptomes of Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi and their candidate effector families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The haustoria of the biotrophic rust fungi are responsible for the uptake of nutrients from host cells, and they produce secreted proteins known as effectors that suppress host defenses. Effectors hold essential keys for elucidating the plant-fungal interactions, and they are promising targets for p...

  12. Two-axis angular effector

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.; Phelan, John R.; Van Zuiden, Don M.

    1997-01-21

    A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

  13. Target selection biases from recent experience transfer across effectors.

    PubMed

    Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Target selection is often biased by an observer's recent experiences. However, not much is known about whether these selection biases influence behavior across different effectors. For example, does looking at a red object make it easier to subsequently reach towards another red object? In the current study, we asked observers to find the uniquely colored target object on each trial. Randomly intermixed pre-trial cues indicated the mode of action: either an eye movement or a visually guided reach movement to the target. In Experiment 1, we found that priming of popout, reflected in faster responses following repetition of the target color on consecutive trials, occurred regardless of whether the effector was repeated from the previous trial or not. In Experiment 2, we examined whether an inhibitory selection bias away from a feature could transfer across effectors. While priming of popout reflects both enhancement of the repeated target features and suppression of the repeated distractor features, the distractor previewing effect isolates a purely inhibitory component of target selection in which a previewed color is presented in a homogenous display and subsequently inhibited. Much like priming of popout, intertrial suppression biases in the distractor previewing effect transferred across effectors. Together, these results suggest that biases for target selection driven by recent trial history transfer across effectors. This indicates that representations in memory that bias attention towards or away from specific features are largely independent from their associated actions. PMID:26563393

  14. Sequential Delivery of Host-Induced Virulence Effectors by Appressoria and Intracellular Hyphae of the Phytopathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum

    PubMed Central

    Kleemann, Jochen; Neumann, Ulla; van Themaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van der Does, H. Charlotte; Hacquard, Stphane; Stber, Kurt; Will, Isa; Schmalenbach, Wolfgang; Schmelzer, Elmon; O'Connell, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytopathogens secrete effector proteins to manipulate their hosts for effective colonization. Hemibiotrophic fungi must maintain host viability during initial biotrophic growth and elicit host death for subsequent necrotrophic growth. To identify effectors mediating these opposing processes, we deeply sequenced the transcriptome of Colletotrichum higginsianum infecting Arabidopsis. Most effector genes are host-induced and expressed in consecutive waves associated with pathogenic transitions, indicating distinct effector suites are deployed at each stage. Using fluorescent protein tagging and transmission electron microscopy-immunogold labelling, we found effectors localised to stage-specific compartments at the host-pathogen interface. In particular, we show effectors are focally secreted from appressorial penetration pores before host invasion, revealing new levels of functional complexity for this fungal organ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that antagonistic effectors either induce or suppress plant cell death. Based on these results we conclude that hemibiotrophy in Colletotrichum is orchestrated through the coordinated expression of antagonistic effectors supporting either cell viability or cell death. PMID:22496661

  15. Long-distance endosome trafficking drives fungal effector production during plant infection

    PubMed Central

    Bielska, Ewa; Higuchi, Yujiro; Schuster, Martin; Steinberg, Natascha; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Steinberg, Gero

    2014-01-01

    To cause plant disease, pathogenic fungi can secrete effector proteins into plant cells to suppress plant immunity and facilitate fungal infection. Most fungal pathogens infect plants using very long strand-like cells, called hyphae, that secrete effectors from their tips into host tissue. How fungi undergo long-distance cell signalling to regulate effector production during infection is not known. Here we show that long-distance retrograde motility of early endosomes (EEs) is necessary to trigger transcription of effector-encoding genes during plant infection by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. We demonstrate that motor-dependent retrograde EE motility is necessary for regulation of effector production and secretion during host cell invasion. We further show that retrograde signalling involves the mitogen-activated kinase Crk1 that travels on EEs and participates in control of effector production. Fungal pathogens therefore undergo long-range signalling to orchestrate host invasion. PMID:25283249

  16. Orbital maneuvering end effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill (inventor); Forbes, John C. (inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an end effector device for grasping and maneuvering objects such as berthing handles of a space telescope. The device includes a V-shaped capture window defined as inclined surfaces in parallel face plates which converge toward a retainer recess in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess where latches lock handle in the recess. To align the capture window, plates may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base. Drive means is included in the form of a motor coupled with a harmonic drive speed reducer, which provides for slow movement of the fingers at a high torque so that large articles may be handled. Novelty of the invention is believed to reside in the combined intermeshing finger structure, drive means and the harmonic drive speed reducer, which features provide the required maneuverability and strength.

  17. Roxithromycin inhibits the effector phase of delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Xu, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, the effect of roxithromycin on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was evaluated. Roxithromycin had no effect on sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced food pad swelling when orally administered in induction phase, whereas it suppressed the SRBC-induced DTH reaction and 2,4,6-Trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) significantly when administered to mice in effector phase. For the sustained-CHS model induced by multi-challenge with TNCB, roxithromycin also inhibited the ear swelling when exposed to mice in three effector phases while showed no inhibitory effect on CHS by continuous treatment. Administration of this antibiotic in effector phase also down-regulated the MMP-9 activity and the higher in vitro survival of splenocytes from SRBC-challenged mice. Furthermore, this drug inhibited the gene expression of T-helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-gamma of lymph node cells from mice immuned by TNCB or of Con A-stimulated spleen cells. In addition, roxithromycin administered in vivo decreased the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced splenocyte proliferation without affecting the cell survival in vitro. These results suggest that roxithromycin might alleviate DTH reaction at least by suppressing the function and survival of effector T cells. PMID:18068108

  18. Recent Progress in RXLR Effector Research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ryan G; Deb, Devdutta; Fedkenheuer, Kevin; McDowell, John M

    2015-10-01

    Some of the most devastating oomycete pathogens deploy effector proteins, with the signature amino acid motif RXLR, that enter plant cells to promote virulence. Research on the function and evolution of RXLR effectors has been very active over the decade that has transpired since their discovery. Comparative genomics indicate that RXLR genes play a major role in virulence for Phytophthora and downy mildew species. Importantly, gene-for-gene resistance against these oomycete lineages is based on recognition of RXLR proteins. Comparative genomics have revealed several mechanisms through which this resistance can be broken, most notably involving epigenetic control of RXLR gene expression. Structural studies have revealed a core fold that is present in the majority of RXLR proteins, providing a foundation for detailed mechanistic understanding of virulence and avirulence functions. Finally, functional studies have demonstrated that suppression of host immunity is a major function for RXLR proteins. Host protein targets are being identified in a variety of plant cell compartments. Some targets comprise hubs that are also manipulated by bacteria and fungi, thereby revealing key points of vulnerability in the plant immune network. PMID:26125490

  19. A functional genomics approach identifies candidate effectors from the aphid species Myzus persicae (green peach aphid).

    PubMed

    Bos, Jorunn I B; Prince, David; Pitino, Marco; Maffei, Massimo E; Win, Joe; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2010-11-01

    Aphids are amongst the most devastating sap-feeding insects of plants. Like most plant parasites, aphids require intimate associations with their host plants to gain access to nutrients. Aphid feeding induces responses such as clogging of phloem sieve elements and callose formation, which are suppressed by unknown molecules, probably proteins, in aphid saliva. Therefore, it is likely that aphids, like plant pathogens, deliver proteins (effectors) inside their hosts to modulate host cell processes, suppress plant defenses, and promote infestation. We exploited publicly available aphid salivary gland expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to apply a functional genomics approach for identification of candidate effectors from Myzus persicae (green peach aphid), based on common features of plant pathogen effectors. A total of 48 effector candidates were identified, cloned, and subjected to transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana to assay for elicitation of a phenotype, suppression of the Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)-mediated oxidative burst, and effects on aphid reproductive performance. We identified one candidate effector, Mp10, which specifically induced chlorosis and local cell death in N. benthamiana and conferred avirulence to recombinant Potato virus X (PVX) expressing Mp10, PVX-Mp10, in N. tabacum, indicating that this protein may trigger plant defenses. The ubiquitin-ligase associated protein SGT1 was required for the Mp10-mediated chlorosis response in N. benthamiana. Mp10 also suppressed the oxidative burst induced by flg22, but not by chitin. Aphid fecundity assays revealed that in planta overexpression of Mp10 and Mp42 reduced aphid fecundity, whereas another effector candidate, MpC002, enhanced aphid fecundity. Thus, these results suggest that, although Mp10 suppresses flg22-triggered immunity, it triggers a defense response, resulting in an overall decrease in aphid performance in the fecundity assays. Overall, we identified aphid salivary proteins that share features with plant pathogen effectors and therefore may function as aphid effectors by perturbing host cellular processes. PMID:21124944

  20. RAR1, a Central Player in Plant Immunity, is Targeted by Pseudomonas syringae Effector AvrB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic bacterial effectors suppress Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)-triggered host immunity, thereby promoting parasitism. In the presence of cognate resistance genes, it is proposed that plants detect the virulence activity of bacterial effectors and trigger a defense response, ref...

  1. How DiverseCD4 Effector T Cells and their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yisong Y.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    CD4 effector T cells, also called helper T (Th) cells, are the functional cells for executing immune functions. Balanced immune responses can only be achieved by proper regulation of the differentiation and function of Th cells. Dysregulated Th cell function often leads to inefficient clearance of pathogens and causes inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Since the establishment of the Th1Th2 dogma in the 1980s, different lineages of effector T cells have been identified that not only promote but also suppress immune responses. Through years of collective efforts, much information was gained on the function and regulation of different subsets of Th cells. In this review, we attempt to sample the essence of what has been learnt in this field over the past two decades. We will discuss the classification and immunological functions of effector T cells, the determinants for effector T cell differentiation, as well as the relationship between different lineages of effector T cells. PMID:19482777

  2. Improving a Gripper End Effector

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O Dennis; Smith, Christopher M.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2001-01-31

    This paper discusses the improvement made to an existing four-bar linkage gripping end effector to adapt it for use in a current project. The actuating linkage was modified to yield higher jaw force overall and particularly in the critical range of jaw displacement

  3. RNAi Effector Diversity in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Mitreva, Makedonka; Bird, David McK.; Abad, Pierre; Fleming, Colin C.; Day, Tim A.; Mousley, Angela; Marks, Nikki J.; Maule, Aaron G.

    2011-01-01

    While RNA interference (RNAi) has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i) Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (ds)RNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii) The Argonautes (AGOs) responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii) Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs) are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv) All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v) In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research genetic tool in nematodes. PMID:21666793

  4. RNAi effector diversity in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; McVeigh, Paul; Warnock, Neil D; Mitreva, Makedonka; Bird, David McK; Abad, Pierre; Fleming, Colin C; Day, Tim A; Mousley, Angela; Marks, Nikki J; Maule, Aaron G

    2011-06-01

    While RNA interference (RNAi) has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i) Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (ds)RNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii) The Argonautes (AGOs) responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii) Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs) are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv) All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v) In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research genetic tool in nematodes. PMID:21666793

  5. Dexterous end effector flight demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Edward L.; Monford, Leo G.

    1994-01-01

    The Dexterous End Effector Flight Experiment is a flight demonstration of newly developed equipment and methods which make for more dexterous manipulation of robotic arms. The following concepts are to be demonstrated: The Force Torque Sensor is a six axis load cell located at the end of the RMS which displays load data to the operator on the orbiter CCTV monitor. TRAC is a target system which provides six axis positional information to the operator. It has the characteristic of having high sensitivity to attitude misalignment while being flat. AUTO-TRAC is a variation of TRAC in which a computer analyzes a target, displays translational and attitude misalignment information, and provides cues to the operator for corrective inputs. The Magnetic End Effector is a fault tolerant end effector which grapples payloads using magnetic attraction. The Carrier Latch Assembly is a fault tolerant payload carrier, which uses mechanical latches and/or magnetic attraction to hold small payloads during launch/landing and to release payloads as desired. The flight experiment goals and objectives are explained. The experiment equipment is described, and the tasks to be performed during the demonstration are discussed.

  6. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  7. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  8. Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 Type III secretion effector polymutants reveal an interplay between hopAD1 and AvrPtoB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The model pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of plants by injecting a complex repertoire of effector proteins into host cells via the type III secretion system. The model effector AvrPtoB has multiple domains and plant protein interactors i...

  9. Space Station end effector strategy study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  10. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ Type III Effector Family in Aribidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE) proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found i...

  11. Novel Type III Effectors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, David; Satanower, Shirley; Simovitch, Michal; Belnik, Yana; Zehavi, Meital; Yerushalmi, Gal; Ben-Aroya, Shay

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic and acute infections in immunocompromised patients. Most P.aeruginosa strains encode an active type III secretion system (T3SS), utilized by the bacteria to deliver effector proteins from the bacterial cell directly into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Four T3SS effectors have been discovered and extensively studied in P.aeruginosa: ExoT, ExoS, ExoU, and ExoY. This is especially intriguing in light of P.aeruginosas ability to infect a wide range of hosts. We therefore hypothesized that additional T3SS effectors that have not yet been discovered are encoded in the genome of P.aeruginosa. Here, we applied a machine learning classification algorithm to identify novel P.aeruginosa effectors. In this approach, various types of data are integrated to differentiate effectors from the rest of the open reading frames of the bacterial genome. Due to the lack of a sufficient learning set of positive effectors, our machine learning algorithm integrated genomic information from another Pseudomonas species and utilized dozens of features accounting for various aspects of the effector coding genes and their products. Twelve top-ranking predictions were experimentally tested for T3SS-specific translocation, leading to the discovery of two novel T3SS effectors. We demonstrate that these effectors are not part of the injection structural complex and report initial efforts toward their characterization. PMID:25784698

  12. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs) in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids), with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids), with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Based on relative intron position and the distribution of CSEPs with a ribonuclease-like domain in the phylogenetic tree we hypothesize that the associated genes originated from an ancestral gene, encoding a secreted ribonuclease, duplicated successively by repetitive DNA-driven processes and diversified during the evolution of the grass and cereal powdery mildew lineage. PMID:23231440

  13. TAL effector nuclease (TALEN) engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Yang, Bing

    2013-01-01

    TALENs, fusion proteins of DNA binding domains of TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors and the DNA cleavage domains of endonuclease FokI, have emerged as genetic tools for targeted gene modification, holding great potential for basic and applied research, even for gene therapy. Here we present a simple and efficient approach to custom-engineering TALEN genes with four basic TAL repeats and their DNA recognition cipher. The "modular assembly" method also involves the "Golden Gate" cloning strategy, using 53 ready-to-use plasmids in just two rounds of restriction and ligation to assemble TALENs with up to 24 repeat units that recognize up to 24 bp of target DNA. PMID:23423889

  14. Orbital maneuvering vehicle end effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An end effector device (A) for grasping and holding an article such as a handle (18) of a space telescope is disclosed. The device includes a V-shaped capture window (74) defined as inclined surfaces (76, 78) in parallel face plates (22, 24) which converge toward a retainer recess (54) in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers (26, 28) which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess (54) where latches (50) lock handle (18) in the recess. To align the capture window, plates (22, 24) may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base (64).

  15. The interplay of effector and regulatory T cells in cancer.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Eil, Robert L; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress effector T (Teff) cells and prevent immune-mediated rejection of cancer. Much less appreciated are mechanisms by which Teff cells antagonize Treg cells. Herein, we consider how complex reciprocal interactions between Teff and Treg cells shape their population dynamics within tumors. Under states of tolerance, including during tumor escape, suppressed Teff cells support Treg cell populations through antigen-dependent provision of interleukin (IL)-2. During immune activation, Teff cells can lose this supportive capacity and directly antagonize Treg cell populations to neutralize their immunosuppressive function. While this latter state is rarely achieved spontaneously within tumors, we propose that therapeutic induction of immune activation has the potential to stably disrupt immunosuppressive population states resulting in durable cancer regression. PMID:25728990

  16. MAPping the Function of Phytopathogen Effectors.

    PubMed

    Staiger, Christopher J

    2016-01-13

    Pseudomonas syringae secretes effectors from its type III secretion system to infect plants. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Guo etal. (2016) determine that the T3SS effector, HopE1, targets calmodulin and the microtubule-associated protein MAP65-1 to subvert plant immunity. PMID:26764591

  17. Legionella effectors reflect strength in diversity.

    PubMed

    Comas, Iaki

    2016-01-27

    The Legionella genus includes opportunistic human pathogenic species that invade human cells using effector proteins that evolved during association with their natural amoeba hosts. A new study compares the genomes of 41 Legionella species to identify nearly 6,000 effectors, providing insight into these species' evolution and pathogenic lifestyles. PMID:26813764

  18. The role of effectors in nonhost resistance to filamentous plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Remco; Mantelin, Sophie; McLellan, Hazel; Thilliez, Gaëtan

    2014-01-01

    In nature, most plants are resistant to a wide range of phytopathogens. However, mechanisms contributing to this so-called nonhost resistance (NHR) are poorly understood. Besides constitutive defenses, plants have developed two layers of inducible defense systems. Plant innate immunity relies on recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In compatible interactions, pathogenicity effector molecules secreted by the invader can suppress host defense responses and facilitate the infection process. Additionally, plants have evolved pathogen-specific resistance mechanisms based on recognition of these effectors, which causes secondary defense responses. The current effector-driven hypothesis is that NHR in plants that are distantly related to the host plant is triggered by PAMP recognition that cannot be efficiently suppressed by the pathogen, whereas in more closely related species, nonhost recognition of effectors would play a crucial role. In this review we give an overview of current knowledge of the role of effector molecules in host and NHR and place these findings in the context of the model. We focus on examples from filamentous pathogens (fungi and oomycetes), discuss their implications for the field of plant-pathogen interactions and relevance in plant breeding strategies for development of durable resistance in crops. PMID:25426123

  19. Mobile effector proteins on phage genomes

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, E. Fidelma; Carpenter, Megan R.; Chowdhury, Nityananda

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage genomes found in a range of bacterial pathogens encode a diverse array of virulence factors ranging from superantigens or pore forming lysins to numerous exotoxins. Recent studies have uncovered an entirely new class of bacterial virulence factors, called effector proteins or effector toxins, which are encoded within phage genomes that reside among several pathovars of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These effector proteins have multiple domains resulting in proteins that can be multifunctional. The effector proteins encoded within phage genomes are translocated directly from the bacterial cytosol into their eukaryotic target cells by specialized bacterial type three secretion systems (T3SSs). In this review, we will give an overview of the different types of effector proteins encoded within phage genomes and examine their roles in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:23275865

  20. In planta expression or delivery of potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae effectors Me10 and Me23 enhances aphid fecundity.

    PubMed

    Atamian, Hagop S; Chaudhary, Ritu; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Bao, Ergude; Girke, Thomas; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between aphids and their host plants seem to be analogous to those of plant-microbial pathogens. Unlike microbial pathogen effectors, little is known about aphid effectors and their ability to interfere with host immunity. To date, only three functional aphid effectors have been reported. To identify potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) effectors, we developed a salivary gland transcriptome using Illumina technology. We generated 85 million Illumina reads from salivary glands and assembled them into 646 contigs. Ab initio sequence analysis predicted secretion signal peptides in 24% of these sequences, suggesting that they might be secreted into the plant during aphid feeding. Eight of these candidate effectors with secretion signal peptides were functionally characterized using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Two candidate effectors, Me10 and Me23, increased aphid fecundity, suggesting their ability to suppress N. benthamiana defenses. Five of these candidate effectors, including Me10 and Me23, were also analyzed in tomato by delivering them through the Pseudomonas syringae type three secretion system. In tomato, only Me10 increased aphid fecundity. This work identified two additional aphid effectors with ability to manipulate the host for their advantage. PMID:23194342

  1. Deciphering and Reversing Tumor Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Motz, Greg T.; Coukos, George

    2013-01-01

    Generating an anti-tumor immune response is a multi-step process that is executed by effector T cells that can recognize and kill tumor targets. However, tumors employ multiple strategies to attenuate the effectiveness of T cell-mediated attack. This is achieved by interfering with nearly every step required for effective immunity, from deregulation of antigen-presenting cells, to establishment of a physical barrier at the vasculature that prevents homing of effector tumor-rejecting cells, and through the suppression of effector lymphocytes through the recruitment and activation of immunosuppressive cells like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tolerogenic monocytes and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we review the ways in which tumors exert immune suppression and highlight the new therapies that seek to reverse this phenomenon and promote anti-tumor immunity. Understanding anti-tumor immunity, and how it becomes disabled by tumors, will ultimately lead to improved immune therapies and prolonged survival of patients. PMID:23890064

  2. Distinct Sets of Rab6 Effectors Contribute to ZW10- and COG-Dependent Golgi Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Waqar; Liu, Shijie; Storrie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the Golgi apparatus is determined in part by the interaction of Rab proteins and their diverse array of effectors. Here, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize a small subset of effectors that mimicked the effects of Rab6 on Golgi ribbon organization. In a visual-based, candidate-protein screen, we found that the individual depletion of any of three Rab6 effectors, myosin IIA (MyoIIA), Kif20A, and Bicaudal D (BicD), was sufficient to suppress Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal coupled to retrograde tether proteins in a manner paralleling Rab6. MyoIIA and Kif20A depletion were pathway selective and suppressed ZW10-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal only while BicD depletion, like Rab6, suppressed both ZW10- and COG-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation. The MyoIIA effects could be produced in short term assays by the reversible myosin inhibitor, blebbistatin. At the electron microscope level, the effects of BicD-depletion mimicked many of those of Rab6-depletion: longer and more continuous Golgi cisternae and a pronounced accumulation of coated vesicles. Functionally, BicD-depleted cells were inhibited in transport of newly synthesized VSV-G protein to the cell surface. In sum, our results indicate small, partially overlapping subsets of Rab6 effectors are differentially important to two tether-dependent pathways essential to Golgi organization and function. PMID:24575842

  3. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of the contract, the focus remains on the RTIEE.

  4. Oxysterols and Their Cellular Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Béaslas, Olivier; Nissilä, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene) proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR) α and γ, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine. PMID:24970128

  5. Epigenetic control of effectors in plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Gijzen, Mark; Ishmael, Chelsea; Shrestha, Sirjana D.

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr) factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in filamentous plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes. PMID:25429296

  6. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  7. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silcox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  8. RhoA effector mutants reveal distinct effector pathways for cytoskeletal reorganization, SRF activation and transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Sahai, E; Alberts, A S; Treisman, R

    1998-01-01

    The RhoA GTPase regulates diverse cellular processes including cytoskeletal reorganization, transcription and transformation. Although many different potential RhoA effectors have been identified, including two families of protein kinases, their roles in RhoA-regulated events remain unclear. We used a genetic screen to identify mutations at positions 37-42 in the RhoA effector loop that selectively disrupt effector binding, and used these to investigate the role of RhoA effectors in the formation of actin stress fibres, activation of transcription by serum response factor (SRF) and transformation. Interaction with the ROCK kinase and at least one other unidentified effector is required for stress fibre formation. Signalling to SRF by RhoA can occur in the absence of RhoA-induced cytoskeletal changes, and did not correlate with binding to any of the effectors tested, indicating that it may be mediated by an unknown effector. Binding to ROCK-I, but not activation of SRF, correlated with the activity of RhoA in transformation. The effector mutants should provide novel approaches for the functional study of RhoA and isolation of effector molecules involved in specific signalling processes. PMID:9482732

  9. Effector specificity in macaque frontal and parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Premereur, Elsie; Janssen, Peter; Vanduffel, Wim

    2015-02-25

    Single neurons in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) and lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of macaques are preferentially activated by saccade- versus reach-related processes. fMRI studies focusing on saccade- and reach-specific activity in human cortex, however, provided conflicting evidence for effector specificity. To gain further insights into effector preferences throughout monkey cortex using the same technique as in humans, we performed a mixed block/event-related fMRI experiment in macaques. Within single fMRI runs, monkeys alternated between a visually guided saccade task, a visually guided arm movement task, and a fixation-only task requiring no saccades or arm movements. The detection of a peripheral pop-out go cue initiating the required operant behavior and the identification of a target among distractors was identical in the arm and saccade tasks. We found saccade-related activity in parietal areas V6, V6A, LIP, and caudal intraparietal area and frontal areas FEF, 45a, 45b, and 46. Areas 45 and FEF even showed markedly decreased fMRI activity during arm movements relative to fixation only. Conversely, medial and anterior intraparietal areas (MIP and AIP), and parietal area PEip; somatosensory areas S1 and S2; and (pre)motor areas F1, F3, F5, and F6 showed increased arm movement-related activity. F1, F5, PEip, and somatosensory cortex also showed deactivations during saccades relative to fixation only. Control experiments showed that such deactivations in both operant-specific functional networks did not depend on training history or rapid task switching requiring active suppression of the unpreferred operant behavior. Therefore, although both tasks required divided attention to detect a pop-out go cue and target, two largely segregated and mainly effector-driven cortical networks were activated. PMID:25716844

  10. The death effector domain of PEA-15 is involved in its regulation of integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J W; Kojima, T K; Hughes, P E; Fenczik, C A; Ginsberg, M H

    1998-12-18

    Increased integrin ligand binding affinity (activation) is triggered by intracellular signaling events. A Ras-initiated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway suppresses integrin activation in fibroblasts. We used expression cloning to isolate cDNAs that prevent Ras suppression of integrin activation. Here, we report that PEA-15, a small death effector domain (DED)-containing protein, blocks Ras suppression. PEA-15 does not block the capacity of Ras to activate the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Instead, it inhibits suppression via a pathway blocked by a dominant-negative form of the distinct small GTPase, R-Ras. Heretofore, all known DEDs functioned in the regulation of apoptosis. In contrast, the DED of PEA-15 is essential for its capacity to reverse suppression of integrin activation. Thus, certain DED-containing proteins can regulate integrin activation as opposed to apoptotic protease cascades. PMID:9852038

  11. Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2 is a conserved RxLR effector that promotes infection in soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-12-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts. PMID:25387135

  12. Self-Aligning Robotic End Effector And Receptacle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansant, Glen J.; Gibbs, Eugene G.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial-robot hand (end effector) and mating receptacle include congruent male and female conical and V-shaped surfaces for positive alignment. Surfaces of end effector and receptacle keyed to each other for automatic alignment. Lifting pins inserted in receptacle to lock end effector and receptacle together. Tool turns mounting screw, and end effector lifts object.

  13. Identification of novel Xanthomonas euvesicatoria type III effector proteins by a machine-learning approach.

    PubMed

    Teper, Doron; Burstein, David; Salomon, Dor; Gershovitz, Michael; Pupko, Tal; Sessa, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato. Xcv pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system that delivers effector proteins into host cells to suppress plant immunity and promote disease. The pool of known Xcv effectors includes approximately 30 proteins, most identified in the 85-10 strain by various experimental and computational techniques. To identify additional Xcv 85-10 effectors, we applied a genome-wide machine-learning approach, in which all open reading frames (ORFs) were scored according to their propensity to encode effectors. Scoring was based on a large set of features, including genomic organization, taxonomic dispersion, hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp)-dependent expression, 5' regulatory sequences, amino acid composition bias and GC content. Thirty-six predicted effectors were tested for translocation into plant cells using the hypersensitive response (HR)-inducing domain of AvrBs2 as a reporter. Seven proteins (XopAU, XopAV, XopAW, XopAP, XopAX, XopAK and XopAD) harboured a functional translocation signal and their translocation relied on the HrpF translocon, indicating that they are bona fide T3S effectors. Remarkably, four belong to novel effector families. Inactivation of the xopAP gene reduced the severity of disease symptoms in infected plants. A decrease in cell death and chlorophyll content was observed in pepper leaves inoculated with the xopAP mutant when compared with the wild-type strain. However, populations of the xopAP mutant in infected leaves were similar in size to those of wild-type bacteria, suggesting that the reduction in virulence was not caused by impaired bacterial growth. PMID:26104875

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells differentially modulate effector CD8+ T cell subsets and exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Justin D; Smith, Matthew D; Calabresi, Peter A; Whartenby, Katharine A

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have emerged as a promising candidate for inflammatory suppression and disease amelioration, especially of neuro-inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Auto-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells acquire pathogenic IFNγ-producing- (Type I) and IL-17A-producing- (Type 17) effector phenotypes in MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although MSC have been extensively demonstrated to suppress pathogenic effector CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cell-mediated EAE, surprisingly few studies have addressed their modulation of effector CD8+ T cells represented in MS or their impact on CD8+ T cell-mediated EAE. We find that MSC differentially modulate CD8+ T cell development depending on effector T cell subtype. MSC drive activated low-IFNγ producers toward an enhanced high-IFNγ Tc1-like phenotype but strongly inhibit the production of IL-17A and Tc17 polarization in vitro. These observations are underscored by differential MSC modulation of T cell activation, proliferation, and signature transcription factor up-regulation. In addition, effector CD8+ T cells co-cultured with MSC exhibited increased production of IL-2, a molecule known to enhance IFNγ, yet suppress IL-17A, production. Based on these in vitro effects on CD8+ T cells, we next evaluated their impact on the severity of EAE. To better evaluate CD8+ T cells, we immunized mice with MOG37-50 , which is a CD8-targeted epitope. Our results revealed a worsening of disease, consistent with their in vitro stimulation of Tc1 cells. These findings highlight the emerging duality of MSC in immune modulation and provide implications for their future use in immune-related diseases. PMID:24911892

  15. The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Christina; Fraiture, Malou; Hernndez-Reyes, Casandra; Akum, Fidele N.; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chen, Ying; Pateyron, Stephanie; Colcombet, Jean; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Hirt, Heribert; Brunner, Frdric; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6), thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ?spvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated. PMID:25368608

  16. Amphiregulin Is a Critical Downstream Effector of Estrogen Signaling in ERα-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Esther A; Jenkins, Edmund C; Lofgren, Kristopher A; Chandiramani, Natasha; Liu, Hui; Aranda, Evelyn; Barnett, Maryia; Kenny, Paraic A

    2015-11-15

    Estrogen stimulation promotes epithelial cell proliferation in estrogen receptor (ERα)-positive breast cancer. Many ERα target genes have been enumerated, but the identities of the key effectors mediating the estrogen signal remain obscure. During mouse mammary gland development, the estrogen growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand amphiregulin acts as an important stage-specific effector of estrogen signaling. In this study, we investigated the role of amphiregulin in breast cancer cell proliferation using human tissue samples and tumor xenografts in mice. Amphiregulin was enriched in ERα-positive human breast tumor cells and required for estrogen-dependent growth of MCF7 tumor xenografts. Furthermore, amphiregulin levels were suppressed in patients treated with endocrine therapy. Suppression of EGF receptor signaling appeared necessary for the therapeutic response in this setting. Our findings implicate amphiregulin as a critical mediator of the estrogen response in ERα-positive breast cancer, emphasizing the importance of EGF receptor signaling in breast tumor pathogenesis and therapeutic response. PMID:26527289

  17. Differences and Similarities of Soybean Defense-Related Genes Suppressed by Pathogenic and Symbiotic Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial effector proteins secreted through type III secretion systems (T3SS) play a crucial role in establishing plant and human diseases. Type III effectors have been shown to trigger defense responses when recognized by resistant plants, and to suppress defense responses in susceptible host plan...

  18. End effector with astronaut foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The combination of a foot restraint platform designed primarily for use by an astronaut being rigidly and permanently attached to an end effector which is suitable for attachment to the manipulator arm of a remote manipulating system is described. The foot restraint platform is attached by a brace to the end effector at a location away from the grappling interface of the end effector. The platform comprises a support plate provided with a pair of stirrups for receiving the toe portion of an astronaut's boots when standing on the platform and a pair of heel retainers in the form of raised members which are fixed to the surface of the platform and located to provide abutment surfaces for abutting engagement with the heels of the astronaut's boots when his toes are in the stirrups. The heel retainers preclude a backward sliding movement of the feet on the platform and instead require a lifting of the heels in order to extract the feet. The brace for attaching the foot restraint platform to the end effector may include a pivot or swivel joint to permit various orientations of the platform with respect to the end effector.

  19. TAL effectors and the executor R genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junli; Yin, Zhongchao; White, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R) genes have been characterizedrecessive, dominant non-transcriptional, and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance. PMID:26347759

  20. Filamentous plant pathogen effectors in action.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Martha C; Valent, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Live-cell imaging assisted by fluorescent markers has been fundamental to understanding the focused secretory 'warfare' that occurs between plants and biotrophic pathogens that feed on living plant cells. Pathogens succeed through the spatiotemporal deployment of a remarkably diverse range of effector proteins to control plant defences and cellular processes. Some effectors can be secreted by appressoria even before host penetration, many enter living plant cells where they target diverse subcellular compartments and others move into neighbouring cells to prepare them before invasion. This Review summarizes the latest advances in our understanding of the cell biology of biotrophic interactions between plants and their eukaryotic filamentous pathogens based on in planta analyses of effectors. PMID:24129511

  1. Rho GTPases and their effector proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, A L; Hall, A

    2000-01-01

    Rho GTPases are molecular switches that regulate many essential cellular processes, including actin dynamics, gene transcription, cell-cycle progression and cell adhesion. About 30 potential effector proteins have been identified that interact with members of the Rho family, but it is still unclear which of these are responsible for the diverse biological effects of Rho GTPases. This review will discuss how Rho GTPases physically interact with, and regulate the activity of, multiple effector proteins and how specific effector proteins contribute to cellular responses. To date most progress has been made in the cytoskeleton field, and several biochemical links have now been established between GTPases and the assembly of filamentous actin. The main focus of this review will be Rho, Rac and Cdc42, the three best characterized mammalian Rho GTPases, though the genetic analysis of Rho GTPases in lower eukaryotes is making increasingly important contributions to this field. PMID:10816416

  2. Cellular senescence and its effector programs

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Rafik; Sadaie, Mahito; Hoare, Matthew; Narita, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response that accompanies stable exit from the cell cycle. Classically, senescence, particularly in human cells, involves the p53 and p16/Rb pathways, and often both of these tumor suppressor pathways need to be abrogated to bypass senescence. In parallel, a number of effector mechanisms of senescence have been identified and characterized. These studies suggest that senescence is a collective phenotype of these multiple effectors, and their intensity and combination can be different depending on triggers and cell types, conferring a complex and diverse nature to senescence. Series of studies on senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in particular have revealed various layers of functionality of senescent cells in vivo. Here we discuss some key features of senescence effectors and attempt to functionally link them when it is possible. PMID:24449267

  3. Transcriptional Dynamics Driving MAMP-Triggered Immunity and Pathogen Effector-Mediated Immunosuppression in Arabidopsis Leaves Following Infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Laura A.; Polanski, Krzysztof; de Torres-Zabala, Marta; Bowden, Laura; Jenkins, Dafyd J.; Hill, Claire; Baxter, Laura; Truman, William; Prusinska, Justyna; Hickman, Richard; Wild, David L.; Ott, Sascha; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Beynon, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming is integral to effective plant defense. Pathogen effectors act transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally to suppress defense responses. A major challenge to understanding disease and defense responses is discriminating between transcriptional reprogramming associated with microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) and that orchestrated by effectors. A high-resolution time course of genome-wide expression changes following challenge with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the nonpathogenic mutant strain DC3000hrpA- allowed us to establish causal links between the activities of pathogen effectors and suppression of MTI and infer with high confidence a range of processes specifically targeted by effectors. Analysis of this information-rich data set with a range of computational tools provided insights into the earliest transcriptional events triggered by effector delivery, regulatory mechanisms recruited, and biological processes targeted. We show that the majority of genes contributing to disease or defense are induced within 6 h postinfection, significantly before pathogen multiplication. Suppression of chloroplast-associated genes is a rapid MAMP-triggered defense response, and suppression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and induction of ubiquitin-related genes coincide with pathogen-induced abscisic acid accumulation. Specific combinations of promoter motifs are engaged in fine-tuning the MTI response and active transcriptional suppression at specific promoter configurations by P. syringae. PMID:26566919

  4. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually

  5. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  6. Kinematic evaluation of end effector design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Gary W.

    1992-09-01

    The complex, many degree-of-freedom end effectors at the leading edge of technology would be unusable in the sea bottom research environment. Simpler designs are required to provide adequate reliability for subsea use. This work examines selection of end effector designs to achieve optimum grasping ability with minimal mechanical complexity. A new method of calculating grasp stability is developed, incorporating elements of previous works in the field. Programs are developed which evaluate the ability of different end effector configurations to grasp representative objects (a cube, sphere, and infinite cylinder). End effector designs considered had circular palms with fingers located at the periphery, oriented so that each pointed to the center of the palm. The program tested configurations of from 1 to 4 fingers and from 1 to 3 links per finger. Three sets of finger proportions were considered: equal length links, half length links, and anthropomorphic proportions. The 2 finger, 2 link per finger configuration was determined to be the optimum design, and the half length proportions were selected as the best set of proportions.

  7. Host specific toxins; effectors of necrotrophic pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-specific toxins are defined as pathogen effectors that induce toxicity and promote disease only in the host species and only in cultivars of that host, and with few exceptions, expressing a specific dominant susceptibility gene. They are a feature of a small but well studied group of fungal pl...

  8. Development and Function of Effector Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Teh, Peggy P; Vasanthakumar, Ajithkumar; Kallies, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Distinguishing self from nonself is a unique feature of the immune system. Although most self-reactive T cells are eliminated in the thymus, a few rogue cells escape the negative selection process and have the potential to mediate autoimmune disease. Over the last decade, there has been a vast improvement in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that evolved to dampen the deleterious effects of these self-reactive T cells. In particular, T cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3, known as regulatory T (Treg) cells, play a central role in maintaining immune homeostasis and suppressing autoimmune responses. In addition, Treg cells are endowed with the ability to suppress diverse inflammatory responses both in lymphoid and in nonlymphoid tissues. This requires Treg cells to undergo a peripheral differentiation and specialization program that results in the emergence of effector Treg (eTreg) cells that are characterized by their ability to produce high amounts of immunosuppressive molecules, including IL-10. This chapter discusses the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms governing the differentiation, migration, and maintenance of eTreg cells, in particular in nonlymphoid tissues, in health and disease. PMID:26615096

  9. Immune homeostasis enforced by co-localized effector and regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiduo; Gerner, Michael Y.; Van Panhuys, Nicholas; Levine, Andrew G.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2015-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in preventing autoimmune disease by limiting the effector activity of conventional T cells that have escaped thymic negative selection or cell-autonomous peripheral inactivation13. However, despite the substantial information available about the molecular players mediating Treg functional interference with auto-aggressive effector responses4,5, the relevant cellular events in intact tissues remain largely unexplored and the issues of whether Tregs prevent activation of self-specific T cells or function primarily to limit damage from such cells have not been addressed6. Here we have employed multiplex, high-resolution, quantitative imaging to reveal that within most secondary lymphoid tissues, Tregs expressing phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) and high amounts of the suppressive molecules CD73 and CTLA-4 exist in discrete clusters with rare IL-2 producing effector T cells activated by self-antigens. This local IL-2 production induces the STAT5 phosphorylation in the Tregs and is part of a feedback circuit that augments the suppressive properties of the Tregs to limit further autoimmune responses. Inducible ablation of TCR expression by Tregs reduces their regulatory capacity and disrupts their localization in such clusters, resulting in uncontrolled effector T cell responses. Our data thus reveal that autoreactive T cells reach a state of activation and cytokine gene induction on a regular basis, with physically co-clustering, TCR-stimulated Tregs responding to this activation in a feedback manner to suppress incipient autoimmunity and maintain immune homeostasis. PMID:26605524

  10. Bacterial Effector Nanoparticles as Breast Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Herrera Estrada, Lina; Padmore, Trudy J; Champion, Julie A

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial pathogens trigger cell death by a variety of mechanisms, including injection of effector proteins. Effector proteins have great potential as anticancer agents because they efficiently subvert a variety of eukaryotic signaling pathways involved in cancer development, drug resistance, and metastasis. In breast cancer, MAPK and NFκB pathways are known to be dysregulated. YopJ, an effector from Yersinia pestis, downregulates MAPK and NFκB pathways to induce cell death in specific cell types. We expressed YopJ in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST), forming self-assembled protein nanoparticles with diameters of 100 nm. YopJ-GST nanoparticles efficiently delivered protein to cells, replacing the need for the pathogen secretion mechanism for effector delivery to cells. These nanoparticles induced dose and time dependent death in SKBR-3 breast cancer cells. After 72 h, 97% of cells died, significantly more than with the same molar dose of doxorubicin. Treatment with sublethal doses of nanoparticles decreased cell migration in vitro and downregulated the MAPK ERK 1/2 pathway, which has been correlated to metastasis. Exposure to a panel of breast cancer cell lines showed that YopJ-GST nanoparticles are cytotoxic to different subtypes, including doxorubicin resistant cells. However, they were not cytotoxic to NIH/3T3 fibroblasts or HeLa cells. Thus, YopJ-GST nanoparticles demonstrate the potential of effector proteins as breast cancer therapeutics with selective cytotoxicity and the capacity to decrease metastatic predictive behaviors. PMID:26800341

  11. Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeremy K.; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh. PMID:25207969

  12. EZH2 is crucial for both differentiation of regulatory T cells and T effector cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Ping; Jiang, Kan; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Vahedi, Golnaz; Afzali, Behdad; Sciume, Giuseppe; Bonelli, Michael; Sun, Hong-Wei; Jankovic, Dragana; Kanno, Yuka; Sartorelli, Vittorio; O'Shea, John J; Laurence, Arian

    2015-01-01

    The roles of EZH2 in various subsets of CD4(+) T cells are controversial and its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. FOXP3-positive Treg cells are a critical helper T cell subset, and dysregulation of Treg generation or function results in systemic autoimmunity. FOXP3 associates with EZH2 to mediate gene repression and suppressive function. Herein, we demonstrate that deletion of Ezh2 in CD4 T cells resulted in reduced numbers of Treg cells in vivo and differentiation in vitro and an increased proportion of memory CD4 T cells in part due to exaggerated production of effector cytokines. Furthermore, we found that both Ezh2-deficient Treg cells and T effector cells were functionally impaired in vivo: Tregs failed to constrain autoimmune colitis and T effector cells neither provided a protective response to T. gondii infection nor mediated autoimmune colitis. The dichotomous function of EZH2 in regulating differentiation and senescence in effector and regulatory T cells helps to explain the apparent existing contradictions in literature. PMID:26090605

  13. Elevated Temperature Differentially Influences Effector-Triggered Immunity Outputs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Menna, Alexandra; Nguyen, Dang; Guttman, David S.; Desveaux, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects multiple plant species by manipulating cellular processes via injection of type three secreted effectors (T3SEs) into host cells. Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) resistance (R) proteins recognize specific T3SEs and trigger a robust immune response, called effector-triggered immunity (ETI), which limits pathogen proliferation and is often associated with localized programmed cell death, known as the hypersensitive response (HR). In this study, we examine the influence of elevated temperature on two ETI outputs: HR and pathogen virulence suppression. We found that in the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0, elevated temperatures suppress the HR, but have minimal influence on ETI-associated P. syringae virulence suppression, thereby uncoupling these two ETI responses. We also identify accessions of Arabidopsis that exhibit impaired P. syringae virulence suppression at elevated temperature, highlighting the natural variation that exists in coping with biotic and abiotic stresses. These results not only reinforce the influence of abiotic factors on plant immunity but also emphasize the importance of carefully documented environmental conditions in studies of plant immunity. PMID:26617631

  14. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  15. Identification of Novel Coxiella burnetii Icm/Dot Effectors and Genetic Analysis of Their Involvement in Modulating a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lifshitz, Ziv; Burstein, David; Schwartz, Kierstyn; Shuman, Howard A.; Pupko, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a human intracellular pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host cells. To identify novel C. burnetii effectors, we applied a machine-learning approach to predict C. burnetii effectors, and examination of 20 such proteins resulted in the identification of 13 novel effectors. To determine whether these effectors, as well as several previously identified effectors, modulate conserved eukaryotic pathways, they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects on yeast growth were examined under regular growth conditions and in the presence of caffeine, a known modulator of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. In the presence of caffeine, expression of the effectors CBU0885 and CBU1676 caused an enhanced inhibition of yeast growth, and the growth inhibition of CBU0388 was suppressed. Furthermore, analysis of synthetic lethality effects and examination of the activity of the CWI MAP kinase transcription factor Rlm1 indicated that CBU0388 enhances the activation of this MAP kinase pathway in yeast, while CBU0885 and CBU1676 abolish this activation. Additionally, coexpression of CBU1676 and CBU0388 resulted in mutual suppression of their inhibition of yeast growth. These results strongly indicate that these three effectors modulate the CWI MAP kinase pathway in yeast. Moreover, both CBU1676 and CBU0885 were found to contain a conserved haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) domain, which was found to be required for their activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that MAP kinase pathways are most likely targeted by C. burnetii Icm/Dot effectors. PMID:24958706

  16. Identification of novel Coxiella burnetii Icm/Dot effectors and genetic analysis of their involvement in modulating a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Ziv; Burstein, David; Schwartz, Kierstyn; Shuman, Howard A; Pupko, Tal; Segal, Gil

    2014-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a human intracellular pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host cells. To identify novel C. burnetii effectors, we applied a machine-learning approach to predict C. burnetii effectors, and examination of 20 such proteins resulted in the identification of 13 novel effectors. To determine whether these effectors, as well as several previously identified effectors, modulate conserved eukaryotic pathways, they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects on yeast growth were examined under regular growth conditions and in the presence of caffeine, a known modulator of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. In the presence of caffeine, expression of the effectors CBU0885 and CBU1676 caused an enhanced inhibition of yeast growth, and the growth inhibition of CBU0388 was suppressed. Furthermore, analysis of synthetic lethality effects and examination of the activity of the CWI MAP kinase transcription factor Rlm1 indicated that CBU0388 enhances the activation of this MAP kinase pathway in yeast, while CBU0885 and CBU1676 abolish this activation. Additionally, coexpression of CBU1676 and CBU0388 resulted in mutual suppression of their inhibition of yeast growth. These results strongly indicate that these three effectors modulate the CWI MAP kinase pathway in yeast. Moreover, both CBU1676 and CBU0885 were found to contain a conserved haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) domain, which was found to be required for their activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that MAP kinase pathways are most likely targeted by C. burnetii Icm/Dot effectors. PMID:24958706

  17. TAL effectors: tools for DNA targeting.

    PubMed

    Jankele, Radek; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-09-01

    Xanthomonas phytopathogenic bacteria produce unique transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins that recognize and activate specific plant promoters through a set of tandem repeats. A unique TALE-DNA-binding code uses two polymorphic amino acids in each repeat to mediate recognition of specific nucleotides. The order of repeats determines effector's specificity toward the cognate nucleotide sequence of the sense DNA strand. Artificially designed TALE-DNA-binding domains fused to nuclease or activation and repressor domains provide an outstanding toolbox for targeted gene editing and gene regulation in research, biotechnology and gene therapy. Gene editing with custom-designed TALE nucleases (TALENs) extends the repertoire of targeted genome modifications across a broad spectrum of organisms ranging from plants and insect to mammals. PMID:24907364

  18. Survivin as a global target of intrinsic tumor suppression networks.

    PubMed

    Guha, Minakshi; Altieri, Dario C

    2009-09-01

    Despite the constant exposure to genomic insults that may lead to malignancy, cancer is surprisingly a relatively rare occurrence, and this is largely credited to an elaborate network of endogenous tumor suppression. Many effectors of tumor suppression have been identified, and their functions when activated in damaged cells have in large part been elucidated. What is less clear is whether there are common target gene(s) of tumor suppression, whose expression must be ablated in order to block transformation and preserve cellular homeostasis. Fresh experimental evidence suggests that silencing of the mitotic regulator and cell death inhibitor, survivin, is a universal requirement for successful tumor suppression in humans. PMID:19717980

  19. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  20. Impact of end effector technology on telemanipulation performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Szakaly, Z.; Ohm, T.

    1990-01-01

    Generic requirements for end effector design are briefly summarized as derived from generic functional and operational requirements. Included is a brief summary of terms and definitions related to end effector technology. The second part contains a brief overview of end effector technology work as JPL during the past ten years, with emphasis on the evolution of new mechanical, sensing and control capabilities of end effectors. The third and major part is devoted to the description of current end effector technology. The ongoing work addresses mechanical, sensing and control details with emphasis on mechanical ruggedness, increased resolution in sensing, and close electronic and control integration with overall telemanipulator control system.

  1. A central role for Notch in effector CD8+ T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Ronald A.; Helbig, Christina; Gentek, Rebecca; Kent, Andrew; Laidlaw, Brian J.; Dominguez, Claudia X.; de Souza, Yevan S.; van Trierum, Stella E.; van Beek, Ruud; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; ten Brinke, Anja; Willemsen, A. Marcel; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Kaech, Susan M.; Blander, J. Magarian; van Gisbergen, Klaas; Amsen, Derk

    2014-01-01

    Activated CD8+ T cells choose between terminal effector cell (TEC) or memory precursor cell (MPC) fates. We show that Notch controls this choice. Notch promoted differentiation of immediately protective TECs and was correspondingly required for clearance of an acute influenza virus infection. Notch activated a major portion of the TEC-specific gene expression program and suppressed the MPC-specific program. Expression of Notch receptors was induced on nave CD8+ T cells by inflammatory mediators and interleukin 2 (IL-2) via mTOR and T-bet dependent pathways. These pathways were subsequently amplified downstream of Notch, creating a positive feedback loop. Notch thus functions as a central hub where information from different sources converges to match effector T cell differentiation to the demands of the infection. PMID:25344724

  2. Legionella Metaeffector Exploits Host Proteasome to Temporally Regulate Cognate Effector

    PubMed Central

    Kubori, Tomoko; Shinzawa, Naoaki; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Nagai, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen-associated secretion systems translocate numerous effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells to coordinate cellular processes important for infection. Spatiotemporal regulation is therefore important for modulating distinct activities of effectors at different stages of infection. Here we provide the first evidence of metaeffector, a designation for an effector protein that regulates the function of another effector within the host cell. Legionella LubX protein functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that hijacks the host proteasome to specifically target the bacterial effector protein SidH for degradation. Delayed delivery of LubX to the host cytoplasm leads to the shutdown of SidH within the host cells at later stages of infection. This demonstrates a sophisticated level of coevolution between eukaryotic cells and L. pneumophila involving an effector that functions as a key regulator to temporally coordinate the function of a cognate effector protein. PMID:21151961

  3. Identification of Two Legionella pneumophila Effectors that Manipulate Host Phospholipids Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Viner, Ram; Chetrit, David; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Segal, Gil

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila translocates a large number of effector proteins into host cells via the Icm/Dot type-IVB secretion system. Some of these effectors were shown to cause lethal effect on yeast growth. Here we characterized one such effector (LecE) and identified yeast suppressors that reduced its lethal effect. The LecE lethal effect was found to be suppressed by the over expression of the yeast protein Dgk1 a diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase enzyme and by a deletion of the gene encoding for Pah1 a phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase that counteracts the activity of Dgk1. Genetic analysis using yeast deletion mutants, strains expressing relevant yeast genes and point mutations constructed in the Dgk1 and Pah1 conserved domains indicated that LecE functions similarly to the Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase complex that activates Pah1 in yeast. In addition, by using relevant yeast genetic backgrounds we examined several L. pneumophila effectors expected to be involved in phospholipids biosynthesis and identified an effector (LpdA) that contains a phospholipase-D (PLD) domain which caused lethal effect only in a dgk1 deletion mutant of yeast. Additionally, LpdA was found to enhance the lethal effect of LecE in yeast cells, a phenomenon which was found to be dependent on its PLD activity. Furthermore, to determine whether LecE and LpdA affect the levels or distribution of DAG and PA in-vivo in mammalian cells, we utilized fluorescent DAG and PA biosensors and validated the notion that LecE and LpdA affect the in-vivo levels and distribution of DAG and PA, respectively. Finally, we examined the intracellular localization of both LecE and LpdA in human macrophages during L. pneumophila infection and found that both effectors are localized to the bacterial phagosome. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila utilize at least two effectors to manipulate important steps in phospholipids biosynthesis. PMID:23133385

  4. The Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) Tir Effector Inhibits NF-?B Activity by Targeting TNF? Receptor-Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ruchaud-Sparagano, Marie-Hlne; Mhlen, Sabrina; Dean, Paul; Kenny, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) disease depends on the transfer of effector proteins into epithelia lining the human small intestine. EPEC E2348/69 has at least 20 effector genes of which six are located with the effector-delivery system genes on the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) Pathogenicity Island. Our previous work implied that non-LEE-encoded (Nle) effectors possess functions that inhibit epithelial anti-microbial and inflammation-inducing responses by blocking NF-?B transcription factor activity. Indeed, screens by us and others have identified novel inhibitory mechanisms for NleC and NleH, with key co-operative functions for NleB1 and NleE1. Here, we demonstrate that the LEE-encoded Translocated-intimin receptor (Tir) effector has a potent and specific ability to inhibit NF-?B activation. Indeed, biochemical, imaging and immunoprecipitation studies reveal a novel inhibitory mechanism whereby Tir interaction with cytoplasm-located TNF? receptor-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins induces their proteasomal-independent degradation. Infection studies support this Tir-TRAF relationship but reveal that Tir, like NleC and NleH, has a non-essential contribution in EPEC's NF-?B inhibitory capacity linked to Tir's activity being suppressed by undefined EPEC factors. Infections in a disease-relevant intestinal model confirm key NF-?B inhibitory roles for the NleB1/NleE1 effectors, with other studies providing insights on host targets. The work not only reveals a second Intimin-independent property for Tir and a novel EPEC effector-mediated NF-?B inhibitory mechanism but also lends itself to speculations on the evolution of EPEC's capacity to inhibit NF-?B function. PMID:22144899

  5. Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Shuta; Caillaud, Marie-Ccile; Furzer, Oliver J.; Ishaque, Naveed; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Fabro, Georgina; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome. PMID:25329884

  6. Novel type of Ras effector interaction established between tumour suppressor NORE1A and Ras switch II.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Benjamin; Bee, Christine; Schwarz, Daniel; Yildiz, Ozkan; Moshnikova, Anna; Khokhlatchev, Andrei; Herrmann, Christian

    2008-07-23

    A class of putative Ras effectors called Ras association domain family (RASSF) represents non-enzymatic adaptors that were shown to be important in tumour suppression. RASSF5, a member of this family, exists in two splice variants known as NORE1A and RAPL. Both of them are involved in distinct cellular pathways triggered by Ras and Rap, respectively. Here we describe the crystal structure of Ras in complex with the Ras binding domain (RBD) of NORE1A/RAPL. All Ras effectors share a common topology in their RBD creating an interface with the switch I region of Ras, whereas NORE1A/RAPL RBD reveals additional structural elements forming a unique Ras switch II binding site. Consequently, the contact area of NORE1A is extended as compared with other Ras effectors. We demonstrate that the enlarged interface provides a rationale for an exceptionally long lifetime of the complex. This is a specific attribute characterizing the effector function of NORE1A/RAPL as adaptors, in contrast to classical enzymatic effectors such as Raf, RalGDS or PI3K, which are known to form highly dynamic short-lived complexes with Ras. PMID:18596699

  7. Repeat-containing protein effectors of plant-associated organisms

    PubMed Central

    Mesarich, Carl H.; Bowen, Joanna K.; Hamiaux, Cyril; Templeton, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-associated organisms, including microbes, nematodes, and insects, deliver effector proteins into the apoplast, vascular tissue, or cell cytoplasm of their prospective hosts. These effectors function to promote colonization, typically by altering host physiology or by modulating host immune responses. The same effectors however, can also trigger host immunity in the presence of cognate host immune receptor proteins, and thus prevent colonization. To circumvent effector-triggered immunity, or to further enhance host colonization, plant-associated organisms often rely on adaptive effector evolution. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that several effectors of plant-associated organisms are repeat-containing proteins (RCPs) that carry tandem or non-tandem arrays of an amino acid sequence or structural motif. In this review, we highlight the diverse roles that these repeat domains play in RCP effector function. We also draw attention to the potential role of these repeat domains in adaptive evolution with regards to RCP effector function and the evasion of effector-triggered immunity. The aim of this review is to increase the profile of RCP effectors from plant-associated organisms. PMID:26557126

  8. Effector discovery in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Mirzadi Gohari, Amir; Ware, Sarah B; Wittenberg, Alexander H J; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ben M'Barek, Sarrah; Verstappen, Els C P; van der Lee, Theo A J; Robert, Olivier; Schouten, Henk J; de Wit, Pierre P J G M; Kema, Gert H J

    2015-12-01

    Fungal plant pathogens, such as Zymoseptoria tritici (formerly known as Mycosphaerella graminicola), secrete repertoires of effectors to facilitate infection or trigger host defence mechanisms. The discovery and functional characterization of effectors provides valuable knowledge that can contribute to the design of new and effective disease management strategies. Here, we combined bioinformatics approaches with expression profiling during pathogenesis to identify candidate effectors of Z.?tritici. In addition, a genetic approach was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) carrying putative effectors, enabling the validation of both complementary strategies for effector discovery. In?planta expression profiling revealed that candidate effectors were up-regulated in successive waves corresponding to consecutive stages of pathogenesis, contrary to candidates identified by QTL mapping that were, overall, expressed at low levels. Functional analyses of two top candidate effectors (SSP15 and SSP18) showed their dispensability for Z.?tritici pathogenesis. These analyses reveal that generally adopted criteria, such as protein size, cysteine residues and expression during pathogenesis, may preclude an unbiased effector discovery. Indeed, genetic mapping of genomic regions involved in specificity render alternative effector candidates that do not match the aforementioned criteria, but should nevertheless be considered as promising new leads for effectors that are crucial for the Z.?tritici-wheat pathosystem. PMID:25727413

  9. Immune homeostasis enforced by co-localized effector and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiduo; Gerner, Michael Y; Van Panhuys, Nicholas; Levine, Andrew G; Rudensky, Alexander Y; Germain, Ronald N

    2015-12-10

    FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) prevent autoimmunity by limiting the effector activity of T cells that have escaped thymic negative selection or peripheral inactivation. Despite the information available about molecular factors mediating the suppressive function of Treg cells, the relevant cellular events in intact tissues remain largely unexplored, and whether Treg cells prevent activation of self-specific T cells or primarily limit damage from such cells has not been determined. Here we use multiplex, quantitative imaging in mice to show that, within secondary lymphoid tissues, highly suppressive Treg cells expressing phosphorylated STAT5 exist in discrete clusters with rare IL-2-positive T cells that are activated by self-antigens. This local IL-2 induction of STAT5 phosphorylation in Treg cells is part of a feedback circuit that limits further autoimmune responses. Inducible ablation of T cell receptor expression by Treg cells reduces their regulatory capacity and disrupts their localization in clusters, resulting in uncontrolled effector T cell responses. Our data thus reveal that autoreactive T cells are activated to cytokine production on a regular basis, with physically co-clustering T cell receptor-stimulated Treg cells responding in a negative feedback manner to suppress incipient autoimmunity and maintain immune homeostasis. PMID:26605524

  10. Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector AVR1 Interacts with Exocyst Component Sec5 to Manipulate Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Mpina, Mohamed H; Birch, Paul R J; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Govers, Francine

    2015-11-01

    Phytophthora infestans secretes numerous RXLR effectors that modulate host defense and thereby pave the way for successful invasion. Here, we show that the RXLR effector AVR1 is a virulence factor that promotes colonization and suppresses callose deposition, a hallmark of basal defense. To identify host targets of AVR1, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens and selected Sec5 as a candidate. Sec5 is a subunit of the exocyst, a protein complex that is involved in vesicle trafficking. AVR1-like (A-L), a close homolog of AVR1, also acts as a virulence factor, but unlike AVR1, A-L does not suppress CRINKLER2 (CRN2)-induced cell death or interact with Sec5. Compared with AVR1, A-L is shorter and lacks the carboxyl-terminal tail, the T-region that is crucial for CRN2-induced cell death suppression and Sec5 interaction. In planta analyses revealed that AVR1 and Sec5 are in close proximity, and coimmunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction. Sec5 is required for secretion of the pathogenesis-related protein PR-1 and callose deposition and also plays a role in CRN2-induced cell death. Our findings show that P. infestans manipulates an exocyst subunit and thereby potentially disturbs vesicle trafficking, a cellular process that is important for basal defense. This is a novel strategy that oomycete pathogens exploit to modulate host defense. PMID:26336092

  11. A library of TAL effector nucleases spanning the human genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongsub; Kweon, Jiyeon; Kim, Annie; Chon, Jae Kyung; Yoo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hye Joo; Kim, Sojung; Lee, Choongil; Jeong, Euihwan; Chung, Eugene; Kim, Doyoung; Lee, Mi Seon; Go, Eun Mi; Song, Hye Jung; Kim, Hwangbeom; Cho, Namjin; Bang, Duhee; Kim, Seokjoong; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2013-03-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) can be readily engineered to bind specific genomic loci, enabling the introduction of precise genetic modifications such as gene knockouts and additions. Here we present a genome-scale collection of TALENs for efficient and scalable gene targeting in human cells. We chose target sites that did not have highly similar sequences elsewhere in the genome to avoid off-target mutations and assembled TALEN plasmids for 18,740 protein-coding genes using a high-throughput Golden-Gate cloning system. A pilot test involving 124 genes showed that all TALENs were active and disrupted their target genes at high frequencies, although two of these TALENs became active only after their target sites were partially demethylated using an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase. We used our TALEN library to generate single- and double-gene-knockout cells in which NF-?B signaling pathways were disrupted. Compared with cells treated with short interfering RNAs, these cells showed unambiguous suppression of signal transduction. PMID:23417094

  12. Design and fabrication of an end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, F. R. E.; Umholtz, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The construction is described of a prototype mechanical hand or 'end effector' for use on a remotely controlled robot, but with possible application as a prosthetic device. An analysis of hand motions is reported, from which it is concluded that the two most important manipulations (apart from grasps) are to be able to pick up a tool and draw it into a nested grip against the palm, and to be able to hold a pistol-grip tool such as an electric drill and pull the trigger. A model was tested and found capable of both these operations.

  13. Two Cytoplasmic Effectors of Phytophthora sojae Regulate Plant Cell Death via Interactions with Plant Catalases1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meixiang; Li, Qi; Liu, Tingli; Liu, Li; Shen, Danyu; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Peihan; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora sojae, secrete an arsenal of host cytoplasmic effectors to promote infection. We have shown previously that P. sojae PsCRN63 (for crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins) induces programmed cell death (PCD) while PsCRN115 blocks PCD in planta; however, they are jointly required for full pathogenesis. Here, we find that PsCRN63 alone or PsCRN63 and PsCRN115 together might suppress the immune responses of Nicotiana benthamiana and demonstrate that these two cytoplasmic effectors interact with catalases from N. benthamiana and soybean (Glycine max). Transient expression of PsCRN63 increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, whereas PsCRN115 suppresses this process. Transient overexpression of NbCAT1 (for N. benthamiana CATALASE1) or GmCAT1 specifically alleviates PsCRN63-induced PCD. Suppression of the PsCRN63-induced PCD by PsCRN115 is compromised when catalases are silenced in N. benthamiana. Interestingly, the NbCAT1 is recruited into the plant nucleus in the presence of PsCRN63 or PsCRN115; NbCAT1 and GmCAT1 are destabilized when PsCRN63 is coexpressed, and PsCRN115 inhibits the processes. Thus, PsCRN63/115 manipulates plant PCD through interfering with catalases and perturbing H2O2 homeostasis. Furthermore, silencing of catalase genes enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora capsici, indicating that catalases are essential for plant resistance. Taken together, we suggest that P. sojae secretes these two effectors to regulate plant PCD and H2O2 homeostasis through direct interaction with catalases and, therefore, overcome host immune responses. PMID:25424308

  14. Formins as effector proteins of Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Sonja; Geyer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Formin proteins were recognized as effectors of Rho GTPases some 15 years ago. They contribute to different cellular actin cytoskeleton structures by their ability to polymerize straight actin filaments at the barbed end. While not all formins necessarily interact with Rho GTPases, a subgroup of mammalian formins, termed Diaphanous-related formins or DRFs, were shown to be activated by small GTPases of the Rho superfamily. DRFs are autoinhibited in the resting state by an N- to C-terminal interaction that renders the central actin polymerization domain inactive. Upon the interaction with a GTP-bound Rho, Rac, or Cdc42 GTPase, the C-terminal autoregulation domain is displaced from its N-terminal recognition site and the formin becomes active to polymerize actin filaments. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the structure, activation, and function of formin-GTPase interactions for the mammalian formin families Dia, Daam, FMNL, and FHOD. We describe both direct and indirect interactions of formins with GTPases, which lead to formin activation and cytoskeletal rearrangements. The multifaceted function of formins as effector proteins of Rho GTPases thus reflects the diversity of the actin cytoskeleton in cells. PMID:24914801

  15. New perspectives on effector mechanisms in uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Luger, Dror

    2009-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in its several variants represents human autoimmune uveitis and has been instrumental in obtaining insights into the basic mechanisms of disease. Studies have uncovered that in addition to CD4+ Th1 cells, uveitis can be induced also by CD8+ T cells. Antibodies may have a secondary role after the blood–retinal barrier has been broken. The role in uveitis of a recently discovered IL-17-producing effector T cell type, Th17, is being intensively studied. Th17 cells elicit EAU, can be found in uveitic eyes along with Th1 cells, and are dominant in some types of EAU. In other types of EAU, Th1 cells have a dominant role. The dominant effector type is at least in part determined by conditions under which initial exposure to self-antigen occurs. These findings shed light on the heterogeneity of human disease and may ultimately help to develop better and more rational treatment strategies for human uveitis. PMID:18317764

  16. Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Effector Translocation into Host Cells Using Beta-lactamase Effector Fusions.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Manuel; Zobiak, Bernd; Nauth, Theresa; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria including pathogenic Yersinia spp. employ type III secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells. Inside the host cell the effector proteins manipulate cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. To better understand the control of type III secretion during host cell interaction, sensitive and accurate assays to measure translocation are required. We here describe the application of an assay based on the fusion of a Yersinia enterocolitica effector protein fragment (Yersinia outer protein; YopE) with TEM-1 beta-lactamase for quantitative analysis of translocation. The assay relies on cleavage of a cell permeant FRET dye (CCF4/AM) by translocated beta-lactamase fusion. After cleavage of the cephalosporin core of CCF4 by the beta-lactamase, FRET from coumarin to fluorescein is disrupted and excitation of the coumarin moiety leads to blue fluorescence emission. Different applications of this method have been described in the literature highlighting its versatility. The method allows for analysis of translocation in vitro and also in in vivo, e.g., in a mouse model. Detection of the fluorescence signals can be performed using plate readers, FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy. In the setup described here, in vitro translocation of effector fusions into HeLa cells by different Yersinia mutants is monitored by laser scanning microscopy. Recording intracellular conversion of the FRET reporter by the beta-lactamase effector fusion in real-time provides robust quantitative results. We here show exemplary data, demonstrating increased translocation by a Y. enterocolitica YopE mutant compared to the wild type strain. PMID:26484613

  17. Exploitation of Eukaryotic Subcellular Targeting Mechanisms by Bacterial Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Stuart W.; Galán, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Several bacteria have evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells with the capacity to modulate cellular pathways to promote bacterial survival and replication. The spatial and temporal context in which effectors exert their biochemical activities is critical for their function. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to their precise subcellular localization following delivery into host cells is essential for understanding effector function in the context of infection. Recent studies have shown that bacterial effectors exploit host cellular machinery to accurately target their biochemical activities within the host cell. PMID:23588250

  18. Toward understanding the role of aphid effectors in plant infestation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Patricia A; Bos, Jorunn I B

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, immense progress has been made toward understanding the functions of effectors from a range of plant pathogens, such as oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. Like plant pathogens, aphids form close associations with host plants, featuring signal exchange between the two organisms. While feeding and probing, aphids deliver effector proteins mixed with saliva directly into the host-stylet interface. With the increasing availability of aphid genome and transcriptome sequence data, aphid effector biology is emerging as a new and exciting area of research. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the aphid effector biology field and highlight some of the current questions. PMID:23035915

  19. An Oomycete CRN Effector Reprograms Expression of Plant HSP Genes by Targeting their Promoters.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianqiao; Ma, Zhenchuan; Shen, Danyu; Li, Qi; Li, Wanlin; Su, Liming; Ye, Tingyue; Zhang, Meixiang; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong

    2015-12-01

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of CRN effectors to manipulate plant immune responses and promote infection. However, their functional mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we identified a Phytophthora sojae CRN effector PsCRN108 which contains a putative DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motif and acts in the plant cell nucleus. Silencing of the PsCRN108 gene reduced P. sojae virulence to soybean, while expression of the gene in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced plant susceptibility to P. capsici. Moreover, PsCRN108 could inhibit expression of HSP genes in A. thaliana, N. benthamiana and soybean. Both the HhH motif and nuclear localization signal of this effector were required for its contribution to virulence and its suppression of HSP gene expression. Furthermore, we found that PsCRN108 targeted HSP promoters in an HSE- and HhH motif-dependent manner. PsCRN108 could inhibit the association of the HSE with the plant heat shock transcription factor AtHsfA1a, which initializes HSP gene expression in response to stress. Therefore, our data support a role for PsCRN108 as a nucleomodulin in down-regulating the expression of plant defense-related genes by directly targeting specific plant promoters. PMID:26714171

  20. Phytophthora effector targets a novel component of small RNA pathway in plants to promote infection

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yongli; Shi, Jinxia; Zhai, Yi; Hou, Yingnan; Ma, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    A broad range of parasites rely on the functions of effector proteins to subvert host immune response and facilitate disease development. The notorious Phytophthora pathogens evolved effectors with RNA silencing suppression activity to promote infection in plant hosts. Here we report that the Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 1 (PSR1) can bind to an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein containing the aspartate–glutamate–alanine–histidine-box RNA helicase domain in plants. This protein, designated PSR1-Interacting Protein 1 (PINP1), regulates the accumulation of both microRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis. A null mutation of PINP1 causes embryonic lethality, and silencing of PINP1 leads to developmental defects and hypersusceptibility to Phytophthora infection. These phenotypes are reminiscent of transgenic plants expressing PSR1, supporting PINP1 as a direct virulence target of PSR1. We further demonstrate that the localization of the Dicer-like 1 protein complex is impaired in the nucleus of PINP1-silenced or PSR1-expressing cells, indicating that PINP1 may facilitate small RNA processing by affecting the assembly of dicing complexes. A similar function of PINP1 homologous genes in development and immunity was also observed in Nicotiana benthamiana. These findings highlight PINP1 as a previously unidentified component of RNA silencing that regulates distinct classes of small RNAs in plants. Importantly, Phytophthora has evolved effectors to target PINP1 in order to promote infection. PMID:25902521

  1. An Oomycete CRN Effector Reprograms Expression of Plant HSP Genes by Targeting their Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tianqiao; Ma, Zhenchuan; Shen, Danyu; Li, Qi; Li, Wanlin; Su, Liming; Ye, Tingyue; Zhang, Meixiang; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of CRN effectors to manipulate plant immune responses and promote infection. However, their functional mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we identified a Phytophthora sojae CRN effector PsCRN108 which contains a putative DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motif and acts in the plant cell nucleus. Silencing of the PsCRN108 gene reduced P. sojae virulence to soybean, while expression of the gene in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced plant susceptibility to P. capsici. Moreover, PsCRN108 could inhibit expression of HSP genes in A. thaliana, N. benthamiana and soybean. Both the HhH motif and nuclear localization signal of this effector were required for its contribution to virulence and its suppression of HSP gene expression. Furthermore, we found that PsCRN108 targeted HSP promoters in an HSE- and HhH motif-dependent manner. PsCRN108 could inhibit the association of the HSE with the plant heat shock transcription factor AtHsfA1a, which initializes HSP gene expression in response to stress. Therefore, our data support a role for PsCRN108 as a nucleomodulin in down-regulating the expression of plant defense-related genes by directly targeting specific plant promoters. PMID:26714171

  2. ATP-dependent effector-like functions of RIG-I-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; Dittmann, Meike; Peisley, Alys; Hoffmann, Hans-Heinrich; Gilmore, Rachel H; Schmidt, Tobias; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Hornung, Veit; Rice, Charles M; Hur, Sun

    2015-05-01

    The vertebrate antiviral innate immune system is often considered to consist of two distinct groups of proteins: pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect viral infection and induce the interferon (IFN) signaling, and effectors that directly act against viral replication. Accordingly, previous studies on PRRs, such as RIG-I and MDA5, have primarily focused on their functions in viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) detection and consequent antiviral signaling. We report here that both RIG-I and MDA5 efficiently displace viral proteins pre-bound to dsRNA in a manner dependent on their ATP hydrolysis, and that this activity assists a dsRNA-dependent antiviral effector protein, PKR, and allows RIG-I to promote MDA5 signaling. Furthermore, truncated RIG-I/MDA5 lacking the signaling domain, and hence the IFN stimulatory activity, displaces viral proteins and suppresses replication of certain viruses in an ATP-dependent manner. Thus, this study reveals novel "effector-like" functions of RIG-I and MDA5 that challenge the conventional view of PRRs. PMID:25891073

  3. Therapeutic regulatory T cells subvert effector T cell function in inflamed islets to halt autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mahne, Ashley E; Klementowicz, Joanna E; Chou, Annie; Nguyen, Vinh; Tang, Qizhi

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic regulatory T cells (Tregs) can reverse pre-established autoimmune pathology. In this study, using a mouse model of autoimmune diabetes, we aimed to determine the means by which therapeutic Tregs control islet inflammation. Islet Ag-specific Tregs infiltrated inflamed islets soon after infusion into prediabetic mice, which was quickly followed by a selective reduction of mRNA associated with effector T cells in the islets. This change was partially due to decreased CD8(+) T cell accumulation in the tissue. CD8(+) T cells that remained in the islets after Treg treatment were able to engage dendritic cells in a manner similar to that found in untreated mice, consistent with the retention of an activated phenotype by islet dendritic cells shortly after Treg treatment. Nonetheless, Treg treatment abrogated IFN-? production by intraislet CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells at the protein level with minimal effect on IFN-? mRNA. Sustained expression of IFN-? protein by effector T cells was dependent on common ?-chain cytokine activation of the mTOR pathway, which was suppressed in islet CD8(+) T cells in vivo after Treg treatment. These multifaceted mechanisms underlie the efficacy of therapeutic Treg subversion of effector T cell functions at the site of inflammation to restore normal tissue homeostasis. PMID:25732730

  4. E2~Ub Conjugates Regulate the Kinase Activity of Shigella Effector OspG During Pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Smith, F Donelson; Daurie, Angela; Swaney, Danielle L.; Villen, Judit; Scott, John D.; Stadnyk, Andrew W.; Le Trong, Isolde; Stenkamp, Ronald E.; Klevit, Rachel E.; Rohde, John R.; Brzovic, Peter S.

    2014-03-03

    Pathogenic bacteria introduce effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role in this process by helping to suppress the host inflammatory response. OspG has been reported to bind host E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes activated with ubiquitin (E2~Ub), a key enzyme complex in ubiquitin transfer pathways. A cocrystal structure of the OspG/UbcH5c~Ub complex reveals that complex formation has important ramifications for the activity of both OspG and the UbcH5c~Ub conjugate. OspG is a minimal kinase domain containing only essential elements required for catalysis. UbcH5c~Ub binding stabilizes an active conformation of the kinase, greatly enhancing OspG kinase activity. In contrast, interaction with OspG stabilizes an extended, less reactive form of UbcH5c~Ub. Recognizing conserved E2 features, OspG can interact with at least ten distinct human E2s~Ub. Mouse oral infection studies indicate that E2~Ub conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells.

  5. Dimethyl fumarate suppresses Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease by modifying the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kunitoshi; Tomiki, Hiroki; Inaba, Yuji; Ichikawa, Motoki; Kim, Byung S; Koh, Chang-Sung

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a modifier of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-2 (Nrf2)-kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway. DMF treatment in the effector phase significantly suppressed the development of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) both clinically and histologically. DMF treatment leads to an enhanced Nrf2 antioxidant response in TMEV-IDD mice. DMF treatment in the effector phase significantly suppressed the level of IL-17A mRNA. DMF is known to inhibit differentiation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells via suppressing NF-κB. Taken together, our data suggest that DMF treatment in the effector phase may suppress TMEV-IDD not only via enhancing the antioxidant response but also via suppressing IL-17A. PMID:25721871

  6. Early Decision: Effector and Effector Memory T Cell Differentiation in Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Opata, Michael M.; Stephens, Robin

    2013-01-01

    As effector memory T cells (Tem) are the predominant population elicited by chronic parasitic infections, increasing our knowledge of their function, survival and derivation, as phenotypically and functionally distinct from central memory and effector T cells will be critical to vaccine development for these diseases. In some infections, memory T cells maintain increased effector functions, however; this may require the presence of continued antigen, which can also lead to T cell exhaustion. Alternatively, in the absence of antigen, only the increase in the number of memory cells remains, without enhanced functionality as central memory. In order to understand the requirement for antigen and the potential for longevity or protection, the derivation of each type of memory must be understood. A thorough review of the data establishes the existence of both memory (Tmem) precursors and effector T cells (Teff) from the first hours of an immune response. This suggests a new paradigm of Tmem differentiation distinct from the proposition that Tmem only appear after the contraction of Teff. Several signals have been shown to be important in the generation of memory T cells, such as the integrated strength of signals 1-3 of antigen presentation (antigen receptor, co-stimulation, cytokines) as perceived by each T cell clone. Given that these signals integrated at antigen presentation cells have been shown to determine the outcome of Teff and Tmem phenotypes and numbers, this decision must be made at a very early stage. It would appear that the overwhelming expansion of effector T cells and the inability to phenotypically distinguish memory T cells at early time points has masked this important decision point. This does not rule out an effect of repeated stimulation or chronic inflammatory milieu on populations generated in these early stages. Recent studies suggest that Tmem are derived from early Teff, and we suggest that this includes Tem as well as Tcm. Therefore, we propose a testable model for the pathway of differentiation from nave to memory that suggests that Tem are not fully differentiated effector cells, but derived from central memory T cells as originally suggested by Sallusto et al. in 1999, but much debated since. PMID:24790593

  7. Cerato-platanins: elicitors and effectors.

    PubMed

    Pazzagli, Luigia; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Barsottini, Mario; Vargas, Walter A; Scala, Aniello; Mukherjee, Prasun K

    2014-11-01

    Cerato-platanins are an interesting group of small, secreted, cysteine-rich proteins that have been implicated in virulence of certain plant pathogenic fungi. The relatively recent discovery of these proteins in plant beneficial fungi like Trichoderma spp., and their positive role in induction of defense in plants against invading pathogens has raised the question as to whether these proteins are effectors or elicitor molecules. Here we present a comprehensive review on the occurrence of these conserved proteins across the fungal kingdom, their structure-function relationships, and their physiological roles in plant pathogenic and symbiotic fungi. We also discuss the usefulness of these proteins in evolving strategies for crop protection through a transgenic approach or direct application as elicitors. PMID:25438788

  8. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  9. Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malladi, Narasimha

    1993-01-01

    NASA is developing a mechanism to manipulate and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic modules. The mechanism consists of the following: a base with three motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. The robotics section was tasked with the automation of the RIEE unit. In this report, for the automation of the RIEE unit, application of the Perceptics Vision System was conceptually developed to determine the position and orientation of the RIEE relative to the logistic module, and a MathCad program is written to display the needed displacements for precise alignment and final insertion of the Rack. The uniqueness of this report is that the whole report is in fact a MathCad program including text, derivations, and executable equations with example inputs and outputs.

  10. The Piriformospora indica effector PIIN_08944 promotes the mutualistic Sebacinalean symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Akum, Fidele N.; Steinbrenner, Jens; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Imani, Jafargholi; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic and mutualistic microbes actively suppress plant defense by secreting effector proteins to manipulate the host responses for their own benefit. Current knowledge about fungal effectors has been mainly derived from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes with restricted host range. We studied colonization strategies of the root endophytic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica that colonizes a wide range of plant species thereby establishing long-term mutualistic relationships. The release of P. indica’s genome helped to identify hundreds of genes coding for candidate effectors and provides an opportunity to investigate the role of those proteins in a mutualistic symbiosis. We demonstrate that the candidate effector PIIN_08944 plays a crucial role during fungal colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. PIIN_08944 expression was detected during chlamydospore germination, and fungal deletion mutants (PiΔ08944) showed delayed root colonization. Constitutive over-expression of PIIN_08944 in Arabidopsis rescued the delayed colonization phenotype of the deletion mutant. PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis showed a reduced expression of flg22-induced marker genes of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and the salicylic acid (SA) defense pathway, and expression of PIIN_08944 in barley reduced the burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by flg22 and chitin. These data suggest that PIIN_08944 contributes to root colonization by P. indica by interfering with SA-mediated basal immune responses of the host plant. Consistent with this, PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis also supported the growth of the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis while growth of the necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea on Arabidopsis and Fusarium graminearum on barley was not affected. PMID:26579156

  11. Computational Prediction of Effector Proteins in Fungi: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Blanger, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Effector proteins are mostly secretory proteins that stimulate plant infection by manipulating the host response. Identifying fungal effector proteins and understanding their function is of great importance in efforts to curb losses to plant diseases. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have facilitated the availability of several fungal genomes and 1000s of transcriptomes. As a result, the growing amount of genomic information has provided great opportunities to identify putative effector proteins in different fungal species. There is little consensus over the annotation and functionality of effector proteins, and mostly small secretory proteins are considered as effector proteins, a concept that tends to overestimate the number of proteins involved in a plant-pathogen interaction. With the characterization of Avr genes, criteria for computational prediction of effector proteins are becoming more efficient. There are 100s of tools available for the identification of conserved motifs, signature sequences and structural features in the proteins. Many pipelines and online servers, which combine several tools, are made available to perform genome-wide identification of effector proteins. In this review, available tools and pipelines, their strength and limitations for effective identification of fungal effector proteins are discussed. We also present an exhaustive list of classically secreted proteins along with their key conserved motifs found in 12 common plant pathogens (11 fungi and one oomycete) through an analytical pipeline. PMID:26904083

  12. In Vitro Analyses of T Cell Effector Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wohlfert, Elizabeth A; Carpenter, Andrea C; Belkaid, Yasmine; Bosselut, Rmy

    2016-01-01

    In vitro culture is an important complement, or substitute, to in vivo approaches in order to study T cell effector differentiation. Here, we describe culture conditions that generate specific effector cell types by exposing nave T cells to appropriate cytokine signals. PMID:26294403

  13. Computational Prediction of Effector Proteins in Fungi: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K.; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    Effector proteins are mostly secretory proteins that stimulate plant infection by manipulating the host response. Identifying fungal effector proteins and understanding their function is of great importance in efforts to curb losses to plant diseases. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have facilitated the availability of several fungal genomes and 1000s of transcriptomes. As a result, the growing amount of genomic information has provided great opportunities to identify putative effector proteins in different fungal species. There is little consensus over the annotation and functionality of effector proteins, and mostly small secretory proteins are considered as effector proteins, a concept that tends to overestimate the number of proteins involved in a plant–pathogen interaction. With the characterization of Avr genes, criteria for computational prediction of effector proteins are becoming more efficient. There are 100s of tools available for the identification of conserved motifs, signature sequences and structural features in the proteins. Many pipelines and online servers, which combine several tools, are made available to perform genome-wide identification of effector proteins. In this review, available tools and pipelines, their strength and limitations for effective identification of fungal effector proteins are discussed. We also present an exhaustive list of classically secreted proteins along with their key conserved motifs found in 12 common plant pathogens (11 fungi and one oomycete) through an analytical pipeline. PMID:26904083

  14. The Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopJ proteolytically degrades proteasome subunit RPT6.

    PubMed

    Üstün, Suayib; Börnke, Frederik

    2015-05-01

    Many animal and plant pathogenic bacteria inject type III effector (T3E) proteins into their eukaryotic host cells to suppress immunity. The Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ) family of T3Es is a widely distributed family of effector proteins found in both animal and plant pathogens, and its members are highly diversified in virulence functions. Some members have been shown to possess acetyltransferase activity; however, whether this is a general feature of YopJ family T3Es is currently unknown. The T3E Xanthomonas outer protein J (XopJ), a YopJ family effector from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria, interacts with the proteasomal subunit Regulatory Particle AAA-ATPase6 (RPT6) in planta to suppress proteasome activity, resulting in the inhibition of salicylic acid-related immune responses. Here, we show that XopJ has protease activity to specifically degrade RPT6, leading to reduced proteasome activity in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. Proteolytic degradation of RPT6 was dependent on the localization of XopJ to the plasma membrane as well as on its catalytic triad. Mutation of the Walker B motif of RPT6 prevented XopJ-mediated degradation of the protein but not XopJ interaction. This indicates that the interaction of RPT6 with XopJ is dependent on the ATP-binding activity of RPT6, but proteolytic cleavage additionally requires its ATPase activity. Inhibition of the proteasome impairs the proteasomal turnover of Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis-Related1 (NPR1), the master regulator of salicylic acid responses, leading to the accumulation of ubiquitinated NPR1, which likely interferes with the full induction of NPR1 target genes. Our results show that YopJ family T3Es are not only highly diversified in virulence function but also appear to possess different biochemical activities. PMID:25739698

  15. Acireductone Dioxygenase 1 (ARD1) Is an Effector of the Heterotrimeric G Protein ? Subunit in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Erin J.; Wang, Helen X.; Jiang, Kun; Perovic, Iva; Deshpande, Aditi; Pochapsky, Thomas C.; Temple, Brenda R. S.; Hicks, Stephanie N.; Harden, T. Kendall; Jones, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are conserved from plants to mammals, but the complexity of each system varies. Arabidopsis thaliana contains one G?, one G? (AGB1), and at least three G? subunits, allowing it to form three versions of the heterotrimer. This plant model is ideal for genetic studies because mammalian systems contain hundreds of unique heterotrimers. The activation of these complexes promotes interactions between both the G? subunit and the G?? dimer with enzymes and scaffolds to propagate signaling to the cytoplasm. However, although effectors of G? and G? are known in mammals, no G? effectors were previously known in plants. Toward identifying AGB1 effectors, we genetically screened for dominant mutations that suppress G?-null mutant (agb1-2) phenotypes. We found that overexpression of acireductone dioxygenase 1 (ARD1) suppresses the 2-day-old etiolated phenotype of agb1-2. ARD1 is homologous to prokaryotic and eukaryotic ARD proteins; one function of ARDs is to operate in the methionine salvage pathway. We show here that ARD1 is an active metalloenzyme, and AGB1 and ARD1 both control embryonic hypocotyl length by modulating cell division; they also may contribute to the production of ethylene, a product of the methionine salvage pathway. ARD1 physically interacts with AGB1, and ARD enzymatic activity is stimulated by AGB1 in vitro. The binding interface on AGB1 was deduced using a comparative evolutionary approach and tested using recombinant AGB1 mutants. A possible mechanism for AGB1 activation of ARD1 activity was tested using directed mutations in a loop near the substrate-binding site. PMID:21712381

  16. Advanced Aerodynamic Design of Passive Porosity Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Viken, Sally A.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes aerodynamic design work aimed at developing a passive porosity control effector system for a generic tailless fighter aircraft. As part of this work, a computational design tool was developed and used to layout passive porosity effector systems for longitudinal and lateral-directional control at a low-speed, high angle of attack condition. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted using the NASA Langley computational fluid dynamics code USM3D, in conjunction with a newly formulated surface boundary condition for passive porosity. Results indicate that passive porosity effectors can provide maneuver control increments that equal and exceed those of conventional aerodynamic effectors for low-speed, high-alpha flight, with control levels that are a linear function of porous area. This work demonstrates the tremendous potential of passive porosity to yield simple control effector systems that have no external moving parts and will preserve an aircraft's fixed outer mold line.

  17. Overexpression of a Phytophthora Cytoplasmic CRN Effector Confers Resistance to Disease, Salinity and Drought in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Nasir Ahmed; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Zhang, Qimeng; Ru, Yanyan; Sun, Peng; Dou, Daolong

    2015-12-01

    The Crinkler (CRN) effector family is produced by oomycete pathogens and may manipulate host physiological and biochemical events inside host cells. Here, PsCRN161 was identified from Phytophthora sojae based on its broad and strong cell death suppression activities. The effector protein contains two predicted nuclear localization signals and localized to nuclei of plant cells, indicating that it may target plant nuclei to modify host cell physiology and function. The chimeric gene GFP:PsCRN161 driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana. The four independent PsCRN161-transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance to two oomycete pathogens (P. parasitica and P. capsici) and showed enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Digital gene expression profiling analysis showed that defense-related genes, including ABC transporters, Cyt P450 and receptor-like kinases (RLKs), were significantly up-regulated in PsCRN161-transgenic plants compared with GFP (green fluorescent protein) lines, implying that PsCRN161 expression may protect plants from biotic and abiotic stresses by up-regulation of many defense-related genes. The results reveal previously unknown functions of the oomycete effectors, suggesting that the pathogen effectors could be directly used as functional genes for plant molecular breeding for enhancement of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26546319

  18. The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein XopDXcc8004 triggers plant disease tolerance by targeting DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    Tan, Leitao; Rong, Wei; Luo, Hongli; Chen, Yinhua; He, Chaozu

    2014-11-01

    Plants protect themselves from the harmful effects of pathogens by resistance and tolerance. Disease resistance, which eliminates pathogens, can be modulated by bacterial type III effectors. Little is known about whether disease tolerance, which sustains host fitness with a given pathogen burden, is regulated by effectors. Here, we examined the effects of the Xanthomonas effector protein XopDXcc8004 on plant disease defenses by constructing knockout and complemented Xanthomonas strains, and performing inoculation studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus XiaoJinZhong) and Arabidopsis plants. XopDXcc8004 suppresses disease symptoms without changing bacterial titers in infected leaves. In Arabidopsis, XopDXcc8004 delays the hormone gibberellin (GA)-mediated degradation of RGA (repressor of ga1-3), one of five DELLA proteins that repress GA signaling and promote plant tolerance under biotic and abiotic stresses. The ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif-containing region of XopDXcc8004 interacts with the DELLA domain of RGA and might interfere with the GA-induced binding of GID1, a GA receptor, to RGA. The EAR motif was found to be present in a number of plant transcriptional regulators. Thus, our data suggest that bacterial pathogens might have evolved effectors, which probably mimic host components, to initiate disease tolerance and enhance their survival. PMID:25040905

  19. T-Regulatory Cells and Programmed Death 1+ T Cells Contribute to Effector T-Cell Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalathil, Suresh Gopi; Lugade, Amit Anand; Pradhan, Vandana; Miller, Austin; Parameswaran, Ganapathi Iyer; Sethi, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prone to exacerbations with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae have impaired responses to lipoprotein P6. We hypothesized that an underlying immunosuppressive network could be responsible for the defective antibacterial immunity observed in these patients. We evaluated T regulatory cells (Tregs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and exhausted T effector cells (programmed death 1 [PD-1]+) in patients with COPD, because these cells are known to play a pivotal role in suppressing immune responses. Objectives: We performed an in-depth characterization of Tregs, T effector cells, and MDSC in COPD and correlated their levels and function with disease severity. Methods: Treg, effector T cell, and MDSC frequency from patients with COPD and healthy subjects PBMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Treg immunosuppressive capacity was measured by in vitro suppression assay. The frequency of interferon-? producing T cells and T-cell proliferation were measured after blocking CTLA-4 and PD-1. Plasma proinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine levels were measured. Measurements and Main Results: Significantly increased levels of Tregs, MDSC, and PD-1+ exhausted effector T cells were present in patients with COPD compared with healthy subjects. Tregs from patients with COPD suppressed P6-specific T-cell proliferation to a greater extent than Tregs from healthy subjects. Plasma levels of Treg-generated cytokines, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-? were elevated. Blockade of CTLA-4 resulted in significant augmentation of T-cell IFN-? production in patients with COPD. Conclusions: Functionally suppressive Tregs, MDSCs, and exhausted PD-1+ T cells contribute to effector T-cell dysfunction in COPD. PMID:24825462

  20. Msp40 effector of root-knot nematode manipulates plant immunity to facilitate parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Liu, Qian; Chen, Changlong; Guo, Quanxin; Yin, Junmei; Yang, Guangsui; Jian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are obligate biotrophic parasites that invade plant roots and engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their hosts. Nematode secretions, some of which have immunosuppressing activity, play essential roles in successful parasitism; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the RKN-specific gene MiMsp40, cloned from Meloidogyne incognita, is expressed exclusively in subventral oesophageal gland cells and is strongly upregulated during early parasitic stages. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MiMsp40 were more susceptible to nematode infection than were wild type plants. Conversely, the host-derived MiMsp40 RNAi suppressed nematode parasitism and/or reproduction. Moreover, overexpression of MiMsp40 in plants suppressed the deposition of callose and the expression of marker genes for bacterial elicitor elf18-triggered immunity. Transient expression of MiMsp40 prevented Bax-triggered defence-related programmed cell death. Co-agroinfiltration assays indicated that MiMsp40 also suppressed macroscopic cell death triggered by MAPK cascades or by the ETI cognate elicitors R3a/Avr3a. Together, these results demonstrate that MiMsp40 is a novel Meloidogyne-specific effector that is injected into plant cells by early parasitic stages of the nematode and that plays a role in suppressing PTI and/or ETI signals to facilitate RKN parasitism. PMID:26797310

  1. SUMO as a nuclear hormone receptor effector

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jordan D; Yamamoto, Keith R; Asahina, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Animal development is driven by robust, cell-specific gene expression programs. Understanding mechanistically how a single transcription factor (TF) can govern distinct programs with exquisite precision is a major challenge. We view TFs as signal integrators, taking information from co-regulator interactions, post-translational modifications, other transcription factors, chromatin state, DNA sequence and in some cases, specific noncovalent ligands, to determine the collection of genes regulated by a TF at any given time. Here, we describe a reductionist approach to combinatorial transcriptional regulation, focusing on a single C. elegans TF, the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-25, and a single post-translational modification, SUMO. We suggest that the ratio of sumoylated to unsumoylated NHR-25 could specify a switch-like cell-fate decision during vulval development. Direct examination of this SUMO ratio in vivo is challenging and we discuss possible solutions going forward. We also consider how sumoylation of multiple substrates might be coordinated during vulval development. Finally, we note that iteration of this approach could leverage our sumoylation findings to define the roles of other effectors of NHR-25 in the developing vulva and in other tissues. PMID:25254154

  2. Bacterial secreted effectors and caspase-3 interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Daniel M; McCormick, Beth A

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is a critical process that intrinsically links organism survival to its ability to induce controlled death. Thus, functional apoptosis allows organisms to remove perceived threats to their survival by targeting those cells that it determines pose a direct risk. Central to this process are apoptotic caspases, enzymes that form a signalling cascade, converting danger signals via initiator caspases into activation of the executioner caspase, caspase-3. This enzyme begins disassembly of the cell by activating DNA degrading enzymes and degrading the cellular architecture. Interaction of pathogenic bacteria with caspases, and in particular, caspase-3, can therefore impact both host cell and bacterial survival. With roles outside cell death such as cell differentiation, control of signalling pathways and immunomodulation also being described for caspase-3, bacterial interactions with caspase-3 may be of far more significance in infection than previously recognized. In this review, we highlight the ways in which bacterial pathogens have evolved to subvert caspase-3 both through effector proteins that directly interact with the enzyme or by modulating pathways that influence its activation and activity. PMID:25262664

  3. Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malladi, Narasimha S.

    1994-10-01

    NASA-KSC has developed a mechanism to handle and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic Modules. This mechanism consists of a Base with 3 motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized Boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. During the 1993 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at KSC, I designed an Active Vision (Camera) Arrangement and developed an algorithm to determine (1) the displacements required by the Room for its initial positioning and (2) the rotations required at the five hand-wheels of the RIEE, for the insertion of the Rack, using the centroids fo the Camera Images of the Location Targets in the Logistic Module. Presently, during the summer of '94, I completed the preliminary design of an easily portable measuring instrument using encoders to obtain the 3-Dimensional Coordinates of Location Targets in the Logistics Module relative to the RIEE mechanism frame. The algorithm developed in '93 can use the output of this instrument also. Simplification of the '93 work and suggestions for the future work are discussed.

  4. TAL Effectors Specificity Stems from Negative Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Wicky, Basile I. M.; Stenta, Marco; Dal Peraro, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors are DNA-binding proteins secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria that interfere with native cellular functions by binding to plant DNA promoters. The key element of their architecture is a domain of tandem-repeats with almost identical sequences. Most of the polymorphism is located at two consecutive amino acids termed Repeat Variable Diresidue (RVD). The discovery of a direct link between the RVD composition and the targeted nucleotide allowed the design of TAL-derived DNA-binding tools with programmable specificities that revolutionized the field of genome engineering. Despite structural data, the molecular origins of this specificity as well as the recognition mechanism have remained unclear. Molecular simulations of the recent crystal structures suggest that most of the protein-DNA binding energy originates from non-specific interactions between the DNA backbone and non-variable residues, while RVDs contributions are negligible. Based on dynamical and energetic considerations we postulate that, while the first RVD residue promotes helix breaks – allowing folding of TAL as a DNA-wrapping super-helix – the second provides specificity through a negative discrimination of matches. Furthermore, we propose a simple pharmacophore-like model for the rationalization of RVD-DNA interactions and the interpretation of experimental findings concerning shared affinities and binding efficiencies. The explanatory paradigm presented herein provides a better comprehension of this elegant architecture and we hope will allow for improved designs of TAL-derived biotechnological tools. PMID:24282528

  5. Human Urinary Exosomes as Innate Immune Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Thomas F.; Charles, Philip D.; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S.; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R. Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (TammHorsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

  6. Salmonella takes control: effector-driven manipulation of the host

    PubMed Central

    McGhie, Emma J; Brawn, Lyndsey C; Hume, Peter J; Humphreys, Daniel; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella pathogenesis relies upon the delivery of over thirty specialised effector proteins into the host cell via two distinct type III secretion systems. These effectors act in concert to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, signal transduction pathways, membrane trafficking and pro-inflammatory responses. This allows Salmonella to invade non-phagocytic epithelial cells, establish and maintain an intracellular replicative niche and, in some cases, disseminate to cause systemic disease. This review focuses on the actions of the effectors on their host cell targets during each stage of Salmonella infection. PMID:19157959

  7. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    DOEpatents

    Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

    1991-02-19

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures.

  8. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    DOEpatents

    Burry, David B.; Williams, Paul M.

    1991-02-19

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot.

  9. Effector biology during biotrophic invasion of plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Prateek; Ahmed, Bulbul; Joly, David L; Germain, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Several obligate biotrophic phytopathogens, namely oomycetes and fungi, invade and feed on living plant cells through specialized structures known as haustoria. Deploying an arsenal of secreted proteins called effectors, these pathogens balance their parasitic propagation by subverting plant immunity without sacrificing host cells. Such secreted proteins, which are thought to be delivered by haustoria, conceivably reprogram host cells and instigate structural modifications, in addition to the modulation of various cellular processes. As effectors represent tools to assist disease resistance breeding, this short review provides a bird’s eye view on the relationship between the virulence function of effectors and their subcellular localization in host cells. PMID:25513771

  10. Effector T cell differentiation: are master regulators of effector T cells still the masters?

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Collins, Mary; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2015-12-01

    Effector CD4 T cell lineages have been implicated as potent inducers of autoimmune diseases. Tbet, Gata3 and Rorgt are master transcriptional regulators of Th1, Th2 and Th17 lineages respectively and promote the distinct expression of signature cytokines. Significant progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional network that drives CD4 T cell differentiation, revealing novel points of regulation mediated by transcription factors, cell surface receptors, cytokines and chemokines. Epigenetic modifications and metabolic mediators define the transcriptional landscape in which master transcription factors operate and collaborate with a network of transcriptional modifiers to guide lineage specification, plasticity and function. PMID:26319196

  11. Genomic analysis of 38 Legionella species identifies large and diverse effector repertoires.

    PubMed

    Burstein, David; Amaro, Francisco; Zusman, Tal; Lifshitz, Ziv; Cohen, Ofir; Gilbert, Jack A; Pupko, Tal; Shuman, Howard A; Segal, Gil

    2016-02-01

    Infection by the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila relies on the translocation of ?300 virulence proteins, termed effectors, which manipulate host cell processes. However, almost no information exists regarding effectors in other Legionella pathogens. Here we sequenced, assembled and characterized the genomes of 38 Legionella species and predicted their effector repertoires using a previously validated machine learning approach. This analysis identified 5,885 predicted effectors. The effector repertoires of different Legionella species were found to be largely non-overlapping, and only seven core effectors were shared by all species studied. Species-specific effectors had atypically low GC content, suggesting exogenous acquisition, possibly from the natural protozoan hosts of these species. Furthermore, we detected numerous new conserved effector domains and discovered new domain combinations, which allowed the inference of as yet undescribed effector functions. The effector collection and network of domain architectures described here can serve as a roadmap for future studies of effector function and evolution. PMID:26752266

  12. Vision-based end-effector position error compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Backes, Paul; DiCicco, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a computationally efficient algorithm that provides the ability to accurately place an arm end-effector on a target designated in an image using low speed feed back from a fixed stero camera.

  13. Gunite Scarifying End Effector. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    The Gunite Scarifying End Effector (GSEE) is designed to remove a layer of the gunite tank walls, which are contaminated with radioactivity. Removing this radioactivity is necessary to close the tank.

  14. Plant cells under siege: plant immune system versus pathogen effectors.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shuta; Shirasu, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Pathogen-secreted effector proteins enable pathogens to manipulate plant immunity for successful infection. To penetrate host apoplastic space, pathogens reopen the stomata. Once the invasion into the apoplast occurs, pathogens deceive the host detection system by deploying apoplastic effectors. Pathogens also deliver an arsenal of cytosolic effectors into the host cells, which undermine host immunity such as salicylic acid (SA)-dependent immunity. Here we summarize recent findings that highlight the functions of the effectors from fungal, oomycete and bacterial pathogens in the key steps of infection at the stomata, in the apoplast, and inside the cell. We also discuss cell type-specific responses in the host during infection and the necessity of further investigation of plant-pathogen interactions at spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:26343014

  15. An intelligent end-effector for a rehabilitation robot.

    PubMed

    Gosine, R G; Harwin, W S; Furby, L J; Jackson, R D

    1989-01-01

    A UMI RTX robot, modified with limited end-effector sensors and a restricted but effective vision system, is currently used in a developmental education setting for severely physically disabled children. The low physical and cognitive abilities of the children involved in the project require a semi-autonomous robot with environmental sensing capability to operate in a task oriented mode. A variety of low-cost sensors including proximity, distance, force and slip sensors, have been investigated for integration in end-effectors for the RTX robot. The sensors employed on a modified end-effector are detailed and experimental results are presented. A design for an end-effector with integrated sensors is discussed. The integration of the sensor information into a high-level, task-oriented programming language is detailed and examples of high-level control sequences using sensor inputs are presented. Finally, the development of intelligent gripping strategies based on sensor information is discussed. PMID:2733012

  16. The effector to memory transition of CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    McKinstry, K Kai; Strutt, Tara M; Swain, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    The small number of antigen-specific memory CD4 T cells surviving long-term after antigen or pathogen challenge are often characterized by a surprising degree of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. We here propose that the immune system has evolved to express this diversity in memory T-cell populations, in order to provide flexibility in recall responses, via a rapid transition from heterogeneous effector cells into correspondingly heterogeneous memory cells. Little attention has been paid to another important transition-from resting memory cell to re-activated effector. We would suggest that superior functional attributes of secondary effectors arising from memory CD4 T cells, as compared to primary effectors arising from nave precursors, play an important and underappreciated role in protective secondary immune responses. PMID:18213525

  17. Memory versus effector immune responses in oncolytic virotherapies.

    PubMed

    Macnamara, Cicely; Eftimie, Raluca

    2015-07-21

    The main priority when designing cancer immuno-therapies has been to seek viable biological mechanisms that lead to permanent cancer eradication or cancer control. Understanding the delicate balance between the role of effector and memory cells on eliminating cancer cells remains an elusive problem in immunology. Here we make an initial investigation into this problem with the help of a mathematical model for oncolytic virotherapy; although the model can in fact be made general enough to be applied also to other immunological problems. According to this model, we find that long-term cancer control is associated with a large number of persistent effector cells (irrespective of the initial peak in effector cell numbers). However, this large number of persistent effector cells is sustained by a relatively large number of memory cells. Moreover, the results of the mathematical model suggest that cancer control from a dormant state cannot be predicted by the size of the memory population. PMID:25882747

  18. Toxoplasma gondii effectors are master regulators of the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mariane B.; Jensen, Kirk D.C.; Saeij, Jeroen P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma is a highly successful parasite that establishes a life-long chronic infection. To do this it must carefully regulate immune activation and host cell effector mechanisms. Here we review the latest developments in our understanding of how Toxoplasma counteracts the host’s immune response, and in some cases provokes it, through the use of specific parasite effector proteins. An emerging theme from these discoveries is that Toxoplasma effectors are master regulators of the pro-inflammatory response, which elicits many of the host’s toxoplasmacidal mechanisms. We speculate that combinations of these effectors present in certain Toxoplasma strains work to maintain an optimal parasite burden in different hosts to ensure parasite transmission. PMID:21893432

  19. Design, testing and evaluation of latching end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B.; Vandersluis, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Latching End Effector (LEE) forms part of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) for which Spar Aerospace Ltd, Space Systems Division is the prime contractor. The design, testing and performance evaluation of the Latching End Effector mechanisms is the subject of this paper focusing on: (1) ambient, thermal and vibration testing; (2) snare/rigidize performance testing and interaction during payload acquisition; and (3) latch/umbilical test results and performance.

  20. RipAY, a Plant Pathogen Effector Protein, Exhibits Robust γ-Glutamyl Cyclotransferase Activity When Stimulated by Eukaryotic Thioredoxins.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shoko; Kawazoe, Tomoki; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Kitagawa, Takao; Popa, Crina; Valls, Marc; Genin, Stéphane; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Naotaka; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-25

    The plant pathogenic bacteriumRalstonia solanacearuminjects more than 70 effector proteins (virulence factors) into the host plant cells via the needle-like structure of a type III secretion system. The type III secretion system effector proteins manipulate host regulatory networks to suppress defense responses with diverse molecular activities. Uncovering the molecular function of these effectors is essential for a mechanistic understanding ofR. solanacearumpathogenicity. However, few of the effectors fromR. solanacearumhave been functionally characterized, and their plant targets remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the ChaC domain-containing effector RipAY/RSp1022 fromR. solanacearumexhibits γ-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) activity to degrade the major intracellular redox buffer, glutathione. Heterologous expression of RipAY, but not other ChaC family proteins conserved in various organisms, caused growth inhibition of yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae, and the intracellular glutathione level was decreased to ∼30% of the normal level following expression of RipAY in yeast. Although active site mutants of GGCT activity were non-toxic, the addition of glutathione did not reverse the toxicity, suggesting that the toxicity might be a consequence of activity against other γ-glutamyl compounds. Intriguingly, RipAY protein purified from a bacterial expression system did not exhibit any GGCT activity, whereas it exhibited robust GGCT activity upon its interaction with eukaryotic thioredoxins, which are important for intracellular redox homeostasis during bacterial infection in plants. Our results suggest that RipAY has evolved to sense the host intracellular redox environment, which triggers its enzymatic activity to create a favorable environment forR. solanacearuminfection. PMID:26823466

  1. A Downy Mildew Effector Attenuates Salicylic Acid–Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis by Interacting with the Host Mediator Complex

    PubMed Central

    Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Asai, Shuta; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Piquerez, Sophie; Fabro, Georgina; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are continually exposed to pathogen attack but usually remain healthy because they can activate defences upon perception of microbes. However, pathogens have evolved to overcome plant immunity by delivering effectors into the plant cell to attenuate defence, resulting in disease. Recent studies suggest that some effectors may manipulate host transcription, but the specific mechanisms by which such effectors promote susceptibility remain unclear. We study the oomycete downy mildew pathogen of Arabidopsis, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), and show here that the nuclear-localized effector HaRxL44 interacts with Mediator subunit 19a (MED19a), resulting in the degradation of MED19a in a proteasome-dependent manner. The Mediator complex of ∼25 proteins is broadly conserved in eukaryotes and mediates the interaction between transcriptional regulators and RNA polymerase II. We found MED19a to be a positive regulator of immunity against Hpa. Expression profiling experiments reveal transcriptional changes resembling jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) signalling in the presence of HaRxL44, and also 3 d after infection with Hpa. Elevated JA/ET signalling is associated with a decrease in salicylic acid (SA)–triggered immunity (SATI) in Arabidopsis plants expressing HaRxL44 and in med19a loss-of-function mutants, whereas SATI is elevated in plants overexpressing MED19a. Using a PR1::GUS reporter, we discovered that Hpa suppresses PR1 expression specifically in cells containing haustoria, into which RxLR effectors are delivered, but not in nonhaustoriated adjacent cells, which show high PR1::GUS expression levels. Thus, HaRxL44 interferes with Mediator function by degrading MED19, shifting the balance of defence transcription from SA-responsive defence to JA/ET-signalling, and enhancing susceptibility to biotrophs by attenuating SA-dependent gene expression. PMID:24339748

  2. A Novel Ras Effector Pathway Found to Play Significant Role in Tumor Suppression | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; photo by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer Normal cells have mechanisms to prevent the development of cancer. Among these is a type of tumor suppressor mechanism known as oncogene-induced senescence, or OIS, which halts the uncontrolled growth of cells caused by mutations in oncogenes. The oncogene Ras plays a crucial role in inducing OIS through a specific cascade of proteins, as reported in a recent article in Molecular and Cellular Biology by Jacqueline Salotti, Ph.D., and colleagues in the Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation Section of the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, Center for Cancer Research (CCR).

  3. The limited capacity of malignant glioma-derived exosomes to suppress peripheral immune effectors.

    PubMed

    Iorgulescu, J Bryan; Ivan, Michael E; Safaee, Michael; Parsa, Andrew T

    2016-01-15

    Tumor-derived microvesicular exosomes permit intercellular communication both locally and systemically by delivering a snapshot of the tumor cell's constituents. We thus investigated whether exosomes mediate malignant glioma's facility for inducing peripheral immunosuppression. In Western blot and RT-PCR analyses, glioma-derived exosomes displayed exosome-specific markers, but failed to recapitulate the antigen-presentation machinery, surface co-modulatory signals, or immunosuppressive mediator status of their parent tumor cells. Treatment with glioma-derived exosomes promoted immunosuppressive HLA-DR(low) monocytic phenotypes, but failed to induce monocytic PD-L1 expression or alter the activation of cytotoxic T-cells from patients' peripheral blood by FACS and RT-PCR analyses. Our results suggest that malignant glioma-derived exosomes are restricted in their capacity to directly prime peripheral immunosuppression. PMID:26711578

  4. Molecular determinants of resistance activation and suppression by Phytophthora infestans effector IPI-O

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite intensive breeding efforts, potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, remains a threat to potato production worldwide because newly evolved pathogen strains have overcome major resistance genes. The Rpi-blb1 gene (also known as RB), from the wild potato Sola...

  5. Functional heterogeneity of human effector CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Takata, Hiroshi; Naruto, Takuya; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2012-02-01

    Effector CD8(+) T cells are believed to be terminally differentiated cells having cytotoxic activity and the ability to produce effector cytokines such as INF-? and TNF-?. We investigated the difference between CXCR1(+) and CXCR1(-) subsets of human effector CD27(-)CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells. The subsets expressed cytolytic molecules similarly and exerted substantial cytolytic activity, whereas only the CXCR1(-) subset had IL-2 productivity and self-proliferative activity and was more resistant to cell death than the CXCR1(+) subset. These differences were explained by the specific up-regulation of CAMK4, SPRY2, and IL-7R in the CXCR1(-) subset and that of pro-apoptotic death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in the CXCR1(+) subset. The IL-2 producers were more frequently found in the IL-7R(+) subset of the CXCR1(-) effector CD8(+) T cells than in the IL-7R(-) subset. IL-7/IL-7R signaling promoted cell survival only in the CXCR1(-) subset. The present study has highlighted a novel subset of effector CD8(+) T cells producing IL-2 and suggests the importance of this subset in the homeostasis of effector CD8(+) T cells. PMID:22174157

  6. Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector AVR1 Interacts with Exocyst Component Sec5 to Manipulate Plant Immunity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yu; Mpina, Mohamed H.; Birch, Paul R.J.; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Govers, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans secretes numerous RXLR effectors that modulate host defense and thereby pave the way for successful invasion. Here, we show that the RXLR effector AVR1 is a virulence factor that promotes colonization and suppresses callose deposition, a hallmark of basal defense. To identify host targets of AVR1, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens and selected Sec5 as a candidate. Sec5 is a subunit of the exocyst, a protein complex that is involved in vesicle trafficking. AVR1-like (A-L), a close homolog of AVR1, also acts as a virulence factor, but unlike AVR1, A-L does not suppress CRINKLER2 (CRN2)-induced cell death or interact with Sec5. Compared with AVR1, A-L is shorter and lacks the carboxyl-terminal tail, the T-region that is crucial for CRN2-induced cell death suppression and Sec5 interaction. In planta analyses revealed that AVR1 and Sec5 are in close proximity, and coimmunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction. Sec5 is required for secretion of the pathogenesis-related protein PR-1 and callose deposition and also plays a role in CRN2-induced cell death. Our findings show that P. infestans manipulates an exocyst subunit and thereby potentially disturbs vesicle trafficking, a cellular process that is important for basal defense. This is a novel strategy that oomycete pathogens exploit to modulate host defense. PMID:26336092

  7. Piperine from black pepper inhibits activation-induced proliferation and effector function of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Carolyn D; Rodgers, Gemma; Liwski, Robert S; Hoskin, David W

    2015-11-01

    Piperine is a major alkaloid component of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn), which is a widely consumed spice. Here, we investigated the effect of piperine on mouse T lymphocyte activation. Piperine inhibited polyclonal and antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation without affecting cell viability. Piperine also suppressed T lymphocyte entry into the S and G2 /M phases of the cell cycle, and decreased expression of G1 -associated cyclin D3, CDK4, and CDK6. In addition, piperine inhibited CD25 expression, synthesis of interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-17A, and the generation of cytotoxic effector cells. The inhibitory effect of piperine on T lymphocytes was associated with hypophosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and inhibitor of ?B?, but not ZAP-70. The ability of piperine to inhibit several key signaling pathways involved in T lymphocyte activation and the acquisition of effector function suggests that piperine might be useful in the management of T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25900378

  8. Broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies require Fc effector functions for in vivo activity

    PubMed Central

    Bournazos, Stylianos; Klein, Florian; Pietzsch, John; Seaman, Michael S.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 provide both effective pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in murine and non-human primate models, suggesting their potential use in humans. While much is known about the role of variable domains in the neutralization breadth and potency of these bNAbs, the contribution of Fc domains to their activities is, by contrast, poorly characterized. Assessment of the in vivo activity of several bNAbs revealed that FcγR-mediated effector function contributes substantially to their capacity to block viral entry, suppress viremia and confer therapeutic activity. Enhanced in vivo potency of anti-HIV-1 bNAbs was associated with preferential engagement of activating, but not inhibitory FcγRs and Fc domain-engineered bNAb variants with selective binding capacity for activating FcγRs displayed augmented protective activity. These findings reveal key roles for Fc effector function in the in vivo activity of anti-HIV-1 bNAbs and provide novel strategies for generating bNAbs with improved efficacy. PMID:25215485

  9. Critical Roles of Chemoresistant Effector and Regulatory T Cells in Antitumor Immunity after Lymphodepleting Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saida, Yu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Baba, Junko; Sato, Ko; Shoji, Satoshi; Igarashi, Natsue; Kondo, Rie; Okajima, Masaaki; Koshio, Jun; Ichikawa, Kosuke; Nozaki, Koichiro; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Koya, Toshiyuki; Miura, Satoru; Tanaka, Junta; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Hirohisa; Nakata, Koh; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-07-15

    Antitumor immunity is augmented by cytotoxic lymphodepletion therapies. Adoptively transferred naive and effector T cells proliferate extensively and show enhanced antitumor effects in lymphopenic recipients. Although the impact of lymphodepletion on transferred donor T cells has been well evaluated, its influence on recipient T cells is largely unknown. The current study demonstrates that both regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector CD8(+) T cells from lymphopenic recipients play critical roles in the development of antitumor immunity after lymphodepletion. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment depleted lymphocytes more efficiently than other cytotoxic agents; however, the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs was significantly increased in CPA-treated lymphopenic mice. Depletion of these chemoresistant Tregs following CPA treatment and transfer of naive CD4(+) T cells augmented the antitumor immunity and significantly suppressed tumor progression. Further analyses revealed that recipient CD8(+) T cells were responsible for this augmentation. Using Rag2(-/-) mice or depletion of recipient CD8(+) T cells after CPA treatment abrogated the augmentation of antitumor effects in CPA-treated reconstituted mice. The transfer of donor CD4(+) T cells enhanced the proliferation of CD8(+) T cells and the priming of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells originating from the lymphopenic recipients. These results highlight the importance of the recipient cells surviving cytotoxic regimens in cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26041539

  10. Two-dimensional analysis of human lymphocyte proteins: I. An assay for lymphocyte effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, K.E.; Anderson, N.G.

    1981-08-01

    We describe an assay for lymphocyte effectors that is capable of establishing the existence of regulators of lymphocyte gene expression (including post-transcriptional control and protein processing) and has the ability to characterize the response at the molecular level. The hypothesis that circulating effector substances excreted through the kidney can be actively present in human urine was tested with this assay. Thus, biologically active protein molecules in urine were detected at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L and over a wide range of dilutions. Activities were detected and quantiated by culturing human lymphocytes with human urinary proteins in the presence of (/sup 35/S)methionine and subsequently analyzing the labeled lymphocyte proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Thus, protein analysis by two-dimensional gels was used to indirectly detect changes produced in cultured lymphocytes after exposure to regulatory molecules. Proteins or sets of lymphocyte proteins appeared or disappeared after exposure to normal or pathological human urinary proteins. Normal human urinary proteins triggered the appearance of sets of proteins referred to by number as the Urocon proteins and suppressed the synthesis of protein sets referred to as Urocof proteins. In addition to the normal alterations described, urinary proteins from individuals with influenza or acute leukemia and after renal transplantation were capable of inducing unique alterations in lymphocyte patterns.

  11. Effector and suppressor circuits of the immune response are activated in vivo by different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, H.; Kripke, M.L.

    1987-06-01

    The application of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) onto the skin of mice induces a contact hypersensitivity immune response. Lymph nodes draining the skin painted with FITC contain fluorescent cells that induce contact hypersensitivity to FITC when injected into normal mice. The antigen-presenting cells responsible for activating the effector pathway of the contact hypersensitivity response express Ia histocompatibility determinants and are resistant to inactivation with gamma-radiation. Exposing the skin to low doses of UV radiation (280-320 nm) before the application of FITC suppresses the contact hypersensitivity response to FITC. Cells present in the draining lymph nodes of these mice induce suppressor T lymphocytes when injected into normal recipients. The inducer cells in the draining lymph nodes are Thy 1+, Ia- and are inactivated by gamma-radiation. These studies demonstrate that different mechanisms are involved in the in vivo activation of effector and suppressor immune responses, and they suggest that the mode of initial antigen presentation determines which immunologic circuit will be activated in response to a contact-sensitizing antigen.

  12. Transgenic plants that express the phytoplasma effector SAP11 show altered phosphate starvation and defense responses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yen-Ting; Li, Meng-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Tan, Choon Meng; Su, Li-Wen; Lin, Wei-Yi; Shih, Hsien-Tzung; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen; Yang, Jun-Yi

    2014-03-01

    Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom protein11 shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular phosphate (Pi) and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and microRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom protein11 suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24464367

  13. Forkhead Transcription Factors Are Critical Effectors of Cell Death and Cell Cycle Arrest Downstream of PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Noriaki; Ramaswamy, Shivapriya; Vazquez, Francisca; Signoretti, Sabina; Loda, Massimo; Sellers, William R.

    2000-01-01

    PTEN acts as a tumor suppressor, at least in part, by antagonizing phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Here we show that Forkhead transcription factors FKHRL1 and FKHR, substrates of the Akt kinase, are aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm and cannot activate transcription in PTEN-deficient cells. Restoration of PTEN function restores FKHR to the nucleus and restores transcriptional activation. Expression of a constitutively active form of FKHR that cannot be phosphorylated by Akt produces the same effect as reconstitution of PTEN on PTEN-deficient tumor cells. Specifically, activated FKHR induces apoptosis in cells that undergo PTEN-mediated cell death and induces G1 arrest in cells that undergo PTEN-mediated cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, both PTEN and constitutively active FKHR induce p27KIP1 protein but not p21. These data suggest that Forkhead transcription factors are critical effectors of PTEN-mediated tumor suppression. PMID:11073996

  14. Potency of transgenic effectors for neurogenetic manipulation in Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Lyutova, Radostina; van Giesen, Lena; Rosner, Ronny; Wegener, Christian; Sprecher, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Genetic manipulations of neuronal activity are a cornerstone of studies aimed to identify the functional impact of defined neurons for animal behavior. With its small nervous system, rapid life cycle, and genetic amenability, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an attractive model system to study neuronal circuit function. In the past two decades, a large repertoire of elegant genetic tools has been developed to manipulate and study neural circuits in the fruit fly. Current techniques allow genetic ablation, constitutive silencing, or hyperactivation of neuronal activity and also include conditional thermogenetic or optogenetic activation or inhibition. As for all genetic techniques, the choice of the proper transgenic tool is essential for behavioral studies. Potency and impact of effectors may vary in distinct neuron types or distinct types of behavior. We here systematically test genetic effectors for their potency to alter the behavior of Drosophila larvae, using two distinct behavioral paradigms: general locomotor activity and directed, visually guided navigation. Our results show largely similar but not equal effects with different effector lines in both assays. Interestingly, differences in the magnitude of induced behavioral alterations between different effector lines remain largely consistent between the two behavioral assays. The observed potencies of the effector lines in aminergic and cholinergic neurons assessed here may help researchers to choose the best-suited genetic tools to dissect neuronal networks underlying the behavior of larval fruit flies. PMID:25359929

  15. Salmonella Effectors: Important players modulating host cell function during infection

    PubMed Central

    Agbor, Terence A.; McCormick, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative facultative foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans. This bacterium has evolved a sophisticated machinery to alter host cell function critical to its virulence capabilities. Central to S. Typhimurium pathogenesis are two Type three secretion systems (T3SS) encoded within pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2 that are responsible for the secretion and translocation of a set of bacterial proteins termed effectors into host cells with the intention of altering host cell physiology for bacterial entry and survival. Thus, once delivered by the T3SS, the secreted effectors play critical roles in manipulating the host cell to allow for bacteria invasion, induction of inflammatory responses, and the assembly of an intracellular protective niche created for bacterial survival and replication. Emerging evidence indicates that these effectors are modular proteins consisting of distinct functional domains/motifs that are utilized by the bacteria to activate intracellular signaling pathways modifying host cell function. Also, recently reported are the dual functionality of secreted effectors and the concept of “terminal reassortment”. Herein, we highlight some of the nascent concepts regarding Salmonella effectors in the context infection. PMID:21902796

  16. Structural Analysis of Iac Repressor Bound to Allosteric Effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Daber,R.; Stayrook, S.; Rosenberg, A.; Lewis, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lac operon is a model system for understanding how effector molecules regulate transcription and are necessary for allosteric transitions. The crystal structures of the lac repressor bound to inducer and anti-inducer molecules provide a model for how these small molecules can modulate repressor function. The structures of the apo repressor and the repressor bound to effector molecules are compared in atomic detail. All effectors examined here bind to the repressor in the same location and are anchored to the repressor through hydrogen bonds to several hydroxyl groups of the sugar ring. Inducer molecules form a more extensive hydrogen-bonding network compared to anti-inducers and neutral effector molecules. The structures of these effector molecules suggest that the O6 hydroxyl on the galactoside is essential for establishing a water-mediated hydrogen bonding network that bridges the N-terminal and C-terminal sub-domains. The altered hydrogen bonding can account in part for the different structural conformations of the repressor, and is vital for the allosteric transition.

  17. Potency of Transgenic Effectors for Neurogenetic Manipulation in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Lyutova, Radostina; van Giesen, Lena; Rosner, Ronny; Wegener, Christian; Sprecher, Simon G.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic manipulations of neuronal activity are a cornerstone of studies aimed to identify the functional impact of defined neurons for animal behavior. With its small nervous system, rapid life cycle, and genetic amenability, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an attractive model system to study neuronal circuit function. In the past two decades, a large repertoire of elegant genetic tools has been developed to manipulate and study neural circuits in the fruit fly. Current techniques allow genetic ablation, constitutive silencing, or hyperactivation of neuronal activity and also include conditional thermogenetic or optogenetic activation or inhibition. As for all genetic techniques, the choice of the proper transgenic tool is essential for behavioral studies. Potency and impact of effectors may vary in distinct neuron types or distinct types of behavior. We here systematically test genetic effectors for their potency to alter the behavior of Drosophila larvae, using two distinct behavioral paradigms: general locomotor activity and directed, visually guided navigation. Our results show largely similar but not equal effects with different effector lines in both assays. Interestingly, differences in the magnitude of induced behavioral alterations between different effector lines remain largely consistent between the two behavioral assays. The observed potencies of the effector lines in aminergic and cholinergic neurons assessed here may help researchers to choose the best-suited genetic tools to dissect neuronal networks underlying the behavior of larval fruit flies. PMID:25359929

  18. Ancient class of translocated oomycete effectors targets the host nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Schornack, Sebastian; van Damme, Mireille; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cano, Liliana M.; Smoker, Matthew; Thines, Marco; Gaulin, Elodie; Kamoun, Sophien; Huitema, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens use specialized secretion systems and targeting signals to translocate effector proteins inside host cells, a process that is essential for promoting disease and parasitism. However, the amino acid sequences that determine host delivery of eukaryotic pathogen effectors remain mostly unknown. The Crinkler (CRN) proteins of oomycete plant pathogens, such as the Irish potato famine organism Phytophthora infestans, are modular proteins with predicted secretion signals and conserved N-terminal sequence motifs. Here, we provide direct evidence that CRN N termini mediate protein transport into plant cells. CRN host translocation requires a conserved motif that is present in all examined plant pathogenic oomycetes, including the phylogenetically divergent species Aphanomyces euteiches that does not form haustoria, specialized infection structures that have been implicated previously in delivery of effectors. Several distinct CRN C termini localized to plant nuclei and, in the case of CRN8, required nuclear accumulation to induce plant cell death. These results reveal a large family of ubiquitous oomycete effector proteins that target the host nucleus. Oomycetes appear to have acquired the ability to translocate effector proteins inside plant cells relatively early in their evolution and before the emergence of haustoria. Finally, this work further implicates the host nucleus as an important cellular compartment where the fate of plant–microbe interactions is determined. PMID:20847293

  19. Podoplanin negatively regulates CD4+ effector T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Anneli; Burkett, Patrick R.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Buckley, Christopher D.; Watson, Steve P.; Bettelli, Estelle; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN, also known as Gp38) is highly expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells, where it regulates development of lymphatic vessels. We have recently observed that PDPN is also expressed on effector T cells that infiltrate target tissues during autoimmune inflammation; however, the function of PDPN in T cells is largely unclear. Here, we demonstrated that global deletion of Pdpn results in exaggerated T cell responses and spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice with a susceptible genetic background. In contrast, T cellspecific overexpression of PDPN resulted in profound defects in IL-7mediated T cell expansion and survival. Consequently, these animals exhibited a more rapid resolution of CNS inflammation, characterized by a reduced effector CD4+ T cell population in the CNS. Mice harboring a T cellspecific deletion of Pdpn developed exacerbated EAE, with increased accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells in the CNS. Transcriptional profiling of naturally occurring PDPN+ effector T cells in the CNS revealed increased expression of other inhibitory receptors, such as Pd1 and Tim3, and decreased expression of prosurvival factors, including Il7ra. Together, our data suggest that PDPN functions as an inhibitory molecule on T cells, thereby promoting tissue tolerance by limiting long-term survival and maintenance of CD4+ effector T cells in target organs. PMID:25415436

  20. Ras Effector Mutant Expression Suggest a Negative Regulator Inhibits Lung Tumor Formation

    PubMed Central

    Vandal, Guillaume; Geiling, Benjamin; Dankort, David

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the most deadly malignancy in industrialized countries and accounts for 18% of all cancer-related deaths worldwide. Over 70% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are diagnosed at a late stage, with a 5-year survival below 10%. KRAS and the EGFR are frequently mutated in NSCLC and while targeted therapies for patients with EGFR mutations exist, oncogenic KRAS is thus far not druggable. KRAS activates multiple signalling pathways, including the PI3K/Akt pathway, the Raf-Mek-Erk pathway and the RalGDS/Ral pathway. Lung-specific expression of BrafV600E, the most prevalent BRAF mutation found in human tumors, results in Raf-Mek-Erk pathway activation and in the formation of benign adenomas that undergo widespread senescence in a Cre-activated Braf mouse model (BrafCA). However, oncogenic KRAS expression in mice induces adenocarcinomas, suggesting additional KRAS-activated pathways cooperate with sustained RAF-MEK-ERK signalling to bypass the oncogene-induced senescence proliferation arrest. To determine which KRAS effectors were responsible for tumor progression, we created four effector domain mutants (S35, G37, E38 and C40) in G12V-activated KRAS and expressed these alone or with BrafV600E in mouse lungs… The S35 and E38 mutants bind to Raf proteins but not PI3K or RalGDS; the G37 mutant binds to RalGDS and not Raf or PI3K and the C40 mutant is specific to PI3K. We designed lentiviral vectors to code for Cre recombinase along with KRAS mutants (V12, V12/S35, V12/G37, V12/E38 or V12/C40) or EGFP as a negative control.. These lentiviruses were used to infect BrafCA and wild-type mice. Surprisingly there was a significant decrease in tumor number and penetrance with each KRAS effector domain mutant relative to controls, suggesting that KRAS directly activates effectors with tumor suppressive functions. PMID:24489653

  1. The Phytophthora sojae Avr1d gene encodes an RxLR-dEER effector with presence and absence polymorphisms among pathogen strains.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weixiao; Dong, Suomeng; Zhai, Luchong; Lin, Yachun; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2013-08-01

    Soybean root and stem rot is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. The interaction between P. sojae and soybean fits the "gene-for-gene" hypothesis. Although more than 10 P. sojae avirulence (Avr) effectors have been genetically identified, nearly half of genetically defined avr genes have been cloned. In a previous bioinformatic and global transcriptional analysis, we identified a P. sojae RxLR effector, Avr1d, which was 125 amino acids in length. Mapping data demonstrated that Avr1d presence or absence in the genome was co-segregated with the Avr1d avirulence phenotype in F2 populations. Transient expression of the Avr1d gene using co-bombardment in soybean isogenic lines revealed that this gene triggered a hypersensitive response (HR) in the presence of Rps1d. Sequencing of Avr1d genes in different P. sojae strains revealed two Avr1d alleles. Although polymorphic, the two Avr1d alleles could trigger Rps1d-mediated HR. P. sojae strains carrying either of the alleles were avirulent on Rps1d soybean lines. Avr1d was upregulated during the germinating cyst and early infection stages. Furthermore, transient expression of Avr1d in Nicotiana benthamiana suppressed BAX-induced cell death and enhanced P. capsici infection. Avr1d also suppressed effector-triggered immunity induction by associating with Avr1b and Rps1b, suggestive of a role in suppressing plant immunity. PMID:23594349

  2. Hepatic effector CD8(+) T-cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Iannacone, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) pathogenesis. During acute, self-limited infections, these cells are instrumental to viral clearance; in chronic settings, they sustain repetitive cycles of hepatocellular necrosis that promote hepatocellular carcinoma development. Both CD8(+) T-cell defensive and destructive functions are mediated by antigen-experienced effector cells and depend on the ability of these cells to migrate to the liver, recognize hepatocellular antigens and perform effector functions. Understanding the signals that modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of CD8(+) T cells in the liver, particularly in the context of antigen recognition, is therefore critical to gaining insight into the pathogenesis of acute and chronic HBV infection. Here, we highlight recent data on how effector CD8(+) T cells traffic within the liver, and we discuss the potential for novel imaging techniques to shed light on this important aspect of HBV pathogenesis. PMID:25242274

  3. Special-purpose multifingered robotic end-effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    A number of advanced multifingered robotic end-effectors have been developed recently in which the finger joints are powered from external actuators. Although this gives dexterous performance, there are considerable problems with power transmission, due to the use of flexible tendons between the external actuators and the individual finger joints. If a multifingered robotic end-effector is to be operated in a confined space, local actuation of the fingers needs to be fully considered, even if there is a reduction in hand dexterity over that of an externally mounted actuator system. The University of Southampton has developed a number of end-effectors that incorporate integral finger actuators and mechanisms, two examples of which are discussed in this paper.

  4. Lineage relationship of effector and memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Restifo, Nicholas P.; Gattinoni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is characterized by the ability to form long-lived immunological memory. Upon re-exposure to antigen, memory T cells respond more rapidly and robustly than nave T cells, providing better clearance of pathogens. Recent reviews have reinforced the text-book view that memory T cells arise from effector cells. Although this notion is teleologically appealing, emerging data is more consistent with a model where nave cells directly develop into memory cells without transitioning through an effector stage. A clear understanding of the lineage relationships between memory and effector cells has profound implications for the design of vaccines and for the development of effective T cell-based therapies. PMID:24148236

  5. Toxoplasma's ways of manipulating the host transcriptome via secreted effectors.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Bougdour, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii strikes a subtle balance with the host immune system that not only prevents host death but also promotes parasite persistence. Although being enclosed within a parasitophorous vacuole, the parasite actively interfaces with host cell signaling pathways, thereby directing host cell responses. To this end, T. gondii delivers effector proteins into the host cell that co-opt host transcription factors and eventually modulate gene expression. Aside from the secretory Rhoptry organelles initially described as the main source of such effectors, Dense Granules are now recognized as critical in delivering products that remain confined at the vacuolar space or traffic beyond the vacuole membrane to the host cell nucleus and contribute to rewire host gene expression. This review highlights the latest breakthroughs in T. gondii effector discovery and their modus operandi during infection. PMID:25912924

  6. Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Henrik U.; Mitrousia, Georgia K.; de Wit, Pierre J.G.M.; Fitt, Bruce D.L.

    2014-01-01

    R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed ‘effector-triggered defence’ (ETD). Unlike PTI and ETI, ETD is mediated by R genes encoding cell surface-localised receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that engage the receptor-like kinase SOBIR1. In contrast to this extracellular recognition, ETI is initiated by intracellular detection of pathogen effectors. ETI is usually associated with fast, hypersensitive host cell death, whereas ETD often triggers host cell death only after an elapsed period of endophytic pathogen growth. In this opinion, we focus on ETD responses against foliar fungal pathogens of crops. PMID:24856287

  7. Hepatic effector CD8+ T-cell dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Iannacone, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cells play a critical role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) pathogenesis. During acute, self-limited infections, these cells are instrumental to viral clearance; in chronic settings, they sustain repetitive cycles of hepatocellular necrosis that promote hepatocellular carcinoma development. Both CD8+ T-cell defensive and destructive functions are mediated by antigen-experienced effector cells and depend on the ability of these cells to migrate to the liver, recognize hepatocellular antigens and perform effector functions. Understanding the signals that modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of CD8+ T cells in the liver, particularly in the context of antigen recognition, is therefore critical to gaining insight into the pathogenesis of acute and chronic HBV infection. Here, we highlight recent data on how effector CD8+ T cells traffic within the liver, and we discuss the potential for novel imaging techniques to shed light on this important aspect of HBV pathogenesis. PMID:25242274

  8. Effector and suppressor T cells in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a T-cell mediated immune disease in which gliadin-derived peptides activate lamina propria effector CD4+ T cells. This activation leads to the release of cytokines, compatible with a Th1-like pattern, which play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CD, controlling many aspects of the inflammatory immune response. Recent studies have shown that a novel subset of effector T cells, characterized by expression of high levels of IL-17A, termed Th17 cells, plays a pathogenic role in CD. While these effector T cell subsets produce proinflammatory cytokines, which cause substantial tissue injury in vivo in CD, recent studies have suggested the existence of additional CD4+ T cell subsets with suppressor functions. These subsets include type 1 regulatory T cells and CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells, expressing the master transcription factor Foxp3, which have important implications for disease progression. PMID:26139981

  9. The Xanthomonas effector XopJ triggers a conditional hypersensitive response upon treatment of N. benthamiana leaves with salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    stn, Suayib; Bartetzko, Verena; Brnke, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    XopJ is a Xanthomonas type III effector protein that promotes bacterial virulence on susceptible pepper plants through the inhibition of the host cell proteasome and a resultant suppression of salicylic acid (SA) dependent defense responses. We show here that Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently expressing XopJ display hypersensitive response (HR) like symptoms when exogenously treated with SA. This apparent avirulence function of XopJ was further dependent on effector myristoylation as well as on an intact catalytic triad, suggesting a requirement of its enzymatic activity for HR-like symptom elicitation. The ability of XopJ to cause a HR-like symptom development upon SA treatment was lost upon silencing of SGT1 and NDR1, respectively, but was independent of EDS1 silencing, suggesting that XopJ is recognized by an R protein of the CC-NBS-LRR class. Furthermore, silencing of NPR1 abolished the elicitation of HR-like symptoms in XopJ expressing leaves after SA application. Measurement of the proteasome activity indicated that proteasome inhibition by XopJ was alleviated in the presence of SA, an effect that was not observed in NPR1 silenced plants. Our results suggest that XopJ triggered HR-like symptoms are closely related to the virulence function of the effector and that XopJ follows a two-signal model in order to elicit a response in the non-host plant N. benthamiana. PMID:26284106

  10. Planar cell polarity effector gene Intu regulates cell fate-specific differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Dai, D; Li, L; Huebner, A; Zeng, H; Guevara, E; Claypool, D J; Liu, A; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway are essential for a number of developmental processes in mammals, such as convergent extension and ciliogenesis. Tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway are believed to mediate PCP signals in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner. However, how PCP signaling controls the morphogenesis of mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of inturned (Intu), a tissue-specific PCP effector gene, during hair follicle formation in mice. Tissue-specific disruption of Intu in embryonic epidermis resulted in hair follicle morphogenesis arrest because of the failure of follicular keratinocyte to differentiate. Targeting Intu in the epidermis resulted in almost complete loss of primary cilia in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, and a suppressed hedgehog signaling pathway. Surprisingly, the epidermal stratification and differentiation programs and barrier function were not affected. These results demonstrate that tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway control the differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia in a cell fate- and context-dependent manner, which may be critical in orchestrating the propagation and interpretation of polarity signals established by the core PCP components. PMID:22935613

  11. Graft rejection by cytolytic T cells. Specificity of the effector mechanism in the rejection of allogeneic marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Gress, R.E. )

    1990-02-01

    Cellular effector mechanisms of allograft rejection remain incompletely described. Characterizing the rejection of foreign-marrow allografts rather than solid-organ grafts has the advantage that the cellular composition of the marrow graft, as a single cell suspension, can be altered to include cellular components with differing antigen expression. Rejection of marrow grafts is sensitive to lethal doses of radiation in the mouse but resistant to sublethal levels of radiation. In an effort to identify cells mediating host resistance, lymphocytes were isolated and cloned from spleens of mice 7 days after sublethal TBI (650 cGy) and inoculation with allogeneic marrow. All clones isolated were cytolytic with specificity for MHC encoded gene products of the allogeneic marrow donor. When cloned cells were transferred in vivo into lethally irradiated (1025 cGy) recipients unable to reject allogeneic marrow, results utilizing splenic 125IUdR uptake indicated that these MHC-specific cytotoxic clones could suppress marrow proliferation. In order to characterize the effector mechanism and the ability of the clones to affect final engraftment, double donor chimeras were constructed so that 2 target cell populations differing at the MHC from each other and from the host were present in the same marrow allograft. Results directly demonstrated an ability of CTL of host MHC type to mediate graft rejection and characterized the effector mechanism as one with specificity for MHC gene products.

  12. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-02-26

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia effector proteins and their contribution to Yersinia pathogenesis. PMID:26981193

  13. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

    1997-09-30

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD{ampersand}E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design.

  14. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia effector proteins and their contribution to Yersinia pathogenesis. PMID:26981193

  15. Visual End-Effector Position Error Compensation for Planetary Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; DiCicco, Matthew; Backes, Paul; Nickels, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a vision-guided manipulation algorithm that improves arm end-effector positioning to subpixel accuracy and meets the highly restrictive imaging and computational constraints of a planetary robotic flight system. Analytical, simulation-based, and experimental analyses of the algorithm's effectiveness and sensitivity to camera and arm model error is presented along with results on several prototype research systems and 'ground-in-the-loop' technology experiments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles. A computationally efficient and robust subpixel end-effector fiducial detector that is instrumental to the algorithm's ability to achieve high accuracy is also described along with its validation results on MER data.

  16. Transcription factors and effectors that regulate neuronal morphology

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Celine; Bashaw, Greg J.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors establish the tremendous diversity of cell types in the nervous system by regulating the expression of genes that give a cell its morphological and functional properties. Although many studies have identified requirements for specific transcription factors during the different steps of neural circuit assembly, few have identified the downstream effectors by which they control neuronal morphology. In this Review, we highlight recent work that has elucidated the functional relationships between transcription factors and the downstream effectors through which they regulate neural connectivity in multiple model systems, with a focus on axon guidance and dendrite morphogenesis. PMID:25468936

  17. Nanorobotic end-effectors: Design, fabrication, and in situ characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zheng

    Nano-robotic end-effectors have promising applications for nano-fabrication, nano-manufacturing, nano-optics, nano-medical, and nano-sensing; however, low performances of the conventional end-effectors have prevented the widespread utilization of them in various fields. There are two major difficulties in developing the end-effectors: their nano-fabrication and their advanced characterization in the nanoscale. Here we introduce six types of end-effectors: the nanotube fountain pen (NFP), the super-fine nanoprobe, the metal-filled carbon nanotube (m CNT)-based sphere-on-pillar (SOP) nanoantennas, the tunneling nanosensor, and the nanowire-based memristor. The investigations on the NFP are focused on nano-fluidics and nano-fabrications. The NFP could direct write metallic "inks" and fabricating complex metal nanostructures from 0D to 3D with a position servo control, which is critically important to future large-scale, high-throughput nanodevice production. With the help of NFP, we could fabricate the end-effectors such as super-fine nanoprobe and m CNT-based SOP nanoantennas. Those end-effectors are able to detect local flaws or characterize the electrical/mechanical properties of the nanostructure. Moreover, using electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy (EELS) technique during the operation of the SOP optical antenna opens a new basis for the application of nano-robotic end-effectors. The technique allows advanced characterization of the physical changes, such as carrier diffusion, that are directly responsible for the device's properties. As the device was coupled with characterization techniques of scanning-trasmission-electron-microscopy (STEM), the development of tunneling nanosensor advances this field of science into quantum world. Furthermore, the combined STEM-EELS technique plays an important role in our understanding of the memristive switching performance in the nanowire-based memristor. The developments of those nano-robotic end-effectors expend the study abilities in investigating the in situ nanotechnology, providing efficient ways in in situ nanostructure fabrication and the advanced characterization of the nanomaterials.

  18. Robotic End Effectors for Hard-Rock Climbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Brett; Leger, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Special-purpose robot hands (end effectors) now under development are intended to enable robots to traverse cliffs much as human climbers do. Potential applications for robots having this capability include scientific exploration (both on Earth and other rocky bodies in space), military reconnaissance, and outdoor search and rescue operations. Until now, enabling robots to traverse cliffs has been considered too difficult a task because of the perceived need of prohibitively sophisticated planning algorithms as well as end effectors as dexterous as human hands. The present end effectors are being designed to enable robots to attach themselves to typical rock-face features with less planning and simpler end effectors. This advance is based on the emulation of the equipment used by human climbers rather than the emulation of the human hand. Climbing-aid equipment, specifically cams, aid hooks, and cam hooks, are used by sport climbers when a quick ascent of a cliff is desired (see Figure 1). Currently two different end-effector designs have been created. The first, denoted the simple hook emulator, consists of three "fingers" arranged around a central "palm." Each finger emulates the function of a particular type of climbing hook (aid hook, wide cam hook, and a narrow cam hook). These fingers are connected to the palm via a mechanical linkage actuated with a leadscrew/nut. This mechanism allows the fingers to be extended or retracted. The second design, denoted the advanced hook emulator (see Figure 2), shares these features, but it incorporates an aid hook and a cam hook into each finger. The spring-loading of the aid hook allows the passive selection of the type of hook used. The end effectors can be used in several different modes. In the aid-hook mode, the aid hook on one of the fingers locks onto a horizontal ledge while the other two fingers act to stabilize the end effector against the cliff face. In the cam-hook mode, the broad, flat tip of the cam hook is inserted into a non-horizontal crack in the cliff face. A subsequent transfer of weight onto the end effector causes the tip to rotate within the crack, creating a passive, self-locking action of the hook relative to the crack. In the advanced hook emulator, the aid hook is pushed into its retracted position by contact with the cliff face as the cam hook tip is inserted into the crack. When a cliff face contains relatively large pockets or cracks, another type of passive self-locking can be used. Emulating the function of the piece of climbing equipment called a "cam" (note: not the same as a "cam hook"; see Figure 1), the fingers can be fully retracted and the entire end effector inserted into the feature. The fingers are then extended as far as the feature allows. Any weight then transferred to the end effector will tend to extend the fingers further due to frictional force, passively increasing the grip on the feature. In addition to the climbing modes, these end effectors can be used to walk on (either on the palm or the fingertips) and to grasp objects by fully extending the fingers.

  19. Ralstonia solanacearum Requires PopS, an Ancient AvrE-Family Effector, for Virulence and To Overcome Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defenses during Tomato Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Milling, Annett; Mitra, Raka M.; Hogan, Clifford S.; Ailloud, Florent; Prior, Philippe; Allen, Caitilyn

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT During bacterial wilt of tomato, the plant pathogenRalstonia solanacearumupregulates expression of popS, which encodes a type III-secreted effector in the AvrE family. PopS is a core effector present in all sequenced strains in the R.solanacearum species complex. The phylogeny of popS mirrors that of the species complex as a whole, suggesting that this is an ancient, vertically inherited effector needed for association with plants. A popS mutant of R.solanacearum UW551 had reduced virulence on agriculturally important Solanum spp., including potato and tomato plants. However, the popS mutant had wild-type virulence on a weed host, Solanumdulcamara, suggesting that some species can avoid the effects of PopS. The popS mutant was also significantly delayed in colonization of tomato stems compared to the wild type. Some AvrE-type effectors from gammaproteobacteria suppress salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defenses, suggesting that PopS, a betaproteobacterial ortholog, has a similar function. Indeed, the popS mutant induced significantly higher expression of tomato SA-triggered pathogenesis-related (PR) genes than the wild type. Further, pretreatment of roots with SA exacerbated the popS mutant virulence defect. Finally, the popS mutant had no colonization defect on SA-deficient NahG transgenic tomato plants. Together, these results indicate that this conserved effector suppresses SA-mediated defenses in tomato roots and stems, which are R.solanacearums natural infection sites. Interestingly, PopS did not trigger necrosis when heterologously expressed in Nicotiana leaf tissue, unlike the AvrE homolog DspEPcc from the necrotroph Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is consistent with the differing pathogenesis modes of necrosis-causing gammaproteobacteria and biotrophic R.solanacearum. PMID:24281716

  20. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePLUS

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  1. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis. PMID:26528442

  2. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in

  3. Dissociating Visual Attention and Effector Selection in Spatial Precuing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Jos J.; Pratt, Jay

    2004-01-01

    In this study the authors tested and rejected a recent proposal that response precuing effects depend on the spatial extent of the precues rather than on the number of response choices. Moreover, the authors tested and supported the hypothesis that the number of effectors in the response set is an important determinant of spatial precuing effects.

  4. Robot End Effector To Place and Solder Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulated in robot end effector is RF induction-heating coil for heating solar cell while in transit. Holes in encapsulant permit end of unit to act as vacuum pickup to grip solar cell. Use of RF induction heating allows cell to be heated without requiring direct mechanical and thermal contact of bonding tool such as soldering iron.

  5. The Coding and Effector Transfer of Movement Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Attila J.; Muhlbauer, Thomas; Shea, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments utilizing a 14-element arm movement sequence were designed to determine if reinstating the visual-spatial coordinates, which require movements to the same spatial locations utilized during acquisition, results in better effector transfer than reinstating the motor coordinates, which require the same pattern of homologous muscle

  6. Plasmodium cellular effector mechanisms and the hepatic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Frevert, Ute; Krzych, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally. Immunization with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms capable of eliminating Plasmodium liver stages. However, malaria liver stage (LS) immunity is complex and the mechanisms effector T cells use to locate the few infected hepatocytes in the large liver in order to kill the intracellular LS parasites remain a mystery to date. Here, we review our current knowledge on the behavior of CD8 effector T cells in the hepatic microvasculature, in malaria and other hepatic infections. Taking into account the unique immunological and lymphogenic properties of the liver, we discuss whether classical granule-mediated cytotoxicity might eliminate infected hepatocytes via direct cell contact or whether cytokines might operate without cellcell contact and kill Plasmodium LSs at a distance. A thorough understanding of the cellular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite death hence sterile protection is a prerequisite for the development of a successful malaria vaccine to protect the 40% of the worlds population currently at risk of Plasmodium infection. PMID:26074888

  7. Developmental control of integrin expression regulates Th2 effector homing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrin CD18, a component of the LFA-1 complex that also includes CD11a, is essential for Th2, but not Th1, cell homing, but the explanation for this phenomenon remains obscure. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which Th2 effector responses require the LFA-1 complex. CD11a-deficient T ...

  8. Toward a Comprehensive Map of the Effectors of Rab GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Gillingham, Alison K.; Sinka, Rita; Torres, Isabel L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Munro, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Rab GTPases recruit peripheral membrane proteins to intracellular organelles. These Rab effectors typically mediate the motility of organelles and vesicles and contribute to the specificity of membrane traffic. However, for many Rabs, few, if any, effectors have been identified; hence, their role remains unclear. To identify Rab effectors, we used a comprehensive set of Drosophila Rabs for affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry to identify the proteins bound to each Rab. For many Rabs, this revealed specific interactions with Drosophila orthologs of known effectors. In addition, we found numerous Rab-specific interactions with known components of membrane traffic as well as with diverse proteins not previously linked to organelles or having no known function. We confirm over 25 interactions for Rab2, Rab4, Rab5, Rab6, Rab7, Rab9, Rab18, Rab19, Rab30, and Rab39. These include tethering complexes, coiled-coiled proteins, motor linkers, Rab regulators, and several proteins linked to human disease. PMID:25453831

  9. Plasmodium cellular effector mechanisms and the hepatic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Frevert, Ute; Krzych, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally. Immunization with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms capable of eliminating Plasmodium liver stages. However, malaria liver stage (LS) immunity is complex and the mechanisms effector T cells use to locate the few infected hepatocytes in the large liver in order to kill the intracellular LS parasites remain a mystery to date. Here, we review our current knowledge on the behavior of CD8 effector T cells in the hepatic microvasculature, in malaria and other hepatic infections. Taking into account the unique immunological and lymphogenic properties of the liver, we discuss whether classical granule-mediated cytotoxicity might eliminate infected hepatocytes via direct cell contact or whether cytokines might operate without cell-cell contact and kill Plasmodium LSs at a distance. A thorough understanding of the cellular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite death hence sterile protection is a prerequisite for the development of a successful malaria vaccine to protect the 40% of the world's population currently at risk of Plasmodium infection. PMID:26074888

  10. Rabs and their effectors: Achieving specificity in membrane traffic

    PubMed Central

    Grosshans, Bianka L.; Ortiz, Darinel; Novick, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Rab proteins constitute the largest branch of the Ras GTPase superfamily. Rabs use the guanine nucleotide-dependent switch mechanism common to the superfamily to regulate each of the four major steps in membrane traffic: vesicle budding, vesicle delivery, vesicle tethering, and fusion of the vesicle membrane with that of the target compartment. These different tasks are carried out by a diverse collection of effector molecules that bind to specific Rabs in their GTP-bound state. Recent advances have not only greatly extended the number of known Rab effectors, but have also begun to define the mechanisms underlying their distinct functions. By binding to the guanine nucleotide exchange proteins that activate the Rabs certain effectors act to establish positive feedback loops that help to define and maintain tightly localized domains of activated Rab proteins, which then serve to recruit other effector molecules. Additionally, Rab cascades and Rab conversions appear to confer directionality to membrane traffic and couple each stage of traffic with the next along the pathway. PMID:16882731

  11. Electroporation of Functional Bacterial Effectors into Mammalian Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Mihai, Cosmin; Orr, Galya; Savchenko, Alexei; Skarina, Tatiana; Cui, Hong; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Brown, Roslyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation was used to insert purified bacterial virulence effector proteins directly into living eukaryotic cells. Protein localization was monitored by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. This method allows for studies on trafficking, function, and protein-protein interactions using active exogenous proteins, avoiding the need for heterologous expression in eukaryotic cells.

  12. TAL effector-mediated susceptibility to bacterial blight of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial blight of cotton (BBC) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm) is a destructive disease that has recently re-emerged in the U.S. Xcm injects transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors that directly induce the expression of host susceptibility (S) or resistance (R) genes. ...

  13. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis. PMID:26528442

  14. The Coding and Effector Transfer of Movement Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Attila J.; Muhlbauer, Thomas; Shea, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments utilizing a 14-element arm movement sequence were designed to determine if reinstating the visual-spatial coordinates, which require movements to the same spatial locations utilized during acquisition, results in better effector transfer than reinstating the motor coordinates, which require the same pattern of homologous muscle…

  15. Structure Analysis Uncovers a Highly Diverse but Structurally Conserved Effector Family in Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    de Guillen, Karine; Ortiz-Vallejo, Diana; Gracy, Jrome; Fournier, Elisabeth; Kroj, Thomas; Padilla, Andr

    2015-10-01

    Phytopathogenic ascomycete fungi possess huge effector repertoires that are dominated by hundreds of sequence-unrelated small secreted proteins. The molecular function of these effectors and the evolutionary mechanisms that generate this tremendous number of singleton genes are largely unknown. To get a deeper understanding of fungal effectors, we determined by NMR spectroscopy the 3-dimensional structures of the Magnaporthe oryzae effectors AVR1-CO39 and AVR-Pia. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, both proteins have very similar 6 ?-sandwich structures that are stabilized in both cases by a disulfide bridge between 2 conserved cysteins located in similar positions of the proteins. Structural similarity searches revealed that AvrPiz-t, another effector from M. oryzae, and ToxB, an effector of the wheat tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis have the same structures suggesting the existence of a family of sequence-unrelated but structurally conserved fungal effectors that we named MAX-effectors (Magnaporthe Avrs and ToxB like). Structure-informed pattern searches strengthened this hypothesis by identifying MAX-effector candidates in a broad range of ascomycete phytopathogens. Strong expansion of the MAX-effector family was detected in M. oryzae and M. grisea where they seem to be particularly important since they account for 5-10% of the effector repertoire and 50% of the cloned avirulence effectors. Expression analysis indicated that the majority of M. oryzae MAX-effectors are expressed specifically during early infection suggesting important functions during biotrophic host colonization. We hypothesize that the scenario observed for MAX-effectors can serve as a paradigm for ascomycete effector diversity and that the enormous number of sequence-unrelated ascomycete effectors may in fact belong to a restricted set of structurally conserved effector families. PMID:26506000

  16. Structure Analysis Uncovers a Highly Diverse but Structurally Conserved Effector Family in Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Gracy, Jérome; Fournier, Elisabeth; Kroj, Thomas; Padilla, André

    2015-01-01

    Phytopathogenic ascomycete fungi possess huge effector repertoires that are dominated by hundreds of sequence-unrelated small secreted proteins. The molecular function of these effectors and the evolutionary mechanisms that generate this tremendous number of singleton genes are largely unknown. To get a deeper understanding of fungal effectors, we determined by NMR spectroscopy the 3-dimensional structures of the Magnaporthe oryzae effectors AVR1-CO39 and AVR-Pia. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, both proteins have very similar 6 β-sandwich structures that are stabilized in both cases by a disulfide bridge between 2 conserved cysteins located in similar positions of the proteins. Structural similarity searches revealed that AvrPiz-t, another effector from M. oryzae, and ToxB, an effector of the wheat tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis have the same structures suggesting the existence of a family of sequence-unrelated but structurally conserved fungal effectors that we named MAX-effectors (Magnaporthe Avrs and ToxB like). Structure-informed pattern searches strengthened this hypothesis by identifying MAX-effector candidates in a broad range of ascomycete phytopathogens. Strong expansion of the MAX-effector family was detected in M. oryzae and M. grisea where they seem to be particularly important since they account for 5–10% of the effector repertoire and 50% of the cloned avirulence effectors. Expression analysis indicated that the majority of M. oryzae MAX-effectors are expressed specifically during early infection suggesting important functions during biotrophic host colonization. We hypothesize that the scenario observed for MAX-effectors can serve as a paradigm for ascomycete effector diversity and that the enormous number of sequence-unrelated ascomycete effectors may in fact belong to a restricted set of structurally conserved effector families. PMID:26506000

  17. Understanding effector selectivity in human posterior parietal cortex by combining information patterns and activation measures.

    PubMed

    Leon, Frank T M; Heed, Tobias; Toni, Ivan; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2014-05-21

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been viewed as containing separate regions for the planning of eye and limb movements, but recent neurophysiological and neuroimaging observations show that the degree of effector specificity is limited. This has led to the hypothesis that effector specificity in PPC is part of a more efficient than strictly modular organization, characterized by both distinct and common activations for different effectors. It is unclear, however, what differentiates the distinctions and commonalities in effector representations. Here, we used fMRI in humans to study the cortical representations involved in the planning of eye, hand, and foot movements. We used a novel combination of fMRI measures to assess the effector-related representational content of the PPC: a multivariate information measure, reflecting whether representations were distinct or common across effectors and a univariate activation measure, indicating which representations were actively involved in movement preparation. Active distinct representations were evident in areas previously reported to be effector specific: eye specificity in the posterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), hand tuning in anterior IPS, and a foot bias in the anterior precuneus. Crucially, PPC regions responding to a particular effector also contained an active representation common across the other two effectors. We infer that rostral PPC areas do not code single effectors, but rather dichotomies of effectors. Such combinations of representations could be well suited for active effector selection, efficiently coding both a selected effector and its alternatives. PMID:24849346

  18. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  19. Melanoma Cells Control Antimelanoma CTL Responses via Interaction between TIGIT and CD155 in the Effector Phase.

    PubMed

    Inozume, Takashi; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Furuta, Junpei; Harada, Kazutoshi; Kawakami, Yutaka; Shimada, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Recently, T-cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT) was reported as a candidate for novel immune checkpoints. However, the impact of TIGIT on melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the effector phase remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that melanoma cells control antimelanoma cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses via the TIGIT-CD155 interaction in the effector phase. TIGIT is an inhibitory receptor expressed on T cells, and CD155 is one of the cognate ligands expressed on the tumor cells or antigen-presenting cells. First, we confirmed that CD155 was constitutively expressed on melanoma cells. We then demonstrated that CD155 on melanoma cells suppressed cytokine release from melanoma-specific cytotoxic Tlymphocytes via interaction with TIGIT. Overexpression of CD155 enhanced and its downregulation attenuated the suppressive effect. This suggested that antimelanoma cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses are controlled not only by an imbalance in CD226 (an activating molecule that binds to CD155) and TIGIT expression on T cells but also by the expression levels of CD155 on melanoma cells. In addition, the co-blockade of TIGIT and PD-1 signals synergistically elicited a response of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes on autologous melanoma cells. These results suggest that the CD155-TIGIT interaction should be blocked for enhancement of antimelanoma immune responses. PMID:26763445

  20. Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C. )

    1989-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation.

  1. Active Flow Effectors for Noise and Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    New flow effector technology for separation control and enhanced mixing is based upon shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) technology. The technology allows for variable shape control of aircraft structures through actively deformable surfaces. The flow effectors are made by embedding shape memory alloy actuator material in a composite structure. When thermally actuated, the flow effector def1ects into or out of the flow in a prescribed manner to enhance mixing or induce separation for a variety of applications, including aeroacoustic noise reduction, drag reduction, and f1ight control. The active flow effectors were developed for noise reduction as an alternative to fixed-configuration effectors, such as static chevrons, that cannot be optimized for airframe installation effects or variable operating conditions and cannot be retracted for off-design or fail-safe conditions. Benefits include: Increased vehicle control, overall efficiency, and reduced noise throughout all f1ight regimes, Reduced flow noise, Reduced drag, Simplicity of design and fabrication, Simplicity of control through direct current stimulation, autonomous re sponse to environmental heating, fast re sponse, and a high degree of geometric stability. The concept involves embedding prestrained SMA actuators on one side of the chevron neutral axis in order to generate a thermal moment and def1ect the structure out of plane when heated. The force developed in the host structure during def1ection and the aerodynamic load is used for returning the structure to the retracted position. The chevron design is highly scalable and versatile, and easily affords active and/or autonomous (environmental) control. The technology offers wide-ranging market applications, including aerospace, automotive, and any application that requires flow separation or noise control.

  2. Caspase 2-mediated tumor suppression involves survivin gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Guha, M; Xia, F; Raskett, C M; Altieri, D C

    2010-03-01

    One of the pivotal functions of endogenous tumor suppression is to oppose aberrant cell survival, but the molecular requirements of this process are not completely understood. Here, we show that caspase 2, a death effector with largely unknown functions, represses transcription of the survivin gene, a general regulator of cell division and cytoprotection in tumors. This pathway involves caspase 2 proteolytic cleavage of the nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) activator, RIP1. In turn, loss of RIP1 abolishes transcription of NFkappaB target genes, including survivin, resulting in deregulated mitotic transitions, enhanced apoptosis and suppression of tumorigenicity in vivo. Therefore, caspase 2 functions as an endogenous inhibitor of NFkappaB-dependent cell survival and this mechanism may contribute to tumor suppression in humans. PMID:19935698

  3. Macrophages play an essential role in antigen-specific immune suppression mediated by T CD8? cell-derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Ptak, Wlodzimierz; Nowak, Bernadeta; Ptak, Maria; Askenase, Philip W; Bryniarski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Murine contact sensitivity (CS) reaction could be antigen-specifically regulated by T CD8(+) suppressor (Ts) lymphocytes releasing microRNA-150 in antibody light-chain-coated exosomes that were formerly suggested to suppress CS through action on macrophages (M?). The present studies investigated the role of M? in Ts cell-exosome-mediated antigen-specific suppression as well as modulation of M? antigen-presenting function in humoral and cellular immunity by suppressive exosomes. Mice depleted of M? by clodronate liposomes could not be tolerized and did not produce suppressive exosomes. Moreover, isolated T effector lymphocytes transferring CS were suppressed by exosomes only in the presence of M?, demonstrating the substantial role of M? in the generation and action of Ts cell regulatory exosomes. Further, significant decrease of number of splenic B cells producing trinitrophenyl (TNP) -specific antibodies with the alteration of the ratio of serum titres of IgM to IgG was observed in recipients of exosome-treated, antigen-pulsed M? and the significant suppression of CS was demonstrated in recipients of exosome-treated, TNP-conjugated M?. Additionally, exosome-pulsed, TNP-conjugated M? mediated suppression of CS in mice pre-treated with a low-dose of cyclophosphamide, suggesting de novo induction of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Treg cell involvement in the effector phase of the studied suppression mechanism was proved by unsuccessful tolerization of DEREG mice depleted of Treg lymphocytes. Furthermore, the inhibition of proliferation of CS effector cells cultured with exosome-treated M? in a transmembrane manner was observed. Our results demonstrated the essential role of M? in antigen-specific immune suppression mediated by Ts cell-derived exosomes and realized by induction of Treg lymphocytes and inhibition of T effector cell proliferation. PMID:25808106

  4. CCR2-dependent dendritic cell accumulation in CNS during early effector EAE is essential for effector T cell restimulation in situ and disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Benjamin D; Walker, Alec; Harris, Melissa G.; Rayasam, Aditya; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs)while absent from the healthy CNS parenchymarapidly accumulate within brain and spinal cord tissue during neuroinflammation associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis). Yet, while DCs have been appreciated for their role in initiating adaptive immune responses in peripheral lymphoid organ tissues, how DCs infiltrate the CNS and contribute to ongoing neuroinflammation in situ is poorly understood. Here we report that; 1) CD11c+ bone marrow-derived (BM)DCs and CNS-infiltrating DCs express chemokine receptor CCR2, 2) compared to CCR2+/+ cells, adoptively transferred CCR2?/? BMDCs or DC precursors do not accumulate in the CNS during EAE, despite abundance in blood, 3) CCR2?/? DCs show less accumulation in the inflamed CNS in mixed bone marrow chimeras, when compared to CCR2+/+ DCs, and 4) ablation of CCR2+/+ DCs during EAE clinical onset delays progression and attenuates cytokine production by infiltrating T cells. While the role of CCR2 in monocyte migration into the CNS has been implicated previously, the role of CCR2 in DC infiltration into the CNS has never been directly addressed. Our data suggest that CCR2-dependent DC recruitment to the CNS during ongoing neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in effector T cell cytokine production and disease progression, and signify that CNS-DCs and circulating DC precursors might be key therapeutic targets for suppressing ongoing neuroinflammation in CNS autoimmune diseases. PMID:25505278

  5. N-Glycosylation of Effector Proteins by an α-1,3-Mannosyltransferase Is Required for the Rice Blast Fungus to Evade Host Innate Immunity[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Lin; Shi, Tao; Yang, Jun; Shi, Wei; Gao, Xusheng; Chen, Deng; Xu, Xiaowen; Xu, Jin-Rong; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Peng, You-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi deploy secreted effectors to suppress plant immunity responses. These effectors operate either in the apoplast or within host cells, so they are putatively glycosylated, but the posttranslational regulation of their activities has not been explored. In this study, the ASPARAGINE-LINKED GLYCOSYLATION3 (ALG3)-mediated N-glycosylation of the effector, Secreted LysM Protein1 (Slp1), was found to be essential for its activity in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. ALG3 encodes an α-1,3-mannosyltransferase for protein N-glycosylation. Deletion of ALG3 resulted in the arrest of secondary infection hyphae and a significant reduction in virulence. We observed that Δalg3 mutants induced massive production of reactive oxygen species in host cells, in a similar manner to Δslp1 mutants, which is a key factor responsible for arresting infection hyphae of the mutants. Slp1 sequesters chitin oligosaccharides to avoid their recognition by the rice (Oryza sativa) chitin elicitor binding protein CEBiP and the induction of innate immune responses, including reactive oxygen species production. We demonstrate that Slp1 has three N-glycosylation sites and that simultaneous Alg3-mediated N-glycosylation of each site is required to maintain protein stability and the chitin binding activity of Slp1, which are essential for its effector function. These results indicate that Alg3-mediated N-glycosylation of Slp1 is required to evade host innate immunity. PMID:24642938

  6. Early effector cells survive the contraction phase in malaria infection and generate both central and effector memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Opata, Michael M; Carpio, Victor H; Ibitokou, Samad A; Dillon, Brian E; Obiero, Joshua M; Stephens, Robin

    2015-06-01

    CD4 T cells orchestrate immunity against blood-stage malaria. However, a major challenge in designing vaccines to the disease is poor understanding of the requirements for the generation of protective memory T cells (Tmem) from responding effector T cells (Teff) in chronic parasite infection. In this study, we use a transgenic mouse model with T cells specific for the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 of Plasmodium chabaudi to show that activated T cells generate three distinct Teff subsets with progressive activation phenotypes. The earliest observed Teff subsets (CD127(-)CD62L(hi)CD27(+)) are less divided than CD62L(lo) Teff and express memory genes. Intermediate (CD62L(lo)CD27(+)) effector subsets include the most multicytokine-producing T cells, whereas fully activated (CD62L(lo)CD27(-)) late effector cells have a terminal Teff phenotype (PD-1(+), Fas(hi), AnnexinV(+)). We show that although IL-2 promotes expansion, it actually slows terminal effector differentiation. Using adoptive transfer, we show that only early Teff survive the contraction phase and generate the terminal late Teff subsets, whereas in uninfected recipients, they become both central and effector Tmem. Furthermore, we show that progression toward full Teff activation is promoted by increased duration of infection, which in the long-term promotes Tem differentiation. Therefore, we have defined markers of progressive activation of CD4 Teff at the peak of malaria infection, including a subset that survives the contraction phase to make Tmem, and show that Ag and cytokine levels during CD4 T cell expansion influence the proportion of activated cells that can survive contraction and generate memory in malaria infection. PMID:25911759

  7. Planning Keypress and Reaching Responses: Effects of Response Location and Number of Potential Effectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Jos J.; Taminiau, Bettine; van Veen, Natasja; Ament, Bart; Rijcken, Jons M.; Meijer, Kenneth; Pratt, Jay

    2008-01-01

    In previous work the authors argued that the potential number of effectors in the response set is crucial in discriminating (multiple-effector) keypress from (single-effector) reaching responses. It is not clear, however, what influence the locus of responding (on vs. off the stimulus location for reaching and keypressing, respectively) has on

  8. Identification of divergent type VI secretion effectors using a conserved chaperone domain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoye; Moore, Richard; Wilton, Mike; Wong, Megan J Q; Lam, Linh; Dong, Tao G

    2015-07-21

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon used by many bacteria to kill eukaryotic predators or prokaryotic competitors. Killing by the T6SS results from repetitive delivery of toxic effectors. Despite their importance in dictating bacterial fitness, systematic prediction of T6SS effectors remains challenging due to high effector diversity and the absence of a conserved signature sequence. Here, we report a class of T6SS effector chaperone (TEC) proteins that are required for effector delivery through binding to VgrG and effector proteins. The TEC proteins share a highly conserved domain (DUF4123) and are genetically encoded upstream of their cognate effector genes. Using the conserved TEC domain sequence, we identified a large family of TEC genes coupled to putative T6SS effectors in Gram-negative bacteria. We validated this approach by verifying a predicted effector TseC in Aeromonas hydrophila. We show that TseC is a T6SS-secreted antibacterial effector and that the downstream gene tsiC encodes the cognate immunity protein. Further, we demonstrate that TseC secretion requires its cognate TEC protein and an associated VgrG protein. Distinct from previous effector-dependent bioinformatic analyses, our approach using the conserved TEC domain will facilitate the discovery and functional characterization of new T6SS effectors in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26150500

  9. Evolution of RXLR-class effectors in the Oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora plant pathogens contain many hundreds of effectors potentially involved in infection of host plants. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that these effectors evolve rapidly and have been subject to recent expansions. We examined the recent sequence evolution of RXLR-class effector g...

  10. Identification of divergent type VI secretion effectors using a conserved chaperone domain

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoye; Moore, Richard; Wilton, Mike; Wong, Megan J. Q.; Lam, Linh; Dong, Tao G.

    2015-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon used by many bacteria to kill eukaryotic predators or prokaryotic competitors. Killing by the T6SS results from repetitive delivery of toxic effectors. Despite their importance in dictating bacterial fitness, systematic prediction of T6SS effectors remains challenging due to high effector diversity and the absence of a conserved signature sequence. Here, we report a class of T6SS effector chaperone (TEC) proteins that are required for effector delivery through binding to VgrG and effector proteins. The TEC proteins share a highly conserved domain (DUF4123) and are genetically encoded upstream of their cognate effector genes. Using the conserved TEC domain sequence, we identified a large family of TEC genes coupled to putative T6SS effectors in Gram-negative bacteria. We validated this approach by verifying a predicted effector TseC in Aeromonas hydrophila. We show that TseC is a T6SS-secreted antibacterial effector and that the downstream gene tsiC encodes the cognate immunity protein. Further, we demonstrate that TseC secretion requires its cognate TEC protein and an associated VgrG protein. Distinct from previous effector-dependent bioinformatic analyses, our approach using the conserved TEC domain will facilitate the discovery and functional characterization of new T6SS effectors in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26150500

  11. A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Li, Kai; Hu, Yingxia; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted κB binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner. PMID:25662101

  12. A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Li, Kai; Hu, Yingxia; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R.; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted κB binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner. PMID:25662101

  13. Secretome Analysis of Vibrio cholerae Type VI Secretion System Reveals a New Effector-Immunity Pair

    PubMed Central

    Altindis, Emrah; Dong, Tao; Catalano, Christy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a dynamic macromolecular organelle that many Gram-negative bacteria use to inhibit or kill other prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. The toxic effectors of T6SS are delivered to the prey cells in a contact-dependent manner. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, T6SS is active during intestinal infection. Here, we describe the use of comparative proteomics coupled with bioinformatics to identify a new T6SS effector-immunity pair. This analysis was able to identify all previously identified secreted substrates of T6SS except PAAR (proline, alanine, alanine, arginine) motif-containing proteins. Additionally, this approach led to the identification of a new secreted protein encoded by VCA0285 (TseH) that carries a predicted hydrolase domain. We confirmed that TseH is toxic when expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and V. cholerae cells. The toxicity observed in V. cholerae was suppressed by coexpression of the protein encoded by VCA0286 (TsiH), indicating that this protein is the cognate immunity protein of TseH. Furthermore, exogenous addition of purified recombinant TseH to permeabilized E. coli cells caused cell lysis. Bioinformatics analysis of the TseH protein sequence suggest that it is a member of a new family of cell wall-degrading enzymes that include proteins belonging to the YD repeat and Rhs superfamilies and that orthologs of TseH are likely expressed by species belonging to phyla as diverse as Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. PMID:25759499

  14. Deletions in the Repertoire of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Type III Secretion Effector Genes Reveal Functional Overlap among Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Kvitko, Brian H.; Park, Duck Hwan; Velsquez, Andr C.; Wei, Chia-Fong; Russell, Alistair B.; Martin, Gregory B.; Schneider, David J.; Collmer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The ?-proteobacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 uses the type III secretion system to inject ca. 28 Avr/Hop effector proteins into plants, which enables the bacterium to grow from low inoculum levels to produce bacterial speck symptoms in tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, and (when lacking hopQ1-1) Nicotiana benthamiana. The effectors are collectively essential but individually dispensable for the ability of the bacteria to defeat defenses, grow, and produce symptoms in plants. Eighteen of the effector genes are clustered in six genomic islands/islets. Combinatorial deletions involving these clusters and two of the remaining effector genes revealed a redundancy-based structure in the effector repertoire, such that some deletions diminished growth in N. benthamiana only in combination with other deletions. Much of the ability of DC3000 to grow in N. benthamiana was found to be due to five effectors in two redundant-effector groups (REGs), which appear to separately target two high-level processes in plant defense: perception of external pathogen signals (AvrPto and AvrPtoB) and deployment of antimicrobial factors (AvrE, HopM1, HopR1). Further support for the membership of HopR1 in the same REG as AvrE was gained through bioinformatic analysis, revealing the existence of an AvrE/DspA/E/HopR effector superfamily, which has representatives in virtually all groups of proteobacterial plant pathogens that deploy type III effectors. PMID:19381254

  15. Salmonella effector proteins and host-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, C.V.; Mercado-Lubo, Regino; Hallstrom, Kelly; McCormick, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium is a significant public health problem. This pathogen has very sophisticated molecular machinery encoded by the two pathogenicity islands, namely Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2). Remarkably, both SPI-1 and SPI-2 are very tightly regulated in terms of timing of expression and spatial localization of the encoded effectors during the infection process within the host cell. This regulation is governed at several levels, including transcription and translation, and by post-translational modifications. In the context of a finely tuned regulatory system, we will highlight how these effector proteins co-opt host signaling pathways that control the ability of the organism to infect and survive within the host, as well as elicit host proinflammatory responses. PMID:21984608

  16. Auditory motor integration in oral and manual effectors.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Torrey M J; Ofori, Edward; Grindrod, Christopher M; De Nil, Luc F; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2010-01-01

    Sensorimotor integration of auditory feedback for oral and manual force control was compared in 10 healthy participants. Based on the notion that auditory-to-motor integration is a more typical form of feedback for oral articulators given their role in speech and singing, it was predicted that oral force generation would be more accurate and less variable on an auditory-motor task compared to manual force generation. However, finger force production showed similar accuracy and lower variability than lip force production. The authors propose that auditory feedback can be used for fine force control of both oral and manual effectors. Differences in performance are considered to arise from physiological differences between the effectors that are reflected in their typical functions. This novel study of oral and manual force control under auditory feedback is an important step in understanding how auditory information can be associated with fine force control. PMID:20570819

  17. Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

  18. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  19. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  20. Autonomous dexterous end-effectors for space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, George A.; Iberall, Thea; Liu, Huan

    1989-01-01

    The development of a knowledge-based controller is summarized for the Belgrade/USC robot hand, a five-fingered end effector, designed for maximum autonomy. The biological principles of the hand and its architecture are presented. The conceptual and software aspects of the grasp selection system are discussed, including both the effects of the geometry of the target object and the task to be performed. Some current research issues are presented.

  1. On modeling two immune effectors two strain antigen interaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider the fractional order model with two immune effectors interacting with two strain antigen. The systems may explain the recurrence of some diseases e.g. tuberculosis (TB). The stability of equilibrium points are studied. Numerical solutions of this model are given. Using integer order system the system oscillates. Using fractional order system the system converges to a stable internal equilibrium. Ulam-Hyers stability of the system has been studied. PMID:21106113

  2. Targeting DNA Double-Strand Breaks with TAL Effector Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Michelle; Cermak, Tomas; Doyle, Erin L.; Schmidt, Clarice; Zhang, Feng; Hummel, Aaron; Bogdanove, Adam J.; Voytas, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Engineered nucleases that cleave specific DNA sequences in vivo are valuable reagents for targeted mutagenesis. Here we report a new class of sequence-specific nucleases created by fusing transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to the catalytic domain of the FokI endonuclease. Both native and custom TALE-nuclease fusions direct DNA double-strand breaks to specific, targeted sites. PMID:20660643

  3. Mirror Sub-Assembly End-Effector Design

    SciTech Connect

    Butlin, B

    2007-01-08

    The Optic Assembly Building (OAB) is a facility where large optical mirror units are assembled and installed into Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) for deployment into the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. The New Optics Insertion Device (NOID) is a powered jib crane specially designed to handle large optical assemblies. The NOID arm has three degrees of freedom. it can rotate about the vertical boom, travel up and down the boom, and extend away from and retract in towards the boom. The NOID is used to assist in the assembly of five types of Laser Mirror (LM) LRUs. These five LMs have been creatively named, LM4, LM5, LM6, LM7, and LM8. The LM4 and LM5 LRUs each contain four Mirror Sub-Assemblies (MSAs). The LM6, LM7, and LM8 LRUs each contain 2 MSAs. The MSAs are assembled apart from the LRU and are then installed in the LRU at the LM4-8 workstations. An MSA NOID End-Effector is required to interface with the MSAs and install them into the LRUs. The End-Effector must attach to the robo-hand on the end of the NOID arm. At the time the MSA NOID End-Effector was being designed the NOID, the LM4-5 workstation, and the LM6-8 workstation were already installed in the OAB. The LRUs and the MSAs designs were also complete. The MSA NOID End-Effector design had to work with the assembly equipment and LRU designs that were already in place.

  4. Xanthomonas and the TAL Effectors: Nature's Molecular Biologist.

    PubMed

    White, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium, due to the transfer of T-DNA to the host genome, is known as nature's genetic engineer. Once again, bacteria have led the way to newfound riches in biotechnology. Xanthomonas has emerged as nature's molecular biologist as the functional domains of the sequence-specific DNA transcription factors known as TAL effectors were characterized and associated with the cognate disease susceptibility and resistance genes of plants. PMID:26443209

  5. Serum suppressive activity of HIV seropositive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Israel-Biet, D; Ekwalanga, M; Venet, A; Even, P; Andrieu, J M

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms by which HIV induces immunosuppression are still poorly understood so far. Several pathways of CD4 cell destruction are known, including cytolysis with or without syncitium formation and killing by cytotoxic effectors of HIV infected or non-infected CD4 cells. However, a discrepancy exists between the small number of actually infected cells in vivo and the extent of HIV-related immunodeficiency. Among other possible immunosuppressive factors, serum blocking factors have been reported, but only in AIDS-related opportunistic infections (OI), i.e. in a quite specific type of full-blown HIV disease. The purpose of this work was to determine whether serum blocking activity was unique to this group of patients, or if it was also expressed in other clinical presentations and, moreover, at earlier stages of the disease. We also attempted to delineate the nature of these seric factors. In order to do so, we assessed serum suppressive activity of 50 HIV seropositive patients, seven with OI, eight with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), and 35 with no clinical AIDS. Our results confirm the existence of serum inhibiting factors in AIDS, and demonstrate their presence at earlier stages of the disease. They also highlight the fact that the level of serum suppression does not correlate with patients clinical status, but increases with the severity of the disease. The lower the CD4 count, the higher the suppression exerted. Furthermore, we showed that the suppression was at least partly mediated by small size molecules, which are not complement-mediated or directly lymphocytotoxic. On the other hand, this activity does not correlate with the serum level of p24 HIV core protein. The possible relation with other viral components is discussed. The relevance of these data to prognosis and pathogenesis of HIV disease deserves further investigation. PMID:2975974

  6. A smart end-effector for assembly of space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.; Rhodes, Marvin D.; Wise, Marion A.; Armistead, Maurice F.

    1992-01-01

    A unique facility, the Automated Structures Research Laboratory, is being used to investigate robotic assembly of truss structures. A special-purpose end-effector is used to assemble structural elements into an eight meter diameter structure. To expand the capabilities of the facility to include construction of structures with curved surfaces from straight structural elements of different lengths, a new end-effector has been designed and fabricated. This end-effector contains an integrated microprocessor to monitor actuator operations through sensor feedback. This paper provides an overview of the automated assembly tasks required by this end-effector and a description of the new end-effector's hardware and control software.

  7. Compact effector optics for processing in limited physical access situations.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Andreas; Fox, Mahlen D T; French, Paul W; Hettrick, Simon; Hand, Duncan P; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Watkins, Kenneth G; Ireland, Clive L M; Jones, Julian D C

    2003-09-01

    A major advantage of fiber-optic beam delivery in laser materials processing is the ability to guide the laser power to the location where it is needed, leaving the laser itself remote and protected from the process. This is of special importance if the processing is to be performed in a hazardous environment. Particular problems are faced by the nuclear industry where weld repair and surface treatment work are required inside radioactive installations. By use of fiber beam delivery, only part of the delivery system and effector optics become contaminated, but the expensive laser system does not. However, in many cases the region where repair is required is not only radioactive but has only limited physical access, e.g., inside tubes or into corners, which prevents use of standard effector optics. We present a new design to deal with such constraints of a 2-mm outer diameter employing a hollow waveguide and gas shielding. This design is optically characterized and its performance assessed in welding and surface treatment applications. The potential of this compact effector optics in limited physical access situations is clearly demonstrated. PMID:12962387

  8. B cells as effectors and regulators of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Mario, Eliana; Grey, Shane T

    2012-08-01

    A classic understanding of the interplay between B and T cell components of the immune system that drive autoimmunity, where B cells provide an effector function, is represented by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune condition characterised by the production of auto-antibodies. In SLE, CD4+T cells provide cognate help to self-reactive B cells, which in turn produce pathogenic auto-antibodies (1). Thus, B cells act as effectors by producing auto-antibody aided by T cell help such that B and T cell interactions are unidirectional. However, this paradigm of B and T cell interactions is challenged by new clinical data demonstrating that B cell depletion is effective for T cell mediated autoimmune diseases including type I diabetes mellitus (T1D) (2), rheumatoid arthritis (3), and multiple sclerosis (4). These clinical data indicate a model whereby B cells can influence the developing autoimmune T cell response, and therefore act as effectors, in ways that extend beyond the production of autoantibody (5). In this review by largely focusing on type I diabetes we will develop a hypothesis that bi-directional B and T interactions control the course of autoimmunity. PMID:22432804

  9. Compact effector optics for processing in limited physical access situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Andreas; Fox, Mahlen D. T.; French, Paul W.; Hettrick, Simon; Hand, Duncan P.; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Watkins, Kenneth G.; Ireland, Clive L. M.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    2003-09-01

    A major advantage of fiber-optic beam delivery in laser materials processing is the ability to guide the laser power to the location where it is needed, leaving the laser itself remote and protected from the process. This is of special importance if the processing is to be performed in a hazardous environment. Particular problems are faced by the nuclear industry where weld repair and surface treatment work are required inside radioactive installations. By use of fiber beam delivery, only part of the delivery system and effector optics become contaminated, but the expensive laser system does not. However, in many cases the region where repair is required is not only radioactive but has only limited physical access, e.g., inside tubes or into corners, which prevents use of standard effector optics. We present a new design to deal with such constraints of a 2-mm outer diameter employing a hollow waveguide and gas shielding. This design is optically characterized and its performance assessed in welding and surface treatment applications. The potential of this compact effector optics in limited physical access situations is clearly demonstrated.

  10. Mouse and human FcR effector functions.

    PubMed

    Bruhns, Pierre; Jnsson, Friederike

    2015-11-01

    Mouse and human FcRs have been a major focus of attention not only of the scientific community, through the cloning and characterization of novel receptors, and of the medical community, through the identification of polymorphisms and linkage to disease but also of the pharmaceutical community, through the identification of FcRs as targets for therapy or engineering of Fc domains for the generation of enhanced therapeutic antibodies. The availability of knockout mouse lines for every single mouse FcR, of multiple or cell-specific--' la carte'--FcR knockouts and the increasing generation of hFcR transgenics enable powerful in vivo approaches for the study of mouse and human FcR biology. This review will present the landscape of the current FcR family, their effector functions and the in vivo models at hand to study them. These in vivo models were recently instrumental in re-defining the properties and effector functions of FcRs that had been overlooked or discarded from previous analyses. A particular focus will be made on the (mis)concepts on the role of high-affinity IgG receptors in vivo and on results from antibody engineering to enhance or abrogate antibody effector functions mediated by FcRs. PMID:26497511

  11. Against friend and foe: type 6 effectors in plant-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial secretion systems play critical roles in communication with neighboring bacteria and in the modulation of host immune responses via the secretion of small proteins called effectors. Several secretion systems have been identified and these are denoted types I-VII. Of these, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) and its effectors were only recently elucidated. Most studies on the role and significance of the T6SS and its effectors have focused on human pathogens. In this review, type 6 effectors from plant-associated beneficial and pathogenic bacteria are discussed, including effectors from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Dickeya dadanti, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Pectobacterium atroseptium, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas protegens. Type 6 effectors act in symbiosis, biofilm formation, virulence, and interbacterial competition. Understanding the impact of type 6 effectors on pathogenesis will contribute to the management of bacterial pathogens in crop plants by allowing the manipulation of intra and inter-specific interactions. PMID:25732741

  12. DISEASE SUPPRESSIVE SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suppressive soils have been described worldwide for a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes. Classical approaches employed to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in suppression have changed little during the last four decades. However, when classical approa...

  13. Rotating stall suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Franklin K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Rotating stall in an axial-flow compressor is suppressed by the positioning of a fixed inlet flow divider in the annular inlet flow passage upstream of the compressor. The inlet flow divider is aligned with the flow of fluid through the duct and acts to block or interfere with any rotating wave in the inlet and thereby suppresses rotating stall in the compressor.

  14. Prediction of bacterial type IV secreted effectors by C-terminal features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many bacteria can deliver pathogenic proteins (effectors) through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to eukaryotic cytoplasm, causing host diseases. The inherent property, such as sequence diversity and global scattering throughout the whole genome, makes it a big challenge to effectively identify the full set of T4SS effectors. Therefore, an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction tool is urgently needed to help discover new effectors in a variety of bacterial species, especially those with few known effectors, e.g., Helicobacter pylori. Results In this research, we first manually annotated a full list of validated T4SS effectors from different bacteria and then carefully compared their C-terminal sequential and position-specific amino acid compositions, possible motifs and structural features. Based on the observed features, we set up several models to automatically recognize T4SS effectors. Three of the models performed strikingly better than the others and T4SEpre_Joint had the best performance, which could distinguish the T4SS effectors from non-effectors with a 5-fold cross-validation sensitivity of 89% at a specificity of 97%, based on the training datasets. An inter-species cross prediction showed that T4SEpre_Joint could recall most known effectors from a variety of species. The inter-species prediction tool package, T4SEpre, was further used to predict new T4SS effectors from H. pylori, an important human pathogen associated with gastritis, ulcer and cancer. In total, 24 new highly possible H. pylori T4S effector genes were computationally identified. Conclusions We conclude that T4SEpre, as an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction software package, will help find new pathogenic T4SS effectors efficiently in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24447430

  15. Distinct in vivo roles of CD80 and CD86 in the effector T-cell responses inducing antigen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Odobasic, Dragana; Leech, Michelle T; Xue, Jin R; Holdsworth, Stephen R

    2008-01-01

    CD80 and CD86 play a critical role in the initiation of T-cell responses. However, their role in the in vivo effector CD4+ T-cell responses has been less extensively investigated. The current studies have examined the functional relevance of CD80 and CD86 in the effector CD4+ T-cell responses inducing antigen-induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by sensitization to methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) on day 0, booster immunization (day 7) and intra-articular injection of mBSA (day 21). Control or anti-CD80 and/or anti-CD86 monoclonal antibodies were administered from day 21 to day 28. Arthritis severity and immune responses were assessed on day 28. The development of arthritis was significantly suppressed by inhibition of CD80 or CD86. Blockade of both CD80 and CD86 caused a trend towards reduced disease severity compared to control antibody-treated mice. Neutralization of CD80 attenuated accumulation of CD4+ T cells in joints and enhanced splenocyte production and circulating levels of interleukin-4. Inhibition of CD86 or both CD80 and CD86 reduced T-cell accumulation in joints without affecting T helper type 1/type 2 (Th1/Th2) differentiation or antibody levels. Blockade of CD86, and not CD80, significantly suppressed splenocyte interleukin-17 (IL-17) production. These results provide further in vivo evidence that CD80 and CD86 play important pathogenic roles in effector T-cell responses. CD80 exacerbates arthritis by downregulating systemic levels of IL-4 and increasing T-cell accumulation in joints without affecting IL-17 production. CD86 enhances disease severity by upregulating IL-17 production and increasing the accumulation of effector T cells in joints without affecting Th1/Th2 development. PMID:18217945

  16. SseK3 Is a Salmonella Effector That Binds TRIM32 and Modulates the Host’s NF-κB Signalling Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhe; Soderholm, Amelia; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Giogha, Cristina; Hill, Michelle M.; Brown, Nathaniel F.; Hartland, Elizabeth; Teasdale, Rohan D.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium employs an array of type III secretion system effectors that facilitate intracellular survival and replication during infection. The Salmonella effector SseK3 was originally identified due to amino acid sequence similarity with NleB; an effector secreted by EPEC/EHEC that possesses N-acetylglucoasmine (GlcNAc) transferase activity and modifies death domain containing proteins to block extrinsic apoptosis. In this study, immunoprecipitation of SseK3 defined a novel molecular interaction between SseK3 and the host protein, TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The conserved DxD motif within SseK3, which is essential for the GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB, was required for TRIM32 binding and for the capacity of SseK3 to suppress TNF-stimulated activation of NF-κB pathway. However, we did not detect GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 by SseK3, nor did the SseK3-TRIM32 interaction impact on TRIM32 ubiquitination that is associated with its activation. In addition, lack of sseK3 in Salmonella had no effect on production of the NF-κB dependent cytokine, IL-8, in HeLa cells even though TRIM32 knockdown suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activity. Ectopically expressed SseK3 partially co-localises with TRIM32 at the trans-Golgi network, but SseK3 is not recruited to Salmonella induced vacuoles or Salmonella induced filaments during Salmonella infection. Our study has identified a novel effector-host protein interaction and suggests that SseK3 may influence NF-κB activity. However, the lack of GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 suggests that SseK3 has further, as yet unidentified, host targets. PMID:26394407

  17. ANTIGEN SPECIFIC ANTIBODY COATED EXOSOME-LIKE NANOVESICLES DELIVER SUPPRESSOR T CELL miRNA-150 TO EFFECTOR T CELLS IN CONTACT SENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Ptak, Wlodzimierz; Jayakumar, Asha; Pllmann, Kerstin; Caplan, Michael J.; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Lu, Jun; Adams, Brian; Sikora, Emilia; Nazimek, Katarzyna; Marquez, Susanna; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Sangwung, Panjamaporn; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Delgato, Eric; Redegeld, Frank; Blokhuis, Bart R.; Wojcikowski, Jacek; Daniel, Anna Wladyslawa; Kormelink, Tom Groot; Askenase, Philip W.

    2014-01-01

    Background T cell tolerance of allergic cutaneous contact sensitivity (CS) induced in mice by high doses of reactive hapten is mediated by suppressor cells that release antigen-specific suppressive nanovesicles. Objective To determine the mechanism(s) of immune suppression mediated by the nanovesicles. Methods T cell tolerance was induced by i.v. injections of hapten conjugated to self antigens of syngeneic erythrocytes and subsequent contact immunization with the same hapten. Lymph node and spleen cells from tolerized or control donors were harvested and cultured to produce a supernatant containing suppressive nanovesicles that were isolated for testing in active and adoptive cell transfer models of CS. Results Tolerance was shown due to exosome-like nanovesicles in the supernatant of CD8+ suppressor T cells that were not Treg. Antigen specificity of the suppressive nanovesicles was conferred by a surface coat of antibody light chains, or possibly whole antibody, allowing targeted delivery of selected inhibitory miRNA-150 to CS effector T cells. Nanovesicles also inhibited CS in actively sensitized mice after systemic injection at the peak of the responses. The role of antibody and miRNA-150 was established by tolerizing either panimmunoglobulin deficient JH-/- or miRNA-150-/- mice that produced non-suppressive nanovesicles. These nanovesicles could be made suppressive by adding antigen-specific antibody light chains or miRNA-150, respectively. Conclusions This is the first example of T cell regulation via systemic transit of exosome-like nanovesicles delivering a chosen inhibitory miRNA to target effector T cells in an antigen-specific manner by a surface coating of antibody light chains. PMID:23727037

  18. A survey of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion system effector repertoire reveals several effectors that are deleterious when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The injection of nearly 30 effector proteins by the type III secretion system underlies the ability of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 to cause disease in tomato and other host plants. The search for effector functions is complicated by redundancy within the repertoire and by plant R-g...

  19. Deletions in the repertoire of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion effector genes reveal functional overlap among effectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals disarm and remodel host cells by injecting large repertoires of effectors via the type III secretion system (T3SS). The repertoires of individual strains appear to function as robust systems that can tolerate loss of individual effectors with little or ...

  20. The Salmonella Effector SteA Contributes to the Control of Membrane Dynamics of Salmonella-Containing Vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Lia; Holden, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans and a typhoid-like systemic disease in mice. S. Typhimurium virulence is related to its capacity to multiply intracellularly within a membrane-bound compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), and depends on type III secretion systems that deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells. Here, we analyzed the cellular function of the Salmonella effector SteA. We show that, compared to cells infected by wild-type S. Typhimurium, cells infected by ΔsteA mutant bacteria displayed fewer Salmonella-induced filaments (SIFs), an increased clustering of SCVs, and morphologically abnormal vacuoles containing more than one bacterium. The increased clustering of SCVs and the appearance of vacuoles containing more than one bacterium were suppressed by inhibition of the activity of the microtubule motor dynein or kinesin-1. Clustering and positioning of SCVs are controlled by the effectors SseF and SseG, possibly by helping to maintain a balanced activity of microtubule motors on the bacterial vacuoles. Deletion of steA in S. Typhimurium ΔsseF or ΔsseG mutants revealed that SteA contributes to the characteristic scattered distribution of ΔsseF or ΔsseG mutant SCVs in infected cells. Overall, this shows that SteA participates in the control of SCV membrane dynamics. Moreover, it indicates that SteA is functionally linked to SseF and SseG and suggests that it might contribute directly or indirectly to the regulation of microtubule motors on the bacterial vacuoles. PMID:24778114

  1. Phytophthora sojae avirulence effector Avr3b is a secreted NADH and ADP-ribose pyrophosphorylase that modulates plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Yin, Weixiao; Kong, Guanghui; Yang, Xinyu; Qutob, Dinah; Chen, Qinghe; Kale, Shiv D; Sui, Yangyang; Zhang, Zhengguang; Dou, Daolong; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gijzen, Mark; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2011-11-01

    Plants have evolved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to protect themselves from infection by diverse pathogens. Avirulence (Avr) effectors that trigger plant ETI as a result of recognition by plant resistance (R) gene products have been identified in many plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. However, the virulence functions of oomycete and fungal Avr effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we combined bioinformatics and genetics to identify Avr3b, a new Avr gene from Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen that causes soybean root rot. Avr3b encodes a secreted protein with the RXLR host-targeting motif and C-terminal W and Nudix hydrolase motifs. Some isolates of P. sojae evade perception by the soybean R gene Rps3b through sequence mutation in Avr3b and lowered transcript accumulation. Transient expression of Avr3b in Nicotiana benthamiana increased susceptibility to P. capsici and P. parasitica, with significantly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) around invasion sites. Biochemical assays confirmed that Avr3b is an ADP-ribose/NADH pyrophosphorylase, as predicted from the Nudix motif. Deletion of the Nudix motif of Avr3b abolished enzyme activity. Mutation of key residues in Nudix motif significantly impaired Avr3b virulence function but not the avirulence activity. Some Nudix hydrolases act as negative regulators of plant immunity, and thus Avr3b might be delivered into host cells as a Nudix hydrolase to impair host immunity. Avr3b homologues are present in several sequenced Phytophthora genomes, suggesting that Phytophthora pathogens might share similar strategies to suppress plant immunity. PMID:22102810

  2. Identification and Characterisation CRN Effectors in Phytophthora capsici Shows Modularity and Functional Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Remco; Jupe, Julietta; Howden, Andrew J. M.; Morris, Jenny A.; Boevink, Petra C.; Hedley, Pete E.; Huitema, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora species secrete a large array of effectors during infection of their host plants. The Crinkler (CRN) gene family encodes a ubiquitous but understudied class of effectors with possible but as of yet unknown roles in infection. To appreciate CRN effector function in Phytophthora, we devised a simple Crn gene identification and annotation pipeline to improve effector prediction rates. We predicted 84 full-length CRN coding genes and assessed CRN effector domain diversity in sequenced Oomycete genomes. These analyses revealed evidence of CRN domain innovation in Phytophthora and expansion in the Peronosporales. We performed gene expression analyses to validate and define two classes of CRN effectors, each possibly contributing to infection at different stages. CRN localisation studies revealed that P. capsici CRN effector domains target the nucleus and accumulate in specific sub-nuclear compartments. Phenotypic analyses showed that few CRN domains induce necrosis when expressed in planta and that one cell death inducing effector, enhances P. capsici virulence on Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggest that the CRN protein family form an important class of intracellular effectors that target the host nucleus during infection. These results combined with domain expansion in hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, suggests specific contributions to pathogen lifestyles. This work will bolster CRN identification efforts in other sequenced oomycete species and set the stage for future functional studies towards understanding CRN effector functions. PMID:23536880

  3. Identification and Characterisation CRN Effectors in Phytophthora capsici Shows Modularity and Functional Diversity.

    PubMed

    Stam, Remco; Jupe, Julietta; Howden, Andrew J M; Morris, Jenny A; Boevink, Petra C; Hedley, Pete E; Huitema, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora species secrete a large array of effectors during infection of their host plants. The Crinkler (CRN) gene family encodes a ubiquitous but understudied class of effectors with possible but as of yet unknown roles in infection. To appreciate CRN effector function in Phytophthora, we devised a simple Crn gene identification and annotation pipeline to improve effector prediction rates. We predicted 84 full-length CRN coding genes and assessed CRN effector domain diversity in sequenced Oomycete genomes. These analyses revealed evidence of CRN domain innovation in Phytophthora and expansion in the Peronosporales. We performed gene expression analyses to validate and define two classes of CRN effectors, each possibly contributing to infection at different stages. CRN localisation studies revealed that P. capsici CRN effector domains target the nucleus and accumulate in specific sub-nuclear compartments. Phenotypic analyses showed that few CRN domains induce necrosis when expressed in planta and that one cell death inducing effector, enhances P. capsici virulence on Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggest that the CRN protein family form an important class of intracellular effectors that target the host nucleus during infection. These results combined with domain expansion in hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, suggests specific contributions to pathogen lifestyles. This work will bolster CRN identification efforts in other sequenced oomycete species and set the stage for future functional studies towards understanding CRN effector functions. PMID:23536880

  4. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.

  5. Expression of the bacterial type III effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae down-regulates the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway leading to growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2014-06-27

    Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (?sur4, ?fen1, ?ipt1, ?skn1, ?csg1, ?csg2, ?orm1, and ?orm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A ?cdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest. PMID:24828506

  6. Interferon-? enhances peptide vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell numbers, effector function, and anti-tumor activity 1

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Andrew G.; Jaffarzad, Nina; Hailemichael, Yared; Gelbard, Alexander; Stonier, Spencer W.; Schluns, Kimberly S.; Frasca, Loredana; Lou, Yanyan; Liu, Chengwen; Andersson, Helen A.; Hwu, Patrick; Overwijk, Willem W.

    2009-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs), including IFN-?, can enhance antigen presentation and promote the expansion, survival and effector function of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) during viral infection. Since these are ideal characteristics for a vaccine adjuvant we examined the efficacy and mechanism of exogenous IFN-? as an adjuvant for anti-melanoma peptide vaccination. We studied the expansion of pmel-1 transgenic CD8+ T cells specific for the gp100 melanocyte differentiation antigen after vaccination of wild-type C57BL/6 or transgenic/knockout mice with gp10025-33 peptide in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. IFN-? synergized with peptide vaccination in a dose-dependent manner by boosting relative and absolute numbers of gp100-specific T cells that suppressed B16 melanoma growth. IFN-? dramatically increased the accumulation of gp100-specific, IFN-?-secreting, CD8+ T cells in the tumor through reduced apoptosis and enhanced proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. IFN-? treatment also greatly increased the long-term maintenance of pmel-1 CD8+ T-cells with an effector memory phenotype. IFN-?-enhanced persistence of pmel-1 T cells required expression of IFN-? receptor on the T cells and IL-15 in the host. These results demonstrate the efficacy of Type I IFN as an adjuvant for peptide vaccination, give insight into its mechanism of action, and provide a rationale for clinical trials in which vaccination is combined with standard-of-care IFN-? therapy for melanoma. PMID:19494262

  7. Flavonols modulate the effector functions of healthy individuals' immune complex-stimulated neutrophils: a therapeutic perspective for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Everton O L; Kabeya, Luciana M; Figueiredo-Rinhel, Andra S G; Marchi, Larissa F; Andrade, Micssio F; Piatesi, Fabiana; Paoliello-Paschoalato, Adriana B; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M

    2014-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients usually exhibit immune complex (IC) deposition and increased neutrophil activation in the joint. In this study, we assessed how four flavonols (galangin, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin) modulate the effector functions of healthy individuals' and active RA patients' IC-stimulated neutrophils. We measured superoxide anion and total reactive oxygen species production using lucigenin (CL-luc)- and luminol (CL-lum)-enhanced chemiluminescence assays, respectively. Galangin, kaempferol, and quercetin inhibited CL-lum to the same degree (mean IC50=2.5 ?M). At 2.5 ?M, quercetin and galangin suppressed nearly 65% CL-lum of active RA patients' neutrophils. Quercetin inhibited CL-luc the most effectively (IC50=1.710.36 ?M). The four flavonols diminished myeloperoxidase activity, but they did not decrease NADPH oxidase activity, phagocytosis, microbial killing, or cell viability of neutrophils. The ability of the flavonols to scavenge hypochlorous acid and chloramines, but not H2O2, depended on the hydroxylation degree of the flavonol B-ring. Therefore, at physiologically relevant concentrations, the flavonols partially inhibited the oxidative metabolism of IC-stimulated neutrophils without affecting the other investigated effector functions. Using these compounds to modulate IC-mediated neutrophil activation is a promising safe therapeutic strategy to control inflammation in active RA patients. PMID:24797916

  8. Protein Kinase C? is a downstream effector of oncogenic KRAS in lung tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Jennifer M.; Ohm, Angela M.; Carter, Cristan J.; Heasley, Lynn E.; Aly, Theresa A.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Reyland, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of KRAS occurs commonly in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but strategies to therapeutically target this pathway have been challenging to develop. Information about downstream effectors of KRAS remains incomplete and tractable targets are yet to be defined. In this study we investigated the role of Protein Kinase C delta (PKC?) in KRAS dependent lung tumorigenesis using a mouse carcinogen model and human NSCLC cells. The incidence of urethane-induced lung tumors was decreased by 69% in PKC? deficient (?KO) mice compared to wild type (?WT) mice. ?KO tumors are smaller and showed reduced proliferation. DNA sequencing indicated that all ?WT tumors had activating mutations in KRAS, whereas only 69% of ?KO tumors did, suggesting that PKC? acts as a tumor promoter downstream of oncogenic KRAS, while acting as a tumor suppressor in other oncogenic contexts. Similar results were obtained in a panel of NSCLC cell lines with oncogenic KRAS, but which differ in their dependence on KRAS for survival. RNAi-mediated attenuation of PKC? inhibited anchorage-independent growth, invasion, migration and tumorigenesis in KRAS-dependent cells. These effects were associated with suppression of MAPK pathway activation. In contrast, PKC? attenuation enhanced anchorage-independent growth, invasion and migration in NSCLC cells that were either KRAS-independent or that had wild-type KRAS. Unexpectedly, our studies indicate that the function of PKC? in tumor cells depends on a specific oncogenic context, as loss of PKC? in NSCLC cells suppressed transformed growth only in cells dependent upon oncogenic KRAS for proliferation and survival. PMID:21335545

  9. Single-cell quantification of IL-2 response by effector and regulatory T cells reveals critical plasticity in immune response

    PubMed Central

    Feinerman, Ofer; Jentsch, Garrit; Tkach, Karen E; Coward, Jesse W; Hathorn, Matthew M; Sneddon, Michael W; Emonet, Thierry; Smith, Kendall A; Altan-Bonnet, Grgoire

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how the immune system decides between tolerance and activation by antigens requires addressing cytokine regulation as a highly dynamic process. We quantified the dynamics of interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling in a population of T cells during an immune response by combining in silico modeling and single-cell measurements in vitro. We demonstrate that IL-2 receptor expression levels vary widely among T cells creating a large variability in the ability of the individual cells to consume, produce and participate in IL-2 signaling within the population. Our model reveals that at the population level, these heterogeneous cells are engaged in a tug-of-war for IL-2 between regulatory (Treg) and effector (Teff) T cells, whereby access to IL-2 can either increase the survival of Teff cells or the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. This tug-of-war is the mechanism enforcing, at the systems level, a core function of Treg cells, namely the specific suppression of survival signals for weakly activated Teff cells but not for strongly activated cells. Our integrated model yields quantitative, experimentally validated predictions for the manipulation of Treg suppression. PMID:21119631

  10. The Pseudomonas type III effector HopQ1 activates cytokinin signaling and interferes with plant innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Hann, Dagmar R; Domnguez-Ferreras, Ana; Motyka, Vaclav; Dobrev, Petre I; Schornack, Sebastian; Jehle, Anna; Felix, Georg; Chinchilla, Delphine; Rathjen, John P; Boller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the molecular function of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto) effector HopQ1. In silico studies suggest that HopQ1 might possess nucleoside hydrolase activity based on the presence of a characteristic aspartate motif. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing HopQ1 or HopQ1 aspartate mutant variants were characterized with respect to flagellin triggered immunity, phenotype and changes in phytohormone content by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS (HPLC-MS). We found that HopQ1, but not its aspartate mutants, suppressed all tested immunity marker assays. Suppression of immunity was the result of a lack of the flagellin receptor FLS2, whose gene expression was abolished by HopQ1 in a promoter-dependent manner. Furthermore, HopQ1 induced cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis and the elevation in cytokinin signaling appears to be responsible for the attenuation of FLS2 expression. We conclude that HopQ1 can activate cytokinin signaling and that moderate activation of cytokinin signaling leads to suppression of FLS2 accumulation and thus defense signaling. PMID:24124900

  11. PKC-Theta in Regulatory and Effector T-cell Functions.

    PubMed

    Brezar, Vedran; Tu, Wen Juan; Seddiki, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    One of the major goals in immunology research is to understand the regulatory mechanisms that underpin the rapid switch on/off of robust and efficient effector (Teffs) or regulatory (Tregs) T-cell responses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of such responses is critical for the development of effective therapies. T-cell activation involves the engagement of T-cell receptor and co-stimulatory signals, but the subsequent recruitment of serine/threonine-specific protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-?) to the immunological synapse (IS) is instrumental for the formation of signaling complexes, which ultimately lead to a transcriptional network in T cells. Recent studies demonstrated that major differences between Teffs and Tregs occurred at the IS where its formation induces altered signaling pathways in Tregs. These pathways are characterized by reduced recruitment of PKC-?, suggesting that PKC-? inhibits Tregs suppressive function in a negative feedback loop. As the balance of Teffs and Tregs has been shown to be central in several diseases, it was not surprising that some studies revealed that PKC-? plays a major role in the regulation of this balance. This review will examine recent knowledge on the role of PKC-? in T-cell transcriptional responses and how this protein can impact on the function of both Tregs and Teffs. PMID:26528291

  12. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB

    PubMed Central

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that proDcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo. PMID:24862573

  13. Inhibition of inflammasome activation by Coxiella burnetii type IV secretion system effector IcaA.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Larissa D; Ribeiro, Juliana M; Fernandes, Talita D; Massis, Liliana M; Khoo, Chen Ai; Moffatt, Jennifer H; Newton, Hayley J; Roy, Craig R; Zamboni, Dario S

    2015-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious bacterium that promotes its own replication in macrophages by inhibiting several host cell responses. Here, we show that C. burnetii inhibits caspase-1 activation in primary mouse macrophages. By using co-infection experiments, we determine that the infection of macrophages with C. burnetii inhibits the caspase-11-mediated non-canonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome induced by subsequent infection with Escherichia coli or Legionella pneumophila. Genetic screening using flagellin mutants of L. pneumophila as a surrogate host, reveals a novel C. burnetii gene (IcaA) involved in the inhibition of caspase activation. Expression of IcaA in L. pneumophila inhibited the caspase-11 activation in macrophages. Moreover, icaA(-) mutants of C. burnetii failed to suppress the caspase-11-mediated inflammasome activation induced by L. pneumophila. Our data reveal IcaA as a novel C. burnetii effector protein that is secreted by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system and interferes with the caspase-11-induced, non-canonical activation of the inflammasome. PMID:26687278

  14. Acute inflammation primes myeloid effector cells for anti-inflammatory STAT6 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wermeling, Fredrik; Anthony, Robert M; Brombacher, Frank; Ravetch, Jeffrey V

    2013-08-13

    The anti-inflammatory drug high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, widely used to suppress inflammation, depends on a specific α-2,6-sialylated glycoform of IgG Fc to induce Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6) signaling for its activity. Here we show that anti-inflammatory activities of IL-4 can be attributed to the direct action of this cytokine on myeloid effector cells, depending on their expression of the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα/CD124). However, in their basal state, these cells express low levels of IL-4Rα and would not be expected to result in significant signaling compared with other cell populations. This apparent paradox can be explained by the observation that during inflammation, triggered by a variety of stimuli (including autoantibodies, adjuvants, and TLR ligands), IL-4Rα is up-regulated specifically on these cells, priming them for STAT6 signaling. The regulation is mediated by a soluble, proteinase K-sensitive factor, released to the circulation by bone marrow-derived, non-B/non-T cells found in several organs, including the lungs, and fat. We propose that this regulation is part of a homeostatic mechanism to limit excessive inflammation and tissue damage. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin thus exploits an endogenous feedback loop, general to inflammation, that could be further targeted for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23898202

  15. Inhibition of inflammasome activation by Coxiella burnetii type IV secretion system effector IcaA

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Larissa D.; Ribeiro, Juliana M.; Fernandes, Talita D.; Massis, Liliana M.; Khoo, Chen Ai; Moffatt, Jennifer H.; Newton, Hayley J.; Roy, Craig R.; Zamboni, Dario S.

    2015-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious bacterium that promotes its own replication in macrophages by inhibiting several host cell responses. Here, we show that C. burnetii inhibits caspase-1 activation in primary mouse macrophages. By using co-infection experiments, we determine that the infection of macrophages with C. burnetii inhibits the caspase-11-mediated non-canonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome induced by subsequent infection with Escherichia coli or Legionella pneumophila. Genetic screening using flagellin mutants of L. pneumophila as a surrogate host, reveals a novel C. burnetii gene (IcaA) involved in the inhibition of caspase activation. Expression of IcaA in L. pneumophila inhibited the caspase-11 activation in macrophages. Moreover, icaA- mutants of C. burnetii failed to suppress the caspase-11-mediated inflammasome activation induced by L. pneumophila. Our data reveal IcaA as a novel C. burnetii effector protein that is secreted by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system and interferes with the caspase-11-induced, non-canonical activation of the inflammasome. PMID:26687278

  16. PKC-Theta in Regulatory and Effector T-cell Functions

    PubMed Central

    Brezar, Vedran; Tu, Wen Juan; Seddiki, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    One of the major goals in immunology research is to understand the regulatory mechanisms that underpin the rapid switch on/off of robust and efficient effector (Teffs) or regulatory (Tregs) T-cell responses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of such responses is critical for the development of effective therapies. T-cell activation involves the engagement of T-cell receptor and co-stimulatory signals, but the subsequent recruitment of serine/threonine-specific protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) to the immunological synapse (IS) is instrumental for the formation of signaling complexes, which ultimately lead to a transcriptional network in T cells. Recent studies demonstrated that major differences between Teffs and Tregs occurred at the IS where its formation induces altered signaling pathways in Tregs. These pathways are characterized by reduced recruitment of PKC-θ, suggesting that PKC-θ inhibits Tregs suppressive function in a negative feedback loop. As the balance of Teffs and Tregs has been shown to be central in several diseases, it was not surprising that some studies revealed that PKC-θ plays a major role in the regulation of this balance. This review will examine recent knowledge on the role of PKC-θ in T-cell transcriptional responses and how this protein can impact on the function of both Tregs and Teffs. PMID:26528291

  17. Leptin's effect on hyperactivity: potential downstream effector mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, J J G; Kas, M J H; van Elburg, A A; Hoek, H W; Adan, R A H

    2008-08-01

    Up to 80% of patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) demonstrate hyperactivity. Hyperactivity counteracts weight gain during treatment and is associated with poor outcome of the disease. We hypothesized that hyperactivity in AN patients has a neurobiological basis and used an animal model-based translational approach to gain insight in mechanisms underlying this hyperactivity. Previously we and others showed that leptin treatment attenuates hyperactivity in the rat activity-based anorexia (ABA) model. The mechanisms involved in this process are, however, unknown. Here we describe potential downstream effector mechanisms involved in the attenuation of hyperactivity by leptin treatment in ABA rats. PMID:18495181

  18. Telepresence master glove controller for dexterous robotic end-effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at NASA's Ames Research Center to develop a glove-like, control and data-recording device (DataGlove) that records and transmits to a host computer in real time, and at appropriate resolution, a numeric data-record of a user's hand/finger shape and dynamics. System configuration and performance specifications are detailed, and current research is discussed investigating its applications in operator control of dexterous robotic end-effectors and for use as a human factors research tool in evaluation of operator hand function requirements and performance in other specialized task environments.

  19. Galaxy as a platform for identifying candidate pathogen effectors.

    PubMed

    Cock, Peter J A; Pritchard, Leighton

    2014-01-01

    The Galaxy web platform provides an integrated system for its users to run multiple computational tools, linking their output in order to perform sophisticated analysis without requiring any programming or installation of software beyond a modern web-browser. Analyses can be saved as reusable workflows, and shared with other Galaxy users, allowing them to easily perform the same analysis or protocol on their own data.We describe example Galaxy workflows for the identification of candidate pathogen effector proteins. Our main example focuses on nematode plant pathogens where signal peptide and transmembrane prediction tools are used to identify predicted secreted proteins. PMID:24643548

  20. Transcription Activator-like Effectors: A Toolkit for Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins secreted by Xanthomonas bacteria to aid the infection of plant species. TALEs assist infections by binding to specific DNA sequences and activating the expression of host genes. Recent results show that TALE proteins consist of a central repeat domain, which determines the DNA targeting specificity and can be rapidly synthesized de novo. Considering the highly modular nature of TALEs, their versatility, and the ease of constructing these proteins, this technology can have important implications for synthetic biology applications. Here, we review developments in the area with a particular focus on modifications for custom and controllable gene regulation. PMID:24933470

  1. A fly-by robotic tank inspection end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Girtleman, M.M.; Robertson, B.; Gascor, T.; Wightman, B.; Hughes, G.

    1996-12-31

    A robotic end effector has been developed that is capable of performing fly-by-fly, electromagnetic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection of the inside of the U.S. Department of Energy`s waste storage tanks. Furthermore, the system is also capable of sizing defects through its unique NDE technique, Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM). The NDE data is recorded and logged electronically and is tagged with position data from the deploying manipulator, allowing a complete mapping of the tank walls and future return to defect sites.

  2. Investigation of a bio-inspired lift-enhancing effector on a 2D airfoil.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Joe; Gopalarathnam, Ashok

    2012-09-01

    A flap mounted on the upper surface of an airfoil, called a 'lift-enhancing effector', has been shown in wind tunnel tests to have a similar function to a bird's covert feathers, which rise off the wing's surface in response to separated flows. The effector, fabricated from a thin Mylar sheet, is allowed to rotate freely about its leading edge. The tests were performed in the NCSU subsonic wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4 × 10(5). The maximum lift coefficient with the effector was the same as that for the clean airfoil, but was maintained over an angle-of-attack range from 12° to almost 20°, resulting in a very gentle stall behavior. To better understand the aerodynamics and to estimate the deployment angle of the free-moving effector, fixed-angle effectors fabricated out of stiff wood were also tested. A progressive increase in the stall angle of attack with increasing effector angle was observed, with diminishing returns beyond the effector angle of 60°. Drag tests on both the free-moving and fixed effectors showed a marked improvement in drag at high angles of attack. Oil flow visualization on the airfoil with and without the fixed-angle effectors proved that the effector causes the separation point to move aft on the airfoil, as compared to the clean airfoil. This is thought to be the main mechanism by which an effector improves both lift and drag. A comparison of the fixed-effector results with those from the free-effector tests shows that the free effector's deployment angle is between 30° and 45°. When operating at and beyond the clean airfoil's stall angle, the free effector automatically deploys to progressively higher angles with increasing angles of attack. This slows down the rapid upstream movement of the separation point and avoids the severe reduction in the lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient that are seen on the clean airfoil at the onset of stall. Thus, the effector postpones the stall by 4-8° and makes the stall behavior more gentle. The benefits of using the effector could include care-free operations at high angles of attack during perching and maneuvering flight, especially in gusty conditions. PMID:22498691

  3. Transgenic Plants That Express the Phytoplasma Effector SAP11 Show Altered Phosphate Starvation and Defense Responses1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yen-Ting; Li, Meng-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Tan, Choon Meng; Su, Li-Wen; Lin, Wei-Yi; Shih, Hsien-Tzung; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen; Yang, Jun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular phosphate (Pi) and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and microRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24464367

  4. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus

    PubMed Central

    Rafiqi, Maryam; Jelonek, Lukas; Akum, Ndifor F.; Zhang, Feng; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    One of the emerging systems in plantmicrobe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis. PMID:23874344

  5. Effectors of animal and plant pathogens use a common domain to bind host phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Dor; Guo, Yirui; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Gardner, Kevin H; Orth, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems deliver effectors into host cells to manipulate cellular processes to the advantage of the pathogen. Many host targets of these effectors are found on membranes. Therefore, to identify their targets, effectors often use specialized membrane-localization domains to localize to appropriate host membranes. However, the molecular mechanisms used by many domains are unknown. Here we identify a conserved bacterial phosphoinositide-binding domain (BPD) that is found in functionally diverse Type III effectors of both plant and animal pathogens. We show that members of the BPD family functionally bind phosphoinositides and mediate localization to host membranes. Moreover, NMR studies reveal that the BPD of the newly identified Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III effector VopR is unfolded in solution, but folds into a specific structure upon binding its ligand phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate. Thus, our findings suggest a possible mechanism for promoting refolding of Type III effectors after delivery into host cells. PMID:24346350

  6. Perturbation of maize phenylpropanoid metabolism by an AvrE family type III effector from Pantoea stewartii.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Jo Ann E; Lin, Jinshan; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Gentzel, Irene; Majerczak, Doris; Opiyo, Stephen O; Zhao, Wanying; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Coplin, David L; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Mackey, David

    2015-03-01

    AvrE family type III effector proteins share the ability to suppress host defenses, induce disease-associated cell death, and promote bacterial growth. However, despite widespread contributions to numerous bacterial diseases in agriculturally important plants, the mode of action of these effectors remains largely unknown. WtsE is an AvrE family member required for the ability of Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii (Pnss) to proliferate efficiently and cause wilt and leaf blight symptoms in maize (Zea mays) plants. Notably, when WtsE is delivered by a heterologous system into the leaf cells of susceptible maize seedlings, it alone produces water-soaked disease symptoms reminiscent of those produced by Pnss. Thus, WtsE is a pathogenicity and virulence factor in maize, and an Escherichia coli heterologous delivery system can be used to study the activity of WtsE in isolation from other factors produced by Pnss. Transcriptional profiling of maize revealed the effects of WtsE, including induction of genes involved in secondary metabolism and suppression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Targeted metabolite quantification revealed that WtsE perturbs maize metabolism, including the induction of coumaroyl tyramine. The ability of mutant WtsE derivatives to elicit transcriptional and metabolic changes in susceptible maize seedlings correlated with their ability to promote disease. Furthermore, chemical inhibitors that block metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathways targeted by WtsE also disrupted the pathogenicity and virulence activity of WtsE. While numerous metabolites produced downstream of the shikimate pathway are known to promote plant defense, our results indicate that misregulated induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism also can be used to promote pathogen virulence. PMID:25635112

  7. Perturbation of Maize Phenylpropanoid Metabolism by an AvrE Family Type III Effector from Pantoea stewartii1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Jo Ann E.; Lin, Jinshan; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Gentzel, Irene; Majerczak, Doris; Opiyo, Stephen O.; Zhao, Wanying; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Coplin, David L.; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Mackey, David

    2015-01-01

    AvrE family type III effector proteins share the ability to suppress host defenses, induce disease-associated cell death, and promote bacterial growth. However, despite widespread contributions to numerous bacterial diseases in agriculturally important plants, the mode of action of these effectors remains largely unknown. WtsE is an AvrE family member required for the ability of Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii (Pnss) to proliferate efficiently and cause wilt and leaf blight symptoms in maize (Zea mays) plants. Notably, when WtsE is delivered by a heterologous system into the leaf cells of susceptible maize seedlings, it alone produces water-soaked disease symptoms reminiscent of those produced by Pnss. Thus, WtsE is a pathogenicity and virulence factor in maize, and an Escherichia coli heterologous delivery system can be used to study the activity of WtsE in isolation from other factors produced by Pnss. Transcriptional profiling of maize revealed the effects of WtsE, including induction of genes involved in secondary metabolism and suppression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Targeted metabolite quantification revealed that WtsE perturbs maize metabolism, including the induction of coumaroyl tyramine. The ability of mutant WtsE derivatives to elicit transcriptional and metabolic changes in susceptible maize seedlings correlated with their ability to promote disease. Furthermore, chemical inhibitors that block metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathways targeted by WtsE also disrupted the pathogenicity and virulence activity of WtsE. While numerous metabolites produced downstream of the shikimate pathway are known to promote plant defense, our results indicate that misregulated induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism also can be used to promote pathogen virulence. PMID:25635112

  8. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm gripper end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This gripper end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized.

  9. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm sampler end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This sampler end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized.

  10. Evaluation of Secretion Prediction Highlights Differing Approaches Needed for Oomycete and Fungal Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Sperschneider, Jana; Williams, Angela H.; Hane, James K.; Singh, Karam B.; Taylor, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen's advantage. Proteinaceous effectors are synthesized intracellularly and must be externalized to interact with host cells. Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 (D-score) and SignalP 2 perform best. For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. Our assessment of subcellular localization predictors shows that cytoplasmic effectors are often predicted as not extracellular. This limits the reliability of secretion predictions that depend on these tools. We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes. PMID:26779196

  11. Method and apparatus for positioning a robotic end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Clifford W. (inventor); Li, Larry C. H. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic end effector and operation protocol for a reliable grasp of a target object irrespective of the target's contours is disclosed. A robotic hand includes a plurality of jointed fingers, one of which, like a thumb, is in opposed relation to the other. Each finger is comprised of at least two jointed sections, and provided with reflective proximity sensors, one on the inner surface of each finger section. Each proximity sensor comprises a transmitter of a beam of radiant energy and means for receiving reflections of the transmitted energy when reflected by a target object and for generating electrical signals responsive thereto. On the fingers opposed to the thumb, the proximity sensors on the outermost finger sections are aligned in an outer sensor array and the sensors on the intermediate finger sections and sensors on the innermost finger sections are similarly arranged to form an intermediate sensor array and an inner sensor array, respectively. The invention includes a computer system with software and/or circuitry for a protocol comprising the steps in sequence of: (1) approach axis alignment to maximize the number of outer layer sensors which detect the target; (2) non-contact contour following the target by the robot fingers to minimize target escape potential; and (3) closing to rigidize the target including dynamically re-adjusting the end effector finger alignment to compensate for target motion. A signal conditioning circuit and gain adjustment means are included to maintain the dynamic range of low power reflection signals.

  12. Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fcγ receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients. PMID:25667985

  13. Heat shock proteins, end effectors of myocardium ischemic preconditioning?

    PubMed Central

    Guisasola, María Concepcion; Desco, Maria del Mar; Gonzalez, Fernanda Silvana; Asensio, Fernando; Dulin, Elena; Suarez, Antonio; Garcia Barreno, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether ischemia-reperfusion increased the content of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) transcripts and (2) whether myocardial content of Hsp72 is increased by ischemic preconditioning so that they can be considered as end effectors of preconditioning. Twelve male minipigs (8 protocol, 4 sham) were used, with the following ischemic preconditioning protocol: 3 ischemia and reperfusion 5-minute alternative cycles and last reperfusion cycle of 3 hours. Initial and final transmural biopsies (both in healthy and ischemic areas) were taken in all animals. Heat shock protein 72 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was measured by a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method using complementary DNA normalized against the housekeeping gene cyclophilin. The identification of heat shock protein 72 was performed by immunoblot. In our “classic” preconditioning model, we found no changes in mRNA hsp72 levels or heat shock protein 72 content in the myocardium after 3 hours of reperfusion. Our experimental model is valid and the experimental techniques are appropriate, but the induction of heat shock proteins 72 as end effectors of cardioprotection in ischemic preconditioning does not occur in the first hours after ischemia, but probably at least 24 hours after it, in the so-called “second protection window.” PMID:17009598

  14. Innovative technology summary report: Confined sluicing end effector

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE) was field tested during the summer of 1997 in Tank W-3, one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It should be noted that the specific device used at the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstration was the Sludge Retrieval End-Effector (SREE), although in common usage it is referred to as the CSEE. Deployed by the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) and the Houdini remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the CSEE was used to mobilize and retrieve waste from the tank. After removing the waste, the CSEE was used to scarify the gunite walls of Tank W-3, removing approximately 0.1 in of material. The CSEE uses three rotating water-jets to direct a short-range pressurized jet of water to effectively mobilize the waste. Simultaneously, the water and dislodged tank waste, or scarified materials, are aspirated using a water-jet pump-driven conveyance system. The material is then pumped outside of the tank, where it can be stored for treatment. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed.

  15. Force control under auditory feedback: effector differences and audiomotor memory.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Torrey M J; Ofori, Edward; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2012-06-01

    Audiomotor integration is a basic form of sensorimotor control for regulating vocal pitch and vocal loudness, but its contribution to general motor control has only been studied minimally. In this paper, auditory feedback for prolonged force control was investigated by comparing manual and oral force generation and testing short-term audiomotor memory for these effectors. Ten healthy volunteers between the ages of 20 and 30 years old were recruited. The participants produced continuous force for 30 sec. with the lip or finger to match auditory targets. In the feedback condition, when auditory feedback was provided for 30 sec., lip force was more variable than finger force. In the memory condition, the force output of both effectors remained stable for approximately 4 sec. after feedback removal, followed by significant decay. A longer short-term memory capacity could facilitate encoding of motor memories for tasks having acoustic goals. The results demonstrate that "audiomotor" integration was effective for sustaining forces, and that audiomotor force memory is comparable to reports of visuomotor force memory. PMID:22913030

  16. Local sensory control of a dexterous end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, Victor H.; Everett, Louis J.; Driels, Morris

    1990-01-01

    A numerical scheme was developed to solve the inverse kinematics for a user-defined manipulator. The scheme was based on a nonlinear least-squares technique which determines the joint variables by minimizing the difference between the target end effector pose and the actual end effector pose. The scheme was adapted to a dexterous hand in which the joints are either prismatic or revolute and the fingers are considered open kinematic chains. Feasible solutions were obtained using a three-fingered dexterous hand. An algorithm to estimate the position and orientation of a pre-grasped object was also developed. The algorithm was based on triangulation using an ideal sensor and a spherical object model. By choosing the object to be a sphere, only the position of the object frame was important. Based on these simplifications, a minimum of three sensors are needed to find the position of a sphere. A two dimensional example to determine the position of a circle coordinate frame using a two-fingered dexterous hand was presented.

  17. Flight Control Using Distributed Shape-Change Effector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Montgomery, Raymond C.; Green, Lawrence I.; Park, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent discoveries in material science and fluidics have been used to create a variety of novel effector devices that offer great potential to enable new approaches to aerospace vehicle flight control. Examples include small inflatable blisters, shape-memory alloy diaphragms, and piezoelectric patches that may be used to produce distortions or bumps on the surface of an airfoil to generate control moments. Small jets have also been used to produce a virtual shape-change through fluidic means by creating a recirculation bubble on the surface of an airfoil. An advanced aerospace vehicle might use distributed arrays of hundreds of such devices to generate moments for stabilization and maneuver control, either augmenting or replacing conventional ailerons, flaps or rudders. This research demonstrates the design and use of shape-change device arrays for a tailless aircraft in a low-rate maneuvering application. A methodology for assessing the control authority of the device arrays is described, and a suite of arrays is used in a dynamic simulation to illustrate allocation and deployment methodologies. Although the authority of the preliminary shape-change array designs studied in this paper appeared quite low, the simulation results indicate that the effector suite possessed sufficient authority to stabilize and maneuver the vehicle in mild turbulence.

  18. Intestinal macrophages: unique effector cells of the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Phillip D; Ochsenbauer-Jambor, Christina; Smythies, Lesley E

    2005-08-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is the largest reservoir of macrophages in the body. These important effector cells are derived from blood monocytes that are recruited to the lamina propria by endogenous chemoattractants in the non-inflamed mucosa and by inflammatory chemokines and bacterial products during inflammation. In the non-inflamed mucosa, newly recruited pro-inflammatory monocytes are exposed to lamina propria stromal (extracellular matrix) factors that induce phenotypic and functional differentiation into non-inflammatory macrophages. As a consequence of this differentiation, resident lamina propria macrophages are strikingly downregulated for the expression of innate response receptors, such as the receptors for lipopolysaccharide, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgA, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Despite downregulated pro-inflammatory function, strong phagocytic and bactericidal activities remain intact. Thus, in the non-inflamed intestinal mucosa, lamina propria macrophages are non-inflammatory but retain avid scavenger and host defense functions, a unique but ideal phenotype and functional profile for effector cells in close proximity to immunostimulatory microorganisms and products. PMID:16048547

  19. Cytokine regulation of natural killer cell effector functions.

    PubMed

    Zwirner, Norberto W; Domaica, Carolina I

    2010-01-01

    Initially described as effectors of natural cytotoxicity and critical players for the control of viral infections and tumor growth, recent investigations unraveled more widespread functions for the natural killer (NK) cells. Through the establishment of a crosstalk with dendritic cells, NK cells promote T helper-1- and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immunity, whereas through the establishment of a crosstalk with macrophages, NK cells contribute to the activation of their microbicidal functions. Recent evidence has shown that NK cells also display memory, a characteristic thought to be privative of T and B cells, and that NK cells acquire their mature phenotype during a complex ontogeny program which tunes their activation threshold. Cytokines play critical roles in regulating all aspects of immune responses, including lymphoid development, homeostasis, differentiation, tolerance, and memory. Cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21, and type I interferons constitute pivotal factors involved in the maturation, activation, and survival of NK cells. In addition, the discovery of novel cytokines is increasing the spectrum of soluble mediators that regulate NK cell immunobiology. In this review, we summarize and integrate novel concepts about the role of different cytokines in the regulation of NK cell function. We believe that a full understanding of how NK cells become activated and develop their effector functions in response to cytokines and other stimuli may lead to the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of different types of cancer, viral infections, and chronic autoimmune diseases. PMID:20623510

  20. Phospholipase C(epsilon): a novel Ras effector.

    PubMed

    Kelley, G G; Reks, S E; Ondrako, J M; Smrcka, A V

    2001-02-15

    Three classes of mammalian phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) have been characterized, PLCbeta, PLCgamma and PLCdelta, that are differentially regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins, tyrosine kinases and calcium. Here we describe a fourth class, PLCepsilon, that in addition to conserved PLC domains, contains a GTP exchange factor (GRF CDC25) domain and two C-terminal Ras-binding (RA) domains, RA1 and RA2. The RA2 domain binds H-Ras in a GTP-dependent manner, comparable with the Ras-binding domain of Raf-1; however, the RA1 domain binds H-Ras with a low affinity in a GTP-independent manner. While G(alpha)q, Gbetagamma or, surprisingly, H-Ras do not activate recombinant purified protein in vitro, constitutively active Q61L H-Ras stimulates PLC(epsilon) co-expressed in COS-7 cells in parallel with Ras binding. Deletion of either the RA1 or RA2 domain inhibits this activation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the RA2 domain or Ras demonstrates a conserved Ras-effector interaction and a unique profile of activation by Ras effector domain mutants. These studies identify a novel fourth class of mammalian PLC that is directly regulated by Ras and links two critical signaling pathways. PMID:11179219

  1. Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Dai, Huaien; Zhang, Yi; Chandrasekar, Raman; Luo, Lan; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Sheng, Changzhong; Peng, Gongxin; Chen, Shaoliang; Tomich, John M; Reese, John; Edwards, Owain; Kang, Le; Reeck, Gerald; Cui, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Aphid saliva is predicted to contain proteins that modulate plant defenses and facilitate feeding. Armet is a well-characterized bifunctional protein in mammalian systems. Here we report a new role of Armet, namely as an effector protein in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Pea aphid Armet's physical and chemical properties and its intracellular role are comparable to those reported for mammalian Armets. Uniquely, we detected Armet in aphid watery saliva and in the phloem sap of fava beans fed on by aphids. Armet's transcript level is several times higher in the salivary gland when aphids feed on bean plants than when they feed on an artificial diet. Knockdown of the Armet transcript by RNA interference disturbs aphid feeding behavior on fava beans measured by the electrical penetration graph technique and leads to a shortened life span. Inoculation of pea aphid Armet protein into tobacco leaves induced a transcriptional response that included pathogen-responsive genes. The data suggest that Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions. PMID:25678626

  2. Candidate Effector Proteins of the Rust Pathogen Melampsora larici-populina Target Diverse Plant Cell Compartments.

    PubMed

    Petre, Benjamin; Saunders, Diane G O; Sklenar, Jan; Lorrain, Cécile; Win, Joe; Duplessis, Sébastien; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-06-01

    Rust fungi are devastating crop pathogens that deliver effector proteins into infected tissues to modulate plant functions and promote parasitic growth. The genome of the poplar leaf rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina revealed a large catalog of secreted proteins, some of which have been considered candidate effectors. Unraveling how these proteins function in host cells is a key to understanding pathogenicity mechanisms and developing resistant plants. In this study, we used an effectoromics pipeline to select, clone, and express 20 candidate effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells to determine their subcellular localization and identify the plant proteins they interact with. Confocal microscopy revealed that six candidate effectors target the nucleus, nucleoli, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and discrete cellular bodies. We also used coimmunoprecipitation (coIP) and mass spectrometry to identify 606 N. benthamiana proteins that associate with the candidate effectors. Five candidate effectors specifically associated with a small set of plant proteins that may represent biologically relevant interactors. We confirmed the interaction between the candidate effector MLP124017 and TOPLESS-related protein 4 from poplar by in planta coIP. Altogether, our data enable us to validate effector proteins from M. larici-populina and reveal that these proteins may target multiple compartments and processes in plant cells. It also shows that N. benthamiana can be a powerful heterologous system to study effectors of obligate biotrophic pathogens. PMID:25650830

  3. A Plethora of Virulence Strategies Hidden Behind Nuclear Targeting of Microbial Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Susana; Genin, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Plant immune responses depend on the ability to couple rapid recognition of the invading microbe to an efficient response. During evolution, plant pathogens have acquired the ability to deliver effector molecules inside host cells in order to manipulate cellular and molecular processes and establish pathogenicity. Following translocation into plant cells, microbial effectors may be addressed to different subcellular compartments. Intriguingly, a significant number of effector proteins from different pathogenic microorganisms, including viruses, oomycetes, fungi, nematodes, and bacteria, is targeted to the nucleus of host cells. In agreement with this observation, increasing evidence highlights the crucial role played by nuclear dynamics, and nucleocytoplasmic protein trafficking during a great variety of analyzed plant–pathogen interactions. Once in the nucleus, effector proteins are able to manipulate host transcription or directly subvert essential host components to promote virulence. Along these lines, it has been suggested that some effectors may affect histone packing and, thereby, chromatin configuration. In addition, microbial effectors may either directly activate transcription or target host transcription factors to alter their regular molecular functions. Alternatively, nuclear translocation of effectors may affect subcellular localization of their cognate resistance proteins in a process that is essential for resistance protein-mediated plant immunity. Here, we review recent progress in our field on the identification of microbial effectors that are targeted to the nucleus of host plant cells. In addition, we discuss different virulence strategies deployed by microbes, which have been uncovered through examination of the mechanisms that guide nuclear localization of effector proteins. PMID:22639625

  4. Regulation of Cell Wall-Bound Invertase in Pepper Leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type Three Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Priller, Johannes P. R.; Schuster, Julia; Glickmann, Eric; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Siebig, Stefan; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ΔxopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ΔxopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar-enhanced defense responses during Xcv infection. PMID:23272161

  5. The Exo70 Subunit of the Exocyst Is an Effector for Both Cdc42 and Rho3 Function in Polarized Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Turner, Courtney; Gardner, Jimmy; Temple, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Rho3 and Cdc42 members of the Rho GTPase family are important regulators of exocytosis in yeast. However, the precise mechanism by which they regulate this process is controversial. Here, we present evidence that the Exo70 component of the exocyst complex is a direct effector of both Rho3 and Cdc42. We identify gain-of-function mutants in EXO70 that potently suppress mutants in RHO3 and CDC42 defective for exocytic function. We show that Exo70 has the biochemical properties expected of a direct effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42. Surprisingly, we find that C-terminal prenylation of these GTPases both promotes the interaction and influences the sites of binding within Exo70. Finally, we demonstrate that the phenotypes associated with novel loss-of-function mutants in EXO70, are entirely consistent with Exo70 as an effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42 function in secretion. These data suggest that interaction with the Exo70 component of the exocyst is a key event in spatial regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPases. PMID:19955214

  6. Metabolic plasticity of human T cells: Preserved cytokine production under glucose deprivation or mitochondrial restriction, but 2-deoxy-glucose affects effector functions.

    PubMed

    Renner, Kathrin; Geiselhringer, Anna-Lena; Fante, Matthias; Bruss, Christina; Frber, Stephanie; Schnhammer, Gabriele; Peter, Katrin; Singer, Katrin; Andreesen, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Petra; Oefner, Peter; Herr, Wolfgang; Kreutz, Marina

    2015-09-01

    The strong link between T-cell metabolism and effector functions is well characterized in the murine system but hardly investigated in human T cells. Therefore, we analyzed glycolytic and mitochondrial activity in correlation to function in activated human CD4 and CD8 T cells. Glycolysis was barely detectable upon stimulation but accelerated beyond 24 h, whereas mitochondrial activity was elevated immediately in both T-cell populations. Glucose deprivation or mitochondrial restriction reduced proliferation, had only a transient impact on "on-blast formation" and no impact on viability, IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 production, whereas TNF was reduced. Similar results were obtained in bulk T cells and T-cell subsets. Elevated respiration under glucose restriction demonstrated metabolic flexibility. Administration of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-glucose suppressed both glycolysis and respiration and exerted a strong impact on cytokine production that persisted for IFN-? after removal of 2-deoxy-glucose. Taken together, glycolytic or mitochondrial restriction alone compromised proliferation of human T cells, but barely affected their effector functions. In contrast, effector functions were severely affected by 2-deoxy-glucose treatment. PMID:26114249

  7. Levels of CD56+TIM-3- Effector CD8 T Cells Distinguish HIV Natural Virus Suppressors from Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Poonia, Bhawna; Pauza, C. David

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART) with effective HIV suppression and reconstitution of CD4 T cells, fails to restore CD8 T cell lytic effector function that is needed to eradicate the viral reservoir. Better understanding of the phenotype and function of circulating CD8 cells in HIV patients will contribute to new targeted therapies directed at increasing CD8 T cell lytic effector function and destruction of the viral reservoir. We show that CD8 T cells from ART treated patients had sharply reduced expression of CD56 (neural cell adhesion molecule-1), a marker associated with cytolytic function whereas elite patients who control HIV in the absence of ART had CD56+ CD8 T cell levels similar to uninfected controls. The CD56+ CD8 T cells had higher perforin upregulation as well as degranulation following stimulation with HIV gag peptides compared with CD56 negative CD8 T cells. Elite patients had the highest frequencies of perforin producing CD56+ CD8 T cells among all HIV+ groups. In patients receiving ART we noted high levels of the exhaustion marker TIM-3 on CD56+ CD8 T cells, implying that defective effector function was related to immune exhaustion. CD56+ CD8 T cells from elite or treated HIV patients responded to PMA plus ionomycin stimulation, and expressed transcription factors T-bet and EOMES at levels similar to uninfected controls. Consequently, the lytic effector defect in chronic HIV disease is due to immune exhaustion and quantitative loss of CD56+ CD8 T cells and this defect is not repaired in patients where viremia is suppressed and CD4 T cells are recovered after ART. Reconstituting the cytotoxic CD56+ subset of CD8+ T cells through new interventions might improve the lytic effector capacity and contribute to reducing the viral reservoir. Our initial studies indicate that IL-15 treatment partly reverses the CD56 defect, implying that myeloid cell defects could be targeted for immune therapy during chronic HIV disease. PMID:24520422

  8. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS) play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Results Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE) sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i) comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii) submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii) the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression) are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%). Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. Conclusions T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors. The T3SEdb represents a platform for inclusion of additional annotations of metadata for future developments of sophisticated effector prediction models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes/proteomes that can be validated by a small number of key experiments. PMID:21106126

  9. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  10. Two Fis Regulators Directly Repress the Expression of Numerous Effector-Encoding Genes in Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, Tal; Speiser, Yariv

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular human pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate a large repertoire of effectors into host cells. For most of these effectors, there is no information regarding their regulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the three L. pneumophila Fis homologs in the regulation of effector-encoding genes. Deletion mutants constructed in the genes encoding the three Fis regulators revealed that Fis1 (lpg0542 gene) and Fis3 (lpg1743) but not Fis2 (lpg1370) are partially required for intracellular growth of L. pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. To identify pathogenesis-related genes directly regulated by Fis, we established a novel in vivo system which resulted in the discovery of numerous effector-encoding genes directly regulated by Fis. Further examination of these genes revealed that Fis1 and Fis3 repress the level of expression of effector-encoding genes during exponential phase. Three groups of effector-encoding genes were identified: (i) effectors regulated mainly by Fis1, (ii) effectors regulated mainly by Fis3, and (iii) effectors regulated by both Fis1 and Fis3. Examination of the upstream regulatory region of all of these effector-encoding genes revealed multiple putative Fis regulatory elements, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that a few of these sites constitute part of a repressor binding element. Furthermore, gel mobility shift assays demonstrated the direct relation between the Fis1 and Fis3 regulators and these regulatory elements. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that two of the three L. pneumophila Fis regulators directly repress the expression of Icm/Dot effector-encoding genes. PMID:25225276

  11. The Salmonella type III secretion system virulence effector forms a new hexameric chaperone assembly for export of effector/chaperone complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chi -Lin; Burkinshaw, Brianne J.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.; Tainer, John A.

    2014-12-08

    Bacteria hijack eukaryotic cells by injecting virulence effectors into host cytosol with a type III secretion system (T3SS). Effectors are targeted with their cognate chaperones to hexameric T3SS ATPase at the bacterial membrane's cytosolic face. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Roblin et al. (P. Roblin, F. Dewitte, V. Villeret, E. G. Biondi, and C. Bompard, J Bacteriol 197:688–698, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.02294-14) show that the T3SS chaperone SigE of Salmonella can form hexameric rings rather than dimers when bound to its cognate effector, SopB, implying a novel multimeric association for chaperone/effector complexes with their ATPase.

  12. The Salmonella type III secretion system virulence effector forms a new hexameric chaperone assembly for export of effector/chaperone complexes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tsai, Chi -Lin; Burkinshaw, Brianne J.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.; Tainer, John A.

    2014-12-08

    Bacteria hijack eukaryotic cells by injecting virulence effectors into host cytosol with a type III secretion system (T3SS). Effectors are targeted with their cognate chaperones to hexameric T3SS ATPase at the bacterial membrane's cytosolic face. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Roblin et al. (P. Roblin, F. Dewitte, V. Villeret, E. G. Biondi, and C. Bompard, J Bacteriol 197:688–698, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.02294-14) show that the T3SS chaperone SigE of Salmonella can form hexameric rings rather than dimers when bound to its cognate effector, SopB, implying a novel multimeric association for chaperone/effector complexes with their ATPase.

  13. Suppression of developmental anomalies by maternal macrophages in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, T.; Hata, S.; Kusafuka, T. )

    1990-11-01

    We tested whether nonspecific tumoricidal immune cells can suppress congenital malformations by killing precursor cells destined to cause such defects. Pretreatment of pregnant ICR mice with synthetic (Pyran copolymer) and biological (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) agents significantly suppressed radiation- and chemical-induced congenital malformations (cleft palate, digit anomalies, tail anomalies, etc.). Such suppressive effects were associated with the activation of maternal macrophages by these agents, but were lost either after the disruption of activated macrophages by supersonic waves or by inhibition of their lysosomal enzyme activity with trypan blue. These results indicate that a live activated macrophage with active lysosomal enzymes can be an effector cell to suppress maldevelopment. A similar reduction by activated macrophages was observed in strain CL/Fr, which has a high spontaneous frequency of cleft lips and palates. Furthermore, Pyran-activated maternal macrophages could pass through the placenta, and enhanced urethane-induced cell killing (but not somatic mutation) in the embryo. It is likely that a maternal immunosurveillance system eliminating preteratogenic cells allows for the replacement with normal totipotent blast cells during the pregnancy to protect abnormal development.

  14. Comparative reactivity of human IgE to cynomolgus monkey and human effector cells and effects on IgE effector cell potency

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Louise; Saul, Louise; Josephs, Debra H; Josephs, Debra H; Cutler, Keith; Cutler, Keith; Bradwell, Andrew; Bradwell, Andrew; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Selkirk, Chris; Selkirk, Chris; Gould, Hannah J; Gould, Hannah J; Jones, Paul; Jones, Paul; Spicer, James F; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to genetic similarities with humans, primates of the macaque genus such as the cynomolgus monkey are often chosen as models for toxicology studies of antibody therapies. IgE therapeutics in development depend upon engagement with the FcεRI and FcεRII receptors on immune effector cells for their function. Only limited knowledge of the primate IgE immune system is available to inform the choice of models for mechanistic and safety evaluations.   Methods: The recognition of human IgE by peripheral blood lymphocytes from cynomolgus monkey and man was compared. We used effector cells from each species in ex vivo affinity, dose-response, antibody-receptor dissociation and potency assays. Results: We report cross-reactivity of human IgE Fc with cynomolgus monkey cells, and comparable binding kinetics to peripheral blood lymphocytes from both species. In competition and dissociation assays, however, human IgE dissociated faster from cynomolgus monkey compared with human effector cells. Differences in association and dissociation kinetics were reflected in effector cell potency assays of IgE-mediated target cell killing, with higher concentrations of human IgE needed to elicit effector response in the cynomolgus monkey system. Additionally, human IgE binding on immune effector cells yielded significantly different cytokine release profiles in each species. Conclusion: These data suggest that human IgE binds with different characteristics to human and cynomolgus monkey IgE effector cells. This is likely to affect the potency of IgE effector functions in these two species, and so has relevance for the selection of biologically-relevant model systems when designing pre-clinical toxicology and functional studies. PMID:24492303

  15. Type VI secretion effectors: poisons with a purpose

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Alistair B.; Peterson, S. Brook; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates interactions between a diverse range of Gram-negative bacterial species. Recent studies have led to a drastic increase in the number of characterized T6SS effector proteins and produced a more complete and nuanced view of the adaptive significance of the system. While the system is most often implicated in antagonism, in this review we consider the case for its involvement in both antagonistic and non-antagonistic behaviors. Clarifying the roles that T6S plays in microbial communities will contribute to broader efforts to understand the importance of microbial interactions in maintaining human and environmental health, and will inform efforts to manipulate these interactions for therapeutic or environmental benefit. PMID:24384601

  16. Nitric oxide and cytochrome oxidase: substrate, inhibitor or effector?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chris E

    2002-01-01

    Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) controls oxygen consumption by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal electron acceptor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The oxygen-binding site of the enzyme is an iron/copper (haem a3/CuB) binuclear centre. At high substrate (ferrocytochrome c) concentrations, NO binds reversibly to the reduced iron in competition with oxygen. At low substrate concentrations, NO binds to the oxidized copper. Inhibition at the haem iron site is relieved by dissociation of the NO from the reduced iron. Inhibition at the copper site is relieved by oxidation of the bound NO and subsequent dissociation of nitrite from the enzyme. Therefore, NO can be a substrate, inhibitor or effector of cytochrome oxidase, depending on cellular conditions. PMID:11796222

  17. Cell-Autonomous Effector Mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    MacMicking, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Few pathogens run the gauntlet of sterilizing immunity like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This organism infects mononuclear phagocytes and is also ingested by neutrophils, both of which possess an arsenal of cell-intrinsic effector mechanisms capable of eliminating it. Here Mtb encounters acid, oxidants, nitrosylating agents, and redox congeners, often exuberantly delivered under low oxygen tension. Further pressure is applied by withholding divalent Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+, as well as by metabolic privation in the form of carbon needed for anaplerosis and aromatic amino acids for growth. Finally, host E3 ligases ubiquinate, cationic peptides disrupt, and lysosomal enzymes digest Mtb as part of the autophagic response to this particular pathogen. It is a testament to the evolutionary fitness of Mtb that sterilization is rarely complete, although sufficient to ensure most people infected with this airborne bacterium remain disease-free. PMID:25081628

  18. Intervention of Phytohormone Pathways by Pathogen Effectors[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The constant struggle between plants and microbes has driven the evolution of multiple defense strategies in the host as well as offense strategies in the pathogen. To defend themselves from pathogen attack, plants often rely on elaborate signaling networks regulated by phytohormones. In turn, pathogens have adopted innovative strategies to manipulate phytohormone-regulated defenses. Tactics frequently employed by plant pathogens involve hijacking, evading, or disrupting hormone signaling pathways and/or crosstalk. As reviewed here, this is achieved mechanistically via pathogen-derived molecules known as effectors, which target phytohormone receptors, transcriptional activators and repressors, and other components of phytohormone signaling in the host plant. Herbivores and sap-sucking insects employ obligate pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasma, or symbiotic bacteria to intervene with phytohormone-regulated defenses. Overall, an improved understanding of phytohormone intervention strategies employed by pests and pathogens during their interactions with plants will ultimately lead to the development of new crop protection strategies. PMID:24920334

  19. Modulation of innate immunity by Toxoplasma gondii virulence effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Christopher A.; Sibley, L. David

    2013-01-01

    Preface Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of animals and humans that can cause serious opportunistic infections. However, the majority of infections are asymptomatic possibly because the organism has co-evolved with its many vertebrate hosts and has developed multiple strategies to persist asymptomatically for the lifetime of the host. Over the past two decades, infection studies in the mouse, combined with forward genetic approaches aimed at unraveling the molecular basis of infection, have revealed that T. gondii virulence is mediated, in part, by secretion of effector proteins into the host cell during invasion. Here, we review recent advances that illustrate how these virulence factors disarm innate immunity and promote survival of the parasite. PMID:23070557

  20. Molecular regulation of effector and memory T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, John T; Wherry, E John; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a cardinal feature of adaptive immunity and an important goal of vaccination strategies. Here we highlight advances in the understanding of the diverse T lymphocyte subsets that provide acute and long-term protection from infection. These include new insights into the transcription factors, and the upstream ‘pioneering’ factors that regulate their accessibility to key sites of gene regulation, as well as metabolic regulators that contribute to the differentiation of effector and memory subsets; ontogeny and defining characteristics of tissue-resident memory lymphocytes; and origins of the remarkable heterogeneity exhibited by activated T cells. Collectively, these findings underscore progress in delineating the underlying pathways that control diversification in T cell responses but also reveal gaps in the knowledge, as well as the challenges that arise in the application of this knowledge to rationally elicit desired T cell responses through vaccination and immunotherapy. PMID:25396352

  1. The role of protein effectors in plant-aphid interactions.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Dezi A; Jander, Georg

    2013-08-01

    Aphid salivary proteins, which are injected into the phloem sieve elements during feeding, play a central role in plant-aphid interactions. Among the dozens of known salivary proteins, many have no homology to proteins from other organisms. These aphid-specific proteins likely have evolved as effectors that inhibit plant defenses, prevent phloem sieve-element occlusion, and otherwise promote the unique phloem feeding style. However, aphid salivary proteins also are recognized by plants to mount defense responses and are likely a major factor in limiting the host range of particular aphid species and biotypes. Newly developed research tools provide excellent opportunities for analyzing the mostly unknown functions of aphid salivary proteins and elucidating their contribution to the complex interactions between aphids and their host plants. PMID:23850072

  2. TAL Effector DNA-Binding Principles and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Annekatrin; Streubel, Jana; Boch, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins with a unique DNA-binding domain that confers both a predictable and programmable specificity. The DNA-binding domain consists typically of 34-amino acid near-identical repeats. The repeats form a right-handed superhelical structure that wraps around the DNA double helix and exposes the variable amino acids at position 13 of each repeat to the sense strand DNA bases. Each repeat binds one base in a highly specific, non-overlapping, and comma-free fashion. Although TALE specificities are encoded in a simple way, sophisticated rules can be taken into account to build highly efficient DNA-binding modules for biotechnological use. PMID:26443210

  3. Gibberellin Perception by the Gibberellin Receptor and its Effector Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakoshima, Toshio; Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Sun, Tai-Ping

    Gibberellins control a diverse range of growth and developmental processes in higher plants and have been widely utilized in the agricultural industry. By binding to a nuclear receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), gibberellins regulate gene expression by promoting degradation of the transcriptional regulator DELLA proteins. The precise manner in which GID1 discriminates and becomes activated by bioactive gibberellins for specific binding to DELLA proteins remains unclear. We present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Arabidopsis thaliana GID1A, a bioactive gibberellin and the N-terminal DELLA domain of GAI. In this complex, GID1a occludes gibberellin in a deep binding pocket covered by its N-terminal helical switch region, which in turn interacts with the DELLA domain containing DELLA, VHYNP and LExLE motifs. Our results establish a structural model of a plant hormone receptor which is distinct from the hormone-perception mechanism and effector recognition of the known auxin receptors.

  4. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  5. Antipsychotics activate the TGF? pathway effector SMAD3

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, T.; Sundaresh, S.; Levine, F.

    2014-01-01

    Although effective in treating an array of neurological disorders, antipsychotics are associated with deleterious metabolic side effects. Through high-throughput screening, we previously identified phenothiazine antipsychotics as modulators of the human insulin promoter. Here, we extended our initial finding to structurally diverse typical and atypical antipsychotics. We then identified the TGF? pathway as being involved in the effect of antipsychotics on the insulin promoter, finding that antipsychotics activated SMAD3, a downstream effector of the TGF? pathway, through a receptor distinct from the TGF? receptor family and known neurotransmitter receptor targets of antipsychotics. Of note, antipsychotics that do not cause metabolic side effects did not activate SMAD3. In vivo relevance was demonstrated by reanalysis of gene expression data from human brains treated with antipsychotics, which showed altered expression of SMAD3 responsive genes. This work raises the possibility that antipsychotics could be designed that retain beneficial CNS activity while lacking deleterious metabolic side effects. PMID:22290122

  6. Effector and Memory T cell Responses to Commensal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Belkaid, Yasmine; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Hand, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Barrier surfaces are home to a vast population of commensal organisms that together encode millions of proteins, each of them possessing several potential foreign antigens. Regulation of immune responses to this enormous antigenic load represents a tremendous challenge for the immune system. Tissues exposed to commensals have developed elaborate systems of regulation including specialized populations of resident lymphocytes that maintain barrier function and limit potential responses to commensal antigens. However, in settings of infection and inflammation these regulatory mechanisms are compromised and specific effector responses against commensal bacteria can develop. This review discusses the circumstances controlling the fate of commensal specific T cells and how dysregulation of these responses could lead to severe pathological outcomes. PMID:23643444

  7. Protection after stroke: cellular effectors of neurovascular unit integrity

    PubMed Central

    Posada-Duque, Rafael Andres; Barreto, George E.; Cardona-Gomez, Gloria Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Neurological disorders are prevalent worldwide. Cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs), which account for 55% of all neurological diseases, are the leading cause of permanent disability, cognitive and motor disorders and dementia. Stroke affects the function and structure of blood-brain barrier, the loss of cerebral blood flow regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and the loss of neural connections. Currently, no gold standard treatments are available outside the acute therapeutic window to improve outcome in stroke patients. Some promising candidate targets have been identified for the improvement of long-term recovery after stroke, such as Rho GTPases, cell adhesion proteins, kinases, and phosphatases. Previous studies by our lab indicated that Rho GTPases (Rac and RhoA) are involved in both tissue damage and survival, as these proteins are essential for the morphology and movement of neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells, thus playing a critical role in the balance between cell survival and death. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of RhoA/ROCK blocks the activation of the neurodegeneration cascade. In addition, Rac and synaptic adhesion proteins (p120 catenin and N-catenin) play critical roles in protection against cerebral infarction and in recovery by supporting the neurovascular unit and cytoskeletal remodeling activity to maintain the integrity of the brain parenchyma. Interestingly, neuroprotective agents, such as atorvastatin, and CDK5 silencing after cerebral ischemia and in a glutamate-induced excitotoxicity model may act on the same cellular effectors to recover neurovascular unit integrity. Therefore, future efforts must focus on individually targeting the structural and functional roles of each effector of neurovascular unit and the interactions in neural and non-neural cells in the post-ischemic brain and address how to promote the recovery or prevent the loss of homeostasis in the short, medium and long term. PMID:25177270

  8. Electroporation of functional bacterial effectors into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Sontag, Ryan L; Mihai, Cosmin; Orr, Galya; Savchenko, Alexei; Skarina, Tatiana; Cui, Hong; Cort, John R; Adkins, Joshua N; Brown, Roslyn N

    2015-01-01

    The study of protein interactions in the context of living cells can generate critical information about localization, dynamics, and interacting partners. This information is particularly valuable in the context of host-pathogen interactions. Many pathogen proteins function within host cells in a variety of way such as, enabling evasion of the host immune system and survival within the intracellular environment. To study these pathogen-protein host-cell interactions, several approaches are commonly used, including: in vivo infection with a strain expressing a tagged or mutant protein, or introduction of pathogen genes via transfection or transduction. Each of these approaches has advantages and disadvantages. We sought a means to directly introduce exogenous proteins into cells. Electroporation is commonly used to introduce nucleic acids into cells, but has been more rarely applied to proteins although the biophysical basis is exactly the same. A standard electroporator was used to introduce affinity-tagged bacterial effectors into mammalian cells. Human epithelial and mouse macrophage cells were cultured by traditional methods, detached, and placed in 0.4 cm gap electroporation cuvettes with an exogenous bacterial pathogen protein of interest (e.g. Salmonella Typhimurium GtgE). After electroporation (0.3 kV) and a short (4 hr) recovery period, intracellular protein was verified by fluorescently labeling the protein via its affinity tag and examining spatial and temporal distribution by confocal microscopy. The electroporated protein was also shown to be functional inside the cell and capable of correct subcellular trafficking and protein-protein interaction. While the exogenous proteins tended to accumulate on the surface of the cells, the electroporated samples had large increases in intracellular effector concentration relative to incubation alone. The protocol is simple and fast enough to be done in a parallel fashion, allowing for high-throughput characterization of pathogen proteins in host cells including subcellular targeting and function of virulence proteins. PMID:25650771

  9. Electroporation of Functional Bacterial Effectors into Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Mihai, Cosmin; Orr, Galya; Savchenko, Alexei; Skarina, Tatiana; Cui, Hong; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Brown, Roslyn N.

    2015-01-01

    The study of protein interactions in the context of living cells can generate critical information about localization, dynamics, and interacting partners. This information is particularly valuable in the context of host-pathogen interactions. Many pathogen proteins function within host cells in a variety of way such as, enabling evasion of the host immune system and survival within the intracellular environment. To study these pathogen-protein host-cell interactions, several approaches are commonly used, including: in vivo infection with a strain expressing a tagged or mutant protein, or introduction of pathogen genes via transfection or transduction. Each of these approaches has advantages and disadvantages. We sought a means to directly introduce exogenous proteins into cells. Electroporation is commonly used to introduce nucleic acids into cells, but has been more rarely applied to proteins although the biophysical basis is exactly the same. A standard electroporator was used to introduce affinity-tagged bacterial effectors into mammalian cells. Human epithelial and mouse macrophage cells were cultured by traditional methods, detached, and placed in 0.4 cm gap electroporation cuvettes with an exogenous bacterial pathogen protein of interest (e.g. Salmonella Typhimurium GtgE). After electroporation (0.3 kV) and a short (4 hr) recovery period, intracellular protein was verified by fluorescently labeling the protein via its affinity tag and examining spatial and temporal distribution by confocal microscopy. The electroporated protein was also shown to be functional inside the cell and capable of correct subcellular trafficking and protein-protein interaction. While the exogenous proteins tended to accumulate on the surface of the cells, the electroporated samples had large increases in intracellular effector concentration relative to incubation alone. The protocol is simple and fast enough to be done in a parallel fashion, allowing for high-throughput characterization of pathogen proteins in host cells including subcellular targeting and function of virulence proteins. PMID:25650771

  10. Verticillium dahliae Sge1 differentially regulates expression of candidate effector genes.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2013-02-01

    The ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt diseases in hundreds of dicotyledonous plant species. However, thus far, only few V. dahliae effectors have been identified, and regulators of pathogenicity remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the V. dahliae homolog of Sge1, a transcriptional regulator that was previously implicated in pathogenicity and effector gene expression in Fusarium oxysporum. We show that V. dahliae Sge1 (VdSge1) is required for radial growth and production of asexual conidiospores, because VdSge1 deletion strains display reduced radial growth and reduced conidia production. Furthermore, we show that VdSge1 deletion strains have lost pathogenicity on tomato. Remarkably, VdSge1 is not required for induction of Ave1, the recently identified V. dahliae effector that activates resistance mediated by the Ve1 immune receptor in tomato. Further assessment of the role of VdSge1 in the induction of the nine most highly in-planta-induced genes that encode putative effectors revealed differential activity. Although the expression of one putative effector gene in addition to Ave1 was not affected by VdSge1 deletion, VdSge1 appeared to be required for the expression of six putative effector genes, whereas two of the putative effectors genes were found to be negatively regulated by VdSge1. In conclusion, our data suggest that VdSge1 differentially regulates V. dahliae effector gene expression. PMID:22970788

  11. How filamentous pathogens co-opt plants; the ins and outs of eukaryotic effectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on effectors secreted by pathogens during host attack has dominated the field of molecular plant-microbe interactions over recent years. Functional analysis of type III secreted effectors that are injected by pathogenic bacteria into host cells has significantly advanced the field and demon...

  12. Differential expression of candidate salivary effector proteins in field collections of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence is emerging that proteins secreted by gall forming plant-parasites are the effectors responsible for systemic changes in the host plant, such as galling and nutrient tissue formation. A large number of secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that are hypothesized to be the effectors respon...

  13. Apparatus for adapting an end effector device remotely controlled manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K. H. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for adapting a general purpose and effector device to a special purpose and effector is disclosed which includes an adapter bracket assembly which provides a mechanical and electrical interface between the end effector devices. The adapter bracket assembly includes an adapter connector post which interlocks with a diamond shaped gripping channel formed in closed jaws of the general purpose end effector. The angularly intersecting surfaces of the connector post and gripping channel prevent any relative movement there between. Containment webs constrain the outer finger plates of the general purpose jaws to prevent pitch motion. Electrical interface is provided by conical, self aligning electrical connector components carried by respective ones of said end effectors.

  14. Structures of Ras superfamily effector complexes: What have we learnt in two decades?

    PubMed

    Mott, Helen R; Owen, Darerca

    2015-01-01

    The Ras superfamily small G proteins are master regulators of a diverse range of cellular processes and act via downstream effector molecules. The first structure of a small G protein-effector complex, that of Rap1A with c-Raf1, was published 20 years ago. Since then, the structures of more than 60 small G proteins in complex with their effectors have been published. These effectors utilize a diverse array of structural motifs to interact with the G protein fold, which we have divided into four structural classes: intermolecular β-sheets, helical pairs, other interactions, and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. These classes and their representative structures are discussed and a contact analysis of the interactions is presented, which highlights the common effector-binding regions between and within the small G protein families. PMID:25830673

  15. The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system employs diverse effector modules for intraspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Daniel; Miyata, Sarah T; Bachmann, Verena; Brooks, Teresa M; Mullins, Travis; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Provenzano, Daniele; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that consists of over 200 serogroups with differing pathogenic potential. Only strains that express the virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) are capable of pandemic spread of cholera diarrhoea. Regardless, all V. cholerae strains sequenced to date harbour genes for the type VI secretion system (T6SS) that translocates effectors into neighbouring eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Here we report that the effectors encoded within these conserved gene clusters differ widely among V. cholerae strains, and that immunity proteins encoded immediately downstream from the effector genes protect their host from neighbouring bacteria producing corresponding effectors. As a consequence, strains with matching effector-immunity gene sets can coexist, while strains with different sets compete against each other. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS contributes to the competitive behaviour of this species. PMID:24686479

  16. MorTAL Kombat: the story of defense against TAL effectors through loss-of-susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Hutin, Mathilde; Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Lopez, Camilo; Szurek, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads rely on Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors to colonize their host. This particular family of type III effectors functions as specific plant transcription factors via a programmable DNA-binding domain. Upon binding to the promoters of plant disease susceptibility genes in a sequence-specific manner, the expression of these host genes is induced. However, plants have evolved specific strategies to counter the action of TAL effectors and confer resistance. One mechanism is to avoid the binding of TAL effectors by mutations of their DNA binding sites, resulting in resistance by loss-of-susceptibility. This article reviews our current knowledge of the susceptibility hubs targeted by Xanthomonas TAL effectors, possible evolutionary scenarios for plants to combat the pathogen with loss-of-function alleles, and how this knowledge can be used overall to develop new pathogen-informed breeding strategies and improve crop resistance. PMID:26236326

  17. Independently evolved virulence effectors converge onto hubs in a plant immune system network.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M Shahid; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Dreze, Matija; Epple, Petra; Steinbrenner, Jens; Moore, Jonathan; Tasan, Murat; Galli, Mary; Hao, Tong; Nishimura, Marc T; Pevzner, Samuel J; Donovan, Susan E; Ghamsari, Lila; Santhanam, Balaji; Romero, Viviana; Poulin, Matthew M; Gebreab, Fana; Gutierrez, Bryan J; Tam, Stanley; Monachello, Dario; Boxem, Mike; Harbort, Christopher J; McDonald, Nathan; Gai, Lantian; Chen, Huaming; He, Yijian; Vandenhaute, Jean; Roth, Frederick P; Hill, David E; Ecker, Joseph R; Vidal, Marc; Beynon, Jim; Braun, Pascal; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2011-07-29

    Plants generate effective responses to infection by recognizing both conserved and variable pathogen-encoded molecules. Pathogens deploy virulence effector proteins into host cells, where they interact physically with host proteins to modulate defense. We generated an interaction network of plant-pathogen effectors from two pathogens spanning the eukaryote-eubacteria divergence, three classes of Arabidopsis immune system proteins, and ~8000 other Arabidopsis proteins. We noted convergence of effectors onto highly interconnected host proteins and indirect, rather than direct, connections between effectors and plant immune receptors. We demonstrated plant immune system functions for 15 of 17 tested host proteins that interact with effectors from both pathogens. Thus, pathogens from different kingdoms deploy independently evolved virulence proteins that interact with a limited set of highly connected cellular hubs to facilitate their diverse life-cycle strategies. PMID:21798943

  18. TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA targeting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Erin L.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Bogdanove, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas. They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide resistance. DNA binding specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats in each protein that correspond one-to-one with different nucleotides. This code has facilitated target identification and opened new avenues for engineering disease resistance. It has also enabled TAL effector customization for targeted gene control, genome editing, and other applications. This article reviews the structural basis for TAL effector-DNA specificity, the impact of the TAL effector-DNA code on plant pathology and engineered resistance, and recent accomplishments and future challenges in TAL effector-based DNA targeting. PMID:23707478

  19. Intrathymic programming of effector fates in three molecularly distinct ?? T cell subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Kavitha; Sylvia, Katelyn E.; Malhotra, Nidhi; Yin, Catherine C.; Martens, Gregory; Vallerskog, Therese; Kornfeld, Hardy; Xiong, Na; Cohen, Nadia R.; Brenner, Michael B.; Berg, Leslie J.; Kang, Joonsoo

    2012-01-01

    ?? T cells function in the early phase of immune responses. Although innate ?? T cells have primarily been studied as one homogenous population, they can be functionally classified into effector subsets based on the production of signature cytokines, analogous to adaptive T helper subsets. Unlike adaptive T cells, however, ?? T effector function correlates with genomically encoded TCR chains, suggesting that clonal TCR selection is not the primary determinant of ?? effector differentiation. A high resolution transcriptome analysis of all emergent ?? thymocyte subsets segregated based on TCR?/? chain usage indicates the existence of three separate subtypes of ?? effectors in the thymus. The immature ?? subsets are distinguished by unique transcription factor modules that program effector function. PMID:22473038

  20. MorTAL Kombat: the story of defense against TAL effectors through loss-of-susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hutin, Mathilde; Prez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Lopez, Camilo; Szurek, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads rely on Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors to colonize their host. This particular family of type III effectors functions as specific plant transcription factors via a programmable DNA-binding domain. Upon binding to the promoters of plant disease susceptibility genes in a sequence-specific manner, the expression of these host genes is induced. However, plants have evolved specific strategies to counter the action of TAL effectors and confer resistance. One mechanism is to avoid the binding of TAL effectors by mutations of their DNA binding sites, resulting in resistance by loss-of-susceptibility. This article reviews our current knowledge of the susceptibility hubs targeted by Xanthomonas TAL effectors, possible evolutionary scenarios for plants to combat the pathogen with loss-of-function alleles, and how this knowledge can be used overall to develop new pathogen-informed breeding strategies and improve crop resistance. PMID:26236326

  1. Molecular weaponry: diverse effectors delivered by the Type VI secretion system.

    PubMed

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana; Liu, Yi-Chia; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2015-12-01

    The Type VI secretion system is a widespread bacterial nanomachine, used to deliver toxins directly into eukaryotic or prokaryotic target cells. These secreted toxins, or effectors, act on diverse cellular targets, and their action provides the attacking bacterial cell with a significant fitness advantage, either against rival bacteria or eukaryotic host organisms. In this review, we discuss the delivery of diverse effectors by the Type VI secretion system, the modes of action of the so-called 'anti-bacterial' and 'anti-eukaryotic' effectors, the mechanism of self-resistance against anti-bacterial effectors and the evolutionary implications of horizontal transfer of Type VI secretion system-associated toxins. Whilst it is likely that many more effectors remain to be identified, it is already clear that toxins delivered by this secretion system represent efficient weapons against both bacteria and eukaryotes. PMID:26432982

  2. Structure of NS1A effector domain from the influenza A/Udorn/72 virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Shuangluo; Monzingo, Arthur F.; Robertus, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the effector domain of the influenza protein NS1, a validated antiviral drug target, has been solved in two space groups. The nonstructural protein NS1A from influenza virus is a multifunctional virulence factor and a potent inhibitor of host immunity. It has two functional domains: an N-terminal 73-amino-acid RNA-binding domain and a C-terminal effector domain. Here, the crystallographic structure of the NS1A effector domain of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus is presented. Structure comparison with the NS1 effector domain from mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus strain reveals a similar monomer conformation but a different dimer interface. Further analysis and evaluation shows that the dimer interface observed in the structure of the PR8 NS1 effector domain is likely to be a crystallographic packing effect. A hypothetical model of the intact NS1 dimer is presented.

  3. NORE1A is a Ras senescence effector that controls the apoptotic/senescent balance of p53 via HIPK2

    PubMed Central

    Donninger, Howard; Calvisi, Diego F.; Barnoud, Thibaut; Clark, Jennifer; Schmidt, M. Lee; Vos, Michele D.

    2015-01-01

    The Ras oncoprotein is a key driver of cancer. However, Ras also provokes senescence, which serves as a major barrier to Ras-driven transformation. Ras senescence pathways remain poorly characterized. NORE1A is a novel Ras effector that serves as a tumor suppressor. It is frequently inactivated in tumors. We show that NORE1A is a powerful Ras senescence effector and that down-regulation of NORE1A suppresses senescence induction by Ras and enhances Ras transformation. We show that Ras induces the formation of a complex between NORE1A and the kinase HIPK2, enhancing HIPK2 association with p53. HIPK2 is a tumor suppressor that can induce either proapoptotic or prosenescent posttranslational modifications of p53. NORE1A acts to suppress its proapoptotic phosphorylation of p53 but enhance its prosenescent acetylation of p53. Thus, we identify a major new Ras signaling pathway that links Ras to the control of specific protein acetylation and show how NORE1A allows Ras to qualitatively modify p53 function to promote senescence. PMID:25778922

  4. NORE1A is a Ras senescence effector that controls the apoptotic/senescent balance of p53 via HIPK2.

    PubMed

    Donninger, Howard; Calvisi, Diego F; Barnoud, Thibaut; Clark, Jennifer; Schmidt, M Lee; Vos, Michele D; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2015-03-16

    The Ras oncoprotein is a key driver of cancer. However, Ras also provokes senescence, which serves as a major barrier to Ras-driven transformation. Ras senescence pathways remain poorly characterized. NORE1A is a novel Ras effector that serves as a tumor suppressor. It is frequently inactivated in tumors. We show that NORE1A is a powerful Ras senescence effector and that down-regulation of NORE1A suppresses senescence induction by Ras and enhances Ras transformation. We show that Ras induces the formation of a complex between NORE1A and the kinase HIPK2, enhancing HIPK2 association with p53. HIPK2 is a tumor suppressor that can induce either proapoptotic or prosenescent posttranslational modifications of p53. NORE1A acts to suppress its proapoptotic phosphorylation of p53 but enhance its prosenescent acetylation of p53. Thus, we identify a major new Ras signaling pathway that links Ras to the control of specific protein acetylation and show how NORE1A allows Ras to qualitatively modify p53 function to promote senescence. PMID:25778922

  5. Harnessing Regulatory T cells to Suppress Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Alison N.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in maintaining the homeostatic balance of immune responses. Asthma is an inflammatory condition of the airways that is driven by dysregulated immune responses toward normally innocuous antigens. Individuals with asthma have fewer and less functional Tregs, which may lead to uncontrolled effector cell responses and promote proasthmatic responses of T helper type 2, T helper 17, natural killer T, antigen-presenting, and B cells. Tregs have the capacity to either directly or indirectly suppress these responses. Hence, the induced expansion of functional Tregs in predisposed or individuals with asthma is a potential approach for the prevention and treatment of asthma. Infection by a number of micro-organisms has been associated with reduced prevalence of asthma, and many infectious agents have been shown to induce Tregs and reduce allergic airways disease in mouse models. The translation of the regulatory and therapeutic properties of infectious agents for use in asthma requires the identification of key modulatory components and the development and trial of effective immunoregulatory therapies. Further translational and clinical research is required for the induction of Tregs to be harnessed as a therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:20097830

  6. A Rapid One-Generation Genetic Screen in a Drosophila Model to Capture Rhabdomyosarcoma Effectors and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Kathleen A.; Endicott, Tiana R.; Avirneni-Vadlamudi, Usha; Galindo, Rene L.

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive childhood malignancy of neoplastic muscle-lineage precursors that fail to terminally differentiate into syncytial muscle. The most aggressive form of RMS, alveolar-RMS, is driven by misexpression of the PAX-FOXO1 oncoprotein, which is generated by recurrent chromosomal translocations that fuse either the PAX3 or PAX7 gene to FOXO1. The molecular underpinnings of PAX-FOXO1?mediated RMS pathogenesis remain unclear, however, and clinical outcomes poor. Here, we report a new approach to dissect RMS, exploiting a highly efficient Drosophila PAX7-FOXO1 model uniquely configured to uncover PAX-FOXO1 RMS genetic effectors in only one generation. With this system, we have performed a comprehensive deletion screen against the Drosophila autosomes and demonstrate that mutation of Mef2, a myogenesis lynchpin in both flies and mammals, dominantly suppresses PAX7-FOXO1 pathogenicity and acts as a PAX7-FOXO1 gene target. Additionally, we reveal that mutation of mastermind, a gene encoding a MEF2 transcriptional coactivator, similarly suppresses PAX7-FOXO1, further pointing toward MEF2 transcriptional activity as a PAX-FOXO1 underpinning. These studies show the utility of the PAX-FOXO1 Drosophila system as a robust one-generation (F1) RMS gene discovery platform and demonstrate how Drosophila transgenic conditional expression models can be configured for the rapid dissection of human disease. PMID:25491943

  7. miR-218 is Essential to Establish Motor Neuron Fate as a Downstream Effector of Isl1-Lhx3

    PubMed Central

    Thiebes, Karen P.; Nam, Heejin; Cambronne, Xiaolu A.; Shen, Rongkun; Glasgow, Stacey M.; Cho, Hyong-Ho; Kwon, Ji-sun; Goodman, Richard H.; Lee, Jae W.; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    While microRNAs have emerged as an important component of gene regulatory networks, it remains unclear how microRNAs collaborate with transcription factors in the gene networks that determines neuronal cell fate. Here, we show that in the developing spinal cord, the expression of miR-218 is directly upregulated by the Isl1-Lhx3 complex, which drives motor neuron fate. Inhibition of miR-218 suppresses the generation of motor neurons in both chick neural tube and mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that miR-218 plays a crucial role in motor neuron differentiation. Results from unbiased RISC-trap screens, in vivo reporter assays, and overexpression studies indicated that miR-218 directly represses transcripts that promote developmental programs for interneurons. Additionally, we found that miR-218 activity is required for Isl1-Lhx3 to effectively induce motor neurons and suppress interneuron fates. Together, our results reveal an essential role of miR-218 as a downstream effector of the Isl1-Lhx3 complex in establishing motor neuron identity. PMID:26212498

  8. A rapid one-generation genetic screen in a Drosophila model to capture rhabdomyosarcoma effectors and therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Kathleen A; Endicott, Tiana R; Avirneni-Vadlamudi, Usha; Galindo, Rene L

    2015-02-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive childhood malignancy of neoplastic muscle-lineage precursors that fail to terminally differentiate into syncytial muscle. The most aggressive form of RMS, alveolar-RMS, is driven by misexpression of the PAX-FOXO1 oncoprotein, which is generated by recurrent chromosomal translocations that fuse either the PAX3 or PAX7 gene to FOXO1. The molecular underpinnings of PAX-FOXO1-mediated RMS pathogenesis remain unclear, however, and clinical outcomes poor. Here, we report a new approach to dissect RMS, exploiting a highly efficient Drosophila PAX7-FOXO1 model uniquely configured to uncover PAX-FOXO1 RMS genetic effectors in only one generation. With this system, we have performed a comprehensive deletion screen against the Drosophila autosomes and demonstrate that mutation of Mef2, a myogenesis lynchpin in both flies and mammals, dominantly suppresses PAX7-FOXO1 pathogenicity and acts as a PAX7-FOXO1 gene target. Additionally, we reveal that mutation of mastermind, a gene encoding a MEF2 transcriptional coactivator, similarly suppresses PAX7-FOXO1, further pointing toward MEF2 transcriptional activity as a PAX-FOXO1 underpinning. These studies show the utility of the PAX-FOXO1 Drosophila system as a robust one-generation (F1) RMS gene discovery platform and demonstrate how Drosophila transgenic conditional expression models can be configured for the rapid dissection of human disease. PMID:25491943

  9. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-08-12

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  10. QueTAL: a suite of tools to classify and compare TAL effectors functionally and phylogenetically

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Lamy, Léo; Gordon, Jonathan L.; Escalon, Aline; Cunnac, Sébastien; Szurek, Boris; Gagnevin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas plant pathogenic bacteria can bind to the promoter region of plant genes and induce their expression. DNA-binding specificity is governed by a central domain made of nearly identical repeats, each determining the recognition of one base pair via two amino acid residues (a.k.a. Repeat Variable Di-residue, or RVD). Knowing how TAL effectors differ from each other within and between strains would be useful to infer functional and evolutionary relationships, but their repetitive nature precludes reliable use of traditional alignment methods. The suite QueTAL was therefore developed to offer tailored tools for comparison of TAL effector genes. The program DisTAL considers each repeat as a unit, transforms a TAL effector sequence into a sequence of coded repeats and makes pair-wise alignments between these coded sequences to construct trees. The program FuncTAL is aimed at finding TAL effectors with similar DNA-binding capabilities. It calculates correlations between position weight matrices of potential target DNA sequence predicted from the RVD sequence, and builds trees based on these correlations. The programs accurately represented phylogenetic and functional relationships between TAL effectors using either simulated or literature-curated data. When using the programs on a large set of TAL effector sequences, the DisTAL tree largely reflected the expected species phylogeny. In contrast, FuncTAL showed that TAL effectors with similar binding capabilities can be found between phylogenetically distant taxa. This suite will help users to rapidly analyse any TAL effector genes of interest and compare them to other available TAL genes and should improve our understanding of TAL effectors evolution. It is available at http://bioinfo-web.mpl.ird.fr/cgi-bin2/quetal/quetal.cgi. PMID:26284082

  11. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy; Niemann, George S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella. PMID:23950998

  12. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    PubMed

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their hosts. PMID:24715894

  13. MITEs in the promoters of effector genes allow prediction of novel virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici (Fol) has accessory, lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes that can be transferred horizontally between strains. A single LS chromosome in the Fol4287 reference strain harbors all known Fol effector genes. Transfer of this pathogenicity chromosome confers virulence to a previously non-pathogenic recipient strain. We hypothesize that expression and evolution of effector genes is influenced by their genomic context. Results To gain a better understanding of the genomic context of the effector genes, we manually curated the annotated genes on the pathogenicity chromosome and identified and classified transposable elements. Both retro- and DNA transposons are present with no particular overrepresented class. Retrotransposons appear evenly distributed over the chromosome, while DNA transposons tend to concentrate in large chromosomal subregions. In general, genes on the pathogenicity chromosome are dispersed within the repeat landscape. Effector genes are present within subregions enriched for DNA transposons. A miniature Impala (mimp) is always present in their promoters. Although promoter deletion studies of two effector gene loci did not reveal a direct function of the mimp for gene expression, we were able to use proximity to a mimp as a criterion to identify new effector gene candidates. Through xylem sap proteomics we confirmed that several of these candidates encode proteins secreted during plant infection. Conclusions Effector genes in Fol reside in characteristic subregions on a pathogenicity chromosome. Their genomic context allowed us to develop a method for the successful identification of novel effector genes. Since our approach is not based on effector gene similarity, but on unique genomic features, it can easily be extended to identify effector genes in Fo strains with different host specificities. PMID:23432788

  14. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    PubMed Central

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Jones, David A.; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their hosts. PMID:24715894

  15. Soybean aphid feeding on resistant soybean leads to induction of xenobiotic stress response and suppression of salivary effector genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, poses serious challenges to soybean production in Asia, where it is native, and North-America, where it is invasive. To date, 6 major soybean genes for host plant resistance (HPR) to A. glycines have been identified, including Rag1, which is available in commercial...

  16. Selective ORAI1 Inhibition Ameliorates Autoimmune Central Nervous System Inflammation by Suppressing Effector but Not Regulatory T Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Ulrike; Shaw, Patrick J; Kozhaya, Lina; Subramanian, Raju; Gaida, Kevin; Unutmaz, Derya; McBride, Helen J; Feske, Stefan

    2016-01-15

    The function of CD4(+) T cells is dependent on Ca(2+) influx through Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels formed by ORAI proteins. To investigate the role of ORAI1 in proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells and autoimmune diseases, we genetically and pharmacologically modulated ORAI1 function. Immunization of mice lacking Orai1 in T cells with MOG peptide resulted in attenuated severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The numbers of T cells and innate immune cells in the CNS of ORAI1-deficient animals were strongly reduced along with almost completely abolished production of IL-17A, IFN-?, and GM-CSF despite only partially reduced Ca(2+) influx. In Th1 and Th17 cells differentiated in vitro, ORAI1 was required for cytokine production but not the expression of Th1- and Th17-specific transcription factors T-bet and ROR?t. The differentiation and function of induced regulatory T cells, by contrast, was independent of ORAI1. Importantly, induced genetic deletion of Orai1 in adoptively transferred, MOG-specific T cells was able to halt EAE progression after disease onset. Likewise, treatment of wild-type mice with a selective CRAC channel inhibitor after EAE onset ameliorated disease. Genetic deletion of Orai1 and pharmacological ORAI1 inhibition reduced the leukocyte numbers in the CNS and attenuated Th1/Th17 cell-mediated cytokine production. In human CD4(+) T cells, CRAC channel inhibition reduced the expression of IL-17A, IFN-?, and other cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings support the conclusion that Th1 and Th17 cell function is particularly dependent on CRAC channels, which could be exploited as a therapeutic approach to T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:26673135

  17. Auto-acetylation on K289 is not essential for HopZ1a-mediated plant defense suppression

    PubMed Central

    Rufián, José S.; Lucía, Ainhoa; Macho, Alberto P.; Orozco-Navarrete, Begoña; Arroyo-Mateos, Manuel; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Beuzón, Carmen R.; Ruiz-Albert, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae type III-secreted effector HopZ1a is a member of the HopZ/YopJ superfamily of effectors that triggers immunity in Arabidopsis. We have previously shown that HopZ1a suppresses both local [effector-triggered immunity (ETI)] and systemic immunity [systemic acquired resistance (SAR)] triggered by the heterologous effector AvrRpt2. HopZ1a has been shown to possess acetyltransferase activity, and this activity is essential to trigger immunity in Arabidopsis. HopZ1a acetyltransferase activity has been reported to require the auto-acetylation of the effector on a specific lysine (K289) residue. In this paper we analyze the relevance of autoacetylation of lysine residue 289 in HopZ1a ability to suppress plant defenses, and on the light of the results obtained, we also revise its relevance for HopZ1a avirulence activity. Our results indicate that, while the HopZ1aK289R mutant is impaired to some degree in its virulence and avirulence activities, is by no means phenotypically equivalent to the catalytically inactive HopZ1aC216A, since it is still able to trigger a defense response that induces detectable macroscopic HR and effectively protects Arabidopsis from infection, reducing growth of P. syringae within the plant. We also present evidence that the HopZ1aK289R mutant still displays virulence activities, partially suppressing both ETI and SAR. PMID:26217317

  18. ?? T Cells Acquire Effector Fates in the Thymus and Differentiate into Cytokine-Producing Effectors in a Listeria Model of Infection Independently of CD28 Costimulation

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Renee M.; Wolf, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Both antigen recognition and CD28 costimulation are required for the activation of nave ?? T cells and their subsequent differentiation into cytokine-producing or cytotoxic effectors. Notably, this two-signal paradigm holds true for all ?? T cell subsets, regardless of whether they acquire their effector function in the periphery or the thymus. Because of contradictory results, however, it remains unresolved as to whether CD28 costimulation is necessary for ?? T cell activation and differentiation. Given that ?? T cells have been recently shown to acquire their effector fates in the thymus, it is conceivable that the contradictory results may be explained, in part, by a differential requirement for CD28 costimulation in the development or differentiation of each ?? T cell effector subset. To test this, we examined the role of CD28 in ?? T cell effector fate determination and function. We report that, although IFN?-producing ?? T (??-IFN?) cells express higher levels of CD28 than IL-17-producing ?? T (??-17) cells, CD28-deficiency had no effect on the thymic development of either subset. Also, following Listeria infection, we found that the expansion and differentiation of ??-17 and ??-IFN? effectors were comparable between CD28+/+ and CD28?/? mice. To understand why CD28 costimulation is dispensable for ?? T cell activation and differentiation, we assessed glucose uptake and utilization by ?? T cells, as CD28 costimulation is known to promote glycolysis in ?? T cells. Importantly, we found that ?? T cells express higher surface levels of glucose transporters than ?? T cells and, when activated, exhibit effector functions over a broader range of glucose concentrations than activated ?? T cells. Together, these data not only demonstrate an enhanced glucose metabolism in ?? T cells but also provide an explanation for why ?? T cells are less dependent on CD28 costimulation than ?? T cells. PMID:23671671

  19. Tim-3-Expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Human Tuberculosis (TB) Exhibit Polarized Effector Memory Phenotypes and Stronger Anti-TB Effector Functions

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hongying; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hua; Li, Shaoyuan; Luo, Yanfen; Fang, Danyun; Li, Guobao; Zhou, Boping; Shen, Ling; Chen, Crystal Y.; Huang, Dan; Cai, Jiye; Cao, Kaiyuan; Jiang, Lifang; Zeng, Gucheng; Chen, Zheng W.

    2012-01-01

    T-cell immune responses modulated by T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in humans remain poorly understood. Here, we found that active TB patients exhibited increases in numbers of Tim-3-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which preferentially displayed polarized effector memory phenotypes. Consistent with effector phenotypes, Tim-3+CD4+ and Tim-3+CD8+ T-cell subsets showed greater effector functions for producing Th1/Th22 cytokines and CTL effector molecules than Tim-3? counterparts, and Tim-3-expressing T cells more apparently limited intracellular Mtb replication in macrophages. The increased effector functions for Tim-3-expressing T cells consisted with cellular activation signaling as Tim-3+CD4+ and Tim-3+CD8+ T-cell subsets expressed much higher levels of phosphorylated signaling molecules p38, stat3, stat5, and Erk1/2 than Tim-3- controls. Mechanistic experiments showed that siRNA silencing of Tim-3 or soluble Tim-3 treatment interfering with membrane Tim-3-ligand interaction reduced de novo production of IFN-? and TNF-? by Tim-3-expressing T cells. Furthermore, stimulation of Tim-3 signaling pathways by antibody cross-linking of membrane Tim-3 augmented effector function of IFN-? production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, suggesting that Tim-3 signaling helped to drive stronger effector functions in active TB patients. This study therefore uncovered a previously unknown mechanism for T-cell immune responses regulated by Tim-3, and findings may have implications for potential immune intervention in TB. PMID:23144609

  20. Design schemes and comparison research of the end-effector of large space manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Fei; Liu, Yiwei; Liu, Hong; Cai, Hegao

    2012-07-01

    The end-effector of the large space manipulator is employed to assist the manipulator in handling and manipulating large payloads on orbit. Currently, there are few researches about the end-effector, and the existing end-effectors have some disadvantages, such as poor misalignment tolerance capability and complex mechanical components. According to the end positioning errors and the residual vibration characters of the large space manipulators, two basic performance requirements of the end-effector which include the capabilities of misalignment tolerance and soft capture are proposed. And the end-effector should accommodate the following misalignments of the mechanical interface. The translation misalignments in axial and radial directions and the angular misalignments in roll, pitch and yaw are 100 mm, 100 mm, 10o, 15o, 15o, respectively. Seven end-effector schemes are presented and the capabilities of misalignment tolerance and soft capture are analyzed elementarily. The three fingers-three petals end-effector and the steel cable-snared end-effector are the most feasible schemes among the seven schemes, and they are designed in detail. The capabilities of misalignment tolerance and soft capture are validated and evaluated, through the experiment on the micro-gravity simulating device and the dynamic analysis in ADAMS software. The results show that the misalignment tolerance capabilities of these two schemes could satisfy the requirement. And the translation misalignment tolerances in axial and radial directions and the angular misalignment tolerances in roll, pitch and yaw of the steel cable-snared end-effector are 30mm, 15mm, 6o, 3o and 3o larger than those of the three fingers-three petals end-effector, respectively. And the contact force of the steel cable-snared end-effector is smaller and smoother than that of the three fingers-three petals end-effector. The end-effector schemes and research methods are beneficial to the developments of the large space manipulator end-effctor and the space docking mechanism.

  1. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  2. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  3. IgA-binding factor suppresses synthesis of IgA in MOPC-315 plasmacytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, C.; Moore, J.S.; Muller, S.; Aaronsen, D.; Madianos, E.; Hoover, R.G.

    1986-03-05

    T cells with Fc receptors for IgA (T/sup ..cap alpha../ cells) and their products, IgA-binding factors (IgABF), have been implicated in the regulation of IgA expression by B cells. They have previously shown that an IgABF produced by IgA induced normal T cells or constitutively by the Fc/sup ..cap alpha../ R+ T cell lymphoma, BALENTL 8, is capable of suppressing the proliferation and the amount of secreted IgA by MOPC-315 cells. In the present studies, they demonstrate that: (a) suppression of proliferation and secretion requires surface membrane IgA on the target cell, (b) suppression exhibits rapid kinetics with maximal effect occurring by 3-4 hours, (c) suppression is reversible, and (d) suppression of secretion involves selective suppression of IgA synthesis as measured by /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation into immunoprecipitable IgA(non-IgA protein is unaffected). These findings indicate that IgA-isotype-specific effector molecules interact directly with their B cell targets through surface membrane immunoglobulin and cause a down regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis by the target. Current studies are underway to address whether this selective suppression of IgA is mediated at the transcriptional, translational or post-translational level. The use of MOPC-315 tumor cells as targets of T cell produced, isotype-specific, effector molecules should provide a unique model for the further analysis of isotype regulation at the molecular level.

  4. Tumor-infiltrating programmed death receptor-1+ dendritic cells mediate immune suppression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Krempski, James; Karyampudi, Lavakumar; Behrens, Marshall D; Erskine, Courtney L; Hartmann, Lynn; Dong, Haidong; Goode, Ellen L; Kalli, Kimberly R; Knutson, Keith L

    2011-06-15

    Within the ovarian cancer microenvironment, there are several mechanisms that suppress the actions of antitumor immune effectors. Delineating the complex immune microenvironment is an important goal toward developing effective immune-based therapies. A dominant pathway of immune suppression in ovarian cancer involves tumor-associated and dendritic cell (DC)-associated B7-H1. The interaction of B7-H1 with PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating T cells is a widely cited theory of immune suppression involving B7-H1 in ovarian cancer. Recent studies suggest that the B7-H1 ligand, programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), is also expressed on myeloid cells, complicating interpretations of how B7-H1 regulates DC function in the tumor. In this study, we found that ovarian cancer-infiltrating DCs progressively expressed increased levels of PD-1 over time in addition to B7-H1. These dual-positive PD-1(+) B7-H1(+) DCs have a classical DC phenotype (i.e., CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD8(-)), but are immature, suppressive, and respond poorly to danger signals. Accumulation of PD-1(+)B7-H1(+) DCs in the tumor was associated with suppression of T cell activity and decreased infiltrating T cells in advancing tumors. T cell suppressor function of these DCs appeared to be mediated by T cell-associated PD-1. In contrast, ligation of PD-1 expressed on the tumor-associated DCs suppressed NF-?B activation, release of immune regulatory cytokines, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. PD-1 blockade in mice bearing ovarian cancer substantially reduced tumor burden and increased effector Ag-specific T cell responses. Our results reveal a novel role of tumor infiltrating PD-1(+)B7-H1(+) DCs in mediating immune suppression in ovarian cancer. PMID:21551365

  5. Controlled Attentional Suppression.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Nancy; Nitka, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    When participants are given a cue about the color of distractors in an upcoming array, they are faster to find a target then when no distractor cue is given (Arita, Carlisle, & Woodman, 2012). While the benefit of this cue is not as large as the benefit for a cue that indicates the color of the target, it indicates participants can engage in active suppression of a specific color features. However, other evidence suggests that participants may first need to attend to the distractor color in order to suppress it, a 'search and destroy' mechanism (Moher & Egeth, 2012). In this study, we used the N2pc ERP component to evaluate the conflicting proposals from these two explanations. We used an array that contained 6 items of one color in the left visual hemifield, and 6 items of another color in the right visual hemifield. Participants were provided with a neutral cue (color will not appear in array), a negative cue (color will be distractor), or a positive cue (color will be target). The active suppression hypothesis predicts the cued distractors will be avoided in the negative cue condition, leading to an N2pc toward target features. The search and destroy hypothesis predicts the cued distractors will first be attended, leading to an N2pc toward the cued distractors. We found no evidence of an N2pc toward the cued distractors, in contrast to the prediction of the search and destroy hypothesis. Both the positive and negative cues led to N2pcs toward the target color. The latency of the N2pc response was much faster for the positive cue condition, leading to an interaction of early vs. late window and cue type. Overall, these results show that in some conditions participants can actively avoid a cued distractor feature, suggesting the possibility of active attentional suppression. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325918

  6. Vibrotactile suppression of tinnitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhardt, Martin L.

    2002-05-01

    At the Society's 142nd meeting, the efficacy of high frequency bone conducted stimulation in suppressing tinnitus was presented. The hypothesized mechanism was the reprogramming of frequency tuning of auditory neurons in the central nervous system, secondarily to peripheral hearing loss. This mechanism is unlikely in cases of tinnitus in the presence of normal audiometric sensitivity. There is the possibility that hearing loss above 10 kHz can play a role in tinnitus, an association not thoroughly explored. Somatomotor stimulation influencing the quality of tinnitus has been reported, as have interconnections of the auditory and somatosensory systems. There would appear to be an evolutionary advantage of linking the sensorimotor organization of the external ear and the auditory function of the brainstem in sound localization. Thus, stimulation of the pinna and post auricular area may be a means of suppressing tinnitus. To that end a thin aluminum ceramic bimorph was constructed to fit on the inner surface of the pinna. When driven by low (<100 Hz) and high (>10 kHz) frequencies multiplied by MHz carriers, demodulation in the skin resulted in vibrotactile stimulation. Tactile stimulation was an adjunct to the high frequencies resulting in a multimodal suppressive effect in a small pilot study.

  7. Nonsense suppression in archaea

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Arpita; Khrer, Caroline; Mandal, Debabrata; RajBhandary, Uttam L.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strains carrying nonsense suppressor tRNA genes played a crucial role in early work on bacterial and bacterial viral genetics. In eukaryotes as well, suppressor tRNAs have played important roles in the genetic analysis of yeast and worms. Surprisingly, little is known about genetic suppression in archaea, and there has been no characterization of suppressor tRNAs or identification of nonsense mutations in any of the archaeal genes. Here, we show, using the ?-gal gene as a reporter, that amber, ochre, and opal suppressors derived from the serine and tyrosine tRNAs of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii are active in suppression of their corresponding stop codons. Using a promoter for tRNA expression regulated by tryptophan, we also show inducible and regulatable suppression of all three stop codons in H. volcanii. Additionally, transformation of a ?pyrE2 H. volcanii strain with plasmids carrying the genes for a pyrE2 amber mutant and the serine amber suppressor tRNA yielded transformants that grow on agar plates lacking uracil. Thus, an auxotrophic amber mutation in the pyrE2 gene can be complemented by expression of the amber suppressor tRNA. These results pave the way for generating archaeal strains carrying inducible suppressor tRNA genes on the chromosome and their use in archaeal and archaeviral genetics. We also provide possible explanations for why suppressor tRNAs have not been identified in archaea. PMID:25918386

  8. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptormediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  9. Menstrual suppression: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hillard, Paula Adams

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual suppression to provide relief of menstrual-related symptoms or to manage medical conditions associated with menstrual morbidity or menstrual exacerbation has been used clinically since the development of steroid hormonal therapies. Options range from the extended or continuous use of combined hormonal oral contraceptives, to the use of combined hormonal patches and rings, progestins given in a variety of formulations from intramuscular injection to oral therapies to intrauterine devices, and other agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. The agents used for menstrual suppression have variable rates of success in inducing amenorrhea, but typically have increasing rates of amenorrhea over time. Therapy may be limited by side effects, most commonly irregular, unscheduled bleeding. These therapies can benefit women’s quality of life, and by stabilizing the hormonal milieu, potentially improve the course of underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or a seizure disorder. This review addresses situations in which menstrual suppression may be of benefit, and lists options which have been successful in inducing medical amenorrhea. PMID:25018654

  10. Chimeric adaptor proteins translocate diverse type VI secretion system effectors in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Unterweger, Daniel; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Ötjengerdes, Rina; Wilton, Ashley; Diaz-Satizabal, Laura; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species of Gram-negative bacteria, commonly found in the aquatic environment and the causative agent of the potentially deadly disease cholera. These bacteria employ a type VI secretion system (T6SS) when they encounter prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. This contractile puncturing device translocates a set of effector proteins into neighboring cells. Translocated effectors are toxic unless the targeted cell produces immunity proteins that bind and deactivate incoming effectors. Comparison of multiple V. cholerae strains indicates that effectors are encoded in T6SS effector modules on mobile genetic elements. We identified a diverse group of chimeric T6SS adaptor proteins required for the translocation of diverse effectors encoded in modules. An example for a T6SS effector that requires T6SS adaptor protein 1 (Tap-1) is TseL found in pandemic V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains and other clinical isolates. We propose a model in which Tap-1 is required for loading TseL onto the secretion apparatus. After T6SS-mediated TseL export is completed, Tap-1 is retained in the bacterial cell to load other T6SS machines. PMID:26194724

  11. Chimeric adaptor proteins translocate diverse type VI secretion system effectors in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Daniel; Kostiuk, Benjamin; tjengerdes, Rina; Wilton, Ashley; Diaz-Satizabal, Laura; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2015-08-13

    Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species of Gram-negative bacteria, commonly found in the aquatic environment and the causative agent of the potentially deadly disease cholera. These bacteria employ a type VI secretion system (T6SS) when they encounter prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. This contractile puncturing device translocates a set of effector proteins into neighboring cells. Translocated effectors are toxic unless the targeted cell produces immunity proteins that bind and deactivate incoming effectors. Comparison of multiple V.cholerae strains indicates that effectors are encoded in T6SS effector modules on mobile genetic elements. We identified a diverse group of chimeric T6SS adaptor proteins required for the translocation of diverse effectors encoded in modules. An example for a T6SS effector that requires T6SS adaptor protein 1 (Tap-1) is TseL found in pandemic V.cholerae O1 serogroup strains and other clinical isolates. We propose a model in which Tap-1 is required for loading TseL onto the secretion apparatus. After T6SS-mediated TseL export is completed, Tap-1 is retained in the bacterial cell to load other T6SS machines. PMID:26194724

  12. Blimp-1 homolog Hobit identifies effector-type lymphocytes in humans.

    PubMed

    Vieira Braga, Felipe A; Hertoghs, Kirsten M L; Kragten, Natasja A M; Doody, Gina M; Barnes, Nicholas A; Remmerswaal, Ester B M; Hsiao, Cheng-Chih; Moerland, Perry D; Wouters, Diana; Derks, Ingrid A M; van Stijn, Amber; Demkes, Marc; Hamann, Jrg; Eldering, Eric; Nolte, Martijn A; Tooze, Reuben M; ten Berge, Ineke J M; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; van Lier, Ren A W

    2015-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) induces the formation of effector CD8(+) T cells that are maintained for decades during the latent stage of infection. Effector CD8(+) T cells appear quiescent, but maintain constitutive cytolytic capacity and can immediately produce inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-? after stimulation. It is unclear how effector CD8(+) T cells can be constitutively maintained in a terminal stage of effector differentiation in the absence of overt viral replication. We have recently described the zinc finger protein Homolog of Blimp-1 in T cells (Hobit) in murine NKT cells. Here, we show that human Hobit was uniformly expressed in effector-type CD8(+) T cells, but not in naive or in most memory CD8(+) T cells. Human CMV-specific but not influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells expressed high levels of Hobit. Consistent with the high homology between the DNA-binding Zinc Finger domains of Hobit and Blimp-1, Hobit displayed transcriptional activity at Blimp-1 target sites. Expression of Hobit strongly correlated with T-bet and IFN-? expression within the CD8(+) T-cell population. Furthermore, Hobit was both necessary and sufficient for the production of IFN-?. These data implicate Hobit as a novel transcriptional regulator in quiescent human effector-type CD8(+) T cells that regulates their immediate effector functions. PMID:26179882

  13. A Simple Yeast-Based Strategy to Identify Host Cellular Processes Targeted by Bacterial Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins. PMID:22110728

  14. A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Escalante, Lucio Navarro; Chen, Hang; Benatti, Thiago R; Qu, Jiaxin; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Waterhouse, Robert M; Wheeler, David; Andersson, Martin N; Bao, Riyue; Batterton, Matthew; Behura, Susanta K; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Caragea, Doina; Carolan, James C; Coyle, Marcus; El-Bouhssini, Mustapha; Francisco, Liezl; Friedrich, Markus; Gill, Navdeep; Grace, Tony; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Herndon, Nicolae; Holder, Michael; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Johnson, Alisha J; Kalra, Divya; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Lara, Fremiet; Lee, Sandra L; Liu, Xuming; Löfstedt, Christer; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Muzny, Donna M; Nagar, Swapnil; Nazareth, Lynne V; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Peterson, Brittany F; Pu, Ling-Ling; Robertson, Hugh M; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Scherer, Steven E; Shreve, Jacob T; Simmons, DeNard; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Thornton, Rebecca L; Xue, Kun; Weissenberger, George M; Williams, Christie E; Worley, Kim C; Zhu, Dianhui; Zhu, Yiming; Harris, Marion O; Shukle, Richard H; Werren, John H; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Chen, Ming-Shun; Brown, Susan J; Stuart, Jeffery J; Richards, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms that these arthropods use to induce plant galls are poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a plant parasitic gall midge and a pest of wheat (Triticum spp.), with the aim of identifying genic modifications that contribute to its plant-parasitic lifestyle. Among several adaptive modifications, we discovered an expansive reservoir of potential effector proteins. Nearly 5% of the 20,163 predicted gene models matched putative effector gene transcripts present in the M. destructor larval salivary gland. Another 466 putative effectors were discovered among the genes that have no sequence similarities in other organisms. The largest known arthropod gene family (family SSGP-71) was also discovered within the effector reservoir. SSGP-71 proteins lack sequence homologies to other proteins, but their structures resemble both ubiquitin E3 ligases in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents responsible for arthropod-induced plant gall formation. PMID:25660540

  15. Development of a Mild Viral Expression System for Gain-Of-Function Study of Phytoplasma Effector In Planta.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sin-Fen; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Chan-Pin; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Hong, Syuan-Fei; Yang, Chiao-Yin; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Tseng, Ting-Yu; Chen, Wei-Yao; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-01-01

    PHYL1 and SAP54 are orthologs of pathogenic effectors of Aster yellow witches'-broom (AYWB) phytoplasma and Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma, respectively. These effectors cause virescence and phyllody symptoms (hereafter leafy flower) in phytoplasma-infected plants. T0 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the PHYL1 or SAP54 genes (PHYL1 or SAP54 plants) show a leafy flower phenotype and result in seedless, suggesting that PHYL1 and SAP54 interfere with reproduction stage that restrict gain-of-function studies in the next generation of transgenic plants. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) mild strain (TuGK) has an Arg182Lys mutation in the helper-component proteinase (HC-ProR182K) that blocks suppression of the miRNA pathway and prevents symptom development in TuGK-infected plants. We exploited TuGK as a viral vector for gain-of-function studies of PHYL1 and SAP54 in Arabidopsis plants. TuGK-PHYL1- and TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants produced identical leafy flower phenotypes and similar gene expression profiles as PHYL1 and SAP54 plants. In addition, the leafy flower formation rate was enhanced in TuGK-PHYL1- or TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants that compared with the T0 lines of PHYL1 plants. These results provide more evidence and novel directions for further studying the mechanism of PHYL1/SAP54-mediated leafy flower development. In addition, the TuGK vector is a good alternative in transgenic plant approaches for rapid gene expression in gain-of-function studies. PMID:26076458

  16. NopC Is a Rhizobium-Specific Type 3 Secretion System Effector Secreted by Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Carlos; Ollero, Francisco Javier; López-Baena, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 is a broad host-range nitrogen-fixing bacterium able to nodulate many legumes, including soybean. In several rhizobia, root nodulation is influenced by proteins secreted through the type 3 secretion system (T3SS). This specialized secretion apparatus is a common virulence mechanism of many plant and animal pathogenic bacteria that delivers proteins, called effectors, directly into the eukaryotic host cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways and promote infection by suppressing host defenses. In rhizobia, secreted proteins, called nodulation outer proteins (Nops), are involved in host-range determination and symbiotic efficiency. S. fredii HH103 secretes at least eight Nops through the T3SS. Interestingly, there are Rhizobium-specific Nops, such as NopC, which do not have homologues in pathogenic bacteria. In this work we studied the S. fredii HH103 nopC gene and confirmed that its expression was regulated in a flavonoid-, NodD1- and TtsI-dependent manner. Besides, in vivo bioluminescent studies indicated that the S. fredii HH103 T3SS was expressed in young soybean nodules and adenylate cyclase assays confirmed that NopC was delivered directly into soybean root cells by means of the T3SS machinery. Finally, nodulation assays showed that NopC exerted a positive effect on symbiosis with Glycine max cv. Williams 82 and Vigna unguiculata. All these results indicate that NopC can be considered a Rhizobium-specific effector secreted by S. fredii HH103. PMID:26569401

  17. Development of a Mild Viral Expression System for Gain-Of-Function Study of Phytoplasma Effector In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Hong, Syuan-Fei; Yang, Chiao-Yin; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Tseng, Ting-Yu; Chen, Wei-Yao; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-01-01

    PHYL1 and SAP54 are orthologs of pathogenic effectors of Aster yellow witches’-broom (AYWB) phytoplasma and Peanut witches’-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma, respectively. These effectors cause virescence and phyllody symptoms (hereafter leafy flower) in phytoplasma-infected plants. T0 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the PHYL1 or SAP54 genes (PHYL1 or SAP54 plants) show a leafy flower phenotype and result in seedless, suggesting that PHYL1 and SAP54 interfere with reproduction stage that restrict gain-of-function studies in the next generation of transgenic plants. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) mild strain (TuGK) has an Arg182Lys mutation in the helper-component proteinase (HC-ProR182K) that blocks suppression of the miRNA pathway and prevents symptom development in TuGK-infected plants. We exploited TuGK as a viral vector for gain-of-function studies of PHYL1 and SAP54 in Arabidopsis plants. TuGK-PHYL1- and TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants produced identical leafy flower phenotypes and similar gene expression profiles as PHYL1 and SAP54 plants. In addition, the leafy flower formation rate was enhanced in TuGK-PHYL1- or TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants that compared with the T0 lines of PHYL1 plants. These results provide more evidence and novel directions for further studying the mechanism of PHYL1/SAP54-mediated leafy flower development. In addition, the TuGK vector is a good alternative in transgenic plant approaches for rapid gene expression in gain-of-function studies. PMID:26076458

  18. The effector T cell response to ryegrass pollen is counterregulated by simultaneous induction of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Diana; Scholzen, Anja; Varese, Nirupama; Baxter, Lorraine; Paukovics, Geza; Harrison, Leonard C; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2010-05-01

    Allergy is associated with pathological Th2 responses to otherwise harmless environmental Ags. In contrast, nonallergic individuals mount nonpathological immune responses to allergens, partly attributed to regulatory T cell (Treg) activity. Although thymus-derived natural Tregs have been shown to maintain tolerance to self-Ags and prevent autoimmunity, the generation of Tregs specific to non-self-Ags is less well understood. We investigated the potential for induction of Tregs from PBMCs of ryegrass pollen-allergic or healthy subjects by stimulation in vitro with ryegrass pollen extract in the absence of additional exogenous stimuli. We found that two subsets of proliferating CD4(+) T cells were induced, one expressing intermediate levels of Foxp3 (and IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-17, or IL-2) and the other expressing high levels of Foxp3 (and no effector cytokines). After enrichment based on CD39 expression, the Foxp3(hi) subset suppressed CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production. The Foxp3(hi) Treg originated from both conversion of dividing non-Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(hi)) and expansion of natural Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)). Stable functional Tregs expressing high levels of Foxp3 were induced simultaneously with effector T cells by allergen stimulation. Induction of Foxp3(hi) Tregs was reduced in allergic subjects. These results indicate that the cogeneration of Foxp3(hi) Tregs in response to allergen may be a mechanism for controlling allergic reactions in healthy individuals, which is impaired in those with allergies. PMID:20308632

  19. Identification of ASF/SF2 as a critical, allele-specific effector of the cyclin D1b oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Olshavsky, Nicholas A.; Comstock, Clay E.S.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; Augello, Michael A.; Hyslop, Terry; Sette, Claudio; Zhang, Jinsong; Parysek, Linda M.; Knudsen, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    The cyclin D1b oncogene arises from alternative splicing of the CCND1 transcript, and harbors markedly enhanced oncogenic functions not shared by full-length cyclin D1 (cyclin D1a). Recent studies showed that cyclin D1b is selectively induced in a subset of tissues as a function of tumorigenesis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) that control tumor-specific cyclin D1b induction remain unsolved. Here, we identify the RNA binding protein SF2/ASF as a critical, allele-specific, disease-relevant effector of cyclin D1b production. Initially, it was observed that SF2 associates with cyclin D1b mRNA (transcript-b) in minigene analyses and with endogenous transcript in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. SF2-association was altered by the CCND1 G/A870 polymorphism, which resides in the splice donor site controlling transcript-b production. This finding was significant, as the A870 allele promotes cyclin D1b in benign prostate tissue, but in primary PCa, cyclin D1b production is independent of A870 status. Data herein provide a basis for this disparity, as tumor-associated induction of SF2 predominantly results in binding to and accumulation of G870-derived transcript-b. Finally, relevance of SF2 function was established, as SF2 strongly correlated with cyclin D1b (but not cyclin D1a) in human PCa. Together, these studies identify a novel mechanism by which cyclin D1b is induced in cancer, and reveal significant evidence of a factor that cooperates with a risk-associated polymorphism to alter cyclin D1 isoform production. Identification of SF2 as a disease-relevant effector of cyclin D1b provides a basis for future studies designed to suppress the oncogenic alternative splicing event. PMID:20460515

  20. Decreased TCR signaling through Card11 differentially compromises Foxp3+ regulatory versus Th2 effector cells to cause allergy

    PubMed Central

    Altin, John A; Tian, Lei; Liston, Adrian; Bertram, Edward M; Goodnow, Christopher C; Cook, Matthew C

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergy, the most common disease of immune dysregulation, has a substantial genetic component that is poorly understood. While complete disruption of TCR signaling causes profound immunodeficiency, little is known about the consequences of inherited genetic variants that cause partial, quantitative decreases in particular TCR signaling pathways, despite their potential to dysregulate immune responses and cause immunopathology. Objective To elucidate how an inherited decrease in TCR signaling through CARD11, a critical scaffold protein that signals to NF?B transcription factors, results in spontaneous, selective accumulation of large numbers of Th2 cells. Methods Unmodulated mice carry a Card11 single nucleotide variant (SNV) that decreases but does not abolish TCR/CD28 signaling to induce targets of NF?B. The consequences of this mutation on T cell subset formation in vivo were examined, and its effects within effector versus regulatory subsets were dissected by the adoptive transfer of wild-type cells, and by the examination of Foxp3-deficient unmodulated mice. Results Unlike the pathology-free boundary points of complete Card11 sufficiency or deficiency, unmodulated mice develop a specific allergic condition characterized by elevated IgE and dermatitis. The SNV partially decreases both the frequency of Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells and the efficiency of effector T cell formation in vivo. These intermediate effects combine to cause a gradual, selective expansion of Th2 cells. Conclusions Inherited reduction in the efficiency of TCR-NF?B signaling has graded effects on T cell activation and Foxp3+ Treg suppression that result in selective Th2 dysregulation and allergic disease. PMID:21320717

  1. The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel in effector memory T cells as new target for MS

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Heike; Calabresi, Peter A.; Allie, Rameeza; Yun, Sung; Pennington, Michael; Beeton, Christine; Chandy, K. George

    2003-01-01

    Through a combination of fluorescence microscopy and patch-clamp analysis we have identified a striking alteration in K+ channel expression in terminally differentiated human CCR7–CD45RA– effector memory T lymphocytes (TEM). Following activation, TEM cells expressed significantly higher levels of the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3 and lower levels of the calcium-activated K+ channel IKCa1 than naive and central memory T cells (TCM). Upon repeated in vitro antigenic stimulation, naive cells differentiated into Kv1.3highIKCa1low TEM cells, and the potent Kv1.3-blocking sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus peptide (ShK) suppressed proliferation of TEM cells without affecting naive or TCM lymphocytes. Thus, the Kv1.3highIKCa1low phenotype is a functional marker of activated TEM lymphocytes. Activated myelin-reactive T cells from patients with MS exhibited the Kv1.3highIKCa1low TEM phenotype, suggesting that they have undergone repeated stimulation during the course of disease; these cells may contribute to disease pathogenesis due to their ability to home to inflamed tissues and exhibit immediate effector function. The Kv1.3highIKCa1low phenotype was not seen in glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulin-peptide or ovalbumin-specific and mitogen-activated T cells from MS patients, or in myelin-specific T cells from healthy controls. Selective targeting of Kv1.3 in TEM cells may therefore hold therapeutic promise for MS and other T cell–mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:12782673

  2. Regulatory T Cells Negatively Affect IL-2 Production of Effector T Cells through CD39/Adenosine Pathway in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Seddiki, Nabila; Yatim, Ahmad; Carriere, Matthieu; Hulin, Anne; Younas, Mehwish; Ghadimi, Elnaz; Kk, Ayrin; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Alain; Svigny, Jean; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Levy, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Regulatory T cells suppress IL-2 production of effector CD4+ T cells in pathological conditions are unclear. A subpopulation of human Treg expresses the ectoenzyme CD39, which in association with CD73 converts ATP/ADP/AMP to adenosine. We show here that Treg/CD39+ suppress IL-2 expression of activated CD4+ T-cells more efficiently than Treg/CD39?. This inhibition is due to the demethylation of an essential CpG site of the il-2 gene promoter, which was reversed by an anti-CD39 mAb. By recapitulating the events downstream CD39/adenosine receptor (A2AR) axis, we show that A2AR agonist and soluble cAMP inhibit CpG site demethylation of the il-2 gene promoter. A high frequency of Treg/CD39+ is associated with a low clinical outcome in HIV infection. We show here that CD4+ T-cells from HIV-1 infected individuals express high levels of A2AR and intracellular cAMP. Following in vitro stimulation, these cells exhibit a lower degree of demethylation of il-2 gene promoter associated with a lower expression of IL-2, compared to healthy individuals. These results extend previous data on the role of Treg in HIV infection by filling the gap between expansion of Treg/CD39+ in HIV infection and the suppression of CD4+ T-cell function through inhibition of IL-2 production. PMID:23658513

  3. Murine autoimmune cholangitis requires two hits: Cytotoxic KLRG1+ CD8 effector cells and defective T regulatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenting; Kachapati, Kritika; Adams, David; Wu, Yuehong; Leung, Patrick S.C.; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Weici; Ansari, Aftab A.; Flavell, Richard A.; Gershwin, M. Eric; Ridgway, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an enigmatic disease mediated by autoimmune destruction of cholangiocytes in hepatic bile ducts. The early immunological events leading to PBC are poorly understood; clinical signs of disease occur very late in the pathological process. We have used our unique murine model of PBC in dominant-negative TGF-? receptor type II transgenic mice to delineate critical early immunopathological pathways, and previously showed that dnTGFbRII CD8 T cells transfer biliary disease. Herein we report significantly increased numbers of hepatic dnTGF?RII terminally differentiated (KLRG1+) CD8 T cells, a CD8 subset previously shown to be enriched in antigen specific cells during hepatic immune response to viral infections. We performed bone marrow chimera studies to assess whether dnTGFbRII CD8 mediated disease was cell intrinsic or extrinsic. Unexpectedly, mixed (dnTGF?RII and B6) bone marrow chimeric (BMC) mice were protected from biliary disease compared to dnTGF?RII single bone marrow chimerics. To define the protective B6 cell subset, we performed adoptive transfer studies, which showed that co-transfer of B6 Tregs prevented dnTGFbRII CD8 T cell mediated cholangitis. Treg mediated disease protection was associated with significantly decreased numbers of hepatic KLRG1+ CD8 T cells. In contrast, co-transfer of dnTGF?RII Tregs offered no protection, and dnTGF?RII Treg cells were functionally defective in suppressing effector CD8 T cells in vitro compared to wild type B6 Tregs. In vitro cholangiocyte cytotoxicity assays demonstrated significantly increased numbers of cytotoxic hepatic dnTGF?RII KLRG1+ CD8 cells compared to B6. Protection from disease by B6 Tregs was associated with elimination of hepatic dnTGF?RII CD8 mediated cholangiocyte cytotoxicity. These results emphasize that autoimmune cholangitis requires defects in both the T effector and regulatory compartments, and that an intrinsic T cell effector defect is not sufficient to mediate autoimmune biliary disease in the setting of intact immune regulation. These results have important implications for understanding the early pathogenesis of human PBC. PMID:24556277

  4. Salmonella SPI1 Effector SipA Persists after Entry and Cooperates with a SPI2 Effector to Regulate Phagosome Maturation and Intracellular Replication

    PubMed Central

    Brawn, Lyndsey C.; Hayward, Richard D.; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2007-01-01

    Summary Salmonellae employ two type III secretion systems (T3SSs), SPI1 and SPI2, to deliver virulence effectors into mammalian cells. SPI1 effectors, including actin-binding SipA, trigger initial bacterial uptake, whereas SPI2 effectors promote subsequent replication within customized Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). SCVs sequester actin filaments and subvert microtubule-dependent motors to migrate to the perinuclear region. We demonstrate that SipA delivery continues after Salmonella internalization, with dosage being restricted by host-mediated degradation. SipA is exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the SCV, from where it stimulates bacterial replication in both nonphagocytic cells and macrophages. Although SipA is sufficient to target and redistribute late endosomes, during infection it cooperates with the SPI2 effector SifA to modulate SCV morphology and ensure perinuclear positioning. Our findings define an unexpected additional function for SipA postentry and reveal precise intracellular communication between effectors deployed by distinct T3SSs underlying SCV biogenesis. PMID:18005682

  5. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested manipulator systems in time for space stations operations in the early 1990s.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of NK cell differentiation and effector functions.

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Frank; Miller, Jeffrey S; Anderson, Stephen K; Bryceson, Yenan T

    2013-01-01

    Upon maturation, natural killer (NK) cells acquire effector functions and regulatory receptors. New insights suggest a considerable functional heterogeneity and dynamic regulation of receptor expression in mature human NK cell subsets based on different developmental axes. Such processes include acquisition of lytic granules as well as regulation of cytokine production in response to exogenous cytokine stimulation or target cell interactions. One axis is regulated by expression of inhibitory receptors for self-MHC class I molecules, whereas other axes are less well defined but likely are driven by different activating receptor engagements or cytokines. Moreover, the recent identification of long-lived NK cell subsets in mice that are able to expand and respond rapidly following a secondary viral challenge suggest previously unappreciated plasticity in the programming of NK cell differentiation. Here, we review advances in our understanding of mature NK cell development and plasticity with regards to regulation of cellular function. Furthermore, we highlight some of the major questions that remain pertaining to the epigenetic changes that underlie the differentiation and functional specialization of NK cells and the regulation of their responses. PMID:23450696

  7. Lessons from Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Chromatin Remodeling by Bacterial Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E; Dumler, J Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens can alter global host gene expression via histone modifications and chromatin remodeling in order to subvert host responses, including those involved with innate immunity, allowing for bacterial survival. Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum express effector proteins that modify host histones and chromatin structure. A. phagocytophilum modulates granulocyte respiratory burst in part by dampening transcription of several key phagocyte oxidase genes. The A. phagocytophilum protein AnkA localizes to the myeloid cell nucleus where it binds AT-rich regions in the CYBB promoter and decreases its transcription. AT-rich regions of DNA are characteristic of matrix attachment regions (MARs) which are critical for chromatin structure and transcription. MAR-binding proteins, such as SATB1, interact with histone modifying enzymes resulting in altered gene expression. With A. phagocytophilum infection, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) expression is increased and histone H3 acetylation is decreased at the CYBB promoter, suggesting a role for AnkA in altering host epigenetics and modulating gene transcription, at this, and perhaps other loci. This review will focus on how bacterial pathogens alter host epigenetics, by specifically examining A. phagocytophilum AnkA cis-regulation of CYBB transcription and epigenetic changes associated with infection. PMID:23082961

  8. Receptor-coupled effector systems and their interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the modulation of intracellular signal generation by receptor-coupled effector systems in B lymphocytes, and whether these alterations are consistent with the effects of prostaglandins. TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate) and sn-1,2,-dioctanoylglycerol (diC{sub 8}) substitute for lipid derived signals which activate protein kinase C. Pretreating splenocytes from athymic nude mice with 100nM TPA or 5 {mu}M diC{sub 8} potentiated the forskolin-induced increased in cAMP (measured by radioimmunoassay) 2.5 and 3.0 times (respectively), but they decreased the PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP rise 48% and 35% (respectively). Goat anti-mouse IgM, which activates diacylglycerol production, potentiated the forskolin-induced cAMP increase by 76%, but reduced that of PGE{sub 1} by 30%. Rabbit anti-mouse IgG, its F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragment, or goat anti-mouse IGM induced increases in the cytosolic free (Ca{sup 2+}), (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}, which TPA inhibited. In contrast, TPA potential antibody-induced {sup 3}H-thymidine (85x) and {sup 3}H-uridine (30x) uptake in B lymphocytes.

  9. Membrane flickering of the human erythrocyte: physical and chemical effectors.

    PubMed

    Puckeridge, Max; Chapman, Bogdan E; Conigrave, Arthur D; Kuchel, Philip W

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest a link between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and the amplitude of cell membrane flickering (CMF) in the human erythrocyte (red blood cell; RBC). Potentially, the origin of this phenomenon and the unique discocyte shape could be active processes that account for some of the ATP turnover in the RBC. Active flickering could depend on several factors, including pH, osmolality, enzymatic rates and metabolic fluxes. In the present work, we applied the data analysis described in the previous article to study time courses of flickering RBCs acquired using differential interference contrast light microscopy in the presence of selected effectors. We also recorded images of air bubbles in aqueous detergent solutions and oil droplets in water, both of which showed rapid fluctuations in image intensity, the former showing the same type of spectral envelope (relative frequency composition) to RBCs. We conclude that CMF is not directly an active process, but that ATP affects the elastic properties of the membrane that flickers in response to molecular bombardment in a manner that is described mathematically by a constrained random walk. PMID:24668224

  10. Discovery of Therapeutic Deubiquitylase Effector Molecules: Current Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, B; Kumar, Suresh; Agarwal, S; Eddins, M J; Marblestone, J G; Wu, J; Kodrasov, M P; LaRocque, J P; Sterner, D E; Mattern, M R

    2014-03-14

    The approval of proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib and the E3 ligase antagonist thalidomide and its analogs, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, validates the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as a source of novel drugs for treating cancer and, potentially, a variety of devastating illnesses, including inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disease. All elements of this critical regulatory pathway-the proteasome itself, E3 ligases (which conjugate ubiquitin to target proteins), and deubiquitylating enzymes (which deconjugate ubiquitin, reversing ligase action)-are potential therapeutic targets, and all have been worked on extensively during the past decade. No deubiquitylase inhibitors or activators have yet progressed to clinical trial, however, despite compelling target validation and several years of high-throughput screening and preclinical development of hits by numerous pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology organizations, and academic groups. The appropriateness of deubiquitylases as therapeutic targets in many disease areas is reviewed, followed by evidence that selective inhibitors of these cysteine proteases can be discovered. Because the lack of progress in drug-discovery efforts with deubiquitylases suggests a need for improved discovery methodologies, currently available platforms and strategies are analyzed, and improved or completely novel, unrelated approaches are considered in terms of their likelihood of producing clinically viable effectors of deubiquitylases. PMID:24632661

  11. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains. PMID:26930612

  12. Targeted Mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana Using Engineered TAL Effector Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Michelle; Qi, Yiping; Zhang, Yong; Voytas, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Custom TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) are increasingly used as reagents to manipulate genomes in vivo. Here, we used TALENs to modify the genome of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We engineered seven TALENs targeting five Arabidopsis genes, namely ADH1, TT4, MAPKKK1, DSK2B, and NATA2. In pooled seedlings expressing the TALENs, we observed somatic mutagenesis frequencies ranging from 215% at the intended targets for all seven TALENs. Somatic mutagenesis frequencies as high as 4173% were observed in individual transgenic plant lines expressing the TALENs. Additionally, a TALEN pair targeting a tandemly duplicated gene induced a 4.4-kb deletion in somatic cells. For the most active TALEN pairs, namely those targeting ADH1 and NATA2, we found that TALEN-induced mutations were transmitted to the next generation at frequencies of 1.512%. Our work demonstrates that TALENs are useful reagents for achieving targeted mutagenesis in this important plant model. PMID:23979944

  13. Assembly of Designer TAL Effectors by Golden Gate Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ernst; Gruetzner, Ramona; Werner, Stefan; Engler, Carola; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2011-01-01

    Generation of customized DNA binding domains targeting unique sequences in complex genomes is crucial for many biotechnological applications. The recently described DNA binding domain of the transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas consists of a series of repeats arranged in tandem, each repeat binding a nucleotide of the target sequence. We present here a strategy for engineering of TALE proteins with novel DNA binding specificities based on the 17.5 repeat-containing AvrBs3 TALE as a scaffold. For each of the 17 full repeats, four module types were generated, each with a distinct base preference. Using this set of 68 repeat modules, recognition domains for any 17 nucleotide DNA target sequence of choice can be constructed by assembling selected modules in a defined linear order. Assembly is performed in two successive one-pot cloning steps using the Golden Gate cloning method that allows seamless fusion of multiple DNA fragments. Applying this strategy, we assembled designer TALEs with new target specificities and tested their function in vivo. PMID:21625552

  14. Targeted mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana using engineered TAL effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Christian, Michelle; Qi, Yiping; Zhang, Yong; Voytas, Daniel F

    2013-10-01

    Custom TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) are increasingly used as reagents to manipulate genomes in vivo. Here, we used TALENs to modify the genome of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We engineered seven TALENs targeting five Arabidopsis genes, namely ADH1, TT4, MAPKKK1, DSK2B, and NATA2. In pooled seedlings expressing the TALENs, we observed somatic mutagenesis frequencies ranging from 2-15% at the intended targets for all seven TALENs. Somatic mutagenesis frequencies as high as 41-73% were observed in individual transgenic plant lines expressing the TALENs. Additionally, a TALEN pair targeting a tandemly duplicated gene induced a 4.4-kb deletion in somatic cells. For the most active TALEN pairs, namely those targeting ADH1 and NATA2, we found that TALEN-induced mutations were transmitted to the next generation at frequencies of 1.5-12%. Our work demonstrates that TALENs are useful reagents for achieving targeted mutagenesis in this important plant model. PMID:23979944

  15. Autoimmune effector memory T cells: the bad and the good

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity, a defense mechanism endowed to vertebrates during evolution. However, an autoimmune pathogenic role of memory lymphocytes is also emerging with accumulating evidence, despite reasonable skepticism on their existence in a chronic setting of autoimmune damage. It is conceivable that autoimmune memory would be particularly harmful since memory cells would constantly remember and attack the body's healthy tissues. It is even more detrimental given the resistance of memory T cells to immunomodulatory therapies. In this review, we focus on self-antigen-reactive CD4+ effector memory T (TEM) cells, surveying the evidence for the role of the TEM compartment in autoimmune pathogenesis. We will also discuss the role of TEM cells in chronic and acute infectious disease settings and how they compare to their counterparts in autoimmune diseases. With their long-lasting potency, the autoimmune TEM cells could also play a critical role in anti-tumor immunity, which may be largely based on their reactivity to self-antigens. Therefore, although autoimmune TEM cells are bad due to their role in relentless perpetration of tissue damage in autoimmune disease settings, they are unlikely a by-product of industrial development along the modern surge of autoimmune disease prevalence. Rather, they may be a product of evolution for their good in clearing damaged host cells in chronic infections and malignant cells in cancer settings. PMID:24203440

  16. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  17. VgrG, Tae, Tle, and beyond: the versatile arsenal of Type VI secretion effectors.

    PubMed

    Durand, Eric; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Journet, Laure

    2014-09-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a macromolecular machine that delivers protein effectors into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, therefore participating in interbacterial competition and virulence. The T6SS is functionally and structurally similar to the contractile bacteriophage cell puncturing device: the contraction of a sheath-like structure is believed to propel an inner tube terminated by a spike towards target cells, allowing the delivery of effectors. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the identification and characterization of T6SS effector proteins, highlighting the broad repertoire of enzymatic activities, and discuss recent findings relating to the secretion mechanisms. PMID:25042941

  18. Using the Kinect to limit abnormal kinematics and compensation strategies during therapy with end effector robots.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Lum, Peter S; Cooper, Rory A; Brewer, Bambi R

    2013-06-01

    Abnormal kinematics and the use of compensation strategies during training limit functional improvement from therapy. The Kinect is a low cost ($100) sensor that does not require any markers to be placed on the user. Integration of this sensor into currently used therapy systems can provide feedback about the user's movement quality, and the use of compensatory strategies to complete tasks. This paper presents a novel technique of adding the Kinect to an end effector robot to limit compensation strategies and to train normal joint coordination during movements with an end effector robot. This methodology has wider implications for other robotic and passively actuated end effector rehabilitation devices. PMID:24187203

  19. Legionella suppresses the host unfolded protein response via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Treacy-Abarca, Sean; Mukherjee, Shaeri

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, secretes ?300 effector proteins to modulate the host environment. Given the intimate interaction between L. pneumophila and the endoplasmic reticulum, we investigated the role of the host unfolded protein response (UPR) during L. pneumophila infection. Interestingly, we show that the host identifies L. pneumophila infection as a form of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the sensor pATF6 is processed to generate pATF6(N), a transcriptional activator of downstream UPR genes. However, L. pneumophila is able to suppress the UPR and block the translation of prototypical UPR genes, BiP and CHOP. Furthermore, biochemical studies reveal that L. pneumophila uses two effectors (Lgt1 and Lgt2) to inhibit the splicing of XBP1u mRNA to spliced XBP1 (XBP1s), an UPR response regulator. Thus, we demonstrate that L. pneumophila is able to inhibit the UPR by multiple mechanisms including blocking XBP1u splicing and causing translational repression. This observation highlights the utility of L. pneumophila as a powerful tool for studying a critical protein homeostasis regulator. PMID:26219498

  20. Glioma associated cancer-initiating cells induce immune suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Barr, Jason; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Wang, Yongtao; Wu, Adam; Sharma, Amit K.; Gumin, Joy; Henry, Verlene; Colman, Howard; Sawaya, Raymond; Lang, Frederick F.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal cancer that responds poorly to therapy. GBM cancer-initiating cells have been shown to mediate resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation; however, it is unknown to what extent these cells contribute to the profound immune suppression in GBM patients and if strategies that alter their differentiation state can reduce this immune suppression. Experimental Design We isolated a subpopulation of cells from GBMs that possessed the capacity for self-renewal, formed neurospheres in vitro, were capable of pluripotent differentiation and could initiate tumors in vivo. These cells immune phenotype was characterized including the elaboration of immunosuppressive cytokines and chemokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Functional immunosuppressive properties were characterized based on the inhibition of T cell proliferation and effector responses, triggering of T cell apoptosis and the induction FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Upon altering their differentiation state, the immune suppressive phenotype and functional assays were reevaluated. Results We found that the cancer-initiating cells markedly inhibited T cell proliferation and activation, induced regulatory T cells and triggered T cell apoptosis that were mediated by B7-H1 and soluble Galectin-3. These immunosuppressive properties were diminished upon altering the differentiation of the cancer-initiating cells. Conclusion Cancer-initiating cells contribute to tumor evasion of the immune surveillance and approaches that alter the differentiation state may have immune therapeutic potential. PMID:20068105

  1. Expression of the Bacterial Type III Effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Down-regulates the Sphingolipid Biosynthetic Pathway Leading to Growth Arrest*

    PubMed Central

    Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N.; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (Δsur4, Δfen1, Δipt1, Δskn1, Δcsg1, Δcsg2, Δorm1, and Δorm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A Δcdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest. PMID:24828506

  2. A harbor background suppression approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xun; Shi, Wen-Jun

    2015-12-01

    In order to resolve false segmentation and false tracking problems caused by the influence of complex harbor background during IR moving target detection, a harbor background suppression approach is presented. Firstly, Sky-sea line region can be obtained by Otsu segmentation, which is applied to split images obtained through wavelet transform. Secondly, harbor background suppression point in sequential images can be located by multilevel filter. Finally, harbor background suppression can be realized according to those background suppression points. The proposed approach is validated by using actual IR in complex harbor background to realize background suppression. Experiment results indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Next generation fire suppressants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerry A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral ban microprocessors controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  4. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein

    PubMed Central

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057–6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. IMPORTANCE Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion system is a weapon that many pathogens deploy to compete against rival bacterial cells by injecting multiple antibacterial toxins into them. The ability to compete is vital considering that bacteria generally live in mixed communities. We aimed to identify new toxins and understand their deployment and role in interbacterial competition. We describe two new type VI secretion system-delivered toxins of the Rhs class, demonstrate that this class can play a primary role in competition between closely related bacteria, and identify a new accessory factor needed for their delivery. PMID:25939831

  5. Chromatin-based control of effector gene expression in plant-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Jessica L; Rouxel, Thierry; Fudal, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Plant-associated fungi often present in their genome areas enriched in repeat sequences and effector genes, the latter being specifically induced in planta. The location of effector genes in regions enriched in repeats has been shown to have an impact on adaptability of fungi but could also provide for tight control of effector gene expression through chromatin-based regulation. The distribution of two repressive histone marks was shown to be an important regulatory layer in two fungal species with different lifestyles. Chromatin-based control of effector gene expression is likely to provide an evolutionary advantage by preventing the expression of genes not needed during vegetative growth and allow for a massive concerted expression at particular time-points of plant infection. PMID:26116976

  6. Visuomotor and audiomotor processing in continuous force production of oral and manual effectors.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Edward; Loucks, Torrey M J; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined force control in oral and manual effectors as a function of sensory feedback (i.e., visual and auditory). Participants produced constant isometric force via index finger flexion and lower lip elevation to 2 force levels (10% and 20% maximal voluntary contraction) and received either online visual or online auditory feedback. Mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of force output were used to quantify the magnitude of force variability. Power spectral measures and approximate entropy of force output were calculated to quantify the structure of force variability. Overall, it was found that the oral effector conditions were more variable (e.g., coefficient of variation) than the manual effector conditions regardless of sensory feedback. No effector differences were found for the structure of force variability with visual or auditory feedback. Oral and manual force control appears to involve different control mechanisms regulating continuous force production in the presence of visual or auditory feedback. PMID:22364413

  7. Structures of PI4KIII? complexes show simultaneous recruitment of Rab11 and its effectors

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John E.; Inglis, Alison J.; Perisic, Olga; Masson, Glenn R.; McLaughlin, Stephen H.; Rutaganira, Florentine; Shokat, Kevan M.; Williams, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are essential for processes that require expansion and remodeling of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P)-containing membranes, including cytokinesis, intracellular development of malarial pathogens, and replication of a wide range of RNA viruses. However, the structural basis for coordination of PI4K, GTPases and their effectors is unknown. Here, we describe structures of PI4KB (PI4KIII?) bound to the small GTPase Rab11a without and with the Rab11 effector protein FIP3. The Rab11-PI4KIII? interface is unique compared with known structures of Rab complexes, and does not involve switch regions used by GTPase effectors. Our data provide a mechanism for how PI4KIII? coordinates Rab11 and its effectors on PI4P-enriched membranes, and also provide strategies for the design of specific inhibitors that could potentially target plasmodial PI4KIII? to combat malaria. PMID:24876499

  8. End-effector: Joint conjugates for robotic assembly of large truss structures in space: Extended concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. V.; Rasis, E. P.; Shih, H. R.

    1993-01-01

    Results from NASA/HBCU Grant No. NAG-1-1125 are summarized. Designs developed for model fabrication, exploratory concepts drafted, interface of computer with robot and end-effector, and capability enhancement are discussed.

  9. Lifestyles of the effector-rich: genome-enabled characterization of bacterial plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome sequencing of bacterial plant pathogens is providing transformative insights into the complex network of molecular plant-microbe interactions mediated by extracellular effectors during pathogenesis. Bacterial pathogens sequenced to completion are phylogenetically diverse and vary significant...

  10. Effectors as tools in disease resistance breeding against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Oliver, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    One of most important challenges in plant breeding is improving resistance to the plethora of pathogens that threaten our crops. The ever-growing world population, changing pathogen populations, and fungicide resistance issues have increased the urgency of this task. In addition to a vital inflow of novel resistance sources into breeding programs, the functional characterization and deployment of resistance also needs improvement. Therefore, plant breeders need to adopt new strategies and techniques. In modern resistance breeding, effectors are emerging as tools to accelerate and improve the identification, functional characterization, and deployment of resistance genes. Since genome-wide catalogues of effectors have become available for various pathogens, including biotrophs as well as necrotrophs, effector-assisted breeding has been shown to be successful for various crops. "Effectoromics" has contributed to classical resistance breeding as well as for genetically modified approaches. Here, we present an overview of how effector-assisted breeding and deployment is being exploited for various pathosystems. PMID:24405032

  11. A Chlamydia effector recruits CEP170 to reprogram host microtubule organization

    PubMed Central

    Dumoux, Maud; Menny, Anais; Delacour, Delphine; Hayward, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis deploys virulence effectors to subvert host cell functions enabling its replication within a specialized membrane-bound compartment termed an inclusion. The control of the host cytoskeleton is crucial for Chlamydia uptake, inclusion biogenesis and cell exit. Here, we demonstrate how a Chlamydia effector rearranges the microtubule (MT) network by initiating organization of the MTs at the inclusion surface. We identified an inclusion-localized effector that is sufficient to interfere with MT assembly, which we named inclusion protein acting on MTs (IPAM). We established that IPAM recruits and stimulates the centrosomal protein 170?kDa (CEP170) to hijack the MT organizing functions of the host cell. We show that CEP170 is essential for chlamydial control of host MT assembly, and is required for inclusion morphogenesis and bacterial infectivity. Together, we demonstrate how a pathogen effector reprograms the host MT network to support its intracellular development. PMID:26220855

  12. A Chlamydia effector recruits CEP170 to reprogram host microtubule organization.

    PubMed

    Dumoux, Maud; Menny, Anais; Delacour, Delphine; Hayward, Richard D

    2015-09-15

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis deploys virulence effectors to subvert host cell functions enabling its replication within a specialized membrane-bound compartment termed an inclusion. The control of the host cytoskeleton is crucial for Chlamydia uptake, inclusion biogenesis and cell exit. Here, we demonstrate how a Chlamydia effector rearranges the microtubule (MT) network by initiating organization of the MTs at the inclusion surface. We identified an inclusion-localized effector that is sufficient to interfere with MT assembly, which we named inclusion protein acting on MTs (IPAM). We established that IPAM recruits and stimulates the centrosomal protein 170?kDa (CEP170) to hijack the MT organizing functions of the host cell. We show that CEP170 is essential for chlamydial control of host MT assembly, and is required for inclusion morphogenesis and bacterial infectivity. Together, we demonstrate how a pathogen effector reprograms the host MT network to support its intracellular development. PMID:26220855

  13. A rheumatoid factor paradox: inhibition of rituximab effector function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Rituximab (RTX) therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibits enhanced effectiveness in seropositive patients. Using patient sera, we tested if this improved efficacy was associated with enhanced RTX mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity (RTX-CDC). Methods We developed an in vitro assay for RTX-CDC using patient sera and the Daudi human B cell line. Using propidium iodide uptake and flow cytometry, we compared RTX-CDC with rheumatoid factor (RF)+ sera relative to normal volunteer, non-RA and RF- sera. Additional studies examined mixing studies of RF+ and RF- sera, as well as the effect of monoclonal IgA or IgM RF. Finally, the effect of RF on RTX mediated trogocytosis of normal B cells was evaluated. Results Using human sera, addition of RTX resulted in rapid and profound (> 50%) Daudi cell death that was complement dependent. Surprisingly, RF+ patient sera exhibited reduced RTX-CDC relative to RF- sera, with an inverse relationship of RTX-CDC and RF titer. Mixing studies indicated the presence of an inhibitor of RTX-CDC in RF+ sera. The addition of monoclonal IgM or IgA RF to RF- sera markedly inhibited RTX-CDC. This effect was specific for RF binding to the Fc portion of RTX as it was not apparent with the F(ab)' domains of RTX engineered onto IgG3 heavy chain. RF also modestly inhibited RTX mediated trogocytosis. Conclusions Contrary to expectations, RF+ sera exhibits reduced RTX-CDC due to the presence of RF. The enhanced efficacy of RTX in seropositive RA patients cannot be attributed to improved B cell depletion through CDC. This result indicates that high RF levels may potentially modulate the efficacy of any therapeutic monoclonal antibody dependent on Fc effector function. PMID:23351360

  14. Prostaglandin D2-loaded microspheres effectively activate macrophage effector functions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscilla Aparecida Tartari; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; dos Santos, Daiane Fernanda; Nicolete, Roberto; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Faccioli, Lcia Helena

    2015-10-12

    Biodegradable lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres (MS) improve the stability of biomolecules stability and allow enable their sustained release. Lipid mediators represent a strategy for improving host defense; however, most of these mediators, such as prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), have low water solubility and are unstable. The present study aimed to develop and characterize MS loaded with PGD2 (PGD2-MS) to obtain an innovative tool to activate macrophages. PGD2-MS were prepared using an oil-in-water emulsion solvent extraction-evaporation process, and the size, zeta potential, surface morphology and encapsulation efficiency were determined. It was also evaluated in vitro the phagocytic index, NF-?B activation, as well as nitric oxide and cytokine production by alveolar macrophages (AMs) in response to PGD2-MS. PGD2-MS were spherical with a diameter of 5.03.3 ?m and regular surface, zeta potential of -13.45.6 mV, and 36% of encapsulation efficiency, with 16-26% release of entrapped PGD2 at 4 and 48 h, respectively. PGD2-MS were more efficiently internalized by AMs than unloaded-MS, and activated NF-?B more than free PGD2. Moreover, PGD2-MS stimulated the production of nitric oxide, TNF-?, IL-1?, and TGF-?, more than free PGD2, indicating that microencapsulation increased the activating effect of PGD2 on cells. In LPS-pre-treated AMs, PGD2-MS decreased the release of IL-6 but increased the production of nitric oxide and IL-1?. These results show that the morphological characteristics of PGD2-MS facilitated interaction with, and activation of phagocytic cells; moreover, PGD2-MS retained the biological activities of PGD2 to trigger effector mechanisms in AMs. It is suggested that PGD2-MS represent a strategy for therapeutic intervention in the lungs of immunocompromised subjects. PMID:26143263

  15. Functional redundancy of necrotrophic effectors – consequences for exploitation for breeding

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kar-Chun; Phan, Huyen T. T.; Rybak, Kasia; John, Evan; Chooi, Yit H.; Solomon, Peter S.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Necrotrophic diseases of wheat cause major losses in most wheat growing areas of world. Tan spot (caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) and septoria nodorum blotch (SNB; Parastagonospora nodorum) have been shown to reduce yields by 10–20% across entire agri-ecological zones despite the application of fungicides and a heavy focus over the last 30 years on resistance breeding. Efforts by breeders to improve the resistance of cultivars has been compromised by the universal finding that resistance was quantitative and governed by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). Most QTL had a limited effect that was hard to measure precisely and varied significantly from site to site and season to season. The discovery of necrotrophic effectors has given breeding for disease resistance new methods and tools. In the case of tan spot in West Australia, a single effector, PtrToxA and its recogniser gene Tsn1, has a dominating impact in disease resistance. The delivery of ToxA to breeders has had a major impact on cultivar choice and breeding strategies. For P. nodorum, three effectors – SnToxA, SnTox1, and SnTox3 – have been well characterized. Unlike tan spot, no one effector has a dominating role. Genetic analysis of various mapping populations and pathogen isolates has shown that different effectors have varying impact and that epistatic interactions also occur. As a result of these factors the deployment of these effectors for SNB resistance breeding is more complex. We have deleted the three effectors in a strain of P. nodorum and measured effector activity and disease potential of the triple knockout mutant. The culture filtrate causes necrosis in several cultivars and the strain causes disease, albeit the overall levels are less than in the wild type. Modeling of the field disease resistance scores of cultivars from their reactions to the microbially expressed effectors SnToxA, SnTox1, and SnTox3 is significantly improved by including the response to the triple knockout mutant culture filtrate. This indicates that one or more further effectors are secreted into the culture filtrate. We conclude that the in vitro-secreted necrotrophic effectors explain a very large part of the disease response of wheat germplasm and that this method of resistance breeding promises to further reduce the impact of these globally significant diseases. PMID:26217355

  16. Pattern-Triggered Immunity Suppresses Programmed Cell Death Triggered by Fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Daisuke; Bethke, Gerit; Xu, Yuan; Tsuda, Kenichi; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process for plant innate immunity and development. In plant innate immunity, PCD is believed to prevent the spread of pathogens from the infection site. Although proper control of PCD is important for plant fitness, we have limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating plant PCD. Plant innate immunity triggered by recognition of effectors (effector-triggered immunity, ETI) is often associated with PCD. However pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), which is triggered by recognition of elicitors called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), is not. Therefore we hypothesized that PTI might suppress PCD. Here we report that PCD triggered by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) can be suppressed by PTI in Arabidopsis. FB1-triggered cell death was suppressed by treatment with the MAMPs flg22 (a part of bacterial flagellin) or elf18 (a part of the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu) but not chitin (a component of fungal cell walls). Although plant hormone signaling is associated with PCD and PTI, both FB1-triggered cell death and suppression of cell death by flg22 treatment were still observed in mutants deficient in jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling. The MAP kinases MPK3 and MPK6 are transiently activated and inactivated within one hour during PTI. We found that FB1 activated MPK3 and MPK6 about 36–48 hours after treatment. Interestingly, this late activation was attenuated by flg22 treatment. These results suggest that PTI suppression of FB1-triggered cell death may involve suppression of MPK3/MPK6 signaling but does not require JA/ET/SA signaling. PMID:23560104

  17. Summation of punishment suppression.

    PubMed

    Van Houten, R; Rudolph, R

    1971-01-01

    In two experiments, eight rats were trained to lever press with food on a variable-interval schedule. Bar pressing produced shock on a variable-interval schedule in the presence of two independently presented stimuli, a light and a tone. Two rats in each experiment received alternative presentations of the light and the tone and were consequently always in the presence of a stimulus that signalled variable-interval punishment. The other two rats in each experiment were treated similarly except that they received periods in which neither light nor tone was present. During these periods, bar pressing was not punished. The two stimuli that signalled punishment were then presented simultaneously to evaluate the effect of stimulus compounding on response suppression. The subjects trained without punishment-free periods did not show summation to the compound stimulus; the subjects trained with punishment-free periods showed summation of suppression. The major difference between the two experiments was the longer mean interval of variable-interval punishment used in the second experiment. This manipulation made the summation effect more resistant to extinction and thus increased its magnitude. PMID:16811483

  18. Planck-suppressed operators

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu

    2014-01-01

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10{sup 5}H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10{sup 2}H.

  19. Visual processing at goal and effector locations is dynamically enhanced during motor preparation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Luke; Linnell, Karina J; Davis, Rob; Van Velzen, José

    2015-08-15

    Previous theoretical and experimental works has shown that preparing to act causes enhanced perceptual processing at movement-relevant locations. Up until now, this has focused almost exclusively on the goal of an action, neglecting the role of the effector. We addressed this by measuring changes in visual processing across time during motor preparation at both goal and effector locations. We compared event related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task-irrelevant visual probe stimuli at both goal and effector locations during motor preparation. Participants were instructed to place their hands on two starting positions (effector locations) and an auditory tone instructed them to immediately move to one of two target buttons (goal locations). Probe stimuli were presented in the interval between the offset of the cue and the execution of the movement at either a goal or an effector location. Probes were presented randomly at either 100ms, 200ms or 300ms after the auditory cue. Analysis of the visual N1 ERP showed enhanced visual processing at moving vs. not-moving goal locations across all three SOAs. At effector locations, enhanced processing for the moving vs. not-moving effector was only observed during the middle (200ms) SOA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, simultaneous perceptual enhancement of goal and effector locations during motor preparation. We interpret these results as reflecting a temporally and spatially specific dynamic attentional map of the environment that adapts to maximise efficiency of movement by selectively weighting processing of multiple functional components of action in parallel. PMID:26032889

  20. Effector-Mining in the Poplar Rust Fungus Melampsora larici-populina Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Lorrain, Cécile; Hecker, Arnaud; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The poplar leaf rust fungus, Melampsora larici-populina has been established as a tree-microbe interaction model. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling infection by pathogens appears essential for durable management of tree plantations. In biotrophic plant-parasites, effectors are known to condition host cell colonization. Thus, investigation of candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs) is a major goal in the poplar–poplar rust interaction. Unlike oomycetes, fungal effectors do not share conserved motifs and candidate prediction relies on a set of a priori criteria established from reported bona fide effectors. Secretome prediction, genome-wide analysis of gene families and transcriptomics of M. larici-populina have led to catalogs of more than a thousand secreted proteins. Automatized effector-mining pipelines hold great promise for rapid and systematic identification and prioritization of CSEPs for functional characterization. In this review, we report on and discuss the current status of the poplar rust fungus secretome and prediction of candidate effectors from this species. PMID:26697026

  1. Evolution of RXLR-Class Effectors in the Oomycete Plant Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Erica M.; Press, Caroline M.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora plant pathogens contain many hundreds of effectors potentially involved in infection of host plants. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that these effectors evolve rapidly and have been subject to recent expansions. We examined the recent sequence evolution of RXLR-class effector gene families in the sudden oak death pathogen, P. ramorum. We found that P. ramorum RXLR effectors have taken multiple evolutionary paths, including loss or gain of repeated domains, recombination or gene conversion among paralogs, and selection on point mutations. Sequencing of homologs from two subfamilies in P. ramorum’s closest known relatives revealed repeated gene duplication and divergence since speciation with P. lateralis. One family showed strong signatures of recombination while the other family has evolved primarily by point mutation. Comparison of a small number of the hundreds of RXLR-class effectors across three clonal lineages of P. ramorum shows striking divergence in alleles among lineages, suggesting the potential for functional differences between lineages. Our results suggest future avenues for examination of rapidly evolving effectors in P. ramorum, including investigation of the functional and coevolutionary significance of the patterns of sequence evolution that we observed. PMID:24244484

  2. Functional Dissection of SseF, a Membrane-Integral Effector Protein of Intracellular Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Petra; Chikkaballi, Deepak; Hensel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    During intracellular life, the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica translocates a complex cocktail of effector proteins by means of the SPI2-encoded type III secretions system. The effectors jointly modify the endosomal system and vesicular transport in host cells. SseF and SseG are two effectors encoded by genes within Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 and both effector associate with endosomal membranes and microtubules and are involved in the formation of Salmonella-induced filaments. Our previous deletional analyses identified protein domains of SseF required for the effector function. Here we present a detailed mutational analysis that identifies a short hydrophobic motif as functionally essential. We demonstrate that SseF and SseG are still functional if translocated as a single fusion protein, but also mediate effector function if translocated in cells co-infected with sseF and sseG strains. SseF has characteristics of an integral membrane protein after translocation into host cells. PMID:22529968

  3. In-flight adaptive performance optimization (APO) control using redundant control effectors of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.

  4. Global DNA methylation remodeling accompanies CD8 T cell effector function1

    PubMed Central

    Scharer, Christopher D.; Barwick, Benjamin G.; Youngblood, Benjamin A.; Ahmed, Rafi; Boss, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of CD8 T cells in response to acute infection results in the acquisition of hallmark phenotypic effector functions, however the epigenetic mechanisms that program this differentiation process on a genome-wide scale are largely unknown. Here we report the DNA methylomes of antigen-specific nave and day 8 effector CD8 T cells following acute LCMV infection. During effector CD8 T cell differentiation, DNA methylation was remodeled such that changes in DNA methylation at gene promoter regions negatively correlated with gene expression. Importantly, differentially methylated regions (DMRs2) were enriched at cis-elements, including enhancers active in nave T cells. DMRs were associated with cell type-specific transcription factor binding sites, and these transcription factors clustered into modules that define networks targeted by epigenetic regulation and control of effector CD8 T cell function. Changes in the DNA methylation profile following CD8 T cell activation, revealed numerous cellular processes, cis-elements, and transcription factor networks targeted by DNA methylation. Together, the results demonstrated that DNA methylation remodeling accompanies the acquisition of the CD8 T cell effector phenotype and repression of the nave cell state. These data therefore provide the framework for an epigenetic mechanism that is required for effector CD8 T cell differentiation and adaptive immune responses. PMID:23956425

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of effector CD8+ T cell responses within the liver.

    PubMed

    Inverso, Donato; Iannacone, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in controlling hepatotropic viral infections, such as those caused by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. The capacity of these cells to protect against such pathogens is mediated by antigen-experienced effector cells and relies on their ability to home to the liver, recognize pathogen-derived antigens, and deploy effector functions. Here, we review how dynamic imaging of hepatic effector CD8(+) T cell migration and function in mouse models of hepatitis B virus pathogenesis has recently revealed a unique and novel mode of adaptive immune surveillance. Circulating effector CD8(+) T cells initially arrest within liver sinusoids by docking onto adherent platelets and then actively crawl along the liver vasculature, probing hepatocytes for the presence of antigens by extending protrusions through the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelial cells. Hepatocellular antigen recognition and effector functions occur while CD8(+) T cells are still confined to the intravascular space and are inhibited by the pathologic processes that characterize liver fibrosis. A detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of effector CD8(+) T cells within the liver is important for the rational design of targeted immunotherapeutic approaches for chronic liver infections. PMID:26188075

  6. Rust fungal effectors mimic host transit peptides to translocate into chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Petre, Benjamin; Lorrain, Cécile; Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Sklenar, Jan; Duplessis, Sébastien; Kamoun, Sophien

    2016-04-01

    Parasite effector proteins target various host cell compartments to alter host processes and promote infection. How effectors cross membrane-rich interfaces to reach these compartments is a major question in effector biology. Growing evidence suggests that effectors use molecular mimicry to subvert host cell machinery for protein sorting. We recently identified chloroplast-targeted protein 1 (CTP1), a candidate effector from the poplar leaf rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina that carries a predicted transit peptide and accumulates in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Here, we show that the CTP1 transit peptide is necessary and sufficient for accumulation in the stroma of chloroplasts. CTP1 is part of a Melampsora-specific family of polymorphic secreted proteins. Two members of that family, CTP2 and CTP3, also translocate in chloroplasts in an N-terminal signal-dependent manner. CTP1, CTP2 and CTP3 are cleaved when they accumulate in chloroplasts, while they remain intact when they do not translocate into chloroplasts. Our findings reveal that fungi have evolved effector proteins that mimic plant-specific sorting signals to traffic within plant cells. PMID:26426202

  7. Proteogenomic analysis of the Venturia pirina (Pear Scab Fungus) secretome reveals potential effectors.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Ira R; Jones, Dan; Bowen, Joanna K; Deng, Cecilia; Faou, Pierre; Hall, Nathan E; Jayachandran, Vignesh; Liem, Michael; Taranto, Adam P; Plummer, Kim M; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2014-08-01

    A proteogenomic analysis is presented for Venturia pirina, a fungus that causes scab disease on European pear (Pyrus communis). V. pirina is host-specific, and the infection is thought to be mediated by secreted effector proteins. Currently, only 36 V. pirina proteins are catalogued in GenBank, and the genome sequence is not publicly available. To identify putative effectors, V. pirina was grown in vitro on and in cellophane sheets mimicking its growth in infected leaves. Secreted extracts were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and the data (ProteomeXchange identifier PXD000710) was queried against a protein database generated by combining in silico predicted transcripts with six frame translations of a whole genome sequence of V. pirina (GenBank Accession JEMP00000000 ). We identified 1088 distinct V. pirina protein groups (FDR 1%) including 1085 detected for the first time. Thirty novel (not in silico predicted) proteins were found, of which 14 were identified as potential effectors based on characteristic features of fungal effector protein sequences. We also used evidence from semitryptic peptides at the protein N-terminus to corroborate in silico signal peptide predictions for 22 proteins, including several potential effectors. The analysis highlights the utility of proteogenomics in the study of secreted effectors. PMID:24965097

  8. Computational prediction of type III and IV secreted effectors in Gram-negative bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Corrigan, Abigail L.; Peterson, Elena S.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Niemann, George; Cambronne, Eric; Sharp, Danna; Adkins, Joshua N.; Samudrala, Ram; Heffron, Fred

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the methods employed by four recent papers that described novel methods for computational prediction of secreted effectors from type III and IV secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria. The results of the studies in terms of performance at accurately predicting secreted effectors and similarities found between secretion signals that may reflect biologically relevant features for recognition. We discuss the web-based tools for secreted effector prediction described in these studies and announce the availability of our tool, the SIEVEserver (http://www.biopilot.org). Finally, we assess the accuracy of the three type III effector prediction methods on a small set of proteins not known prior to the development of these tools that we have recently discovered and validated using both experimental and computational approaches. Our comparison shows that all methods use similar approaches and, in general arrive at similar conclusions. We discuss the possibility of an order-dependent motif in the secretion signal, which was a point of disagreement in the studies. Our results show that there may be classes of effectors in which the signal has a loosely defined motif, and others in which secretion is dependent only on compositional biases. Computational prediction of secreted effectors from protein sequences represents an important step toward better understanding the interaction between pathogens and hosts.

  9. Of PAMPs and Effectors: The Blurred PTI-ETI Dichotomy[OA

    PubMed Central

    Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Nrnberger, Thorsten; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Typically, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are considered to be conserved throughout classes of microbes and to contribute to general microbial fitness, whereas effectors are species, race, or strain specific and contribute to pathogen virulence. Both types of molecule can trigger plant immunity, designated PAMP-triggered and effector-triggered immunity (PTI and ETI, respectively). However, not all microbial defense activators conform to the common distinction between PAMPs and effectors. For example, some effectors display wide distribution, while some PAMPs are rather narrowly conserved or contribute to pathogen virulence. As effectors may elicit defense responses and PAMPs may be required for virulence, single components cannot exclusively be referred to by one of the two terms. Therefore, we put forward that the distinction between PAMPs and effectors, between PAMP receptors and resistance proteins, and, therefore, also between PTI and ETI, cannot strictly be maintained. Rather, as illustrated by examples provided here, there is a continuum between PTI and ETI. We argue that plant resistance is determined by immune receptors that recognize appropriate ligands to activate defense, the amplitude of which is likely determined by the level required for effective immunity. PMID:21278123

  10. The growth and tumor suppressor NORE1A is a cytoskeletal protein that suppresses growth by inhibition of the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Moshnikova, Anna; Frye, Judson; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D; Khokhlatchev, Andrei V

    2006-03-24

    NORE1A is a growth and tumor suppressor that is inactivated in a variety of cancers. NORE1A has been shown to bind to the active Ras oncogene product. However, the mechanism of NORE1A-induced growth arrest and tumor suppression remains unknown. Using anchorage-independent growth assays, we mapped the NORE1A effector domain (the minimal region of the protein responsible for its growth-suppressive effects) to the fragment containing the central and Ras association domains of NORE1A (amino acids 191-363). Expression of the NORE1A effector domain in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells resulted in the selective inhibition of signal transduction through the ERK pathway. The full-length NORE1A (416 amino acids) and its fragments capable of growth suppression were localized to centrosomes and microtubules in normal and transformed human cells in a Ras-independent manner. A mutant that was deficient in binding to centrosomes and microtubules was also deficient in inducing cell cycle arrest. This suggests that cytoskeletal localization is required for growth-suppressive effects of NORE1A. Ras binding function was required for growth-suppressive effects of the full-length NORE1A but not for the growth-suppressive effects of the effector domain. Our studies suggest that association of NORE1A with cytoskeletal elements is essential for NORE1A-induced growth suppression and that the ERK pathway is a target for NORE1A growth-suppressive activities. PMID:16421102

  11. Ultrasonic Frost Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kazunari; Saiki, Kazushi; Sato, Hiroki; Ito, Takahiro

    2003-02-01

    The authors have observed the accumulation of frost on the surface of a rectangular aluminum alloy (duralumin) plate flexurally vibrating at approximately 37 kHz in an atmosphere of almost 100% relative humidity at 2C. The plate surface, which had been prepolished with abrasive slurry for maintaining its average surface roughness of about 100 nm, was refrigerated at a temperature of -20C with cold carbon-dioxide gas as coolant. Experiments have been conducted with and without fine silver oxide powder spread on the plate surface so as to examine the effect of artificial ice crystal nuclei. Ultrasonic vibrations with an amplitude of 3.4 ?m (rms) are found to suppress frost accumulation by approximately 60%. The phenomenon cannot be ascribed directly to the heat generation caused by high-amplitude vibration, but may have a complex mechanical and/or acoustical effect on small ice crystals.

  12. ZERO SUPPRESSION FOR RECORDERS

    DOEpatents

    Fort, W.G.S.

    1958-12-30

    A zero-suppression circuit for self-balancing recorder instruments is presented. The essential elements of the circuit include a converter-amplifier having two inputs, one for a reference voltage and the other for the signal voltage under analysis, and a servomotor with two control windings, one coupled to the a-c output of the converter-amplifier and the other receiving a reference input. Each input circuit to the converter-amplifier has a variable potentiometer and the sliders of the potentiometer are ganged together for movement by the servoinotor. The particular noveity of the circuit resides in the selection of resistance values for the potentiometer and a resistor in series with the potentiometer of the signal circuit to ensure the full value of signal voltage variation is impressed on a recorder mechanism driven by servomotor.

  13. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  14. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  15. Autoacetylation of the Ralstonia solanacearum effector PopP2 targets a lysine residue essential for RRS1-R-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tasset, Céline; Bernoux, Maud; Jauneau, Alain; Pouzet, Cécile; Brière, Christian; Kieffer-Jacquinod, Sylvie; Rivas, Susana; Marco, Yves; Deslandes, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Type III effector proteins from bacterial pathogens manipulate components of host immunity to suppress defence responses and promote pathogen development. In plants, host proteins targeted by some effectors called avirulence proteins are surveyed by plant disease resistance proteins referred to as "guards". The Ralstonia solanacearum effector protein PopP2 triggers immunity in Arabidopsis following its perception by the RRS1-R resistance protein. Here, we show that PopP2 interacts with RRS1-R in the nucleus of living plant cells. PopP2 belongs to the YopJ-like family of cysteine proteases, which share a conserved catalytic triad that includes a highly conserved cysteine residue. The catalytic cysteine mutant PopP2-C321A is impaired in its avirulence activity although it is still able to interact with RRS1-R. In addition, PopP2 prevents proteasomal degradation of RRS1-R, independent of the presence of an integral PopP2 catalytic core. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that PopP2 displays acetyl-transferase activity leading to its autoacetylation on a particular lysine residue, which is well conserved among all members of the YopJ family. These data suggest that this lysine residue may correspond to a key binding site for acetyl-coenzyme A required for protein activity. Indeed, mutation of this lysine in PopP2 abolishes RRS1-R-mediated immunity. In agreement with the guard hypothesis, our results favour the idea that activation of the plant immune response by RRS1-R depends not only on the physical interaction between the two proteins but also on its perception of PopP2 enzymatic activity. PMID:21124938

  16. Autoacetylation of the Ralstonia solanacearum Effector PopP2 Targets a Lysine Residue Essential for RRS1-R-Mediated Immunity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tasset, Cline; Bernoux, Maud; Jauneau, Alain; Pouzet, Ccile; Brire, Christian; Kieffer-Jacquinod, Sylvie; Rivas, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Type III effector proteins from bacterial pathogens manipulate components of host immunity to suppress defence responses and promote pathogen development. In plants, host proteins targeted by some effectors called avirulence proteins are surveyed by plant disease resistance proteins referred to as guards. The Ralstonia solanacearum effector protein PopP2 triggers immunity in Arabidopsis following its perception by the RRS1-R resistance protein. Here, we show that PopP2 interacts with RRS1-R in the nucleus of living plant cells. PopP2 belongs to the YopJ-like family of cysteine proteases, which share a conserved catalytic triad that includes a highly conserved cysteine residue. The catalytic cysteine mutant PopP2-C321A is impaired in its avirulence activity although it is still able to interact with RRS1-R. In addition, PopP2 prevents proteasomal degradation of RRS1-R, independent of the presence of an integral PopP2 catalytic core. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that PopP2 displays acetyl-transferase activity leading to its autoacetylation on a particular lysine residue, which is well conserved among all members of the YopJ family. These data suggest that this lysine residue may correspond to a key binding site for acetyl-coenzyme A required for protein activity. Indeed, mutation of this lysine in PopP2 abolishes RRS1-R-mediated immunity. In agreement with the guard hypothesis, our results favour the idea that activation of the plant immune response by RRS1-R depends not only on the physical interaction between the two proteins but also on its perception of PopP2 enzymatic activity. PMID:21124938

  17. The type 3 effector NopL of Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase substrate.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying-Ying; Xiang, Qi-Wang; Wagner, Christian; Zhang, Di; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenic bacteria utilize type 3 secretion systems to inject type 3 effectors (T3Es) into host cells, thereby subverting host defense reactions. Similarly, T3Es of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia can affect nodule formation on roots of legumes. Previous work showed that NopL (nodulation outer protein L) ofSinorhizobium(Ensifer) sp. strain NGR234 is multiply phosphorylated in eukaryotic cells and that this T3E suppresses responses mediated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling in yeast (mating pheromone signaling) and plant cells (expression of pathogenesis-related defense proteins). Here, we show that NopL is a MAP kinase substrate. Microscopic observations of fluorescent fusion proteins and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis in onion cells indicated that NopL is targeted to the nucleus and forms a complex with SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase), a MAP kinase of tobacco.In vitroexperiments demonstrated that NopL is phosphorylatyed by SIPK. At least nine distinct spots were observed after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, indicating that NopL can be hyperphosphorylated by MAP kinases. Senescence symptoms in nodules of beans (Phaseolus vulgariscv. Tendergreen) were analyzed to determine the symbiotic effector activity of different NopL variants with serine to alanine substitutions at identified and predicted phosphorylation sites (serine-proline motif). NopL variants with six or eight serine to alanine substitutions were partially active, whereas NopL forms with 10 or 12 substituted serine residues were inactive. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that NopL interacts with MAP kinases and reveals the importance of serine-proline motifs for effector activity during symbiosis. PMID:26931172

  18. The Structure and Specificity of the Type III Secretion System Effector NleC Suggest a DNA Mimicry Mechanism of Substrate Recognition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria utilize the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins directly into host cells, facilitating colonization. In enterohemmorhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of T3SS effectors is essential for suppression of the inflammatory response in hosts, including humans. Identified as a zinc protease that cleaves NF-κB transcription factors, NleC is one such effector. Here, we investigate NleC substrate specificity, showing that four residues around the cleavage site in the DNA-binding loop of the NF-κB subunit RelA strongly influence the cleavage rate. Class I NF-κB subunit p50 is cleaved at a reduced rate consistent with conservation of only three of these four residues. However, peptides containing 10 residues on each side of the scissile bond were not efficiently cleaved by NleC, indicating that elements distal from the cleavage site are also important for substrate recognition. We present the crystal structure of NleC and show that it mimics DNA structurally and electrostatically. Consistent with this model, mutation of phosphate-mimicking residues in NleC reduces the level of RelA cleavage. We propose that global recognition of NF-κB subunits by DNA mimicry combined with a high sequence selectivity for the cleavage site results in exquisite NleC substrate specificity. The structure also shows that despite undetectable similarity of its sequence to those of other Zn2+ proteases beyond its conserved HExxH Zn2+-binding motif, NleC is a member of the Zincin protease superfamily, albeit divergent from its structural homologues. In particular, NleC displays a modified Ψ-loop motif that may be important for folding and refolding requirements implicit in T3SS translocation. PMID:25040221

  19. Non-replicating adenovirus vectors expressing avian influenza virus hemagglutinin and nucleocapsid proteins induce chicken specific effector, memory and effector memory CD8+ T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailbala; Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-Chu; Briles, Worthie E.; Yates, Linda M.; Kopulos, Renee T.; Collisson, Ellen W.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses stimulated by intramuscular administration of an adenovirus (Ad) vector expressing either HA or NP were evaluated in chickens following ex vivo stimulation by non-professional antigen presenting cells. The CD8+ T lymphocyte responses were AIV specific, MHC-I restricted, and cross-reacted with heterologousH7N2 AIV strain. Specific effector responses, at 10 days post-inoculation (p.i.), were undetectable at 2 weeks p.i., and memory responses were detected from 3 to 8 weeks p.i. Effector memory responses, detected 1 week following a booster inoculation, were significantly greater than the primary responses and, within 7 days, declined to undetectable levels. Inoculation of an Ad-vector expressing human NP resulted in significantly greater MHC restricted, activation of CD8+ T cell responses specific for AIV. Decreases in all responses with time were most dramatic with maximum activation of T cells as observed following effector and effector memory responses. PMID:20557918

  20. Suppression of natural and activated human antitumour cytotoxicity by human seminal plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, R C; Vallely, P; Clegg, A; Potter, C W

    1986-01-01

    The influence of human seminal plasma (SP) and whole semen (S) on the expression of natural cytotoxicity by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) was examined. Marked suppression of natural cytotoxicity against K562 targets was observed when effectors were pre-treated for 1 h with SP or S diluted up to 1:400. Abrogation of cytolytic activity by SP was not the result of direct lymphotoxicity, although a reduction of approximately 50% in the number of target binding cells was observed. In addition, the cytotoxicity of interferon (alpha-IFN, beta-IFN, gamma-IFN) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) activated human PBMNC was suppressed by components present in human SP, although IL-2 activated human PBMC were relatively resistant to suppression compared with other effector (spontaneous or activated) populations. Following 1 h exposure to SP, PBMNC failed to recover more than 25% of their initial cytotoxic potential upon further in vitro incubation (18 h) in the absence of SP. However, both interferon and IL-2 caused an increase in the cytotoxicity of these populations, in some instances to the level obtained with control, IFN or IL-2 activated PBMNC. The biological significance of SP as an inhibitor of immune function under experimentally defined conditions is discussed in relation to its possible role in vivo. PMID:2423280

  1. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic and suppressive T cells: induction of autoimmune disease by breaking their anergic/suppressive state.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kuniyasu, Y; Toda, M; Sakaguchi, N; Itoh, M; Iwata, M; Shimizu, J; Sakaguchi, S

    1998-12-01

    Elimination of CD25+ T cells, which constitute 5-10% of peripheral CD4+ T cells in normal naive mice, leads to spontaneous development of various autoimmune diseases. These immunoregulatory CD25+CD4+ T cells are naturally unresponsive (anergic) in vitro to TCR stimulation, and, upon stimulation, suppress proliferation of CD25-CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. The antigen concentration required for stimulating CD25+CD4+ T cells to exert suppression is much lower than that required for stimulating CD25-CD4+ T cells to proliferate. The suppression, which results in reduced IL-2 production by CD25-CD4+ T cells, is dependent on cellular interactions on antigen-presenting cells (and not mediated by far-reaching or long-lasting humoral factors or apoptosis-inducing signals) and antigen non-specific in its effector phase. Addition of high doses of IL-2 or anti-CD28 antibody to the in vitro T cell stimulation culture not only breaks the anergic state of CD25+CD4+ T cells, but also abrogates their suppressive activity simultaneously. Importantly, the anergic/suppressive state of CD25+CD4+ T cells appeared to be their basal default condition, since removal of IL-2 or anti-CD28 antibody from the culture milieu allows them to revert to the original anergic/suppressive state. Furthermore, transfer of such anergy/suppression-broken T cells from normal mice produces various autoimmune diseases in syngeneic athymic nude mice. These results taken together indicate that one aspect of immunologic self-tolerance is maintained by this unique CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic/suppressive T cell population and its functional abnormality directly leads to the development of autoimmune disease. PMID:9885918

  2. CCR2-dependent dendritic cell accumulation in the central nervous system during early effector experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is essential for effector T cell restimulation in situ and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Benjamin D; Walker, Alec; Harris, Melissa G; Rayasam, Aditya; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs)--although absent from the healthy CNS parenchyma--rapidly accumulate within brain and spinal cord tissue during neuroinflammation associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; a mouse model of multiple sclerosis). Yet, although DCs have been appreciated for their role in initiating adaptive immune responses in peripheral lymphoid organ tissues, how DCs infiltrate the CNS and contribute to ongoing neuroinflammation in situ is poorly understood. In this study, we report the following: 1) CD11c(+) bone marrow-derived DCs and CNS-infiltrating DCs express chemokine receptor CCR2; 2) compared with CCR2(+/+) cells, adoptively transferred CCR2(-/-) bone marrow-derived DCs or DC precursors do not accumulate in the CNS during EAE, despite abundance in blood; 3) CCR2(-/-) DCs show less accumulation in the inflamed CNS in mixed bone marrow chimeras, when compared with CCR2(+/+) DCs; and 4) ablation of CCR2(+/+) DCs during EAE clinical onset delays progression and attenuates cytokine production by infiltrating T cells. Whereas the role of CCR2 in monocyte migration into the CNS has been implicated previously, the role of CCR2 in DC infiltration into the CNS has never been directly addressed. Our data suggest that CCR2-dependent DC recruitment to the CNS during ongoing neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in effector T cell cytokine production and disease progression, and signify that CNS-DCs and circulating DC precursors might be key therapeutic targets for suppressing ongoing neuroinflammation in CNS autoimmune diseases. PMID:25505278

  3. DEEP--a tool for differential expression effector prediction.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Jost; Haubrock, Martin; Dnitz, Jrgen; Wingender, Edgar; Crass, Torsten

    2007-07-01

    High-throughput methods for measuring transcript abundance, like SAGE or microarrays, are widely used for determining differences in gene expression between different tissue types, dignities (normal/malignant) or time points. Further analysis of such data frequently aims at the identification of gene interaction networks that form the causal basis for the observed properties of the systems under examination. To this end, it is usually not sufficient to rely on the measured gene expression levels alone; rather, additional biological knowledge has to be taken into account in order to generate useful hypotheses about the molecular mechanism leading to the realization of a certain phenotype. We present a method that combines gene expression data with biological expert knowledge on molecular interaction networks, as described by the TRANSPATH database on signal transduction, to predict additional--and not necessarily differentially expressed--genes or gene products which might participate in processes specific for either of the examined tissues or conditions. In a first step, significance values for over-expression in tissue/condition A or B are assigned to all genes in the expression data set. Genes with a significance value exceeding a certain threshold are used as starting points for the reconstruction of a graph with signaling components as nodes and signaling events as edges. In a subsequent graph traversal process, again starting from the previously identified differentially expressed genes, all encountered nodes 'inherit' all their starting nodes' significance values. In a final step, the graph is visualized, the nodes being colored according to a weighted average of their inherited significance values. Each node's, or sub-network's, predominant color, ranging from green (significant for tissue/condition A) over yellow (not significant for either tissue/condition) to red (significant for tissue/condition B), thus gives an immediate visual clue on which molecules--differentially expressed or not--may play pivotal roles in the tissues or conditions under examination. The described method has been implemented in Java as a client/server application and a web interface called DEEP (Differential Expression Effector Prediction). The client, which features an easy-to-use graphical interface, can freely be downloaded from the following URL: http://deep.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de. PMID:17584786

  4. Naturally Occurring Nonpathogenic Isolates of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae Lack a Type III Secretion System and Effector Gene Orthologues?

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Toni J.; Liu, Haijie; Yan, Shuangchun; Morris, Cindy E.; Castillo, Jos A.; Jelenska, Joanna; Vinatzer, Boris A.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae causes plant diseases, and the main virulence mechanism is a type III secretion system (T3SS) that translocates dozens of effector proteins into plant cells. Here we report the existence of a subgroup of P. syringae isolates that do not cause disease on any plant species tested. This group is monophyletic and most likely evolved from a pathogenic P. syringae ancestor through loss of the T3SS. In the nonpathogenic isolate P. syringae 508 the genomic region that in pathogenic P. syringae strains contains the hrp-hrc cluster coding for the T3SS and flanking effector genes is absent. P. syringae 508 was also surveyed for the presence of effector orthologues from the closely related pathogenic strain P. syringae pv. syringae B728a, but none were detected. The absence of the hrp-hrc cluster and effector orthologues was confirmed for other nonpathogenic isolates. Using the AvrRpt2 effector as reporter revealed the inability of P. syringae 508 to translocate effectors into plant cells. Adding a plasmid-encoded T3SS and the P. syringae pv. syringae 61 effector gene hopA1 increased in planta growth almost 10-fold. This suggests that P. syringae 508 supplemented with a T3SS could be used to determine functions of individual effectors in the context of a plant infection, avoiding the confounding effect of other effectors with similar functions present in effector mutants of pathogenic isolates. PMID:18263729

  5. Structures of the flax-rust effector AvrM reveal insights into the molecular basis of plant-cell entry and effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Rafiqi, Maryam; Rahman, Motiur; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Hardham, Adrienne R; Jones, David A; Anderson, Peter A; Dodds, Peter N; Kobe, Bostjan

    2013-10-22

    Fungal and oomycete pathogens cause some of the most devastating diseases in crop plants, and facilitate infection by delivering a large number of effector molecules into the plant cell. AvrM is a secreted effector protein from flax rust (Melampsora lini) that can internalize into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen, binds to phosphoinositides (PIPs), and is recognized directly by the resistance protein M in flax (Linum usitatissimum), resulting in effector-triggered immunity. We determined the crystal structures of two naturally occurring variants of AvrM, AvrM-A and avrM, and both reveal an L-shaped fold consisting of a tandem duplicated four-helix motif, which displays similarity to the WY domain core in oomycete effectors. In the crystals, both AvrM variants form a dimer with an unusual nonglobular shape. Our functional analysis of AvrM reveals that a hydrophobic surface patch conserved between both variants is required for internalization into plant cells, whereas the C-terminal coiled-coil domain mediates interaction with M. AvrM binding to PIPs is dependent on positive surface charges, and mutations that abrogate PIP binding have no significant effect on internalization, suggesting that AvrM binding to PIPs is not essential for transport of AvrM across the plant membrane. The structure of AvrM and the identification of functionally important surface regions advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying how effectors enter plant cells and how they are detected by the plant immune system. PMID:24101475

  6. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade together with vaccine therapy facilitates effector T cell infiltration into pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Kevin C.; Rucki, Agnieszka A.; Wu, Annie A.; Olino, Kelly; Xiao, Qian; Chai, Yi; Wamwea, Anthony; Bigelow, Elaine; Lutz, Eric; Liu, Linda; Yao, Sheng; Anders, Robert A.; Laheru, Daniel; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Edil, Barish H.; Schulick, Richard D.; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.; Zheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has a poor prognosis due to late detection and resistance to conventional therapies. Published studies show that the PDA tumor microenvironment (TME) is predominantly infiltrated with immune suppressive cells and signals that if altered, would allow effective immunotherapy. However, single-agent checkpoint inhibitors including agents that alter immune suppressive signals in other human cancers such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1, have failed to demonstrate objective responses when given as single agents to PDA patients. We recently reported that inhibition of the CTLA-4 pathway when given together with a T cell inducing vaccine gives objective responses in metastatic PDA patients. In this study, we evaluated blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. We found that PD-L1 is weakly expressed at a low frequency in untreated human and murine PDAs but treatment with a GM-CSF secreting PDA vaccine (GVAX) significantly upregulates PD-L1 membranous expression after treatment of tumor bearing mice. In addition, combination therapy with vaccine and PD-1 antibody blockade improved murine survival compared to PD-1 antibody monotherapy or GVAX therapy alone. Furthermore, PD-1 blockade increased effector CD8+ T lymphocytes and tumor-specific interferon-? production of CD8+ T cells in the TME. Immunosuppressive pathways, including regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CTLA-4 expression on T cells were overcome by the addition of vaccine and low dose cyclophosphamide to PD-1 blockade. Collectively, our study supports combining PD-1 or PD-L1 antibody therapy with a T cell inducing agent for PDA treatment. PMID:25415283

  7. The Ras effectors NORE1A and RASSF1A are frequently inactivated in pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Geli, Janos; Kiss, Nimrod; Lanner, Fredrik; Foukakis, Theodoros; Natalishvili, Natalia; Larsson, Olle; Kogner, Per; Höög, Anders; Clark, Geoffrey J; Ekström, Tomas J; Bäckdahl, Martin; Farnebo, Filip; Larsson, Catharina

    2007-03-01

    NORE1A (RASSF5) and RASSF1A are newly described Ras effectors with tumour suppressor functions. Both molecules are frequently inactivated in various cancers. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential involvement of NORE1A and RASSF1A in pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma tumorigenesis. A panel of 54 primary tumours was analysed for NORE1A and RASSF1A mRNA expression by TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, NORE1A and RASSF1A promoter methylation was assessed by combined bisulphite restriction endonuclease assay and methylation-sensitive Pyrosequencing respectively. The anti-tumorigenic role of NORE1A was functionally investigated in Nore1A-transfected PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells by fluorescent inhibition of caspase activity and soft agar assays. Significantly suppressed NORE1A and RASSF1A mRNA levels were detected in primary tumours compared with normal adrenal medulla (P<0.001). Methylation of the NORE1A promoter was not observed in primary tumours. On the other hand, 9% (5/54) of the primary tumours examined showed RASSF1A promoter methylation greater than 20% as detected by Pyrosequencing. Methylation of the RASSF1A promoter was significantly associated with malignant behaviour (P<0.05). Transient expression of Nore1a resulted in enhanced apoptosis and impaired colony formation in soft agar. Our study provides evidence that NORE1A and RASSF1A are frequently suppressed in pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma. Silencing of NORE1A contributes to the transformed phenotype in these tumours. PMID:17395981

  8. Presence of Suppressor HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells Is Associated with Increased PD-1 Expression on Effector CD8+ T Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Elrefaei, Mohamed; Baker, Chris A. R.; Jones, Norman G.; Bangsberg, David R.; Cao, Huyen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms leading to the observed immune dysregulation in HIV-1 infection are not well understood. HIV-specific IL-10-positive CD8+ T cells are increased in advanced HIV disease. We have previously reported that Gag-specific IL-10-positive CD8+ T cells suppressed cytolysis. In this study we describe the suppressive effect of Nef-specific IL-10-positive CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, simultaneous removal of both Gag- and Nef-specific IL-10-positive CD8+ T cells led to higher HIV-specific cytolysis compared with the removal of Nef-specific IL-10-positive CD8+ T cells alone. We also examined the level of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) as a measure of immune dysfunction in association with IL-10-positive suppressor CD8+ T cells. The level of PD-1 expression on CD107-positive effector CD8+ T cells was significantly increased when IL-10-positive suppressor CD8+ T cells were present (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that IL-10-positive suppressor CD8+ T cells contribute to the immune dysfunction observed in advanced HIV infection and that the concomitant presence of multiple IL-10-positive CD8+ T cell populations may have an additive suppressive effect. PMID:18490780

  9. A single plant resistance gene promoter engineered to recognize multiple TAL effectors from disparate pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Römer, Patrick; Recht, Sabine; Lahaye, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas inject transcription-activator like (TAL) effector proteins that manipulate the hosts' transcriptome to promote disease. However, in some cases plants take advantage of this mechanism to trigger defense responses. For example, transcription of the pepper Bs3 and rice Xa27 resistance (R) genes are specifically activated by the respective TAL effectors AvrBs3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), and AvrXa27 from X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Recognition of AvrBs3 was shown to be mediated by interaction with the corresponding UPT (UPregulated by TAL effectors) box UPTAvrBs3 present in the promoter R gene Bs3 from the dicot pepper. In contrast, it was not known how the Xoo TAL effector AvrXa27 transcriptionally activates the matching R gene Xa27 from the monocot rice. Here we identified a 16-bp UPTAvrXa27 box present in the rice Xa27 promoter that when transferred into the Bs3 promoter confers AvrXa27-dependent inducibility. We demonstrate that polymorphisms between the UPTAvrXa27 box of the AvrXa27-inducible Xa27 promoter and the corresponding region of the noninducible xa27 promoter account for their distinct inducibility and affinity, with respect to AvrXa27. Moreover, we demonstrate that three functionally distinct UPT boxes targeted by separate TAL effectors retain their function and specificity when combined into one promoter. Given that many economically important xanthomonads deliver multiple TAL effectors, the engineering of R genes capable of recognizing multiple TAL effectors provides a potential approach for engineering broad spectrum and durable disease resistance. PMID:19910532

  10. A bacterial type III secretion assay for delivery of fungal effector proteins into wheat.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Mago, Rohit; Staskawicz, Brian J; Ayliffe, Michael A; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-03-01

    Large numbers of candidate effectors from fungal pathogens are being identified through whole-genome sequencing and in planta expression studies. Although Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression has enabled high-throughput functional analysis of effectors in dicot plants, this assay is not effective in cereal leaves. Here, we show that a nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens engineered to express the type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. syringae and the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens can deliver fusion proteins containing T3SS signals from P. syringae (AvrRpm1) and X. campestris (AvrBs2) avirulence (Avr) proteins, respectively, into wheat leaf cells. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter protein was delivered effectively into wheat and barley by both bacteria. Absence of any disease symptoms with P. fluorescens makes it more suitable than X. translucens for detecting a hypersensitive response (HR) induced by an effector protein with avirulence activity. We further modified the delivery system by removal of the myristoylation site from the AvrRpm1 fusion to prevent its localization to the plasma membrane which could inhibit recognition of an Avr protein. Delivery of the flax rust AvrM protein by the modified delivery system into transgenic tobacco leaves expressing the corresponding M resistance protein induced a strong HR, indicating that the system is capable of delivering a functional rust Avr protein. In a preliminary screen of effectors from the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, we identified one effector that induced a host genotype-specific HR in wheat. Thus, the modified AvrRpm1:effector-Pseudomonas fluorescens system is an effective tool for large-scale screening of pathogen effectors for recognition in wheat. PMID:24156769

  11. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Bsa Type III Secretion System Effectors Using Hypersecreting Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Vander Broek, Charles W.; Chalmers, Kevin J.; Stevens, Mark P.; Stevens, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. One of the virulence factors critical for early stages of infection is the Burkholderia secretion apparatus (Bsa) Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS), a molecular syringe that injects bacterial proteins, called effectors, into eukaryotic cells where they subvert cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Although the Bsa T3SS itself is known to be important for invasion, intracellular replication, and virulence, only a few genuine effector proteins have been identified and the complete repertoire of proteins secreted by the system has not yet been fully characterized. We constructed a mutant lacking bsaP, a homolog of the T3SS gatekeeper family of proteins that exert control over the timing and magnitude of effector protein secretion. Mutants lacking BsaP, or the T3SS translocon protein BipD, were observed to hypersecrete the known Bsa effector protein BopE, providing evidence of their role in post-translational control of the Bsa T3SS and representing key reagents for the identification of its secreted substrates. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ), a gel-free quantitative proteomics technique, was used to compare the secreted protein profiles of the Bsa T3SS hypersecreting mutants of B. pseudomallei with the isogenic parent strain and a bsaZ mutant incapable of effector protein secretion. Our study provides one of the most comprehensive core secretomes of B. pseudomallei described to date and identified 26 putative Bsa-dependent secreted proteins that may be considered candidate effectors. Two of these proteins, BprD and BapA, were validated as novel effector proteins secreted by the Bsa T3SS of B. pseudomallei. PMID:25635268

  12. Aphid protein effectors promote aphid colonization in a plant species-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Pitino, Marco; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pathogens and pests produce effectors to modulate host processes. Aphids are phloem-feeding insects, which introduce effectors via saliva into plant cells. However, it is not known if aphid effectors have adapted to modulate processes in specific plant species. Myzus persicae is a polyphagous insect that colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, while the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum specializes on colonizing plant species of the family Fabaceae. We found that M. persicae reproduction increased on transgenic Arabidopsis, producing the M. persicae effectors C002, PIntO1 (Mp1), and PIntO2 (Mp2), whereas reproduction of M. persicae did not increase on Arabidopsis producing the A. pisum orthologs of these three proteins. Plant-mediated RNA interference experiments showed that c002- and PIntO2-silenced M. persicae produce less progeny on Arabidopsis and N. benthamiana than nonsilenced aphids. Orthologs of c002, PIntO1, and PIntO2 were identified in multiple aphid species with dissimilar plant host ranges. We revealed high nonsynonymous versus synonymous nucleotide substitution rates within the effector orthologs, indicating that the effectors are fast evolving. Application of maximum likelihood methods identified specific sites with high probabilities of being under positive selection in PIntO1, whereas those of C002 and PIntO2 may be located in alignment gaps. In support of the latter, a M. persicae c002 mutant without the NDNQGEE repeat region, which overlaps with an alignment gap in C002, does not promote M. persicae colonization on Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results provide evidence that aphid effectors are under positive selection to promote aphid colonization on specific plant species. PMID:23035913

  13. Role of Regulatory T Cells (Treg) and the Treg Effector Molecule Fibrinogen-like Protein 2 in Alloimmunity and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Chruscinski, Andrzej; Sadozai, Hassan; Rojas-Luengas, Vanessa; Bartczak, Agata; Khattar, Ramzi; Selzner, Nazia; Levy, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are critical to the maintenance of immune tolerance. Treg are known to utilize a number of molecular pathways to control immune responses and maintain immune homeostasis. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) has been identified by a number of investigators as an important immunosuppressive effector of Treg, which exerts its immunoregulatory activity by binding to inhibitory FcγRIIB receptors expressed on antigen-presenting cells including dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and B cells. More recently, it has been suggested that FGL2 accounts for the immunosuppressive activity of a highly suppressive subset of Treg that express T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT). Here we discuss the important role of Treg and FGL2 in preventing alloimmune and autoimmune disease. The FGL2–FcγRIIB pathway is also known to be utilized by viruses and tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Moving forward, therapies based on modulation of the FGL2–FcγRIIB pathway hold promise for the treatment of a wide variety of conditions ranging from autoimmunity to cancer. PMID:26241231

  14. Inactivation of Hepatitis B Virus Replication in Cultured Cells and In Vivo with Engineered Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Kristie; Ely, Abdullah; Mussolino, Claudio; Cathomen, Toni; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an important global health problem. Stability of the episomal covalently closed circular HBV DNA (cccDNA) is largely responsible for the modest curative efficacy of available therapy. Since licensed anti-HBV drugs have a post-transcriptional mechanism of action, disabling cccDNA is potentially of therapeutic benefit. To develop this approach, we engineered mutagenic transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) that target four HBV-specific sites within the viral genome. TALENs with cognate sequences in the S or C open-reading frames (ORFs) efficiently disrupted sequences at the intended sites and suppressed markers of viral replication. Following triple transfection of cultured HepG2.2.15 cells under mildly hypothermic conditions, the S TALEN caused targeted mutation in ~35% of cccDNA molecules. Markers of viral replication were also inhibited in vivo in a murine hydrodynamic injection model of HBV replication. HBV target sites within S and C ORFs of the injected HBV DNA were mutated without evidence of toxicity. These findings are the first to demonstrate a targeted nuclease-mediated disruption of HBV cccDNA. Efficacy in vivo also indicates that these engineered nucleases have potential for use in treatment of chronic HBV infection. PMID:23883864

  15. The Ral/Exocyst Effector Complex Counters c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster?

    PubMed Central

    Balakireva, Maria; Ross, Carine; Langevin, Johanna; Chien, Yu-chen; Gho, Michel; Gonzy-Treboul, Genevive; Voegeling-Lemaire, Stphanie; Aresta, Sandra; Lepesant, Jean-Antoine; Bellaiche, Yohanns; White, Michael; Camonis, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Ral GTPase activity is a crucial cell-autonomous factor supporting tumor initiation and progression. To decipher pathways impacted by Ral, we have generated null and hypomorph alleles of the Drosophila melanogaster Ral gene. Ral null animals were not viable. Reduced Ral expression in cells of the sensory organ lineage had no effect on cell division but led to postmitotic cell-specific apoptosis. Genetic epistasis and immunofluorescence in differentiating sensory organs suggested that Ral activity suppresses c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and induces p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. HPK1/GCK-like kinase (HGK), a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase that can drive JNK activation, was found as an exocyst-associated protein in vivo. The exocyst is a Ral effector, and the epistasis between mutants of Ral and of msn, the fly ortholog of HGK, suggest the functional relevance of an exocyst/HGK interaction. Genetic analysis also showed that the exocyst is required for the execution of Ral function in apoptosis. We conclude that in Drosophila Ral counters apoptotic programs to support cell fate determination by acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity and a positive activator of p38 MAP kinase. We propose that the exocyst complex is Ral executioner in the JNK pathway and that a cascade from Ral to the exocyst to HGK would be a molecular basis of Ral action on JNK. PMID:17000765

  16. STRV Cryocooler Tip Motion Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Johnson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1b) scheduled to fly at the beginning of June 1994, has a cryocooler vibration suppression experiment aboard doing motion suppression of the tip of the coldfinger. STRV-1b is a bread box sized satellite to be launched on the next flight of the Ariane-4.

  17. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  18. Nonanesthetics can suppress learning.

    PubMed

    Kandel, L; Chortkoff, B S; Sonner, J; Laster, M J; Eger, E I

    1996-02-01

    Nonanesthetic gases or vapors do not abolish movement in response to noxious stimuli despite partial pressures and affinities for lipids that would, according to the Meyer-Overton hypothesis, predict such abolition. We investigated whether nonanesthetics depress learning and memory (i.e., provide amnesia). To define learning, we used a "fear-potentiated startle paradigm": rats trained to associate light with a noxious stimulus (footshock) will startle more, as measured by an accelerometer, when a startle-eliciting stimulus (e.g., a noise) is paired with light than when the startle-eliciting stimulus is presented alone. We imposed light-shock pairings on 98 rats under three conditions: no anesthesia (control); 0.20, 0.29, and 0.38 times the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) of desflurane; or two nonanesthetics (1,2-dichloroperfluorocyclobutane and perfluoropentane) at partial pressures predicted from their lipid solubilities to be between 0.2 and 1 MAC. Desflurane produced a dose-related depression of learning with abolition of learning at 0.28 MAC. Perfluoropentane at 0.2-predicted MAC had the same effect as 0.28 MAC desflurane. 1,2-Dichloroperfluorocyclobutane at 0.5- to 1-predicted MAC abolished learning. Because nonanesthetics suppress learning but not movement (the two critical components of anesthesia), they may prove useful in discriminating between mechanisms and sites of action of anesthetics. PMID:8561335

  19. Drugs to suppress cough.

    PubMed

    Chung, K F

    2005-01-01

    Cough is an important defensive reflex of the airway and also a common symptom of respiratory disease. Cough after common respiratory virus infection is transient but is more persistent when associated with conditions such as asthma, rhinosinusitis, gastro-oesophageal reflux, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Persistent cough may be due to peripheral and/or central sensitisation of cough reflexes initiated by cough receptors, rapidly adapting receptors or nociceptors. Treatment directed at associated conditions such as asthma (with anti-inflammatories) and gastro-oesophageal reflux (with proton-pump inhibitors) improve cough. There remains a need to use drugs that suppress the neural activity of cough (termed nonspecific), as treatments directed at the clinical cause(s) of the underlying cough (termed specific) may not be effective. The most effective indirect antitussives are opioids such as morphine, codeine or pholcodeine, but they produce side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, constipation and physical dependence. Opioids such as kappa- and delta-receptor agonists, non-opioids such as nociceptin, neurokinin and bradykinin receptor antagonists, cannabinoids, vanilloid receptor-1 antagonists, blockers of Na+-dependent channels, and large conductance Ca2+-dependent K+-channel activators of afferent nerves may represent novel antitussives. PMID:15709918

  20. Forced LIGHT expression in prostate tumors overcomes Treg mediated immunosuppression and synergizes with a prostate tumor therapeutic vaccine by recruiting effector T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lisa; Da Silva, Diane M.; Verma, Bhavna; Gray, Andrew; Brand, Heike E.; Skeate, Joseph G.; Porras, Tania B.; Kanodia, Shreya; Kast, W. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background LIGHT, a ligand for lymphotoxin-? receptor (LT?R) and herpes virus entry mediator, is predominantly expressed on activated immune cells and LT?R signaling leads to the recruitment of lymphocytes. The interaction between LIGHT and LT?R has been previously shown in a virus induced tumor model to activate immune cells and result in tumor regression, but the role of LIGHT in tumor immunosuppression or in a prostate cancer setting, where self antigens exist, has not been explored. We hypothesized that forced expression of LIGHT in prostate tumors would shift the pattern of immune cell infiltration, would inhibit T regulatory cells (Tregs) and would induce prostate cancer tumor associated antigen (TAA) specific T cells that would eradicate tumors. Methods Real Time PCR was used to evaluate expression of forced LIGHT and various other genes in prostate tumors samples. Adenovirus encoding murine LIGHT was injected intratumorally into TRAMP C2 prostate cancer cell tumor bearing mice for in vivo studies. Chemokine and cytokine concentrations were determined by multiplex ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to phenotype tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and expression of LIGHT on the tumor cell surface. Tumor specific lymphocytes were quantified via an ELISpot assay. Treg induction and Treg suppression assays determined Treg functionality after LIGHT treatment. Results LIGHT expression peaked within 48 hours of infection, recruited effector T cells into the tumor microenvironment that recognized mouse prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and inhibited the infiltration of Tregs. Tregs isolated from tumor draining lymph nodes had impaired suppressive capability after LIGHT treatment. LIGHT in combination with a therapeutic vaccine, PSCA TriVax, reduced tumor burden. Conclusion Forced LIGHT treatment combined with PSCA TriVax therapeutic vaccination delays prostate cancer progression in mice by recruiting effector T lymphocytes to the tumor and inhibiting Treg mediated immunosuppression. PMID:25399517