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1

Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector XopN from Binding to TFT1 Attenuate Xanthomonas Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

XopN is a type III effector protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria that suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in tomato. Previous work reported that XopN interacts with the tomato 14-3-3 isoform TFT1; however, TFT1's role in PTI and\\/or XopN virulence was not determined. Here we show that TFT1 functions in PTI and is a XopN virulence target. Virus-induced gene silencing of

Kyle W. Taylor; Jung-Gun Kim; Xue B. Su; Chris D. Aakre; Julie A. Roden; Christopher M. Adams; Mary Beth Mudgett

2012-01-01

2

Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector XopN from Binding to TFT1 Attenuate Xanthomonas Virulence  

E-print Network

XopN is a type III effector protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria that suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in tomato. Previous work reported that XopN interacts with the tomato 14-3-3 isoform TFT1; ...

Aakre, Christopher David

3

Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector XopN from Binding to TFT1 Attenuate Xanthomonas Virulence  

PubMed Central

XopN is a type III effector protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria that suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in tomato. Previous work reported that XopN interacts with the tomato 14-3-3 isoform TFT1; however, TFT1's role in PTI and/or XopN virulence was not determined. Here we show that TFT1 functions in PTI and is a XopN virulence target. Virus-induced gene silencing of TFT1 mRNA in tomato leaves resulted in increased growth of Xcv ?xopN and Xcv ?hrpF demonstrating that TFT1 is required to inhibit Xcv multiplication. TFT1 expression was required for Xcv-induced accumulation of PTI5, GRAS4, WRKY28, and LRR22 mRNAs, four PTI marker genes in tomato. Deletion analysis revealed that the XopN C-terminal domain (amino acids 344–733) is sufficient to bind TFT1. Removal of amino acids 605–733 disrupts XopN binding to TFT1 in plant extracts and inhibits XopN-dependent virulence in tomato, demonstrating that these residues are necessary for the XopN/TFT1 interaction. Phos-tag gel analysis and mass spectrometry showed that XopN is phosphorylated in plant extracts at serine 688 in a putative 14-3-3 recognition motif. Mutation of S688 reduced XopN's phosphorylation state but was not sufficient to inhibit binding to TFT1 or reduce XopN virulence. Mutation of S688 and two leucines (L64,L65) in XopN, however, eliminated XopN binding to TFT1 in plant extracts and XopN virulence. L64 and L65 are required for XopN to bind TARK1, a tomato atypical receptor kinase required for PTI. This suggested that TFT1 binding to XopN's C-terminal domain might be stabilized via TARK1/XopN interaction. Pull-down and BiFC analyses show that XopN promotes TARK1/TFT1 complex formation in vitro and in planta by functioning as a molecular scaffold. This is the first report showing that a type III effector targets a host 14-3-3 involved in PTI to promote bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:22719257

Su, Xue B.; Aakre, Chris D.; Roden, Julie A.; Adams, Christopher M.; Mudgett, Mary Beth

2012-01-01

4

Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector XopN from  

E-print Network

Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector Xop) in tomato. Previous work reported that XopN interacts with the tomato 14-3-3 isoform TFT1; however, TFT1's and is a XopN virulence target. Virus-induced gene silencing of TFT1 mRNA in tomato leaves resulted

Mudgettt, Mary Beth

5

Lactobacillus casei suppresses experimental arthritis by down-regulating T helper 1 effector functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the beneficial effects of probiotics on wide variety of diseases have been shown, little is known about how probiotics modulate the immune system. In this study we elucidated the underlying mechanisms how Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) protects against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression by investigating the effector functions of CD4+ T cells. Oral administration of L. casei suppressed collagen-induced arthritis

Jae-Seon So; Ho-Keun Kwon; Choong-Gu Lee; Hwa-Jung Yi; Jin-A. Park; So-Yeon Lim; Ki-Chul Hwang; Young Ho Jeon; Sin-Hyeog Im

2008-01-01

6

Multiple Candidate Effectors from the Oomycete Pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Suppress Host Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of Hpa isolate Emoy2 (HaRxLs) were able to manipulate host defenses in different Arabidopsis accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS) of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000-LUX (Pst-LUX) and assessing changes in Pst-LUX growth in planta on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (?70%) of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to Pst-LUX growth on more than one accession indicating that Hpa virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a Pst mutant (?CEL) showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced Pst-LUX growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased Pst-LUX growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced Pst growth on turnip, a non-host for Hpa, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against Hpa could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in Arabidopsis a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to Hpa and attenuation of Arabidopsis PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in Hpa virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether candidate effectors from eukaryotic pathogens can suppress/trigger plant defense mechanisms and to rank their effectiveness prior to subsequent mechanistic investigation. PMID:22072967

Fabro, Georgina; Steinbrenner, Jens; Coates, Mary; Ishaque, Naveed; Baxter, Laura; Studholme, David J.; Korner, Evelyn; Allen, Rebecca L.; Piquerez, Sophie J. M.; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Greenshields, David; Lei, Rita; Badel, Jorge L.; Caillaud, Marie-Cecile; Sohn, Kee-Hoon; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Parker, Jane E.; Beynon, Jim; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

2011-01-01

7

Molecular Determinants of Resistance Activation and Suppression by Phytophthora infestans Effector IPI-O  

PubMed Central

Despite intensive breeding efforts, potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, remains a threat to potato production worldwide because newly evolved pathogen strains have consistently overcome major resistance genes. The potato RB gene, derived from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers resistance to most P. infestans strains through recognition of members of the pathogen effector family IPI-O. While the majority of IPI-O proteins are recognized by RB to elicit resistance (e.g. IPI-O1, IPI-O2), some family members are able to elude detection (e.g. IPI-O4). In addition, IPI-O4 blocks recognition of IPI-O1, leading to inactivation of RB-mediated programmed cell death. Here, we report results that elucidate molecular mechanisms governing resistance elicitation or suppression of RB by IPI-O. Our data indicate self-association of the RB coiled coil (CC) domain as well as a physical interaction between this domain and the effectors IPI-O4 and IPI-O1. We identified four amino acids within IPI-O that are critical for interaction with the RB CC domain and one of these amino acids, at position 129, determines hypersensitive response (HR) elicitation in planta. IPI-O1 mutant L129P fails to induce HR in presence of RB while IPI-O4 P129L gains the ability to induce an HR. Like IPI-O4, IPI-O1 L129P is also able to suppress the HR mediated by RB, indicating a critical step in the evolution of this gene family. Our results point to a model in which IPI-O effectors can affect RB function through interaction with the RB CC domain. PMID:22438813

Chen, Yu; Liu, Zhenyu; Halterman, Dennis A.

2012-01-01

8

The Anoikis Effector Bit1 Displays Tumor Suppressive Function in Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial Bit1 (Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription 1) protein is a part of an apoptotic pathway that is uniquely regulated by integrin-mediated attachment. As an anoikis effector, Bit1 is released into the cytoplasm following loss of cell attachment and induces a caspase-independent form of apoptosis. Considering that anoikis resistance is a critical determinant of transformation, we hypothesized that cancer cells may circumvent the Bit1 apoptotic pathway to attain anchorage-independence and tumorigenic potential. Here, we provide the first evidence of the tumor suppressive effect of Bit1 through a mechanism involving anoikis induction in human lung adenocarcinoma derived A549 cells. Restitution of Bit1 in anoikis resistant A549 cells is sufficient to induce detachment induced-apoptosis despite defect in caspase activation and impairs their anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, stable downregulation of Bit1 in these cells significantly enhances their anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth. The Bit1 knockdown cells exhibit significantly enhanced tumorigenecity in vivo. It has been previously shown that the nuclear TLE1 corepressor is a putative oncogene in lung cancer, and we show here that TLE1 blocks Bit1 mediated anoikis in part by sequestering the pro-apoptotic partner of Bit1, the Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split (AES) protein, in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest a tumor suppressive role of the caspase-independent anoikis effector Bit1 in lung cancer. Consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor, we have found that Bit1 is downregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. PMID:25003198

Yao, Xin; Jennings, Scott; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Pham, Tri; Temple, Brandi; Davis, Mya; Chen, Renwei; Davenport, Ian; Biliran, Hector

2014-01-01

9

The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity  

PubMed Central

Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

2009-01-01

10

The bacterial effector HopM1 suppresses PAMP-triggered oxidative burst and stomatal immunity.  

PubMed

Successful pathogens counter immunity at multiple levels, mostly through the action of effectors. Pseudomonas syringae secretes c. 30 effectors, some of which have been shown to inhibit plant immunity triggered upon perception of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). One of these is HopM1, which impairs late immune responses through targeting the vesicle trafficking-related AtMIN7 for degradation. Here, we report that in planta expressed HopM1 suppresses two early PAMP-triggered responses, the oxidative burst and stomatal immunity, both of which seem to require proteasomal function but are independent of AtMIN7. Notably, a 14-3-3 protein, GRF8/AtMIN10, was found previously to be a target of HopM1 in vivo, and expression of HopM1 mimics the effect of chemically and genetically disrupting 14-3-3 function. Our data further show that the function of 14-3-3 proteins is required for PAMP-triggered oxidative burst and stomatal immunity, and chemical-mediated disruption of the 14-3-3 interactions with their client proteins restores virulence of a HopM1-deficient P. syringae mutant, providing a link between HopM1 and the involvement of 14-3-3 proteins in plant immunity. Taken together, these results unveil the impact of HopM1 on the PAMP-triggered oxidative burst and stomatal immunity in an AtMIN7-independent manner, most likely acting at the function of (a) 14-3-3 protein(s). PMID:24372399

Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Bourdais, Gildas; He, Sheng Yang; Robatzek, Silke

2014-04-01

11

Increased Sensitivity of CD4+ T-Effector Cells to CD4+CD25+ Treg Suppression Compensates for Reduced Treg Number in Asymptomatic HIV-1 Infection  

PubMed Central

Background In HIV infection, uncontrolled immune activation and disease progression is attributed to declining CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) numbers. However, qualitative aspects of Treg function in HIV infection, specifically the balance between Treg cell suppressive potency versus suppressibility of effector cells, remain poorly understood. This report addresses this issue. Methodology/Principal Findings A classic suppression assay to measure CD4+CD45RO+CD25hi Treg cells to suppress the proliferation of CD4+CD45RO+CD25? effectors cells (E) following CD3/CD28 polyclonal stimulation was employed to compare the suppressive ability of healthy volunteers (N?=?27) and chronic, asymptomatic, treatment naïve, HIV-infected subjects (N?=?14). HIV-infected subjects displayed significantly elevated Treg-mediated suppression compared to healthy volunteers (p?=?0.0047). Cross-over studies comparing Treg cell potency from HIV-infected versus control subjects to suppress the proliferation of a given population of allogeneic effector cells demonstrated increased sensitivity of CD4+CD25? effector cells from HIV-infected subjects to be suppressed, associated with reduced production of the Treg counter-regulatory cytokine, IL-17, rather than an increase in the suppressive potential of their CD4+CD25+ Treg cells. However, compared to controls, HIV+ subjects had significantly fewer absolute numbers of circulating CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells. In vitro studies highlighted that one mechanism for this loss could be the preferential infection of Treg cells by HIV. Conclusions/Significance Together, novel data is provided to support the contention that elevated Treg-mediated suppression may be a natural host response to HIV infection PMID:20174666

Thorborn, Georgina; Pomeroy, Laura; Isohanni, Heidi; Perry, Melissa

2010-01-01

12

ANCA-associated Vasculitis Patients Have Defective Treg Function Exacerbated by Presence of a Suppression-Resistant Effector Population  

PubMed Central

Objective The development of pathogenic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs) can result in systemic small vessel vasculitis. However, the breakdown in immune tolerance that results in the induction and persistence of ANCAs is not well-understood. We hypothesized that abnormal T cell regulation is central to disease pathogenesis and demonstrate here two separate abnormalities in T cell regulation in ANCA-associated vasculitis patients. Methods Peripheral blood samples were obtained from patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (n=63) and healthy controls (n=19) for flow cytometric analysis of CD4+ T cell populations. Functional T cell studies were performed with FACS sorted CD4+ T cell populations stimulated with anti-CD3/28. Results First, we show that the Treg frequency in the peripheral blood of active disease patients is increased, but Tregs from patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis have decreased suppressive function. Tregs from active disease patients disproportionately utilize a FOXP3 isoform lacking exon 2, which may alter Treg function. Second, we identify a CD4+ T cell population with increased frequency that is resistant to Treg suppression, produces pro-inflammatory cytokines, and is antigen-experienced. Conclusion ANCA-associated vasculitis is associated with disruption of the suppressive Treg network and increased frequency of a distinct pro-inflammatory effector T cell subset which comprises the majority of peripheral CD4+ T cells. PMID:23553415

Free, Meghan E; Bunch, Donna O; McGregor, JulieAnne; Jones, Britta E; Berg, Elisabeth A; Hogan, Susan L; Hu, Yichun; Preston, Gloria A; Jennette, J. Charles; Falk, Ronald J; Su, Maureen A

2013-01-01

13

The 1,4-benzodiazepine Ro5-4864 (4-chlorodiazepam) suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory mast cell effector functions  

PubMed Central

Activation of mast cells (MCs) can be achieved by the high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc?RI) as well as by additional receptors such as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor and the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit (stem cell factor [SCF] receptor). Thus, pharmacological interventions which stabilize MCs in response to different receptors would be preferable in diseases with pathological systemic MC activation such as systemic mastocytosis. 1,4-Benzodiazepines (BDZs) have been reported to suppress MC effector functions. In the present study, our aim was to analyze molecularly the effects of BDZs on MC activation by comparison of the effects of the two BDZs Ro5-4864 and clonazepam, which markedly differ in their affinities for the archetypical BDZ recognition sites, i.e., the GABAA receptor and TSPO (previously termed peripheral-type BDZ receptor). Ro5-4864 is a selective agonist at TSPO, whereas clonazepam is a selective agonist at the GABAA receptor. Ro5-4864 suppressed pro-inflammatory MC effector functions in response to antigen (Ag) (degranulation/cytokine production) and LPS and SCF (cytokine production), whereas clonazepam was inactive. Signaling pathway analyses revealed inhibitory effects of Ro5-4864 on Ag-triggered production of reactive oxygen species, calcium mobilization and activation of different downstream kinases. The initial activation of Src family kinases was attenuated by Ro5-4864 offering a molecular explanation for the observed impacts on various downstream signaling elements. In conclusion, BDZs structurally related to Ro5-4864 might serve as multifunctional MC stabilizers without the sedative effect of GABAA receptor-interacting BDZs. PMID:23425659

2013-01-01

14

Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein.  

PubMed

The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants. PMID:24654979

Elzinga, Dezi A; De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

2014-07-01

15

Attaching and Effacing Bacterial Effector NleC Suppresses Epithelial Inflammatory Responses by Inhibiting NF-?B and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation ?  

PubMed Central

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli are noninvasive attaching and effacing (A/E) bacterial pathogens that cause intestinal inflammation and severe diarrheal disease. These pathogens utilize a type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into host epithelial cells, modulating diverse cellular functions, including the release of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). While studies have implicated the effectors NleE (non-locus of enterocyte effacement [LEE]-encoded effector E) and NleH1 in suppressing IL-8 release, by preventing NF-?B nuclear translocation, the impact of these effectors only partially replicates the immunosuppressive actions of wild-type EPEC, suggesting another effector or effectors are involved. Testing an array of EPEC mutants, we identified the non-LEE-encoded effector C (NleC) as also suppressing IL-8 release. Infection by ?nleC EPEC led to exaggerated IL-8 release from infected Caco-2 and HT-29 epithelial cells. NleC localized to EPEC-induced pedestals, with signaling studies revealing NleC inhibits both NF-?B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Using Citrobacter rodentium, a mouse-adapted A/E bacterium, we found that ?nleC and wild-type C. rodentium-infected mice carried similar pathogen burdens, yet ?nleC strain infection led to worsened colitis. Similarly, infection with ?nleC C. rodentium in a cecal loop model induced significantly greater chemokine responses than infection with wild-type bacteria. These studies thus advance our understanding of how A/E pathogens subvert host inflammatory responses. PMID:21746856

Sham, Ho Pan; Shames, Stephanie R.; Croxen, Matthew A.; Ma, Caixia; Chan, Justin M.; Khan, Mohammed A.; Wickham, Mark E.; Deng, Wanyin; Finlay, B. Brett; Vallance, Bruce A.

2011-01-01

16

The Effector SPRYSEC-19 of Globodera rostochiensis Suppresses CC-NB-LRR-Mediated Disease Resistance in Plants1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis invades roots of host plants where it transforms cells near the vascular cylinder into a permanent feeding site. The host cell modifications are most likely induced by a complex mixture of proteins in the stylet secretions of the nematodes. Resistance to nematodes conferred by nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins usually results in a programmed cell death in and around the feeding site, and is most likely triggered by the recognition of effectors in stylet secretions. However, the actual role of these secretions in the activation and suppression of effector-triggered immunity is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effector SPRYSEC-19 of G. rostochiensis physically associates in planta with the LRR domain of a member of the SW5 resistance gene cluster in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Unexpectedly, this interaction did not trigger defense-related programmed cell death and resistance to G. rostochiensis. By contrast, agroinfiltration assays showed that the coexpression of SPRYSEC-19 in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana suppresses programmed cell death mediated by several coiled-coil (CC)-NB-LRR immune receptors. Furthermore, SPRYSEC-19 abrogated resistance to Potato virus X mediated by the CC-NB-LRR resistance protein Rx1, and resistance to Verticillium dahliae mediated by an unidentified resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum). The suppression of cell death and disease resistance did not require a physical association of SPRYSEC-19 and the LRR domains of the CC-NB-LRR resistance proteins. Altogether, our data demonstrated that potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that enable the suppression of programmed cell death and disease resistance mediated by several CC-NB-LRR proteins in plants. PMID:22904163

Postma, Wiebe J.; Slootweg, Erik J.; Rehman, Sajid; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Tytgat, Tom O.G.; van Gelderen, Kasper; Lozano-Torres, Jose L.; Roosien, Jan; Pomp, Rikus; van Schaik, Casper; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

2012-01-01

17

Inflammation and Lymphopenia Trigger Autoimmunity by Suppression of IL-2-Controlled Regulatory T Cell and Increase of IL-21-Mediated Effector T Cell Expansion.  

PubMed

The dynamic interplay between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T cells (Teffs) governs the balance between tolerance and effector immune responses. Perturbations of Treg frequency and function or imbalances in Treg/Teff levels are associated with the development of autoimmunity. The factors that mediate these changes remain poorly understood and were investigated in this study in murine autoimmune arthritis. Tregs displayed a stable phenotype in arthritic mice and were fully functional in in vitro suppression assays. However, their expansion was delayed relative to Teffs (T follicular helper cells and Th17 cells) during the early stages of autoimmune reactivity. This imbalance is likely to have led to insufficient Treg control of Teffs and induced autoimmunity. Moreover, a counterregulatory and probably IL-7-driven increase in thymic Treg production and recruitment to inflamed tissues was too slow for disease prevention. Increased Teff over Treg expansion was further aggravated by inflammation and lymphopenia. Both these conditions contribute to autoimmune pathogenesis and were accompanied by decreases in the availability of IL-2 and increases in levels of IL-21. IL-2 neutralization or supplementation was used to show that Treg expansion mainly depended on this cytokine. IL-21R(-/-) cells were used to demonstrate that IL-21 promoted the maintenance of Teffs. Thus, at inflammatory sites in experimental arthritis, a deficit in IL-2 hampers Treg proliferation, whereas exaggerated IL-21 levels overwhelm Treg control by supporting Teff expansion. This identifies IL-2 and IL-21 as targets for manipulation in therapies for autoimmunity. PMID:25339665

Chevalier, Nina; Thorburn, Alison N; Macia, Laurence; Tan, Jian; Juglair, Laurent; Yagita, Hideo; Yu, Di; Hansbro, Philip M; Mackay, Charles R

2014-11-15

18

The interaction of the novel 30C02 cyst nematode effector protein with a plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase may suppress host defence to promote parasitism  

PubMed Central

Phytoparasitic nematodes secrete an array of effector proteins to modify selected recipient plant cells into elaborate and essential feeding sites. The biological function of the novel 30C02 effector protein of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was studied using Arabidopsis thaliana as host and the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, which contains a homologue of the 30C02 gene. Expression of Hg30C02 in Arabidopsis did not affect plant growth and development but increased plant susceptibility to infection by H. schachtii. The 30C02 protein interacted with a specific (AT4G16260) host plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase in both yeast and plant cells, possibly to interfere with its role as a plant pathogenesis-related protein. Interestingly, the peak expression of 30C02 in the nematode and peak expression of At4g16260 in plant roots coincided at around 3–5 d after root infection by the nematode, after which the relative expression of At4g16260 declined significantly. An Arabidopsis At4g16260 T-DNA mutant showed increased susceptibility to cyst nematode infection, and plants that overexpressed At4g16260 were reduced in nematode susceptibility, suggesting a potential role of host ?-1,3-endoglucanase in the defence response against H. schachtii infection. Arabidopsis plants that expressed dsRNA and its processed small interfering RNA complementary to the Hg30C02 sequence were not phenotypically different from non-transformed plants, but they exhibited a strong RNA interference-mediated resistance to infection by H. schachtii. The collective results suggest that, as with other pathogens, active suppression of host defence is a critical component for successful parasitism by nematodes and a vulnerable target to disrupt the parasitic cycle. PMID:22442414

Hamamouch, Noureddine; Hewezi, Tarek; Baum, Thomas J.; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Hussey, Richard S.; Vodkin, Lila O.; Davis, Eric L.

2012-01-01

19

The interaction of the novel 30C02 cyst nematode effector protein with a plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase may suppress host defence to promote parasitism.  

PubMed

Phytoparasitic nematodes secrete an array of effector proteins to modify selected recipient plant cells into elaborate and essential feeding sites. The biological function of the novel 30C02 effector protein of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was studied using Arabidopsis thaliana as host and the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, which contains a homologue of the 30C02 gene. Expression of Hg30C02 in Arabidopsis did not affect plant growth and development but increased plant susceptibility to infection by H. schachtii. The 30C02 protein interacted with a specific (AT4G16260) host plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase in both yeast and plant cells, possibly to interfere with its role as a plant pathogenesis-related protein. Interestingly, the peak expression of 30C02 in the nematode and peak expression of At4g16260 in plant roots coincided at around 3-5 d after root infection by the nematode, after which the relative expression of At4g16260 declined significantly. An Arabidopsis At4g16260 T-DNA mutant showed increased susceptibility to cyst nematode infection, and plants that overexpressed At4g16260 were reduced in nematode susceptibility, suggesting a potential role of host ?-1,3-endoglucanase in the defence response against H. schachtii infection. Arabidopsis plants that expressed dsRNA and its processed small interfering RNA complementary to the Hg30C02 sequence were not phenotypically different from non-transformed plants, but they exhibited a strong RNA interference-mediated resistance to infection by H. schachtii. The collective results suggest that, as with other pathogens, active suppression of host defence is a critical component for successful parasitism by nematodes and a vulnerable target to disrupt the parasitic cycle. PMID:22442414

Hamamouch, Noureddine; Li, Chunying; Hewezi, Tarek; Baum, Thomas J; Mitchum, Melissa G; Hussey, Richard S; Vodkin, Lila O; Davis, Eric L

2012-06-01

20

Human TCR transgenic Bet v 1-specific Th1 cells suppress the effector function of Bet v 1-specific Th2 cells.  

PubMed

Pollinosis to birch pollen is a common type I allergy in the Northern Hemisphere. Moreover, birch pollen-allergic individuals sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 frequently develop allergic reactions to stone fruits, hazelnuts, and certain vegetables due to immunological cross-reactivity. The major T cell epitope Bet v 1(142-153) plays an important role in cross-reactivity between the respiratory allergen Bet v 1 and its homologous food allergens. In this study, we cloned and functionally analyzed a human ?? TCR specific for the immunodominant epitope Bet v 1(142-153). cDNAs encoding TCR ?- and ?-chains were amplified from a Bet v 1(142-153)-specific T cell clone, introduced into Jurkat T cells and peripheral blood T lymphocytes of allergic and nonallergic individuals, and evaluated functionally. The resulting TCR transgenic (TCRtg) T cells responded in an allergen-specific and costimulation-dependent manner to APCs either pulsed with Bet v 1(142-153) peptide or coexpressing invariant chain::Bet v 1(142-153) fusion proteins. TCRtg T cells responded to Bet v 1-related food and tree pollen allergens that were processed and presented by monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Bet v 1(142-153)-presenting but not Bet v 1(4-15)-presenting artificial APCs coexpressing membrane-bound IL-12 polarized allergen-specific TCRtg T cells toward a Th1 phenotype, producing high levels of IFN-?. Coculture of such Th1-polarized T cells with allergen-specific Th2-differentiated T cells significantly suppressed Th2 effector cytokine production. These data suggest that human allergen-specific TCR can transfer the fine specificity of the original T cell clone to heterologous T cells, which in turn can be instructed to modulate the effector function of the disease initiating/perpetuating allergen-specific Th2-differentiated T cells. PMID:21908735

Neunkirchner, Alina; Leb-Reichl, Victoria M; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Mutschlechner, Sonja; Kueng, Hans J; Haiderer, Daniela; Schuch, Karina; Wallner, Michael; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Bohle, Barbara; Pickl, Winfried F

2011-10-15

21

Suppression of the SOX2 Neural Effector Gene by PRDM1 Promotes Human Germ Cell Fate in Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation underlying human primordial germ cell (PGC) differentiation are largely unknown. The transcriptional repressor Prdm1/Blimp-1 is known to play a critical role in controlling germ cell specification in mice. Here, we show that PRDM1 is expressed in developing human gonads and contributes to the determination of germline versus neural fate in early development. We show that knockdown of PRDM1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) impairs germline potential and upregulates neural genes. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRDM1 in hESCs promotes the generation of cells that exhibit phenotypic and transcriptomic features of early PGCs. Furthermore, PRDM1 suppresses transcription of SOX2. Overexpression of SOX2 in hESCs under conditions favoring germline differentiation skews cell fate from the germline to the neural lineage. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PRDM1 serves as a molecular switch to modulate the divergence of neural or germline fates through repression of SOX2 during human development. PMID:24527393

Lin, I-Ying; Chiu, Feng-Lan; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Hsin-Fu; Chuang, Ching-Yu; Yang, Shii-Yi; Hou, Pei-Shan; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Lin, Kuo-I

2014-01-01

22

Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Factors Inhibit T Effector Activation and Induce T Regulatory Cells by Suppressing PKC-? Activation  

PubMed Central

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess immune privileged properties and have the capacity to modulate immune activation. However, the mechanisms by which ESCs inhibit immune activation remain mostly unknown. We have previously shown that ESC-derived factors block dendritic cell maturation, thereby indirectly affecting T cell activation. Here, we show that ESC-derived factors also directly affect T cell activation. We provide the first demonstration that ESC-derived factors significantly down-regulated the expressions of IL-2 and IFN-?, while markedly up-regulating the expression of IL-10, TGF-?, and Treg transcription factor Foxp3 in CD4+ CD25+ T cells. Furthermore, ESC-derived factors robustly suppressed T cell proliferation in response to the protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Western blot analysis indicated that ESC-derived factors prevented PKC-? phosphorylation without influencing total PKC-? levels. Moreover, I?B-? degradation was abrogated, confirming absence of PKC-? activity. The impact of ESC-derived factors on PKC-? activation appeared to be specific since other upstream T cell signaling components were not affected. In conclusion, ESCs appear to directly impact T cell activation and polarization by negatively regulating the PKC-? pathway. PMID:22412871

Mohib, Kanishka; AlKhamees, Bodour; Zein, Haggag S.; Allan, David; Wang, Lisheng

2012-01-01

23

Celastrus-derived Celastrol Suppresses Autoimmune Arthritis by Modulating Antigen-induced Cellular and Humoral Effector Responses*  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial inflammation and articular damage. Proinflammatory cytokines, antibodies, and matrix-degrading enzymes orchestrate the pathogenic events in autoimmune arthritis. Accordingly, these mediators of inflammation are the targets of several anti-arthritic drugs. However, the prolonged use of such drugs is associated with severe adverse reactions. This limitation has necessitated the search for less toxic natural plant products that possess anti-arthritic activity. Furthermore, it is imperative that the mechanism of action of such products be explored before they can be recommended for further preclinical testing. Using the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model of human RA, we demonstrate that celastrol derived from Celastrus has potent anti-arthritic activity. This suppression of arthritis is mediated via modulation of the key proinflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-?) in response to the disease-related antigens, of the IL-6/IL-17-related transcription factor STAT3, of antibodies directed against cyclic citrullinated peptides and Bhsp65, and of the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and phospho-ERK. Most of the clinical and mechanistic attributes of celastrol are similar to those of Celastrus extract. Several studies have addressed the antitumor activity of celastrol. Our study highlights the anti-arthritic activity of Celastrus-derived celastrol and the underlying mechanisms. These results provide a strong rationale for further testing and validation of the use of celastrol and the natural plant extract from Celastrus as an adjunct (with conventional drugs) or alternative modality for the treatment of RA. PMID:21402700

Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Yu, Hua; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Tong, Li; Moudgil, Kamal D.

2011-01-01

24

The Xanthomonas campestris Type III Effector XopJ Targets the Host Cell Proteasome to Suppress Salicylic-Acid Mediated Plant Defence  

PubMed Central

The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) requires type III effector proteins (T3Es) for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ?xopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ?xopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ?xopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed. PMID:23785289

Bornke, Frederik

2013-01-01

25

AvrXa7-Xa7 mediated defense in rice can be suppressed by transcriptional activator-like effectors TAL6 and TAL11a from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.  

PubMed

The closely related plant pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and X. oryzae pv. oryzae cause bacterial leaf streak (BLS) and bacterial leaf blight (BLB), respectively, in rice. Unlike X. oryzae pv. oryzae, endogenous avirulence-resistance (avr-R) gene interactions have not been identified in the X. oryzae pv. oryzicola-rice pathosystem, though both X. oryzae pv. oryzicola and X. oryzae pv. oryzae possess transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALE), which are known to modulate R or S genes in rice. In this report, avrXa7, avrXa10, and avrXa27 from X. oryzae pv. oryzae were transferred into YNB0-17 and RS105, hypovirulent and hypervirulent strains, respectively, of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. When YNB0-17 containing avrXa7, avrXa10, or avrXa27 was inoculated to rice, hypersensitive responses (HR) were elicited in rice cultivars containing the R genes Xa7, Xa10, and Xa27, respectively. By contrast, RS105 expressing avrXa27 elicited an HR in a rice cultivar containing Xa27 but the expression of avrXa7 and avrXa10 in RS105 did not result in HR in rice cultivars containing Xa7 and Xa10, correspondingly. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that YNB0-17 possesses only approximately nine putative tale genes, whereas the hypervirulent RS105 contains at least 20. Although YNB0-17 contains an intact type III secretion system (T3SS), its genome is lacking the T3SS effector genes avrRxo1 and xopO, which are present in RS105. The introduction of avrRxo1 and xopO into YNB0-17 did not suppress avrXa7- or avrXa10-triggered immunity in rice. However, the transference of individual tale genes from RS105 into YNB0-17 led to the identification of tal6 and tal11a that suppressed avrXa7-Xa7-mediated defense. Thus, YNB0-17 may be a useful recipient for discovering such suppressors. This is the first report that co-evolutionally generated tale genes in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola suppress gene-for-gene defense against BLB, which may explain the lack of BLS-resistant cultivars. PMID:25105804

Ji, Zhi-Yuan; Xiong, Li; Zou, Li-Fang; Li, Yu-Rong; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Liu, Liang; Zakria, Muhammad; Ji, Guang-Hai; Chen, Gong-You

2014-09-01

26

TGF-?-Induced CD4+Foxp3+ T Cells Attenuate Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease by Suppressing Expansion and Killing of Effector CD8+ Cells.  

PubMed

The use of TGF-?-induced CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (induced regulatory T cells [iTregs]) is an important prevention and treatment strategy in autoimmune diseases and other disorders. However, the potential use of iTregs as a treatment modality for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) has not been realized because they may be unstable and less suppressive in this disease. We restudied the ability of iTregs to prevent and treat aGVHD in two mouse models. Our results showed that, as long as an appropriate iTreg-generation protocol is used, these iTregs consistently displayed a potent ability to control aGVHD development and reduce mortality in the aGVHD animal models. iTreg infusion markedly suppressed the engraftment of donor CD8(+) cells and CD4(+) cells, the expression of granzyme A and B, the cytotoxic effect of donor CD8(+) cells, and the production of T cell cytokines in aGVHD. Therefore, we conclude that as long as the correct methods for generating iTregs are used, they can prevent and even treat aGVHD. PMID:25156367

Gu, Jian; Lu, Ling; Chen, Maogen; Xu, Lili; Lan, Qin; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhongmin; Chen, Guihua; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xuehao; Brand, David; Olsen, Nancy; Zheng, Song Guo

2014-10-01

27

TGF-?-induced CD4+Foxp3+ T cells attenuate acute graft-versus-host disease via suppressing expansion and killing of effector CD8+ cells  

PubMed Central

TGF-?-induced CD4+Foxp3+ T cells (iTregs) have been identified as important prevention and treatment strategies for cell therapy in autoimmune diseases and other disorders. However, the potential use of iTregs as a treatment modality for acute graft-verse-host disease (GVHD) has not been realized because iTregs may be unstable and less suppressive in this disease. Here we restudied the ability of iTregs to prevent and treat acute GVHD in two different mouse models. Our results showed that so long as an appropriate iTreg-generation protocol is used, these iTregs consistently displayed a potent ability to control acute GVHD development and reduce mortality in the acute GVHD animal models. iTreg infusion markedly suppressed the engraftment of donor CD8+ cells and CD4+ cells, the expression of Granzyme A and B, the cytotoxic effect of donor CD8+ cells and the production of T cell cytokines in acute GVHD. We therefore conclude that so long as the right methods for generating iTreg cells have been employed, iTregs can indeed prevent and even treat acute GVHD. PMID:25156367

Gu, Jian; Lu, Ling; Chen, Maogen; Xu, Lili; Lan, Qin; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhongmin; Chen, Guihua; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xuehao; Brand, David; Olsen, Nancy; Zheng, Song Guo

2014-01-01

28

Functional Analysis of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis RXLR Effectors  

PubMed Central

The biotrophic plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis produces a set of putative effector proteins that contain the conserved RXLR motif. For most of these RXLR proteins the role during infection is unknown. Thirteen RXLR proteins from H. arabidopsidis strain Waco9 were analyzed for sequence similarities and tested for a role in virulence. The thirteen RXLR proteins displayed conserved N-termini and this N-terminal conservation was also found in the 134 predicted RXLR genes from the genome of H. arabidopsidis strain Emoy2. To investigate the effects of single RXLR effector proteins on plant defense responses, thirteen H. arabidopsidis Waco9 RXLR genes were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequently, these plants were screened for altered susceptibility to the oomycetes H. arabidopsidis and Phytophthora capsici, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Additionally, the effect of the RXLR proteins on flg22-triggered basal immune responses was assessed. Multifactorial analysis of results collated from all experiments revealed that, except for RXLR20, all RXLR effector proteins tested affected plant immunity. For RXLR9 this was confirmed using a P. syringae ?CEL-mediated effector delivery system. Together, the results show that many H. arabidopsidis RXLR effectors have small effects on the plant immune response, suggesting that suppression of host immunity by this biotrophic pathogen is likely to be caused by the combined actions of effectors. PMID:25375163

Pel, Michiel J. C.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Cabral, Adriana; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Seidl, Michael F.; Bautor, Jaqueline; Parker, Jane E.; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Pieterse, Corne M. J.

2014-01-01

29

End-effector microprocessor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: automated structures assembly facility current control hierarchy; automated structures assembly facility purposed control hierarchy; end-effector software state transition diagram; block diagram for ideal install composite; and conclusions.

Doggett, William R.

1992-01-01

30

Pneumatic inflatable end effector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to an end effector device for robot or teleoperated type space vehicle which includes an inflatable balloon member carried on the end of tubular member which has a hollow center or conduit through which a suitable pressurized fluid is supplied. The device may be inserted into a variety of shaped openings or truss-type structures for handling in space.

Clark, K. H.; Johnston, J. D. (inventors)

1981-01-01

31

Robotic end effector  

DOEpatents

An end effector is described for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion. 7 figures.

Minichan, R.L.

1993-10-05

32

Robotic end effector  

DOEpatents

An end effector for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion.

Minichan, Richard L. (23 Pineview Dr., Warrenville, SC 29851)

1993-01-01

33

T Cell Signaling Targets for Enhancing Regulatory or Effector Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To respond to infection, resting or naïve T cells must undergo activation, clonal expansion, and differentiation into specialized functional subsets of effector T cells. However, to prevent excessive or self-destructive immune responses, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are instrumental in suppressing the activation and function of effector cells, including effector T cells. The transcription factor Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) regulates the expression of genes involved in the development and function of Tregs. Foxp3 interacts with other transcription factors and with epigenetic elements such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases. Treg suppressive function can be increased by exposure to HDAC inhibitors. The individual contributions of different HDAC family members to Treg function and their respective mechanisms of action, however, remain unclear. A study showed that HDAC6, HDAC9, and Sirtuin-1 had distinct effects on Foxp3 expression and function, suggesting that selectively targeting HDACs individually or in combination may enhance Treg stability and suppressive function. Another study showed that the receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1), a well-known inhibitor of T cell activation, halted cell cycle progression in effector T cells by inhibiting the transcription of the gene encoding the substrate-recognition component (Skp2) of the ubiquitin ligase SCFSkp2. Together, these findings reveal new signaling targets for enhancing Treg or effector T cell function that may be helpful in designing future therapies, either to increase Treg suppressive function in transplantation and autoimmune diseases or to block PD-1 function, thus increasing the magnitude of antiviral or antitumor immune responses of effector T cells.

Fan Pan (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine;Department of Oncology REV); Huimin Fan (Shanghai;Shanghai East Hospital of Tongji University REV); Zhongmin Liu (Shanghai;Shanghai East Hospital of Tongji University REV); Shuiping Jiang (Shanghai;Shanghai East Hospital of Tongji University REV)

2012-07-31

34

Two-axis angular effector  

DOEpatents

A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM); Phelan, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Van Zuiden, Don M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-21

35

Effector Glycosyltransferases in Legionella  

PubMed Central

Legionella causes severe pneumonia in humans. The pathogen produces an array of effectors, which interfere with host cell functions. Among them are the glucosyltransferases Lgt1, Lgt2 and Lgt3 from L. pneumophila. Lgt1 and Lgt2 are produced predominately in the post-exponential phase of bacterial growth, while synthesis of Lgt3 is induced mainly in the lag-phase before intracellular replication of bacteria starts. Lgt glucosyltransferases are structurally similar to clostridial glucosylating toxins. The enzymes use UDP–glucose as a donor substrate and modify eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A at serine-53. This modification results in inhibition of protein synthesis and death of target cells.In addition to Lgts, Legionella genomes disclose several genes, coding for effector proteins likely to possess glycosyltransferase activities, including SetA (subversion of eukaryotic vesicle trafficking A), which influences vesicular trafficking in the yeast model system and displays tropism for late endosomal/lysosomal compartments of mammalian cells. This review mainly discusses recent results on the structure–function relationship of Lgt glucosyltransferases. PMID:21833323

Belyi, Yury; Jank, Thomas; Aktories, Klaus

2011-01-01

36

Inactivation of effector caspases through nondegradative polyubiquitylation.  

PubMed

Ubiquitin-mediated inactivation of caspases has long been postulated to contribute to the regulation of apoptosis. However, detailed mechanisms and functional consequences of caspase ubiquitylation have not been demonstrated. Here we show that the Drosophila Inhibitor of Apoptosis 1, DIAP1, blocks effector caspases by targeting them for polyubiquitylation and nonproteasomal inactivation. We demonstrate that the conjugation of ubiquitin to drICE suppresses its catalytic potential in cleaving caspase substrates. Our data suggest that ubiquitin conjugation sterically interferes with substrate entry and reduces the caspase's proteolytic velocity. Disruption of drICE ubiquitylation, either by mutation of DIAP1's E3 activity or drICE's ubiquitin-acceptor lysines, abrogates DIAP1's ability to neutralize drICE and suppress apoptosis in vivo. We also show that DIAP1 rests in an "inactive" conformation that requires caspase-mediated cleavage to subsequently ubiquitylate caspases. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that effector caspases regulate their own inhibition through a negative feedback mechanism involving DIAP1 "activation" and nondegradative polyubiquitylation. PMID:19026784

Ditzel, Mark; Broemer, Meike; Tenev, Tencho; Bolduc, Clare; Lee, Tom V; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Elliott, Richard; Zvelebil, Marketa; Blagoev, Blagoy; Bergmann, Andreas; Meier, Pascal

2008-11-21

37

Long-distance endosome trafficking drives fungal effector production during plant infection  

PubMed Central

To cause plant disease, pathogenic fungi can secrete effector proteins into plant cells to suppress plant immunity and facilitate fungal infection. Most fungal pathogens infect plants using very long strand-like cells, called hyphae, that secrete effectors from their tips into host tissue. How fungi undergo long-distance cell signalling to regulate effector production during infection is not known. Here we show that long-distance retrograde motility of early endosomes (EEs) is necessary to trigger transcription of effector-encoding genes during plant infection by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. We demonstrate that motor-dependent retrograde EE motility is necessary for regulation of effector production and secretion during host cell invasion. We further show that retrograde signalling involves the mitogen-activated kinase Crk1 that travels on EEs and participates in control of effector production. Fungal pathogens therefore undergo long-range signalling to orchestrate host invasion. PMID:25283249

Bielska, Ewa; Higuchi, Yujiro; Schuster, Martin; Steinberg, Natascha; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Steinberg, Gero

2014-01-01

38

A functional genomics approach identifies candidate effectors from the aphid species Myzus persicae (green peach aphid).  

PubMed

Aphids are amongst the most devastating sap-feeding insects of plants. Like most plant parasites, aphids require intimate associations with their host plants to gain access to nutrients. Aphid feeding induces responses such as clogging of phloem sieve elements and callose formation, which are suppressed by unknown molecules, probably proteins, in aphid saliva. Therefore, it is likely that aphids, like plant pathogens, deliver proteins (effectors) inside their hosts to modulate host cell processes, suppress plant defenses, and promote infestation. We exploited publicly available aphid salivary gland expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to apply a functional genomics approach for identification of candidate effectors from Myzus persicae (green peach aphid), based on common features of plant pathogen effectors. A total of 48 effector candidates were identified, cloned, and subjected to transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana to assay for elicitation of a phenotype, suppression of the Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)-mediated oxidative burst, and effects on aphid reproductive performance. We identified one candidate effector, Mp10, which specifically induced chlorosis and local cell death in N. benthamiana and conferred avirulence to recombinant Potato virus X (PVX) expressing Mp10, PVX-Mp10, in N. tabacum, indicating that this protein may trigger plant defenses. The ubiquitin-ligase associated protein SGT1 was required for the Mp10-mediated chlorosis response in N. benthamiana. Mp10 also suppressed the oxidative burst induced by flg22, but not by chitin. Aphid fecundity assays revealed that in planta overexpression of Mp10 and Mp42 reduced aphid fecundity, whereas another effector candidate, MpC002, enhanced aphid fecundity. Thus, these results suggest that, although Mp10 suppresses flg22-triggered immunity, it triggers a defense response, resulting in an overall decrease in aphid performance in the fecundity assays. Overall, we identified aphid salivary proteins that share features with plant pathogen effectors and therefore may function as aphid effectors by perturbing host cellular processes. PMID:21124944

Bos, Jorunn I B; Prince, David; Pitino, Marco; Maffei, Massimo E; Win, Joe; Hogenhout, Saskia A

2010-11-01

39

A Functional Genomics Approach Identifies Candidate Effectors from the Aphid Species Myzus persicae (Green Peach Aphid)  

PubMed Central

Aphids are amongst the most devastating sap-feeding insects of plants. Like most plant parasites, aphids require intimate associations with their host plants to gain access to nutrients. Aphid feeding induces responses such as clogging of phloem sieve elements and callose formation, which are suppressed by unknown molecules, probably proteins, in aphid saliva. Therefore, it is likely that aphids, like plant pathogens, deliver proteins (effectors) inside their hosts to modulate host cell processes, suppress plant defenses, and promote infestation. We exploited publicly available aphid salivary gland expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to apply a functional genomics approach for identification of candidate effectors from Myzus persicae (green peach aphid), based on common features of plant pathogen effectors. A total of 48 effector candidates were identified, cloned, and subjected to transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana to assay for elicitation of a phenotype, suppression of the Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)–mediated oxidative burst, and effects on aphid reproductive performance. We identified one candidate effector, Mp10, which specifically induced chlorosis and local cell death in N. benthamiana and conferred avirulence to recombinant Potato virus X (PVX) expressing Mp10, PVX-Mp10, in N. tabacum, indicating that this protein may trigger plant defenses. The ubiquitin-ligase associated protein SGT1 was required for the Mp10-mediated chlorosis response in N. benthamiana. Mp10 also suppressed the oxidative burst induced by flg22, but not by chitin. Aphid fecundity assays revealed that in planta overexpression of Mp10 and Mp42 reduced aphid fecundity, whereas another effector candidate, MpC002, enhanced aphid fecundity. Thus, these results suggest that, although Mp10 suppresses flg22-triggered immunity, it triggers a defense response, resulting in an overall decrease in aphid performance in the fecundity assays. Overall, we identified aphid salivary proteins that share features with plant pathogen effectors and therefore may function as aphid effectors by perturbing host cellular processes. PMID:21124944

Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Prince, David; Pitino, Marco; Maffei, Massimo E.; Win, Joe; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

2010-01-01

40

TAL effector-DNA specificity.  

PubMed

TAL effectors are important virulence factors of bacterial plant pathogenic Xanthomonas, which infect a wide variety of plants including valuable crops like pepper, rice, and citrus. TAL proteins are translocated via the bacterial type III secretion system into host cells and induce transcription of plant genes by binding to target gene promoters. Members of the TAL effector family differ mainly in their central domain of tandemly arranged repeats of typically 34 amino acids each with hypervariable di-amino acids at positions 12 and 13. We recently showed that target DNA-recognition specificity of TAL effectors is encoded in a modular and clearly predictable mode. The repeats of TAL effectors feature a surprising one repeat-to-one-bp correlation with different repeat types exhibiting a different DNA base pair specificity. Accordingly, we predicted DNA specificities of TAL effectors and generated artificial TAL proteins with novel DNA recognition specificities. We describe here novel artificial TALs and discuss implications for the DNA recognition specificity. The unique TAL-DNA binding domain allows design of proteins with potentially any given DNA recognition specificity enabling many uses for biotechnology. PMID:21178484

Scholze, Heidi; Boch, Jens

2010-01-01

41

Interferon-inducible antiviral effectors  

PubMed Central

Preface Since the discovery of interferons (IFNs), considerable progress has been made in describing the nature of the cytokines themselves, the signalling components that direct the cell response and their antiviral activities. Gene targeting studies have distinguished four effector pathways of the IFN-mediated antiviral response: the Mx GTPase pathway, the 2?-5? oligoadenylate-synthetase-directed ribonuclease L pathway, the protein kinase R pathway and the ISG15 ubiquitin-like pathway. These effector pathways individually block viral transcription, degrade viral RNA, inhibit translation, and modify protein function to control all steps of viral replication. Ongoing research continues to expose additional activities for the effector proteins and has revealed unanticipated functions of the antiviral response. PMID:18575461

Sadler, Anthony J.; Williams, Bryan R. G.

2008-01-01

42

Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Effector Cells Selectively Lyse Human Melanoma Cells in vitro and in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monoclonal antibody 9.2.27 (mAb 9.2.27) directed to a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan on human melanoma cells was able to suppress tumor growth in athymic (nu/nu) mice more effectively when bound with polyethylene glycol to murine effector cells than when injected alone. These ``armed'' effector cells also proved more effective than the monoclonal antibody in eliciting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against human melanoma target cells in vitro.

Schulz, Gregor; Bumol, Thomas F.; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

1983-09-01

43

Identification of legionella effectors using bioinformatic approaches.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, actively manipulates host cell processes to establish a replication niche inside host cells. The establishment of its replication niche requires a functional Icm/Dot type IV secretion system which translocates about 300 effector proteins into host cells during infection. Many of these effectors were first identified as effector candidates by several bioinformatic approaches, and these predicted effectors were later examined experimentally for translocation and a large number of which were validated as effector proteins. Here, I summarized the bioinformatic approaches that were used to identify these effectors. PMID:23150423

Segal, Gil

2013-01-01

44

Improving a Gripper End Effector  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the improvement made to an existing four-bar linkage gripping end effector to adapt it for use in a current project. The actuating linkage was modified to yield higher jaw force overall and particularly in the critical range of jaw displacement

Mullen, O Dennis; Smith, Christopher M.; Gervais, Kevin L.

2001-01-31

45

The type III effectors of Xanthomonas.  

PubMed

A review of type III effectors (T3 effectors) from strains of Xanthomonas reveals a growing list of candidate and known effectors based on functional assays and sequence and structural similarity searches of genomic data. We propose that the effectors and suspected effectors should be distributed into 39 so-called Xop groups reflecting sequence similarity. Some groups have structural motifs for putative enzymatic functions, and recent studies have provided considerable insight into the interaction with host factors in their function as mediators of virulence and elicitors of resistance for a few specific T3 effectors. Many groups are related to T3 effectors of plant and animal pathogenic bacteria, and several groups appear to have been exploited primarily by Xanthomonas species based on available data. At the same time, a relatively large number of candidate effectors remain to be examined in more detail with regard to their function within host cells. PMID:19849782

White, Frank F; Potnis, Neha; Jones, Jeffrey B; Koebnik, Ralf

2009-11-01

46

Tansley review Nematode effector proteins: an emerging  

E-print Network

Tansley review Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism Author Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA Contents Summary 1 I. Introduction 1 II. Nematode effector regulation and delivery into host cells 3 III. Nematode effectors as probes of plant cell biology

Hussey, Richard S.

47

Suppression of HIV1 replication by microRNA effectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of HIV-1 gene expression is a key step that determines the kinetics of virus spread and AIDS progression. Viral entry and gene expression were described to be the key determinants for cell permissiveness to HIV. Recent reports highlighted the involvement of miRNA in regulating HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally. In this study we explored the role of cellular factors required

Christine Chable-Bessia; Oussama Meziane; Daniel Latreille; Robinson Triboulet; Alessia Zamborlini; Alexandre Wagschal; Jean-Marc Jacquet; Jacques Reynes; Yves Levy; Ali Saib; Yamina Bennasser; Monsef Benkirane

2009-01-01

48

Interferon-inducible antiviral effectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of interferons (IFNs), considerable progress has been made in describing the nature of the cytokines themselves, the signalling components that direct the cell response and their antiviral activities. Gene targeting studies have distinguished four main effector pathways of the IFN-mediated antiviral response: the Mx GTPase pathway, the 2?,5?-oligoadenylate-synthetase-directed ribonuclease L pathway, the protein kinase R pathway and

Anthony J. Sadler; Bryan R. G. Williams

2008-01-01

49

Dexterous end effector flight demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dexterous End Effector Flight Experiment is a flight demonstration of newly developed equipment and methods which make for more dexterous manipulation of robotic arms. The following concepts are to be demonstrated: The Force Torque Sensor is a six axis load cell located at the end of the RMS which displays load data to the operator on the orbiter CCTV monitor. TRAC is a target system which provides six axis positional information to the operator. It has the characteristic of having high sensitivity to attitude misalignment while being flat. AUTO-TRAC is a variation of TRAC in which a computer analyzes a target, displays translational and attitude misalignment information, and provides cues to the operator for corrective inputs. The Magnetic End Effector is a fault tolerant end effector which grapples payloads using magnetic attraction. The Carrier Latch Assembly is a fault tolerant payload carrier, which uses mechanical latches and/or magnetic attraction to hold small payloads during launch/landing and to release payloads as desired. The flight experiment goals and objectives are explained. The experiment equipment is described, and the tasks to be performed during the demonstration are discussed.

Carter, Edward L.; Monford, Leo G.

1994-01-01

50

Robust Position Control of End-Effector Considering Gear Stiffness and Arm Stiffness for Industrial Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial robot with two-inertia model and resonant vibration suppression by using parameters from resonant identification method are addressed in this paper. By using only D-PD control with vibration suppression scheme for two-inertia model of flexible joint robot, the end-effector position does not perfectly reach the desired position owing to the effect of external force to the elastic arm. However, only

Somsawas Tungpataratanawong; Satit Chitbanchong; Toshimasa Miyazaki; Seiichiro Katsura; Kiyoshi Ohishi

2007-01-01

51

The role of effectors in nonhost resistance to filamentous plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

In nature, most plants are resistant to a wide range of phytopathogens. However, mechanisms contributing to this so-called nonhost resistance (NHR) are poorly understood. Besides constitutive defenses, plants have developed two layers of inducible defense systems. Plant innate immunity relies on recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In compatible interactions, pathogenicity effector molecules secreted by the invader can suppress host defense responses and facilitate the infection process. Additionally, plants have evolved pathogen-specific resistance mechanisms based on recognition of these effectors, which causes secondary defense responses. The current effector-driven hypothesis is that NHR in plants that are distantly related to the host plant is triggered by PAMP recognition that cannot be efficiently suppressed by the pathogen, whereas in more closely related species, nonhost recognition of effectors would play a crucial role. In this review we give an overview of current knowledge of the role of effector molecules in host and NHR and place these findings in the context of the model. We focus on examples from filamentous pathogens (fungi and oomycetes), discuss their implications for the field of plant-pathogen interactions and relevance in plant breeding strategies for development of durable resistance in crops.

Stam, Remco; Mantelin, Sophie; McLellan, Hazel; Thilliez, Gaëtan

2014-01-01

52

The type III effector repertoire of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and its role in survival and disease on host and non-host plants.  

PubMed

The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects a large repertoire of effector proteins into plant cells using a type III secretion apparatus. Effectors can trigger or suppress defences in a host-dependent fashion. Host defences are often accompanied by programmed cell death, while interference with defences is sometimes associated with cell death suppression. We previously predicted the effector repertoire of the sequenced bean pathogen P. syringae pv. syringae (Psy) B728a using bioinformatics. Here we show that PsyB728a is also pathogenic on the model plant species Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco). We confirm our effector predictions and clone the nearly complete PsyB728a effector repertoire. We find effectors to have different cell death-modulating activities and distinct roles during the infection of the susceptible bean and tobacco hosts. Unexpectedly, we do not find a strict correlation between cell death-eliciting and defence-eliciting activity and between cell death-suppressing activity and defence-interfering activity. Furthermore, we find several effectors with quantitative avirulence activities on their susceptible hosts, but with growth-promoting effects on Arabidopsis thaliana, a species on which PsyB728a does not cause disease. We conclude that P. syringae strains may have evolved large effector repertoires to extend their host ranges or increase their survival on various unrelated plant species. PMID:16942603

Vinatzer, Boris A; Teitzel, Gail M; Lee, Min-Woo; Jelenska, Joanna; Hotton, Sara; Fairfax, Keke; Jenrette, Jenny; Greenberg, Jean T

2006-10-01

53

In planta expression or delivery of potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae effectors Me10 and Me23 enhances aphid fecundity.  

PubMed

The interactions between aphids and their host plants seem to be analogous to those of plant-microbial pathogens. Unlike microbial pathogen effectors, little is known about aphid effectors and their ability to interfere with host immunity. To date, only three functional aphid effectors have been reported. To identify potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) effectors, we developed a salivary gland transcriptome using Illumina technology. We generated 85 million Illumina reads from salivary glands and assembled them into 646 contigs. Ab initio sequence analysis predicted secretion signal peptides in 24% of these sequences, suggesting that they might be secreted into the plant during aphid feeding. Eight of these candidate effectors with secretion signal peptides were functionally characterized using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Two candidate effectors, Me10 and Me23, increased aphid fecundity, suggesting their ability to suppress N. benthamiana defenses. Five of these candidate effectors, including Me10 and Me23, were also analyzed in tomato by delivering them through the Pseudomonas syringae type three secretion system. In tomato, only Me10 increased aphid fecundity. This work identified two additional aphid effectors with ability to manipulate the host for their advantage. PMID:23194342

Atamian, Hagop S; Chaudhary, Ritu; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Bao, Ergude; Girke, Thomas; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

2013-01-01

54

TAL effector nuclease (TALEN) engineering.  

PubMed

TALENs, fusion proteins of DNA binding domains of TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors and the DNA cleavage domains of endonuclease FokI, have emerged as genetic tools for targeted gene modification, holding great potential for basic and applied research, even for gene therapy. Here we present a simple and efficient approach to custom-engineering TALEN genes with four basic TAL repeats and their DNA recognition cipher. The "modular assembly" method also involves the "Golden Gate" cloning strategy, using 53 ready-to-use plasmids in just two rounds of restriction and ligation to assemble TALENs with up to 24 repeat units that recognize up to 24 bp of target DNA. PMID:23423889

Li, Ting; Yang, Bing

2013-01-01

55

Mobile effector proteins on phage genomes  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage genomes found in a range of bacterial pathogens encode a diverse array of virulence factors ranging from superantigens or pore forming lysins to numerous exotoxins. Recent studies have uncovered an entirely new class of bacterial virulence factors, called effector proteins or effector toxins, which are encoded within phage genomes that reside among several pathovars of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These effector proteins have multiple domains resulting in proteins that can be multifunctional. The effector proteins encoded within phage genomes are translocated directly from the bacterial cytosol into their eukaryotic target cells by specialized bacterial type three secretion systems (T3SSs). In this review, we will give an overview of the different types of effector proteins encoded within phage genomes and examine their roles in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:23275865

Boyd, E. Fidelma; Carpenter, Megan R.; Chowdhury, Nityananda

2012-01-01

56

Robust Position Control of End-Effector Considering Gear Stiffness and Arm Stiffness for Industrial Robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial robot with two-inertia model and resonant vibration suppression by using parameters from resonant identification method are addressed in this paper. By using only D-PD control with vibration suppression scheme for two-inertia model of flexible joint robot, the end-effector position does not perfectly reach the desired position owing to the effect of external force to the elastic arm. However, only gear stiffness parameter of two-inertia model is not enough, the new equivalent spring constant parameter including the stiffness of link and gear of the robot is introduced as the total arm spring constant. The novel load-side disturbance compensation considering total arm elasticity is proposed in this paper. The proposed control system is based on inner-loop vibration suppression feedback control and load-side disturbance suppression which motivates the simple consideration of the elastic joint under external torque. Moreover, the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed robust position control of end-effector with disturbance compensation considering total arm stiffness. The experimentation on workspace impedance control with inner-loop disturbance suppression implementing on the three degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) robot manipulator is also presented and discussed. The performance and feasibility of the proposed position control of end-effector is confirmed to apply to industrial robot manipulator without additional device.

Tungpataratanawong, Somsawas; Chitbanchong, Satit; Miyazaki, Toshimasa; Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

57

ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of the contract, the focus remains on the RTIEE.

Rachel Landry

1999-10-01

58

Epigenetic control of effectors in plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr) factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in filamentous plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes.

Gijzen, Mark; Ishmael, Chelsea; Shrestha, Sirjana D.

2014-01-01

59

Functional characterization of nematode effectors in plants.  

PubMed

Secreted effectors represent the molecular interface between the nematode and its host plant. Studies that aimed at deciphering molecular plant-nematode interactions are hampered by technical hurdles that prevent the generation of transgenic nematodes. However, RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a valuable tool to specifically knock-down nematode effector genes, both ex planta and in planta. Plant-mediated RNAi of nematode genes not only facilitates functional characterization of effectors but also lends itself to a novel control strategy against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we describe currently used methods to silence genes in plant-parasitic cyst and root-knot nematodes. PMID:24643556

Elling, Axel A; Jones, John T

2014-01-01

60

Oxysterols and Their Cellular Effectors  

PubMed Central

Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene) proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR) ? and ?, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine. PMID:24970128

Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Beaslas, Olivier; Nissila, Eija

2012-01-01

61

Oxysterols and their cellular effectors.  

PubMed

Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer's disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene) proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR) ? and ?, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine. PMID:24970128

Olkkonen, Vesa M; Béaslas, Olivier; Nissilä, Eija

2012-01-01

62

A TAL Effector Toolbox for Genome Engineering  

E-print Network

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas sp. The DNA-binding domain of each TALE consists of tandem 34–amino acid repeat ...

Sanjana, Neville E.

63

TAL effectors: function, structure, engineering and applications.  

PubMed

TAL effectors are proteins secreted by bacterial pathogens into plant cells, where they enter the nucleus and activate expression of individual genes. TAL effectors display a modular architecture that includes a central DNA-binding region comprising a tandem array of nearly identical repeats that are almost all 34 residues long. Residue number 13 in each TAL repeat (one of two consecutive polymorphic amino acids that are termed 'repeat variable diresidues', or 'RVDs') specifies the identity of a single base; collectively the sequential repeats and their RVDs dictate the recognition of sequential bases along one of the two DNA strands. The modular architecture of TAL effectors has facilitated their extremely rapid development and application as artificial gene targeting reagents, particularly in the form of site-specific nucleases. Recent crystallographic and biochemical analyses of TAL effectors have established the structural basis of their DNA recognition properties and provide clear directions for future research. PMID:23265998

Mak, Amanda Nga-Sze; Bradley, Philip; Bogdanove, Adam J; Stoddard, Barry L

2013-02-01

64

Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 2 Is a Conserved RxLR Effector that Promotes Infection in Soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts. PMID:25387135

Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo

2014-12-01

65

Structures of Phytophthora RXLR Effector Proteins  

PubMed Central

Phytopathogens deliver effector proteins inside host plant cells to promote infection. These proteins can also be sensed by the plant immune system, leading to restriction of pathogen growth. Effector genes can display signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution, presumably a consequence of their co-evolutionary arms race with plants. The molecular mechanisms underlying how effectors evolve to gain new virulence functions and/or evade the plant immune system are poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structures of the effector domains from two oomycete RXLR proteins, Phytophthora capsici AVR3a11 and Phytophthora infestans PexRD2. Despite sharing <20% sequence identity in their effector domains, they display a conserved core ?-helical fold. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that the core fold occurs in ?44% of annotated Phytophthora RXLR effectors, both as a single domain and in tandem repeats of up to 11 units. Functionally important and polymorphic residues map to the surface of the structures, and PexRD2, but not AVR3a11, oligomerizes in planta. We conclude that the core ?-helical fold enables functional adaptation of these fast evolving effectors through (i) insertion/deletions in loop regions between ?-helices, (ii) extensions to the N and C termini, (iii) amino acid replacements in surface residues, (iv) tandem domain duplications, and (v) oligomerization. We hypothesize that the molecular stability provided by this core fold, combined with considerable potential for plasticity, underlies the evolution of effectors that maintain their virulence activities while evading recognition by the plant immune system. PMID:21813644

Boutemy, Laurence S.; King, Stuart R. F.; Win, Joe; Hughes, Richard K.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Blumenschein, Tharin M. A.; Kamoun, Sophien; Banfield, Mark J.

2011-01-01

66

The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells  

PubMed Central

Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6), thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ?spvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated. PMID:25368608

Neumann, Christina; Fraiture, Malou; Hernandez-Reyes, Casandra; Akum, Fidele N.; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chen, Ying; Pateyron, Stephanie; Colcombet, Jean; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Hirt, Heribert; Brunner, Frederic; Schikora, Adam

2014-01-01

67

Leaf-disc assay based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana to allow functional screening of candidate effectors from aphids.  

PubMed

Aphids, like plant pathogens, are known to form close associations with their host. While probing and feeding, these insects deliver effectors inside the host, which are thought to be involved in suppression of host defenses and/or the release of nutrients. With increasing availability of aphid genome and transcriptome sequencing data, effectors can now be identified using bioinformatics- and proteomics-based approaches. The next step is then to apply functional assays relevant to plant-aphid interactions to identify effector activities. This chapter describes an effective and medium-throughput screen for the identification of effectors that affect aphid fecundity upon in planta over-expression. This assay will allow the identification of aphid effectors with a role in aphid virulence and can be adapted to other plant species amenable to agroinfiltration as well as to other assays based on transient expression, such as RNAi. PMID:24643558

Rodriguez, Patricia A; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Bos, Jorunn I B

2014-01-01

68

End effector with astronaut foot restraint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combination of a foot restraint platform designed primarily for use by an astronaut being rigidly and permanently attached to an end effector which is suitable for attachment to the manipulator arm of a remote manipulating system is described. The foot restraint platform is attached by a brace to the end effector at a location away from the grappling interface of the end effector. The platform comprises a support plate provided with a pair of stirrups for receiving the toe portion of an astronaut's boots when standing on the platform and a pair of heel retainers in the form of raised members which are fixed to the surface of the platform and located to provide abutment surfaces for abutting engagement with the heels of the astronaut's boots when his toes are in the stirrups. The heel retainers preclude a backward sliding movement of the feet on the platform and instead require a lifting of the heels in order to extract the feet. The brace for attaching the foot restraint platform to the end effector may include a pivot or swivel joint to permit various orientations of the platform with respect to the end effector.

Monford, Leo G., Jr. (inventor)

1991-01-01

69

Cellular senescence and its effector programs  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence is a stress response that accompanies stable exit from the cell cycle. Classically, senescence, particularly in human cells, involves the p53 and p16/Rb pathways, and often both of these tumor suppressor pathways need to be abrogated to bypass senescence. In parallel, a number of effector mechanisms of senescence have been identified and characterized. These studies suggest that senescence is a collective phenotype of these multiple effectors, and their intensity and combination can be different depending on triggers and cell types, conferring a complex and diverse nature to senescence. Series of studies on senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in particular have revealed various layers of functionality of senescent cells in vivo. Here we discuss some key features of senescence effectors and attempt to functionally link them when it is possible. PMID:24449267

Salama, Rafik; Sadaie, Mahito; Hoare, Matthew; Narita, Masashi

2014-01-01

70

TAL effectors: tools for DNA Targeting  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas phytopathogenic bacteria produce unique transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins that recognize and activate specific plant promoters through a set of tandem repeats. A unique TALE-DNA-binding code uses two polymorphic amino acids in each repeat to mediate recognition of specific nucleotides. The order of repeats determines effector’s specificity toward the cognate nucleotide sequence of the sense DNA strand. Artificially designed TALE-DNA-binding domains fused to nuclease or activation and repressor domains provide an outstanding toolbox for targeted gene editing and gene regulation in research, biotechnology and gene therapy. Gene editing with custom-designed TALE nucleases (TALENs) extends the repertoire of targeted genome modifications across a broad spectrum of organisms ranging from plants and insect to mammals. PMID:24907364

Jankele, Radek

2014-01-01

71

Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

72

Unifying themes in host defence effector polypeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is said that nature is the greatest innovator, yet molecular conservation can be equally powerful. One key requirement for the survival of any host is its ability to defend against infection, predation and competition. Recent discoveries, including the presence of a multidimensional structural signature, have revealed a previously unforeseen structural and functional congruence among host defence effector molecules spanning

Nannette Y. Yount; Michael R. Yeaman

2007-01-01

73

Antibodies targeting human OX40 expand effector T cells and block inducible and natural regulatory T cell function  

PubMed Central

Current cancer vaccines induce tumor-specific T cell responses without sustained tumor regression because immunosuppressive elements within the tumor induce exhaustion of effector T cells and infiltration of immune-suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). Therefore, much effort has been made to generate agonistic Abs targeting members of the TNFR superfamily, such as OX40, 4- 1BB, and GITR, expressed on effector T cells and Tregs, to reinvigorate T cell effector function and block Treg-suppressive function. In this article, we describe the development of a panel of anti-human OX40 agonistic mouse mAbs that could promote effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation, inhibit the induction of CD4+ IL-10 -producing type 1 regulatory T cells, inhibit the expansion of ICOS+IL-10+ Tregs, inhibit TGF-b–induced FOXP3 expression on naive CD4+ T cells, and block natural Treg–suppressive function. We humanized two anti–human OX40 mAb clones, and they retained the potency of their parental clones. These Abs should provide broad opportunities for potential combination therapy to treat a wide realm of cancers and preventative vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:24014877

Voo, Kui S.; Bover, Laura; Harline, Megan L.; Vien, Long T.; Facchinetti, Valeria; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kwak, Larry W.; Liu, Yong J.

2013-01-01

74

Identification of novel Coxiella burnetii Icm/Dot effectors and genetic analysis of their involvement in modulating a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a human intracellular pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host cells. To identify novel C. burnetii effectors, we applied a machine-learning approach to predict C. burnetii effectors, and examination of 20 such proteins resulted in the identification of 13 novel effectors. To determine whether these effectors, as well as several previously identified effectors, modulate conserved eukaryotic pathways, they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects on yeast growth were examined under regular growth conditions and in the presence of caffeine, a known modulator of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. In the presence of caffeine, expression of the effectors CBU0885 and CBU1676 caused an enhanced inhibition of yeast growth, and the growth inhibition of CBU0388 was suppressed. Furthermore, analysis of synthetic lethality effects and examination of the activity of the CWI MAP kinase transcription factor Rlm1 indicated that CBU0388 enhances the activation of this MAP kinase pathway in yeast, while CBU0885 and CBU1676 abolish this activation. Additionally, coexpression of CBU1676 and CBU0388 resulted in mutual suppression of their inhibition of yeast growth. These results strongly indicate that these three effectors modulate the CWI MAP kinase pathway in yeast. Moreover, both CBU1676 and CBU0885 were found to contain a conserved haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) domain, which was found to be required for their activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that MAP kinase pathways are most likely targeted by C. burnetii Icm/Dot effectors. PMID:24958706

Lifshitz, Ziv; Burstein, David; Schwartz, Kierstyn; Shuman, Howard A; Pupko, Tal; Segal, Gil

2014-09-01

75

TAL effectors: tools for DNA targeting.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas phytopathogenic bacteria produce unique transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins that recognize and activate specific plant promoters through a set of tandem repeats. A unique TALE-DNA-binding code uses two polymorphic amino acids in each repeat to mediate recognition of specific nucleotides. The order of repeats determines effector's specificity toward the cognate nucleotide sequence of the sense DNA strand. Artificially designed TALE-DNA-binding domains fused to nuclease or activation and repressor domains provide an outstanding toolbox for targeted gene editing and gene regulation in research, biotechnology and gene therapy. Gene editing with custom-designed TALE nucleases (TALENs) extends the repertoire of targeted genome modifications across a broad spectrum of organisms ranging from plants and insect to mammals. PMID:24907364

Jankele, Radek; Svoboda, Petr

2014-09-01

76

TAL effector-mediated genome visualization (TGV).  

PubMed

The three-dimensional remodeling of chromatin within nucleus is being recognized as determinant for genome regulation. Recent technological advances in live imaging of chromosome loci begun to explore the biological roles of the movement of the chromatin within the nucleus. To facilitate better understanding of the functional relevance and mechanisms regulating genome architecture, we applied transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology to visualize endogenous repetitive genomic sequences in mouse cells. The application, called TAL effector-mediated genome visualization (TGV), allows us to label specific repetitive sequences and trace nuclear remodeling in living cells. Using this system, parental origin of chromosomes was specifically traced by distinction of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This review will present our approaches to monitor nuclear dynamics of target sequences and highlights key properties and potential uses of TGV. PMID:24704356

Miyanari, Yusuke

2014-09-01

77

Decrease of Foxp3+ Treg cell number and acquisition of effector cell phenotype during lethal infection  

PubMed Central

Using a model of lethal oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii, we examined the fate of both induced and natural regulatory T (Treg) cells in the face of strong inflammatory responses occurring in a tolerogenic-prone environment. We found that during highly T helper 1 (Th1) cell-polarized mucosal immune responses, Treg cell numbers collapsed via multiple pathways including blockade of Treg cell induction and disruption of endogenous Treg cell homeostasis. In particular, shutdown of interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the highly Th1 cell-polarized environment triggered by infection directly contributed to Treg cell incapacity to suppress effector responses and eventually leads to immunopathogenesis. Furthermore, we found that environmental cues provided by both local dendritic cells and effector T cells can induce the expression of T-bet transcription factor and IFN-? by Treg cells. These data reveal a mechanism for Th1 cell pathogenicity that extends beyond their proinflammatory program to limit Treg cell survival. PMID:19896394

Oldenhove, Guillaume; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Wohlfert, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Jason; Chou, David; Dos santos, Liliane; O'Brien, Shaun; Blank, Rebecca; Lamb, Erika; Natarajan, Sundar; Kastenmayer, Robin; Hunter, Christopher; Grigg, Michael E.; Belkaid, Yasmine

2009-01-01

78

A central role for Notch in effector CD8(+) T cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Activated CD8(+) T cells choose between terminal effector cell (TEC) or memory precursor cell (MPC) fates. We found that the signaling receptor Notch controls this 'choice'. Notch promoted the differentiation of immediately protective TECs and was correspondingly required for the clearance of acute infection with influenza virus. Notch activated a major portion of the TEC-specific gene-expression program and suppressed the MPC-specific program. Expression of Notch was induced on naive CD8(+) T cells by inflammatory mediators and interleukin 2 (IL-2) via pathways dependent on the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR and the transcription factor T-bet. These pathways were subsequently amplified downstream of Notch, creating a positive feedback loop. Notch thus functions as a central hub where information from different sources converges to match effector T cell differentiation to the demands of an infection. PMID:25344724

Backer, Ronald A; Helbig, Christina; Gentek, Rebecca; Kent, Andrew; Laidlaw, Brian J; Dominguez, Claudia X; de Souza, Yevan S; van Trierum, Stella E; van Beek, Ruud; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Ten Brinke, Anja; Willemsen, A Marcel; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Kaech, Susan M; Blander, J Magarian; van Gisbergen, Klaas; Amsen, Derk

2014-12-01

79

Perivascular leukocyte clusters are essential for efficient activation of effector T cells in the skin.  

PubMed

It remains largely unclear how antigen-presenting cells (APCs) encounter effector or memory T cells efficiently in the periphery. Here we used a mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model to show that upon epicutaneous antigen challenge, dendritic cells (DCs) formed clusters with effector T cells in dermal perivascular areas to promote in situ proliferation and activation of skin T cells in a manner dependent on antigen and the integrin LFA-1. We found that DCs accumulated in perivascular areas and that DC clustering was abrogated by depletion of macrophages. Treatment with interleukin 1? (IL-1?) induced production of the chemokine CXCL2 by dermal macrophages, and DC clustering was suppressed by blockade of either the receptor for IL-1 (IL-1R) or the receptor for CXCL2 (CXCR2). Our findings suggest that the dermal leukocyte cluster is an essential structure for elicitating acquired cutaneous immunity. PMID:25240383

Natsuaki, Yohei; Egawa, Gyohei; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Ono, Sachiko; Hanakawa, Sho; Okada, Takaharu; Kusuba, Nobuhiro; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kitoh, Akihiko; Honda, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Saeko; Tsuchiya, Soken; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Ishii, Ken J; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Yagita, Hideo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Kubo, Masato; Ng, Lai Guan; Hashimoto, Takashi; Fuentes, Judilyn; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

2014-11-01

80

Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism.  

PubMed

Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to modify host cells and ingest nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode effectors, with a particular focus on proteinaceous stylet-secreted effectors of sedentary endoparasitic phytonematodes, for which a wealth of information has surfaced in the past 10 yr. We provide an update on the effector repertoires of several of the most economically important genera of phytonematodes and discuss current approaches to dissecting their function. Lastly, we highlight the latest breakthroughs in effector discovery that promise to shed new light on effector diversity and function across the phylum Nematoda. PMID:23691972

Mitchum, Melissa G; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J; Wang, Xiaohong; Elling, Axel A; Wubben, Martin; Davis, Eric L

2013-09-01

81

Mutagenesis of 18 type III effectors reveals virulence function of XopZ(PXO99) in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effectors into host cells for its ability to cause bacterial blight of rice. All type III (T3) effectors with known function in X. oryzae pv. oryzae belong to a family of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors. However, other, non-TAL-related effector genes are present in the genome, although their role in virulence and their mode of action have yet to be elucidated. Here, we report the generation of mutants for 18 non-TAL T3 effector genes and the identification of one that contributes to the virulence of strain PXO99(A). XopZ(PXO99) encodes a predicted 1,414-amino-acid protein of unknown function. PXO99(A) contains two identical copies of the gene due to a duplication of 212 kb in the genome. Strains with knockout mutations of one copy of XopZ(PXO99) did not exhibit any visible virulence defect. However, strains with mutations in both copies of XopZ(PXO99) displayed reduced virulence in terms of lesion length and bacterial multiplication compared with PXO99(A). The introduction of one genomic copy of XopZ(PXO99) restores the mutant to full virulence. Transient expression of XopZ(PXO99) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves suppresses host basal defense, which is otherwise induced by a T3SS mutant of PXO99(A), suggesting a role for XopZ(PXO99) in interfering with host innate immunity during X. oryzae pv. oryzae infection. XopZ(PXO99)-related genes are found in all Xanthomonas spp. whose genomic sequences have been determined, suggesting a conserved role for this type of effector gene in pathogenesis of Xanthomonas spp. Our results indicate that XopZ(PXO99) encodes a novel T3 effector and contributes virulence to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains for bacterial blight of rice. PMID:20521952

Song, Congfeng; Yang, Bing

2010-07-01

82

Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid  

PubMed Central

Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome. PMID:25329884

Asai, Shuta; Caillaud, Marie-Cecile; Furzer, Oliver J.; Ishaque, Naveed; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Fabro, Georgina; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

2014-01-01

83

A library of TAL effector nucleases spanning the human genome.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) can be readily engineered to bind specific genomic loci, enabling the introduction of precise genetic modifications such as gene knockouts and additions. Here we present a genome-scale collection of TALENs for efficient and scalable gene targeting in human cells. We chose target sites that did not have highly similar sequences elsewhere in the genome to avoid off-target mutations and assembled TALEN plasmids for 18,740 protein-coding genes using a high-throughput Golden-Gate cloning system. A pilot test involving 124 genes showed that all TALENs were active and disrupted their target genes at high frequencies, although two of these TALENs became active only after their target sites were partially demethylated using an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase. We used our TALEN library to generate single- and double-gene-knockout cells in which NF-?B signaling pathways were disrupted. Compared with cells treated with short interfering RNAs, these cells showed unambiguous suppression of signal transduction. PMID:23417094

Kim, Yongsub; Kweon, Jiyeon; Kim, Annie; Chon, Jae Kyung; Yoo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hye Joo; Kim, Sojung; Lee, Choongil; Jeong, Euihwan; Chung, Eugene; Kim, Doyoung; Lee, Mi Seon; Go, Eun Mi; Song, Hye Jung; Kim, Hwangbeom; Cho, Namjin; Bang, Duhee; Kim, Seokjoong; Kim, Jin-Soo

2013-03-01

84

TAL Effector-Nucleotide Targeter (TALE-NT) 2.0: tools for TAL effector design and target prediction.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are repeat-containing proteins used by plant pathogenic bacteria to manipulate host gene expression. Repeats are polymorphic and individually specify single nucleotides in the DNA target, with some degeneracy. A TAL effector-nucleotide binding code that links repeat type to specified nucleotide enables prediction of genomic binding sites for TAL effectors and customization of TAL effectors for use in DNA targeting, in particular as custom transcription factors for engineered gene regulation and as site-specific nucleases for genome editing. We have developed a suite of web-based tools called TAL Effector-Nucleotide Targeter 2.0 (TALE-NT 2.0; https://boglab.plp.iastate.edu/) that enables design of custom TAL effector repeat arrays for desired targets and prediction of TAL effector binding sites, ranked by likelihood, in a genome, promoterome or other sequence of interest. Search parameters can be set by the user to work with any TAL effector or TAL effector nuclease architecture. Applications range from designing highly specific DNA targeting tools and identifying potential off-target sites to predicting effector targets important in plant disease. PMID:22693217

Doyle, Erin L; Booher, Nicholas J; Standage, Daniel S; Voytas, Daniel F; Brendel, Volker P; Vandyk, John K; Bogdanove, Adam J

2012-07-01

85

Nematode effectors and plant responses to infection.  

PubMed

Genomic resources in Arabidopsis have made possible the discovery of plant genes that mediate the nematode infection process, particularly the complex process of root re-differentiation into either knots or cysts. The genomic DNA sequences of two root knot nematodes have been characterized and considerable sequence coverage of cDNA from several cyst nematodes is available. These resources have enabled the discovery of several nematode effectors that play roles in causing susceptibility. RNAi has been used to create Arabidopsis plants that are resistant to root knot or to cyst nematodes and this has been extended to make soybean resistant to the cyst nematode. PMID:20542724

Bellafiore, Stephane; Briggs, Steven P

2010-08-01

86

Design and fabrication of an end effector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction is described of a prototype mechanical hand or 'end effector' for use on a remotely controlled robot, but with possible application as a prosthetic device. An analysis of hand motions is reported, from which it is concluded that the two most important manipulations (apart from grasps) are to be able to pick up a tool and draw it into a nested grip against the palm, and to be able to hold a pistol-grip tool such as an electric drill and pull the trigger. A model was tested and found capable of both these operations.

Crossley, F. R. E.; Umholtz, F. G.

1975-01-01

87

Common and contrasting themes in host cell-targeted effectors from bacterial, fungal, oomycete and nematode plant symbionts described using the Gene Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide diversity of plant-associated symbionts, including microbes, produce proteins that can enter host cells, or are injected into host cells in order to modify the physiology of the host to promote colonization. These molecules, termed effectors, commonly target the host defense signaling pathways in order to suppress the defense response. Others target the gene expression machinery or trigger specific

Trudy Torto-Alalibo; Candace W Collmer; Magdalen Lindeberg; David Bird; Alan Collmer; Brett M Tyler

2009-01-01

88

Exploitation of Eukaryotic Subcellular Targeting Mechanisms by Bacterial Effectors  

PubMed Central

Several bacteria have evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells with the capacity to modulate cellular pathways to promote bacterial survival and replication. The spatial and temporal context in which effectors exert their biochemical activities is critical for their function. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to their precise subcellular localization following delivery into host cells is essential for understanding effector function in the context of infection. Recent studies have shown that bacterial effectors exploit host cellular machinery to accurately target their biochemical activities within the host cell. PMID:23588250

Hicks, Stuart W.; Galan, Jorge E.

2013-01-01

89

Engineering plant disease resistance based on TAL effectors.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are encoded by plant-pathogenic bacteria and induce expression of plant host genes. TAL effectors bind DNA on the basis of a unique code that specifies binding of amino acid residues in repeat units to particular DNA bases in a one-to-one correspondence. This code can be used to predict binding sites of natural TAL effectors and to design novel synthetic DNA-binding domains for targeted genome manipulation. Natural mechanisms of resistance in plants against TAL effector-containing pathogens have given insights into new strategies for disease control. PMID:23725472

Schornack, Sebastian; Moscou, Matthew J; Ward, Eric R; Horvath, Diana M

2013-01-01

90

ORIGINS OF CD4+ EFFECTOR AND CENTRAL MEMORY T CELLS  

PubMed Central

Lineage-committed effector CD4+ T cells are generated at the peak of the primary response and are followed by heterogeneous populations of central and effector memory cells. Here we review the evidence that Th1 effector cells survive the contraction phase of the primary response and become effector memory cells. We discuss the applicability of this concept to the Th2, Th17, follicular helper cell, and induced regulatory T cell lineages. We also discuss how central memory cells are formed with an emphasis on the role that B cells play in this process. PMID:21739668

Pepper, Marion; Jenkins, Marc K.

2014-01-01

91

A simple cipher governs DNA recognition by TAL effectors.  

PubMed

TAL effectors of plant pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas bind host DNA and activate genes that contribute to disease or turn on defense. Target specificity depends on an effector-variable number of typically 34 amino acid repeats, but the mechanism of recognition is not understood. We show that a repeat-variable pair of residues specifies the nucleotides in the target site, one pair to one nucleotide, with no apparent context dependence. Our finding represents a previously unknown mechanism for protein-DNA recognition that explains TAL effector specificity, enables target site prediction, and opens prospects for use of TAL effectors in research and biotechnology. PMID:19933106

Moscou, Matthew J; Bogdanove, Adam J

2009-12-11

92

E2~Ub conjugates regulate the kinase activity of Shigella effector OspG during pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Pathogenic bacteria introduce effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role in this process by helping to suppress the host inflammatory response. OspG has been reported to bind host E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes activated with ubiquitin (E2~Ub), a key enzyme complex in ubiquitin transfer pathways. A co-crystal structure of the OspG/UbcH5c~Ub complex reveals that complex formation has important ramifications for the activity of both OspG and the UbcH5c~Ub conjugate. OspG is a minimal kinase domain containing only essential elements required for catalysis. UbcH5c~Ub binding stabilizes an active conformation of the kinase, greatly enhancing OspG kinase activity. In contrast, interaction with OspG stabilizes an extended, less reactive form of UbcH5c~Ub. Recognizing conserved E2 features, OspG can interact with at least ten distinct human E2s~Ub. Mouse oral infection studies indicate that E2~Ub conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells. PMID:24446487

Pruneda, Jonathan N; Smith, F Donelson; Daurie, Angela; Swaney, Danielle L; Villén, Judit; Scott, John D; Stadnyk, Andrew W; Le Trong, Isolde; Stenkamp, Ronald E; Klevit, Rachel E; Rohde, John R; Brzovic, Peter S

2014-03-01

93

Disruption of Signaling by Yersinia Effector YopJ, a  

E-print Network

pestis is the bacterial pathogen that caused the Black Death in the Middle Ages (1). Yersinia speciesDisruption of Signaling by Yersinia Effector YopJ, a Ubiquitin-Like Protein Protease Kim Orth,1 Brian Staskawicz,2 Jack E. Dixon1 * Homologs of the Yersinia virulence effector YopJ are found in both

Mudgettt, Mary Beth

94

Independently Evolved Virulence Effectors Converge onto Hubs in a  

E-print Network

immune system functions for 15 of 17 tested host proteins that interact with effectors from both-binding site­ leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) protein family, analogous to animal innate immune NLR pro- teins (6 (hereafter, Arabi- dopsis) and effector proteins from two patho- gens: the Gram-negative bacterium

Roth, Frederick

95

PERSPECTIVE New Determinants of Receptor-Effector Coupling: Trafficking  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE New Determinants of Receptor-Effector Coupling: Trafficking and Compartmentation in the human genome), several different combinations of G protein subunits and multiple isoforms of effector (trafficking). Compartmentation and Caveolae The concept of receptor translocation is certainly not a new one

Ostrom, Rennolds

96

Purification and Identification of Novel Rab Effectors Using Affinity Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rab GTPases are central regulatory elements of the intracellular transport machinery of eukaryotic cells. To regulate vesicle docking and fusion as well as organelle dynamics Rab proteins interact with effector molecules in the GTP-bound active state. The identification of Rab effectors is, therefore, of primary importance for the mechanistic understanding of intracellular transport. Here we describe the experimental system we

Savvas Christoforidis; Marino Zerial

2000-01-01

97

Distinct regulation of effector and memory T-cell differentiation  

E-print Network

REVIEW Distinct regulation of effector and memory T-cell differentiation Axel Kallies Three major T-cell fates regulated through specific transcription factors. Cytokines have long been recognized. The observation that short-lived effector and memory T cells, as well as their precursors, express distinct levels

Cai, Long

98

Extracellular molecular effectors mediating probiotic attributes.  

PubMed

Interest in probiotic bacteria, in the context of health and disease, is increasing and gathering scientific evidence, as is reflected by their growing utilization in food and pharma industry. As a consequence, many research effort over the past few years has been dedicated to discern the molecular mechanisms responsible for their purported attributes. Remarkably, whereas the traditional probiotic concept assumes that bacteria must be alive during their administration to exert health-promoting effects, evidence is being accumulated that supports defined bacterial secreted molecules and/or isolated surface components mediating attributed cross talk dialogue between the host and the probiotic cells. Indeed, administration of the isolated bacterial-derived metabolites or molecules may be sufficient to promote the desired effects and may represent a promising safer alternative in inflammatory disorders. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of molecular effectors of probiotic bacteria that have been involved in mediating their effects. PMID:25115731

Ruiz, Lorena; Hevia, Arancha; Bernardo, David; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

2014-10-01

99

TAL effectors: customizable proteins for DNA targeting.  

PubMed

Generating and applying new knowledge from the wealth of available genomic information is hindered, in part, by the difficulty of altering nucleotide sequences and expression of genes in living cells in a targeted fashion. Progress has been made in engineering DNA binding domains to direct proteins to particular sequences for mutagenesis or manipulation of transcription; however, achieving the requisite specificities has been challenging. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors of plant pathogenic bacteria contain a modular DNA binding domain that appears to overcome this challenge. Comprising tandem, polymorphic amino acid repeats that individually specify contiguous nucleotides in DNA, this domain is being deployed in DNA targeting for applications ranging from understanding gene function in model organisms to improving traits in crop plants to treating genetic disorders in people. PMID:21960622

Bogdanove, Adam J; Voytas, Daniel F

2011-09-30

100

Advanced Aerodynamic Design of Passive Porosity Control Effectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes aerodynamic design work aimed at developing a passive porosity control effector system for a generic tailless fighter aircraft. As part of this work, a computational design tool was developed and used to layout passive porosity effector systems for longitudinal and lateral-directional control at a low-speed, high angle of attack condition. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted using the NASA Langley computational fluid dynamics code USM3D, in conjunction with a newly formulated surface boundary condition for passive porosity. Results indicate that passive porosity effectors can provide maneuver control increments that equal and exceed those of conventional aerodynamic effectors for low-speed, high-alpha flight, with control levels that are a linear function of porous area. This work demonstrates the tremendous potential of passive porosity to yield simple control effector systems that have no external moving parts and will preserve an aircraft's fixed outer mold line.

Hunter, Craig A.; Viken, Sally A.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

2001-01-01

101

Genome-Scale Identification of Legionella pneumophila Effectors Using a Machine Learning Approach  

E-print Network

Genome-Scale Identification of Legionella pneumophila Effectors Using a Machine Learning Approach subvert host cell processes during infection. Legionella pneumophila translocates effectors via the Icm. (2009) Genome-Scale Identification of Legionella pneumophila Effectors Using a Machine Learning Approach

Pupko, Tal

102

System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot  

DOEpatents

A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot.

Burry, David B. (Westminster, CO); Williams, Paul M. (Lafayette, CO)

1991-02-19

103

System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot  

DOEpatents

A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures.

Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

1991-02-19

104

Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes.  

PubMed

Microorganisms play essential roles in almost every environment on earth. For instance, microbes decompose organic material, or establish symbiotic relationships that range from pathogenic to mutualistic. Symbiotic relationships have been particularly well studied for microbial plant pathogens and have emphasized the role of effectors; secreted molecules that support host colonization. Most effectors characterized thus far play roles in deregulation of host immunity. Arguably, however, pathogens not only deal with immune responses during host colonization, but also encounter other microbes including competitors, (myco)parasites and even potential co-operators. Thus, part of the effector catalog may target microbiome co-inhabitants rather than host physiology. PMID:24879450

Rovenich, Hanna; Boshoven, Jordi C; Thomma, Bart P H J

2014-08-01

105

Modes of TAL effector-mediated repression  

PubMed Central

Engineered transcription activator-like effectors, or TALEs, have emerged as a new class of designer DNA-binding proteins. Their DNA recognition sites can be specified with great flexibility. When fused to appropriate transcriptional regulatory domains, they can serve as designer transcription factors, modulating the activity of targeted promoters. We created tet operator (tetO)-specific TALEs (tetTALEs), with an identical DNA-binding site as the Tet repressor (TetR) and the TetR-based transcription factors that are extensively used in eukaryotic transcriptional control systems. Different constellations of tetTALEs and tetO modified chromosomal transcription units were analyzed for their efficacy in mammalian cells. We find that tetTALE-silencers can entirely abrogate expression from the strong human EF1? promoter when binding upstream of the transcriptional control sequence. Remarkably, the DNA-binding domain of tetTALE alone can effectively counteract trans-activation mediated by the potent tettrans-activator and also directly interfere with RNA polymerase II transcription initiation from the strong CMV promoter. Our results demonstrate that TALEs can act as highly versatile tools in genetic engineering, serving as trans-activators, trans-silencers and also competitive repressors. PMID:25389273

Werner, Jeannette; Gossen, Manfred

2014-01-01

106

Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-KSC has developed a mechanism to handle and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic Modules. This mechanism consists of a Base with 3 motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized Boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. During the 1993 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at KSC, I designed an Active Vision (Camera) Arrangement and developed an algorithm to determine (1) the displacements required by the Room for its initial positioning and (2) the rotations required at the five hand-wheels of the RIEE, for the insertion of the Rack, using the centroids fo the Camera Images of the Location Targets in the Logistic Module. Presently, during the summer of '94, I completed the preliminary design of an easily portable measuring instrument using encoders to obtain the 3-Dimensional Coordinates of Location Targets in the Logistics Module relative to the RIEE mechanism frame. The algorithm developed in '93 can use the output of this instrument also. Simplification of the '93 work and suggestions for the future work are discussed.

Malladi, Narasimha S.

1994-01-01

107

SUMO as a nuclear hormone receptor effector  

PubMed Central

Animal development is driven by robust, cell-specific gene expression programs. Understanding mechanistically how a single transcription factor (TF) can govern distinct programs with exquisite precision is a major challenge. We view TFs as signal integrators, taking information from co-regulator interactions, post-translational modifications, other transcription factors, chromatin state, DNA sequence and in some cases, specific noncovalent ligands, to determine the collection of genes regulated by a TF at any given time. Here, we describe a reductionist approach to combinatorial transcriptional regulation, focusing on a single C. elegans TF, the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-25, and a single post-translational modification, SUMO. We suggest that the ratio of sumoylated to unsumoylated NHR-25 could specify a switch-like cell-fate decision during vulval development. Direct examination of this “SUMO ratio” in vivo is challenging and we discuss possible solutions going forward. We also consider how sumoylation of multiple substrates might be coordinated during vulval development. Finally, we note that iteration of this approach could leverage our sumoylation findings to define the roles of other effectors of NHR-25 in the developing vulva and in other tissues.

Ward, Jordan D; Yamamoto, Keith R; Asahina, Masako

2014-01-01

108

TAL Effectors Specificity Stems from Negative Discrimination  

PubMed Central

Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors are DNA-binding proteins secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria that interfere with native cellular functions by binding to plant DNA promoters. The key element of their architecture is a domain of tandem-repeats with almost identical sequences. Most of the polymorphism is located at two consecutive amino acids termed Repeat Variable Diresidue (RVD). The discovery of a direct link between the RVD composition and the targeted nucleotide allowed the design of TAL-derived DNA-binding tools with programmable specificities that revolutionized the field of genome engineering. Despite structural data, the molecular origins of this specificity as well as the recognition mechanism have remained unclear. Molecular simulations of the recent crystal structures suggest that most of the protein-DNA binding energy originates from non-specific interactions between the DNA backbone and non-variable residues, while RVDs contributions are negligible. Based on dynamical and energetic considerations we postulate that, while the first RVD residue promotes helix breaks – allowing folding of TAL as a DNA-wrapping super-helix – the second provides specificity through a negative discrimination of matches. Furthermore, we propose a simple pharmacophore-like model for the rationalization of RVD-DNA interactions and the interpretation of experimental findings concerning shared affinities and binding efficiencies. The explanatory paradigm presented herein provides a better comprehension of this elegant architecture and we hope will allow for improved designs of TAL-derived biotechnological tools. PMID:24282528

Wicky, Basile I. M.; Stenta, Marco; Dal Peraro, Matteo

2013-01-01

109

TAL effectors specificity stems from negative discrimination.  

PubMed

Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors are DNA-binding proteins secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria that interfere with native cellular functions by binding to plant DNA promoters. The key element of their architecture is a domain of tandem-repeats with almost identical sequences. Most of the polymorphism is located at two consecutive amino acids termed Repeat Variable Diresidue (RVD). The discovery of a direct link between the RVD composition and the targeted nucleotide allowed the design of TAL-derived DNA-binding tools with programmable specificities that revolutionized the field of genome engineering. Despite structural data, the molecular origins of this specificity as well as the recognition mechanism have remained unclear. Molecular simulations of the recent crystal structures suggest that most of the protein-DNA binding energy originates from non-specific interactions between the DNA backbone and non-variable residues, while RVDs contributions are negligible. Based on dynamical and energetic considerations we postulate that, while the first RVD residue promotes helix breaks--allowing folding of TAL as a DNA-wrapping super-helix--the second provides specificity through a negative discrimination of matches. Furthermore, we propose a simple pharmacophore-like model for the rationalization of RVD-DNA interactions and the interpretation of experimental findings concerning shared affinities and binding efficiencies. The explanatory paradigm presented herein provides a better comprehension of this elegant architecture and we hope will allow for improved designs of TAL-derived biotechnological tools. PMID:24282528

Wicky, Basile I M; Stenta, Marco; Dal Peraro, Matteo

2013-01-01

110

Human urinary exosomes as innate immune effectors.  

PubMed

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

Hiemstra, Thomas F; Charles, Philip D; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N; Lilley, Kathryn S; Karet Frankl, Fiona E

2014-09-01

111

The neural correlates of velocity processing during the observation of a biological effector in the parietal and premotor cortex.  

PubMed

While there have been several studies investigating the neural correlates of action observation associated with hand grasping movements, comparatively little is known about the neural bases of observation of reaching movements. In two experiments, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we defined the cortical areas encoding reaching movements and assessed their sensitivity to biological motion and to movement velocity. In the first experiment, participants observed video-clips showing either a biological effector (an arm) or a non-biological object (rolling cylinder) reaching toward a target with a biological and a non-biological motion, respectively. In the second experiment, participants observed video-clips showing either a biological effector (an arm) or a non-biological object (an arrow) reaching toward a target with the same biological motion profiles. The results of the two experiments revealed activation of superior parietal and dorsal premotor sites during observation of the biological motion only, independent of whether it was performed by a biological effector (reaching arm) or a non-biological object (reaching arrow). These areas were not activated when participants observed the non-biological movement (rolling cylinder). To assess the responsiveness of parietal and frontal sites to movement velocity, the fMRI repetition-suppression (RS) technique was used, in which movement was shown with same or different velocities between consecutive videos, and observation of identical stimuli was contrasted with observation of different stimuli. Regions of interest were defined in the parietal and frontal cortices, and their response to stimulus repetition was analyzed (same vs. different velocities). The results showed an RS effect for velocity only during the observation of movements performed by the biological effector and not by the non-biological object. These data indicate that dorsal premotor and superior parietal areas represent a neural substrate involved in the encoding of reaching movements and that their responsiveness to movement velocity of a biological effector could be instrumental to the discrimination of movements performed by others. PMID:22995779

Di Dio, Cinzia; Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Higuchi, Satomi; Roberts, Neil; Vogt, Stefan; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

2013-01-01

112

Characterization of the Largest Effector Gene Cluster of Ustilago maydis  

PubMed Central

In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function. PMID:24992561

Vincon, Volker; Kahmann, Regine

2014-01-01

113

Functional heterogeneity of human effector CD8+ T cells.  

PubMed

Effector CD8(+) T cells are believed to be terminally differentiated cells having cytotoxic activity and the ability to produce effector cytokines such as INF-? and TNF-?. We investigated the difference between CXCR1(+) and CXCR1(-) subsets of human effector CD27(-)CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells. The subsets expressed cytolytic molecules similarly and exerted substantial cytolytic activity, whereas only the CXCR1(-) subset had IL-2 productivity and self-proliferative activity and was more resistant to cell death than the CXCR1(+) subset. These differences were explained by the specific up-regulation of CAMK4, SPRY2, and IL-7R in the CXCR1(-) subset and that of pro-apoptotic death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in the CXCR1(+) subset. The IL-2 producers were more frequently found in the IL-7R(+) subset of the CXCR1(-) effector CD8(+) T cells than in the IL-7R(-) subset. IL-7/IL-7R signaling promoted cell survival only in the CXCR1(-) subset. The present study has highlighted a novel subset of effector CD8(+) T cells producing IL-2 and suggests the importance of this subset in the homeostasis of effector CD8(+) T cells. PMID:22174157

Takata, Hiroshi; Naruto, Takuya; Takiguchi, Masafumi

2012-02-01

114

ATP as effector of inorganic pyrophosphatase of Escherichia coli . The role of residue Lys112 in binding effectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that PPi, methylenediphosphonate, and ATP act as effectors of Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatase (E-PPase), and that they compete for binding at the allosteric regulatory site. On the basis of\\u000a chemical modification and computer modeling of a structure of the enzyme-ATP complex, a number of amino acid residues presumably\\u000a involved in binding effectors has been revealed. Mutant

E. V. Rodina; N. N. Vorobyeva; S. A. Kurilova; T. S. Sitnik; T. I. Nazarova

2007-01-01

115

Stem Cell Reports Suppression of the SOX2 Neural Effector Gene by PRDM1 Promotes Human  

E-print Network

repressor Prdm1/Blimp-1 is known to play a critical role in controlling germ cell specification in mice repressor PRDM1, also known as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), was identified

Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

116

The Pseudomonas syringae effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis immunity by targeting BAK1  

E-print Network

Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China, 4 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA pathogens (Jones and Dangl, 2006; Boller and Felix, 2009). A 22 amino acid peptide from the N

Sheen, Jen

117

Bacterial Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Immunity by Targeting BAK1  

E-print Network

in transgenic plants carrying pDEX::AvrPto-HA and pBAK1::BAK1-GFP as detected with ?-HA antibody upon ?-GFP antibody immunoprecipitation. Consistently, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay also indicated the in vivo association of HopF2... in transgenic plants carrying pDEX::AvrPto-HA and pBAK1::BAK1-GFP as detected with ?-HA antibody upon ?-GFP antibody immunoprecipitation. Consistently, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay also indicated the in vivo association of HopF2...

Zhou, Jinggeng

2013-07-19

118

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors  

E-print Network

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, ...

Okujava, Rusudan

119

Cellular targets of regulatory B cell-mediated suppression.  

PubMed

Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are defined by their ability to restrain inflammatory responses both in vivo and in vitro. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) production by Bregs is thought to be central to their ability to regulate inflammation, largely due to IL-10s' ability to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production by effector lymphocytes and to maintain the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, with an increase in available published data, it has become evident that Bregs utilize a number of suppressive mechanisms in order to alter the activation of a variety of different lymphocytes. Here, we summarize the multiplicity of cellular targets of Breg-mediated suppression and describe the mechanisms employed by Bregs to suppress chronic inflammatory responses. PMID:24556109

Rosser, Elizabeth C; Blair, Paul A; Mauri, Claudia

2014-12-01

120

Transgenic plants that express the phytoplasma effector SAP11 show altered phosphate starvation and defense responses.  

PubMed

Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom protein11 shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular phosphate (Pi) and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and microRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom protein11 suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24464367

Lu, Yen-Ting; Li, Meng-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Tan, Choon Meng; Su, Li-Wen; Lin, Wei-Yi; Shih, Hsien-Tzung; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen; Yang, Jun-Yi

2014-03-01

121

Ras Effector Mutant Expression Suggest a Negative Regulator Inhibits Lung Tumor Formation  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is currently the most deadly malignancy in industrialized countries and accounts for 18% of all cancer-related deaths worldwide. Over 70% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are diagnosed at a late stage, with a 5-year survival below 10%. KRAS and the EGFR are frequently mutated in NSCLC and while targeted therapies for patients with EGFR mutations exist, oncogenic KRAS is thus far not druggable. KRAS activates multiple signalling pathways, including the PI3K/Akt pathway, the Raf-Mek-Erk pathway and the RalGDS/Ral pathway. Lung-specific expression of BrafV600E, the most prevalent BRAF mutation found in human tumors, results in Raf-Mek-Erk pathway activation and in the formation of benign adenomas that undergo widespread senescence in a Cre-activated Braf mouse model (BrafCA). However, oncogenic KRAS expression in mice induces adenocarcinomas, suggesting additional KRAS-activated pathways cooperate with sustained RAF-MEK-ERK signalling to bypass the oncogene-induced senescence proliferation arrest. To determine which KRAS effectors were responsible for tumor progression, we created four effector domain mutants (S35, G37, E38 and C40) in G12V-activated KRAS and expressed these alone or with BrafV600E in mouse lungs… The S35 and E38 mutants bind to Raf proteins but not PI3K or RalGDS; the G37 mutant binds to RalGDS and not Raf or PI3K and the C40 mutant is specific to PI3K. We designed lentiviral vectors to code for Cre recombinase along with KRAS mutants (V12, V12/S35, V12/G37, V12/E38 or V12/C40) or EGFP as a negative control.. These lentiviruses were used to infect BrafCA and wild-type mice. Surprisingly there was a significant decrease in tumor number and penetrance with each KRAS effector domain mutant relative to controls, suggesting that KRAS directly activates effectors with tumor suppressive functions. PMID:24489653

Vandal, Guillaume; Geiling, Benjamin; Dankort, David

2014-01-01

122

On the statistics of identifying candidate pathogen effectors.  

PubMed

High-throughput sequencing is an increasingly accessible tool for cataloging gene complements of plant pathogens and their hosts. It has had great impact in plant pathology, enabling rapid acquisition of data for a wide range of pathogens and hosts, leading to the selection of novel candidate effector proteins, and/or associated host targets (Bart et al., Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A doi:10.1073/pnas.1208003109, 2012; Agbor and McCormick, Cell Microbiol 13:1858-1869, 2011; Fabro et al., PLoS Pathog 7:e1002348, 2011; Kim et al., Mol Plant Pathol 2:715-730, 2011; Kimbrel et al., Mol Plant Pathol 12:580-594, 2011; O'Brien et al., Curr Opin Microbiol 14:24-30, 2011; Vleeshouwers et al., Annu Rev Phytopathol 49:507-531, 2011; Sarris et al., Mol Plant Pathol 11:795-804, 2010; Boch and Bonas, Annu Rev Phytopathol 48:419-436, 2010; Mcdermott et al., Infect Immun 79:23-32, 2011).Identification of candidate effectors from genome data is not different from classification in any other high-content or high-throughput experiment. The primary aim is to discover a set of qualitative or quantitative sequence characteristics that discriminate, with a defined level of certainty, between proteins that have previously been identified as being either "effector" (positive) or "not effector" (negative). Combination of these characteristics in a mathematical model, or classifier, enables prediction of whether a protein is or is not an effector, with a defined level of certainty. High-throughput screening of the gene complement is then performed to identify candidate effectors; this may seem straightforward, but it is unfortunately very easy to identify seemingly persuasive candidate effectors that are, in fact, entirely spurious.The main sources of danger in this area of statistical modeling are not entirely independent of each other, and include: inappropriate choice of classifier model; poor selection of reference sequences (known positive and negative examples); poor definition of classes (what is, and what is not, an effector); inadequate training sample size; poor model validation; and lack of adequate model performance metrics (Xia et al., Metabolomics doi:10.1007/s11306-012-0482-9, 2012). Many studies fail to take these issues into account, and thereby fail to discover anything of true significance or, worse, report spurious findings that are impossible to validate. Here we summarize the impact of these issues and present strategies to assist in improving design and evaluation of effector classifiers, enabling robust scientific conclusions to be drawn from the available data. PMID:24643551

Pritchard, Leighton; Broadhurst, David

2014-01-01

123

Tools for TAL effector design and target prediction.  

PubMed

TAL effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria during infection. They find their specific DNA targets via a string of contiguous, structural repeats that individually recognize single nucleotides (with some degeneracy) by virtue of polymorphisms at residue 13. The number of repeats and sequence of the amino acids at position 13 determine the nucleotide sequence of the DNA target. Due to this modularity, TAL effectors are readily engineered and have been used alone or as molecular fusions for targeted gene activation, gene repression, chromatin modification, chromatin tagging, and most broadly, for genome editing as TAL effector nucleases (TALENs). Several moderate and high-throughput cloning methods are in place for assembling TAL effector-based genetic constructs. Targeting is complicated to an extent by a general requirement for thymine to precede the DNA target, a requirement of TALENs to bind paired opposing sites separated by a defined range of distances, differential contributions of different repeat types to overall affinity, and a polarity to mismatch tolerance. Several computational tools are available online to aid in design and the identification of candidate off-target binding sites, as well as assembly and implementation. These tools vary in their approaches, capabilities, and relative utility for different types of TAL effector applications. Accuracy of off-target prediction is not well characterized yet for any of the tools and will require a better understanding of the qualitative and quantitative variation in the nucleotide preferences of individual repeats. PMID:24981075

Booher, Nicholas J; Bogdanove, Adam J

2014-09-01

124

Structural Insights into Rab27 Recruitment by its Effectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of Rab GTPases associated with partial dysfunction has been linked to several human diseases characterized by a diminution in vesicle transport. Due to its direct implication in human disorders, the Rab27 subfamily is considered as a standard for vesicle docking studies. By which mechanism Rab27 effectors distinguish among the pool of Rab GTPases? What is the underneath machinery rendering the interaction of eleven distinct effectors specific of Rab27 when compared to other Rabs of the secretory pathway? By solving the X-ray structures of Rab27, both in its inactive form and active form bound to the effector protein Slp2-a, attempts have been given to unravel the molecular basis of regulation of the delivering process of vesicles to fusion by the Rab27 subfamily.

M. G. Chavas, Leonard; Ihara, Kentaro; Kawasaki, Masato; Wakatsuki, Soichi

125

Ralstonia solanacearum Requires PopS, an Ancient AvrE-Family Effector, for Virulence and To Overcome Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defenses during Tomato Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT During bacterial wilt of tomato, the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum upregulates expression of popS, which encodes a type III-secreted effector in the AvrE family. PopS is a core effector present in all sequenced strains in the R. solanacearum species complex. The phylogeny of popS mirrors that of the species complex as a whole, suggesting that this is an ancient, vertically inherited effector needed for association with plants. A popS mutant of R. solanacearum UW551 had reduced virulence on agriculturally important Solanum spp., including potato and tomato plants. However, the popS mutant had wild-type virulence on a weed host, Solanum dulcamara, suggesting that some species can avoid the effects of PopS. The popS mutant was also significantly delayed in colonization of tomato stems compared to the wild type. Some AvrE-type effectors from gammaproteobacteria suppress salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defenses, suggesting that PopS, a betaproteobacterial ortholog, has a similar function. Indeed, the popS mutant induced significantly higher expression of tomato SA-triggered pathogenesis-related (PR) genes than the wild type. Further, pretreatment of roots with SA exacerbated the popS mutant virulence defect. Finally, the popS mutant had no colonization defect on SA-deficient NahG transgenic tomato plants. Together, these results indicate that this conserved effector suppresses SA-mediated defenses in tomato roots and stems, which are R. solanacearum’s natural infection sites. Interestingly, PopS did not trigger necrosis when heterologously expressed in Nicotiana leaf tissue, unlike the AvrE homolog DspEPcc from the necrotroph Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is consistent with the differing pathogenesis modes of necrosis-causing gammaproteobacteria and biotrophic R. solanacearum. PMID:24281716

Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Milling, Annett; Mitra, Raka M.; Hogan, Clifford S.; Ailloud, Florent; Prior, Philippe; Allen, Caitilyn

2013-01-01

126

How Do Filamentous Pathogens Deliver Effector Proteins into Plant Cells?  

PubMed Central

Fungal and oomycete plant parasites are among the most devastating pathogens of food crops. These microbes secrete effector proteins inside plant cells to manipulate host processes and facilitate colonization. How these effectors reach the host cytoplasm remains an unclear and debated area of plant research. In this article, we examine recent conflicting findings that have generated discussion in the field. We also highlight promising approaches based on studies of both parasite and host during infection. Ultimately, this knowledge may inform future broad spectrum strategies for protecting crops from such pathogens. PMID:24586116

Petre, Benjamin; Kamoun, Sophien

2014-01-01

127

Ral-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Activity Opposes Other Ras Effectors in PC12 Cells by Inhibiting Neurite Outgrowth  

PubMed Central

Ras proteins can activate at least three classes of downstream target proteins: Raf kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate (PI3) kinase, and Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Ral-GEFs). In NIH 3T3 cells, activated Ral-GEFs contribute to Ras-induced cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation by complementing the activities of Raf and PI3 kinases. In PC12 cells, activated Raf and PI3 kinases mediate Ras-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation into a neuronal phenotype. Here, we show that in PC12 cells, Ral-GEF activity acts opposite to other Ras effectors. Elevation of Ral-GEF activity induced by transfection of a mutant Ras protein that preferentially activates Ral-GEFs, or by transfection of the catalytic domain of the Ral-GEF Rgr, suppressed cell cycle arrest and neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment. In addition, Rgr reduced neurite outgrowth induced by a mutant Ras protein that preferentially activates Raf kinases. Furthermore, inhibition of Ral-GEF activity by expression of a dominant negative Ral mutant accelerated cell cycle arrest and enhanced neurite outgrowth in response to NGF treatment. Ral-GEF activity may function, at least in part, through inhibition of the Rho family GTPases, CDC42 and Rac. In contrast to Ras, which was activated for hours by NGF treatment, Ral was activated for only ?20 min. These findings suggest that one function of Ral-GEF signaling induced by NGF is to delay the onset of cell cycle arrest and neurite outgrowth induced by other Ras effectors. They also demonstrate that Ras has the potential to promote both antidifferentiation and prodifferentiation signaling pathways through activation of distinct effector proteins. Thus, in some cell types the ratio of activities among Ras effectors and their temporal regulation may be important determinants for cell fate decisions between proliferation and differentiation. PMID:10022860

Goi, Takanori; Rusanescu, Gabriel; Urano, Takeshi; Feig, Larry A.

1999-01-01

128

Robotic End Effectors for Hard-Rock Climbing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Special-purpose robot hands (end effectors) now under development are intended to enable robots to traverse cliffs much as human climbers do. Potential applications for robots having this capability include scientific exploration (both on Earth and other rocky bodies in space), military reconnaissance, and outdoor search and rescue operations. Until now, enabling robots to traverse cliffs has been considered too difficult a task because of the perceived need of prohibitively sophisticated planning algorithms as well as end effectors as dexterous as human hands. The present end effectors are being designed to enable robots to attach themselves to typical rock-face features with less planning and simpler end effectors. This advance is based on the emulation of the equipment used by human climbers rather than the emulation of the human hand. Climbing-aid equipment, specifically cams, aid hooks, and cam hooks, are used by sport climbers when a quick ascent of a cliff is desired (see Figure 1). Currently two different end-effector designs have been created. The first, denoted the simple hook emulator, consists of three "fingers" arranged around a central "palm." Each finger emulates the function of a particular type of climbing hook (aid hook, wide cam hook, and a narrow cam hook). These fingers are connected to the palm via a mechanical linkage actuated with a leadscrew/nut. This mechanism allows the fingers to be extended or retracted. The second design, denoted the advanced hook emulator (see Figure 2), shares these features, but it incorporates an aid hook and a cam hook into each finger. The spring-loading of the aid hook allows the passive selection of the type of hook used. The end effectors can be used in several different modes. In the aid-hook mode, the aid hook on one of the fingers locks onto a horizontal ledge while the other two fingers act to stabilize the end effector against the cliff face. In the cam-hook mode, the broad, flat tip of the cam hook is inserted into a non-horizontal crack in the cliff face. A subsequent transfer of weight onto the end effector causes the tip to rotate within the crack, creating a passive, self-locking action of the hook relative to the crack. In the advanced hook emulator, the aid hook is pushed into its retracted position by contact with the cliff face as the cam hook tip is inserted into the crack. When a cliff face contains relatively large pockets or cracks, another type of passive self-locking can be used. Emulating the function of the piece of climbing equipment called a "cam" (note: not the same as a "cam hook"; see Figure 1), the fingers can be fully retracted and the entire end effector inserted into the feature. The fingers are then extended as far as the feature allows. Any weight then transferred to the end effector will tend to extend the fingers further due to frictional force, passively increasing the grip on the feature. In addition to the climbing modes, these end effectors can be used to walk on (either on the palm or the fingertips) and to grasp objects by fully extending the fingers.

Kennedy, Brett; Leger, Patrick

2004-01-01

129

Understanding effector selectivity in human posterior parietal cortex by combining information patterns and activation measures.  

PubMed

The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been viewed as containing separate regions for the planning of eye and limb movements, but recent neurophysiological and neuroimaging observations show that the degree of effector specificity is limited. This has led to the hypothesis that effector specificity in PPC is part of a more efficient than strictly modular organization, characterized by both distinct and common activations for different effectors. It is unclear, however, what differentiates the distinctions and commonalities in effector representations. Here, we used fMRI in humans to study the cortical representations involved in the planning of eye, hand, and foot movements. We used a novel combination of fMRI measures to assess the effector-related representational content of the PPC: a multivariate information measure, reflecting whether representations were distinct or common across effectors and a univariate activation measure, indicating which representations were actively involved in movement preparation. Active distinct representations were evident in areas previously reported to be effector specific: eye specificity in the posterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), hand tuning in anterior IPS, and a foot bias in the anterior precuneus. Crucially, PPC regions responding to a particular effector also contained an active representation common across the other two effectors. We infer that rostral PPC areas do not code single effectors, but rather dichotomies of effectors. Such combinations of representations could be well suited for active effector selection, efficiently coding both a selected effector and its alternatives. PMID:24849346

Leoné, Frank T M; Heed, Tobias; Toni, Ivan; Medendorp, W Pieter

2014-05-21

130

Toward a Comprehensive Map of the Effectors of Rab GTPases  

PubMed Central

Summary The Rab GTPases recruit peripheral membrane proteins to intracellular organelles. These Rab effectors typically mediate the motility of organelles and vesicles and contribute to the specificity of membrane traffic. However, for many Rabs, few, if any, effectors have been identified; hence, their role remains unclear. To identify Rab effectors, we used a comprehensive set of Drosophila Rabs for affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry to identify the proteins bound to each Rab. For many Rabs, this revealed specific interactions with Drosophila orthologs of known effectors. In addition, we found numerous Rab-specific interactions with known components of membrane traffic as well as with diverse proteins not previously linked to organelles or having no known function. We confirm over 25 interactions for Rab2, Rab4, Rab5, Rab6, Rab7, Rab9, Rab18, Rab19, Rab30, and Rab39. These include tethering complexes, coiled-coiled proteins, motor linkers, Rab regulators, and several proteins linked to human disease.

Gillingham, Alison K.; Sinka, Rita; Torres, Isabel L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Munro, Sean

2014-01-01

131

Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

2010-01-01

132

End effector constrained path planning for 7DOF manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents more reliable and fast path planning method for end effector constrained 7DOF redundant manipulators. Conventional path planning for redundant manipulators used jacobian based planning method for convenience. But it is not easy to apply in case of constrained tasks and redundant manipulators. On the contrary in this paper we uses position based path planning by inverse kinematics.

Kyongmo Koo; Xin Jiang; Atsushi Konno; Masaru Uchiyama

2010-01-01

133

Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins  

E-print Network

pv syringae B728a, and P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 are flanked by an exchangeable effector locus in growth in tomato. P. syringae secretes HopPsyA and AvrPto in culture in a Hrp-dependent manner at p underlie the pathogenicity of many Gram-negative bacteria, including important animal pathogens

134

Review Ten things to know about oomycete effectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Long considered intractable organisms by fungal genetic research standards, the oomycetes have recently moved to the centre stage of research on plant-microbe interactions. Recent work on oomycete effector evolution, trafficking and function has led to major conceptual advances in the science of plant pathology. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on oomycete genetic research and summarize the

SEBASTIAN S CHORNACK; E DGAR H UITEMA; L ILIANA M. C ANO; TOLGA O. B OZKURT; RICARDO O LIVA; MIREILLE VAN D AMME; S IMON S CHWIZER; S YLVAIN R AFFAELE; ANGELA C HAPARRO-GARCIA; R HYS FARRER; M ARIA E UGENIA; JORUNN BOS; BRIAN J. H AAS; MICHAEL C. Z ODY; J OE W IN; MARCO T HINES; SOPHIEN K AMOUN

135

Dexamethasone suppression test  

MedlinePLUS

DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

136

Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation.

Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1989-01-01

137

CASPASE 2-MEDIATED TUMOR SUPPRESSION INVOLVES SURVIVIN GENE SILENCING  

PubMed Central

One of the pivotal functions of endogenous tumor suppression is to oppose aberrant cell survival, but the molecular requirements of this process are not completely understood. Here, we show that caspase 2, a death effector with largely unknown functions, represses transcription of the survivin gene, a general regulator of cell division and cytoprotection in tumors. This pathway involves caspase 2 proteolytic cleavage of the NF?B activator, RIP1. In turn, loss of RIP1 abolishes transcription of NF?B target genes, including survivin, resulting in deregulated mitotic transitions, enhanced apoptosis, and suppression of tumorigenicity, in vivo. Therefore, caspase 2 functions as an endogenous inhibitor of NF?B-dependent cell survival, and this mechanism may contribute to tumor suppression in humans. PMID:19935698

Guha, Minakshi; Xia, Fang; Raskett, Christopher M.; Altieri, Dario C.

2009-01-01

138

Diverse type VI secretion phospholipases are functionally plastic antibacterial effectors  

PubMed Central

Membranes allow the compartmentalization of biochemical processes and are therefore fundamental to life. The conservation of the cellular membrane, combined with its accessibility to secreted proteins, has made it a common target of factors mediating antagonistic interactions between diverse organisms. Here we report the discovery of a diverse superfamily of bacterial phospholipase enzymes. Within this superfamily, we defined enzymes with phospholipase A1 (PLA1) and A2 (PLA2) activity, which are common in host cell-targeting bacterial toxins and the venoms of certain insects and reptiles1,2. However, we find that the fundamental role of the superfamily is to mediate antagonistic bacterial interactions as effectors of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) translocation apparatus; accordingly, we name these proteins type VI lipase effectors (Tle). Our analyses indicate that PldA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a eukaryotic-like phospholipase D (PLD)3, is a member of the Tle superfamily and the founding substrate of the haemolysin co-regulated protein secretion island II T6SS (H2-T6SS). While prior studies have specifically implicated PldA and the H2-T6SS in pathogenesis3–5, we uncovered a specific role for the effector and its secretory machinery in intra- and inter-species bacterial interactions. Furthermore we find that this effector achieves its antibacterial activity by degrading phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the major component of bacterial membranes. The surprising finding that virulence-associated phospholipases can serve as specific antibacterial effectors suggests that interbacterial interactions are a relevant factor driving the ongoing evolution of pathogenesis. PMID:23552891

Russell, Alistair B.; LeRoux, Michele; Hathazi, Kristina; Agnello, Danielle M.; Ishikawa, Takahiko; Wiggins, Paul A.; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Mougous, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

139

Active Flow Effectors for Noise and Separation Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New flow effector technology for separation control and enhanced mixing is based upon shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) technology. The technology allows for variable shape control of aircraft structures through actively deformable surfaces. The flow effectors are made by embedding shape memory alloy actuator material in a composite structure. When thermally actuated, the flow effector def1ects into or out of the flow in a prescribed manner to enhance mixing or induce separation for a variety of applications, including aeroacoustic noise reduction, drag reduction, and f1ight control. The active flow effectors were developed for noise reduction as an alternative to fixed-configuration effectors, such as static chevrons, that cannot be optimized for airframe installation effects or variable operating conditions and cannot be retracted for off-design or fail-safe conditions. Benefits include: Increased vehicle control, overall efficiency, and reduced noise throughout all f1ight regimes, Reduced flow noise, Reduced drag, Simplicity of design and fabrication, Simplicity of control through direct current stimulation, autonomous re sponse to environmental heating, fast re sponse, and a high degree of geometric stability. The concept involves embedding prestrained SMA actuators on one side of the chevron neutral axis in order to generate a thermal moment and def1ect the structure out of plane when heated. The force developed in the host structure during def1ection and the aerodynamic load is used for returning the structure to the retracted position. The chevron design is highly scalable and versatile, and easily affords active and/or autonomous (environmental) control. The technology offers wide-ranging market applications, including aerospace, automotive, and any application that requires flow separation or noise control.

Turner, Travis L.

2011-01-01

140

Common and contrasting themes in host cell-targeted effectors from bacterial, fungal, oomycete and nematode plant symbionts described using the Gene Ontology  

PubMed Central

A wide diversity of plant-associated symbionts, including microbes, produce proteins that can enter host cells, or are injected into host cells in order to modify the physiology of the host to promote colonization. These molecules, termed effectors, commonly target the host defense signaling pathways in order to suppress the defense response. Others target the gene expression machinery or trigger specific modifications to host morphology or physiology that promote the nutrition and proliferation of the symbiont. When recognized by the host's surveillance machinery, which includes cognate resistance (R) gene products, defense responses are engaged to restrict pathogen proliferation. Effectors from diverse symbionts may be delivered into plant cells via varied mechanisms, including whole organism cellular entry (viruses, some bacteria and fungi), type III and IV secretion (in bacteria), physical injection (nematodes and insects) and protein translocation signal sequences (oomycetes and fungi). This mini-review will summarize both similarities and differences in effectors and effector delivery systems found in diverse plant-associated symbionts as well as how these are described with Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) terms. PMID:19278551

Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Collmer, Candace W; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Bird, David; Collmer, Alan; Tyler, Brett M

2009-01-01

141

Analysis of Rab GTPase-effector interactions by bimolecular fluorescence complementation.  

PubMed

RAB GTPases interact with specific effector molecules in a spatiotemporally regulated manner to induce various downstream reactions. To clarify the overall picture of RAB GTPase functions, it is important to elucidate the cellular locale where RAB and its effectors interact. Here, we applied a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to analyze where RAB GTPase interacted with effectors in endosomal trafficking. PMID:25117277

Ito, Emi; Ueda, Takashi

2014-01-01

142

From bacterial avirulence genes to effector functions via the hrp delivery system: an overview of 25 years of progress in our understanding of plant innate immunity.  

PubMed

Cloning the first avirulence (avr) gene has led not only to a deeper understanding of gene-for-gene interactions in plant disease, but also to fundamental insights into the suppression of basal defences against microbial attack. This article (focusing on Pseudomonas syringae) charts the development of ideas and research progress over the 25 years following the breakthrough achieved by Staskawicz and coworkers. Advances in gene cloning technology underpinned the identification of both avr and hrp genes, the latter being required for the activation of the defensive hypersensitive reaction (HR) and pathogenicity. The delivery of Avr proteins through the type III secretion machinery encoded by hrp gene clusters was demonstrated, and the activity of the proteins inside plant cells as elicitors of the HR was confirmed. Key roles for avr genes in pathogenic fitness have now been established. The rebranding of Avr proteins as effectors, proteins that suppress the HR and cell wall-based defences, has led to the ongoing search for their targets, and is generating new insights into the co-ordination of plant resistance against diverse microbes. Bioinformatics-led analysis of effector gene distribution in genomes has provided a remarkable view of the interchange of effectors and also their functional domains, as the arms race of attack and defence drives the evolution of microbial pathogenicity. The application of our accrued knowledge for the development of disease control strategies is considered. PMID:19849780

Mansfield, John W

2009-11-01

143

End-Effector Development for the PIP Puck Handling Robot  

SciTech Connect

It has been decided that excess, weapons-grade plutonium shall be immobilized to prevent nuclear proliferation. The method of immobilization is to encapsulate the plutonium in a ceramic puck, roughly the size of a hockey puck, using a sintering process. This method has been officially identified as the Plutonium Immobilization Process (PIP). A Can-in-Canister storage method will be used to further immobilize the plutonium. The Can-in-Canister method uses the existing design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister to house the plutonium pucks. the process begins with several pucks being stacked in a stainless steel can. Several of the stainless steel cans are stacked in a cage-like magazine. Several of the magazines are then placed in a DWPF canister. The DWPF canister is then filled with molten glass containing high-level, radioactive waste from the DWPF vitrification process. The Can-in-Canister method makes reclamation of plutonium from the pucks technically difficult and highly undesirable. The mechanical requirements of the Can-in-Canister process, in conjunction with the amount of time required to immobilize the vast quantities of weapons-grade plutonium, will expose personnel to unnecessarily high levels of radiation if the processes were completed manually, in glove boxes. Therefore, automated equipment is designed into the process to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure. Robots are used whenever the automated handling operations become complicated. There are two such operations in the initial stages of the Can-in-Canister process, which required a six-axis robot. The first operation is a press unloading process. The second operation is a tray transfer process. To successfully accomplish the operational tasks described in the two operations, the end-effector of the robot must be versatile, lightweight, and rugged. As a result of these demands, an extensive development process was undertaken to design the optimum end-effector for these puck-handling operations. As an overall requirement, it was desired to keep the design of the robot end-effector as simple as possible. There were pros and cons for either type of actuation method (pneumatic or electric). But, pneumatic actuation was chosen for its simplicity and durability in a radioactive environment. It was determined early in the design process that at least two different types of end-effectors would be required for each of the operations. Therefore, a tool changer was incorporated into the end-effector design. The tool changer would also provide for simple end-effector maintenance when used in the PIP process.

Fowley, M.D.

2001-01-03

144

End-Effector Development for the PIP Puck Handling Robot  

SciTech Connect

It has been decided that excess, weapons-grade plutonium shall be immobilized to prevent nuclear proliferation. The method of immobilization is to encapsulate the plutonium in a ceramic puck, roughly the size of a hockey puck, using a sintering process. This method has been officially identified as the Plutonium Immobilization Process (PIP). A Can-in-Canister storage method will be used to further immobilize the plutonium. The Can-in-Canister method uses the existing design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister to house the plutonium pucks. the process begins with several pucks being stacked in a stainless steel can. Several of the stainless steel cans are stacked in a cage-like magazine. Several of the magazines are then placed in a DWPF canister. The DWPF canister is then filled with molten glass containing high-level, radioactive waste from the DWPF vitrification process. The Can-in-Canister method makes reclamation of plutonium from the pucks technically difficult and highly undesirable. The mechanical requirements of the Can-in-Canister process, in conjunction with the amount of time required to immobilize the vast quantities of weapons-grade plutonium, will expose personnel to unnecessarily high levels of radiation if the processes were completed manually, in glove boxes. Therefore, automated equipment is designed into the process to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure. Robots are used whenever the automated handling operations become complicated. There are two such operations in the initial stages of the Can-in-Canister process, which required a six-axis robot. The first operation is a press unloading process. The second operation is a tray transfer process. To successfully accomplish the operational tasks described in the two operations, the end-effector of the robot must be versatile, lightweight, and rugged. As a result of these demands, an extensive development process was undertaken to design the optimum end-effector for these puck-handling operations. As an overall requirement, it was desired to keep the design of the robot end-effector as simple as possible. There were pros and cons for either type of actuation method (pneumatic or electric). But, pneumatic actuation was chosen for its simplicity and durability in a radioactive environment. It was determined early in the design process that at least two different types of end-effectors would be required for each of the operations. Therefore, a tool changer was incorporated into the end-effector design. The tool changer would also provide for simple end-effector maintenance when used in the PIP process.

Fowley, M.D.

2001-01-31

145

A smart end-effector for assembly of space truss structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique facility, the Automated Structures Research Laboratory, is being used to investigate robotic assembly of truss structures. A special-purpose end-effector is used to assemble structural elements into an eight meter diameter structure. To expand the capabilities of the facility to include construction of structures with curved surfaces from straight structural elements of different lengths, a new end-effector has been designed and fabricated. This end-effector contains an integrated microprocessor to monitor actuator operations through sensor feedback. This paper provides an overview of the automated assembly tasks required by this end-effector and a description of the new end-effector's hardware and control software.

Doggett, William R.; Rhodes, Marvin D.; Wise, Marion A.; Armistead, Maurice F.

1992-01-01

146

Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.  

PubMed

Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

2013-09-24

147

Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

1987-01-01

148

Effectors of alcohol-induced cell killing in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Heavy alcohol consumption provokes an array of degenerative pathologies but the signals that couple alcohol exposure to regulated forms of cell death are poorly understood. Using Drosophila as a model, we genetically establish that the severity of ethanol challenge dictates the type of death that occurs. In contrast to responses seen under acute exposure, cytotoxic responses to milder challenges required gene encoding components of the apoptosome, Dronc and Dark. We conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen to capture targets that specifically mediate ethanol-induced cell death. One effector, Drat, encodes a novel protein that contains an ADH domain but lacks essential residues in the catalytic site. In cultured cells and neurons in vivo, depletion of Drat conferred protection from alcohol-induced apoptosis. Adults mutated for Drat showed both improved survival and enhanced propensities toward sedation after alcohol challenge. Together, these findings highlight novel effectors that support regulated cell death incited by alcohol stress in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22539005

Chen, P; Tu, X; Akdemir, F; Chew, S K; Rothenfluh, A; Abrams, J M

2012-10-01

149

Salmonella effector proteins and host-cell responses  

PubMed Central

Acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium is a significant public health problem. This pathogen has very sophisticated molecular machinery encoded by the two pathogenicity islands, namely Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2). Remarkably, both SPI-1 and SPI-2 are very tightly regulated in terms of timing of expression and spatial localization of the encoded effectors during the infection process within the host cell. This regulation is governed at several levels, including transcription and translation, and by post-translational modifications. In the context of a finely tuned regulatory system, we will highlight how these effector proteins co-opt host signaling pathways that control the ability of the organism to infect and survive within the host, as well as elicit host proinflammatory responses. PMID:21984608

Srikanth, C.V.; Mercado-Lubo, Regino; Hallstrom, Kelly; McCormick, Beth A.

2013-01-01

150

Evidence for acquisition of virulence effectors in pathogenic chytrids  

PubMed Central

Background The decline in amphibian populations across the world is frequently linked to the infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). This is particularly perplexing because Bd was only recently discovered in 1999 and no chytrid fungus had previously been identified as a vertebrate pathogen. Results In this study, we show that two large families of known virulence effector genes, crinkler (CRN) proteins and serine peptidases, were acquired by Bd from oomycete pathogens and bacteria, respectively. These two families have been duplicated after their acquisition by Bd. Additional selection analyses indicate that both families evolved under strong positive selection, suggesting that they are involved in the adaptation of Bd to its hosts. Conclusions We propose that the acquisition of virulence effectors, in combination with habitat disruption and climate change, may have driven the Bd epidemics and the decline in amphibian populations. This finding provides a starting point for biochemical investigations of chytridiomycosis. PMID:21740557

2011-01-01

151

Identification of Novel Type III Effectors Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation  

PubMed Central

Among the six secretion systems identified in Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS) plays important roles in the disease development of pathogens. T3SS has attracted a great deal of research interests. However, the secretion mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Especially, the identification of effectors (secreted proteins) is an important and challenging task. This paper adopts machine learning methods to identify type III secreted effectors (T3SEs). We extract features from amino acid sequences and conduct feature reduction based on latent semantic information by using latent Dirichlet allocation model. The experimental results on Pseudomonas syringae data set demonstrate the good performance of the new methods. PMID:22997537

Yang, Yang

2012-01-01

152

Engineered antibody Fc variants with enhanced effector function  

PubMed Central

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, a key effector function for the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies, is mediated primarily through a set of closely related Fc? receptors with both activating and inhibitory activities. By using computational design algorithms and high-throughput screening, we have engineered a series of Fc variants with optimized Fc? receptor affinity and specificity. The designed variants display >2 orders of magnitude enhancement of in vitro effector function, enable efficacy against cells expressing low levels of target antigen, and result in increased cytotoxicity in an in vivo preclinical model. Our engineered Fc regions offer a means for improving the next generation of therapeutic antibodies and have the potential to broaden the diversity of antigens that can be targeted for antibody-based tumor therapy. PMID:16537476

Lazar, Greg A.; Dang, Wei; Karki, Sher; Vafa, Omid; Peng, Judy S.; Hyun, Linus; Chan, Cheryl; Chung, Helen S.; Eivazi, Araz; Yoder, Sean C.; Vielmetter, Jost; Carmichael, David F.; Hayes, Robert J.; Dahiyat, Bassil I.

2006-01-01

153

Interferon-inducible effector mechanisms in cell-autonomous immunity  

PubMed Central

Interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of hundreds of genes as part of an elaborate antimicrobial programme designed to combat infection in all nucleated cells — a process termed cell-autonomous immunity. As described in this Review, recent genomic and subgenomic analyses have begun to assign functional properties to novel IFN-inducible effector proteins that restrict bacteria, protozoa and viruses in different subcellular compartments and at different stages of the pathogen life cycle. Several newly described host defence factors also participate in canonical oxidative and autophagic pathways by spatially coordinating their activities to enhance microbial killing. Together, these IFN-induced effector networks help to confer vertebrate host resistance to a vast and complex microbial world. PMID:22531325

MacMicking, John D.

2014-01-01

154

TAL effectors are remote controls for gene activation.  

PubMed

TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors constitute a novel class of DNA-binding proteins with predictable specificity. They are employed by Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas which translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins via a type III secretion system (T3SS) into plant cells where they serve as virulence determinants. Inside the plant cell, TALs localize to the nucleus, bind to target promoters, and induce expression of plant genes. DNA-binding specificity of TALs is determined by a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat confers recognition of one base pair (bp) in the DNA. Rearrangement of repeat modules allows design of proteins with desired DNA-binding specificities. Here, we summarize how TAL specificity is encoded, first structural data and first data on site-specific TAL nucleases. PMID:21215685

Scholze, Heidi; Boch, Jens

2011-02-01

155

Correlation between segmental flexibility and effector function of antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse monoclonal anti-dansyl antibodies with the same antigen-binding sites but different heavy chain constant regions were generated. The extent of segmental flexibility in times of nanoseconds and the capacity to fix complement were greatest for IgG2b, intermediate for IgG2a, and least for IgG1 and IgE. Hence, the effector functions of immunoglobulin isotypes may be controlled in part by the freedom

V. T. Oi; T. M. Vuong; R. Hardy; J. Reidler; J. Dangl; L. A. Herzenberg; L. Stryer

1984-01-01

156

Mesenchymal stem cell effects on T-cell effector pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) are rare, multipotent progenitor cells that can be isolated and expanded from bone\\u000a marrow and other tissues. Strikingly, MSCs modulate the functions of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, natural killer\\u000a cells, monocyte\\/macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. T cells, activated to perform a range of different effector\\u000a functions, are the primary mediators of many

Michelle M Duffy; Thomas Ritter; Rhodri Ceredig; Matthew D Griffin

2011-01-01

157

A nematode effector protein similar to annexins in host plants.  

PubMed

Nematode parasitism genes encode secreted effector proteins that play a role in host infection. A homologue of the expressed Hg4F01 gene of the root-parasitic soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, encoding an annexin-like effector, was isolated in the related Heterodera schachtii to facilitate use of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host. Hs4F01 and its protein product were exclusively expressed within the dorsal oesophageal gland secretory cell in the parasitic stages of H. schachtii. Hs4F01 had a 41% predicted amino acid sequence identity to the nex-1 annexin of C. elegans and 33% identity to annexin-1 (annAt1) of Arabidopsis, it contained four conserved domains typical of the annexin family of calcium and phospholipid binding proteins, and it had a predicted signal peptide for secretion that was present in nematode annexins of only Heterodera spp. Constitutive expression of Hs4F01 in wild-type Arabidopsis promoted hyper-susceptibility to H. schachtii infection. Complementation of an AnnAt1 mutant by constitutive expression of Hs4F01 reverted mutant sensitivity to 75 mM NaCl, suggesting a similar function of the Hs4F01 annexin-like effector in the stress response by plant cells. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirmed a specific interaction between Hs4F01 and an Arabidopsis oxidoreductase member of the 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase family, a type of plant enzyme demonstrated to promote susceptibility to oomycete pathogens. RNA interference assays that expressed double-stranded RNA complementary to Hs4F01 in transgenic Arabidopsis specifically decreased parasitic nematode Hs4F01 transcript levels and significantly reduced nematode infection levels. The combined data suggest that nematode secretion of an Hs4F01 annexin-like effector into host root cells may mimic plant annexin function during the parasitic interaction. PMID:19887499

Patel, Nrupali; Hamamouch, Noureddine; Li, Chunying; Hewezi, Tarek; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L

2010-01-01

158

Receptor-coupled effector systems and their interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the modulation of intracellular signal generation by receptor-coupled effector systems in B lymphocytes, and whether these alterations are consistent with the effects of prostaglandins. TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate) and sn-1,2,-dioctanoylglycerol (diCâ) substitute for lipid derived signals which activate protein kinase C. Pretreating splenocytes from athymic nude mice with 100nM TPA or 5 μM diCâ potentiated the forskolin-induced increased in

1988-01-01

159

Mirror Sub-Assembly End-Effector Design  

SciTech Connect

The Optic Assembly Building (OAB) is a facility where large optical mirror units are assembled and installed into Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) for deployment into the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. The New Optics Insertion Device (NOID) is a powered jib crane specially designed to handle large optical assemblies. The NOID arm has three degrees of freedom. it can rotate about the vertical boom, travel up and down the boom, and extend away from and retract in towards the boom. The NOID is used to assist in the assembly of five types of Laser Mirror (LM) LRUs. These five LMs have been creatively named, LM4, LM5, LM6, LM7, and LM8. The LM4 and LM5 LRUs each contain four Mirror Sub-Assemblies (MSAs). The LM6, LM7, and LM8 LRUs each contain 2 MSAs. The MSAs are assembled apart from the LRU and are then installed in the LRU at the LM4-8 workstations. An MSA NOID End-Effector is required to interface with the MSAs and install them into the LRUs. The End-Effector must attach to the robo-hand on the end of the NOID arm. At the time the MSA NOID End-Effector was being designed the NOID, the LM4-5 workstation, and the LM6-8 workstation were already installed in the OAB. The LRUs and the MSAs designs were also complete. The MSA NOID End-Effector design had to work with the assembly equipment and LRU designs that were already in place.

Butlin, B

2007-01-08

160

Designing and testing the activities of TAL effector nucleases.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have rapidly developed into a powerful tool for genome editing. To avoid labor-intensive and time-consuming experimental screening for active TALENs, a scoring system can help select optimal target sites. Here we describe a procedure to design active TALENs using a scoring system named Scoring Algorithm for Predicted TALEN Activity (SAPTA) and a method to test the activity of individual and pairs of TALENs. PMID:24557905

Lin, Yanni; Cradick, Thomas J; Bao, Gang

2014-01-01

161

Targeting DNA double-strand breaks with TAL effector nucleases.  

PubMed

Engineered nucleases that cleave specific DNA sequences in vivo are valuable reagents for targeted mutagenesis. Here we report a new class of sequence-specific nucleases created by fusing transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to the catalytic domain of the FokI endonuclease. Both native and custom TALE-nuclease fusions direct DNA double-strand breaks to specific, targeted sites. PMID:20660643

Christian, Michelle; Cermak, Tomas; Doyle, Erin L; Schmidt, Clarice; Zhang, Feng; Hummel, Aaron; Bogdanove, Adam J; Voytas, Daniel F

2010-10-01

162

Xanthomonas AvrBs3 family-type III effectors: discovery and function.  

PubMed

Xanthomonads are bacterial plant pathogens that cause diseases on many plant species, including important crops. Key to pathogenicity of most Xanthomonas pathovars is a Hrp-type III secretion (T3S) system that translocates effector proteins into plant cells. Within the eukaryotic cell, the effectors are thought to perform a variety of tasks to support bacterial virulence, proliferation, and dissemination. We are only beginning to understand the host targets of different effectors. The largest effector family found in Xanthomonas spp. is the AvrBs3/PthA or TAL (transcription activator-like) family. TAL effectors act as transcriptional activators in the plant cell nucleus. Specificity of TAL effectors is determined by a novel modular DNA-binding domain. Here, we describe the discovery of TAL effectors and their structure, activity, and host targets. PMID:19400638

Boch, Jens; Bonas, Ulla

2010-01-01

163

Compact effector optics for processing in limited physical access situations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major advantage of fiber-optic beam delivery in laser materials processing is the ability to guide the laser power to the location where it is needed, leaving the laser itself remote and protected from the process. This is of special importance if the processing is to be performed in a hazardous environment. Particular problems are faced by the nuclear industry where weld repair and surface treatment work are required inside radioactive installations. By use of fiber beam delivery, only part of the delivery system and effector optics become contaminated, but the expensive laser system does not. However, in many cases the region where repair is required is not only radioactive but has only limited physical access, e.g., inside tubes or into corners, which prevents use of standard effector optics. We present a new design to deal with such constraints of a 2-mm outer diameter employing a hollow waveguide and gas shielding. This design is optically characterized and its performance assessed in welding and surface treatment applications. The potential of this compact effector optics in limited physical access situations is clearly demonstrated.

Kuhn, Andreas; Fox, Mahlen D. T.; French, Paul W.; Hettrick, Simon; Hand, Duncan P.; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Watkins, Kenneth G.; Ireland, Clive L. M.; Jones, Julian D. C.

2003-09-01

164

Th17 cells: Effector T cells with inflammatory properties  

PubMed Central

Upon activation, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into effector T cells with specific effector functions and cytokine profiles. The Th1/Th2 paradigm has recently been reevaluated to include a third population of T helper cells, producing IL-17 and designated Th17. The differentiation of Th17 cells requires the coordinate and specific action of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-?. In addition, the IL-12 family member IL-23 is involved in the maintenance of these cells. Analogous to other T helper cell subsets, Th17 commitment is initiated by sequential involvement of STAT molecules, i. e. STAT3 downstream of cytokine receptors, and specific transcription factors, i. e. ROR-?t. Recent data also support the existence of a complex network of cytokines regulating Th17 cells. Clearly, the specific effector functions of Th17 cells expand beyond previously described effects of Th1 and Th2 immunity, with specific roles in host defense against certain pathogens and in organ specific autoimmunity. The potential dynamics of Th17 cell populations and their interplay with other inflammatory cells in the induction of tissue inflammation in host defense and organ-specific autoimmunity are discussed. PMID:18035554

Korn, Thomas; Oukka, Mohamed; Kuchroo, Vijay; Bettelli, Estelle

2010-01-01

165

Gene-modified human ?/?-T cells expressing a chimeric CD16-CD3? receptor as adoptively transferable effector cells for anticancer monoclonal antibody therapy.  

PubMed

The central tumoricidal activity of anticancer monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is exerted by Fc?R IIIa (CD16)-expressing effector cells in vivo via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), as observed for natural killer (NK) cells. In practice, chemotherapy-induced leukopenia and exhaustion of NK cells resulting from ADCC often hamper the clinical efficacy of cancer treatment. To circumvent this drawback, we examined in vivo the feasibility of T cells, gene-modified to express a newly generated affinity-matured (158V/V) chimeric CD16-CD3? receptor (cCD16?-T cells), as a transferable alternative effector for cancer mAb therapy. cCD16?-T cells were readily expandable in ex vivo culture using anti-CD2/CD3/CD28 beads and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2), and they successfully displayed ADCC-mediated tumoricidal activity in vitro. During ADCC, ligation of opsonized cancer cells to the introduced cCD16?-T cells stimulated the effector cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines and release toxic granules through the activation of the Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway after phosphorylation of the CD3? chain. In parallel, these stimulated cCD16?-T cells transiently proliferated and differentiated into effector memory T cells. In contrast, NK cells activated by rhIL-2 displayed similar ADCC activity, but failed to proliferate. Human cCD16?-T cells infused concomitantly with anti-CD20 mAb synergistically inhibited the growth of disseminated Raji cells, a CD20(+) lymphoma cell line, in immunodeficient mice, whereas similarly infused rhIL-2-treated NK cells survived for a shorter time and displayed less effective tumor suppression. Our findings strongly suggest the clinical feasibility of cCD16?-T cells as adoptively transferable ADCC effector cells that could potentially enhance the clinical responses mediated by currently available anticancer mAbs. PMID:24778321

Ochi, Fumihiro; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Kazushi; Asai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Sachiko; Mineno, Junichi; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Shiku, Hiroshi; Barrett, John; Ishii, Eiichi; Yasukawa, Masaki

2014-03-01

166

Fire Suppression and Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

Ruff, Gary A.

2004-01-01

167

ANTIGEN SPECIFIC ANTIBODY COATED EXOSOME-LIKE NANOVESICLES DELIVER SUPPRESSOR T CELL miRNA-150 TO EFFECTOR T CELLS IN CONTACT SENSITIVITY  

PubMed Central

Background T cell tolerance of allergic cutaneous contact sensitivity (CS) induced in mice by high doses of reactive hapten is mediated by suppressor cells that release antigen-specific suppressive nanovesicles. Objective To determine the mechanism(s) of immune suppression mediated by the nanovesicles. Methods T cell tolerance was induced by i.v. injections of hapten conjugated to self antigens of syngeneic erythrocytes and subsequent contact immunization with the same hapten. Lymph node and spleen cells from tolerized or control donors were harvested and cultured to produce a supernatant containing suppressive nanovesicles that were isolated for testing in active and adoptive cell transfer models of CS. Results Tolerance was shown due to exosome-like nanovesicles in the supernatant of CD8+ suppressor T cells that were not Treg. Antigen specificity of the suppressive nanovesicles was conferred by a surface coat of antibody light chains, or possibly whole antibody, allowing targeted delivery of selected inhibitory miRNA-150 to CS effector T cells. Nanovesicles also inhibited CS in actively sensitized mice after systemic injection at the peak of the responses. The role of antibody and miRNA-150 was established by tolerizing either panimmunoglobulin deficient JH-/- or miRNA-150-/- mice that produced non-suppressive nanovesicles. These nanovesicles could be made suppressive by adding antigen-specific antibody light chains or miRNA-150, respectively. Conclusions This is the first example of T cell regulation via systemic transit of exosome-like nanovesicles delivering a chosen inhibitory miRNA to target effector T cells in an antigen-specific manner by a surface coating of antibody light chains. PMID:23727037

Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Ptak, Wlodzimierz; Jayakumar, Asha; Pullmann, Kerstin; Caplan, Michael J.; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Lu, Jun; Adams, Brian; Sikora, Emilia; Nazimek, Katarzyna; Marquez, Susanna; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Sangwung, Panjamaporn; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Delgato, Eric; Redegeld, Frank; Blokhuis, Bart R.; Wojcikowski, Jacek; Daniel, Anna Wladyslawa; Kormelink, Tom Groot; Askenase, Philip W.

2014-01-01

168

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist pioglitazone suppresses experimental autoimmune uveitis.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonists are clinically used as anti-diabetes agents. Recent research has discovered that an anti-inflammatory effect of PPAR agonist may have the potential to treat autoimmune disease. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR-? agonist, pioglitazone, on murine model of endogenous uveitis. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) was induced by immunizing C57BL/6 mice with human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein-derived peptide (1-20). Pioglitazone or vehicle was injected intravenously from day -1 (whole phase treatment) or day 8 (effector phase study) until day 20. Severity of EAU was assessed clinically and pathologically on day 21. Immunological status was assessed by measuring intraocular inflammatory factors, and activation and regulatory markers of CD4(+) T cells in draining lymph nodes (LNs). Treatment with pioglitazone suppressed both whole-phase and effector-phase of EAU. In effector-phase treatment, intraocular concentrations of TNF-? and IL-6 were significantly suppressed, and CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and CD4(+)CD62L(high) naïve T cells increased in draining LNs, although there were no differences in CD4(+)CD44(high) effector T cells and IL-17 producing CD4(+) T cells between pioglitazone- and vehicle-treated mice. Administration of pioglitazone before and after the onset of EAU significantly reduced disease severity. The present results suggest that pioglitazone may be a novel therapeutic agent for endogenous uveitis. PMID:24107513

Okunuki, Yoko; Usui, Yoshihiko; Nakagawa, Hayate; Tajima, Kazuki; Matsuda, Ryusaku; Ueda, Shunichiro; Hattori, Takaaki; Kezuka, Takeshi; Goto, Hiroshi

2013-11-01

169

The Salmonella effector SteA contributes to the control of membrane dynamics of Salmonella-containing vacuoles.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans and a typhoid-like systemic disease in mice. S. Typhimurium virulence is related to its capacity to multiply intracellularly within a membrane-bound compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), and depends on type III secretion systems that deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells. Here, we analyzed the cellular function of the Salmonella effector SteA. We show that, compared to cells infected by wild-type S. Typhimurium, cells infected by ?steA mutant bacteria displayed fewer Salmonella-induced filaments (SIFs), an increased clustering of SCVs, and morphologically abnormal vacuoles containing more than one bacterium. The increased clustering of SCVs and the appearance of vacuoles containing more than one bacterium were suppressed by inhibition of the activity of the microtubule motor dynein or kinesin-1. Clustering and positioning of SCVs are controlled by the effectors SseF and SseG, possibly by helping to maintain a balanced activity of microtubule motors on the bacterial vacuoles. Deletion of steA in S. Typhimurium ?sseF or ?sseG mutants revealed that SteA contributes to the characteristic scattered distribution of ?sseF or ?sseG mutant SCVs in infected cells. Overall, this shows that SteA participates in the control of SCV membrane dynamics. Moreover, it indicates that SteA is functionally linked to SseF and SseG and suggests that it might contribute directly or indirectly to the regulation of microtubule motors on the bacterial vacuoles. PMID:24778114

Domingues, Lia; Holden, David W; Mota, Luís Jaime

2014-07-01

170

Thought suppression and psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wegner's seminal investigations of effects of thought suppression on later thought frequency have had a significant impact on recent approaches to understanding emotional disorders characterized by the occurrence of persistent, repetitive, unwanted thoughts. Thought suppression has now been implicated as a etiological and\\/or maintaining factor in depression, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder. These developments

Christine Purdon

1999-01-01

171

Identification and Characterisation CRN Effectors in Phytophthora capsici Shows Modularity and Functional Diversity  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora species secrete a large array of effectors during infection of their host plants. The Crinkler (CRN) gene family encodes a ubiquitous but understudied class of effectors with possible but as of yet unknown roles in infection. To appreciate CRN effector function in Phytophthora, we devised a simple Crn gene identification and annotation pipeline to improve effector prediction rates. We predicted 84 full-length CRN coding genes and assessed CRN effector domain diversity in sequenced Oomycete genomes. These analyses revealed evidence of CRN domain innovation in Phytophthora and expansion in the Peronosporales. We performed gene expression analyses to validate and define two classes of CRN effectors, each possibly contributing to infection at different stages. CRN localisation studies revealed that P. capsici CRN effector domains target the nucleus and accumulate in specific sub-nuclear compartments. Phenotypic analyses showed that few CRN domains induce necrosis when expressed in planta and that one cell death inducing effector, enhances P. capsici virulence on Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggest that the CRN protein family form an important class of intracellular effectors that target the host nucleus during infection. These results combined with domain expansion in hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, suggests specific contributions to pathogen lifestyles. This work will bolster CRN identification efforts in other sequenced oomycete species and set the stage for future functional studies towards understanding CRN effector functions. PMID:23536880

Stam, Remco; Jupe, Julietta; Howden, Andrew J. M.; Morris, Jenny A.; Boevink, Petra C.; Hedley, Pete E.; Huitema, Edgar

2013-01-01

172

Expression of the bacterial type III effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae down-regulates the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway leading to growth arrest.  

PubMed

Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (?sur4, ?fen1, ?ipt1, ?skn1, ?csg1, ?csg2, ?orm1, and ?orm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A ?cdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest. PMID:24828506

Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N; Barny, Marie-Anne

2014-06-27

173

Flavonols modulate the effector functions of healthy individuals' immune complex-stimulated neutrophils: a therapeutic perspective for rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients usually exhibit immune complex (IC) deposition and increased neutrophil activation in the joint. In this study, we assessed how four flavonols (galangin, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin) modulate the effector functions of healthy individuals' and active RA patients' IC-stimulated neutrophils. We measured superoxide anion and total reactive oxygen species production using lucigenin (CL-luc)- and luminol (CL-lum)-enhanced chemiluminescence assays, respectively. Galangin, kaempferol, and quercetin inhibited CL-lum to the same degree (mean IC50=2.5 ?M). At 2.5 ?M, quercetin and galangin suppressed nearly 65% CL-lum of active RA patients' neutrophils. Quercetin inhibited CL-luc the most effectively (IC50=1.71±0.36 ?M). The four flavonols diminished myeloperoxidase activity, but they did not decrease NADPH oxidase activity, phagocytosis, microbial killing, or cell viability of neutrophils. The ability of the flavonols to scavenge hypochlorous acid and chloramines, but not H2O2, depended on the hydroxylation degree of the flavonol B-ring. Therefore, at physiologically relevant concentrations, the flavonols partially inhibited the oxidative metabolism of IC-stimulated neutrophils without affecting the other investigated effector functions. Using these compounds to modulate IC-mediated neutrophil activation is a promising safe therapeutic strategy to control inflammation in active RA patients. PMID:24797916

Santos, Everton O L; Kabeya, Luciana M; Figueiredo-Rinhel, Andréa S G; Marchi, Larissa F; Andrade, Micássio F; Piatesi, Fabiana; Paoliello-Paschoalato, Adriana B; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M

2014-07-01

174

Opposing Effects of CTLA4 Insufficiency on Regulatory versus Conventional T Cells in Autoimmunity Converge on Effector Memory in Target Tissue.  

PubMed

Quantitative variations in CTLA4 expression, because of genetic polymorphisms, are associated with various human autoimmune conditions, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Extensive studies have demonstrated that CTLA4 is not only essential for the suppressive role of regulatory T cells (Treg) but also required for intrinsic control of conventional T (Tconv) cells. We report that a modest insufficiency of CTLA4 in mice, which mimics the effect of some human CTLA4 genetic polymorphisms, accompanied by a T1D-permissive MHC locus, was sufficient to induce juvenile-onset diabetes on an otherwise T1D-resistant genetic background. Reduction in CTLA4 levels had an unanticipated effect in promoting Treg function both in vivo and in vitro. It led to an increase in Treg memory in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid target tissue. Conversely, modulating CTLA4 by either RNA interference or Ab blockade promoted conventional effector memory T cell formation in the Tconv compartment. The CD4(+) conventional effector memory T cells, including those within target tissue, produced IL-17 or IFN-?. Blocking IL-7 signaling reduced the Th17 autoimmune compartment but did not suppress the T1D induced by CTLA4 insufficiency. Enhanced effector memory formation in both Tconv and Treg lineages may underpin the apparently dichotomized impact of CTLA4 insufficiency on autoimmune pathogenesis. Therefore, although the presence of CTLA4 plays a critical role in controlling homeostasis of T cells, its quantitative variation may impose diverse or even opposing effects on distinct lineages of T cells, an optimal sum of which is necessary for preservation of T cell immunity while suppressing tissue damage. PMID:25246499

Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Miska, Jason; Lui, Jen Bon; Swieboda, Dominika; Chen, Zhibin

2014-11-01

175

Beyond glycoproteins as galectin counterreceptors: tumor-effector T cell growth control via ganglioside GM1 [corrected].  

PubMed

Glycoprotein glycan chains, by virtue of structure, topology of presentation and connection to signal-inducing units, are functional galectin counterreceptors. As example, cross-linking of the ?(5)?(1) integrin by galectin-1 on carcinoma cells leads to G(1) arrest or anoikis. Contact-dependent switching from proliferation to differentiation in cultured neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-MC) also utilizes galectin-1. Activity enhancement of a cell surface sialidase underlies the shift in glycan display to ganglioside GM1. Its pentasaccharide within microdomains becomes the target. Similarly, this recognition pair is upregulated upon T cell activation. Cross-linking of GM1 along with associated ?(4)/?(5)?(1) integrins elicits Ca(2+)-influx via TRPC5 channels as the relevant response for T effector cell (T(eff)) suppression. Unlike T(eff) cells from wild-type mice, those from genetically altered mice lacking GM1 are not suppressed by galectin-1 or regulatory T cells. Similarly, in the context of GM1 deficiency in NOD mice, T(eff) cells are associated with resistance to regulatory T cell suppression, which is reversed by applied GM1. The broad array of glycosphingolipid structures suggests the possible existence of several novel counterreceptors targeted to endogenous lectins, with sulfatide-galectin-4 interplay within apical delivery serving as recent example. PMID:22524425

Ledeen, Robert W; Wu, Gusheng; André, Sabine; Bleich, David; Huet, Guillemette; Kaltner, Herbert; Kopitz, Jürgen; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

2012-04-01

176

PRDM1/Blimp-1 Controls Effector Cytokine Production in Human NK Cells  

PubMed Central

NK cells are major effectors of the innate immune response through cytolysis and bridge to the adaptive immune response through cytokine release. The mediators of activation are well studied however little is known about the mechanisms which restrain activation. In this report, we demonstrate that the transcriptional repressor PRDM1 (also known as Blimp-1 or PRDI-BF1) is a critical negative regulator of NK function. Three distinct PRDM1 isoforms are selectively induced in the CD56dim NK population in response to activation. PRDM1 coordinately suppresses release of IFN?, TNF? and TNF? through direct binding to multiple conserved regulatory regions. Ablation of PRDM1 expression leads to enhanced production of IFN? and TNF? but does not alter cytotoxicity, while overexpression blocks cytokine production. Novel PRDM1 response elements are defined at both the IFNG and TNF loci. Collectively, these data demonstrate a key role for PRDM1 in the negative regulation of NK activation and position PRDM1 as a common regulator of both the adaptive and innate immune response. PMID:20944005

Smith, Matthew A.; Maurin, Michelle; Cho, Hyun Il; Becknell, Brian; Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Wei, Sheng; Djeu, Julie; Celis, Esteban; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Wright, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

177

PRDM1/Blimp-1 controls effector cytokine production in human NK cells.  

PubMed

NK cells are major effectors of the innate immune response through cytolysis and bridge to the adaptive immune response through cytokine release. The mediators of activation are well studied; however, little is known about the mechanisms that restrain activation. In this report, we demonstrate that the transcriptional repressor PRDM1 (also known as Blimp-1 or PRDI-BF1) is a critical negative regulator of NK function. Three distinct PRDM1 isoforms are selectively induced in the CD56(dim) NK population in response to activation. PRDM1 coordinately suppresses the release of IFN-?, TNF-?, and TNF-? through direct binding to multiple conserved regulatory regions. Ablation of PRDM1 expression leads to enhanced production of IFN-? and TNF-? but does not alter cytotoxicity, whereas overexpression blocks cytokine production. PRDM1 response elements are defined at the IFNG and TNF loci. Collectively, these data demonstrate a key role for PRDM1 in the negative regulation of NK activation and position PRDM1 as a common regulator of the adaptive and innate immune response. PMID:20944005

Smith, Matthew A; Maurin, Michelle; Cho, Hyun Il; Becknell, Brian; Freud, Aharon G; Yu, Jianhua; Wei, Sheng; Djeu, Julie; Celis, Esteban; Caligiuri, Michael A; Wright, Kenneth L

2010-11-15

178

The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro-Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo. PMID:24862573

DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B; Gorski, Sharon M

2014-05-26

179

Investigation of a bio-inspired lift-enhancing effector on a 2D airfoil.  

PubMed

A flap mounted on the upper surface of an airfoil, called a 'lift-enhancing effector', has been shown in wind tunnel tests to have a similar function to a bird's covert feathers, which rise off the wing's surface in response to separated flows. The effector, fabricated from a thin Mylar sheet, is allowed to rotate freely about its leading edge. The tests were performed in the NCSU subsonic wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4 × 10(5). The maximum lift coefficient with the effector was the same as that for the clean airfoil, but was maintained over an angle-of-attack range from 12° to almost 20°, resulting in a very gentle stall behavior. To better understand the aerodynamics and to estimate the deployment angle of the free-moving effector, fixed-angle effectors fabricated out of stiff wood were also tested. A progressive increase in the stall angle of attack with increasing effector angle was observed, with diminishing returns beyond the effector angle of 60°. Drag tests on both the free-moving and fixed effectors showed a marked improvement in drag at high angles of attack. Oil flow visualization on the airfoil with and without the fixed-angle effectors proved that the effector causes the separation point to move aft on the airfoil, as compared to the clean airfoil. This is thought to be the main mechanism by which an effector improves both lift and drag. A comparison of the fixed-effector results with those from the free-effector tests shows that the free effector's deployment angle is between 30° and 45°. When operating at and beyond the clean airfoil's stall angle, the free effector automatically deploys to progressively higher angles with increasing angles of attack. This slows down the rapid upstream movement of the separation point and avoids the severe reduction in the lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient that are seen on the clean airfoil at the onset of stall. Thus, the effector postpones the stall by 4-8° and makes the stall behavior more gentle. The benefits of using the effector could include care-free operations at high angles of attack during perching and maneuvering flight, especially in gusty conditions. PMID:22498691

Johnston, Joe; Gopalarathnam, Ashok

2012-09-01

180

The glucose transporter Glut1 is selectively essential for CD4 T cell activation and effector function.  

PubMed

CD4 T cell activation leads to proliferation and differentiation into effector (Teff) or regulatory (Treg) cells that mediate or control immunity. While each subset prefers distinct glycolytic or oxidative metabolic programs in vitro, requirements and mechanisms that control T cell glucose uptake and metabolism in vivo are uncertain. Despite expression of multiple glucose transporters, Glut1 deficiency selectively impaired metabolism and function of thymocytes and Teff. Resting T cells were normal until activated, when Glut1 deficiency prevented increased glucose uptake and glycolysis, growth, proliferation, and decreased Teff survival and differentiation. Importantly, Glut1 deficiency decreased Teff expansion and the ability to induce inflammatory disease in vivo. Treg cells, in contrast, were enriched in vivo and appeared functionally unaffected and able to suppress Teff, irrespective of Glut1 expression. These data show a selective in vivo requirement for Glut1 in metabolic reprogramming of CD4 T cell activation and Teff expansion and survival. PMID:24930970

Macintyre, Andrew N; Gerriets, Valerie A; Nichols, Amanda G; Michalek, Ryan D; Rudolph, Michael C; Deoliveira, Divino; Anderson, Steven M; Abel, E Dale; Chen, Benny J; Hale, Laura P; Rathmell, Jeffrey C

2014-07-01

181

Transgenic Plants That Express the Phytoplasma Effector SAP11 Show Altered Phosphate Starvation and Defense Responses1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular phosphate (Pi) and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and microRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24464367

Lu, Yen-Ting; Li, Meng-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Tan, Choon Meng; Su, Li-Wen; Lin, Wei-Yi; Shih, Hsien-Tzung; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen; Yang, Jun-Yi

2014-01-01

182

Telepresence Master Glove Controller For Dexterous Robotic End-Effectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent research in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at NASA's Ames Research Center to develop a glove-like, control and data-recording device (DataGlove) that records and transmits to a host computerin real time, and at appropriate resolution, a numeric data-record of a user's hand/finger shape and dynamics. System configuration and performance specifications are detailed, and current research is discussed investigating its applications in operator control of dexterous robotic end-effectors and for use as a human factors research tool in evaluation of operator hand function requirements and performance in other specialized task environments.

Fowler, A. M.; Joyce, R. R.; Britt, J. P.

1987-03-01

183

Galaxy as a platform for identifying candidate pathogen effectors.  

PubMed

The Galaxy web platform provides an integrated system for its users to run multiple computational tools, linking their output in order to perform sophisticated analysis without requiring any programming or installation of software beyond a modern web-browser. Analyses can be saved as reusable workflows, and shared with other Galaxy users, allowing them to easily perform the same analysis or protocol on their own data.We describe example Galaxy workflows for the identification of candidate pathogen effector proteins. Our main example focuses on nematode plant pathogens where signal peptide and transmembrane prediction tools are used to identify predicted secreted proteins. PMID:24643548

Cock, Peter J A; Pritchard, Leighton

2014-01-01

184

Principles and applications of TAL effectors for plant physiology and metabolism.  

PubMed

Recent advances in DNA targeting allow unprecedented control over gene function and expression. Targeting based on TAL effectors is arguably the most promising for systems biology and metabolic engineering. Multiple, orthogonal TAL-effector reagents of different types can be used in the same cell. Furthermore, variation in base preferences of the individual structural repeats that make up the TAL effector DNA recognition domain makes targeting stringency tunable. Realized applications range from genome editing to epigenome modification to targeted gene regulation to chromatin labeling and capture. The principles that govern TAL effector DNA recognition make TAL effectors well suited for applications relevant to plant physiology and metabolism. TAL effector targeting has merits that are distinct from those of the RNA-based DNA targeting CRISPR/Cas9 system. PMID:24907530

Bogdanove, Adam J

2014-06-01

185

Secreted fungal effector lipase releases free fatty acids to inhibit innate immunity-related callose formation during wheat head infection.  

PubMed

The deposition of the (1,3)-?-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant's innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant ?fgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the ?fgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and ?-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with ?fgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the ?fgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and ?-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection. PMID:24686113

Blümke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Björn; Bode, Rainer; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A

2014-05-01

186

Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm gripper end effector  

SciTech Connect

This gripper end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized.

Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

1995-02-01

187

Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm sampler end effector  

SciTech Connect

This sampler end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized.

Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

1995-02-01

188

Computational predictions provide insights into the biology of TAL effector target sites.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are injected into host plant cells by Xanthomonas bacteria to function as transcriptional activators for the benefit of the pathogen. The DNA binding domain of TAL effectors is composed of conserved amino acid repeat structures containing repeat-variable diresidues (RVDs) that determine DNA binding specificity. In this paper, we present TALgetter, a new approach for predicting TAL effector target sites based on a statistical model. In contrast to previous approaches, the parameters of TALgetter are estimated from training data computationally. We demonstrate that TALgetter successfully predicts known TAL effector target sites and often yields a greater number of predictions that are consistent with up-regulation in gene expression microarrays than an existing approach, Target Finder of the TALE-NT suite. We study the binding specificities estimated by TALgetter and approve that different RVDs are differently important for transcriptional activation. In subsequent studies, the predictions of TALgetter indicate a previously unreported positional preference of TAL effector target sites relative to the transcription start site. In addition, several TAL effectors are predicted to bind to the TATA-box, which might constitute one general mode of transcriptional activation by TAL effectors. Scrutinizing the predicted target sites of TALgetter, we propose several novel TAL effector virulence targets in rice and sweet orange. TAL-mediated induction of the candidates is supported by gene expression microarrays. Validity of these targets is also supported by functional analogy to known TAL effector targets, by an over-representation of TAL effector targets with similar function, or by a biological function related to pathogen infection. Hence, these predicted TAL effector virulence targets are promising candidates for studying the virulence function of TAL effectors. TALgetter is implemented as part of the open-source Java library Jstacs, and is freely available as a web-application and a command line program. PMID:23526890

Grau, Jan; Wolf, Annett; Reschke, Maik; Bonas, Ulla; Posch, Stefan; Boch, Jens

2013-01-01

189

A Transgenic Mouse Model to Analyze CD8+ Effector T Cell Differentiation in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigen-specific effector T cells are prerequisite to immune protection, but because of the lack of effector cell-specific markers, their generation and differentiation has been difficult to study. We report that effector cells are highly enriched in a T cell subset that can be specifically identified in transgenic (T-GFP) mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the murine CD4

N. Manjunath; P. Shankar; B. Stockton; P. D. Dubey; J. Lieberman; U. H. von Andrian

1999-01-01

190

A Plethora of Virulence Strategies Hidden Behind Nuclear Targeting of Microbial Effectors  

PubMed Central

Plant immune responses depend on the ability to couple rapid recognition of the invading microbe to an efficient response. During evolution, plant pathogens have acquired the ability to deliver effector molecules inside host cells in order to manipulate cellular and molecular processes and establish pathogenicity. Following translocation into plant cells, microbial effectors may be addressed to different subcellular compartments. Intriguingly, a significant number of effector proteins from different pathogenic microorganisms, including viruses, oomycetes, fungi, nematodes, and bacteria, is targeted to the nucleus of host cells. In agreement with this observation, increasing evidence highlights the crucial role played by nuclear dynamics, and nucleocytoplasmic protein trafficking during a great variety of analyzed plant–pathogen interactions. Once in the nucleus, effector proteins are able to manipulate host transcription or directly subvert essential host components to promote virulence. Along these lines, it has been suggested that some effectors may affect histone packing and, thereby, chromatin configuration. In addition, microbial effectors may either directly activate transcription or target host transcription factors to alter their regular molecular functions. Alternatively, nuclear translocation of effectors may affect subcellular localization of their cognate resistance proteins in a process that is essential for resistance protein-mediated plant immunity. Here, we review recent progress in our field on the identification of microbial effectors that are targeted to the nucleus of host plant cells. In addition, we discuss different virulence strategies deployed by microbes, which have been uncovered through examination of the mechanisms that guide nuclear localization of effector proteins. PMID:22639625

Rivas, Susana; Genin, Stéphane

2011-01-01

191

Method and apparatus for positioning a robotic end effector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robotic end effector and operation protocol for a reliable grasp of a target object irrespective of the target's contours is disclosed. A robotic hand includes a plurality of jointed fingers, one of which, like a thumb, is in opposed relation to the other. Each finger is comprised of at least two jointed sections, and provided with reflective proximity sensors, one on the inner surface of each finger section. Each proximity sensor comprises a transmitter of a beam of radiant energy and means for receiving reflections of the transmitted energy when reflected by a target object and for generating electrical signals responsive thereto. On the fingers opposed to the thumb, the proximity sensors on the outermost finger sections are aligned in an outer sensor array and the sensors on the intermediate finger sections and sensors on the innermost finger sections are similarly arranged to form an intermediate sensor array and an inner sensor array, respectively. The invention includes a computer system with software and/or circuitry for a protocol comprising the steps in sequence of: (1) approach axis alignment to maximize the number of outer layer sensors which detect the target; (2) non-contact contour following the target by the robot fingers to minimize target escape potential; and (3) closing to rigidize the target including dynamically re-adjusting the end effector finger alignment to compensate for target motion. A signal conditioning circuit and gain adjustment means are included to maintain the dynamic range of low power reflection signals.

Hess, Clifford W. (inventor); Li, Larry C. H. (inventor)

1990-01-01

192

Flight Control Using Distributed Shape-Change Effector Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent discoveries in material science and fluidics have been used to create a variety of novel effector devices that offer great potential to enable new approaches to aerospace vehicle flight control. Examples include small inflatable blisters, shape-memory alloy diaphragms, and piezoelectric patches that may be used to produce distortions or bumps on the surface of an airfoil to generate control moments. Small jets have also been used to produce a virtual shape-change through fluidic means by creating a recirculation bubble on the surface of an airfoil. An advanced aerospace vehicle might use distributed arrays of hundreds of such devices to generate moments for stabilization and maneuver control, either augmenting or replacing conventional ailerons, flaps or rudders. This research demonstrates the design and use of shape-change device arrays for a tailless aircraft in a low-rate maneuvering application. A methodology for assessing the control authority of the device arrays is described, and a suite of arrays is used in a dynamic simulation to illustrate allocation and deployment methodologies. Although the authority of the preliminary shape-change array designs studied in this paper appeared quite low, the simulation results indicate that the effector suite possessed sufficient authority to stabilize and maneuver the vehicle in mild turbulence.

Raney, David L.; Montgomery, Raymond C.; Green, Lawrence I.; Park, Michael A.

2000-01-01

193

Genome-Wide Silencing in Drosophila Captures Conserved Apoptotic Effectors  

PubMed Central

Summary Apoptosis is a conserved form of programmed cell death (PCD) firmly established in the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of many human diseases. Central to the core machinery of apoptosis are the caspases and their proximal regulators. Current models for caspase control envision a balance of opposing elements, with variable contributions from positive regulators and negative regulators among different cell types and species1. To advance a comprehensive view of components that support caspase-dependent cell death, we conducted a genome-wide silencing screen in the Drosophila model. Our strategy combined a library of dsRNAs together with a chemical antagonist of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) that simulates the action of native regulators in the Reaper/Smac family2. A highly validated set of targets necessary for death provoked by multiple stimuli was identified. Among these, Tango7 is advanced here as a novel effector. Cells depleted for this gene resisted apoptosis at a step prior to induction of effector caspase activity and directed silencing of Tango7 in the animal prevented caspase-dependent PCD. Unlike known apoptosis regulators in this model3, Tango7 activity did not influence stimulus-dependent loss of Drosophila IAP1 (DIAP1) but, instead, regulated levels of the apical caspase Dronc. Likewise, the human Tango7 counterpart, PCID1, similarly impinged on caspase 9, revealing a novel regulatory axis impacting the apoptosome. PMID:19483676

Chew, Su Kit; Chen, Po; Link, Nichole; Galindo, Kathleen A.; Pogue, Kristi; Abrams, John M.

2009-01-01

194

Local sensory control of a dexterous end effector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical scheme was developed to solve the inverse kinematics for a user-defined manipulator. The scheme was based on a nonlinear least-squares technique which determines the joint variables by minimizing the difference between the target end effector pose and the actual end effector pose. The scheme was adapted to a dexterous hand in which the joints are either prismatic or revolute and the fingers are considered open kinematic chains. Feasible solutions were obtained using a three-fingered dexterous hand. An algorithm to estimate the position and orientation of a pre-grasped object was also developed. The algorithm was based on triangulation using an ideal sensor and a spherical object model. By choosing the object to be a sphere, only the position of the object frame was important. Based on these simplifications, a minimum of three sensors are needed to find the position of a sphere. A two dimensional example to determine the position of a circle coordinate frame using a two-fingered dexterous hand was presented.

Pinto, Victor H.; Everett, Louis J.; Driels, Morris

1990-01-01

195

Efficient disruption of endogenous Bombyx gene by TAL effector nucleases.  

PubMed

Engineered nucleases are proteins that are able to cleave DNA at specified sites in the genome. These proteins have recently been used for gene targeting in a number of organisms. We showed earlier that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can be used for generating gene-specific mutations in Bombyx mori by an error-prone DNA repair process of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Here we test the utility of another type of chimeric nuclease based on bacterial TAL effector proteins in order to induce targeted mutations in silkworm DNA. We designed three TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) against the genomic locus BmBLOS2, previously targeted by ZFNs. All three TALENs were able to induce mutations in silkworm germline cells suggesting a higher success rate of this type of chimeric enzyme. The efficiency of two of the tested TALENs was slightly higher than of the successful ZFN used previously. Simple design, high frequency of candidate targeting sites and comparable efficiency of induction of NHEJ mutations make TALENs an important alternative to ZFNs. PMID:23142190

Sajwan, Suresh; Takasu, Yoko; Tamura, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Zurovec, Michal

2013-01-01

196

Innovative technology summary report: Confined sluicing end effector  

SciTech Connect

A Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE) was field tested during the summer of 1997 in Tank W-3, one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It should be noted that the specific device used at the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstration was the Sludge Retrieval End-Effector (SREE), although in common usage it is referred to as the CSEE. Deployed by the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) and the Houdini remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the CSEE was used to mobilize and retrieve waste from the tank. After removing the waste, the CSEE was used to scarify the gunite walls of Tank W-3, removing approximately 0.1 in of material. The CSEE uses three rotating water-jets to direct a short-range pressurized jet of water to effectively mobilize the waste. Simultaneously, the water and dislodged tank waste, or scarified materials, are aspirated using a water-jet pump-driven conveyance system. The material is then pumped outside of the tank, where it can be stored for treatment. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed.

NONE

1998-09-01

197

Regulation of Cell Wall-Bound Invertase in Pepper Leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type Three Effectors  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ?xopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ?xopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar-enhanced defense responses during Xcv infection. PMID:23272161

Sonnewald, Sophia; Priller, Johannes P. R.; Schuster, Julia; Glickmann, Eric; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Siebig, Stefan; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-01-01

198

Two Fis Regulators Directly Repress the Expression of Numerous Effector-Encoding Genes in Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular human pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate a large repertoire of effectors into host cells. For most of these effectors, there is no information regarding their regulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the three L. pneumophila Fis homologs in the regulation of effector-encoding genes. Deletion mutants constructed in the genes encoding the three Fis regulators revealed that Fis1 (lpg0542 gene) and Fis3 (lpg1743) but not Fis2 (lpg1370) are partially required for intracellular growth of L. pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. To identify pathogenesis-related genes directly regulated by Fis, we established a novel in vivo system which resulted in the discovery of numerous effector-encoding genes directly regulated by Fis. Further examination of these genes revealed that Fis1 and Fis3 repress the level of expression of effector-encoding genes during exponential phase. Three groups of effector-encoding genes were identified: (i) effectors regulated mainly by Fis1, (ii) effectors regulated mainly by Fis3, and (iii) effectors regulated by both Fis1 and Fis3. Examination of the upstream regulatory region of all of these effector-encoding genes revealed multiple putative Fis regulatory elements, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that a few of these sites constitute part of a repressor binding element. Furthermore, gel mobility shift assays demonstrated the direct relation between the Fis1 and Fis3 regulators and these regulatory elements. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that two of the three L. pneumophila Fis regulators directly repress the expression of Icm/Dot effector-encoding genes. PMID:25225276

Zusman, Tal; Speiser, Yariv; Segal, Gil

2014-12-01

199

The novel GrCEP12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated PTI  

PubMed Central

The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. In addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development,1 nematode secreted effectors are becoming recognized as suppressors of plant immunity.2-4 Recently we reported that the effector ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (GrUBCEP12) from G. rostochiensis is processed into free ubiquitin and a 12-amino acid GrCEP12 peptide in planta. Transgenic potato lines overexpressing the derived GrCEP12 peptide showed increased susceptibility to G. rostochiensis and to an unrelated bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies, suggesting that GrCEP12 has a role in suppressing host basal defense or possibly pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) during the parasitic interaction.3 To determine if GrCEP12 functions as a PTI suppressor we evaluated whether GrCEP12 suppresses flg22-induced PTI responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, we found that transient expression of GrCEP12 in N. benthamiana leaves suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the induction of two PTI marker genes triggered by the bacterial PAMP flg22, providing direct evidence that GrCEP12 indeed has an activity in PTI suppression. PMID:23803745

Chen, Shiyan; Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong

2013-01-01

200

INTRODUCTION Temperature has long been recognized as a de facto effector of  

E-print Network

loss from the arterial blood feeding the swimming muscle (Larsen and Malte, 2003). The overall H (H-linked, endothermic dissociation of allosteric effectors. In vertebrate Hbs, where the main effectors are protons in metabolizing, acidic tissues) that is expressed at physiological pH, vertebrate Hbs may additionally exhibit

Campbell, Kevin L.

201

Distinct Pseudomonas type-III effectors use a cleavable transit peptide to target chloroplasts  

E-print Network

Distinct Pseudomonas type-III effectors use a cleavable transit peptide to target chloroplasts are chloroplast localized, indicating that the shared N-terminal regions of these type-III effectors represent a chloroplast transit peptide. The HopK1 contribution to virulence and the ability of HopK1 and AvrRps4

202

The design of scaled robotic end effectors to mimic razor clam burrowing  

E-print Network

This thesis reviews the design of two scaled mechanical end effectors that mimic the digging of Ensis directus, the Atlantic Razor Clam. Modeled after a 0.5x Ensis scale device, the end effectors are 1.0x and 2.0x Ensis ...

Bollini, Mario Attilio

2009-01-01

203

A widespread bacterial type VI secretion effector superfamily identified using a heuristic approach  

PubMed Central

Summary Sophisticated mechanisms are employed to facilitate information exchange between interfacing bacteria. A type VI secretion system (T6SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to deliver cell wall-targeting effectors to neighboring cells. However, the generality of bacteriolytic effectors, and moreover, of antibacterial T6S, remained unknown. Using parameters derived from experimentally validated bacterial T6SS effectors and informatics, we identified a phylogenetically disperse superfamily of T6SS-associated peptidoglycan-degrading effectors. The effectors separate into four families composed of peptidoglycan amidase enzymes of differing specificities. Effectors strictly co-occur with cognate immunity proteins, indicating that self-intoxication is a general property of antibacterial T6SSs and effector delivery by the system exerts a strong selective pressure in nature. The presence of antibacterial effectors in a plethora of organisms, including many that inhabit or infect polymicrobial niches in the human body, suggests that the system could mediate interbacterial interactions of both environmental and clinical significance. PMID:22607806

Russell, Alistair B.; Singh, Pragya; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Bui, Nhat Khai; Hood, Rachel D.; Carl, Mike A.; Agnello, Danielle M.; Schwarz, Sandra; Goodlett, David R.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D.

2012-01-01

204

Apoplastic effectors secreted by two unrelated eukaryotic plant pathogens target the tomato defense protease Rcr3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models of plant-pathogen interactions stipulate that pathogens secrete effector proteins that disable plant defense components known as virulence targets. Occasionally, the perturbations caused by these effectors trigger innate immunity via plant disease resistance proteins as described by the ``guard hypothesis.'' This model is nicely illustrated by the interaction between the fungal plant pathogen Cladosporium fulvum and tomato. C. fulvum

Jing Song; Joe Win; Miaoying Tian; Sebastian Schornack; Farnusch Kaschani; Muhammad Ilyas; Sophien Kamoun

2009-01-01

205

Structural evolution of differential amino Acid effector regulation in plant chorismate mutases.  

PubMed

Chorismate mutase converts chorismate into prephenate for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. To understand the molecular basis of allosteric regulation in the plant chorismate mutases, we analyzed the three Arabidopsis thaliana chorismate mutase isoforms (AtCM1-3) and determined the x-ray crystal structures of AtCM1 in complex with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Functional analyses show a wider range of effector control in the Arabidopsis chorismate mutases than previously reported. AtCM1 is activated by tryptophan with phenylalanine and tyrosine acting as negative effectors; however, tryptophan, cysteine, and histidine activate AtCM3. AtCM2 is a nonallosteric form. The crystal structure of AtCM1 in complex with tyrosine and phenylalanine identifies differences in the effector sites of the allosterically regulated yeast enzyme and the other two Arabidopsis isoforms. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in the effector site reveals key features leading to differential effector regulation in these enzymes. In AtCM1, mutations of Gly-213 abolish allosteric regulation, as observed in AtCM2. A second effector site position, Gly-149 in AtCM1 and Asp-132 in AtCM3, controls amino acid effector specificity in AtCM1 and AtCM3. Comparisons of chorismate mutases from multiple plants suggest that subtle differences in the effector site are conserved in different lineages and may lead to specialized regulation of this branch point enzyme. PMID:25160622

Westfall, Corey S; Xu, Ang; Jez, Joseph M

2014-10-10

206

A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during  

E-print Network

A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during Xanthomonas the identity of many proteins translocated through this apparatus is not known. We used a genetic screen peptide resulted in the creation of chimeric TTSS effector::AvrBs2 fusion proteins. Xcv strains containing

Mudgettt, Mary Beth

207

Cell-Autonomous Effector Mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Few pathogens run the gauntlet of sterilizing immunity like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This organism infects mononuclear phagocytes and is also ingested by neutrophils, both of which possess an arsenal of cell-intrinsic effector mechanisms capable of eliminating it. Here Mtb encounters acid, oxidants, nitrosylating agents, and redox congeners, often exuberantly delivered under low oxygen tension. Further pressure is applied by withholding divalent Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+, as well as by metabolic privation in the form of carbon needed for anaplerosis and aromatic amino acids for growth. Finally, host E3 ligases ubiquinate, cationic peptides disrupt, and lysosomal enzymes digest Mtb as part of the autophagic response to this particular pathogen. It is a testament to the evolutionary fitness of Mtb that sterilization is rarely complete, although sufficient to ensure most people infected with this airborne bacterium remain disease-free. PMID:25081628

MacMicking, John D.

2014-01-01

208

End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

King, R.H.

1993-09-01

209

PHD Fingers: Epigenetic Effectors and Potential Drug Targets  

PubMed Central

The plant homeodomain (PHD) finger is found in many chromatin-remodeling proteins. This small ~65-residue domain functions as an “effector” that binds specific epigenetic marks on histone tails, recruiting transcription factors and nucleosome-associated complexes to chromatin. Mutations in the PHD finger or deletion of this domain are linked to a number of human diseases, including cancer, mental retardation, and immunodeficiency. PHD finger–containing proteins may become valuable diagnostic markers and targets to prevent and treat these disorders. In this review, we highlight the progress recently made in understanding the functional significance of chromatin targeting by mammalian PHD fingers, detail the molecular mechanisms and structural features of “histone code” recognition, and discuss the therapeutic potential of PHD fingers. PMID:20048137

Musselman, Catherine A.; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.

2009-01-01

210

The role of protein effectors in plant-aphid interactions.  

PubMed

Aphid salivary proteins, which are injected into the phloem sieve elements during feeding, play a central role in plant-aphid interactions. Among the dozens of known salivary proteins, many have no homology to proteins from other organisms. These aphid-specific proteins likely have evolved as effectors that inhibit plant defenses, prevent phloem sieve-element occlusion, and otherwise promote the unique phloem feeding style. However, aphid salivary proteins also are recognized by plants to mount defense responses and are likely a major factor in limiting the host range of particular aphid species and biotypes. Newly developed research tools provide excellent opportunities for analyzing the mostly unknown functions of aphid salivary proteins and elucidating their contribution to the complex interactions between aphids and their host plants. PMID:23850072

Elzinga, Dezi A; Jander, Georg

2013-08-01

211

Modulation of innate immunity by Toxoplasma gondii virulence effectors  

PubMed Central

Preface Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of animals and humans that can cause serious opportunistic infections. However, the majority of infections are asymptomatic possibly because the organism has co-evolved with its many vertebrate hosts and has developed multiple strategies to persist asymptomatically for the lifetime of the host. Over the past two decades, infection studies in the mouse, combined with forward genetic approaches aimed at unraveling the molecular basis of infection, have revealed that T. gondii virulence is mediated, in part, by secretion of effector proteins into the host cell during invasion. Here, we review recent advances that illustrate how these virulence factors disarm innate immunity and promote survival of the parasite. PMID:23070557

Hunter, Christopher A.; Sibley, L. David

2013-01-01

212

Gibberellin Perception by the Gibberellin Receptor and its Effector Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gibberellins control a diverse range of growth and developmental processes in higher plants and have been widely utilized in the agricultural industry. By binding to a nuclear receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), gibberellins regulate gene expression by promoting degradation of the transcriptional regulator DELLA proteins. The precise manner in which GID1 discriminates and becomes activated by bioactive gibberellins for specific binding to DELLA proteins remains unclear. We present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Arabidopsis thaliana GID1A, a bioactive gibberellin and the N-terminal DELLA domain of GAI. In this complex, GID1a occludes gibberellin in a deep binding pocket covered by its N-terminal helical switch region, which in turn interacts with the DELLA domain containing DELLA, VHYNP and LExLE motifs. Our results establish a structural model of a plant hormone receptor which is distinct from the hormone-perception mechanism and effector recognition of the known auxin receptors.

Hakoshima, Toshio; Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Sun, Tai-Ping

213

A TAL effector repeat architecture for frameshift binding.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are important Xanthomonas virulence factors that bind DNA via a unique tandem 34-amino-acid repeat domain to induce expression of plant genes. So far, TALE repeats are described to bind as a consecutive array to a consecutive DNA sequence, in which each repeat independently recognizes a single DNA base. This modular protein architecture enables the design of any desired DNA-binding specificity for biotechnology applications. Here we report that natural TALE repeats of unusual amino-acid sequence length break the strict one repeat-to-one base pair binding mode and introduce a local flexibility to TALE-DNA binding. This flexibility allows TALEs and TALE nucleases to recognize target sequence variants with single nucleotide deletions. The flexibility also allows TALEs to activate transcription at allelic promoters that otherwise confer resistance to the host plant. PMID:24614980

Richter, Annekatrin; Streubel, Jana; Blücher, Christina; Szurek, Boris; Reschke, Maik; Grau, Jan; Boch, Jens

2014-01-01

214

Structural modeling of TAL effector-DNA interactions.  

PubMed

TAL (transcriptional activator-like) effectors are DNA-binding repeat proteins recently shown to recognize their target sites by an unprecedented, 1:1 mapping between repeat residues and DNA bases. The structural basis for this recognition is not known; in particular, it is not clear whether such 1:1 recognition can be accommodated by standard major-groove readout of B-form DNA. Here we describe a structure prediction protocol tailored to the TAL-DNA system, and report simulation results that shed light on observed repeat-base associations and overall TAL structure. Our models demonstrate that TAL-DNA interactions can be explained by a model in which the TAL repeat domain forms a superhelical repeat structure that wraps around undistorted B-form DNA, paralleling the geometry of the major groove, with contacts between position 13 of each repeat and its associated base pair on the sense strand determining the specificity of DNA recognition. PMID:22334576

Bradley, Philip

2012-04-01

215

TALEs from a spring -- superelasticity of Tal effector protein structures  

E-print Network

A simple force-probe setup is employed to study the mechanical properties of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins in computer experiments. It is shown that their spring-like arrangement benefits superelastic behaviour which is manifested by large-scale global conformational changes along the helical axis, thus linking structure and dynamics in TALE proteins. As evidenced from the measured force-extension curves the dHax3 and PthXo1 TALEs behave like linear springs, obeying Hooke's law, for moderate global structural changes. For larger deformations, however, the proteins exhibit nonlinearities and the structures become stiffer the more they are stretched. Flexibility is not homogeneously distributed over TALE structure, but instead soft spots which correspond to the RVD loop residues and present key agents in the transmission of conformational motions are identified.

Flechsig, Holger

2014-01-01

216

TALEs from a spring -- superelasticity of Tal effector protein structures  

E-print Network

A simple force-probe setup is employed to study the mechanical properties of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins in computer experiments. It is shown that their spring-like arrangement benefits superelastic behaviour which is manifested by large-scale global conformational changes along the helical axis, thus linking structure and dynamics in TALE proteins. As evidenced from the measured force-extension curves the dHax3 and PthXo1 TALEs behave like linear springs, obeying Hooke's law, for moderate global structural changes. For larger deformations, however, the proteins exhibit nonlinearities and the structures become stiffer the more they are stretched. Flexibility is not homogeneously distributed over TALE structure, but instead soft spots which correspond to the RVD loop residues and present key agents in the transmission of conformational motions are identified.

Holger Flechsig

2014-06-30

217

TAL effectors: finding plant genes for disease and defense.  

PubMed

Transcription activator like effectors (TALEs) are injected via the type III secretion pathway of many plant pathogenic Xanthomonas spp. into plant cells where they contribute to disease or trigger resistance by binding to DNA and turning on TALE-specific host genes. Advances in our understanding of TALEs and their targets have yielded new models for pathogen recognition and defense. Similarly, we have gained insight into plant molecules and processes that can be co-opted to promote infection. Recent elucidation of the basis for specificity in DNA binding by TALEs expedites further discovery and opens the door to biotechnological applications. This article reviews the most significant findings in TALE research, with a focus on recent advances, and discusses future prospects including pressing questions yet to be answered. PMID:20570209

Bogdanove, Adam J; Schornack, Sebastian; Lahaye, Thomas

2010-08-01

218

Intervention of Phytohormone Pathways by Pathogen Effectors[OPEN  

PubMed Central

The constant struggle between plants and microbes has driven the evolution of multiple defense strategies in the host as well as offense strategies in the pathogen. To defend themselves from pathogen attack, plants often rely on elaborate signaling networks regulated by phytohormones. In turn, pathogens have adopted innovative strategies to manipulate phytohormone-regulated defenses. Tactics frequently employed by plant pathogens involve hijacking, evading, or disrupting hormone signaling pathways and/or crosstalk. As reviewed here, this is achieved mechanistically via pathogen-derived molecules known as effectors, which target phytohormone receptors, transcriptional activators and repressors, and other components of phytohormone signaling in the host plant. Herbivores and sap-sucking insects employ obligate pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasma, or symbiotic bacteria to intervene with phytohormone-regulated defenses. Overall, an improved understanding of phytohormone intervention strategies employed by pests and pathogens during their interactions with plants will ultimately lead to the development of new crop protection strategies. PMID:24920334

Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

2014-01-01

219

Neural correlates of thought suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural correlates of thought suppression. Subjects were imaged while alternately (i) attempting to suppress a particular thought, (ii) attempting to suppress all thoughts, or (iii) thinking freely about any thought. Suppression of a particular thought, when compared to the free-thought control condition, revealed greater activation in the anterior

Carrie L. Wyland; William M. Kelley; C. Neil Macrae; Heather L. Gordon; Todd F. Heatherton

2003-01-01

220

Protection after stroke: cellular effectors of neurovascular unit integrity  

PubMed Central

Neurological disorders are prevalent worldwide. Cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs), which account for 55% of all neurological diseases, are the leading cause of permanent disability, cognitive and motor disorders and dementia. Stroke affects the function and structure of blood-brain barrier, the loss of cerebral blood flow regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and the loss of neural connections. Currently, no gold standard treatments are available outside the acute therapeutic window to improve outcome in stroke patients. Some promising candidate targets have been identified for the improvement of long-term recovery after stroke, such as Rho GTPases, cell adhesion proteins, kinases, and phosphatases. Previous studies by our lab indicated that Rho GTPases (Rac and RhoA) are involved in both tissue damage and survival, as these proteins are essential for the morphology and movement of neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells, thus playing a critical role in the balance between cell survival and death. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of RhoA/ROCK blocks the activation of the neurodegeneration cascade. In addition, Rac and synaptic adhesion proteins (p120 catenin and N-catenin) play critical roles in protection against cerebral infarction and in recovery by supporting the neurovascular unit and cytoskeletal remodeling activity to maintain the integrity of the brain parenchyma. Interestingly, neuroprotective agents, such as atorvastatin, and CDK5 silencing after cerebral ischemia and in a glutamate-induced excitotoxicity model may act on the same cellular effectors to recover neurovascular unit integrity. Therefore, future efforts must focus on individually targeting the structural and functional roles of each effector of neurovascular unit and the interactions in neural and non-neural cells in the post-ischemic brain and address how to promote the recovery or prevent the loss of homeostasis in the short, medium and long term.

Posada-Duque, Rafael Andres; Barreto, George E.; Cardona-Gomez, Gloria Patricia

2014-01-01

221

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

222

Intrathymic programming of effector fates in three molecularly distinct ?? T cell subtypes  

PubMed Central

?? T cells function in the early phase of immune responses. Although innate ?? T cells have primarily been studied as one homogenous population, they can be functionally classified into effector subsets based on the production of signature cytokines, analogous to adaptive T helper subsets. Unlike adaptive T cells, however, ?? T effector function correlates with genomically encoded TCR chains, suggesting that clonal TCR selection is not the primary determinant of ?? effector differentiation. A high resolution transcriptome analysis of all emergent ?? thymocyte subsets segregated based on TCR?/? chain usage indicates the existence of three separate subtypes of ?? effectors in the thymus. The immature ?? subsets are distinguished by unique transcription factor modules that program effector function. PMID:22473038

Narayan, Kavitha; Sylvia, Katelyn E.; Malhotra, Nidhi; Yin, Catherine C.; Martens, Gregory; Vallerskog, Therese; Kornfeld, Hardy; Xiong, Na; Cohen, Nadia R.; Brenner, Michael B.; Berg, Leslie J.; Kang, Joonsoo

2012-01-01

223

Diverse targets of phytoplasma effectors: from plant development to defense against insects.  

PubMed

Phytoplasma research begins to bloom (75). Indeed, this review shows that substantial progress has been made with the identification of phytoplasma effectors that alter flower development, induce witches' broom, affect leaf shape, and modify plant-insect interactions. Phytoplasmas have a unique life cycle among pathogens, as they invade organisms of two distinct kingdoms, namely plants (Plantae) and insects (Animalia), and replicate intracellularly in both. Phytoplasmas release effectors into host cells of plants and insects to target host molecules, and in plants these effectors unload from the phloem to access distal tissues and alter basic developmental processes. The effectors provide phytoplasmas with a fitness advantage by modulating their plant and insect hosts. We expect that further research on the functional characterization of phytoplasma effectors will generate new knowledge that is relevant to fundamental aspects of plant sciences and entomology, and for agriculture by improving yields of crops affected by phytoplasma diseases. PMID:21838574

Sugio, Akiko; MacLean, Allyson M; Kingdom, Heather N; Grieve, Victoria M; Manimekalai, R; Hogenhout, Saskia A

2011-01-01

224

TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA-targeting proteins.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas. They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide resistance. DNA-binding specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats in each protein that correspond one-to-one with different nucleotides. This code has facilitated target identification and opened new avenues for engineering disease resistance. It has also enabled TAL effector customization for targeted gene control, genome editing, and other applications. This article reviews the structural basis for TAL effector-DNA specificity, the impact of the TAL effector-DNA code on plant pathology and engineered resistance, and recent accomplishments and future challenges in TAL effector-based DNA targeting. PMID:23707478

Doyle, Erin L; Stoddard, Barry L; Voytas, Daniel F; Bogdanove, Adam J

2013-08-01

225

The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system employs diverse effector modules for intraspecific competition.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that consists of over 200 serogroups with differing pathogenic potential. Only strains that express the virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) are capable of pandemic spread of cholera diarrhoea. Regardless, all V. cholerae strains sequenced to date harbour genes for the type VI secretion system (T6SS) that translocates effectors into neighbouring eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Here we report that the effectors encoded within these conserved gene clusters differ widely among V. cholerae strains, and that immunity proteins encoded immediately downstream from the effector genes protect their host from neighbouring bacteria producing corresponding effectors. As a consequence, strains with matching effector-immunity gene sets can coexist, while strains with different sets compete against each other. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS contributes to the competitive behaviour of this species. PMID:24686479

Unterweger, Daniel; Miyata, Sarah T; Bachmann, Verena; Brooks, Teresa M; Mullins, Travis; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Provenzano, Daniele; Pukatzki, Stefan

2014-01-01

226

Breaking the code of DNA binding specificity of TAL-type III effectors.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of many bacteria depends on the injection of effector proteins via type III secretion into eukaryotic cells in order to manipulate cellular processes. TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas are important virulence factors that act as transcriptional activators in the plant cell nucleus, where they directly bind to DNA via a central domain of tandem repeats. Here, we show how target DNA specificity of TAL effectors is encoded. Two hypervariable amino acid residues in each repeat recognize one base pair in the target DNA. Recognition sequences of TAL effectors were predicted and experimentally confirmed. The modular protein architecture enabled the construction of artificial effectors with new specificities. Our study describes the functionality of a distinct type of DNA binding domain and allows the design of DNA binding domains for biotechnology. PMID:19933107

Boch, Jens; Scholze, Heidi; Schornack, Sebastian; Landgraf, Angelika; Hahn, Simone; Kay, Sabine; Lahaye, Thomas; Nickstadt, Anja; Bonas, Ulla

2009-12-11

227

Mathematical Modeling of Immune Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Administered antibodies can suppress humoral immune response. Though there are two hypotheses explaining the suppression,\\u000a such as the epitope-masking and Fc-receptor mediated suppression, the epitope-masking hypothesis has garnered more supports.\\u000a To better understand how the immune suppression works and to gain a quantitative and qualitative insight, we developed the\\u000a first mathematical immune suppression model based on the epitope-masking hypothesis. However,

Dokyun Na; Doheon Lee

2005-01-01

228

Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella. PMID:23950998

Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy; Niemann, George S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

2013-01-01

229

The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.  

PubMed

Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their hosts. PMID:24715894

Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

2014-01-01

230

The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini  

PubMed Central

Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their hosts. PMID:24715894

Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Jones, David A.; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

2014-01-01

231

Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model  

SciTech Connect

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

2013-08-12

232

MITEs in the promoters of effector genes allow prediction of novel virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici (Fol) has accessory, lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes that can be transferred horizontally between strains. A single LS chromosome in the Fol4287 reference strain harbors all known Fol effector genes. Transfer of this pathogenicity chromosome confers virulence to a previously non-pathogenic recipient strain. We hypothesize that expression and evolution of effector genes is influenced by their genomic context. Results To gain a better understanding of the genomic context of the effector genes, we manually curated the annotated genes on the pathogenicity chromosome and identified and classified transposable elements. Both retro- and DNA transposons are present with no particular overrepresented class. Retrotransposons appear evenly distributed over the chromosome, while DNA transposons tend to concentrate in large chromosomal subregions. In general, genes on the pathogenicity chromosome are dispersed within the repeat landscape. Effector genes are present within subregions enriched for DNA transposons. A miniature Impala (mimp) is always present in their promoters. Although promoter deletion studies of two effector gene loci did not reveal a direct function of the mimp for gene expression, we were able to use proximity to a mimp as a criterion to identify new effector gene candidates. Through xylem sap proteomics we confirmed that several of these candidates encode proteins secreted during plant infection. Conclusions Effector genes in Fol reside in characteristic subregions on a pathogenicity chromosome. Their genomic context allowed us to develop a method for the successful identification of novel effector genes. Since our approach is not based on effector gene similarity, but on unique genomic features, it can easily be extended to identify effector genes in Fo strains with different host specificities. PMID:23432788

2013-01-01

233

Peroxiredoxin 6 interferes with TRAIL-induced death-inducing signaling complex formation by binding to death effector domain caspase.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic agent with cancer-selective apoptogenic activity. It evokes the canonical caspase-mediated cell death pathway through death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation. We identified that Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) interacts with caspase-10 and caspase-8 via the death effector domain (DED). Prx6 suppresses TRAIL-mediated cell death in human cancer cells, but not that induced by intrinsic apoptosis inducers such as etoposide, staurosporine, or A23187. Among Prx1-6 members, only Prx6 binds to DED caspases and is most effective in suppressing TRAIL or DED caspase-induced cell death. The antiapoptotic activity of Prx6 against TRAIL is not likely associated with its peroxidase activity but is associated with its ability to bind to DED caspases. Increased expression of Prx6 enhances the binding of Prx6 to caspase-10 but reduces TRAIL-induced DISC formation and subsequently caspase activation. Interestingly, Prx6 is highly upregulated in metastatic gastric cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to TRAIL as compared with primary cancer cells. Downregulation of Prx6 sensitizes the metastatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that Prx6 modulates TRAIL signaling as a negative regulator of caspase-8 and caspase-10 in DISC formation of TRAIL-resistant metastatic cancer cells. PMID:20829884

Choi, H; Chang, J-W; Jung, Y-K

2011-03-01

234

NleB, a bacterial effector with glycosyltransferase activity targets GADPH function to inhibit NF-?B activation  

PubMed Central

Summary Modulation of NF-?B-dependent responses is critical to the success of attaching/effacing (A/E) human pathogenic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC) and the natural mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. NleB, a highly conserved type III secretion system effector of A/E pathogens, suppresses NF-?B activation, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We identified the mammalian glycolysis enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as an NleB interacting protein. Further, we discovered that GAPDH interacts with the TNF receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2), a protein required for TNF-?-mediated NF-?B activation, and regulates TRAF2 polyubiquitination. During infection, NleB functions as a translocated N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase that modifies GAPDH. NleB-mediated GAPDH O-GlcNAcylation disrupts the TRAF2-GAPDH interaction to suppress TRAF2 polyubiquitination and NF-?B activation. Eliminating NleB O-GlcNAcylation activity attenuates C. rodentium colonization of mice. These data identify GAPDH as a TRAF2 signaling cofactor and reveal a virulence strategy employed by A/E pathogens to inhibit NF-?B dependent host innate immune responses. PMID:23332158

Gao, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaogang; Pham, Thanh H.; Feuerbacher, Leigh Ann; Lubos, Marie-Luise; Huang, Minzhao; Olsen, Rachel; Mushegian, Arcady; Slawson, Chad; Hardwidge, Philip R.

2013-01-01

235

Peroxiredoxin 6 interferes with TRAIL-induced death-inducing signaling complex formation by binding to death effector domain caspase  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic agent with cancer-selective apoptogenic activity. It evokes the canonical caspase-mediated cell death pathway through death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation. We identified that Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) interacts with caspase-10 and caspase-8 via the death effector domain (DED). Prx6 suppresses TRAIL-mediated cell death in human cancer cells, but not that induced by intrinsic apoptosis inducers such as etoposide, staurosporine, or A23187. Among Prx1–6 members, only Prx6 binds to DED caspases and is most effective in suppressing TRAIL or DED caspase-induced cell death. The antiapoptotic activity of Prx6 against TRAIL is not likely associated with its peroxidase activity but is associated with its ability to bind to DED caspases. Increased expression of Prx6 enhances the binding of Prx6 to caspase-10 but reduces TRAIL-induced DISC formation and subsequently caspase activation. Interestingly, Prx6 is highly upregulated in metastatic gastric cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to TRAIL as compared with primary cancer cells. Downregulation of Prx6 sensitizes the metastatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that Prx6 modulates TRAIL signaling as a negative regulator of caspase-8 and caspase-10 in DISC formation of TRAIL-resistant metastatic cancer cells. PMID:20829884

Choi, H; Chang, J-W; Jung, Y-K

2011-01-01

236

Innate pro-B-cell progenitors protect against type 1 diabetes by regulating autoimmune effector T cells  

PubMed Central

Diverse hematopoietic progenitors, including myeloid populations arising in inflammatory and tumoral conditions and multipotent cells, mobilized by hematopoietic growth factors or emerging during parasitic infections, display tolerogenic properties. Innate immune stimuli confer regulatory functions to various mature B-cell subsets but immature B-cell progenitors endowed with suppressive properties per se or after differentiating into more mature regulatory B cells remain to be characterized. Herein we provide evidence for innate pro-B cells (CpG-proBs) that emerged within the bone marrow both in vitro and in vivo upon Toll-like receptor-9 activation and whose adoptive transfer protected nonobese diabetic mice against type 1 diabetes (T1D). These cells responded to IFN-? released by activated effector T cells (Teffs), by up-regulating their Fas ligand (FasL) expression, which enabled them to kill Teffs through apoptosis. In turn, IFN-? derived from CpG-proBs enhanced IFN-? while dramatically reducing IL-21 production by Teffs. In keeping with the crucial pathogenic role played by IL-21 in T1D, adoptively transferred IFN-?–deficient CpG-proBs did not prevent T1D development. Additionally, CpG-proBs matured in vivo into diverse pancreatic and splenic suppressive FasLhigh B-cell subsets. CpG-proBs may become instrumental in cell therapy of autoimmune diseases either on their own or as graft complement in autologous stem cell transplantation. PMID:23716674

Montandon, Ruddy; Korniotis, Sarantis; Layseca-Espinosa, Esther; Gras, Christophe; Megret, Jerome; Ezine, Sophie; Dy, Michel; Zavala, Flora

2013-01-01

237

Distinct Effector-binding Sites Enable Synergistic Transcriptional Activation by BenM, a LysR-type Regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

BenM, a bacterial transcriptional regulator, responds synergistically to two effectors, benzoate and cis,cis-muconate. CatM, a paralog with overlapping function, responds only to muconate. Structures of their effector-binding domains revealed two effector-binding sites in BenM. BenM and CatM are the first LysR-type regulators to be structurally characterized while bound with physiologically relevant exogenous inducers. The effector complexes were obtained by soaking

Obidimma C. Ezezika; Sandra Haddad; Todd J. Clark; Ellen L. Neidle; Cory Momany

2007-01-01

238

Lysophosphatidylcholine as an effector of fatty acid-induced insulin resistance.  

PubMed

The mechanism of FFA-induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. We have searched for effector molecules(s) in FFA-induced insulin resistance. Palmitic acid (PA) but not oleic acid (OA) induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes through C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) Ser307 phosphorylation. Inhibitors of ceramide synthesis did not block insulin resistance by PA. However, inhibition of the conversion of PA to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by calcium-independent phospholipase A? (iPLA?) inhibitors, such as bromoenol lactone (BEL) or palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF?), prevented insulin resistance by PA. iPLA? inhibitors or iPLA? small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated JNK or IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation by PA. PA treatment increased LPC content, which was reversed by iPLA? inhibitors or iPLA? siRNA. The intracellular DAG level was increased by iPLA? inhibitors, despite ameliorated insulin resistance. Pertussis toxin (PTX), which inhibits LPC action through the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)/G?(i), reversed insulin resistance by PA. BEL administration ameliorated insulin resistance and diabetes in db/db mice. JNK and IRS-1Ser307 phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of db/db mice was attenuated by BEL. LPC content was increased in the liver and muscle of db/db mice, which was suppressed by BEL. These findings implicate LPC as an important lipid intermediate that links saturated fatty acids to insulin resistance. PMID:21447485

Han, Myoung Sook; Lim, Yu-Mi; Quan, Wenying; Kim, Jung Ran; Chung, Kun Wook; Kang, Mira; Kim, Sunshin; Park, Sun Young; Han, Joong-Soo; Park, Shin-Young; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Dal Rhee, Sang; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Myung-Shik

2011-06-01

239

Lysophosphatidylcholine as an effector of fatty acid-induced insulin resistance[S  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of FFA-induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. We have searched for effector molecules(s) in FFA-induced insulin resistance. Palmitic acid (PA) but not oleic acid (OA) induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes through C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) Ser307 phosphorylation. Inhibitors of ceramide synthesis did not block insulin resistance by PA. However, inhibition of the conversion of PA to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibitors, such as bromoenol lactone (BEL) or palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF3), prevented insulin resistance by PA. iPLA2 inhibitors or iPLA2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated JNK or IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation by PA. PA treatment increased LPC content, which was reversed by iPLA2 inhibitors or iPLA2 siRNA. The intracellular DAG level was increased by iPLA2 inhibitors, despite ameliorated insulin resistance. Pertussis toxin (PTX), which inhibits LPC action through the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)/G?i, reversed insulin resistance by PA. BEL administration ameliorated insulin resistance and diabetes in db/db mice. JNK and IRS-1Ser307 phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of db/db mice was attenuated by BEL. LPC content was increased in the liver and muscle of db/db mice, which was suppressed by BEL. These findings implicate LPC as an important lipid intermediate that links saturated fatty acids to insulin resistance. PMID:21447485

Han, Myoung Sook; Lim, Yu-Mi; Quan, Wenying; Kim, Jung Ran; Chung, Kun Wook; Kang, Mira; Kim, Sunshin; Park, Sun Young; Han, Joong-Soo; Park, Shin-Young; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Dal Rhee, Sang; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Myung-Shik

2011-01-01

240

Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

1988-06-01

241

Design schemes and comparison research of the end-effector of large space manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The end-effector of the large space manipulator is employed to assist the manipulator in handling and manipulating large payloads on orbit. Currently, there are few researches about the end-effector, and the existing end-effectors have some disadvantages, such as poor misalignment tolerance capability and complex mechanical components. According to the end positioning errors and the residual vibration characters of the large space manipulators, two basic performance requirements of the end-effector which include the capabilities of misalignment tolerance and soft capture are proposed. And the end-effector should accommodate the following misalignments of the mechanical interface. The translation misalignments in axial and radial directions and the angular misalignments in roll, pitch and yaw are ±100 mm, 100 mm, ±10o, ±15o, ±15o, respectively. Seven end-effector schemes are presented and the capabilities of misalignment tolerance and soft capture are analyzed elementarily. The three fingers-three petals end-effector and the steel cable-snared end-effector are the most feasible schemes among the seven schemes, and they are designed in detail. The capabilities of misalignment tolerance and soft capture are validated and evaluated, through the experiment on the micro-gravity simulating device and the dynamic analysis in ADAMS software. The results show that the misalignment tolerance capabilities of these two schemes could satisfy the requirement. And the translation misalignment tolerances in axial and radial directions and the angular misalignment tolerances in roll, pitch and yaw of the steel cable-snared end-effector are 30mm, 15mm, 6o, 3o and 3o larger than those of the three fingers-three petals end-effector, respectively. And the contact force of the steel cable-snared end-effector is smaller and smoother than that of the three fingers-three petals end-effector. The end-effector schemes and research methods are beneficial to the developments of the large space manipulator end-effctor and the space docking mechanism.

Feng, Fei; Liu, Yiwei; Liu, Hong; Cai, Hegao

2012-07-01

242

IgA-binding factor suppresses synthesis of IgA in MOPC-315 plasmacytoma cells  

SciTech Connect

T cells with Fc receptors for IgA (T/sup ..cap alpha../ cells) and their products, IgA-binding factors (IgABF), have been implicated in the regulation of IgA expression by B cells. They have previously shown that an IgABF produced by IgA induced normal T cells or constitutively by the Fc/sup ..cap alpha../ R+ T cell lymphoma, BALENTL 8, is capable of suppressing the proliferation and the amount of secreted IgA by MOPC-315 cells. In the present studies, they demonstrate that: (a) suppression of proliferation and secretion requires surface membrane IgA on the target cell, (b) suppression exhibits rapid kinetics with maximal effect occurring by 3-4 hours, (c) suppression is reversible, and (d) suppression of secretion involves selective suppression of IgA synthesis as measured by /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation into immunoprecipitable IgA(non-IgA protein is unaffected). These findings indicate that IgA-isotype-specific effector molecules interact directly with their B cell targets through surface membrane immunoglobulin and cause a down regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis by the target. Current studies are underway to address whether this selective suppression of IgA is mediated at the transcriptional, translational or post-translational level. The use of MOPC-315 tumor cells as targets of T cell produced, isotype-specific, effector molecules should provide a unique model for the further analysis of isotype regulation at the molecular level.

Darby, C.; Moore, J.S.; Muller, S.; Aaronsen, D.; Madianos, E.; Hoover, R.G.

1986-03-05

243

Diverse Evolutionary Mechanisms Shape the Type III Effector Virulence Factor Repertoire in the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria directly translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells via type III delivery systems. Type III effector proteins are determinants of virulence on susceptible plant hosts; they are also the proteins that trigger specific disease resistance in resistant plant hosts. Evolution of type III effectors is dominated by competing forces: the likely requirement for conservation of virulence

Laurence Rohmer; David S. Guttman; Jeffery L. Dangl

2004-01-01

244

A simple yeast-based strategy to identify host cellular processes targeted by bacterial effector proteins.  

PubMed

Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins. PMID:22110728

Bosis, Eran; Salomon, Dor; Sessa, Guido

2011-01-01

245

A Simple Yeast-Based Strategy to Identify Host Cellular Processes Targeted by Bacterial Effector Proteins  

PubMed Central

Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins. PMID:22110728

Sessa, Guido

2011-01-01

246

Regulatory T Cells Negatively Affect IL-2 Production of Effector T Cells through CD39/Adenosine Pathway in HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which Regulatory T cells suppress IL-2 production of effector CD4+ T cells in pathological conditions are unclear. A subpopulation of human Treg expresses the ectoenzyme CD39, which in association with CD73 converts ATP/ADP/AMP to adenosine. We show here that Treg/CD39+ suppress IL-2 expression of activated CD4+ T-cells more efficiently than Treg/CD39?. This inhibition is due to the demethylation of an essential CpG site of the il-2 gene promoter, which was reversed by an anti-CD39 mAb. By recapitulating the events downstream CD39/adenosine receptor (A2AR) axis, we show that A2AR agonist and soluble cAMP inhibit CpG site demethylation of the il-2 gene promoter. A high frequency of Treg/CD39+ is associated with a low clinical outcome in HIV infection. We show here that CD4+ T-cells from HIV-1 infected individuals express high levels of A2AR and intracellular cAMP. Following in vitro stimulation, these cells exhibit a lower degree of demethylation of il-2 gene promoter associated with a lower expression of IL-2, compared to healthy individuals. These results extend previous data on the role of Treg in HIV infection by filling the gap between expansion of Treg/CD39+ in HIV infection and the suppression of CD4+ T-cell function through inhibition of IL-2 production. PMID:23658513

Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Seddiki, Nabila; Yatim, Ahmad; Carriere, Matthieu; Hulin, Anne; Younas, Mehwish; Ghadimi, Elnaz; Kok, Ayrin; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Alain; Sevigny, Jean; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Levy, Yves

2013-01-01

247

Mining novel effector proteins from the esophageal gland cells of Meloidogyne incognita.  

PubMed

Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most economically damaging plant pathogens in agriculture and horticulture. Identifying and characterizing the effector proteins which M. incognita secretes into its host plants during infection is an important step toward finding new ways to manage this pest. In this study, we have identified the cDNAs for 18 putative effectors (i.e., proteins that have the potential to facilitate M. incognita parasitism of host plants). These putative effectors are secretory proteins that do not contain transmembrane domains and whose genes are specifically expressed in the secretory gland cells of the nematode, indicating that they are likely secreted from the nematode through its stylet. We have determined that, in the plant cells, these putative effectors are likely to localize to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the transcripts of many of these novel effectors are specifically upregulated during different stages of the nematode's life cycle, indicating that they function at specific stages during M. incognita parasitism. The predicted proteins showed little to no homology to known proteins from free-living nematode species, suggesting that they evolved recently to support the parasitic lifestyle. On the other hand, several of the effectors are part of gene families within the M. incognita genome as well as that of M. hapla, which points to an important role that these putative effectors are playing in both parasites. With the discovery of these putative effectors, we have increased our knowledge of the effector repertoire utilized by root-knot nematodes to infect, feed on, and reproduce on their host plants. Future studies investigating the roles that these proteins play in planta will help mitigate the effects of this damaging pest. PMID:24875667

Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Abubucker, Sahar; Maier, Tom R; Huang, Guozhong; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

2014-09-01

248

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOEpatents

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

1994-03-15

249

Lessons from Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Chromatin Remodeling by Bacterial Effectors  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pathogens can alter global host gene expression via histone modifications and chromatin remodeling in order to subvert host responses, including those involved with innate immunity, allowing for bacterial survival. Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum express effector proteins that modify host histones and chromatin structure. A. phagocytophilum modulates granulocyte respiratory burst in part by dampening transcription of several key phagocyte oxidase genes. The A. phagocytophilum protein AnkA localizes to the myeloid cell nucleus where it binds AT-rich regions in the CYBB promoter and decreases its transcription. AT-rich regions of DNA are characteristic of matrix attachment regions (MARs) which are critical for chromatin structure and transcription. MAR-binding proteins, such as SATB1, interact with histone modifying enzymes resulting in altered gene expression. With A. phagocytophilum infection, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) expression is increased and histone H3 acetylation is decreased at the CYBB promoter, suggesting a role for AnkA in altering host epigenetics and modulating gene transcription, at this, and perhaps other loci. This review will focus on how bacterial pathogens alter host epigenetics, by specifically examining A. phagocytophilum AnkA cis-regulation of CYBB transcription and epigenetic changes associated with infection. PMID:23082961

Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E; Dumler, J Stephen

2012-01-01

250

Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance  

SciTech Connect

Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

2008-08-01

251

TALEs from a Spring - Superelasticity of Tal Effector Protein Structures.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are DNA-related proteins that recognise and bind specific target sequences to manipulate gene expression. Recently determined crystal structures show that their common architecture reveals a superhelical overall structure that may undergo drastic conformational changes. To establish a link between structure and dynamics in TALE proteins we have employed coarse-grained elastic-network modelling of currently available structural data and implemented a force-probe setup that allowed us to investigate their mechanical behaviour in computer experiments. Based on the measured force-extension curves we conclude that TALEs exhibit superelastic dynamical properties allowing for large-scale global conformational changes along their helical axis, which represents the soft direction in such proteins. For moderate external forcing the TALE models behave like linear springs, obeying Hooke's law, and the investigated structures can be characterised and compared by a corresponding spring constant. We show that conformational flexibility underlying the large-scale motions is not homogeneously distributed over the TALE structure, but instead soft spot residues around which strain is accumulated and which turn out to represent key agents in the transmission of conformational motions are identified. They correspond to the RVD loop residues that have been experimentally determined to play an eminent role in the binding process of target DNA. PMID:25313859

Flechsig, Holger

2014-01-01

252

Specific DNA-RNA hybrid recognition by TAL effectors.  

PubMed

The transcription activator-like (TAL) effector targets specific host promoter through its central DNA-binding domain, which comprises multiple tandem repeats (TALE repeats). Recent structural analyses revealed that the TALE repeats form a superhelical structure that tracks along the forward strand of the DNA duplex. Here, we demonstrate that TALE repeats specifically recognize a DNA-RNA hybrid where the DNA strand determines the binding specificity. The crystal structure of a designed TALE in complex with the DNA-RNA hybrid was determined at a resolution of 2.5 Å. Although TALE repeats are in direct contact with only the DNA strand, the phosphodiester backbone of the RNA strand is inaccessible by macromolecules such as RNases. Consistent with this observation, sequence-specific recognition of an HIV-derived DNA-RNA hybrid by an engineered TALE efficiently blocked RNase H-mediated degradation of the RNA strand. Our study broadens the utility of TALE repeats and suggests potential applications in processes involving DNA replication and retroviral infections. PMID:23022487

Yin, Ping; Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Pan, Xiaojing; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Yan, Nieng; Shi, Yigong

2012-10-25

253

Structural basis of the TAL effector-DNA interaction.  

PubMed

Phytopathogen transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) bind DNA in a sequence specific manner in order to manipulate host transcription. TALE specificity correlates with repeat variable diresidues in otherwise highly stereotypical 34-35mer repeats. Recently, the crystal structures of two TALE DNA-binding domains have illustrated the molecular basis of the TALE cipher. The structures show that the TALE repeats form a right-handed superhelix that is wound around largely undistorted B-DNA to match its helical parameters. Surprisingly, repeat variable residue 1 is not in contact with the bases. Instead, it is involved in hydrogen bonding interactions that stabilize the overall structure of the protein. Repeat variable residue 2 contacts the top strand base and forms sequence-specific hydrogen bonds and/or van der Waals contacts. Very unexpectedly, bottom strand bases are exposed to solvent and do not make any direct contacts with the protein. This review contains a summary of TALE biology and applications and a detailed description of the recent breakthroughs that have provided insights into the molecular basis of the TALE code. PMID:23089535

Bochtler, Matthias

2012-10-01

254

Targeted mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana using engineered TAL effector nucleases.  

PubMed

Custom TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) are increasingly used as reagents to manipulate genomes in vivo. Here, we used TALENs to modify the genome of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We engineered seven TALENs targeting five Arabidopsis genes, namely ADH1, TT4, MAPKKK1, DSK2B, and NATA2. In pooled seedlings expressing the TALENs, we observed somatic mutagenesis frequencies ranging from 2-15% at the intended targets for all seven TALENs. Somatic mutagenesis frequencies as high as 41-73% were observed in individual transgenic plant lines expressing the TALENs. Additionally, a TALEN pair targeting a tandemly duplicated gene induced a 4.4-kb deletion in somatic cells. For the most active TALEN pairs, namely those targeting ADH1 and NATA2, we found that TALEN-induced mutations were transmitted to the next generation at frequencies of 1.5-12%. Our work demonstrates that TALENs are useful reagents for achieving targeted mutagenesis in this important plant model. PMID:23979944

Christian, Michelle; Qi, Yiping; Zhang, Yong; Voytas, Daniel F

2013-10-01

255

Cytokines are systemic effectors of lymphatic function in acute inflammation  

PubMed Central

The response of the lymphatic system to inflammatory insult and infection is not completely understood. Using a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging system to noninvasively document propulsive function, we noted the short-term cessation of murine lymphatic propulsion as early as four hours following LPS injection. Notably, the effects were systemic, displaying bilateral lymphatic pumping cessation after a unilateral insult. Furthermore, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6, cytokines that were found to be elevated in serum during lymphatic pumping cessation, were shown separately to acutely and systemically decrease lymphatic pulsing frequency and velocity following intradermal administration. Surprisingly, marked lymphatic vessel dilation and leakiness were noted in limbs contralateral to IL-1? intradermal administration, but not in ipsilateral limbs. The effects of IL-1? on lymphatic pumping were abated by pretreatment with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, L-NIL (N-iminoethyl-L-lysine). The results suggest that lymphatic propulsion is systemically impaired within four hours of acute inflammatory insult, and that some cytokines are major effectors of lymphatic pumping cessation through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms. These findings may help in understanding the actions of cytokines as mediators of lymphatic function in inflammatory and infectious states. PMID:23764549

Aldrich, Melissa B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

2013-01-01

256

TALEs from a Spring - Superelasticity of Tal Effector Protein Structures  

PubMed Central

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are DNA-related proteins that recognise and bind specific target sequences to manipulate gene expression. Recently determined crystal structures show that their common architecture reveals a superhelical overall structure that may undergo drastic conformational changes. To establish a link between structure and dynamics in TALE proteins we have employed coarse-grained elastic-network modelling of currently available structural data and implemented a force-probe setup that allowed us to investigate their mechanical behaviour in computer experiments. Based on the measured force-extension curves we conclude that TALEs exhibit superelastic dynamical properties allowing for large-scale global conformational changes along their helical axis, which represents the soft direction in such proteins. For moderate external forcing the TALE models behave like linear springs, obeying Hooke's law, and the investigated structures can be characterised and compared by a corresponding spring constant. We show that conformational flexibility underlying the large-scale motions is not homogeneously distributed over the TALE structure, but instead soft spot residues around which strain is accumulated and which turn out to represent key agents in the transmission of conformational motions are identified. They correspond to the RVD loop residues that have been experimentally determined to play an eminent role in the binding process of target DNA. PMID:25313859

Flechsig, Holger

2014-01-01

257

Effector Mechanisms in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The cellular and molecular requirements for ?-cell damages in an immune-mediated toxininduced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have been studied in the model of multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats and mice. It was found that strain-related susceptibility to diabetes induction correlated with a higher level of IL-2, IFN-?, and TNF-? production, whereas such differences were not observed when IL-1 and NO production by macrophages were analyzed; elimination of immunoregulatory RT6+T cells that increases IFN-? production, enhances susceptibility to MLD-STZ-induced diabetes; mercury-induced Th-2 cells downregulated the disease; IFN-?-mediated macrophage activation to produce proinflammatory cytokines rather than NO is an important event in early diabetogenic effects of invading macrophages; inhibition of IL-1 activity downregulates diabetes induction; and generation of NO in ? cells appears to be important for diabetogenic effects. Taken together, data indicate that MLD-STZ diabetes is induced by Th-1 lymphocytes that secrete soluble effector molecules that activate macrophages and promote destruction of ? cells possibly by both nitric oxide and nonnitric oxide-mediated mechanisms. PMID:9716913

Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Shahin, Allen

1998-01-01

258

Assembly of designer TAL effectors by Golden Gate cloning.  

PubMed

Generation of customized DNA binding domains targeting unique sequences in complex genomes is crucial for many biotechnological applications. The recently described DNA binding domain of the transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas consists of a series of repeats arranged in tandem, each repeat binding a nucleotide of the target sequence. We present here a strategy for engineering of TALE proteins with novel DNA binding specificities based on the 17.5 repeat-containing AvrBs3 TALE as a scaffold. For each of the 17 full repeats, four module types were generated, each with a distinct base preference. Using this set of 68 repeat modules, recognition domains for any 17 nucleotide DNA target sequence of choice can be constructed by assembling selected modules in a defined linear order. Assembly is performed in two successive one-pot cloning steps using the Golden Gate cloning method that allows seamless fusion of multiple DNA fragments. Applying this strategy, we assembled designer TALEs with new target specificities and tested their function in vivo. PMID:21625552

Weber, Ernst; Gruetzner, Ramona; Werner, Stefan; Engler, Carola; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

2011-01-01

259

Engineering synthetic TAL effectors with orthogonal target sites.  

PubMed

The ability to engineer biological circuits that process and respond to complex cellular signals has the potential to impact many areas of biology and medicine. Transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) have emerged as an attractive component for engineering these circuits, as TALEs can be designed de novo to target a given DNA sequence. Currently, however, the use of TALEs is limited by degeneracy in the site-specific manner by which they recognize DNA. Here, we propose an algorithm to computationally address this problem. We apply our algorithm to design 180 TALEs targeting 20 bp cognate binding sites that are at least 3 nt mismatches away from all 20 bp sequences in putative 2 kb human promoter regions. We generated eight of these synthetic TALE activators and showed that each is able to activate transcription from a targeted reporter. Importantly, we show that these proteins do not activate synthetic reporters containing mismatches similar to those present in the genome nor a set of endogenous genes predicted to be the most likely targets in vivo. Finally, we generated and characterized TALE repressors comprised of our orthogonal DNA binding domains and further combined them with shRNAs to accomplish near complete repression of target gene expression. PMID:22581776

Garg, Abhishek; Lohmueller, Jason J; Silver, Pamela A; Armel, Thomas Z

2012-08-01

260

Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor-mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

Zhao, Chun-Mei; Hayakawa, Yoku; Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B; Andersen, Gøran T; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A; Renz, Bernhard W; Sandvik, Arne K; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G; Wang, Timothy C; Chen, Duan

2014-08-20

261

Regulatory T Cells in ? Irradiation-Induced Immune Suppression  

PubMed Central

Sublethal total body ? irradiation (TBI) of mammals causes generalized immunosuppression, in part by induction of lymphocyte apoptosis. Here, we provide evidence that a part of this immune suppression may be attributable to dysfunction of immune regulation. We investigated the effects of sublethal TBI on T cell memory responses to gain insight into the potential for loss of vaccine immunity following such exposure. We show that in mice primed to an MHC class I alloantigen, the accelerated graft rejection T memory response is specifically lost several weeks following TBI, whereas identically treated naïve mice at the same time point had completely recovered normal rejection kinetics. Depletion in vivo with anti-CD4 or anti-CD25 showed that the mechanism involved cells consistent with a regulatory T cell (T reg) phenotype. The loss of the T memory response following TBI was associated with a relative increase of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ expressing T regs, as compared to the CD8+ T effector cells requisite for skin graft rejection. The radiation-induced T memory suppression was shown to be antigen-specific in that a third party ipsilateral graft rejected with normal kinetics. Remarkably, following the eventual rejection of the first MHC class I disparate skin graft, the suppressive environment was maintained, with markedly prolonged survival of a second identical allograft. These findings have potential importance as regards the immunologic status of T memory responses in victims of ionizing radiation exposure and apoptosis-inducing therapies. PMID:22723935

McFarland, Hugh I.; Puig, Montserrat; Grajkowska, Lucja T.; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Lee, Jay P.; Mason, Karen P.; Verthelyi, Daniela; Rosenberg, Amy S.

2012-01-01

262

Event-Related Alpha Suppression in Response to Facial Motion  

PubMed Central

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors. PMID:24586735

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J.; Spencer, Janine V.; O'Brien, Justin M. D.

2014-01-01

263

A Plant Defense Response Effector Induces Microbial Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotin is a tobacco PR-5 protein that has antifungal activity and is implicated in host-plant defense. We show here that osmotin induces apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Induction of apoptosis was correlated with intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species and was mediated by RAS2, but not RAS1. Osmotin treatment resulted in suppression of transcription of stress-responsive genes via the RAS2\\/cAMP pathway.

Meena L Narasimhan; Barbara Damsz; Maria A Coca; José I Ibeas; Dae-Jin Yun; José M Pardo; Paul M Hasegawa; Ray A Bressan

2001-01-01

264

Regulation of vesicular trafficking and leukocyte function by Rab27 GTPases and their effectors  

PubMed Central

The Rab27 family of GTPases regulates the efficiency and specificity of exocytosis in hematopoietic cells, including neutrophils, CTLs, NK cells, and mast cells. However, the mechanisms regulated by Rab27 GTPases are cell-specific, as they depend on the differential expression and function of particular effector molecules that are recruited by the GTPases. In addition, Rab27 GTPases participate in multiple steps of the regulation of the secretory process, including priming, tethering, docking, and fusion through sequential interaction with multiple effector molecules. Finally, recent reports suggest that Rab27 GTPases and their effectors regulate vesicular trafficking mechanisms other than exocytosis, including endocytosis and phagocytosis. This review focuses on the latest discoveries on the function of Rab27 GTPases and their effectors Munc13-4 and Slp1 in neutrophil function comparatively to their functions in other leukocytes. PMID:23378593

Catz, Sergio Daniel

2013-01-01

265

End-effector: Joint conjugates for robotic assembly of large truss structures in space: Extended concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from NASA/HBCU Grant No. NAG-1-1125 are summarized. Designs developed for model fabrication, exploratory concepts drafted, interface of computer with robot and end-effector, and capability enhancement are discussed.

Brewer, W. V.; Rasis, E. P.; Shih, H. R.

1993-01-01

266

Elucidating the role of effector caspases in immune development using lentiviral RNAi  

E-print Network

Caspases play an important role in apoptosis, or programmed cell death. In particular, three highly related effector caspases, caspases-3, -6, and -7, translate upstream death signals into the physical manifestations of ...

Dillon, Christopher P

2006-01-01

267

Autophagy is essential for effector CD8(+) T cell survival and memory formation.  

PubMed

The importance of autophagy in the generation of memory CD8(+) T cells in vivo is not well defined. We report here that autophagy was dynamically regulated in virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during acute infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. In contrast to the current paradigm, autophagy decreased in activated proliferating effector CD8(+) T cells and was then upregulated when the cells stopped dividing just before the contraction phase. Consistent with those findings, deletion of the gene encoding either of the autophagy-related molecules Atg5 or Atg7 had little to no effect on the proliferation and function of effector cells, but these autophagy-deficient effector cells had survival defects that resulted in compromised formation of memory T cells. Our studies define when autophagy is needed during effector and memory differentiation and warrant reexamination of the relationship between T cell activation and autophagy. PMID:25362489

Xu, Xiaojin; Araki, Koichi; Li, Shuzhao; Han, Jin-Hwan; Ye, Lilin; Tan, Wendy G; Konieczny, Bogumila T; Bruinsma, Monique W; Martinez, Jennifer; Pearce, Erika L; Green, Douglas R; Jones, Dean P; Virgin, Herbert W; Ahmed, Rafi

2014-12-01

268

Intrathymic programming of effector fates in three molecularly distinct ?? T cell subtypes  

E-print Network

Innate ?? T cells function in the early phase of immune responses. Although innate ?? T cells have often been studied as one homogenous population, they can be functionally classified into effector subsets on the basis of ...

Narayan, Kavitha

269

Pattern-Triggered Immunity Suppresses Programmed Cell Death Triggered by Fumonisin B1  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process for plant innate immunity and development. In plant innate immunity, PCD is believed to prevent the spread of pathogens from the infection site. Although proper control of PCD is important for plant fitness, we have limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating plant PCD. Plant innate immunity triggered by recognition of effectors (effector-triggered immunity, ETI) is often associated with PCD. However pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), which is triggered by recognition of elicitors called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), is not. Therefore we hypothesized that PTI might suppress PCD. Here we report that PCD triggered by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) can be suppressed by PTI in Arabidopsis. FB1-triggered cell death was suppressed by treatment with the MAMPs flg22 (a part of bacterial flagellin) or elf18 (a part of the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu) but not chitin (a component of fungal cell walls). Although plant hormone signaling is associated with PCD and PTI, both FB1-triggered cell death and suppression of cell death by flg22 treatment were still observed in mutants deficient in jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling. The MAP kinases MPK3 and MPK6 are transiently activated and inactivated within one hour during PTI. We found that FB1 activated MPK3 and MPK6 about 36–48 hours after treatment. Interestingly, this late activation was attenuated by flg22 treatment. These results suggest that PTI suppression of FB1-triggered cell death may involve suppression of MPK3/MPK6 signaling but does not require JA/ET/SA signaling. PMID:23560104

Igarashi, Daisuke; Bethke, Gerit; Xu, Yuan; Tsuda, Kenichi; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

2013-01-01

270

Leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 mediates early effector T cell recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was originally described as a potent lipid myeloid cell chemoattractant, rapidly generated from innate immune cells, that activates leukocytes through the G protein–coupled receptor BLT1. We report here that BLT1 is expressed on effector CD4+ T cells generated in vitro as well as in vivo when effector T cells migrate out of the lymphoid compartment and are

Andrew M Tager; Shannon K Bromley; Benjamin D Medoff; Sabina A Islam; Scott D Bercury; Erik B Friedrich; Andrew D Carafone; Robert E Gerszten; Andrew D Luster

2003-01-01

271

Structural Insights into the Effector - Immunity System Tae4/Tai4 from Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Type-6-secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria are widely distributed needle-like multi-protein complexes that are involved in microbial defense mechanisms. During bacterial competition these injection needles dispense effector proteins into the periplasm of competing bacteria where they induce degradation of the peptidoglycan scaffold and lead to cell lysis. Donor cells co-produce immunity proteins and shuttle them into their own periplasm to prevent accidental toxication by siblings. Recently, a plethora of previously unidentified hydrolases have been suggested to be peptidoglycan degrading amidases. These hydrolases are part of effector/immunity pairs that have been associated with bacterial warfare by type-6-secretion systems. The Tae4 and Tai4 operon encoded by Salmonella typhimurium is one of these newly discovered effector/immunity pairs. The Tae4 effector proteins induce cell lysis by cleaving the ?-D-glutamyl-L-meso-diaminopimelic acid amide bond of acceptor stem muropeptides of the Gram-negative peptidoglycan. Although homologues of the Tae4/Tai4 system have been identified in various different pathogens, little is known about the functional mechanism of effector protein activity and their inhibition by the cognate immunity proteins. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of the effector Tae4 of S. typhimurium in complex with its immunity protein Tai4. We show that Tae4 contains a classical NlpC/P60-peptidase core which is common to other effector proteins of the type-6-secretion system. However, Tae4 has unique structural features that are exclusively conserved within the family of Tae4 effectors and which are important for the substrate specificity. Most importantly, we show that although the overall structure of Tai4 is different to previously described immunity proteins, the essential mode of enzyme inhibition is conserved. Additionally, we provide evidence that inhibition in the Tae4/Tai4 heterotetramer relies on a central Tai4 dimer in order to acquire functionality. PMID:23826277

Benz, Juliane; Reinstein, Jochen; Meinhart, Anton

2013-01-01

272

Effectors and memories: Bcl6 and Blimp1 in T and B lymphocyte differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 have recently been identified as key transcriptional regulators of effector and memory differentiation in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 were previously known to be critical regulators of effector and memory differentiation of B lymphocytes. The new findings unexpectedly point to the Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 regulatory axis as a ubiquitous mechanism for controlling

Robert J Johnston; Stephen P Schoenberger; Shane Crotty

2010-01-01

273

Structure of a Shigella effector reveals a new class of ubiquitin ligases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial pathogens have evolved effector proteins with ubiquitin E3 ligase activities through structural mimicking. Here we report the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri type III effector IpaH3, a member of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing bacterial E3 family. The LRR domain is structurally similar to Yersinia pestis YopM and potentially binds to substrates. The structure of the C-terminal E3 domain

Yongqun Zhu; Hongtao Li; Liyan Hu; Jiayi Wang; Yan Zhou; Zhimin Pang; Liping Liu; Feng Shao

2008-01-01

274

Similarities and differences in CD4+ and CD8+ effector and memory T cell generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells undergo unique developmental programs after activation, resulting in the generation of effector and long-lived memory T cells. Recent evidence indicates that both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors regulate memory T cell differentiation. This review compares and contrasts how naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells make the transition to effector and\\/or memory cells and discusses the

Rafi Ahmed; Robert A Seder

2003-01-01

275

Global DNA methylation remodeling accompanies CD8 T cell effector function1  

PubMed Central

The differentiation of CD8 T cells in response to acute infection results in the acquisition of hallmark phenotypic effector functions, however the epigenetic mechanisms that program this differentiation process on a genome-wide scale are largely unknown. Here we report the DNA methylomes of antigen-specific naïve and day 8 effector CD8 T cells following acute LCMV infection. During effector CD8 T cell differentiation, DNA methylation was remodeled such that changes in DNA methylation at gene promoter regions negatively correlated with gene expression. Importantly, differentially methylated regions (DMRs2) were enriched at cis-elements, including enhancers active in naïve T cells. DMRs were associated with cell type-specific transcription factor binding sites, and these transcription factors clustered into modules that define networks targeted by epigenetic regulation and control of effector CD8 T cell function. Changes in the DNA methylation profile following CD8 T cell activation, revealed numerous cellular processes, cis-elements, and transcription factor networks targeted by DNA methylation. Together, the results demonstrated that DNA methylation remodeling accompanies the acquisition of the CD8 T cell effector phenotype and repression of the naïve cell state. These data therefore provide the framework for an epigenetic mechanism that is required for effector CD8 T cell differentiation and adaptive immune responses. PMID:23956425

Scharer, Christopher D.; Barwick, Benjamin G.; Youngblood, Benjamin A.; Ahmed, Rafi; Boss, Jeremy M.

2013-01-01

276

Evolution of RXLR-Class Effectors in the Oomycete Plant Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora plant pathogens contain many hundreds of effectors potentially involved in infection of host plants. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that these effectors evolve rapidly and have been subject to recent expansions. We examined the recent sequence evolution of RXLR-class effector gene families in the sudden oak death pathogen, P. ramorum. We found that P. ramorum RXLR effectors have taken multiple evolutionary paths, including loss or gain of repeated domains, recombination or gene conversion among paralogs, and selection on point mutations. Sequencing of homologs from two subfamilies in P. ramorum’s closest known relatives revealed repeated gene duplication and divergence since speciation with P. lateralis. One family showed strong signatures of recombination while the other family has evolved primarily by point mutation. Comparison of a small number of the hundreds of RXLR-class effectors across three clonal lineages of P. ramorum shows striking divergence in alleles among lineages, suggesting the potential for functional differences between lineages. Our results suggest future avenues for examination of rapidly evolving effectors in P. ramorum, including investigation of the functional and coevolutionary significance of the patterns of sequence evolution that we observed. PMID:24244484

Goss, Erica M.; Press, Caroline M.; Grunwald, Niklaus J.

2013-01-01

277

Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate leaf-like flower development in Arabidopsis plants.  

PubMed

Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens that cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches' broom). We found that the majority of genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein, SAP54, that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen and reports to our knowledge the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host. PMID:21849514

MacLean, Allyson M; Sugio, Akiko; Makarova, Olga V; Findlay, Kim C; Grieve, Victoria M; Tóth, Réka; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A

2011-10-01

278

In-flight adaptive performance optimization (APO) control using redundant control effectors of an aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.

Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

279

[Molecular recognition code between pathogenic bacterial TAL-effectors and host target genes: a review].  

PubMed

As the pathogenic bacterial virulence and avirulence factors, transcription activator like (TAL) effectors of Xanthomonas can resulted in the host diseases or resistance responses. TAL effectors can specifically bind the target DNA of host plant with a novel protein-DNA binding pattern in which two amino acids recognize one nucleotide. The complexities of TAL-DNA binding have the feasibility in use of gene therapy through homologous recombination and site-specific mutation. By using the molecular recognition code between TAL-effectors and host target genes, we can exploit both the susceptible and resistance genes; broad spectrum resistance induced by multiple TAL effectors could also be manipulated. Deeper insight in the area of protein-DNA binding mechanism will benefit the application in the biomedical engineering and agricultural engineering. This article reviews the findings and functions of TAL effectors, the binding specificity and recognition code between TAL-effectors and host target genes. The possible applications and future prospects of the molecular recognition code have been discussed. PMID:22097801

Li, Yanqiang; Wang, Chunlian; Zhao, Kaijun

2011-08-01

280

Altered effector function of peripheral cytotoxic cells in COPD  

PubMed Central

Background There is mounting evidence that perforin and granzymes are important mediators in the lung destruction seen in COPD. We investigated the characteristics of the three main perforin and granzyme containing peripheral cells, namely CD8+ T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK; CD56+CD3-) cells and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cell numbers and intracellular granzyme B and perforin were analysed by flow cytometry. Immunomagnetically selected CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK (CD56+CD3-) and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells were used in an LDH release assay to determine cytotoxicity and cytotoxic mechanisms were investigated by blocking perforin and granzyme B with relevant antibodies. Results The proportion of peripheral blood NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells in smokers with COPD (COPD subjects) was significantly lower (0.6%) than in healthy smokers (smokers) (2.8%, p < 0.001) and non-smoking healthy participants (HNS) (3.3%, p < 0.001). NK (CD56+CD3-) cells from COPD subjects were significantly less cytotoxic than in smokers (16.8% vs 51.9% specific lysis, p < 0.001) as were NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells (16.7% vs 52.4% specific lysis, p < 0.001). Both cell types had lower proportions expressing both perforin and granzyme B. Blocking the action of perforin and granzyme B reduced the cytotoxic activity of NK (CD56+CD3-) and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells from smokers and HNS. Conclusion In this study, we show that the relative numbers of peripheral blood NK (CD56+CD3-) and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells in COPD subjects are reduced and that their cytotoxic effector function is defective. PMID:19545425

Urbanowicz, Richard A; Lamb, Jonathan R; Todd, Ian; Corne, Jonathan M; Fairclough, Lucy C

2009-01-01

281

Characterization of novel store-operated calcium entry effectors.  

PubMed

2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB) is a well-known effector of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry of several cell types such as immune cells, platelets and smooth muscle cells. 2-APB has a dual effect: potentiation at 1-5?M and inhibition at >30?M. Unfortunately, it is also able to modify the activity of other Ca(2+) transporters and, thus, cannot be used as a therapeutic tool to control the leukocyte activity in diseases like inflammation. Previously, we have shown that SOCE potentiation by 2-APB depends on the presence of the central boron-oxygen core (BOC) and that the phenyl groups determine the sensitivity of the molecule to inhibit and/or potentiate the SOCE. We hypothesized that by modifying the two phenyl groups of 2-APB, we could identify more efficient and specific analogues. In fact, the addition of methoxyl groups to one phenyl group greatly decreased the potentiation ability without any significant effect on the inhibition. Surprisingly, when the free rotation of the two phenyl groups was blocked by a new hydrocarbon bridge, the BOC was no longer able to potentiate. Furthermore, larger aryl groups than phenyl also impaired the activity of the BOC. Thus, the potentiation site in the Ca(2+) channel is not accessible by the BOC when the lateral groups are too large or unable to freely rotate. However, these molecules are potent inhibitors of store-operated calcium entry with affinities below 1?M, and they can block the activation of the Jurkat T cells. Thus, it is possible to characterize 2-APB analogues with different properties that could be the first step in the discovery of new immunomodulators. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau. PMID:24657813

Djillani, Alaeddine; Nüße, Oliver; Dellis, Olivier

2014-10-01

282

Autoacetylation of the Ralstonia solanacearum Effector PopP2 Targets a Lysine Residue Essential for RRS1-R-Mediated Immunity in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Type III effector proteins from bacterial pathogens manipulate components of host immunity to suppress defence responses and promote pathogen development. In plants, host proteins targeted by some effectors called avirulence proteins are surveyed by plant disease resistance proteins referred to as “guards”. The Ralstonia solanacearum effector protein PopP2 triggers immunity in Arabidopsis following its perception by the RRS1-R resistance protein. Here, we show that PopP2 interacts with RRS1-R in the nucleus of living plant cells. PopP2 belongs to the YopJ-like family of cysteine proteases, which share a conserved catalytic triad that includes a highly conserved cysteine residue. The catalytic cysteine mutant PopP2-C321A is impaired in its avirulence activity although it is still able to interact with RRS1-R. In addition, PopP2 prevents proteasomal degradation of RRS1-R, independent of the presence of an integral PopP2 catalytic core. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that PopP2 displays acetyl-transferase activity leading to its autoacetylation on a particular lysine residue, which is well conserved among all members of the YopJ family. These data suggest that this lysine residue may correspond to a key binding site for acetyl-coenzyme A required for protein activity. Indeed, mutation of this lysine in PopP2 abolishes RRS1-R-mediated immunity. In agreement with the guard hypothesis, our results favour the idea that activation of the plant immune response by RRS1-R depends not only on the physical interaction between the two proteins but also on its perception of PopP2 enzymatic activity. PMID:21124938

Tasset, Celine; Bernoux, Maud; Jauneau, Alain; Pouzet, Cecile; Briere, Christian; Kieffer-Jacquinod, Sylvie; Rivas, Susana

2010-01-01

283

Interleukin 35: A Key Mediator of Suppression and the Propagation of Infectious Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in balancing the effector arm of the immune system is well documented, playing a central role in preventing autoimmunity, facilitating graft tolerance following organ transplantation, and having a detrimental impact on the development of anti-tumor immunity. These regulatory responses use a variety of mechanisms to mediate suppression, including soluble factors. While IL-10 and TGF-? are the most commonly studied immunosuppressive cytokines, the recently identified IL-35 has been shown to have potent suppressive function in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, not only does IL-35 have the ability to directly suppress effector T cell responses, it is also able to expand regulatory responses by propagating infectious tolerance and generating a potent population of IL-35-expressing inducible Tregs. In this review, we summarize research characterizing the structure and function of IL-35, examine its role in disease, and discuss how it can contribute to the induction of a distinct population of inducible Tregs. PMID:24151492

Olson, Brian M.; Sullivan, Jeremy A.; Burlingham, William J.

2013-01-01

284

Glioma-Derived ADAM10 Induces Regulatory B Cells to Suppress CD8+ T Cells  

PubMed Central

CD8+ T cells play an important role in the anti-tumor activities of the body. The dysfunction of CD8+ T cells in glioma is unclear. This study aims to elucidate the glioma cell-derived ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) in the suppression of CD8+ effector T cells by the induction of regulatory B cells. In this study, glioma cells were isolated from surgically removed glioma tissue and stimulated by Phorbol myristate acetage (PMA) in the culture. The levels of ADAM10 in the culture were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immune cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The results showed that the isolated glioma cells express ADAM10, which was markedly up regulated after stimulated with PMA. The glioma-derived ADAM10 induced activated B cells to differentiate into regulatory B cells, the later suppressed CD8+ T cell proliferation as well as the induced regulatory T cells, which also showed the immune suppressor effect on CD8+ effector T cell proliferation. In conclusion, glioma cells produce ADAM10 to induce Bregs; the latter suppresses CD8+ T cells and induces Tregs. PMID:25127032

Li, Wen-sheng; Luo, Lun; Huang, Zhen-chao; Guo, Ying

2014-01-01

285

Unihemispheric Burst Suppression  

PubMed Central

Burst suppression (BS) consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG). When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS. PMID:25309713

Villemarette-Pittman, Nicole R.; Rogers, Cornel T.; Torres-Delgado, Frank; Olejniczak, Piotr W.; England, John D.

2014-01-01

286

A Plant Phosphoswitch Platform Repeatedly Targeted by Type III Effector Proteins Regulates the Output of Both Tiers of Plant Immune Receptors.  

PubMed

Plants detect microbes via two functionally interconnected tiers of immune receptors. Immune detection is suppressed by equally complex pathogen mechanisms. The small plasma-membrane-tethered protein RIN4 negatively regulates microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered responses, which are derepressed upon bacterial flagellin perception. We demonstrate that recognition of the flagellin peptide MAMP flg22 triggers accumulation of RIN4 phosphorylated at serine 141 (pS141) that mediates derepression of several immune outputs. RIN4 is targeted by four bacterial type III effector proteins, delivered temporally after flagellin perception. Of these, AvrB acts with a host kinase to increase levels of RIN4 phosphorylated at threonine 166 (pT166). RIN4 pT166 is epistatic to RIN4 pS141. Thus, AvrB contributes to virulence by enhancing "rerepression" of immune system outputs. Our results explain the evolution of independent effectors that antagonize accumulation of RIN4 pS141 and of a specific plant intracellular NLR protein, RPM1, which is activated by AvrB-mediated accumulation of RIN4 pT166. PMID:25299334

Chung, Eui-Hwan; El-Kasmi, Farid; He, Yijian; Loehr, Alex; Dangl, Jeffery L

2014-10-01

287

Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 has anti-inflammatory properties and ameliorates colitis in mice by driving effector T cell apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis is a dynamic, chronic inflammatory condition of the colon associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Ginkgo biloba is a putative antioxidant and has been used for thousands of years to treat a variety of ailments. The aim of this study was to test whether the standardized G.biloba extract, EGb 761, is an antioxidant that can be used to prevent and treat colitis in mice. Here, we show that EGb 761 suppresses the activation of macrophages and can be used to both prevent and treat mouse colitis. Markers of inflammation (iNOS, Cox-2 and tumor necrosis factor-?) and inflammatory stress (p53 and p53-phospho-serine 15) are also downregulated by EGb 761. Furthermore, we show that EGb 761 reduces the numbers of CD4+/CD25?/Foxp3? effector T cells in the colon. Interestingly, EGb 761 drives CD4+ effector T cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, providing a mechanistic explanation to the reduction in numbers of this cell type in the colon. This current study is in agreement with previous studies supporting a use of EGb 761 as a complementary and alternative strategy to abate colitis and associated colon cancer. PMID:18567620

Kotakadi, Venkata S.; Jin, Yu; Hofseth, Anne B.; Ying, Lei; Cui, Xiangli; Volate, Suresh; Chumanevich, Alexander; Wood, Patricia A.; Price, Robert L.; McNeal, Anna; Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Matesic, Lydia E.; Auclair, Karine; Wargovich, Michael J.; Hofseth, Lorne J.

2008-01-01

288

Structures of the flax-rust effector AvrM reveal insights into the molecular basis of plant-cell entry and effector-triggered immunity.  

PubMed

Fungal and oomycete pathogens cause some of the most devastating diseases in crop plants, and facilitate infection by delivering a large number of effector molecules into the plant cell. AvrM is a secreted effector protein from flax rust (Melampsora lini) that can internalize into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen, binds to phosphoinositides (PIPs), and is recognized directly by the resistance protein M in flax (Linum usitatissimum), resulting in effector-triggered immunity. We determined the crystal structures of two naturally occurring variants of AvrM, AvrM-A and avrM, and both reveal an L-shaped fold consisting of a tandem duplicated four-helix motif, which displays similarity to the WY domain core in oomycete effectors. In the crystals, both AvrM variants form a dimer with an unusual nonglobular shape. Our functional analysis of AvrM reveals that a hydrophobic surface patch conserved between both variants is required for internalization into plant cells, whereas the C-terminal coiled-coil domain mediates interaction with M. AvrM binding to PIPs is dependent on positive surface charges, and mutations that abrogate PIP binding have no significant effect on internalization, suggesting that AvrM binding to PIPs is not essential for transport of AvrM across the plant membrane. The structure of AvrM and the identification of functionally important surface regions advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying how effectors enter plant cells and how they are detected by the plant immune system. PMID:24101475

Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Rafiqi, Maryam; Rahman, Motiur; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Hardham, Adrienne R; Jones, David A; Anderson, Peter A; Dodds, Peter N; Kobe, Bostjan

2013-10-22

289

Structures of the flax-rust effector AvrM reveal insights into the molecular basis of plant-cell entry and effector-triggered immunity  

PubMed Central

Fungal and oomycete pathogens cause some of the most devastating diseases in crop plants, and facilitate infection by delivering a large number of effector molecules into the plant cell. AvrM is a secreted effector protein from flax rust (Melampsora lini) that can internalize into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen, binds to phosphoinositides (PIPs), and is recognized directly by the resistance protein M in flax (Linum usitatissimum), resulting in effector-triggered immunity. We determined the crystal structures of two naturally occurring variants of AvrM, AvrM-A and avrM, and both reveal an L-shaped fold consisting of a tandem duplicated four-helix motif, which displays similarity to the WY domain core in oomycete effectors. In the crystals, both AvrM variants form a dimer with an unusual nonglobular shape. Our functional analysis of AvrM reveals that a hydrophobic surface patch conserved between both variants is required for internalization into plant cells, whereas the C-terminal coiled-coil domain mediates interaction with M. AvrM binding to PIPs is dependent on positive surface charges, and mutations that abrogate PIP binding have no significant effect on internalization, suggesting that AvrM binding to PIPs is not essential for transport of AvrM across the plant membrane. The structure of AvrM and the identification of functionally important surface regions advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying how effectors enter plant cells and how they are detected by the plant immune system. PMID:24101475

Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J.; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Rafiqi, Maryam; Rahman, Motiur; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Hardham, Adrienne R.; Jones, David A.; Anderson, Peter A.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kobe, Bostjan

2013-01-01

290

Aphid protein effectors promote aphid colonization in a plant species-specific manner.  

PubMed

Microbial pathogens and pests produce effectors to modulate host processes. Aphids are phloem-feeding insects, which introduce effectors via saliva into plant cells. However, it is not known if aphid effectors have adapted to modulate processes in specific plant species. Myzus persicae is a polyphagous insect that colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, while the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum specializes on colonizing plant species of the family Fabaceae. We found that M. persicae reproduction increased on transgenic Arabidopsis, producing the M. persicae effectors C002, PIntO1 (Mp1), and PIntO2 (Mp2), whereas reproduction of M. persicae did not increase on Arabidopsis producing the A. pisum orthologs of these three proteins. Plant-mediated RNA interference experiments showed that c002- and PIntO2-silenced M. persicae produce less progeny on Arabidopsis and N. benthamiana than nonsilenced aphids. Orthologs of c002, PIntO1, and PIntO2 were identified in multiple aphid species with dissimilar plant host ranges. We revealed high nonsynonymous versus synonymous nucleotide substitution rates within the effector orthologs, indicating that the effectors are fast evolving. Application of maximum likelihood methods identified specific sites with high probabilities of being under positive selection in PIntO1, whereas those of C002 and PIntO2 may be located in alignment gaps. In support of the latter, a M. persicae c002 mutant without the NDNQGEE repeat region, which overlaps with an alignment gap in C002, does not promote M. persicae colonization on Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results provide evidence that aphid effectors are under positive selection to promote aphid colonization on specific plant species. PMID:23035913

Pitino, Marco; Hogenhout, Saskia A

2013-01-01

291

A single plant resistance gene promoter engineered to recognize multiple TAL effectors from disparate pathogens.  

PubMed

Plant pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas inject transcription-activator like (TAL) effector proteins that manipulate the hosts' transcriptome to promote disease. However, in some cases plants take advantage of this mechanism to trigger defense responses. For example, transcription of the pepper Bs3 and rice Xa27 resistance (R) genes are specifically activated by the respective TAL effectors AvrBs3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), and AvrXa27 from X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Recognition of AvrBs3 was shown to be mediated by interaction with the corresponding UPT (UPregulated by TAL effectors) box UPT(AvrBs3) present in the promoter R gene Bs3 from the dicot pepper. In contrast, it was not known how the Xoo TAL effector AvrXa27 transcriptionally activates the matching R gene Xa27 from the monocot rice. Here we identified a 16-bp UPT(AvrXa27) box present in the rice Xa27 promoter that when transferred into the Bs3 promoter confers AvrXa27-dependent inducibility. We demonstrate that polymorphisms between the UPT(AvrXa27) box of the AvrXa27-inducible Xa27 promoter and the corresponding region of the noninducible xa27 promoter account for their distinct inducibility and affinity, with respect to AvrXa27. Moreover, we demonstrate that three functionally distinct UPT boxes targeted by separate TAL effectors retain their function and specificity when combined into one promoter. Given that many economically important xanthomonads deliver multiple TAL effectors, the engineering of R genes capable of recognizing multiple TAL effectors provides a potential approach for engineering broad spectrum and durable disease resistance. PMID:19910532

Römer, Patrick; Recht, Sabine; Lahaye, Thomas

2009-12-01

292

Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25+/highCD127Ø/lowFoxP3+, and effector T cells were defined as CD25+CD127+FoxP3Ø. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4+TREG and CD28+TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L+TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR+, HLA-DR+, OX40+, and CD45RO+ cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L+ cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L+TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25098715

Mesquita Junior, D.; Cruvinel, W.M.; Araujo, J.A.P.; Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G.; Andrade, L.E.C.

2014-01-01

293

Structure Function Analysis of an ADP-ribosyltransferase Type III Effector and Its RNA-binding Target in Plant Immunity*  

PubMed Central

The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopU1 is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase that is injected into plant cells by the type III protein secretion system. Inside the plant cell it suppresses immunity by modifying RNA-binding proteins including the glycine-rich RNA-binding protein GRP7. The crystal structure of HopU1 at 2.7-? resolution reveals two unique protruding loops, L1 and L4, not found in other mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that these loops are essential for substrate recognition and enzymatic activity. HopU1 ADP-ribosylates the conserved arginine 49 of GRP7, and this reduces the ability of GRP7 to bind RNA in vitro. In vivo, expression of GRP7 with Arg-49 replaced with lysine does not complement the reduced immune responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana grp7-1 mutant demonstrating the importance of this residue for GRP7 function. These data provide mechanistic details how HopU1 recognizes this novel type of substrate and highlights the role of GRP7 in plant immunity. PMID:22013065

Jeong, Byeong-ryool; Lin, Yan; Joe, Anna; Guo, Ming; Korneli, Christin; Yang, Huirong; Wang, Ping; Yu, Min; Cerny, Ronald L.; Staiger, Dorothee; Alfano, James R.; Xu, Yanhui

2011-01-01

294

'All things considered': transcriptional regulation of T helper type 2 cell differentiation from precursor to effector activation.  

PubMed

T helper type 2 (Th2) cells are critical to host defence against helminth infection and the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The differentiation of Th2 cells from naive CD4 T cells is controlled by intricate transcriptional mechanisms. At the precursor stage of naive CD4 T cells, transcriptional mechanisms maintain the potential and in the meantime prevent spontaneous differentiation to Th2 fate. In addition, intrachromosomal interactions important for co-ordinated expression of Th2 cytokines pre-exist in naive CD4 T cells. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement, naive CD4 T cells are induced by polarizing signals of the interleukin-4/Stat6 and Jagged/Notch pathways to up-regulate the expression of GATA-3. Once up-regulated, GATA-3 drives Th2 and suppresses Th1 differentiation in a cell autonomous fashion. In this stage of differentiation, the Th2 cytokine locus, as well as the interferon-? locus, undergoes chromatin remodelling and epigenetic modifications that contribute to the somatic memory of Th2 cytokine gene expression pattern. Once differentiated, Th2 effector cells promptly produce Th2 cytokines upon TCR stimulation, which is regulated by concerted actions of GATA-3, TCR signalling, enhancers and the Th2 locus control region. This review provides a detailed account of the transcriptional regulatory events at these different stages of Th2 differentiation. PMID:23668241

Zeng, Wei-ping

2013-09-01

295

An efficient antiviral strategy for targeting hepatitis B virus genome using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.  

PubMed

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that can cause chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in humans. Current therapies for CHB infection are limited in efficacy and do not target the pre-existing viral genomic DNA, which are present in the nucleus as a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form. The transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) are newly developed enzymes that can cleave sequence-specific DNA targets. Here, TALENs targeting the conserved regions of the viral genomic DNA among different HBV genotypes were constructed. The expression of TALENs in Huh7 cells transfected with monomeric linear full-length HBV DNA significantly reduced the viral production of HBeAg, HBsAg, HBcAg, and pgRNA, resulted in a decreased cccDNA level and misrepaired cccDNAs without apparent cytotoxic effects. The anti-HBV effect of TALENs was further demonstrated in a hydrodynamic injection-based mouse model. In addition, an enhanced antiviral effect with combinations of TALENs and interferon-? (IFN-?) treatment was observed and expression of TALENs restored HBV suppressed IFN-stimulated response element-directed transcription. Taken together, these data indicate that TALENs can specifically target and successfully inactivate the HBV genome and are potently synergistic with IFN-?, thus providing a potential therapeutic strategy for treating CHB infection. PMID:24025750

Chen, Jieliang; Zhang, Wen; Lin, Junyu; Wang, Fan; Wu, Min; Chen, Cuncun; Zheng, Ye; Peng, Xiuhua; Li, Jianhua; Yuan, Zhenghong

2014-02-01

296

Inactivation of hepatitis B virus replication in cultured cells and in vivo with engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an important global health problem. Stability of the episomal covalently closed circular HBV DNA (cccDNA) is largely responsible for the modest curative efficacy of available therapy. Since licensed anti-HBV drugs have a post-transcriptional mechanism of action, disabling cccDNA is potentially of therapeutic benefit. To develop this approach, we engineered mutagenic transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) that target four HBV-specific sites within the viral genome. TALENs with cognate sequences in the S or C open-reading frames (ORFs) efficiently disrupted sequences at the intended sites and suppressed markers of viral replication. Following triple transfection of cultured HepG2.2.15 cells under mildly hypothermic conditions, the S TALEN caused targeted mutation in ~35% of cccDNA molecules. Markers of viral replication were also inhibited in vivo in a murine hydrodynamic injection model of HBV replication. HBV target sites within S and C ORFs of the injected HBV DNA were mutated without evidence of toxicity. These findings are the first to demonstrate a targeted nuclease-mediated disruption of HBV cccDNA. Efficacy in vivo also indicates that these engineered nucleases have potential for use in treatment of chronic HBV infection. PMID:23883864

Bloom, Kristie; Ely, Abdullah; Mussolino, Claudio; Cathomen, Toni; Arbuthnot, Patrick

2013-10-01

297

Osteoclast Activated FoxP3+ CD8+ T-Cells Suppress Bone Resorption in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoclasts are the body’s sole bone resorbing cells. Cytokines produced by pro-inflammatory effector T-cells (TEFF) increase bone resorption by osteoclasts. Prolonged exposure to the TEFF produced cytokines leads to bone erosion diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The crosstalk between T-cells and osteoclasts has been termed osteoimmunology. We have previously shown that under non-inflammatory conditions, murine osteoclasts can recruit naïve CD8 T-cells and activate these T-cells to induce CD25 and FoxP3 (TcREG). The activation of CD8 T-cells by osteoclasts also induced the cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-?. Individually, these cytokines can activate or suppress osteoclast resorption. Principal Findings To determine the net effect of TcREG on osteoclast activity we used a number of in vitro assays. We found that TcREG can potently and directly suppress bone resorption by osteoclasts. TcREG could suppress osteoclast differentiation and resorption by mature osteoclasts, but did not affect their survival. Additionally, we showed that TcREG suppress cytoskeletal reorganization in mature osteoclasts. Whereas induction of TcREG by osteoclasts is antigen-dependent, suppression of osteoclasts by TcREG does not require antigen or re-stimulation. We demonstrated that antibody blockade of IL-6, IL-10 or IFN-? relieved suppression. The suppression did not require direct contact between the TcREG and osteoclasts. Significance We have determined that osteoclast-induced TcREG can suppress osteoclast activity, forming a negative feedback system. As the CD8 T-cells are activated in the absence of inflammatory signals, these observations suggest that this regulatory loop may play a role in regulating skeletal homeostasis. Our results provide the first documentation of suppression of osteoclast activity by CD8 regulatory T-cells and thus, extend the purview of osteoimmunology. PMID:22701612

Buchwald, Zachary S.; Kiesel, Jennifer R.; DiPaolo, Richard; Pagadala, Meghana S.; Aurora, Rajeev

2012-01-01

298

Secreted Fungal Effector Lipase Releases Free Fatty Acids to Inhibit Innate Immunity-Related Callose Formation during Wheat Head Infection[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The deposition of the (1,3)-?-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant’s innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant ?fgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the ?fgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and ?-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with ?fgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the ?fgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and ?-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection. PMID:24686113

Blumke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Bjorn; Bode, Rainer; Schafer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A.

2014-01-01

299

Allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice is dependent on eosinophil-induced recruitment of effector T cells  

PubMed Central

The current paradigm surrounding allergen-mediated T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses in the lung suggests an almost hegemonic role for T cells. Our studies propose an alternative hypothesis implicating eosinophils in the regulation of pulmonary T cell responses. In particular, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice devoid of eosinophils (the transgenic line PHIL) have reduced airway levels of Th2 cytokines relative to the OVA-treated wild type that correlated with a reduced ability to recruit effector T cells to the lung. Adoptive transfer of Th2-polarized OVA-specific transgenic T cells (OT-II) alone into OVA-challenged PHIL recipient mice failed to restore Th2 cytokines, airway histopathologies, and, most importantly, the recruitment of pulmonary effector T cells. In contrast, the combined transfer of OT-II cells and eosinophils into PHIL mice resulted in the accumulation of effector T cells and a concomitant increase in both airway Th2 immune responses and histopathologies. Moreover, we show that eosinophils elicit the expression of the Th2 chemokines thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 and macrophage-derived chemokine/CCL22 in the lung after allergen challenge, and blockade of these chemokines inhibited the recruitment of effector T cells. In summary, the data suggest that pulmonary eosinophils are required for the localized recruitment of effector T cells. PMID:18316417

Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Pero, Ralph S.; Taranova, Anna G.; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Colbert, Dana C.; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.

2008-01-01

300

Wind Tunnel Test of an RPV with Shape-Change Control Effector and Sensor Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of novel control effector concepts have recently emerged that may enable new approaches to flight control. In particular, the potential exists to shift the composition of the typical aircraft control effector suite from a small number of high authority, specialized devices (rudder, aileron, elevator, flaps), toward larger numbers of smaller, less specialized, distributed device arrays. The concept envisions effector and sensor networks composed of relatively small high-bandwidth devices able to simultaneously perform a variety of control functions using feedback from disparate data sources. To investigate this concept, a remotely piloted flight vehicle has been equipped with an array of 24 trailing edge shape-change effectors and associated pressure measurements. The vehicle, called the Multifunctional Effector and Sensor Array (MESA) testbed, was recently tested in NASA Langley's 12-ft Low Speed wind tunnel to characterize its stability properties, control authorities, and distributed pressure sensitivities for use in a dynamic simulation prior to flight testing. Another objective was to implement and evaluate a scheme for actively controlling the spanwise pressure distribution using the shape-change array. This report describes the MESA testbed, design of the pressure distribution controller, and results of the wind tunnel test.

Raney, David L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Sloan, Adam R.; Barnwell, William G.; Lion, S. Todd; Hautamaki, Bret A.

2004-01-01

301

PLZF Turns on the Effector T cell Program Without Requirement for Agonist TCR Signaling  

PubMed Central

Thymocytes expressing the NKT cell semi-invariant ?? TCR are thought to undergo agonist interactions with CD1d ligands prior to expressing PLZF, a BTB-POZ transcription factor that directs acquisition of the effector program of these innate-like T cells. Whether PLZF can mediate this effector conversion independently of agonist signaling has not been investigated. We demonstrated that transgenic expression of PLZF under the CD4 promoter induced the innate effector program in two different MHC class II-restricted TCR transgenic Rag1?/? models examined. In CD4 thymocytes expressing a fixed transgenic TCR ? chain, the associated TCR ? sequences in wild-type and PLZF-transgenic mice overlapped extensively, further demonstrating that PLZF could induce the effector program in most CD4 T cells that would normally be selected as naÔve cells. In contrast, PLZF altered the negative selection of thymocytes expressing TCR ? chains reactive against several retroviral superantigens. Thus, PLZF is the first example of a transcription factor inducing an effector program in the absence of T cell agonist interactions or cell division. Its expression may also enhance the survival of agonist-signaled thymocytes. PMID:21478405

Savage, Adam K; Constantinides, Michael G.; Bendelac, Albert

2012-01-01

302

Id2 influences differentiation of KLRG1hi short-lived CD8+ effector T cells  

PubMed Central

CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in the clearance of intracellular pathogens through the generation of cytotoxic effector cells that eliminate infected cells and long-lived memory cells that provide enhanced protection against reinfection. We have previously shown that the inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, Id2, is necessary for accumulation of effector and memory CD8+ T cells during infection. Here we show that CD8+ T cells lacking Id2 did not generate a robust terminally-differentiated KLRG1hi effector population, but displayed a cell-surface phenotype and cytokine profile consistent with memory precursors, raising the question as to whether loss of Id2 impairs the differentiation and/or survival of effector-memory cells. We found that deletion of Bim rescued Id2-deficient CD8+ cell survival during infection. However, the dramatic reduction in KLRG1hi cells caused by loss of Id2 remained in the absence of Bim, such that Id2/Bim double-deficient cells form an exclusively KLRG1lo CD127hi memory precursor population. Thus we describe a role for Id2 in both the survival and differentiation of normal CD8+ effector and memory populations. PMID:23325888

Knell, Jamie; Best, J. Adam; Lind, Nicholas A.; Yang, Edward; D'Cruz, Louise M.; Goldrath, Ananda W.

2013-01-01

303

Myeloid cells as effector cells for monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become an important addition to chemo- and/or radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. They have multiple effector functions that can lead to eradication of tumor, including induction of apoptosis, growth inhibition, and initiation of complement-dependent lysis. Furthermore, mAbs can recruit immune effector cells. Traditionally, natural killer cells have been considered as the main effector cell population in mAb-mediated tumor killing. Myeloid cells have potent cytotoxic ability, as well. Monocytes and macrophages have been shown to induce antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of tumor cells in the presence of IgG anti-tumor mAb. Furthermore, neutrophils are the most abundant population of circulating white blood cells, and as such may constitute a formidable source of effector cells. However, when targeting neutrophils for tumor therapy, antibodies of the IgA subclass may be more effective. This article focuses on enlisting myeloid effector cells for mAb-based immunotherapy of cancer. Additionally, methods to study mAb-dependent phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages are compared. PMID:23811299

Braster, Rens; O'Toole, Tom; van Egmond, Marjolein

2014-01-01

304

Crosstalk and differential response to abiotic and biotic stressors reflected at the transcriptional level of effector genes from secondary metabolismw  

E-print Network

of these effector gene families defined distinct responses and crosstalk. Methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments were separated from a group combining reactions towards two sulfonylurea herbicides, salicylate

Mauch, Felix - Department of Biology

305

Regulatory role of suppressive motifs from commensal DNA.  

PubMed

The microbiota contributes to the induction of both effector and regulatory responses in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, the mechanisms controlling these distinct properties remain poorly understood. We previously showed that commensal DNA promotes intestinal immunity. Here, we find that the capacity of bacterial DNA to stimulate immune responses is species specific and correlated with the frequency of motifs known to exert immunosuppressive function. In particular, we show that the DNA of Lactobacillus species, including various probiotics, is enriched in suppressive motifs able to inhibit lamina propria dendritic cell activation. In addition, immunosuppressive oligonucleotides sustain T(reg) cell conversion during inflammation and limit pathogen-induced immunopathology and colitis. Altogether, our findings identify DNA-suppressive motifs as a molecular ligand expressed by commensals and support the idea that a balance between stimulatory and regulatory DNA motifs contributes to the induction of controlled immune responses in the GI tract and gut immune homeostasis. Further, our findings suggest that the endogenous regulatory capacity of DNA motifs enriched in some commensal bacteria could be exploited for therapeutic purposes. PMID:22617839

Bouladoux, N; Hall, J A; Grainger, J R; dos Santos, L M; Kann, M G; Nagarajan, V; Verthelyi, D; Belkaid, Y

2012-11-01

306

Paradoxical effects of thought suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a first experiment, subjects verbalizing the stream of consciousness for a 5-min period were asked to try not to think of a white bear, but to ring a bell in case they did. As indicated both by mentions and by bell rings, they were unable to suppress the thought as instructed. On being asked after this suppression task to

Daniel M. Wegner; David J. Schneider; Samuel R. Carter III; Teri L. White

1987-01-01

307

Bacterial effectors target the plant cell nucleus to subvert host transcription  

PubMed Central

In order to promote virulence, Gram-negative bacteria have evolved the ability to inject so-called type III effector proteins into host cells. The plant cell nucleus appears to be a subcellular compartment repeatedly targeted by bacterial effectors. In agreement with this observation, mounting evidence suggests that manipulation of host transcription is a major strategy developed by bacteria to counteract plant defense responses. It has been suggested that bacterial effectors may adopt at least three alternative, although not mutually exclusive, strategies to subvert host transcription. T3Es may (1) act as transcription factors that directly activate transcription in host cells, (2) affect histone packing and chromatin configuration, and/or (3) directly target host transcription factor activity. Here, we provide an overview on how all these strategies may lead to host transcriptional re-programming and, as a result, to improved bacterial multiplication inside plant cells. PMID:22353865

Canonne, Joanne; Rivas, Susana

2012-01-01

308

Mining the human gut microbiota for effector strains that shape the immune system.  

PubMed

The gut microbiota codevelops with the immune system beginning at birth. Mining the microbiota for bacterial strains responsible for shaping the structure and dynamic operations of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system represents a formidable combinatorial problem but one that needs to be overcome to advance mechanistic understanding of microbial community and immune system coregulation and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that promote health. Here, we discuss a scalable, less biased approach for identifying effector strains in complex microbial communities that impact immune function. The approach begins by identifying uncultured human fecal microbiota samples that transmit immune phenotypes to germ-free mice. Clonally arrayed sequenced collections of bacterial strains are constructed from representative donor microbiota. If the collection transmits phenotypes, effector strains are identified by testing randomly generated subsets with overlapping membership in individually housed germ-free animals. Detailed mechanistic studies of effector strain-host interactions can then be performed. PMID:24950201

Ahern, Philip P; Faith, Jeremiah J; Gordon, Jeffrey I

2014-06-19

309

Structural basis for sequence-specific recognition of DNA by TAL effectors.  

PubMed

TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors, secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria, recognize host DNA sequences through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat comprises 33 to 35 conserved amino acids and targets a specific base pair by using two hypervariable residues [known as repeat variable diresidues (RVDs)] at positions 12 and 13. Here, we report the crystal structures of an 11.5-repeat TAL effector in both DNA-free and DNA-bound states. Each TAL repeat comprises two helices connected by a short RVD-containing loop. The 11.5 repeats form a right-handed, superhelical structure that tracks along the sense strand of DNA duplex, with RVDs contacting the major groove. The 12th residue stabilizes the RVD loop, whereas the 13th residue makes a base-specific contact. Understanding DNA recognition by TAL effectors may facilitate rational design of DNA-binding proteins with biotechnological applications. PMID:22223738

Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Pan, Xiaojing; Mahfouz, Magdy; Wang, Jiawei; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Shi, Yigong; Yan, Nieng

2012-02-10

310

Postictal generalized EEG suppression  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the consistency and facilitating cofactors of postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) of >20 seconds after convulsive seizures (CS), a suggested predictor of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy risk. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed video-EEG data of people with ?2 recorded CS. Presence and duration of PGES were assessed by 2 independent observers blinded to patient status. Intraindividual consistency of PGES >20 seconds was determined and correlations with clinical characteristics were analyzed after correction for individual effects and the varying number of seizures. Results: One hundred fifty-four seizures in 59 people were analyzed. PGES >20 seconds was found in 37 individuals (63%) and 57 (37%) of CS. The proportion of persons in whom PGES occurred consistently (presence or absence of PGES >20 seconds in all CS) was lower in those with more CS. PGES of >20 seconds was more frequent in seizures arising from sleep (odds ratio 3.29, 95% confidence interval 1.21–8.96) and when antiepileptic medication was tapered (odds ratio 4.80, 95% confidence interval 1.27–18.14). Conclusion: Apparent PGES consistency was less frequent in people with more CS recorded, suggesting that PGES is an inconsistent finding in any one individual. Thus, we believe that PGES >20 seconds is not a reliable predictor of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Sleep and antiepileptic drug reduction appear to facilitate the occurrence of PGES. PMID:23966251

Lamberts, Robert J.; Gaitatzis, Athanasios; Sander, Josemir W.; Elger, Christian E.

2013-01-01

311

Group Differences in Suppression Skill*  

PubMed Central

It is proposed that there are group differences in suppression skill, and one such grouping is the distinction between more versus less skilled university-aged comprehenders. Experiments supporting this proposal and demonstrating that university-aged adults differ in their ability to suppress irrelevant, inappropriate, potentially interfering information are reviewed. Many of these experiments have been replicated with other groups, which also hypothetically differ in their ability to suppress inappropriate information. Two new sets of experiments are reviewed. In one, the prediction that less skilled comprehenders- because they are less skilled at suppression- should be better at comprehending puns is evaluated. In the other, the prediction that less skilled comprehenders- because they are less skilled at suppression- are better able to shift to a different meaning of a homonym is evaluated. Both sets of data are evaluated with respect to a general slowing explanation and scaling artifacts.

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

2014-01-01

312

Fructose 1-Phosphate Is the Preferred Effector of the Metabolic Regulator Cra of Pseudomonas putida*  

PubMed Central

The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein is a global sensor and regulator of carbon fluxes through the central metabolic pathways of Gram-negative bacteria. To examine the nature of the effector (or effectors) that signal such fluxes to the protein of Pseudomonas putida, the Cra factor of this soil microorganism has been purified and characterized and its three-dimensional structure determined. Analytical ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and mobility shift assays showed that the effector-free Cra is a dimer that binds an operator DNA sequence in the promoter region of the fruBKA cluster. Furthermore, fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) was found to most efficiently dissociate the Cra-DNA complex. Thermodynamic parameters of the F1P-Cra-DNA interaction calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the factor associates tightly to the DNA sequence 5?-TTAAACGTTTCA-3? (KD = 26.3 ± 3.1 nm) and that F1P binds the protein with an apparent stoichiometry of 1.06 ± 0.06 molecules per Cra monomer and a KD of 209 ± 20 nm. Other possible effectors, like fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, did not display a significant affinity for the regulator under the assay conditions. Moreover, the structure of Cra and its co-crystal with F1P at a 2-? resolution revealed that F1P fits optimally the geometry of the effector pocket. Our results thus single out F1P as the preferred metabolic effector of the Cra protein of P. putida. PMID:21239488

Chavarria, Max; Santiago, Cesar; Platero, Raul; Krell, Tino; Casasnovas, Jose M.; de Lorenzo, Victor

2011-01-01

313

Effector-Independent Motor Sequence Representations Exist in Extrinsic and Intrinsic Reference Frames  

PubMed Central

Many daily activities rely on the ability to produce meaningful sequences of movements. Motor sequences can be learned in an effector-specific fashion (such that benefits of training are restricted to the trained hand) or an effector-independent manner (meaning that learning also facilitates performance with the untrained hand). Effector-independent knowledge can be represented in extrinsic/world-centered or in intrinsic/body-centered coordinates. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern analysis to determine the distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic finger sequence representations across the human neocortex. Participants practiced four sequences with one hand for 4 d, and then performed these sequences during fMRI with both left and right hand. Between hands, these sequences were equivalent in extrinsic or intrinsic space, or were unrelated. In dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), we found that sequence-specific activity patterns correlated higher for extrinsic than for unrelated pairs, providing evidence for an extrinsic sequence representation. In contrast, primary sensory and motor cortices showed effector-independent representations in intrinsic space, with considerable overlap of the two reference frames in caudal PMd. These results suggest that effector-independent representations exist not only in world-centered, but also in body-centered coordinates, and that PMd may be involved in transforming sequential knowledge between the two. Moreover, although effector-independent sequence representations were found bilaterally, they were stronger in the hemisphere contralateral to the trained hand. This indicates that intermanual transfer relies on motor memories that are laid down during training in both hemispheres, but preferentially draws upon sequential knowledge represented in the trained hemisphere. PMID:24695723

Wiestler, Tobias; Waters-Metenier, Sheena

2014-01-01

314

A Novel C-Terminal Region within the Multicargo Type III Secretion Chaperone CesT Contributes to Effector Secretion  

PubMed Central

The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) multicargo chaperone CesT interacts with at least 10 effector proteins and is central to pathogenesis. CesT has been implicated in coordinating effector hierarchy, although the mechanisms behind this regulation are poorly understood. To address this question, we set out to functionally characterize CesT with respect to roles in (i) effector binding, (ii) effector recruitment to the type III secretion system (T3SS), and (iii) effector translocation into host cells. A CesT variant expression library was screened in EPEC using a newly developed semi-high-throughput secretion assay. Among many deficient CesT variants, a predominant number were localized to a novel CesT C-terminal region. These CesT C-terminal variants exhibited normal effector binding yet reduced effector secretion levels. Structural correlation and thermal spectroscopy analyses of purified CesT variants implicated multiple surface-exposed residues, a terminal helix region, and a flexible C-terminal triple-serine stretch in effector secretion. Site-directed mutagenesis of the flexible CesT C-terminal triple-serine sequence produced differential effector secretion, implicating this region in secretion events. Infection assays further indicated that the C-terminal region of CesT was important for NleA translocation into host cells but was dispensable for Tir translocation. The findings implicate the CesT C terminus in effector secretion and contribute to a model for multiple-cargo chaperone function and effector translocation into host cells during infection. PMID:23222727

Ramu, Thangadurai; Prasad, Madhulika Esther; Connors, Erica; Mishra, Amit; Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Leblanc, Jason; Rainey, Jan K.

2013-01-01

315

Searching algorithm for type IV secretion system effectors 1.0: a tool for predicting type IV effectors and exploring their genomic context  

PubMed Central

Type IV effectors (T4Es) are proteins produced by pathogenic bacteria to manipulate host cell gene expression and processes, divert the cell machinery for their own profit and circumvent the immune responses. T4Es have been characterized for some bacteria but many remain to be discovered. To help biologists identify putative T4Es from the complete genome of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, we developed a Perl-based command line bioinformatics tool called S4TE (searching algorithm for type-IV secretion system effectors). The tool predicts and ranks T4E candidates by using a combination of 13 sequence characteristics, including homology to known effectors, homology to eukaryotic domains, presence of subcellular localization signals or secretion signals, etc. S4TE software is modular, and specific motif searches are run independently before ultimate combination of the outputs to generate a score and sort the strongest T4Es candidates. The user keeps the possibility to adjust various searching parameters such as the weight of each module, the selection threshold or the input databases. The algorithm also provides a GC% and local gene density analysis, which strengthen the selection of T4E candidates. S4TE is a unique predicting tool for T4Es, finding its utility upstream from experimental biology. PMID:23945940

Meyer, Damien F.; Noroy, Christophe; Moumene, Amal; Raffaele, Sylvain; Albina, Emmanuel; Vachiery, Nathalie

2013-01-01

316

Identification and Characterisation of a Hyper-Variable Apoplastic Effector Gene Family of the Potato Cyst Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism. PMID:25255291

Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J.; Jones, John T.; Urwin, Peter E.

2014-01-01

317

Salmonella Phage ST64B Encodes a Member of the SseK/NleB Effector Family  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica is a species of bacteria that is a major cause of enteritis across the globe, while certain serovars cause typhoid, a more serious disease associated with a significant mortality rate. Type III secreted effectors are major contributors to the pathogenesis of Salmonella infections. Genes encoding effectors are acquired via horizontal gene transfer, and a subset are encoded within active phage lysogens. Because the acquisition of effectors is in flux, the complement of effectors possessed by various Salmonella strains frequently differs. By comparing the genome sequences of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 with LT2, we identified a gene with significant similarity to SseK/NleB type III secreted effector proteins within a phage ST64B lysogen that is absent from LT2. We have named this gene sseK3. SseK3 was co-regulated with the SPI-2 type III secretion system in vitro and inside host cells, and was also injected into infected host cells. While no role for SseK3 in virulence could be identified, a role for the other family members in murine typhoid was found. SseK3 and other phage-encoded effectors were found to have a significant but sparse distribution in the available Salmonella genome sequences, indicating the potential for more uncharacterised effectors to be present in less studied serovars. These phage-encoded effectors may be principle subjects of contemporary selective processes shaping Salmonella-host interactions. PMID:21445262

Brown, Nat F.; Coombes, Brian K.; Bishop, Jenna L.; Wickham, Mark E.; Lowden, Michael J.; Gal-Mor, Ohad; Goode, David L.; Boyle, Erin C.; Sanderson, Kristy L.; Finlay, B. Brett

2011-01-01

318

MODULATION OF THE NF-KAPPA B SIGNALING PATHWAY BY THE BACTERIAL TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM EFFECTORS  

E-print Network

(s) was unknown. In this thesis, my goals were to identify T3SS effectors from attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens responsible for modulating NF-?B activation and reveal the working mechanism of these identified effectors. In the first project, NleH1 and NleH2...

Gao, Xiaofei

2012-08-31

319

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2014 125 Locating End-Effector Tips in Robotic Micromanipulation  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2014 125 Locating End-Effector Tips in Robotic Micromanipulation Jun Liu, Zheng Gong, Kathryn Tang, Zhe Lu, Changhai Ru, Jun Luo, Shaorong Xie, and Yu Sun Abstract--In robotic micromanipulation, end-effector tips must be first located under

Sun, Yu

320

Transduction of SIV-Specific TCR Genes into Rhesus Macaque CD8+ T Cells Conveys the Ability to Suppress SIV Replication  

PubMed Central

Background The SIV/rhesus macaque model for HIV/AIDS is a powerful system for examining the contribution of T cells in the control of AIDS viruses. To better our understanding of CD8+ T-cell control of SIV replication in CD4+ T cells, we asked whether TCRs isolated from rhesus macaque CD8+ T-cell clones that exhibited varying abilities to suppress SIV replication could convey their suppressive properties to CD8+ T cells obtained from an uninfected/unvaccinated animal. Principal Findings We transferred SIV-specific TCR genes isolated from rhesus macaque CD8+ T-cell clones with varying abilities to suppress SIV replication in vitro into CD8+ T cells obtained from an uninfected animal by retroviral transduction. After sorting and expansion, transduced CD8+ T-cell lines were obtained that specifically bound their cognate SIV tetramer. These cell lines displayed appropriate effector function and specificity, expressing intracellular IFN? upon peptide stimulation. Importantly, the SIV suppression properties of the transduced cell lines mirrored those of the original TCR donor clones: cell lines expressing TCRs transferred from highly suppressive clones effectively reduced wild-type SIV replication, while expression of a non-suppressing TCR failed to reduce the spread of virus. However, all TCRs were able to suppress the replication of an SIV mutant that did not downregulate MHC-I, recapitulating the properties of their donor clones. Conclusions Our results show that antigen-specific SIV suppression can be transferred between allogenic T cells simply by TCR gene transfer. This advance provides a platform for examining the contributions of TCRs versus the intrinsic effector characteristics of T-cell clones in virus suppression. Additionally, this approach can be applied to develop non-human primate models to evaluate adoptive T-cell transfer therapy for AIDS and other diseases. PMID:21886812

Barsov, Eugene V.; Trivett, Matthew T.; Minang, Jacob T.; Sun, Haosi; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E.

2011-01-01

321

The transcription factor BATF operates as an essential differentiation checkpoint in early effector CD8+ T cells  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor BATF is required for interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cell (TH17) and follicular helper T cell (TFH) differentiation. Here, we show that BATF also has a fundamental role in regulating effector CD8+ T cell differentiation. BATF-deficient CD8+ T cells show profound defects in effector expansion and undergo proliferative and metabolic catastrophe early after antigen encounter. BATF, together with IRF4 and Jun proteins, binds to and promotes early expression of genes encoding lineage-specific transcription-factors (T-bet and Blimp-1) and cytokine receptors, while paradoxically repressing genes encoding effector molecules (IFN-? and granzyme B). Thus, BATF amplifies TCR-dependent transcription factor expression and augments inflammatory signal propagation but restrains effector gene expression. This checkpoint prevents irreversible commitment to an effector fate until a critical threshold of downstream transcriptional activity has been achieved. PMID:24584090

Kurachi, Makoto; Barnitz, R. Anthony; Yosef, Nir; Odorizzi, Pamela M.; Dilorio, Michael A.; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Yates, Kathleen; Godec, Jernej; Klatt, Martin G.; Regev, Aviv; Wherry, E. John; Haining, W. Nicholas

2014-01-01

322

Non-neutral evolution in non-LEE-encoded type III effectors of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) employ type III secretion system (T3SS) to secrete effector proteins into host cells and regulate their function. Here we have investigated T3SS genes of AEEC for non-neutral evolution. Our analysis revealed non-neutral evolution in three genes (nleE1, nleB2 and nleD) which encode effector proteins. These genes are located outside the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). In general, non-LEE effector genes show greater deviation from neutral evolution than LEE effector genes. These results suggest that effector genes located outside LEE are under greater selection pressure than those present in LEE. PMID:23142035

Eswarappa, Sandeepa M; Janice, Jessin; Balasundaram, Sudhagar V; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

2013-02-01

323

Exoskeletal Force-Sensing End-Effectors With Embedded Optical Fiber-Bragg-Grating Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force sensing is an essential requirement for dexterous robot manipulation. We describe composite robot end-effectors that incorporate optical fibers for accurate force sensing and estimation of contact locations. The design is inspired by the sensors in arthropod exoskeletons that allow them to detect contacts and loads on their limbs. In this paper, we present a fabrication process that allows us

Yong-Lae Park; Seok Chang Ryu; Richard J. Black; Kelvin K. Chau; Behzad Moslehi; Mark R. Cutkosky

2009-01-01

324

Skin sympathetic nerve function during sleep—a study with effector responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effector-organ activities corresponding to skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) during sleep in eight healthy adult volunteers. The following parameters of SSNA were recorded during night sleep: the spontaneous skin vasoconstriction and skin blood flow volume, by laser Doppler flowmetry; sweating, by the ventilated capsule method; and the galvanic skin response (GSR). Fluctuations of sweating and GSR were

Rei Kobayashi; Yasuo Koike; Masaaki Hirayama; Hiroki Ito; Gen Sobue

2003-01-01

325

Integrated RAS signaling defined by parallel NMR detection of effectors and regulators.  

PubMed

The RAS GTPase directs cell proliferation and survival by selectively relaying signals amid a dynamic network of regulatory enzymes and protein interactions. Oncogenic mutation of RAS alters cell growth by deleteriously controlling output to RAS-binding effectors. Mechanisms underlying multieffector interactions for both wild-type and oncogenic RAS are poorly understood owing to challenges in quantifying outputs to multiple pathways in parallel. Using highly selective NMR probes for wild-type and oncogenic (G12V) RAS, we develop a systematic approach that quantitatively measures RAS output in composite mixtures of GEF, GAP and effector RAS-binding domains (RBDs). We derive effector signaling hierarchies and establish how oscillating concentrations generate effector 'switching'. The G12V mutation highly perturbs this system, specifically altering interactions with RAL GTPase-specific GEFs and RAF kinases. We further reveal that RAS-RBD complexes show extensive feedback to full-length regulatory proteins. Our approach quantifies output from signaling hubs, here providing an integrated view of the RAS network. PMID:24441586

Smith, Matthew J; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

2014-03-01

326

Peroxiredoxin II Regulates Effector and Secondary Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generated in response to receptor stimulation play an important role in cellular responses. However, the effect of increased H2O2 on an antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response was unknown. Following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, the expression and oxidation of peroxiredoxin II (PrdxII), a critical antioxidant enzyme, increased in CD8+ T cells. Deletion of PrdxII increased ROI, S phase entry, division, and death during in vitro division. During primary acute viral and bacterial infection, the number of effector CD8+ T cells in PrdxII-deficient mice was increased, while the number of memory cells were similar to those of the wild-type cells. Adoptive transfer of P14 TCR transgenic cells demonstrated that the increased expansion of effector cells was T cell autonomous. After rechallenge, effector CD8+ T cells in mutant animals were more skewed to memory phenotype than cells from wild-type mice, resulting in a larger secondary memory CD8+ T cell pool. During chronic viral infection, increased antigen-specific CD8+ T cells accumulated in the spleens of PrdxII mutant mice, causing mortality. These results demonstrate that PrdxII controls effector CD8+ T cell expansion, secondary memory generation, and immunopathology. PMID:23055551

Michalek, Ryan D.; Crump, Katie E.; Weant, Ashley E.; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M.; Juneau, Daniel G.; Moon, Eun-Yi; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Poole, Leslie B.

2012-01-01

327

Construction and characterization of an effector strain of streptococcus mutans for replacement therapy of dental caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effector strain has been constructed for use in the replacement therapy of dental caries. Recombinant DNA methods were used to make the Streptococcus mutans supercolonizing strain, JH1140, lactate dehydro- genase deficient by deleting virtually all of the ldh open reading frame (ORF). To compensate for the resulting metabolic imbalance, a supplemental alcohol dehydrogenase activity was introduced by substituting the

J. D. Hillman; T. A. Brooks; S. M. Michalek; C. C. Harmon; Weijden van der C. C; J. L. Snoep

2000-01-01

328

Neutrophil antibacterial peptides, multifunctional effector molecules in the mammalian immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bactericidal machinery of mammalian neutrophils is built up of many components with different chemical properties, involving proteins, peptides and oxygen-dependent radicals. All these components work in synergy, leading to destruction and elimination of ingested microbes. During the eighties, it gradually became clear, that cationic peptides are a part of the oxygen-independent bactericidal effectors in phagocytic cells. In mammals, these

Gudmundur H Gudmundsson; Birgitta Agerberth

1999-01-01

329

Techniques for Accommodating Control Effector Failures on a Mildly Statically Unstable Airplane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial airplanes are becoming increasingly more sophisticated, placing an increasing burden on pilots to detect and resolve the exhaustive set of possible control effector failures. Automatic techniques are needed to either reconfigure an existing control law or restructure a new control law after failure. A discrete control law has been designed for the longitudinal channel of a mildly statically unstable

Aaron J. Ostroff

1985-01-01

330

Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naive T lymphocytes travel to T-cell areas of secondary lymphoid organs in search of antigen presented by dendritic cells. Once activated, they proliferate vigorously, generating effector cells that can migrate to B-cell areas or to inflamed tissues. A fraction of primed T lymphocytes persists as circulating memory cells that can confer protection and give, upon secondary challenge, a qualitatively different

Federica Sallusto; Danielle Lenig; Reinhold Förster; Martin Lipp; Antonio Lanzavecchia

1999-01-01

331

PROTEIN STRUCTURE REPORT Novel fold of VirA, a type III secretion system effector  

E-print Network

Shigella flexneri JAMAINE DAVIS,1 JIAWEI WANG,2,3 JOSEPH E. TROPEA,4 DI ZHANG,5 ZBIGNIEW DAUTER,3 DAVID S 4, 2008) Abstract VirA, a secreted effector protein from Shigella sp., has been shownA in Shigella virulence may not involve direct proteolytic activity. Keywords: crystallography; protein

332

Effector movement triggers gaze-dependent spatial coding of tactile and proprioceptive-tactile reach targets.  

PubMed

Reaching in space requires that the target and the hand are represented in the same coordinate system. While studies on visually-guided reaching consistently demonstrate the use of a gaze-dependent spatial reference frame, controversial results exist in the somatosensory domain. We investigated whether effector movement (eye or arm/hand) after target presentation and before reaching leads to gaze-dependent coding of somatosensory targets. Subjects reached to a felt target while directing gaze towards one of seven fixation locations. Touches were applied to the fingertip(s) of the left hand (proprioceptive-tactile targets) or to the dorsal surface of the left forearm (tactile targets). Effector movement was varied in terms of movement of the target limb or a gaze shift. Horizontal reach errors systematically varied as a function of gaze when a movement of either the target effector or gaze was introduced. However, we found no effect of gaze on horizontal reach errors when a movement was absent before the reach. These findings were comparable for tactile and proprioceptive-tactile targets. Our results suggest that effector movement promotes a switch from a gaze-independent to a gaze-dependent representation of somatosensory reach targets. PMID:25084225

Mueller, Stefanie; Fiehler, Katja

2014-09-01

333

Representation of the Speech Effectors in the Human Motor Cortex: Somatotopy or Overlap?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Somatotopy within the orofacial region of the human motor cortex has been a central concept in interpreting the results of neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies of normal and disordered speech. Yet, somatotopy has been challenged by studies showing overlap among the effectors within the homunculus. In order to address this…

Takai, Osamu; Brown, Steven; Liotti, Mario

2010-01-01

334

Genome-Wide Analysis of Effectors of Peroxisome Ramsey A. Saleem1  

E-print Network

Genome-Wide Analysis of Effectors of Peroxisome Biogenesis Ramsey A. Saleem1 , Rose Long-O'Donnell1 Processing, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland Abstract Peroxisomes are intracellular of fatty acids. Peroxisomes biogenesis can be induced by the presence of peroxisome proliferators

Shmulevich, Ilya

335

TaskEffector Asymmetries in a Rhythmic Continuation Task Pennsylvania State University  

E-print Network

variability and drift arises from the asymmetry between target period and the limb's intrinsic dynamicsTask­Effector Asymmetries in a Rhythmic Continuation Task Hong Yu Pennsylvania State University toward the preferred period was observed that scaled with the asymmetry. Variability was lowest

Sternad, Dagmar

336

Mutualistic Co-evolution of Type III Effector Genes in Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum  

E-print Network

Mutualistic Co-evolution of Type III Effector Genes in Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium paradigms have been proposed to model the molecular co-evolution of microbial mutualists and their eukaryotic hosts. In one, mutualist and host exhibit an antagonistic arms race and each partner evolves

Sachs, Joel

337

Proteolytic targeting of Rab29 by an effector protein distinguishes the intracellular compartments  

E-print Network

Proteolytic targeting of Rab29 by an effector protein distinguishes the intracellular compartments. The molecular bases for these differences are presently unknown. Here we show that the GTPase Rab29 (Rab7L1-specific Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) iden- tified Rab29. We found

Galan, Jorge E

338

Salmonella type III effector SopB modulates host cell exocytosis  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica pathogenesis is dependent on its ability to enter and replicate inside host cells. Replication occurs inside the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), a vacuolar compartment that is modified by bacterial effectors secreted through the two type III secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2). Type III effectors interact with the host cell endocytic pathway to aid replication. We investigated whether Salmonella effector proteins may also interact with the host's exocytic pathway. A secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) assay indicated three Salmonella effectors inhibited the secretory pathway, although only Salmonella outer protein B (SopB) was confirmed to block exocytosis using a vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-green fluorescent protein (VSVG-GFP) transport assay. The 4-phosphatase activity of SopB was crucial to its effect on exocytosis. The interaction with the secretory pathway could potentially be important for providing replicating Salmonella with nutrients, contributing membrane material necessary for SCV biogenesis, altering antibacterial peptide/protein secretion or manipulating cell surface proteins important in the host response to infection.

Perrett, Charlotte A; Zhou, Daoguo

2013-01-01

339

Mechanism of IRSp53 inhibition and combinatorial activation by Cdc42 and downstream effectors  

PubMed Central

The Rho family GTPase effector IRSp53 has essential roles in filopodia formation and neuronal development, but its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. IRSp53 contains a membrane-binding BAR domain followed by an unconventional CRIB motif that overlaps with a proline-rich region (CRIB–PR) and an SH3 domain that recruits actin cytoskeleton effectors. Using a fluorescence reporter assay, we show that human IRSp53 adopts a closed inactive conformation that opens synergistically with the binding of human Cdc42 to the CRIB–PR and effector proteins, such as the tumor-promoting factor Eps8, to the SH3 domain. The crystal structure of Cdc42 bound to the CRIB–PR reveals a new mode of effector binding to Rho family GTPases. Structure-inspired mutations disrupt autoinhibition and Cdc42 binding in vitro and decouple Cdc42- and IRSp53-dependent filopodia formation in cells. The data support a combinatorial mechanism of IRSp53 activation. PMID:24584464

Kast, David J; Yang, Changsong; Disanza, Andrea; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Madasu, Yadaiah; Scita, Giorgio; Svitkina, Tatyana; Dominguez, Roberto

2014-01-01

340

VaccinesEffector and memory T-cell differentiation: implications for vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work shows that after stimulation with antigen, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells embark on a programme of proliferation that is closely linked with the acquisition of effector functions and leads ultimately to memory-cell formation. Here, we discuss the signals required for commitment to this programme of development and the factors that might influence its progression. Models of the pathways

Susan M. Kaech; E. John Wherry; Rafi Ahmed

2002-01-01

341

Migratory Activity and Functional Changes of Green Fluorescent Effector Cells before and during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homing behavior and function of autoimmune CD4+ T cells in vivo was analyzed before and during EAE, using MBP-specific T cells retrovirally engineered to express the gene of green fluorescent protein. The cells migrate from parathymic lymph nodes to blood and to the spleen. Preceding disease onset, large numbers of effector cells invade the CNS, with only negligible numbers left

Alexander Flügel; Tomasz Berkowicz; Thomas Ritter; Marta Labeur; Dieter E Jenne; Zhaoxia Li; Joachim W Ellwart; Michael Willem; Hans Lassmann; Hartmut Wekerle

2001-01-01

342

High Efficiency Ex Vivo Cloning of Antigen-Specific Human Effector T Cells  

PubMed Central

While cloned T cells are valuable tools for the exploration of immune responses against viruses and tumours, current cloning methods do not allow inferences to be made about the function and phenotype of a clone's in vivo precursor, nor can precise cloning efficiencies be calculated. Additionally, there is currently no general method for cloning antigen-specific effector T cells directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, without the need for prior expansion in vitro. Here we describe an efficient method for cloning effector T cells ex vivo. Functional T cells are detected using optimised interferon gamma capture following stimulation with viral or tumour cell-derived antigen. In combination with multiple phenotypic markers, single effector T cells are sorted using a flow cytometer directly into multi-well plates, and cloned using standard, non antigen-specific expansion methods. We provide examples of this novel technology to generate antigen-reactive clones from healthy donors using Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus as representative viral antigen sources, and from two melanoma patients using autologous melanoma cells. Cloning efficiency, clonality, and retention/loss of function are described. Ex vivo effector cell cloning provides a rapid and effective method of deriving antigen-specific T cells clones with traceable in vivo precursor function and phenotype. PMID:25368986

Neller, Michelle A.; Lai, Michael H.-L.; Lanagan, Catherine M.; O?Connor, Linda E.; Pritchard, Antonia L.; Martinez, Nathan R.; Schmidt, Christopher W.

2014-01-01

343

View of payload bay of STS-62 Columbia and Dexterous End Effector (DEE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 70mm frame, photographed through the aft flight deck windows of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, features activity with the Dexterous End Effector (DEE) on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). This scene also provides an overview of many of the United States Microgravity Payload 2 (USMP) elements as well as OAST-2 experiments.

1994-01-01

344

Astronauts Thuot and Ivins work with the Dexterous End Effector (DEE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view, photographed on the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, captures crew activity with the Dexterous End Effector (DEE) on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). Astronauts Pierre J. Thuot and Marsha S. Ivins communicate with ground controllers during operations and observations with DEE.

1994-01-01

345

Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes  

PubMed Central

The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology. PMID:23509714

Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Serapio-Palacios, Antonio; Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela; Chavez-Duenas, Lucia

2013-01-01

346

Position and Velocity Transformations Between Robot End-Effector Coordinates and Joint Angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes efficient procedures for performing transformations from the position and velocity of the end effector to the corresponding joint angles and velocities, and vice versa, for a six-degree-of-freedom robot manipulator having three revolute joint axes intersecting at the wrist. Some attention is paid to the problems that arise when the manipulator's position is near a deadpoint.

R. Featherstone

1983-01-01

347

Integrating Robotic Sensor and Effector Capabilities with Multi-Agent Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Robots possess many effectors and sensors of various capability. It is often difficult, not only to integrate these numerous capabilities, but also to organize them to accomplish a set of goals or tasks. Even more difficult is how to reorganize on the con...

E. Matson, S. DeLoach

2004-01-01

348

A Novel End-Effector Design for Robotics in Image Guided Needle Procedures  

PubMed Central

Robotic end-effectors are being developed to facilitate image-guided minimally-invasive needle-based procedures such as tumor ablation, biopsy, thoracentesis, and blood sampling. A novel mechanical end-effector was designed to address the challenges associated with any major needle-based procedure, focusing on liver biopsy and ablation. In this end-effector embodiment, the distal end of a single articulating arm can grip needles and instruments and allow a fairly high number of degrees of freedom of movement during the complex motions associated with positioning and driving needles, as well as the periodic motions associated with breathing patterns. Tightening a cable that runs through the articulations fixes the arm in a rigid state, allowing insertion of the gripped needle. In its final form, we diagram a design that will require electro-mechanical stimulation and remote joystick control. Moreover, we discuss how cranial-caudal motion of soft tissue organs and the associated forces affect design constraints. A simulation protocol describes the use of tissue phantoms with mechanical properties in the range of hepatic tissue and the overlying abdominal wall. Finally, an in vivo protocol details the possible use of a robotic arm coupled with our end-effector in an image-guided interventional suite. Such a switchable and flexible mode for a robotic arm overcomes much of the current limitations for automated needle placements for mobile targets, subject to breathing or patient motion and the inherent risks thereof. PMID:17520618

Sun, David; Willingham, Chris; Durrani, Amir; King, Paul; Cleary, Kevin; Wood, Bradford

2008-01-01

349

Fermionic suppression of dipolar relaxation  

E-print Network

We observe the suppression of inelastic dipolar scattering due to Fermi statistics in ultracold gases of the highly magnetic atom, dysprosium. Inelastic dipolar scattering in non-zero magnetic fields leads to heating or to loss of the trapped population, both detrimental to experiments intended to study quantum many-body physics with strongly dipolar gases. Fermi statistics, however, should lead to a kinematic suppression of these harmful reactions. Indeed, we observe a 120-fold suppression of dipolar relaxation in fermionic versus bosonic Dy, as expected from theory describing universal inelastic dipolar scattering. Similarly low inelastic cross sections are observed in spin mixtures, also with striking correspondence to theory predictions. The suppression of relaxation opens the possibility of employing fermionic dipolar species---atoms or molecules---in studies of quantum many-body physics involving, e.g., synthetic gauge fields and pairing.

Burdick, Nathaniel Q; Tang, Yijun; Lu, Mingwu; Lev, Benjamin L

2014-01-01

350

A formula for charmonium suppression  

SciTech Connect

In this work a formula for charmonium suppression obtained by Matsui in 1989 is analytically generalized for the case of complex cc-barpotential described by a 3-dimensional and isotropic time-dependent harmonic oscillator (THO). It is suggested that under certain scheme the formula can be applied to describe J/{psi} suppression in heavy-ion collisions at CERN-SPS, RHIC, and LHC with the advantage of analytical tractability.

Pena, C., E-mail: pena@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Blaschke, D., E-mail: blaschke@ift.uni.wroc.pl [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics (Poland)

2012-07-15

351

Resequencing and Comparative Genomics of Stagonospora nodorum: Sectional Gene Absence and Effector Discovery  

PubMed Central

Stagonospora nodorum is an important wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen in many parts of the world, causing major yield losses. It was the first species in the large fungal Dothideomycete class to be genome sequenced. The reference genome sequence (SN15) has been instrumental in the discovery of genes encoding necrotrophic effectors that induce disease symptoms in specific host genotypes. Here we present the genome sequence of two further S. nodorum strains (Sn4 and Sn79) that differ in their effector repertoire from the reference. Sn79 is avirulent on wheat and produces no apparent effectors when infiltrated onto many cultivars and mapping population parents. Sn4 is pathogenic on wheat and has virulences not found in SN15. The new strains, sequenced with short-read Illumina chemistry, are compared with SN15 by a combination of mapping and de novo assembly approaches. Each of the genomes contains a large number of strain-specific genes, many of which have no meaningful similarity to any known gene. Large contiguous sections of the reference genome are absent in the two newly sequenced strains. We refer to these differences as “sectional gene absences.” The presence of genes in pathogenic strains and absence in Sn79 is added to computationally predicted properties of known proteins to produce a list of likely effector candidates. Transposon insertion was observed in the mitochondrial genomes of virulent strains where the avirulent strain retained the likely ancestral sequence. The study suggests that short-read enabled comparative genomics is an effective way to both identify new S. nodorum effector candidates and to illuminate evolutionary processes in this species. PMID:23589517

Syme, Robert Andrew; Hane, James K.; Friesen, Timothy L.; Oliver, Richard P.

2013-01-01

352

Field performance of the waste retrieval end effectors in the Oak Ridge gunite tanks  

SciTech Connect

Waterjet-based tank waste retrieval end effectors have been developed by Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements through several generations of test articles targeted at deployment in Hanford underground storage tanks with a large robotic arm. The basic technology has demonstrated effectiveness for retrieval of simulants bounding a wide range of waste properties and compatibility with foreseen deployment systems. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) selected the waterjet scarifying end effector, the jet pump conveyance system, and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm and Houdini Remotely Operated Vehicle deployment and manipulator systems for evaluation in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study (GAAT-TS). The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD&E) team was tasked with developing a version of the retrieval end effector tailored to the Oak Ridge tanks, waste, and deployment platforms. The conceptual design was done by the University of Missouri-Rolla in FY 1995-96. The university researchers conducted separate effects tests of the component concepts, scaled the basic design features, and constructed a full-scale test article incorporating their findings in early FY 1996. The test article was extensively evaluated in the Hanford Hydraulic Testbed and the design features were further refined. Detail design of the prototype item was started at Waterjet Technology, Inc. before the development testing was finished, and two of the three main subassemblies were substantially complete before final design of the waterjet manifold was determined from the Hanford hydraulic testbed (HTB) testing. The manifold on the first prototype was optimized for sludge retrieval; assembled with that manifold, the end effector is termed the Sludge Retrieval End Effector (SREE).

Mullen, O.D.

1997-09-01

353

Role of C-terminal domains of the G protein ? subunit in the activation of effectors  

PubMed Central

The prenyl group on the G protein ? subunit is an important determinant of protein–protein interactions between the ?? dimer and its targets, such as ? subunits, receptors, and effectors. In an effort to identify domains of the ? subunit important for the activation of effectors, we have prepared two types of mutants, one set in the domain suggested to form a hydrophobic prenyl-binding pocket for the ? subunit's prenyl group (prenyl pocket mutants) and the other set in a domain between Gly306 and Gly319 in the ? propeller, which undergoes a conformational change when the dimer binds to phosducin (conformational change mutants). Recombinant baculoviruses for each set of mutants were prepared, and the nine mutant ? subunits were overexpressed with either the ?2 subunit (modified with geranylgeranyl) or the ?2-L71S subunit (?2 with altered CAAX sequence and modified with farnesyl). The purified dimers were tested for their ability to couple G?i1 to the A1 adenosine receptor and to activate phospholipase C-? or type II adenylyl cyclase. All dimers containing mutant ? subunits were indistinguishable from wild-type ?1?2 or ?1?2-L71S in coupling the receptor to G?i1. The prenyl pocket mutants expressed with ?2 were 10-fold less potent in activating phospholipase C-? and adenylyl cyclase than ?1?2 and had similar activities to ?1?2-L71S. The conformational change mutants caused a 15- to 23-fold decrease in EC50 values for activation of these two effectors. Overall, the results suggest that the sites in G? identified by these mutants are very important in the activation of effectors. Furthermore, the nature of the prenyl group on G? may play an important role in the conformational change leading to the activity of G?? on effectors. PMID:10922079

Myung, Chang-Seon; Garrison, James C.

2000-01-01

354

Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple type IV secretion effector proteins.  

PubMed

The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using ?-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W; Kupko, John J; Wehrly, Tara D; Porcella, Stephen F; Knodler, Leigh A; Celli, Jean

2013-01-01

355

Characterization of the Conditioned Medium from Amniotic Membrane Cells: Prostaglandins as Key Effectors of Its Immunomodulatory Activity  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that cells isolated from the mesenchymal region of the human amniotic membrane (human amniotic mesenchymal tissue cells, hAMTC) possess immunoregulatory roles, such as inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and suppression of generation and maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, as reported for MSC from other sources. The precise factors and mechanisms responsible for the immunoregulatory roles of hAMTC remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify the soluble factors released by hAMTC and responsible for the anti-proliferative effect on lymphocytes, and the mechanisms underlying their actions, in vitro. Conditioned medium (CM) was prepared under routine culture conditions from hAMTC (CM-hAMTC) and also from fragments of the whole human amniotic membrane (CM-hAM). We analyzed the thermostability, chemical nature, and the molecular weight of the factors likely responsible for the anti-proliferative effects. We also evaluated the participation of cytokines known to be involved in the immunomodulatory actions of MSC from other sources, and attempted to block different synthetic pathways. We demonstrate that the inhibitory factors are temperature-stable, have a small molecular weight, and are likely of a non-proteinaceous nature. Only inhibition of cyclooxygenase pathway partially reverted the anti-proliferative effect, suggesting prostaglandins as key effector molecules. Factors previously documented to take part in the inhibitory effects of MSCs from other sources (HGF, TGF-?, NO and IDO) were not involved. Furthermore, we prove for the first time that the anti-proliferative effect is intrinsic to the amniotic membrane and cells derived thereof, since it is manifested in the absence of stimulating culture conditions, as opposed to MSC derived from the bone marrow, which possess an anti-proliferative ability only when cultured in the presence of activating stimuli. Finally, we show that the amniotic membrane could be an interesting source of soluble factors, without referring to extensive cell preparation. PMID:23071674

Rossi, Daniele; Pianta, Stefano; Magatti, Marta; Sedlmayr, Peter; Parolini, Ornella

2012-01-01

356

Meta-analytic approach to the accurate prediction of secreted virulence effectors in gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Many pathogens use a type III secretion system to translocate virulence proteins (called effectors) in order to adapt to the host environment. To date, many prediction tools for effector identification have been developed. However, these tools are insufficiently accurate for producing a list of putative effectors that can be applied directly for labor-intensive experimental verification. This also suggests that important features of effectors have yet to be fully characterized. Results In this study, we have constructed an accurate approach to predicting secreted virulence effectors from Gram-negative bacteria. This consists of a support vector machine-based discriminant analysis followed by a simple criteria-based filtering. The accuracy was assessed by estimating the average number of true positives in the top-20 ranking in the genome-wide screening. In the validation, 10 sets of 20 training and 20 testing examples were randomly selected from 40 known effectors of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. On average, the SVM portion of our system predicted 9.7 true positives from 20 testing examples in the top-20 of the prediction. Removal of the N-terminal instability, codon adaptation index and ProtParam indices decreased the score to 7.6, 8.9 and 7.9, respectively. These discrimination features suggested that the following characteristics of effectors had been uncovered: unstable N-terminus, non-optimal codon usage, hydrophilic, and less aliphathic. The secondary filtering process represented by coexpression analysis and domain distribution analysis further refined the average true positive counts to 12.3. We further confirmed that our system can correctly predict known effectors of P. syringae DC3000, strongly indicating its feasibility. Conclusions We have successfully developed an accurate prediction system for screening effectors on a genome-wide scale. We confirmed the accuracy of our system by external validation using known effectors of Salmonella and obtained the accurate list of putative effectors of the organism. The level of accuracy was sufficient to yield candidates for gene-directed experimental verification. Furthermore, new features of effectors were revealed: non-optimal codon usage and instability of the N-terminal region. From these findings, a new working hypothesis is proposed regarding mechanisms controlling the translocation of virulence effectors and determining the substrate specificity encoded in the secretion system. PMID:22078363

2011-01-01

357

Isoflurane suppresses early cortical activity  

PubMed Central

Objective Isoflurane and other volatile anesthetics are widely used in children to induce deep and reversible coma, but they may also exert neurotoxic actions. The effects of volatile anesthetics on the immature brain activity remain elusive, however. Methods The effects of isoflurane on spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity were explored using intracortical extracellular field potential and multiple unit recordings in the rat barrel cortex from birth to adulthood. Results During the first postnatal week, isoflurane suppressed cortical activity in a concentration-dependent manner. At surgical anesthesia levels (1.5–2%), isoflurane completely suppressed the electroencephalogram and silenced cortical neurons. Although sensory potentials evoked by the principal whisker deflection persisted, sensory-evoked early gamma and spindle-burst oscillations were completely suppressed by isoflurane. Isoflurane-induced burst-suppression pattern emerged during the second postnatal week and matured through the first postnatal month. Bursts in adolescent and adult rats were characterized by activation of entire cortical columns with a leading firing of infragranular neurons, and were triggered by principal and adjacent whiskers stimulation, and by auditory and visual stimuli, indicating an involvement of horizontal connections in their generation and horizontal spread. Interpretation The effects of isoflurane on cortical activity shift from total suppression of activity to burst-suppression pattern at the end of the first postnatal week. Developmental emergence of bursts likely involves a development of the intracortical short-and long-range connections. We hypothesize that complete suppression of cortical activity under isoflurane anesthesia during the first postnatal week may explain neuronal apoptosis stimulated by volatile anesthetics in the neonatal rats.

Sitdikova, Guzel; Zakharov, Andrei; Janackova, Sona; Gerasimova, Elena; Lebedeva, Julia; Inacio, Ana R; Zaynutdinova, Dilyara; Minlebaev, Marat; Holmes, Gregory L; Khazipov, Roustem

2014-01-01

358

TAL effector specificity for base 0 of the DNA target is altered in a complex, effector- and assay-dependent manner by substitutions for the tryptophan in cryptic repeat -1.  

PubMed

TAL effectors are re-targetable transcription factors used for tailored gene regulation and, as TAL effector-nuclease fusions (TALENs), for genome engineering. Their hallmark feature is a customizable central string of polymorphic amino acid repeats that interact one-to-one with individual DNA bases to specify the target. Sequences targeted by TAL effector repeats in nature are nearly all directly preceded by a thymine (T) that is required for maximal activity, and target sites for custom TAL effector constructs have typically been selected with this constraint. Multiple crystal structures suggest that this requirement for T at base 0 is encoded by a tryptophan residue (W232) in a cryptic repeat N-terminal to the central repeats that exhibits energetically favorable van der Waals contacts with the T. We generated variants based on TAL effector PthXo1 with all single amino acid substitutions for W232. In a transcriptional activation assay, many substitutions altered or relaxed the specificity for T and a few were as active as wild type. Some showed higher activity. However, when replicated in a different TAL effector, the effects of the substitutions differed. Further, the effects differed when tested in the context of a TALEN in a DNA cleavage assay, and in a TAL effector-DNA binding assay. Substitution of the N-terminal region of the PthXo1 construct with that of one of the TAL effector-like proteins of Ralstonia solanacearum, which have arginine in place of the tryptophan, resulted in specificity for guanine as the 5' base but low activity, and several substitutions for the arginine, including tryptophan, destroyed activity altogether. Thus, the effects on specificity and activity generated by substitutions at the W232 (or equivalent) position are complex and context dependent. Generating TAL effector scaffolds with high activity that robustly accommodate sites without a T at position 0 may require larger scale re-engineering. PMID:24312634

Doyle, Erin L; Hummel, Aaron W; Demorest, Zachary L; Starker, Colby G; Voytas, Daniel F; Bradley, Philip; Bogdanove, Adam J

2013-01-01

359

A ligation-independent cloning technique for high-throughput assembly of transcription activator–like effector genes.  

PubMed

Transcription activator–like (TAL) effector proteins derived from Xanthomonas species have emerged as versatile scaffolds for engineering DNA-binding proteins of user-defined specificity and functionality. Here we describe a rapid, simple, ligation-independent cloning (LIC) technique for synthesis of TAL effector genes. Our approach is based on a library of DNA constructs encoding individual TAL effector repeat unit combinations that can be processed to contain long, unique single-stranded DNA overhangs suitable for LIC. Assembly of TAL effector arrays requires only the combinatorial mixing of fluids and has exceptional fidelity. TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) produced by this method had high genome-editing activity at endogenous loci in HEK 293T cells (64% were active). To maximize throughput, we generated a comprehensive 5-mer TAL effector repeat unit fragment library that allows automated assembly of >600 TALEN genes in a single day. Given its simplicity, throughput and fidelity, LIC assembly will permit the generation of TAL effector gene libraries for large-scale functional genomics studies. PMID:23242165

Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Schmidt, Tobias; Kaiser, Vera; Höning, Klara; Hornung, Veit

2013-01-01

360

Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.  

PubMed

Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy. PMID:10811469

Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

2000-04-01

361

Predicting the biodistribution of radiolabeled cMORF effector in MORF-pretargeted mice  

PubMed Central

Pretargeting with phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (MORFs) involves a MORF-conjugated anti-tumor antibody such as MN14 as pretargeting agent administered before that of the radiolabeled complementary MORF (cMORF) as the effector. The dosages of the pretargeting agent and effector, the pretargeting interval, and the detection time are the four pretargeting variables. The goal of this study was to develop a semiempirical description capable of predicting the biodistribution of the radiolabeled effector in pretargeted mice and then compare predictions with experimental results from pretargeting studies in tumored animals in which the pretargeting interval and the detection time were both fixed but the dosages of both the effector and pretargeting agent were separately varied. Methods Pretargeting studies in LS174T tumored mice were performed using the anti-CEA antibody MN14 conjugated with MORF and the cMORF radiolabeled with 99mTc. A description was developed based on our previous observations in the same mouse model of the blood and tumor levels of MORF-MN14, accessibility of MORF-MN14 to labeled cMORF, the tumor accumulation of labeled cMORF relative to MORF-MN14 levels therein, and the kidney accumulation of labeled cMORF. The predicted values were then compared with the experimental values. Results The predicted biodistribution of the radiolabeled effector and the experimental data were in gratifying agreement in normal organs, suggesting that the description of the pretargeting process was reliable. The tumor accumulations occasionally fell outside two standard deviations of that predicted, but after tumor size correction, good agreement between prediction and experimental values was observed as well. Conclusion A semiempirical description of the biodistribution of labeled cMORF was capable of predicting the biodistribution of the radiolabeled effector in the pretargeted tumored mouse model, demonstrating that the underlying pretargeting concepts are correct. We believe that the approach described herein may be applied to any of the alternative pretargeting approaches and animal tumor models currently under investigation. Furthermore, appreciation of the concepts may provide a rationale for selecting dosages and timings in human pretargeting studies as an alternative to pure empirical means. PMID:17021815

Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; He, Jiang; Liu, Xinrong; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich., Donald J

2006-01-01

362

Apoptosis Suppression by Raf-1 and MEK1 Requires MEK- and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Dependent Signals  

PubMed Central

Two Ras effector pathways leading to the activation of Raf-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) have been implicated in the survival signaling by the interleukin 3 (IL-3) receptor. Analysis of apoptosis suppression by Raf-1 demonstrated the requirement for mitochondrial translocation of the kinase in this process. This could be achieved either by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 or by targeting Raf-1 to the mitochondria via fusion to the mitochondrial protein Mas p70. Mitochondrially active Raf-1 is unable to activate extracellular signal-related kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 but suppresses cell death by inactivating the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member BAD. However, genetic and biochemical data also have suggested a role for the Raf-1 effector module MEK-ERK in apoptosis suppression. We thus tested for MEK requirement in cell survival signaling using the interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line 32D. MEK is essential for survival and growth in the presence of IL-3. Upon growth factor withdrawal the expression of constitutively active MEK1 mutants significantly delays the onset of apoptosis, whereas the presence of a dominant negative mutant accelerates cell death. Survival signaling by MEK most likely results from the activation of ERKs since expression of a constitutively active form of ERK2 was as effective in protecting NIH 3T3 fibroblasts against doxorubicin-induced cell death as oncogenic MEK. The survival effect of activated MEK in 32D cells is achieved by both MEK- and PI3K-dependent mechanisms and results in the activation of PI3K and in the phosphorylation of AKT. MEK and PI3K dependence is also observed in 32D cells protected from apoptosis by oncogenic Raf-1. Additionally, we also could extend these findings to the IL-3-dependent pro-B-cell line BaF3, suggesting that recruitment of MEK is a common mechanism for survival signaling by activated Raf. Requirement for the PI3K effector AKT in this process is further demonstrated by the inhibitory effect of a dominant negative AKT mutant on Raf-1-induced cell survival. Moreover, a constitutively active form of AKT synergizes with Raf-1 in apoptosis suppression. In summary these data strongly suggest a Raf effector pathway for cell survival that is mediated by MEK and AKT. PMID:11259582

von Gise, Alexander; Lorenz, Petra; Wellbrock, Claudia; Hemmings, Brian; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Rapp, Ulf R.; Troppmair, Jakob

2001-01-01

363

Vibration suppression using smart structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The control of structures for vibration suppression is discussed in the context of using smart materials and structures. Here the use of smart structures refers to using embedded piezoelectric devices as both control actuators and sensors. Using embedded sensors and actuators allows great improvements in performance over traditional structures (both passive and active) for vibration suppression. The application of smart structures to three experimental flexible structures is presented. The first is a flexible beam, the second is a flexible beam undergoing slewing motion, the third is a ribbed antenna. A simple model of a piezoelectric actuator/sensor is presented. The equations of motion for each structure is presented. The control issues considered as those associated with multi-input, multi-output control, PID control and LQR control implementation. A modern control analysis illustrates the usefulness of smart structures for vibration suppression.

Garcia, Ephrahim; Inman, Daniel J.; Dosch, Jeffrey

1991-01-01

364

Tremor suppression through impedance control.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for designing tremor suppression systems that achieve a specified reduction in pathological tremor power through controlling the impedance of the human-machine interface. Position, rate, and acceleration feedback are examined and two techniques for the selection of feedback coefficients are discussed. Both techniques seek a desired closed-loop human-machine frequency response and require the development of open-loop human-machine models through system identification. The design techniques were used to develop a tremor suppression system that was subsequently evaluated using human subjects. It is concluded that nonadaptive tremor suppression systems that utilize impedance control to achieve a specified reduction in tremor power can be successfully designed when accurate open-loop human-machine models are available. PMID:10779108

Pledgie, S; Barner, K E; Agrawal, S K; Rahman, T

2000-03-01

365

TGF-? function in immune suppression.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) has been shown to play an essential role in establishing immunological tolerance, yet recent studies have revealed the pro-inflammatory roles of TGF-? in inflammatory responses. TGF-? induces Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (iTregs), while in the presence of IL-6, it induces pathogenic IL-17 producing Th17 cells. TGF-? inhibits the proliferation of T cells as well as cytokine production via Foxp3-dependent and independent mechanisms. On the one hand, little is known about molecular mechanisms involved in immune suppression via TGF-?; however, recent studies suggest that Smad2 as well as Smad3 play essential roles in Foxp3 induction and cytokine suppression, whereas Th17 differentiation is promoted via the Smad-independent pathway. Mutual suppression of signaling between TGF-? and inflammatory cytokines has been shown to be necessary for the balance of immunity and tolerance. PMID:20680806

Yoshimura, Akihiko; Muto, Go

2011-01-01

366

Effector prediction in host-pathogen interaction based on a Markov model of a ubiquitous EPIYA motif  

PubMed Central

Background Effector secretion is a common strategy of pathogen in mediating host-pathogen interaction. Eight EPIYA-motif containing effectors have recently been discovered in six pathogens. Once these effectors enter host cells through type III/IV secretion systems (T3SS/T4SS), tyrosine in the EPIYA motif is phosphorylated, which triggers effectors binding other proteins to manipulate host-cell functions. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the distribution pattern of EPIYA motif in broad biological species, to predict potential effectors with EPIYA motif, and to suggest roles and biological functions of potential effectors in host-pathogen interactions. Results A hidden Markov model (HMM) of five amino acids was built for the EPIYA-motif based on the eight known effectors. Using this HMM to search the non-redundant protein database containing 9,216,047 sequences, we obtained 107,231 sequences with at least one EPIYA motif occurrence and 3115 sequences with multiple repeats of the EPIYA motif. Although the EPIYA motif exists among broad species, it is significantly over-represented in some particular groups of species. For those proteins containing at least four copies of EPIYA motif, most of them are from intracellular bacteria, extracellular bacteria with T3SS or T4SS or intracellular protozoan parasites. By combining the EPIYA motif and the adjacent SH2 binding motifs (KK, R4, Tarp and Tir), we built HMMs of nine amino acids and predicted many potential effectors in bacteria and protista by the HMMs. Some potential effectors for pathogens (such as Lawsonia intracellularis, Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania major) are suggested. Conclusions Our study indicates that the EPIYA motif may be a ubiquitous functional site for effectors that play an important pathogenicity role in mediating host-pathogen interactions. We suggest that some intracellular protozoan parasites could secrete EPIYA-motif containing effectors through secretion systems similar to the T3SS/T4SS in bacteria. Our predicted effectors provide useful hypotheses for further studies. PMID:21143776

2010-01-01

367

Aging and Repeated Thought Suppression Success  

PubMed Central

Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults’ thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults’ were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults’ reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility. PMID:23776442

Lambert, Ann E.; Smyth, Frederick L.; Beadel, Jessica R.; Teachman, Bethany A.

2013-01-01

368

Noise suppressing capillary separation system  

DOEpatents

A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Xue, Yongjun (Norwich, NY)

1996-07-30

369

A control approach for robots with flexible links and rigid end-effectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiarm flexible robots with dexterous end effectors are currently being considered in such tasks as satellite retrieval, servicing and repair where a two phase problem can be identified: Phase 1, robot positioning in space; Phase 2, object retrieval. Some issues in Phase 1 regarding modelling and control strategies for a robotic system comprised of along flexible arm and a rigid three-link end effector are presented. The control objective is to maintain the last (rigid) link stationary in space in the presence of an additive disturbance caused by the flexible energy in the first link after a positioning maneuver has been accomplished. Several configuration strategies can be considered, and optimal decentralized servocompensators can be designed. Preliminary computer simulations are included for a simple proportional controller to illustrate the approach.

Barbieri, Enrique; Ozguner, Umit

1989-01-01

370

The Biological Functions of T Helper 17 Cell Effector Cytokines in Inflammation  

PubMed Central

T helper 17 (Th17) cells belong to a recently identified T helper subset, in addition to the traditional Th1 and Th2 subsets. These cells are characterized as preferential producers of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. Th17 cells and their effector cytokines mediate host defensive mechanisms to various infections, especially extracellular bacteria infections, and are involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. The receptors for IL-17 and IL-22 are broadly expressed on various epithelial tissues. The effector cytokines of Th17 cells, therefore, mediate the crucial crosstalk between immune system and tissues, and play indispensable roles in tissue immunity. PMID:18400188

Ouyang, Wenjun; Kolls, Jay K.; Zheng, Yan

2012-01-01

371

The Crystal Structure of TAL Effector PthXo1 Bound to Its DNA Target  

SciTech Connect

DNA recognition by TAL effectors is mediated by tandem repeats, each 33 to 35 residues in length, that specify nucleotides via unique repeat-variable diresidues (RVDs). The crystal structure of PthXo1 bound to its DNA target was determined by high-throughput computational structure prediction and validated by heavy-atom derivatization. Each repeat forms a left-handed, two-helix bundle that presents an RVD-containing loop to the DNA. The repeats self-associate to form a right-handed superhelix wrapped around the DNA major groove. The first RVD residue forms a stabilizing contact with the protein backbone, while the second makes a base-specific contact to the DNA sense strand. Two degenerate amino-terminal repeats also interact with the DNA. Containing several RVDs and noncanonical associations, the structure illustrates the basis of TAL effector-DNA recognition.

Mak, Amanda Nga-Sze; Bradley, Philip; Cernadas, Raul A.; Bogdanove, Adam J.; Stoddard, Barry L. (FHCRC); (Iowa State)

2012-02-10

372

Regulation of Chaperone/Effector Complex Synthesis in a Bacterial Type III Secretion System  

PubMed Central

Summary Type III protein secretion systems (T3SS), which have evolved to deliver bacterial proteins into nucleated cells, are found in many species of Gram-negative bacteria that live in close association with eukaryotic hosts. Proteins destined to travel this secretion pathway are targeted to the secretion machine by customized chaperones, with which they form highly ordered complexes. Here, we have identified a mechanism that coordinates the expression of the Salmonella Typhimurium T3SS chaperone SicP and its cognate effector SptP. Translation of the effector is coupled to that of its chaperone, and in the absence of translational coupling, an inhibitory RNA structure prevents translation of sptP. Furthermore, we have found that translational coupling is essential for secretion-competent SicP/SptP complex assembly. The data presented here show how the genomic organization of functionally related proteins can have a significant impact on protein function. PMID:21801239

Button, Julie E.; Galan, Jorge E.

2013-01-01

373

Probing the initiation and effector phases of the somatic piRNA pathway in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Combining RNAi in cultured cells and analysis of mutant animals, we probed the roles of known Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway components in the initiation and effector phases of transposon silencing. Squash associated physically with Piwi, and reductions in its expression led to modest transposon derepression without effects on piRNAs, consistent with an effector role. Alterations in Zucchini or Armitage reduced both Piwi protein and piRNAs, indicating functions in the formation of a stable Piwi RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex). Notably, loss of Zucchini or mutations within its catalytic domain led to accumulation of unprocessed precursor transcripts from flamenco, consistent with a role for this putative nuclease in piRNA biogenesis. PMID:20966049

Haase, Astrid D.; Fenoglio, Silvia; Muerdter, Felix; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Czech, Benjamin; Pappin, Darryl J.; Chen, Caifu; Gordon, Assaf; Hannon, Gregory J.

2010-01-01

374

Techniques for accommodating control effector failures on a mildly statically unstable airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial airplanes are becoming increasingly more sophisticated, placing an increasing burden on pilots to detect and resolve the exhaustive set of possible control effector failures. Automatic techniques are needed to either reconfigure an existing control law or restructure a new control law after failure. A discrete control law has been designed for the longitudinal channel of a mildly statically unstable commercial airplane, to track the glideslope during the approach to landing phase of flight. Single effector failures with time delays for failure detection and identification are analyzed for both the reconfigured and restructured control laws, and results are compared with those from previous research using a statically stable airplane. Strategies considered include reconfiguration and restructuring with new flight conditions. Validation of all cases is made using a 6 DOF nonlinear airplane simulation.

Ostroff, A. J.

1985-01-01

375

The crystal structure of TAL effector PthXo1 bound to its DNA target.  

PubMed

DNA recognition by TAL effectors is mediated by tandem repeats, each 33 to 35 residues in length, that specify nucleotides via unique repeat-variable diresidues (RVDs). The crystal structure of PthXo1 bound to its DNA target was determined by high-throughput computational structure prediction and validated by heavy-atom derivatization. Each repeat forms a left-handed, two-helix bundle that presents an RVD-containing loop to the DNA. The repeats self-associate to form a right-handed superhelix wrapped around the DNA major groove. The first RVD residue forms a stabilizing contact with the protein backbone, while the second makes a base-specific contact to the DNA sense strand. Two degenerate amino-terminal repeats also interact with the DNA. Containing several RVDs and noncanonical associations, the structure illustrates the basis of TAL effector-DNA recognition. PMID:22223736

Mak, Amanda Nga-Sze; Bradley, Philip; Cernadas, Raul A; Bogdanove, Adam J; Stoddard, Barry L

2012-02-10

376

Heterogeneity of EAE mediated by multiple distinct T-effector subsets  

PubMed Central

Both TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes are implicated in inducing EAE. In mice lacking IFN?, TH17 are assumed to be the subset responsible for inflammation induction. Here, we demonstrate that IFN? KO mice have two additional effector subsets, one that up-regulates TH17-associated pro-inflammatory genes, but does not make IL-17 protein, and a second that utilizes IL-12-related elements of the TH1 pathway in an IFN?-independent manner. In vivo, these two subsets induce demonstrably different disease. By using homogeneous T cell lines, we can dissect the population of autoimmune effector cells, and demonstrate the multiplicity of pro-inflammatory pathways important in disease processes. PMID:17976744

Abromson-Leeman, Sara; Ladell, Daniel S.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Dorf, Martin E.

2008-01-01

377

Tailored Immune Responses: Novel Effector Helper T Cell Subsets in Protective Immunity  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of naïve CD4+ cells into functionally distinct effector helper T cell subsets, characterised by distinct “cytokine signatures,” is a cardinal strategy employed by the mammalian immune system to efficiently deal with the rapidly evolving array of pathogenic microorganisms encountered by the host. Since the TH1/TH2 paradigm was first described by Mosmann and Coffman, research in the field of helper T cell biology has grown exponentially with seven functionally unique subsets having now been described. In this review, recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation and function of effector helper T cell subsets will be discussed in the context of microbial infections, with a focus on how these different helper T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses tailored to combat the nature of the pathogenic threat encountered. PMID:24586147

Kara, Ervin E.; Comerford, Iain; Fenix, Kevin A.; Bastow, Cameron R.; Gregor, Carly E.; McKenzie, Duncan R.; McColl, Shaun R.

2014-01-01

378

Suppression of autophagy by FIP200 deletion inhibits mammary tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a conserved cellular process for bulk degradation of intracellular protein and organelles in lysosomes. In contrast to elegant studies of beclin1 using mouse models and cultured cells demonstrating a tumor suppression function for autophagy, knockout of other essential autophagy proteins such as ATG5, ATG7, or FIP200 (FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa) in various tissues did not lead to malignant tumor development in vivo. Here, we report that inhibition of autophagy by FIP200 ablation suppresses mammary tumor initiation and progression in a mouse model of breast cancer driven by the PyMT oncogene. Deletion of FIP200 resulted in multiple autophagy defects including accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates and p62/SQSTM1, deficient LC3 conversion, and increased number of mitochondria with abnormal morphology in tumor cells. FIP200 deletion did not affect apoptosis of mammary tumor cells or Ras-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but significantly reduced their proliferation in both systems. We also observed a reduced glycolysis and cyclin D1 expression in FIP200-null mammary tumor cells and transformed MEFs. In addition, gene profiling studies revealed significantly elevated expression of interferon (IFN)-responsive genes in the early tumors of FIP200 conditional knockout mice, which was accompanied by increased infiltration of effector T cells in the tumor microenvironment triggered by an increased production of chemokines including CXCL10 in FIP200-null tumor cells. Together, these data provide strong evidence for a protumorigenesis role of autophagy in oncogene-induced tumors in vivo and suggest FIP200 as a potential target for cancer therapy. PMID:21764854

Wei, Huijun; Wei, Shuang; Gan, Boyi; Peng, Xu; Zou, Weiping; Guan, Jun-Lin

2011-01-01

379

Coevolution between a Family of Parasite Virulence Effectors and a Class of LINE1 Retrotransposons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites are able to evolve rapidly and overcome host defense mechanisms, but the molecular basis of this adaptation is poorly understood. Powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales, Ascomycota) are obligate biotrophic parasites infecting nearly 10,000 plant genera. They obtain their nutrients from host plants through specialized feeding structures known as haustoria. We previously identified the AVRk1 powdery mildew-specific gene family encoding effectors

Soledad Sacristán; Marielle Vigouroux; Carsten Pedersen; Pari Skamnioti; Hans Thordal-Christensen; Cristina Micali; James K. M. Brown; Christopher J. Ridout; Niyaz Ahmed

2009-01-01

380

Cellular Neural Network Models of Growth and Immune of Effector Cells Response to Cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four reaction-diffusion cellular neural network (R-D CNN) models are set up based on the differential equation models for the growths of effector cells and cancer cells, and the model of the immune response to cancer proposed by Allison et al. The CNN models have different reaction-diffusion coefficients and coupling parameters. The R-D CNN models may provide possible quantitative interpretations, and are good in agreement with the in vitro experiment data reported by Allison et al.

Su, Yongmei; Min, Lequan

381

Structural Basis for Type VI Secretion Effector Recognition by a Cognate Immunity Protein  

PubMed Central

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has emerged as an important mediator of interbacterial interactions. A T6SS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa targets at least three effector proteins, type VI secretion exported 1–3 (Tse1–3), to recipient Gram-negative cells. The Tse2 protein is a cytoplasmic effector that acts as a potent inhibitor of target cell proliferation, thus providing a pronounced fitness advantage for P. aeruginosa donor cells. P. aeruginosa utilizes a dedicated immunity protein, type VI secretion immunity 2 (Tsi2), to protect against endogenous and intercellularly-transferred Tse2. Here we show that Tse2 delivered by the T6SS efficiently induces quiescence, not death, within recipient cells. We demonstrate that despite direct interaction of Tsi2 and Tse2 in the cytoplasm, Tsi2 is dispensable for targeting the toxin to the secretory apparatus. To gain insights into the molecular basis of Tse2 immunity, we solved the 1.00 Å X-ray crystal structure of Tsi2. The structure shows that Tsi2 assembles as a dimer that does not resemble previously characterized immunity or antitoxin proteins. A genetic screen for Tsi2 mutants deficient in Tse2 interaction revealed an acidic patch distal to the Tsi2 homodimer interface that mediates toxin interaction and immunity. Consistent with this finding, we observed that destabilization of the Tsi2 dimer does not impact Tse2 interaction. The molecular insights into Tsi2 structure and function garnered from this study shed light on the mechanisms of T6 effector secretion, and indicate that the Tse2–Tsi2 effector–immunity pair has features distinguishing it from previously characterized toxin–immunity and toxin–antitoxin systems. PMID:22511866

Li, Mo; Le Trong, Isolde; Carl, Mike A.; Larson, Eric T.; Chou, Seemay; De Leon, Justin A.; Dove, Simon L.; Stenkamp, Ronald E.; Mougous, Joseph D.

2012-01-01

382

Emergence of a B Lymphocyte Population With ADCC Effector Function in Mammary Tumor Bearing Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential expression of antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) effectors was studied in normal Balb\\/cCrgl mice and those bearing a chemically induced 7, 12 dime- thylbenzanthracene mammary adenocarcinoma. Depletion of macrophages from normal mouse splenocytes by Sephadex G-iO columns resulted In elimination of ADCC. Further separation of the normal G-iO nonadherent splenocytes on nylon wool columns did not result in any

Ranga R. Padmanabhan; Ronald D. Paul; Gordon A. Watson; Diana M. Lopez

1988-01-01

383

Antigen-presenting effects of effector memory V?9V?2 T cells in rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects the limbs, but the pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. ?? T cells, a T-cell subpopulation, are characterized by multiple biological functions and associated with a variety of diseases. This study investigated the antigen-presenting effects of ?? T cells and their relationship with rheumatoid arthritis development. We found that V?9V?2 T cells (the predominant subtype of ?? T cells in peripheral blood) were activated by isopentenyl pyrophosphate to continuously proliferate and differentiate into effector memory cells. The effector memory V?9V?2 T cells exhibited phenotypic characteristics of specific antigen-presenting cells, including high HLA-DR and CD80/86 expression. These V?9V?2 T cells could present soluble antigens and synthetic peptides to CD4+ T cells. V?9V?2 T cells with different phenotypes showed different cytokine secretion patterns. Effector memory V?9V?2 T cells simultaneously secreted not only interferon (IFN)-? but also IL-17. The peripheral blood and joint synovial fluid from RA patients contained numerous heterogeneous ?? T cells that were predominantly effector memory V?9V?2 T cells with the ability to secrete inflammatory factors. We also found that ?? T cells had a similar antigen-presenting capability to B cells. These results suggest that during the development of rheumatoid arthritis, ?? T cells can aggravate immune dysfunction and produce abnormal immune damage by secreting cytokines and inducing inflammatory cells to participate in synergistic inflammatory responses. Furthermore, ?? T cells can behave similarly to B cells to present viral peptides and autoantigen peptides to CD4+ T cells, thus sustaining CD4+ T-cell activation. PMID:22139198

Hu, Chaoying; Qian, Liu; Miao, Yi; Huang, Qiuyu; Miao, Ping; Wang, Ping; Yu, Qiwen; Nie, Hong; Zhang, Jiying; He, Dongyi; Xu, Rong; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Bingya; Zhang, Dongqing

2012-01-01

384

Squamous cell carcinoma cells differentially stimulate NK cell effector functions: the role of IL18  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor cells stimulate natural killer (NK) cell effector functions, but the regulation of cytokine secretion and cytolysis is incompletely understood. We tested whether oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines differentially stimulated NK cell interferon-n (IFN-n) secretion and cytolysis using a clone of the NK-92-transformed human NK cell line, NK92.35. SCC-4 and SCC-25 cells, but not FaDu or Cal

Mikel B. Moore; Zoya B. Kurago; Colleen A. Fullenkamp; Charles T. Lutz

2003-01-01

385

Divalent Rab effectors regulate the sub-compartmental organization and sorting of early endosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three GTPases Rab5, Rab4 and Rab11 regulate sequential transport steps along the endocytic\\/recycling pathway, and occupy distinct membrane domains on early and recycling endosomes. To address the mechanisms that regulate communication between such domains, we searched for proteins that interact with both Rab5 and Rab4. Here, we report that Rabenosyn-5, a previously identified Rab5 effector, also binds to Rab4.

Stefano De Renzis; Birte Sönnichsen; Marino Zerial

2002-01-01

386

Human Effector and Memory CD8 + T Cell Responses to Smallpox and Yellow Fever Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY ToexplorethehumanTcellresponsetoacuteviralin- fection, we performed a longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells responding to the live yellow fever virus and smallpox vaccines—two highly successful human vaccines. Our results show that both vaccines gener- ated a brisk primary effector CD8+ T cell response of substantial magnitude that could be readily quanti- tated with a simple set of four phenotypic markers. Secondly,

Joseph D. Miller; Robbert G. van der Most; Rama S. Akondy; John T. Glidewell; Sophia Albott; David Masopust; Kaja Murali-Krishna; Patryce L. Mahar; Srilatha Edupuganti; Susan Lalor; Stephanie Germon; Carlos Del Rio; Silvija I. Staprans; John D. Altman; Mark B. Feinberg; Rafi Ahmed

2008-01-01

387

Neutrophils Are Essential As A Source Of Il-17 In The Effector Phase Of Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Th17 has been shown to have a pivotal role in the development of arthritis. However, the role of IL-17 in the T cell-independent effector phase has not fully been examined. We investigated whether IL-17 is involved in the effector phase of arthritis by using K/BxN serum-induced arthritis model. Methods K/BxN serum was transferred into IL-17 knockout (KO) mice, SCID mice and their control mice, and arthritis was evaluated over time. In order to clarify the source of IL-17 in the effector phase, neutrophils or CD4+ T cells collected from IL-17 KO or control mice were injected into IL-17 KO recipient mice together with K/BxN serum. To examine if neutrophils secrete IL-17 upon stimulation, neutrophils were stimulated with immune complex in?vitro and IL-17 in the supernatant was measured by ELISA. Results K/BxN serum-induced arthritis was much less severe in IL-17 KO mice than in WT mice. Since K/BxN serum-transferred SCID mice developed severe arthritis with high serum IL-17 concentration, we speculated neutrophils are the responsible player as an IL-17 source. When wild type (WT) but not IL-17 KO neutrophils were co-injected with K/BxN serum into IL-17 KO mice, arthritis was exacerbated, whereas co-injection of WT CD4+ T cells had no effect. In vitro, stimulation of neutrophils with immune complexcaused IL-17 secretion. Conclusions Neutrophils are essential as a source of IL-17 in the effector phase of arthritis. The trigger of secreting IL-17 from neutrophils may be immune complex. PMID:23671588

Katayama, Masaki; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Terao, Chikashi; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Kawabata, Daisuke; Fujii, Takao; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Mimori, Tsuneyo

2013-01-01

388

NMR Derived Model of GTPase Effector Domain (GED) Self Association: Relevance to Dynamin Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-association of dynamin to form spiral structures around lipidic vesicles during endocytosis is largely mediated by its ‘coiled coil’ GTPase Effector Domain (GED), which, in vitro, self-associates into huge helical assemblies. Residue-level structural characterizations of these assemblies and understanding the process of association have remained a challenge. It is also impossible to get folded monomers in the solution phase. In

Swagata Chakraborty; Supriya Pratihar; Ramakrishna V. Hosur

2012-01-01

389

Designer TAL effectors induce disease susceptibility and resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice.  

PubMed

TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors from Xanthomonas bacteria activate the cognate host genes, leading to disease susceptibility or resistance dependent on the genetic context of host target genes. The modular nature and DNA recognition code of TAL effectors enable custom-engineering of designer TAL effectors (dTALE) for gene activation. However, the feasibility of dTALEs as transcription activators for gene functional analysis has not been demonstrated. Here, we report the use of dTALEs, as expressed and delivered by the pathogenic Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), in revealing the new function of two previously identified disease-related genes and the potential of one developmental gene for disease susceptibility in rice/Xoo interactions. The dTALE gene dTALE-xa27, designed to target the susceptible allele of the resistance gene Xa27, elicited a resistant reaction in the otherwise susceptible rice cultivar IR24. Four dTALE genes were made to induce the four annotated Xa27 homologous genes in rice cultivar Nipponbare, but none of the four induced Xa27-like genes conferred resistance to the dTALE-containing Xoo strains. A dTALE gene was also generated to activate the recessive resistance gene xa13, an allele of the disease-susceptibility gene Os8N3 (also named Xa13 or OsSWEET11, a member of sucrose efflux transporter SWEET gene family). The induction of xa13 by the dTALE rendered the resistant rice IRBB13 (xa13/xa13) susceptible to Xoo. Finally, OsSWEET12, an as-yet uncharacterized SWEET gene with no corresponding naturally occurring TAL effector identified, conferred susceptibility to the Xoo strains expressing the corresponding dTALE genes. Our results demonstrate that dTALEs can be delivered through the bacterial secretion system to activate genes of interest for functional analysis in plants. PMID:23430045

Li, Ting; Huang, Sheng; Zhou, Junhui; Yang, Bing

2013-05-01

390

The RAS Effector RIN1 Modulates the Formation of Aversive Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAS proteins are critical regulators of mitosis and are mutationally activated in many human tumors. RAS signaling is also known to mediate long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory formation in postmitotic neurons, in part through activation of the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. The RAS effector RIN1 appears to function through competitive inhibition of RAS-RAF binding and also through diversion of RAS signaling

Rui M. Costa; Hailiang Hu; Dwain K. Irvin; Apoor Patel; Harley I. Kornblum; Alcino J. Silva; Thomas J. O'Dell; John Colicelli

2003-01-01

391

Effector and memory CD8+ T cell fate coupled by T-bet and eomesodermin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two seemingly unrelated hallmarks of memory CD8+ T cells are cytokine-driven proliferative renewal after pathogen clearance and a latent effector program in anticipation of rechallenge. Memory CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells share cytotoxic potential and dependence on the growth factor interleukin 15. We now show that mice with compound mutations of the genes encoding the transcription factors T-bet

Andrew M Intlekofer; Naofumi Takemoto; E John Wherry; Sarah A Longworth; John T Northrup; Vikram R Palanivel; Alan C Mullen; Christopher R Gasink; Susan M Kaech; Joseph D Miller; Laurent Gapin; Kenneth Ryan; Andreas P Russ; Tullia Lindsten; Jordan S Orange; Ananda W Goldrath; Rafi Ahmed; Steven L Reiner

2005-01-01

392

Differential requirement for CD18 in T-helper effector homing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the integrin requirements of T-helper (TH) effector subsets, we investigated the contribution of CD18 (?2 integrin) to TH1 and TH2 function in vitro and in relevant disease models. CD18-deficient (Itgb2?\\/?) T cells showed largely normal in vitro function. Compared with wild-type mice, Itgb2?\\/? mice were better able to resolve Leishmania major infection and generated a superior TH1 immune

Seung-Hyo Lee; Joseph E Prince; Muhammad Rais; Farrah Kheradmand; Felix Shardonofsky; Huifang Lu; Arthur L Beaudet; C Wayne Smith; Lynn Soong; David B Corry

2003-01-01

393

Acute stress elicited by bungee jumping suppresses human innate immunity.  

PubMed

Although a relation between diminished human immunity and stress is well recognized both within the general public and the scientific literature, the molecular mechanisms by which stress alters immunity remain poorly understood. We explored a novel model for acute human stress involving volunteers performing a first-time bungee jump from an altitude of 60 m and exploited this model to characterize the effects of acute stress in the peripheral blood compartment. Twenty volunteers were included in the study; half of this group was pretreated for 3 d with the ?-receptor blocking agent propranolol. Blood was drawn 2 h before, right before, immediately after and 2 h after the jump. Plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly during jumping, which was accompanied by significantly reduced ex vivo inducibility of proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of coagulation and vascular endothelium. Kinome profiles obtained from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction contained a strong noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction signature after jumping. In apparent agreement, jumping down-regulated Lck/Fyn and cellular innate immune effector function (phagocytosis). Pretreatment of volunteers with propranolol abolished the effects of jumping on coagulation and endothelial activation but left the inhibitory effects on innate immune function intact. Taken together, these results indicate that bungee jumping leads to a catecholamine-independent immune suppressive phenotype and implicate noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction as a major pathway linking human stress to impaired functioning of the human innate immune system. PMID:21203694

van Westerloo, David J; Choi, Goda; Löwenberg, Ester C; Truijen, Jasper; de Vos, Alex F; Endert, Erik; Meijers, Joost C M; Zhou, Lu; Pereira, Manuel P F L; Queiroz, Karla C S; Diks, Sander H; Levi, Marcel; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Poll, Tom

2011-01-01

394

Acute Stress Elicited by Bungee Jumping Suppresses Human Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

Although a relation between diminished human immunity and stress is well recognized both within the general public and the scientific literature, the molecular mechanisms by which stress alters immunity remain poorly understood. We explored a novel model for acute human stress involving volunteers performing a first-time bungee jump from an altitude of 60 m and exploited this model to characterize the effects of acute stress in the peripheral blood compartment. Twenty volunteers were included in the study; half of this group was pretreated for 3 d with the ?-receptor blocking agent propranolol. Blood was drawn 2 h before, right before, immediately after and 2 h after the jump. Plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly during jumping, which was accompanied by significantly reduced ex vivo inducibility of proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of coagulation and vascular endothelium. Kinome profiles obtained from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction contained a strong noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction signature after jumping. In apparent agreement, jumping down-regulated Lck/Fyn and cellular innate immune effector function (phagocytosis). Pretreatment of volunteers with propranolol abolished the effects of jumping on coagulation and endothelial activation but left the inhibitory effects on innate immune function intact. Taken together, these results indicate that bungee jumping leads to a catecholamine-independent immune suppressive phenotype and implicate noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction as a major pathway linking human stress to impaired functioning of the human innate immune system. PMID:21203694

van Westerloo, David J; Choi, Goda; Lowenberg, Ester C; Truijen, Jasper; de Vos, Alex F; Endert, Erik; Meijers, Joost C M; Zhou, Lu; Pereira, Manuel PFL; Queiroz, Karla CS; Diks, Sander H; Levi, Marcel; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Poll, Tom

2011-01-01

395

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte migration and effector function in the tumor microenvironment.  

PubMed

Immunological control of cancer lesions requires local uptake of tumor-specific antigen followed by the activation and expansion of tumor specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). An efficient effector phase further depends upon the entry of activated CTL into the tumor microenvironment and scanning of tumor tissue, which leads to direct interaction of the CTL with target cells followed by apoptosis induction and shrinkage of the tumor lesion. Whereas the antigens and pathways that lead to efficient activation of tumor-specific CTL are well established, the local mechanisms that enable efficient - or deficient - CTL function in the tumor tissue are poorly understood. Firstly, effector T lymphocytes need to be mobile to reach the tumor lesion. Next, they must physically interact with and scan tumor cells for antigenic MHC/peptide complexes. Lastly, CTLs must undergo activation and functional conjugation with target cells to induce apoptosis either by the release of perforins or the engagement of Fas/FasL. All these steps of effector function are interdependent and require the amoeboid migration of CTL through tissue to reach, engage with and leave encountered cells. PMID:21333682

Weigelin, Bettina; Krause, Marina; Friedl, Peter

2011-07-01

396

BTB-ZF factors recruit the E3 ligase cullin 3 to regulate lymphoid effector programs  

PubMed Central

The differentiation of several T and B cell effector programs in the immune system is directed by signature transcription factors that induce rapid epigenetic remodeling. We report that PLZF, the BTB-ZF transcription factor directing the innate-like effector program of NKT thymocytes 1,2 was prominently associated with cullin 3 (Cul3), an E3 ubiquitin ligase previously shown to use BTB domain-containing proteins as adaptors for substrate binding 3–7. PLZF transported Cul3 to the nucleus where the two proteins were associated within a chromatin modifying complex. Furthermore, PLZF expression resulted in selective changes of ubiquitination of multiple components of this complex. Cul3 was also found associated with another BTB-ZF transcription factor, Bcl6, which directs the B cell germinal center and the T follicular helper programs. Conditional deletion in mice demonstrated an essential role of Cul3 for the development of PLZF- and Bcl6-dependent lineages. We conclude that distinct lineage-specific BTB-ZF transcription factors recruit Cul3 to alter the ubiquitination pattern of their associated chromatin modifying complex. We propose that this novel function is essential to direct the differentiation of several T and B lymphocyte effector programs, and may also be involved in the oncogenic role of PLZF and Bcl6 in leukemias and lymphomas 8,9. PMID:23086144

Mathew, Rebecca; Seiler, Michael P.; Scanlon, Seth T.; Mao, Aiping; Constantinides, Michael G.; Bertozzi-Villa, Clara; Singer, Jeffrey D.; Bendelac, Albert

2012-01-01

397

Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell-cell adhesion and migration. PMID:24858684

Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Ramos-Morales, Francisco

2014-07-11

398

SET-domain bacterial effectors target heterochromatin protein 1 to activate host rDNA transcription  

PubMed Central

Transcription of rRNA genes (rDNAs) in the nucleolus is regulated by epigenetic chromatin modifications including histone H3 lysine (de)methylation. Here we show that LegAS4, a Legionella pneumophila type IV secretion system (TFSS) effector, is targeted to specific rDNA chromatin regions in the host nucleolus. LegAS4 promotes rDNA transcription, through its SET-domain (named after Drosophila Su(var)3–9, enhancer of zeste [E(z)], and trithorax [trx]) histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMTase) activity. LegAS4's association with rDNA chromatin is mediated by interaction with host HP1?/?. L. pneumophila infection potently activates rDNA transcription in a TFSS-dependent manner. Other bacteria, including Bordetella bronchiseptica and Burkholderia thailandensis, also harbour nucleolus-localized LegAS4-like HKMTase effectors. The B. thailandensis type III effector BtSET promotes H3K4 methylation of rDNA chromatin, contributing to infection-induced rDNA transcription and bacterial intracellular replication. Thus, activation of host rDNA transcription might be a general bacterial virulence strategy. PMID:23797873

Li, Ting; Lu, Qiuhe; Wang, Guolun; Xu, Hao; Huang, Huanwei; Cai, Tao; Kan, Biao; Ge, Jianning; Shao, Feng

2013-01-01

399

Interferon regulatory factor 4 sustains CD8(+) T cell expansion and effector differentiation.  

PubMed

Upon infection, CD8(+) T cells undergo a stepwise process of early activation, expansion, and differentiation into effector cells. How these phases are transcriptionally regulated is incompletely defined. Here, we report that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), dispensable for early CD8(+) T cell activation, was vital for sustaining the expansion and effector differentiation of CD8(+) T cells. Mechanistically, IRF4 promoted the expression and function of Blimp1 and T-bet, two transcription factors required for CD8(+) T cell effector differentiation, and simultaneously repressed genes that mediate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Selective ablation of Irf4 in peripheral CD8(+) T cells impaired antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses, viral clearance, and CD8(+) T cell-mediated host recovery from influenza infection. IRF4 expression was regulated by T cell receptor (TCR) signaling strength via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Our data reveal that IRF4 translates differential strength of TCR signaling into different quantitative and qualitative CD8(+) T cell responses. PMID:24211184

Yao, Shuyu; Buzo, Bruno Fernando; Pham, Duy; Jiang, Li; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J; Kaplan, Mark H; Sun, Jie

2013-11-14

400

Multinucleation during C. trachomatis Infections Is Caused by the Contribution of Two Effector Pathways  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen and the second leading cause of sexually transmitted infections in the US. Infections cause significant morbidity and can lead to serious reproductive sequelae, including an epidemiological link to increased rates of reproductive cancers. One of the overt changes that infected cells exhibit is the development of genomic instability leading to multinucleation. Here we demonstrate that the induction of multinucleation is not conserved equally across chlamydial species; C. trachomatis L2 caused high levels of multinucleation, C. muridarum intermediate levels, and C. caviae had very modest effects on multinucleation. Our data show that at least two effector pathways together cause genomic instability during infection leading to multinucleation. We find that the highly conserved chlamydial protease CPAF is a key effector for one of these pathways. CPAF secretion is required for the loss of centrosome duplication regulation as well as inducing early mitotic exit. The second effector pathway involves the induction of centrosome position errors. This function is not conserved in three chlamydial species tested. Together these two pathways contribute to the induction of high levels of genomic instability and multinucleation seen in C. trachomatis infections. PMID:24955832

Brown, Heather M.; Knowlton, Andrea E.; Snavely, Emily; Nguyen, Bidong D.; Richards, Theresa S.; Grieshaber, Scott S.

2014-01-01