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1

Cell wall degrading enzyme induced rice innate immune responses are suppressed by the type 3 secretion system effectors XopN, XopQ, XopX and XopZ of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Innate immune responses are induced in plants and animals through perception of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns. These immune responses are suppressed by pathogens during infection. A number of studies have focussed on identifying functions of plant pathogenic bacteria that are involved in suppression of Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. In comparison, there is very little information on functions used by plant pathogens to suppress Damage Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae, a gram negative bacterial pathogen of rice, secretes hydrolytic enzymes such as LipA (Lipase/Esterase) that damage rice cell walls and induce innate immune responses. Here, we show that Agrobacterium mediated transient transfer of the gene for XopN, a X. oryzae pv. oryzae type 3 secretion (T3S) system effector, results in suppression of rice innate immune responses induced by LipA. A xopN (-) mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae retains the ability to suppress these innate immune responses indicating the presence of other functionally redundant proteins. In transient transfer assays, we have assessed the ability of 15 other X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S secreted effectors to suppress rice innate immune responses. Amongst these proteins, XopQ, XopX and XopZ are suppressors of LipA induced innate immune responses. A mutation in any one of the xopN, xopQ, xopX or xopZ genes causes partial virulence deficiency while a xopN (-) xopX (-) double mutant exhibits a greater virulence deficiency. A xopN (-) xopQ (-) xopX (-) xopZ (-) quadruple mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae induces callose deposition, an innate immune response, similar to a X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S(-) mutant in rice leaves. Overall, these results indicate that multiple T3S secreted proteins of X. oryzae pv. oryzae can suppress cell wall damage induced rice innate immune responses. PMID:24086651

Sinha, Dipanwita; Gupta, Mahesh Kumar; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Ranjan, Ashish; Sonti, Ramesh V

2013-01-01

2

Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector XopN from  

E-print Network

Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector Xop) in tomato. Previous work reported that XopN interacts with the tomato 14-3-3 isoform TFT1; however, TFT1's and is a XopN virulence target. Virus-induced gene silencing of TFT1 mRNA in tomato leaves resulted

Mudgettt, Mary Beth

3

The Pseudomonas syringae effector protein HopZ1a suppresses effector-triggered immunity.  

PubMed

*The Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae type III effector HopZ1a is a member of the HopZ effector family of cysteine-proteases that triggers immunity in Arabidopsis. This immunity is dependent on HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity, and independent of known resistance genes. We have previously shown that HopZ1a-triggered immunity is partially additive to that triggered by AvrRpt2. These partially additive effects could be caused by at least two mechanisms: their signalling pathways share a common element(s), or one effector interferes with the response triggered by the other. *Here, we investigate the molecular basis for the partially additive effect displayed by AvrRpt2- and HopZ1a-triggered immunities, by analysing competitive indices, hypersensitive response and symptom induction, PR-1 accumulation, expression of PR genes, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) induction. *Partially additive effects between these defence responses require HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity, and also take place between HopZ1a and AvrRps4 or AvrRpm1-triggered responses. We establish that HopZ1a-triggered immunity is independent of salicylic acid (SA), EDS1, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET)-dependent pathways, and show that HopZ1a suppresses the induction of PR-1 and PR-5 associated with P. syringae pv tomato (Pto)-triggered effector-triggered immunity (ETI)-like defences, AvrRpt2-triggered immunity, and Pto or Pto (avrRpt2) activation of SAR, and that suppression requires HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity. *Our results indicate that HopZ1a triggers an unusual resistance independent of known pathways and suppresses SA and EDS1-dependent resistance. PMID:20636323

Macho, Alberto P; Guevara, Carlos M; Tornero, Pablo; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Beuzón, Carmen R

2010-09-01

4

Type III effector AvrPtoB requires intrinsic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity to suppress  

E-print Network

effector proteins into the host cell (1). These prokaryotic effectors often mimic eukaryotic proteins as a general eukaryotic cell death sup- pressor. AvrPtoB is a 59-kDa protein with a modular architec- tureType III effector AvrPtoB requires intrinsic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity to suppress plant cell

Pawlowski, Wojtek

5

Suppression of HIV-1 replication by microRNA effectors  

PubMed Central

The rate of HIV-1 gene expression is a key step that determines the kinetics of virus spread and AIDS progression. Viral entry and gene expression were described to be the key determinants for cell permissiveness to HIV. Recent reports highlighted the involvement of miRNA in regulating HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally. In this study we explored the role of cellular factors required for miRNA-mediated mRNA translational inhibition in regulating HIV-1 gene expression. Here we show that HIV-1 mRNAs associate and co-localize with components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), and we characterize some of the proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing (miRNA effectors). RCK/p54, GW182, LSm-1 and XRN1 negatively regulate HIV-1 gene expression by preventing viral mRNA association with polysomes. Interestingly, knockdown of RCK/p54 or DGCR8 resulted in virus reactivation in PBMCs isolated from HIV infected patients treated with suppressive HAART. PMID:19272132

Chable-Bessia, Christine; Meziane, Oussama; Latreille, Daniel; Triboulet, Robinson; Zamborlini, Alessia; Wagschal, Alexandre; Jacquet, Jean-Marc; Reynes, Jacques; Levy, Yves; Saib, Ali; Bennasser, Yamina; Benkirane, Monsef

2009-01-01

6

Stem Cell Reports Suppression of the SOX2 Neural Effector Gene by PRDM1 Promotes Human  

E-print Network

Stem Cell Reports Article Suppression of the SOX2 Neural Effector Gene by PRDM1 Promotes Human Germ of early PGCs. Furthermore, PRDM1 suppresses transcription of SOX2. Overexpression of SOX2 in hESCs under of neural or germline fates through repression of SOX2 during human development. INTRODUCTION Primordial

Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

7

Effector-triggered post-translational modifications and their role in suppression of plant immunity  

PubMed Central

Plant–pathogen interactions feature complex signaling exchanges between host and microbes that ultimately determine association outcomes. Plants deploy pattern recognition receptors to perceive pathogen-associated molecular patterns, mount pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), and fend off potential pathogens. In recent years an increasing number of defense-signaling components have been identified along with a mechanistic understanding of their regulation during immune responses. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are now thought to play a crucial role in regulating defense signaling. In a bid to suppress PTI and infect their host, pathogens have evolved large repertoires of effectors that trigger susceptibility and allow colonization of host tissues. While great progress has been made in elucidating defense-signaling networks in plants and the activities of effectors in immune suppression, a critical gap exists in our understanding of effector mechanism-of-action. Given the importance of PTMs in the regulation of defense signaling, we will explore the question: how do effectors modify the post-translational status of host proteins and thus interfere with host processes required for immunity? We will consider how emerging proteomics-based experimental strategies may help us answer this important question and ultimately open the pathogens’ effector black box. PMID:22811685

Howden, Andrew J. M.; Huitema, Edgar

2012-01-01

8

Suppression of Plant Resistance Gene-Based Immunity by a Fungal Effector  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system of plants consists of two layers. The first layer, called basal resistance, governs recognition of conserved microbial molecules and fends off most attempted invasions. The second layer is based on Resistance (R) genes that mediate recognition of effectors, proteins secreted by pathogens to suppress or evade basal resistance. Here, we show that a plant-pathogenic fungus secretes an effector that can both trigger and suppress R gene-based immunity. This effector, Avr1, is secreted by the xylem-invading fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) and triggers disease resistance when the host plant, tomato, carries a matching R gene (I or I-1). At the same time, Avr1 suppresses the protective effect of two other R genes, I-2 and I-3. Based on these observations, we tentatively reconstruct the evolutionary arms race that has taken place between tomato R genes and effectors of Fol. This molecular analysis has revealed a hitherto unpredicted strategy for durable disease control based on resistance gene combinations. PMID:18464895

Houterman, Petra M.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.; Rep, Martijn

2008-01-01

9

The Pseudomonas syringae effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis immunity by targeting BAK1.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas syringae delivers a plethora of effector proteins into host cells to sabotage immune responses and modulate physiology to favor infection. The P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity triggered by multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) at the plasma membrane. We show here that HopF2 possesses distinct mechanisms for suppression of two branches of MAMP-activated MAP kinase (MAPK) cascades. In addition to blocking MKK5 (MAPK kinase 5) activation in the MEKK1 (MAPK kinase kinase 1)/MEKKs-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascade, HopF2 targets additional component(s) upstream of MEKK1 in the MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 cascade and the plasma membrane-localized receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 and its homologs. We further show that HopF2 directly targets BAK1, a plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase that is involved in multiple MAMP signaling. The interaction between BAK1 and HopF2 and between two other P. syringae effectors, AvrPto and AvrPtoB, was confirmed in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with BAK1 as a physiological target of AvrPto, AvrPtoB and HopF2, the strong growth defects or lethality associated with ectopic expression of these effectors in wild-type Arabidopsis transgenic plants were largely alleviated in bak1 mutant plants. Thus, our results provide genetic evidence to show that BAK1 is a physiological target of AvrPto, AvrPtoB and HopF2. Identification of BAK1 as an additional target of HopF2 virulence not only explains HopF2 suppression of multiple MAMP signaling at the plasma membrane, but also supports the notion that pathogen virulence effectors act through multiple targets in host cells. PMID:24237140

Zhou, Jinggeng; Wu, Shujing; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chenglong; Sheen, Jen; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

2014-01-01

10

Bach2 maintains T cells in a naive state by suppressing effector memory-related genes  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional repressor BTB and CNC homology 2 (Bach2) is thought to be mainly expressed in B cells with specific functions such as class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, but its function in T cells is not known. We found equal Bach2 expression in T cells and analyzed its function using Bach2-deficient (?/?) mice. Although T-cell development was normal, numbers of peripheral naive T cells were decreased, which rapidly produced Th2 cytokines after TCR stimulation. Bach2?/? naive T cells highly expressed genes related to effector-memory T cells such as CCR4, ST-2 and Blimp-1. Enhanced expression of these genes induced Bach2?/? naive T cells to migrate toward CCR4-ligand and respond to IL33. Forced expression of Bach2 restored the expression of these genes. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq analysis, we identified S100 calcium binding protein a, Heme oxigenase 1, and prolyl hydroxylase 3 as Bach2 direct target genes, which are highly expressed in effector-memory T cells. These findings indicate that Bach2 suppresses effector memory-related genes to maintain the naive T-cell state and regulates generation of effector-memory T cells. PMID:23754397

Tsukumo, Shin-ichi; Unno, Midori; Muto, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Arata; Kometani, Kohei; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Saito, Takashi

2013-01-01

11

Phytophthora sojae Effector PsCRN70 Suppresses Plant Defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen, produces a large number of effector proteins that enter into host cells. The Crinklers (Crinkling and Necrosis, CRN) are cytoplasmic effectors that are conserved in oomycete pathogens and their encoding genes are highly expressed at the infective stages in P. sojae. However, their roles in pathogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterized an effector PsCRN70 by transiently and stably overexpressing it in Nicotiana benthamiana. We demonstrated that PsCRN70 was localized to the plant cell nucleus and suppressed cell death elicited by all the tested cell death-inducing proteins, including BAX, PsAvh241, PsCRN63, PsojNIP and R3a/Avr3a. Overexpression of the PsCRN70 gene in N. benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to P. parasitica. The H2O2 accumulation in the PsCRN70-transgenic plants was reduced compared to the GFP-lines. The transcriptional levels of the defense-associated genes, including PR1b, PR2b, ERF1 and LOX, were also down-regulated in the PsCRN70-transgenic lines. Our results suggest that PsCRN70 may function as a universal suppressor of the cell death induced by many elicitors, the host H2O2 accumulation and the expression of defense-associated genes, and therefore promotes pathogen infection. PMID:24858571

Ru, Yanyan; Liu, Tingli; Xu, Jing; Liu, Li; Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Dou, Daolong

2014-01-01

12

Molecular Determinants of Resistance Activation and Suppression by Phytophthora infestans Effector IPI-O  

PubMed Central

Despite intensive breeding efforts, potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, remains a threat to potato production worldwide because newly evolved pathogen strains have consistently overcome major resistance genes. The potato RB gene, derived from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers resistance to most P. infestans strains through recognition of members of the pathogen effector family IPI-O. While the majority of IPI-O proteins are recognized by RB to elicit resistance (e.g. IPI-O1, IPI-O2), some family members are able to elude detection (e.g. IPI-O4). In addition, IPI-O4 blocks recognition of IPI-O1, leading to inactivation of RB-mediated programmed cell death. Here, we report results that elucidate molecular mechanisms governing resistance elicitation or suppression of RB by IPI-O. Our data indicate self-association of the RB coiled coil (CC) domain as well as a physical interaction between this domain and the effectors IPI-O4 and IPI-O1. We identified four amino acids within IPI-O that are critical for interaction with the RB CC domain and one of these amino acids, at position 129, determines hypersensitive response (HR) elicitation in planta. IPI-O1 mutant L129P fails to induce HR in presence of RB while IPI-O4 P129L gains the ability to induce an HR. Like IPI-O4, IPI-O1 L129P is also able to suppress the HR mediated by RB, indicating a critical step in the evolution of this gene family. Our results point to a model in which IPI-O effectors can affect RB function through interaction with the RB CC domain. PMID:22438813

Chen, Yu; Liu, Zhenyu; Halterman, Dennis A.

2012-01-01

13

The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2-mediated cell death.  

PubMed

Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins). Most Six proteins are unique to F. oxysporum, but Six6 is an exception; a homolog is also present in two Colletotrichum spp. SIX6 expression was found to require living host cells and a knockout of SIX6 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici compromised virulence, classifying it as a genuine effector. Heterologous expression of SIX6 did not affect growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana toward Verticillium dahliae, Pseudomonas syringae, or F. oxysporum, suggesting a specific function for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Six6 in the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici- tomato pathosystem. Remarkably, Six6 was found to specifically suppress I-2-mediated cell death (I2CD) upon transient expression in N. benthamiana, whereas it did not compromise the activity of other cell-death-inducing genes. Still, this I2CD suppressing activity of Six6 does not allow the fungus to overcome I-2 resistance in tomato, suggesting that I-2-mediated resistance is independent from cell death. PMID:24313955

Gawehns, F; Houterman, P M; Ichou, F Ait; Michielse, C B; Hijdra, M; Cornelissen, B J C; Rep, M; Takken, F L W

2014-04-01

14

Ultraviolet B Suppresses Immunity by Inhibiting Effector and Memory T Cells  

PubMed Central

Contact hypersensitivity is a T-cell-mediated response to a hapten. Exposing C57BL/6 mice to UV B radiation systemically suppresses both primary and secondary contact hypersensitivity responses. The effects of UVB on in vivo T-cell responses during UVB-induced immunosuppression are unknown. We show here that UVB exposure, before contact sensitization, inhibits the expansion of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in skin-draining lymph nodes and reduces the number of CD4+ and IFN-?+ CD8+ T cells infiltrating challenged ear skin. In the absence of UVB, at 10 weeks after initial hapten exposure, the ear skin of sensitized mice was infiltrated by dermal effector memory CD8+ T cells at the site of challenge. However, if mice were previously exposed to UVB, this cell population was absent, suggesting an impaired development of peripheral memory T cells. This finding occurred in the absence of UVB-induced regulatory CD4+ T cells and did not involve prostaglandin E2, suggesting that the importance of these two factors in mediating or initiating UVB-induced immunosuppression is dependent on UVB dose. Together these data indicate that in vivo T-cell responses are prone to immunoregulation by UVB, including a novel effect on both the activated T-cell pool size and the development of memory T cells in peripheral compartments. PMID:18292235

Rana, Sabita; Byrne, Scott Napier; MacDonald, Linda Joanne; Chan, Carling Yan-Yan; Halliday, Gary Mark

2008-01-01

15

Functionally Redundant RXLR Effectors from Phytophthora infestans Act at Different Steps to Suppress Early flg22-Triggered Immunity  

PubMed Central

Genome sequences of several economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes have revealed the presence of large families of so-called RXLR effectors. Functional screens have identified RXLR effector repertoires that either compromise or induce plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying the modes of action of these effectors in planta. The perception of highly conserved pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs), such as flg22, triggers converging signaling pathways recruiting MAP kinase cascades and inducing transcriptional re-programming, yielding a generic anti-microbial response. We used a highly synchronizable, pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify a set of RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans (PiRXLRs), the causal agent of potato and tomato light blight that manipulate early stages of flg22-triggered signaling. Of thirty-three tested PiRXLR effector candidates, eight, called Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response (SFI), significantly suppressed flg22-dependent activation of a reporter gene under control of a typical MAMP-inducible promoter (pFRK1-Luc) in tomato protoplasts. We extended our analysis to Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-host plant species of P. infestans. From the aforementioned eight SFI effectors, three appeared to share similar functions in both Arabidopsis and tomato by suppressing transcriptional activation of flg22-induced marker genes downstream of post-translational MAP kinase activation. A further three effectors interfere with MAMP signaling at, or upstream of, the MAP kinase cascade in tomato, but not in Arabidopsis. Transient expression of the SFI effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans and, for the most potent effector, SFI1, nuclear localization is required for both suppression of MAMP signaling and virulence function. The present study provides a framework to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the manipulation of host MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI) by P. infestans and to understand the basis of host versus non-host resistance in plants towards P. infestans. PMID:24763622

Fraiture, Malou; Liu, Xiaoyu; Boevink, Petra C.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Chen, Ying; Kandel, Kabindra; Sessa, Guido; Birch, Paul R. J.; Brunner, Frédéric

2014-01-01

16

Piceatannol inhibits effector T cell functions by suppressing TcR signaling.  

PubMed

Piceatannol, a metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine and grapes, displays a wide spectrum of biological activity. Although the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumorigenesis activity of piceatannol has been extensively studied, its role in the adaptive immune response has received less attention. Here we investigated the role of piceatannol, a well-known Syk inhibitor, in T cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation using isolated murine splenic T cells from C57BL/6 mice. Piceatannol treatment inhibited surface expression of CD4 and CD8 T cell activation markers CD25 and CD69, reduced production of cytokines IFN?, IL-2, and IL-17, and suppressed proliferation of activated T cells. Moreover, piceatannol treatment significantly inhibited differentiation of CD4(+)CD25(-)CD62L(+) naïve CD4 T cells into Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, presumably due to inhibition of TcR signaling through p-Erk, p-Akt, and p-p38. Piceatannol appears to be a useful nutritional or pharmacological biomolecule that regulates effector T cell functions such as cytokine production, differentiation, and proliferation. PMID:25676533

Kim, Do-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Gab; Park, Hong-Jai; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Choi, Je-Min

2015-04-01

17

Identification of Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors that can suppress programmed cell death in plants and yeast.  

PubMed

The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion system (TTSS) is required for bacterial pathogenicity on plants and elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR), a programmed cell death (PCD) that occurs on resistant plants. Cosmid pHIR11 enables non-pathogens to elicit an HR dependent upon the TTSS and the effector HopPsyA. We used pHIR11 to determine that effectors HopPtoE, avirulence AvrPphEPto, AvrPpiB1Pto, AvrPtoB, and HopPtoF could suppress a HopPsyA-dependent HR on tobacco and Arabidopsis. Mixed inoculum and Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression experiments confirmed that suppressor action occurred within plant cells. These suppressors, with the exception of AvrPpiB1Pto, inhibited the expression of the tobacco pathogenesis-related (PR) gene PR1a. DC3000 suppressor mutants elicited an enhanced HR consistent with these mutants lacking an HR suppressor. Additionally, HopPtoG was identified as a suppressor on the basis of an enhanced HR produced by a hopPtoG mutant. Remarkably, these proteins functioned to inhibit the ability of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax to induce PCD in plants and yeast, indicating that these effectors function as anti-PCD proteins in a trans-kingdom manner. The high proportion of effectors that suppress PCD suggests that suppressing plant immunity is one of the primary roles for DC3000 effectors and a central requirement for P. syringae pathogenesis. PMID:14756767

Jamir, Yashitola; Guo, Ming; Oh, Hye-Sook; Petnicki-Ocwieja, Tanja; Chen, Shaorong; Tang, Xiaoyang; Dickman, Martin B; Collmer, Alan; Alfano, James R

2004-02-01

18

Homologous RXLR effectors from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Phytophthora sojae suppress immunity in distantly related plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diverse pathogens secrete effector proteins into plant cells to manipulate host cellular processes. Oomycete pathogens contain very large complements of predicted effector genes defined by an RXLR host cell entry motif. The genome of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa, downy mildew of Arabidopsis) ...

19

Functional analysis of plant defense suppression and activation by the Xanthomonas core type III effector XopX  

PubMed Central

Many phytopathogenic type III secretion effectors (T3Es) have been shown to target and suppress plant immune signaling, but perturbation of the plant immune system by T3Es can also elicit a plant response. XopX is a “core” Xanthomonas T3E that contributes to growth and symptom development during Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe) infection of tomato, but its functional role is undefined. We tested the effect of XopX on several aspects of plant immune signaling. XopX promoted ethylene production and plant cell death (PCD) during Xe infection of susceptible tomato and in transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, which is consistent with its requirement for the development of Xe-induced disease symptoms. Additionally, although XopX suppressed flagellin-induced reactive oxygen species, it promoted the accumulation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) gene transcripts. Surprisingly, XopX co-expression with other PCD elicitors resulted in delayed PCD, suggesting antagonism between XopX-dependent PCD and other PCD pathways. However, we found no evidence that XopX contributed to the suppression of effector-triggered immunity during Xe-tomato interactions, suggesting that XopX’s primary virulence role is to modulate PTI. These results highlight the dual role of a core Xanthomonas T3E in simultaneously suppressing and activating plant defense responses. PMID:25338145

Stork, William; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth

2014-01-01

20

Functional Analysis of Plant Defense Suppression and Activation by the Xanthomonas Core Type III Effector XopX.  

PubMed

Many phytopathogenic type III secretion effector proteins (T3Es) have been shown to target and suppress plant immune signaling but perturbation of the plant immune system by T3Es can also elicit a plant response. XopX is a "core" Xanthomonas T3E that contributes to growth and symptom development during Xanthomonas euvesicatoria infection of tomato but its functional role is undefined. We tested the effect of XopX on several aspects of plant immune signaling. XopX promoted ethylene production and plant cell death (PCD) during X. euvesicatoria infection of susceptible tomato and in transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, which is consistent with its requirement for the development of X. euvesicatoria-induced disease symptoms. Additionally, although XopX suppressed flagellin-induced reactive oxygen species, it promoted the accumulation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) gene transcripts. Surprisingly, XopX coexpression with other PCD elicitors resulted in delayed PCD, suggesting antagonism between XopX-dependent PCD and other PCD pathways. However, we found no evidence that XopX contributed to the suppression of effector-triggered immunity during X. euvesicatoria-tomato interactions, suggesting that XopX's primary virulence role is to modulate PTI. These results highlight the dual role of a core Xanthomonas T3E in simultaneously suppressing and activating plant defense responses. PMID:25338145

Stork, William; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth

2015-02-01

21

Repression of SATB1 in regulatory T cells is required for suppressive function and inhibition of effector differentiation  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Lack of effector T cell (Teff) function and gain of suppressive activity by Treg are dependent on the transcriptional program induced by Foxp3. Here we report repression of SATB1, a genome organizer regulating chromatin structure and gene expression, as crucial for Treg phenotype and function. Foxp3, acting as a transcriptional repressor, directly suppressed the SATB1 locus and indirectly through induction of microRNAs that bound the SATB1 3?UTR. Release of SATB1 from Foxp3 control in Treg caused loss of suppressive function, establishment of transcriptional Teff programs and induction of Teff cytokines. These data support that inhibition of SATB1-mediated modulation of global chromatin remodelling is pivotal for maintaining Treg functionality. PMID:21841785

Beyer, Marc; Thabet, Yasser; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Sadlon, Timothy; Classen, Sabine; Lahl, Katharina; Basu, Samik; Zhou, Xuyu; Bailey-Bucktrout, Samantha L.; Krebs, Wolfgang; Schönfeld, Eva A.; Böttcher, Jan; Golovina, Tatiana; Mayer, Christian T.; Hofmann, Andrea; Sommer, Daniel; Debey-Pascher, Svenja; Endl, Elmar; Limmer, Andreas; Hippen, Keli L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Balderas, Robert; Quast, Thomas; Waha, Andreas; Mayer, Günter; Famulok, Michael; Knolle, Percy A.; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Kolanus, Waldemar; Schermer, Bernhard; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Barry, Simon C.; Sparwasser, Tim; Riley, James L.; Schultze, Joachim L.

2013-01-01

22

Th1, Th2 and Th17 Effector T Cell-Induced Autoimmune Gastritis Differs in Pathological Pattern and in Susceptibility to Suppression by Regulatory T Cells  

PubMed Central

Th cells can be subdivided into IFN?-secreting Th1, IL-4/IL-5 secreting Th2, and IL-17 secreting Th17 cells. We have evaluated the capacity of fully differentiated Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells derived from a mouse bearing a transgenic TCR specific for the gastric parietal cell antigen, H/K ATPase, to induce autoimmune gastritis after transfer to immunodeficient recipients. We have also determined the susceptibility of the disease induced by each of the effector T cell types to suppression by polyclonal regulatory T cells (Treg) in vivo. Each type of effector cell induced autoimmune gastritis with distinct histological patterns. Th17 cells induced the most destructive disease with cellular infiltrates composed primarily of eosinophils accompanied by high levels of serum IgE. Polyclonal Treg could suppress the capacity of Th1 cells, moderately suppress Th2 cells, but could only suppress Th17 induced disease at early time points. The major effect of the Treg was to inhibit the expansion of the effector T cells. However, effector cells isolated from protected animals were not anergic and were fully competent to proliferate and produce effector cytokines ex vivo. The strong inhibitory effect of polyclonal Treg on the capacity of some types of differentiated effector cells to induce disease provides an experimental basis for the clinical use of polyclonal Treg in the treatment of autoimmune disease in man. PMID:18641328

Stummvoll, Georg H.; DiPaolo, Richard J.; Huter, Eva N.; Davidson, Todd S.; Glass, Deborah; Ward, Jerrold M.; Shevach, Ethan M.

2008-01-01

23

The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Type III Effector HopM1 Suppresses Arabidopsis Defenses Independent of Suppressing Salicylic Acid Signaling and of Targeting AtMIN7  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 (Pto) delivers several effector proteins promoting virulence, including HopM1, into plant cells via type III secretion. HopM1 contributes to full virulence of Pto by inducing degradation of Arabidopsis proteins, including AtMIN7, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola strain NPS3121 (Pph) lacks a functional HopM1 and elicits robust defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana, including accumulation of pathogenesis related 1 (PR-1) protein and deposition of callose-containing cell wall fortifications. We have examined the effects of heterologously expressed HopM1Pto on Pph-induced defenses. HopM1 suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression, a widely used marker for salicylic acid (SA) signaling and systemic acquired resistance. Surprisingly, HopM1 reduces PR-1 expression without affecting SA accumulation and also suppresses the low levels of PR-1 expression apparent in SA-signaling deficient plants. Further, HopM1 enhances the growth of Pto in SA-signaling deficient plants. AtMIN7 contributes to Pph-induced PR-1 expression. However, HopM1 fails to degrade AtMIN7 during Pph infection and suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression and callose deposition in wild-type and atmin7 plants. We also show that the HopM1-mediated suppression of PR-1 expression is not observed in plants lacking the TGA transcription factor, TGA3. Our data indicate that HopM1 promotes bacterial virulence independent of suppressing SA-signaling and links TGA3, AtMIN7, and other HopM1 targets to pathways distinct from the canonical SA-signaling pathway contributing to PR-1 expression and callose deposition. Thus, efforts to understand this key effector must consider multiple targets and unexpected outputs of its action. PMID:24324742

Gangadharan, Anju; Sreerekha, Mysore-Venkatarau; Whitehill, Justin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Mackey, David

2013-01-01

24

p57Kip2 is an unrecognized DNA damage response effector molecule that functions in tumor suppression and chemoresistance.  

PubMed

The DNA damage response (DDR) helps to maintain genome integrity, suppress tumorigenesis and mediate the radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic effects on cancer. Here we report that p57Kip2, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor implicated in the development of tumor-prone Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, is an effector molecule of the DNA-damage response. Genotoxic stress induces p57Kip2 expression via the bone morphogenetic protein-Smad1 and Atm-p38MAPK-Atf2 pathways in p53-proficient or -deficient cells and requires the Smad1-Atf2 complex that facilitates their recruitment to the p57Kip2 promoter. Elevated p57Kip2 induces G1/S phase cell cycle arrest but inhibits cell death in response to DNA damage and acts in parallel with p53 to suppress cell transformation and tumor formation. p57Kip2 is also upregulated in stage I and II clinical rectal tumor samples, likely due to genome instability of precancerous and/or early cancer cells. Targeting p57Kip2 in primary rectal cancer cells and tumor models resulted in increased sensitivity to doxorubicin, suggesting that p57Kip2 has a role in chemoresistance, which is consistent with its pro-survival function. These findings place p57Kip2 in DDR and uncover molecular mechanisms by which p57Kip2 suppresses tumorigenesis and causes chemoresistance.Oncogene advance online publication, 8 September 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.287. PMID:25195859

Jia, H; Cong, Q; Chua, J F L; Liu, H; Xia, X; Zhang, X; Lin, J; Habib, S L; Ao, J; Zuo, Q; Fu, C; Li, B

2014-09-01

25

Repression of the genome organizer SATB1 in regulatory T cells is required for suppressive function and inhibition of effector differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are essential for self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Lack of effector T cell (Teff cell) function and gain of suppressive activity by Treg cells are dependent on the transcriptional program induced by Foxp3. Here we report that repression of SATB1, a genome organizer that regulates chromatin structure and gene expression, was crucial for the phenotype and

Marc Beyer; Yasser Thabet; Roman-Ulrich Müller; Timothy Sadlon; Sabine Classen; Katharina Lahl; Samik Basu; Xuyu Zhou; Samantha L Bailey-Bucktrout; Wolfgang Krebs; Eva A Schönfeld; Jan Böttcher; Tatiana Golovina; Christian T Mayer; Andrea Hofmann; Daniel Sommer; Svenja Debey-Pascher; Elmar Endl; Andreas Limmer; Keli L Hippen; Bruce R Blazar; Robert Balderas; Thomas Quast; Andreas Waha; Günter Mayer; Michael Famulok; Percy A Knolle; Claudia Wickenhauser; Waldemar Kolanus; Bernhard Schermer; Jeffrey A Bluestone; Simon C Barry; Tim Sparwasser; James L Riley; Joachim L Schultze

2011-01-01

26

PPAR? suppressed Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway and its downstream effector SOX9 expression in gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

Wnt signaling pathway activation plays a critical role in biological processes of tumor progression. SOX9 belongs to the sry-related high-mobility group box (SOX) family and is a key transcription factor in the development and differentiation of multiple cell lineages. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether suppression of Wnt signaling pathway by PPAR? gene affects target SOX9 gene expression. The pEGFP-N1-PPAR? overexpression recombinant plasmid was structured by molecular biology technology. The overexpression plasmid and empty vector pEGFP-N1 were transfected into three types of human gastric cancer cell lines, with different levels of differentiation, MKN-28, SGC-7901 and BGC-823. The PPAR?, ?-catenin and SOX9 mRNA levels and proteins were examined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. The pEGFP-N1-PPAR? recombinant plasmid was constructed and transfected into MKN-28, SGC-7901 and BGC-823 successfully. High expression of PPAR? (p < 0.05) for transfection recombinant plasmid group induced obviously decreased expression of ?-catenin (p < 0.05), whereas SOX9 expression decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the transfection empty vector group and normal comparison group. PPAR? can suppress ?-catenin expression in Wnt signaling pathway and its downstream effector SOX9 expression in gastric cancer cells. PMID:25720524

Ren, Xiyun; Zheng, Dongyou; Guo, Fang; Liu, JingJing; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hailin; Tian, Wenjing

2015-04-01

27

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells accumulate in kidney allograft tolerance and specifically suppress effector T cell expansion.  

PubMed

The immune tolerance to rat kidney allografts induced by a perioperative treatment with anti-CD28 Abs is associated with a severe unresponsiveness of peripheral blood cells to donor Ags. In this model, we identified an accumulation in the blood of CD3(-)class II(-)CD11b(+)CD80/86(+) plastic-adherent cells that additionally expressed CD172a as well as other myeloid markers. These cells were able to inhibit proliferation, but not activation, of effector T cells and to induce apoptosis in a contact-dependent manner. Their suppressive action was found to be under the control of inducible NO synthase, an enzyme also up-regulated in tolerated allografts. Based on these features, these cells can be defined as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Interestingly, CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells were insensitive in vitro to MDSC-mediated suppression. Although the adoptive transfer of MDSC failed to induce kidney allograft tolerance in recently transplanted recipients, the maintenance of tolerance after administration of anti-CD28 Abs was found to be dependent on the action of inducible NO synthase. These results suggest that increased numbers of MDSC can inhibit alloreactive T cell proliferation in vivo and that these cells may participate in the NO-dependent maintenance phase of tolerance. PMID:18523253

Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Haudebourg, Thomas; Coulon, Flora; Heslan, Michèle; Haspot, Fabienne; Poirier, Nicolas; Vuillefroy de Silly, Romain; Usal, Claire; Smit, Helga; Martinet, Bernard; Thebault, Pamela; Renaudin, Karine; Vanhove, Bernard

2008-06-15

28

Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein.  

PubMed

The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants. PMID:24654979

Elzinga, Dezi A; De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

2014-07-01

29

The Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Stomatal Immunity  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas syringae subverts plant immune signalling through injection of type III secreted effectors (T3SE) into host cells. The T3SE HopF2 can disable Arabidopsis immunity through Its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Proteomic analysis of HopF2 interacting proteins identified a protein complex containing ATPases required for regulating stomatal aperture, suggesting HopF2 may manipulate stomatal immunity. Here we report HopF2 can inhibit stomatal immunity independent of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Transgenic expression of HopF2 in Arabidopsis inhibits stomatal closing in response to P. syringae and increases the virulence of surface inoculated P. syringae. Further, transgenic expression of HopF2 inhibits flg22 induced reactive oxygen species production. Intriguingly, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity is dispensable for inhibiting stomatal immunity and flg22 induced reactive oxygen species. Together, this implies HopF2 may be a bifunctional T3SE with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity required for inhibiting apoplastic immunity and an independent function required to inhibit stomatal immunity. PMID:25503437

Hurley, Brenden; Lee, Donghyuk; Mott, Adam; Wilton, Michael; Liu, Jun; Liu, Yulu C.; Angers, Stephane; Coaker, Gitta

2014-01-01

30

Analysis of Putative Apoplastic Effectors from the Nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and Identification of an Expansin-Like Protein That Can Induce and Suppress Host Defenses  

PubMed Central

The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses. PMID:25606855

Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Geri?; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

2015-01-01

31

Analysis of putative apoplastic effectors from the nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and identification of an expansin-like protein that can induce and suppress host defenses.  

PubMed

The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses. PMID:25606855

Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Geri?; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

2015-01-01

32

Bacterial Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Immunity by Targeting BAK1  

E-print Network

; Wu et al., 2011). HopF2 could suppress immune responses triggered by multiple PAMPs, including flg22, elf18, LPS, PGN, HrpZ and chitin (Guo et al., 2009). Structural analysis of HopF2 homolog AvrPphF from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola has identified...RLCK185 acts upstream of MAPK cascade in chitin- and peptidoglycan-induced plant immunity (Yamaguchi et al., 2013). Genetic analyses also indicate that RLCK SSP (Short suspensor) acts upstream of YDA (a MAPK kinase kinase)-MPK3/6 cascade...

Zhou, Jinggeng

2013-07-19

33

The Effector SPRYSEC-19 of Globodera rostochiensis Suppresses CC-NB-LRR-Mediated Disease Resistance in Plants1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis invades roots of host plants where it transforms cells near the vascular cylinder into a permanent feeding site. The host cell modifications are most likely induced by a complex mixture of proteins in the stylet secretions of the nematodes. Resistance to nematodes conferred by nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins usually results in a programmed cell death in and around the feeding site, and is most likely triggered by the recognition of effectors in stylet secretions. However, the actual role of these secretions in the activation and suppression of effector-triggered immunity is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effector SPRYSEC-19 of G. rostochiensis physically associates in planta with the LRR domain of a member of the SW5 resistance gene cluster in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Unexpectedly, this interaction did not trigger defense-related programmed cell death and resistance to G. rostochiensis. By contrast, agroinfiltration assays showed that the coexpression of SPRYSEC-19 in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana suppresses programmed cell death mediated by several coiled-coil (CC)-NB-LRR immune receptors. Furthermore, SPRYSEC-19 abrogated resistance to Potato virus X mediated by the CC-NB-LRR resistance protein Rx1, and resistance to Verticillium dahliae mediated by an unidentified resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum). The suppression of cell death and disease resistance did not require a physical association of SPRYSEC-19 and the LRR domains of the CC-NB-LRR resistance proteins. Altogether, our data demonstrated that potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that enable the suppression of programmed cell death and disease resistance mediated by several CC-NB-LRR proteins in plants. PMID:22904163

Postma, Wiebe J.; Slootweg, Erik J.; Rehman, Sajid; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Tytgat, Tom O.G.; van Gelderen, Kasper; Lozano-Torres, Jose L.; Roosien, Jan; Pomp, Rikus; van Schaik, Casper; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

2012-01-01

34

Lactose inhibits regulatory T-cell-mediated suppression of effector T-cell interferon-? and IL-17 production.  

PubMed

Our interest in lactose as an immunomodulatory molecule results from studies showing that lactose binds to galectin-9, which has been shown to have various regulatory functions in the immune system including regulation of T-cell responses. Impaired regulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 type immune responses and dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg) have been implicated in many human immune-mediated diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lactose on immune regulation using co-cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived Treg and effector T cells (Teff) obtained from twenty healthy adults. Treg, i.e. CD4+CD25+CD127-, were isolated from PBMC by immunomagnetic separation. The fraction of CD4+CD127- cells that was depleted of CD25+ cells was used as Teff. Treg and Teff at a ratio 1:5 were activated and the effects of lactose on the secretion of interferon-? (IFN-?) and IL-17 were analysed using ELISA for protein and quantitative RT-PCR for mRNA. Treg down-regulated the secretion of both IFN-? (8.8-3.9 ng/ml, n 20, P= 0.003) and IL-17 (0.83-0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.04) in co-cultures, while in the presence of lactose the levels of secreted IFN-? and IL-17 remained high and no down-regulation was observed (16.4 v. 3.99 ng/ml, n 20, P< 0.0001, and 0.74 v. 0.64 ng/ml, n 15, P= 0.005, respectively). We showed that lactose inhibits human Treg-mediated suppression of Th1 and Th17 immune responses in vitro. PMID:25331548

Paasela, Monika; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno

2014-12-14

35

Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector PexRD2 Interacts with Host MAPKKK? to Suppress Plant Immune Signaling[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are key players in plant immune signaling pathways, transducing the perception of invading pathogens into effective defense responses. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, deliver RXLR effector proteins to plant cells to modulate host immune signaling and promote colonization. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these effectors act in plant cells is limited. Here, we report that the P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 interacts with the kinase domain of MAPKKK?, a positive regulator of cell death associated with plant immunity. Expression of PexRD2 or silencing MAPKKK? in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans. We show that PexRD2 perturbs signaling pathways triggered by or dependent on MAPKKK?. By contrast, homologs of PexRD2 from P. infestans had reduced or no interaction with MAPKKK? and did not promote disease susceptibility. Structure-led mutagenesis identified PexRD2 variants that do not interact with MAPKKK? and fail to support enhanced pathogen growth or perturb MAPKKK? signaling pathways. Our findings provide evidence that P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 has evolved to interact with a specific host MAPKKK to perturb plant immunity–related signaling. PMID:24632534

King, Stuart R.F.; McLellan, Hazel; Boevink, Petra C.; Armstrong, Miles R.; Bukharova, Tatyana; Sukarta, Octavina; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Birch, Paul R.J.; Banfield, Mark J.

2014-01-01

36

Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 interacts with host MAPKKK ? to suppress plant immune signaling.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are key players in plant immune signaling pathways, transducing the perception of invading pathogens into effective defense responses. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, deliver RXLR effector proteins to plant cells to modulate host immune signaling and promote colonization. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these effectors act in plant cells is limited. Here, we report that the P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 interacts with the kinase domain of MAPKKK?, a positive regulator of cell death associated with plant immunity. Expression of PexRD2 or silencing MAPKKK? in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans. We show that PexRD2 perturbs signaling pathways triggered by or dependent on MAPKKK?. By contrast, homologs of PexRD2 from P. infestans had reduced or no interaction with MAPKKK? and did not promote disease susceptibility. Structure-led mutagenesis identified PexRD2 variants that do not interact with MAPKKK? and fail to support enhanced pathogen growth or perturb MAPKKK? signaling pathways. Our findings provide evidence that P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 has evolved to interact with a specific host MAPKKK to perturb plant immunity-related signaling. PMID:24632534

King, Stuart R F; McLellan, Hazel; Boevink, Petra C; Armstrong, Miles R; Bukharova, Tatyana; Sukarta, Octavina; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Birch, Paul R J; Banfield, Mark J

2014-03-01

37

CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress contact hypersensitivity reactions by blocking influx of effector T cells into inflamed tissue.  

PubMed

CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) exert suppressive functions on effector T cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the exact cellular events that mediate this inhibitory action remain largely unclear. To elucidate these events, we used intravital microscopy in a model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and visualized the leukocyte-endothelium interaction at the site of antigen challenge in awake C57BL/6 mice. Injection of Treg i.v. into sensitized mice at the time of local hapten challenge significantly inhibited rolling and adhesion of endogenous leukocytes to the endothelium. A similar inhibition of leukocyte recruitment could be recorded after injection of Treg-derived tissue culture supernatant. Thus, these data indicate that soluble factors may account for the suppressive effects. Accordingly we found that IL-10, but not TGF-beta, was produced by Treg upon stimulation and that addition of anti-IL-10 antibodies abrogated the suppressive effects of Treg and tissue culture supernatant in CHS reactions. Moreover, CD4+ CD25+ T cells isolated from IL-10-/- mice were not able to suppress the immune response induced by hapten treatment in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that cytokine-dependent rather than cell-cell contact-dependent mechanisms play a pivotal role in the suppression of CHS reactions by Treg in vivo. PMID:17048272

Ring, Sabine; Schäfer, Stephan C; Mahnke, Karsten; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Enk, Alexander H

2006-11-01

38

Activation-induced FOXP3 in human T effector cells does not suppress proliferation or cytokine production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is currently thought to be the most specific marker for naturally occurring CD41CD251 T regulatory cells (nTregs). In mice, expression of FoxP3 is strictly correlated with regulatory activity, whereas increasing evidence suggests that in humans, activated T effector cells (Teffs) may also express FOXP3. In order to better define the role of FOXP3 in human Teff

Sarah E. Allan; Sarah Q. Crome; Natasha K. Crellin; Laura Passerini; Theodore S. Steiner; Rosa Bacchetta; Maria G. Roncarolo; Megan K. Levings

2007-01-01

39

Repression of the genome organizer SATB1 in regulatory T cells is required for suppressive function and inhibition of effector differentiation.  

PubMed

Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) are essential for self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Lack of effector T cell (T(eff) cell) function and gain of suppressive activity by T(reg) cells are dependent on the transcriptional program induced by Foxp3. Here we report that repression of SATB1, a genome organizer that regulates chromatin structure and gene expression, was crucial for the phenotype and function of T(reg) cells. Foxp3, acting as a transcriptional repressor, directly suppressed the SATB1 locus and indirectly suppressed it through the induction of microRNAs that bound the SATB1 3' untranslated region. Release of SATB1 from the control of Foxp3 in T(reg) cells caused loss of suppressive function, establishment of transcriptional T(eff) cell programs and induction of T(eff) cell cytokines. Our data support the proposal that inhibition of SATB1-mediated modulation of global chromatin remodeling is pivotal for maintaining T(reg) cell functionality. PMID:21841785

Beyer, Marc; Thabet, Yasser; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Sadlon, Timothy; Classen, Sabine; Lahl, Katharina; Basu, Samik; Zhou, Xuyu; Bailey-Bucktrout, Samantha L; Krebs, Wolfgang; Schönfeld, Eva A; Böttcher, Jan; Golovina, Tatiana; Mayer, Christian T; Hofmann, Andrea; Sommer, Daniel; Debey-Pascher, Svenja; Endl, Elmar; Limmer, Andreas; Hippen, Keli L; Blazar, Bruce R; Balderas, Robert; Quast, Thomas; Waha, Andreas; Mayer, Günter; Famulok, Michael; Knolle, Percy A; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Kolanus, Waldemar; Schermer, Bernhard; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Barry, Simon C; Sparwasser, Tim; Riley, James L; Schultze, Joachim L

2011-09-01

40

Cutting edge: Genetic variation in TLR1 is associated with Pam3CSK4-induced effector T cell resistance to regulatory T cell suppression.  

PubMed

TLR play essential roles in the initiation and modulation of immune responses. TLR1/TLR2 heterodimers recognize triacylated bacterial lipopeptides, including the synthetic TLR1/2 lipopeptide Pam3CSK4. Genetic variation in TLR1 is associated with outcomes in diseases in which regulatory T cells (Treg) play a role, including asthma and allergy. To determine whether genetic polymorphisms in TLR1 are associated with alterations in Treg suppression of effector T cells (Teff), we performed in vitro suppression assays in healthy individuals with various haplotypes in TLR1. We show that functional genetic polymorphisms in TLR1 modify surface expression of TLR1 on T lymphocytes and confer enhanced Teff resistance to Treg suppression in the presence of Pam3CSK4. These effects are mediated, in part, by IL-6 and inhibited by blocking IL-6 signaling through STAT3. These findings suggest that TLR1 polymorphisms could influence immune-related disease through Teff resistance to Treg suppression. PMID:25378593

Mikacenic, Carmen; Schneider, Anya; Radella, Frank; Buckner, Jane H; Wurfel, Mark M

2014-12-15

41

The Magnaporthe oryzae Effector AvrPiz-t Targets the RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligase APIP6 to Suppress Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern–Triggered Immunity in Rice[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Although the functions of a few effector proteins produced by bacterial and oomycete plant pathogens have been elucidated in recent years, information for the vast majority of pathogen effectors is still lacking, particularly for those of plant-pathogenic fungi. Here, we show that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae preferentially accumulates in the specialized structure called the biotrophic interfacial complex and is then translocated into rice (Oryza sativa) cells. Ectopic expression of AvrPiz-t in transgenic rice suppresses the flg22- and chitin-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhances susceptibility to M. oryzae, indicating that AvrPiz-t functions to suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity in rice. Interaction assays show that AvrPiz-t suppresses the ubiquitin ligase activity of the rice RING E3 ubiquitin ligase APIP6 and that, in return, APIP6 ubiquitinates AvrPiz-t in vitro. Interestingly, agroinfection assays reveal that AvrPiz-t and AvrPiz-t Interacting Protein 6 (APIP6) are both degraded when coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of APIP6 in transgenic rice leads to a significant reduction of flg22-induced ROS generation, suppression of defense-related gene expression, and enhanced susceptibility of rice plants to M. oryzae. Taken together, our results reveal a mechanism in which a fungal effector targets the host ubiquitin proteasome system for the suppression of PAMP-triggered immunity in plants. PMID:23204406

Park, Chan-Ho; Chen, Songbiao; Shirsekar, Gautam; Zhou, Bo; Khang, Chang Hyun; Songkumarn, Pattavipha; Afzal, Ahmed J.; Ning, Yuese; Wang, Ruyi; Bellizzi, Maria; Valent, Barbara; Wang, Guo-Liang

2012-01-01

42

Serine 518 phosphorylation modulates merlin intramolecular association and binding to critical effectors important for NF2 growth suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor protein, merlin, functions as a negative growth regulator; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie merlin regulation remain elusive. Recent studies have implicated merlin phosphorylation in regulating merlin subcellular localization and growth suppression. P21-activated kinase (PAK), a downstream target of Rac1\\/Cdc42, directly phosphorylates merlin at Serine 518. In this report, we show that PAK2 directly

Rong Rong; Ezequiel I Surace; Carrie A Haipek; David H Gutmann; Keqiang Ye; K Ye

2004-01-01

43

Effector-Mediated Suppression of Chitin-Triggered Immunity by Magnaporthe oryzae Is Necessary for Rice Blast Disease[C][W  

PubMed Central

Plants use pattern recognition receptors to defend themselves from microbial pathogens. These receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate signaling pathways that lead to immunity. In rice (Oryza sativa), the chitin elicitor binding protein (CEBiP) recognizes chitin oligosaccharides released from the cell walls of fungal pathogens. Here, we show that the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae overcomes this first line of plant defense by secreting an effector protein, Secreted LysM Protein1 (Slp1), during invasion of new rice cells. We demonstrate that Slp1 accumulates at the interface between the fungal cell wall and the rice plasma membrane, can bind to chitin, and is able to suppress chitin-induced plant immune responses, including generation of reactive oxygen species and plant defense gene expression. Furthermore, we show that Slp1 competes with CEBiP for binding of chitin oligosaccharides. Slp1 is required by M. oryzae for full virulence and exerts a significant effect on tissue invasion and disease lesion expansion. By contrast, gene silencing of CEBiP in rice allows M. oryzae to cause rice blast disease in the absence of Slp1. We propose that Slp1 sequesters chitin oligosaccharides to prevent PAMP-triggered immunity in rice, thereby facilitating rapid spread of the fungus within host tissue. PMID:22267486

Mentlak, Thomas A.; Kombrink, Anja; Shinya, Tomonori; Ryder, Lauren S.; Otomo, Ippei; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Terauchi, Ryohei; Nishizawa, Yoko; Shibuya, Naoto; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

44

Suppression of the SOX2 Neural Effector Gene by PRDM1 Promotes Human Germ Cell Fate in Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation underlying human primordial germ cell (PGC) differentiation are largely unknown. The transcriptional repressor Prdm1/Blimp-1 is known to play a critical role in controlling germ cell specification in mice. Here, we show that PRDM1 is expressed in developing human gonads and contributes to the determination of germline versus neural fate in early development. We show that knockdown of PRDM1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) impairs germline potential and upregulates neural genes. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRDM1 in hESCs promotes the generation of cells that exhibit phenotypic and transcriptomic features of early PGCs. Furthermore, PRDM1 suppresses transcription of SOX2. Overexpression of SOX2 in hESCs under conditions favoring germline differentiation skews cell fate from the germline to the neural lineage. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PRDM1 serves as a molecular switch to modulate the divergence of neural or germline fates through repression of SOX2 during human development. PMID:24527393

Lin, I-Ying; Chiu, Feng-Lan; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Hsin-Fu; Chuang, Ching-Yu; Yang, Shii-Yi; Hou, Pei-Shan; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Lin, Kuo-I

2014-01-01

45

Celastrus-derived Celastrol Suppresses Autoimmune Arthritis by Modulating Antigen-induced Cellular and Humoral Effector Responses*  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial inflammation and articular damage. Proinflammatory cytokines, antibodies, and matrix-degrading enzymes orchestrate the pathogenic events in autoimmune arthritis. Accordingly, these mediators of inflammation are the targets of several anti-arthritic drugs. However, the prolonged use of such drugs is associated with severe adverse reactions. This limitation has necessitated the search for less toxic natural plant products that possess anti-arthritic activity. Furthermore, it is imperative that the mechanism of action of such products be explored before they can be recommended for further preclinical testing. Using the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model of human RA, we demonstrate that celastrol derived from Celastrus has potent anti-arthritic activity. This suppression of arthritis is mediated via modulation of the key proinflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-?) in response to the disease-related antigens, of the IL-6/IL-17-related transcription factor STAT3, of antibodies directed against cyclic citrullinated peptides and Bhsp65, and of the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and phospho-ERK. Most of the clinical and mechanistic attributes of celastrol are similar to those of Celastrus extract. Several studies have addressed the antitumor activity of celastrol. Our study highlights the anti-arthritic activity of Celastrus-derived celastrol and the underlying mechanisms. These results provide a strong rationale for further testing and validation of the use of celastrol and the natural plant extract from Celastrus as an adjunct (with conventional drugs) or alternative modality for the treatment of RA. PMID:21402700

Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Yu, Hua; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Tong, Li; Moudgil, Kamal D.

2011-01-01

46

TGF-?-induced CD4+Foxp3+ T cells attenuate acute graft-versus-host disease via suppressing expansion and killing of effector CD8+ cells  

PubMed Central

TGF-?-induced CD4+Foxp3+ T cells (iTregs) have been identified as important prevention and treatment strategies for cell therapy in autoimmune diseases and other disorders. However, the potential use of iTregs as a treatment modality for acute graft-verse-host disease (GVHD) has not been realized because iTregs may be unstable and less suppressive in this disease. Here we restudied the ability of iTregs to prevent and treat acute GVHD in two different mouse models. Our results showed that so long as an appropriate iTreg-generation protocol is used, these iTregs consistently displayed a potent ability to control acute GVHD development and reduce mortality in the acute GVHD animal models. iTreg infusion markedly suppressed the engraftment of donor CD8+ cells and CD4+ cells, the expression of Granzyme A and B, the cytotoxic effect of donor CD8+ cells and the production of T cell cytokines in acute GVHD. We therefore conclude that so long as the right methods for generating iTreg cells have been employed, iTregs can indeed prevent and even treat acute GVHD. PMID:25156367

Gu, Jian; Lu, Ling; Chen, Maogen; Xu, Lili; Lan, Qin; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhongmin; Chen, Guihua; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xuehao; Brand, David; Olsen, Nancy; Zheng, Song Guo

2014-01-01

47

Functional Foxp3+ CD4+ CD25(Bright+) “Natural” Regulatory T Cells Are Abundant in Rabbit Conjunctiva and Suppress Virus-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ Effector T Cells during Ocular Herpes Infection?  

PubMed Central

We studied the phenotype and distribution of “naturally” occurring CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (CD4+ CD25+ nTreg cells) resident in rabbit conjunctiva, the main T-cell inductive site of the ocular mucosal immune system, and we investigated their suppressive capacities using herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-specific effector T (Teff) cells induced during ocular infection. The expression of CD4, CD25, CTLA4, GITR, and Foxp3 was examined by reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis in CD45+ pan-leukocytes isolated from conjunctiva, spleen, and peripheral blood monocyte cells (PBMC) of HSV-1-infected and uninfected rabbits. Normal conjunctiva showed a higher frequency of CD4+ CD25(Bright+) T cells than did spleen and PBMC. These cells expressed high levels of Foxp3, GITR, and CTLA4 molecules. CD4+ CD25(Bright+) T cells were localized continuously along the upper and lower palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, throughout the epithelium and substantia propria. Conjunctiva-derived CD4+ CD25(Bright+) T cells, but not CD4+ CD25(low) T cells, efficiently suppressed HSV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ Teff cells. The CD4+ CD25(Bright+) T-cell-mediated suppression was effective on both peripheral blood and conjunctiva infiltrating Teff cells and was cell-cell contact dependent but independent of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor ?. Interestingly, during an ocular herpes infection, there was a selective increase in the frequency and suppressive capacity of Foxp3+ CD4+ CD25(Bright+) T cells in conjunctiva but not in the spleen or in peripheral blood. Altogether, these results provide the first evidence that functional Foxp3+ CD4+ CD25(Bright+) Treg cells accumulate in the conjunctiva. It remains to be determined whether conjunctiva CD4+ CD25+ nTreg cells affect the topical/mucosal delivery of subunit vaccines that stimulate the ocular mucosal immune system. PMID:17475646

Nesburn, Anthony B.; Bettahi, Ilham; Dasgupta, Gargi; Chentoufi, Alami Aziz; Zhang, Xiuli; You, Sylvaine; Morishige, Naoyuki; Wahlert, Andrew J.; Brown, Donald J.; Jester, James V.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2007-01-01

48

XopR, a type III effector secreted by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, suppresses microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice. The XopR protein, secreted into plant cells through the type III secretion apparatus, is widely conserved in xanthomonads and is predicted to play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the function of XopR by constructing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing it under control of the dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible promoter. In the transgenic plants treated with DEX, slightly delayed growth and variegation on leaves were observed. Induction of four microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-specific early-defense genes by a nonpathogenic X. campestris pv. campestris hrcC deletion mutant were strongly suppressed in the XopR-expressing plants. XopR expression also reduced the deposition of callose, an immune response induced by flg22. When transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, a XopR::Citrine fusion gene product localized to the plasma membrane. The deletion of XopR in X. oryzae pv. oryzae resulted in reduced pathogenicity on host rice plants. Collectively, these results suggest that XopR inhibits basal defense responses in plants rapidly after MAMP recognition. PMID:22204644

Akimoto-Tomiyama, Chiharu; Furutani, Ayako; Tsuge, Seiji; Washington, Erica J; Nishizawa, Yoko; Minami, Eiichi; Ochiai, Hirokazu

2012-04-01

49

Functional Analysis of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis RXLR Effectors  

PubMed Central

The biotrophic plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis produces a set of putative effector proteins that contain the conserved RXLR motif. For most of these RXLR proteins the role during infection is unknown. Thirteen RXLR proteins from H. arabidopsidis strain Waco9 were analyzed for sequence similarities and tested for a role in virulence. The thirteen RXLR proteins displayed conserved N-termini and this N-terminal conservation was also found in the 134 predicted RXLR genes from the genome of H. arabidopsidis strain Emoy2. To investigate the effects of single RXLR effector proteins on plant defense responses, thirteen H. arabidopsidis Waco9 RXLR genes were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequently, these plants were screened for altered susceptibility to the oomycetes H. arabidopsidis and Phytophthora capsici, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Additionally, the effect of the RXLR proteins on flg22-triggered basal immune responses was assessed. Multifactorial analysis of results collated from all experiments revealed that, except for RXLR20, all RXLR effector proteins tested affected plant immunity. For RXLR9 this was confirmed using a P. syringae ?CEL-mediated effector delivery system. Together, the results show that many H. arabidopsidis RXLR effectors have small effects on the plant immune response, suggesting that suppression of host immunity by this biotrophic pathogen is likely to be caused by the combined actions of effectors. PMID:25375163

Pel, Michiel J. C.; Wintermans, Paul C. A.; Cabral, Adriana; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Seidl, Michael F.; Bautor, Jaqueline; Parker, Jane E.; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Pieterse, Corné M. J.

2014-01-01

50

End-effector microprocessor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: automated structures assembly facility current control hierarchy; automated structures assembly facility purposed control hierarchy; end-effector software state transition diagram; block diagram for ideal install composite; and conclusions.

Doggett, William R.

1992-01-01

51

Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

1999-01-01

52

Plenary paper Granzyme B is not required for regulatory T cellmediated suppression of  

E-print Network

, wild-type and granzyme B­deficient Treg cells were equally able to suppress effector T (Teff) cell/granzyme pathway to suppress effector T (Teff)­cell proliferation and kill autologous immune cells.23

53

IL13 EFFECTOR FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract IL-13 was first recognized for its effects on B cells and monocytes, where it upregulated class II expression, promoted IgE class switching and inhibited inflammatory cytokine production. It was also thought to be functionally redundant with IL-4. However, studies conducted with knockout mice, neutralizing antibodies, and novel antagonists demonstrate that IL-13 possesses several unique effector func- tions that

Thomas A. Wynn

2003-01-01

54

Robotic end effector  

DOEpatents

An end effector is described for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion. 7 figures.

Minichan, R.L.

1993-10-05

55

Robotic end effector  

DOEpatents

An end effector for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion.

Minichan, Richard L. (23 Pineview Dr., Warrenville, SC 29851)

1993-01-01

56

G Protein Effectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering two aspects of G protein–mediated signaling and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the regulation of receptor-G protein coupling and then proceeds to describe the specificity of the response achieved through regulation of specific isoforms of effectors.

Maria Diverse-Pierluissi (Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry REV)

2005-04-26

57

Transgenic expression of Erwinia amylovora effectors eopB1 and hopCEa in apple  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Erwinia amylovora (Ea), the causal agent of fire blight, uses a type three secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Once inside the host cell, these effector proteins are thought to be involved with suppressing host defense responses, redirecting normal host metab...

58

The haustorial transcriptomes of Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi and their candidate effector families  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The haustoria of the biotrophic rust fungi are responsible for the uptake of nutrients from host cells, and they produce secreted proteins known as effectors that suppress host defenses. Effectors hold essential keys for elucidating the plant-fungal interactions, and they are promising targets for p...

59

Inhibition of Antiskin Allograft Immunity by Infusions With Syngeneic Photoinactivated Effector Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of tolerance for skin allotransplantation requires selective suppression of the host response to foreign histocompatibility antigens. This report describes a new approach that employs pretreatment of effector cells with 8-methoxy-psoralen (8-MOP) and ultraviolet A light (UVA) to render the effector cells of graft rejection immunogenic for the syngeneic recipient. Reinfusion of photodamaged cells resulted in an immunosuppressive host response

Maritza Perez; Richard Edelson; Liliane Laroche; Carole Berger

1989-01-01

60

T Cell Signaling Targets for Enhancing Regulatory or Effector Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To respond to infection, resting or naïve T cells must undergo activation, clonal expansion, and differentiation into specialized functional subsets of effector T cells. However, to prevent excessive or self-destructive immune responses, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are instrumental in suppressing the activation and function of effector cells, including effector T cells. The transcription factor Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) regulates the expression of genes involved in the development and function of Tregs. Foxp3 interacts with other transcription factors and with epigenetic elements such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases. Treg suppressive function can be increased by exposure to HDAC inhibitors. The individual contributions of different HDAC family members to Treg function and their respective mechanisms of action, however, remain unclear. A study showed that HDAC6, HDAC9, and Sirtuin-1 had distinct effects on Foxp3 expression and function, suggesting that selectively targeting HDACs individually or in combination may enhance Treg stability and suppressive function. Another study showed that the receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1), a well-known inhibitor of T cell activation, halted cell cycle progression in effector T cells by inhibiting the transcription of the gene encoding the substrate-recognition component (Skp2) of the ubiquitin ligase SCFSkp2. Together, these findings reveal new signaling targets for enhancing Treg or effector T cell function that may be helpful in designing future therapies, either to increase Treg suppressive function in transplantation and autoimmune diseases or to block PD-1 function, thus increasing the magnitude of antiviral or antitumor immune responses of effector T cells.

Fan Pan (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Department of Oncology REV)

2012-07-31

61

SIAH-1 Promotes Apoptosis and Tumor Suppression through a Network Involving the Regulation of Protein Folding, Unfolding, and Trafficking: Identification of Common Effectors with p53 and p21Waf1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously described biological model systems for studying tumor suppression in which, by using H-1 parvovirus as a selective agent, cells with a strongly suppressed malignant phenotype (KS or US) were derived from malignant cell lines (K562 or U937). By using cDNA display on the K562\\/KS cells, 15 cDNAs were now isolated, corresponding to genes differentially regulated in tumor

Jean-Pierre Roperch; Florence Lethrone; Sylvie Prieur; Laurence Piouffre; David Israeli; Marcel Tuynder; Mona Nemani; Patricia Pasturaud; Marie-Claude Gendron; Jean Dausset; Moshe Oren; Robert B. Amson; Adam Telerman

1999-01-01

62

Two-axis angular effector  

DOEpatents

A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM); Phelan, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Van Zuiden, Don M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-21

63

Effector Glycosyltransferases in Legionella  

PubMed Central

Legionella causes severe pneumonia in humans. The pathogen produces an array of effectors, which interfere with host cell functions. Among them are the glucosyltransferases Lgt1, Lgt2 and Lgt3 from L. pneumophila. Lgt1 and Lgt2 are produced predominately in the post-exponential phase of bacterial growth, while synthesis of Lgt3 is induced mainly in the lag-phase before intracellular replication of bacteria starts. Lgt glucosyltransferases are structurally similar to clostridial glucosylating toxins. The enzymes use UDP–glucose as a donor substrate and modify eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A at serine-53. This modification results in inhibition of protein synthesis and death of target cells.In addition to Lgts, Legionella genomes disclose several genes, coding for effector proteins likely to possess glycosyltransferase activities, including SetA (subversion of eukaryotic vesicle trafficking A), which influences vesicular trafficking in the yeast model system and displays tropism for late endosomal/lysosomal compartments of mammalian cells. This review mainly discusses recent results on the structure–function relationship of Lgt glucosyltransferases. PMID:21833323

Belyi, Yury; Jank, Thomas; Aktories, Klaus

2011-01-01

64

Sequential Delivery of Host-Induced Virulence Effectors by Appressoria and Intracellular Hyphae of the Phytopathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum  

PubMed Central

Phytopathogens secrete effector proteins to manipulate their hosts for effective colonization. Hemibiotrophic fungi must maintain host viability during initial biotrophic growth and elicit host death for subsequent necrotrophic growth. To identify effectors mediating these opposing processes, we deeply sequenced the transcriptome of Colletotrichum higginsianum infecting Arabidopsis. Most effector genes are host-induced and expressed in consecutive waves associated with pathogenic transitions, indicating distinct effector suites are deployed at each stage. Using fluorescent protein tagging and transmission electron microscopy-immunogold labelling, we found effectors localised to stage-specific compartments at the host-pathogen interface. In particular, we show effectors are focally secreted from appressorial penetration pores before host invasion, revealing new levels of functional complexity for this fungal organ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that antagonistic effectors either induce or suppress plant cell death. Based on these results we conclude that hemibiotrophy in Colletotrichum is orchestrated through the coordinated expression of antagonistic effectors supporting either cell viability or cell death. PMID:22496661

Kleemann, Jochen; Neumann, Ulla; van Themaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van der Does, H. Charlotte; Hacquard, Stéphane; Stüber, Kurt; Will, Isa; Schmalenbach, Wolfgang; Schmelzer, Elmon; O'Connell, Richard J.

2012-01-01

65

Long-distance endosome trafficking drives fungal effector production during plant infection  

PubMed Central

To cause plant disease, pathogenic fungi can secrete effector proteins into plant cells to suppress plant immunity and facilitate fungal infection. Most fungal pathogens infect plants using very long strand-like cells, called hyphae, that secrete effectors from their tips into host tissue. How fungi undergo long-distance cell signalling to regulate effector production during infection is not known. Here we show that long-distance retrograde motility of early endosomes (EEs) is necessary to trigger transcription of effector-encoding genes during plant infection by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. We demonstrate that motor-dependent retrograde EE motility is necessary for regulation of effector production and secretion during host cell invasion. We further show that retrograde signalling involves the mitogen-activated kinase Crk1 that travels on EEs and participates in control of effector production. Fungal pathogens therefore undergo long-range signalling to orchestrate host invasion. PMID:25283249

Bielska, Ewa; Higuchi, Yujiro; Schuster, Martin; Steinberg, Natascha; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Steinberg, Gero

2014-01-01

66

RAR1, a Central Player in Plant Immunity, is Targeted by Pseudomonas syringae Effector AvrB  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pathogenic bacterial effectors suppress Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)-triggered host immunity, thereby promoting parasitism. In the presence of cognate resistance genes, it is proposed that plants detect the virulence activity of bacterial effectors and trigger a defense response, ref...

67

Single-cell quantification of IL-2 response by effector and regulatory T cells reveals critical plasticity in  

E-print Network

) and effector (Teff) Tcells, whereby access to IL-2 can either increase the survival of Teff cells function of Treg cells, namely the specific suppression of survival signals for weakly activated Teff cells

Emonet, Thierry

68

Oomycetes, effectors, and all that jazz.  

PubMed

Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete a diverse repertoire of effector proteins that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. Understanding how effectors evolve, translocate and traffic inside host cells, and perturb host processes are major themes in the study of oomycete-plant interactions. The last year has seen important progress in the study of oomycete effectors with, notably, the elucidation of the 3D structures of five RXLR effectors, and novel insights into how cytoplasmic effectors subvert host cells. In this review, we discuss these and other recent advances and highlight the most important open questions in oomycete effector biology. PMID:22483402

Bozkurt, Tolga O; Schornack, Sebastian; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien

2012-08-01

69

Improving a Gripper End Effector  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the improvement made to an existing four-bar linkage gripping end effector to adapt it for use in a current project. The actuating linkage was modified to yield higher jaw force overall and particularly in the critical range of jaw displacement

Mullen, O Dennis; Smith, Christopher M.; Gervais, Kevin L.

2001-01-31

70

Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

2014-01-01

71

Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

2014-01-01

72

Marker for type VI secretion system effectors  

PubMed Central

Bacteria use diverse mechanisms to kill, manipulate, and compete with other cells. The recently discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in bacterial pathogens and used to deliver virulence effector proteins into target cells. Using comparative proteomics, we identified two previously unidentified T6SS effectors that contained a conserved motif. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that this N-terminal motif, named MIX (marker for type six effectors), is found in numerous polymorphic bacterial proteins that are primarily located in the T6SS genome neighborhood. We demonstrate that several MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors and that they are not required for T6SS activity. Thus, we propose that MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors. Our findings allow for the identification of numerous uncharacterized T6SS effectors that will undoubtedly lead to the discovery of new biological mechanisms. PMID:24927539

Salomon, Dor; Kinch, Lisa N.; Trudgian, David C.; Guo, Xiaofeng; Klimko, John A.; Grishin, Nick V.; Mirzaei, Hamid; Orth, Kim

2014-01-01

73

Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates  

PubMed Central

Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs) in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids), with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids), with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Based on relative intron position and the distribution of CSEPs with a ribonuclease-like domain in the phylogenetic tree we hypothesize that the associated genes originated from an ancestral gene, encoding a secreted ribonuclease, duplicated successively by repetitive DNA-driven processes and diversified during the evolution of the grass and cereal powdery mildew lineage. PMID:23231440

2012-01-01

74

The role of effectors in nonhost resistance to filamentous plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

In nature, most plants are resistant to a wide range of phytopathogens. However, mechanisms contributing to this so-called nonhost resistance (NHR) are poorly understood. Besides constitutive defenses, plants have developed two layers of inducible defense systems. Plant innate immunity relies on recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In compatible interactions, pathogenicity effector molecules secreted by the invader can suppress host defense responses and facilitate the infection process. Additionally, plants have evolved pathogen-specific resistance mechanisms based on recognition of these effectors, which causes secondary defense responses. The current effector-driven hypothesis is that NHR in plants that are distantly related to the host plant is triggered by PAMP recognition that cannot be efficiently suppressed by the pathogen, whereas in more closely related species, nonhost recognition of effectors would play a crucial role. In this review we give an overview of current knowledge of the role of effector molecules in host and NHR and place these findings in the context of the model. We focus on examples from filamentous pathogens (fungi and oomycetes), discuss their implications for the field of plant-pathogen interactions and relevance in plant breeding strategies for development of durable resistance in crops. PMID:25426123

Stam, Remco; Mantelin, Sophie; McLellan, Hazel; Thilliez, Gaëtan

2014-01-01

75

RAR1, a central player in plant immunity, is targeted by Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic bacterial effectors suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered host immunity, thereby promoting parasitism. In the presence of cognate resistance genes, it is proposed that plants detect the virulence activity of bacterial effectors and trigger a defense response, referred to here as effector-triggered immunity (ETI). However, the link between effector virulence and ETI at the molecular level is unknown. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) through RAR1, a cochaperone of HSP90 required for ETI. AvrB expressed in plants lacking the cognate resistance gene RPM1 suppresses cell wall defense induced by the flagellar peptide flg22, a well known PAMP, and promotes the growth of nonpathogenic bacteria in a RAR1-dependent manner. rar1 mutants display enhanced cell wall defense in response to flg22, indicating that RAR1 negatively regulates PTI. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that RAR1 and AvrB interact in the plant. The results demonstrate that RAR1 molecularly links PTI, effector virulence, and ETI. The study supports that both pathogen virulence and plant disease resistance have evolved around PTI. PMID:17148606

Shang, Yulei; Li, Xinyan; Cui, Haitao; He, Ping; Thilmony, Roger; Chintamanani, Satya; Zwiesler-Vollick, Julie; Gopalan, Suresh; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Jian-Min

2006-01-01

76

Distinct Functions of Autoreactive Memory and Effector CD4+ T Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis  

PubMed Central

The persistence of human autoimmune diseases is thought to be mediated predominantly by memory T cells. We investigated the phenotype and migration of memory versus effector T cells in vivo in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found that memory CD4+ T cells up-regulated the activation marker CD44 as well as CXCR3 and ICOS, proliferated more and produced more interferon-? and less interleukin-17 compared to effector T cells. Moreover, adoptive transfer of memory T cells into T cell receptor (TCR)???/? recipients induced more severe disease than did effector CD4+ T cells with marked central nervous system inflammation and axonal damage. The uniqueness of disease mediated by memory T cells was confirmed by the differential susceptibility to immunomodulatory therapies in vivo. CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory signal blockade by CTLA4Ig suppressed effector cell-mediated EAE but had minimal effects on disease induced by memory cells. In contrast, ICOS-B7h blockade exacerbated effector T cell-induced EAE but protected from disease induced by memory T cells. However, blockade of the OX40 (CD134) costimulatory pathway ameliorated disease mediated by both memory and effector T cells. Our data extend the understanding of the pathogenicity of autoreactive memory T cells and have important implications for the development of novel therapies for human autoimmune diseases. PMID:18583313

Elyaman, Wassim; Kivisäkk, Pia; Reddy, Jay; Chitnis, Tanuja; Raddassi, Khadir; Imitola, Jaime; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Yagita, Hideo; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Khoury, Samia J.

2008-01-01

77

Regulators and effectors of the ARF GTPases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small G proteins of the ARF family are key regulators of membrane dynamics. Many functions of ARF proteins in cells are being revealed by studies of their regulators and effectors. Significant progress has been made over the past year, with the identification of a surprisingly large family of novel ARF GTPase-activating proteins. In addition, two new classes of effectors,

Julie G Donaldson; Catherine L Jackson

2000-01-01

78

TAL effector nuclease (TALEN) engineering.  

PubMed

TALENs, fusion proteins of DNA binding domains of TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors and the DNA cleavage domains of endonuclease FokI, have emerged as genetic tools for targeted gene modification, holding great potential for basic and applied research, even for gene therapy. Here we present a simple and efficient approach to custom-engineering TALEN genes with four basic TAL repeats and their DNA recognition cipher. The "modular assembly" method also involves the "Golden Gate" cloning strategy, using 53 ready-to-use plasmids in just two rounds of restriction and ligation to assemble TALENs with up to 24 repeat units that recognize up to 24 bp of target DNA. PMID:23423889

Li, Ting; Yang, Bing

2013-01-01

79

A bacterial type III secretion-based delivery system for functional assays of fungal effectors in cereals.  

PubMed

Large numbers of candidate effectors are being identified by genome sequencing of fungal pathogens and in planta expression studies. These effectors are both a boon and a curse for pathogens as they modulate the host cellular environment or suppress defense response to allow fungal growth as well as become targets of plant resistance (R) proteins. Recognition of a fungal effector by a plant R protein triggers a hypersensitive reaction (HR) leading to death of plant cells in and around the infection site, thus preventing further proliferation of the pathogen. Such HR induction has been used as an indicator of effector activity in functional assays of candidate effectors in dicots based on Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. However, the Agrobacterium assay is not functional in cereal leaves. We therefore have adapted an alternative assay based on effector protein delivery using the type III secretion system (T3SS) of a non-pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. for use in wheat and other cereals. Here, we describe protocols for delivery of effector proteins into wheat and barley cells using the AvrRpm1 T3SS signal in the engineered non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Effector-to-Host Analyzer (EtHAn). For ease of making expression clones we have generated the GATEWAY cloning compatible vectors. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (Cya) reporter protein can be used as an effective marker for fusion protein delivery into wheat and barley by this system. PMID:24643568

Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Ellis, Jeffery G; Dodds, Peter N

2014-01-01

80

Mobile effector proteins on phage genomes  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage genomes found in a range of bacterial pathogens encode a diverse array of virulence factors ranging from superantigens or pore forming lysins to numerous exotoxins. Recent studies have uncovered an entirely new class of bacterial virulence factors, called effector proteins or effector toxins, which are encoded within phage genomes that reside among several pathovars of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These effector proteins have multiple domains resulting in proteins that can be multifunctional. The effector proteins encoded within phage genomes are translocated directly from the bacterial cytosol into their eukaryotic target cells by specialized bacterial type three secretion systems (T3SSs). In this review, we will give an overview of the different types of effector proteins encoded within phage genomes and examine their roles in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:23275865

Boyd, E. Fidelma; Carpenter, Megan R.; Chowdhury, Nityananda

2012-01-01

81

Survival of Effector CD8+ T Cells during Influenza Infection Is Dependent on Autophagy.  

PubMed

The activation and expansion of effector CD8(+) T cells are essential for controlling viral infections and tumor surveillance. During an immune response, T cells encounter extrinsic and intrinsic factors, including oxidative stress, nutrient availability, and inflammation, that can modulate their capacity to activate, proliferate, and survive. The dependency of T cells on autophagy for in vitro and in vivo activation, expansion, and memory remains unclear. Moreover, the specific signals and mechanisms that activate autophagy in T effector cells and their survival are not known. In this study, we generated a novel inducible autophagy knockout mouse to study T cell effector responses during the course of a virus infection. In response to influenza infection, Atg5(-/-) CD8(+) T cells had a decreased capacity to reach the peak effector response and were unable to maintain cell viability during the effector phase. As a consequence of Atg5 deletion and the impairment in effector-to-memory cell survival, mice fail to mount a memory response following a secondary challenge. We found that Atg5(-/-) effector CD8(+) T cells upregulated p53, a transcriptional state that was concomitant with widespread hypoxia in lymphoid tissues of infected mice. The onset of p53 activation was concurrent with higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that resulted in ROS-dependent apoptotic cell death, a fate that could be rescued by treating with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Collectively, these results demonstrate that effector CD8(+) T cells require autophagy to suppress cell death and maintain survival in response to a viral infection. PMID:25833396

Schlie, Katrin; Westerback, Ashley; DeVorkin, Lindsay; Hughson, Luke R; Brandon, Jillian M; MacPherson, Sarah; Gadawski, Izabelle; Townsend, Katelin N; Poon, Vincent I; Elrick, Mary A; Côté, Helene C F; Abraham, Ninan; Wherry, E John; Mizushima, Noboru; Lum, Julian J

2015-05-01

82

Virus-Specific Regulatory T Cells Ameliorate Encephalitis by Repressing Effector T Cell Functions from Priming to Effector Stages  

PubMed Central

Several studies have demonstrated the presence of pathogen-specific Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (Treg) in infected animals, but little is known about where and how these cells affect the effector T cell responses and whether they are more suppressive than bulk Treg populations. We recently showed the presence of both epitope M133-specific Tregs (M133 Treg) and conventional CD4 T cells (M133 Tconv) in the brains of mice with coronavirus-induced encephalitis. Here, we provide new insights into the interactions between pathogenic Tconv and Tregs responding to the same epitope. M133 Tregs inhibited the proliferation but not initial activation of M133 Tconv in draining lymph nodes (DLN). Further, M133 Tregs inhibited migration of M133 Tconv from the DLN. In addition, M133 Tregs diminished microglia activation and decreased the number and function of Tconv in the infected brain. Thus, virus-specific Tregs inhibited pathogenic CD4 T cell responses during priming and effector stages, particularly those recognizing cognate antigen, and decreased mortality and morbidity without affecting virus clearance. These cells are more suppressive than bulk Tregs and provide a targeted approach to ameliorating immunopathological disease in infectious settings. PMID:25102154

Zhao, Jingxian; Zhao, Jincun; Perlman, Stanley

2014-01-01

83

ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of the contract, the focus remains on the RTIEE.

Rachel Landry

1999-10-01

84

Epigenetic control of effectors in plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr) factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in filamentous plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes. PMID:25429296

Gijzen, Mark; Ishmael, Chelsea; Shrestha, Sirjana D.

2014-01-01

85

The role of effectors of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi in infection  

PubMed Central

Biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi are successful groups of plant pathogens that require living plant tissue to survive and complete their life cycle. Members of these groups include the rust fungi and powdery mildews and species in the Ustilago, Cladosporium and Magnaporthe genera. Collectively, they represent some of the most destructive plant parasites, causing huge economic losses and threatening global food security. During plant infection, pathogens synthesise and secrete effector proteins, some of which are translocated into the plant cytosol where they can alter the host’s response to the invading pathogen. In a successful infection, pathogen effectors facilitate suppression of the plant’s immune system and orchestrate the reprogramming of the infected tissue so that it becomes a source of nutrients that are required by the pathogen to support its growth and development. This review summarizes our current understanding of the function of fungal effectors in infection. PMID:21848815

Koeck, Markus; Hardham, Adrienne R.; Dodds, Peter N.

2011-01-01

86

A TAL Effector Toolbox for Genome Engineering  

E-print Network

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas sp. The DNA-binding domain of each TALE consists of tandem 34–amino acid repeat ...

Sanjana, Neville E.

87

Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 2 Is a Conserved RxLR Effector that Promotes Infection in Soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts. PMID:25387135

Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo

2014-12-01

88

Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silcox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

89

Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

90

The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells  

PubMed Central

Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6), thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ?spvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated. PMID:25368608

Neumann, Christina; Fraiture, Malou; Hernàndez-Reyes, Casandra; Akum, Fidele N.; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chen, Ying; Pateyron, Stephanie; Colcombet, Jean; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Hirt, Heribert; Brunner, Frédéric; Schikora, Adam

2014-01-01

91

Effector specificity in macaque frontal and parietal cortex.  

PubMed

Single neurons in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) and lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of macaques are preferentially activated by saccade- versus reach-related processes. fMRI studies focusing on saccade- and reach-specific activity in human cortex, however, provided conflicting evidence for effector specificity. To gain further insights into effector preferences throughout monkey cortex using the same technique as in humans, we performed a mixed block/event-related fMRI experiment in macaques. Within single fMRI runs, monkeys alternated between a visually guided saccade task, a visually guided arm movement task, and a fixation-only task requiring no saccades or arm movements. The detection of a peripheral pop-out go cue initiating the required operant behavior and the identification of a target among distractors was identical in the arm and saccade tasks. We found saccade-related activity in parietal areas V6, V6A, LIP, and caudal intraparietal area and frontal areas FEF, 45a, 45b, and 46. Areas 45 and FEF even showed markedly decreased fMRI activity during arm movements relative to fixation only. Conversely, medial and anterior intraparietal areas (MIP and AIP), and parietal area PEip; somatosensory areas S1 and S2; and (pre)motor areas F1, F3, F5, and F6 showed increased arm movement-related activity. F1, F5, PEip, and somatosensory cortex also showed deactivations during saccades relative to fixation only. Control experiments showed that such deactivations in both operant-specific functional networks did not depend on training history or rapid task switching requiring active suppression of the unpreferred operant behavior. Therefore, although both tasks required divided attention to detect a pop-out go cue and target, two largely segregated and mainly effector-driven cortical networks were activated. PMID:25716844

Premereur, Elsie; Janssen, Peter; Vanduffel, Wim

2015-02-25

92

Genetic disassembly and combinatorial reassembly identify a minimal functional repertoire of type III effectors in Pseudomonas syringae  

PubMed Central

The virulence of Pseudomonas syringae and many other proteobacterial pathogens is dependent on complex repertoires of effector proteins injected into host cells by type III secretion systems. The 28 well-expressed effector genes in the repertoire of the model pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 were deleted to produce polymutant DC3000D28E. Growth of DC3000D28E in Nicotiana benthamiana was symptomless and 4 logs lower than that of DC3000?hopQ1-1, which causes disease in this model plant. DC3000D28E seemed functionally effectorless but otherwise WT in diagnostic phenotypes relevant to plant interactions (for example, ability to inject the AvrPto-Cya reporter into N. benthamiana). Various effector genes were integrated by homologous recombination into native loci or by a programmable or random in vivo assembly shuttle (PRIVAS) system into the exchangeable effector locus in the Hrp pathogenicity island of DC3000D28E. The latter method exploited dual adapters and recombination in yeast for efficient assembly of PCR products into programmed or random combinations of multiple effector genes. Native and PRIVAS-mediated integrations were combined to identify a minimal functional repertoire of eight effector genes that restored much of the virulence of DC3000?hopQ1-1 in N. benthamiana, revealing a hierarchy in effector function: AvrPtoB acts with priority in suppressing immunity, enabling other effectors to promote further growth (HopM1 and HopE1), chlorosis (HopG1), lesion formation (HopAM1-1), and near full growth and symptom production (AvrE, HopAA1-1, and/or HopN1 functioning synergistically with the previous effectors). DC3000D28E, the PRIVAS method, and minimal functional repertoires provide new resources for probing the plant immune system. PMID:21282655

Cunnac, Sébastien; Chakravarthy, Suma; Kvitko, Brian H.; Russell, Alistair B.; Martin, Gregory B.; Collmer, Alan

2011-01-01

93

Rho GTPases and their effector proteins.  

PubMed Central

Rho GTPases are molecular switches that regulate many essential cellular processes, including actin dynamics, gene transcription, cell-cycle progression and cell adhesion. About 30 potential effector proteins have been identified that interact with members of the Rho family, but it is still unclear which of these are responsible for the diverse biological effects of Rho GTPases. This review will discuss how Rho GTPases physically interact with, and regulate the activity of, multiple effector proteins and how specific effector proteins contribute to cellular responses. To date most progress has been made in the cytoskeleton field, and several biochemical links have now been established between GTPases and the assembly of filamentous actin. The main focus of this review will be Rho, Rac and Cdc42, the three best characterized mammalian Rho GTPases, though the genetic analysis of Rho GTPases in lower eukaryotes is making increasingly important contributions to this field. PMID:10816416

Bishop, A L; Hall, A

2000-01-01

94

Cellular senescence and its effector programs  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence is a stress response that accompanies stable exit from the cell cycle. Classically, senescence, particularly in human cells, involves the p53 and p16/Rb pathways, and often both of these tumor suppressor pathways need to be abrogated to bypass senescence. In parallel, a number of effector mechanisms of senescence have been identified and characterized. These studies suggest that senescence is a collective phenotype of these multiple effectors, and their intensity and combination can be different depending on triggers and cell types, conferring a complex and diverse nature to senescence. Series of studies on senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in particular have revealed various layers of functionality of senescent cells in vivo. Here we discuss some key features of senescence effectors and attempt to functionally link them when it is possible. PMID:24449267

Salama, Rafik; Sadaie, Mahito; Hoare, Matthew; Narita, Masashi

2014-01-01

95

In planta expression screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR effectors reveal diverse phenotypes, including activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum disease resistance protein Rpi-blb2.  

PubMed

The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD36(45-1), suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34-amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Cano, Liliana M; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I B; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A G; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Kamoun, Sophien

2009-09-01

96

Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

97

Legionella secreted effectors and innate immune responses  

PubMed Central

Summary Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of replicating in a wide spectrum of cells. Successful infection by Legionella requires the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, which translocates a large number of effector proteins into infected cells. By co-opting numerous host cellular processes, these proteins function to establish a specialized organelle that allows bacterial survival and proliferation. Even within the vacuole, L. pneumophila triggers robust immune responses. Recent studies reveal that a subset of Legionella effectors directly target some basic components of the host innate immunity systems such as phagosome maturation. Others play essential roles in engaging the host innate immune surveillance system. This review will highlight recent progress in our understanding of these interactions and discuss implications for the study of the immune detection mechanisms. PMID:21985602

Luo, Zhao-Qing

2012-01-01

98

A central role for Notch in effector CD8(+) T cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Activated CD8(+) T cells choose between terminal effector cell (TEC) or memory precursor cell (MPC) fates. We found that the signaling receptor Notch controls this 'choice'. Notch promoted the differentiation of immediately protective TECs and was correspondingly required for the clearance of acute infection with influenza virus. Notch activated a major portion of the TEC-specific gene-expression program and suppressed the MPC-specific program. Expression of Notch was induced on naive CD8(+) T cells by inflammatory mediators and interleukin 2 (IL-2) via pathways dependent on the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR and the transcription factor T-bet. These pathways were subsequently amplified downstream of Notch, creating a positive feedback loop. Notch thus functions as a central hub where information from different sources converges to match effector T cell differentiation to the demands of an infection. PMID:25344724

Backer, Ronald A; Helbig, Christina; Gentek, Rebecca; Kent, Andrew; Laidlaw, Brian J; Dominguez, Claudia X; de Souza, Yevan S; van Trierum, Stella E; van Beek, Ruud; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; ten Brinke, Anja; Willemsen, A Marcel; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Kaech, Susan M; Blander, J Magarian; van Gisbergen, Klaas; Amsen, Derk

2014-12-01

99

Perivascular leukocyte clusters are essential for efficient activation of effector T cells in the skin.  

PubMed

It remains largely unclear how antigen-presenting cells (APCs) encounter effector or memory T cells efficiently in the periphery. Here we used a mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model to show that upon epicutaneous antigen challenge, dendritic cells (DCs) formed clusters with effector T cells in dermal perivascular areas to promote in situ proliferation and activation of skin T cells in a manner dependent on antigen and the integrin LFA-1. We found that DCs accumulated in perivascular areas and that DC clustering was abrogated by depletion of macrophages. Treatment with interleukin 1? (IL-1?) induced production of the chemokine CXCL2 by dermal macrophages, and DC clustering was suppressed by blockade of either the receptor for IL-1 (IL-1R) or the receptor for CXCL2 (CXCR2). Our findings suggest that the dermal leukocyte cluster is an essential structure for elicitating acquired cutaneous immunity. PMID:25240383

Natsuaki, Yohei; Egawa, Gyohei; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Ono, Sachiko; Hanakawa, Sho; Okada, Takaharu; Kusuba, Nobuhiro; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kitoh, Akihiko; Honda, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Saeko; Tsuchiya, Soken; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Ishii, Ken J; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Yagita, Hideo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Kubo, Masato; Ng, Lai guan; Hashimoto, Takashi; Fuentes, Judilyn; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

2014-11-01

100

Effector-triggered immunity blocks pathogen degradation of an immunity-associated vesicle traffic regulator in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Innate immunity in plants can be triggered by microbe- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is often suppressed by pathogen effectors delivered into the host cell. Plants can overcome pathogen suppression of PTI and reestablish pathogen resistance through effector-triggered immunity (ETI). An unanswered question is how plants might overcome pathogen-suppression of PTI during ETI. Findings described in this paper suggest a possible mechanism. During Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection of Arabidopsis, a host ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor, AtMIN7, is destabilized by the pathogen effector HopM1 through the host 26S proteasome. In this study, we discovered that AtMIN7 is required for not only PTI, consistent with the notion that Pst DC3000 degrades AtMIN7 to suppress PTI, but also ETI. The AtMIN7 level in healthy plants is low, but increases posttranscriptionally in response to activation of PTI. Whereas DC3000 infection led to degradation of AtMIN7, activation of ETI by three different effectors, AvrRpt2, AvrPphB, and HopA1, in Col-0 plants blocks the ability of Pst DC3000 to destabilize AtMIN7. Further analyses of bacterial translocation of HopM1 and AtMIN7 stability in HopM1 transgenic plants show that ETI prevents HopM1-mediated degradation of AtMIN7 inside the plant cell. Both AtMIN7 and HopM1 are localized to the trans-Golgi network/early endosome, a subcellular compartment that is not previously known to be associated with bacterial pathogenesis in plants. Thus, blocking pathogen degradation of trans-Golgi network/early endosome-associated AtMIN7 is a critical part of the ETI mechanism to counter bacterial suppression of PTI. PMID:21670267

Nomura, Kinya; Mecey, Christy; Lee, Young-Nam; Imboden, Lori Alice; Chang, Jeff H.; He, Sheng Yang

2011-01-01

101

The Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) Tir Effector Inhibits NF-?B Activity by Targeting TNF? Receptor-Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) disease depends on the transfer of effector proteins into epithelia lining the human small intestine. EPEC E2348/69 has at least 20 effector genes of which six are located with the effector-delivery system genes on the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) Pathogenicity Island. Our previous work implied that non-LEE-encoded (Nle) effectors possess functions that inhibit epithelial anti-microbial and inflammation-inducing responses by blocking NF-?B transcription factor activity. Indeed, screens by us and others have identified novel inhibitory mechanisms for NleC and NleH, with key co-operative functions for NleB1 and NleE1. Here, we demonstrate that the LEE-encoded Translocated-intimin receptor (Tir) effector has a potent and specific ability to inhibit NF-?B activation. Indeed, biochemical, imaging and immunoprecipitation studies reveal a novel inhibitory mechanism whereby Tir interaction with cytoplasm-located TNF? receptor-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins induces their proteasomal-independent degradation. Infection studies support this Tir-TRAF relationship but reveal that Tir, like NleC and NleH, has a non-essential contribution in EPEC's NF-?B inhibitory capacity linked to Tir's activity being suppressed by undefined EPEC factors. Infections in a disease-relevant intestinal model confirm key NF-?B inhibitory roles for the NleB1/NleE1 effectors, with other studies providing insights on host targets. The work not only reveals a second Intimin-independent property for Tir and a novel EPEC effector-mediated NF-?B inhibitory mechanism but also lends itself to speculations on the evolution of EPEC's capacity to inhibit NF-?B function. PMID:22144899

Ruchaud-Sparagano, Marie-Hélène; Mühlen, Sabrina; Dean, Paul; Kenny, Brendan

2011-01-01

102

Identification of Two Legionella pneumophila Effectors that Manipulate Host Phospholipids Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila translocates a large number of effector proteins into host cells via the Icm/Dot type-IVB secretion system. Some of these effectors were shown to cause lethal effect on yeast growth. Here we characterized one such effector (LecE) and identified yeast suppressors that reduced its lethal effect. The LecE lethal effect was found to be suppressed by the over expression of the yeast protein Dgk1 a diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase enzyme and by a deletion of the gene encoding for Pah1 a phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase that counteracts the activity of Dgk1. Genetic analysis using yeast deletion mutants, strains expressing relevant yeast genes and point mutations constructed in the Dgk1 and Pah1 conserved domains indicated that LecE functions similarly to the Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase complex that activates Pah1 in yeast. In addition, by using relevant yeast genetic backgrounds we examined several L. pneumophila effectors expected to be involved in phospholipids biosynthesis and identified an effector (LpdA) that contains a phospholipase-D (PLD) domain which caused lethal effect only in a dgk1 deletion mutant of yeast. Additionally, LpdA was found to enhance the lethal effect of LecE in yeast cells, a phenomenon which was found to be dependent on its PLD activity. Furthermore, to determine whether LecE and LpdA affect the levels or distribution of DAG and PA in-vivo in mammalian cells, we utilized fluorescent DAG and PA biosensors and validated the notion that LecE and LpdA affect the in-vivo levels and distribution of DAG and PA, respectively. Finally, we examined the intracellular localization of both LecE and LpdA in human macrophages during L. pneumophila infection and found that both effectors are localized to the bacterial phagosome. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila utilize at least two effectors to manipulate important steps in phospholipids biosynthesis. PMID:23133385

Viner, Ram; Chetrit, David; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Segal, Gil

2012-01-01

103

Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid  

PubMed Central

Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome. PMID:25329884

Asai, Shuta; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Furzer, Oliver J.; Ishaque, Naveed; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Fabro, Georgina; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

2014-01-01

104

Inhibition of antiskin allograft immunity induced by infusions with photoinactivated effector T lymphocytes (PET cells).  

PubMed Central

Induction of tolerance for skin allotransplantation requires selective suppression of the host response to foreign histocompatibility antigens. This report describes a new approach which employs pre-treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and ultraviolet A light (UVA) to render the effector cells of graft rejection immunogenic for the syngeneic recipient. Eight days after BALB/c mice received CBA/j skin grafts, their splenocytes were treated with 100 ng/ml 8-MOP and 1 J/cm2 UVA prior to reinfusion into naive BALB/c recipients. Recipient mice were tested for tolerance to alloantigens in mixed leukocyte culture (MLC), cytotoxicity (CTL), delayed-type hypersensitivity assays (DTH), and challenge with a fresh CBA/j graft. Splenocytes from BALB/c recipients of photoinactivated splenocytes containing the effector cells of CBA/j alloantigen rejection proliferated poorly in MLC and generated lower cytotoxic T-cell responses to CBA/j alloantigens in comparison with sensitized and naive controls and suppressed the MLC and CTL response to alloantigen from sensitized and naive BALB/c mice. In vivo, the DTH response was specifically suppressed to the relevant alloantigen in comparison with controls. BALB/c mice treated in this fashion retained a CBA/j skin graft for up to 42 days post-transplantation without visual evidence of rejection. These results showed that reinfusion of photoinactivated effector cells resulted in an immunosuppressive host response which specifically inhibited in vitro and in vivo responses that correlate with allograft rejection and permitted prolonged retention of histoincompatible skin grafts. PMID:2636801

Perez, M. I.; Edelson, R. L.; John, L.; Laroche, L.; Berger, C. L.

1989-01-01

105

Design and fabrication of an end effector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction is described of a prototype mechanical hand or 'end effector' for use on a remotely controlled robot, but with possible application as a prosthetic device. An analysis of hand motions is reported, from which it is concluded that the two most important manipulations (apart from grasps) are to be able to pick up a tool and draw it into a nested grip against the palm, and to be able to hold a pistol-grip tool such as an electric drill and pull the trigger. A model was tested and found capable of both these operations.

Crossley, F. R. E.; Umholtz, F. G.

1975-01-01

106

Stress protein-induced immunosuppression: inhibition of cellular immune effector functions following overexpression of haem oxygenase (HSP 32)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report on suppression of immune effector functions following upregulation of heat shock protein 32 (HSP 32), known as haem oxygenase (HO-1). Here we evaluated the effect of cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP)-induced HO-1 expression on cell-mediated immune responses. Administration of CoPP to CBA mice resulted in overexpression of HO-1 in the spleen, liver and kidneys. In vitro measurements of

Jacky Woo; Suhasini Iyer; Marie-Christine Cornejo; Nancy Mori; Lan Gao; Isabelle Sipos; Mahin Maines; Roland Buelow

1998-01-01

107

Engineering plant disease resistance based on TAL effectors.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are encoded by plant-pathogenic bacteria and induce expression of plant host genes. TAL effectors bind DNA on the basis of a unique code that specifies binding of amino acid residues in repeat units to particular DNA bases in a one-to-one correspondence. This code can be used to predict binding sites of natural TAL effectors and to design novel synthetic DNA-binding domains for targeted genome manipulation. Natural mechanisms of resistance in plants against TAL effector-containing pathogens have given insights into new strategies for disease control. PMID:23725472

Schornack, Sebastian; Moscou, Matthew J; Ward, Eric R; Horvath, Diana M

2013-01-01

108

Exploitation of Eukaryotic Subcellular Targeting Mechanisms by Bacterial Effectors  

PubMed Central

Several bacteria have evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells with the capacity to modulate cellular pathways to promote bacterial survival and replication. The spatial and temporal context in which effectors exert their biochemical activities is critical for their function. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to their precise subcellular localization following delivery into host cells is essential for understanding effector function in the context of infection. Recent studies have shown that bacterial effectors exploit host cellular machinery to accurately target their biochemical activities within the host cell. PMID:23588250

Hicks, Stuart W.; Galán, Jorge E.

2013-01-01

109

Formins as effector proteins of Rho GTPases.  

PubMed

Formin proteins were recognized as effectors of Rho GTPases some 15 years ago. They contribute to different cellular actin cytoskeleton structures by their ability to polymerize straight actin filaments at the barbed end. While not all formins necessarily interact with Rho GTPases, a subgroup of mammalian formins, termed Diaphanous-related formins or DRFs, were shown to be activated by small GTPases of the Rho superfamily. DRFs are autoinhibited in the resting state by an N- to C-terminal interaction that renders the central actin polymerization domain inactive. Upon the interaction with a GTP-bound Rho, Rac, or Cdc42 GTPase, the C-terminal autoregulation domain is displaced from its N-terminal recognition site and the formin becomes active to polymerize actin filaments. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the structure, activation, and function of formin-GTPase interactions for the mammalian formin families Dia, Daam, FMNL, and FHOD. We describe both direct and indirect interactions of formins with GTPases, which lead to formin activation and cytoskeletal rearrangements. The multifaceted function of formins as effector proteins of Rho GTPases thus reflects the diversity of the actin cytoskeleton in cells. PMID:24914801

Kühn, Sonja; Geyer, Matthias

2014-01-01

110

Therapeutic regulatory T cells subvert effector T cell function in inflamed islets to halt autoimmune diabetes.  

PubMed

Therapeutic regulatory T cells (Tregs) can reverse pre-established autoimmune pathology. In this study, using a mouse model of autoimmune diabetes, we aimed to determine the means by which therapeutic Tregs control islet inflammation. Islet Ag-specific Tregs infiltrated inflamed islets soon after infusion into prediabetic mice, which was quickly followed by a selective reduction of mRNA associated with effector T cells in the islets. This change was partially due to decreased CD8(+) T cell accumulation in the tissue. CD8(+) T cells that remained in the islets after Treg treatment were able to engage dendritic cells in a manner similar to that found in untreated mice, consistent with the retention of an activated phenotype by islet dendritic cells shortly after Treg treatment. Nonetheless, Treg treatment abrogated IFN-? production by intraislet CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells at the protein level with minimal effect on IFN-? mRNA. Sustained expression of IFN-? protein by effector T cells was dependent on common ?-chain cytokine activation of the mTOR pathway, which was suppressed in islet CD8(+) T cells in vivo after Treg treatment. These multifaceted mechanisms underlie the efficacy of therapeutic Treg subversion of effector T cell functions at the site of inflammation to restore normal tissue homeostasis. PMID:25732730

Mahne, Ashley E; Klementowicz, Joanna E; Chou, Annie; Nguyen, Vinh; Tang, Qizhi

2015-04-01

111

E2?Ub conjugates regulate the kinase activity of Shigella effector OspG during pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic bacteria introduce effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role in this process by helping to suppress the host inflammatory response. OspG has been reported to bind host E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes activated with ubiquitin (E2?Ub), a key enzyme complex in ubiquitin transfer pathways. A co-crystal structure of the OspG/UbcH5c?Ub complex reveals that complex formation has important ramifications for the activity of both OspG and the UbcH5c?Ub conjugate. OspG is a minimal kinase domain containing only essential elements required for catalysis. UbcH5c?Ub binding stabilizes an active conformation of the kinase, greatly enhancing OspG kinase activity. In contrast, interaction with OspG stabilizes an extended, less reactive form of UbcH5c?Ub. Recognizing conserved E2 features, OspG can interact with at least ten distinct human E2s?Ub. Mouse oral infection studies indicate that E2?Ub conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells. PMID:24446487

Pruneda, Jonathan N; Smith, F Donelson; Daurie, Angela; Swaney, Danielle L; Villén, Judit; Scott, John D; Stadnyk, Andrew W; Le Trong, Isolde; Stenkamp, Ronald E; Klevit, Rachel E; Rohde, John R; Brzovic, Peter S

2014-01-01

112

Effect of Zidovudine on the Primary Cytolytic T-Lymphocyte Response and T-Cell Effector Function  

PubMed Central

Azidothymidine (AZT) and other nucleoside analogues, used to treat AIDS, can cause severe clinical side effects and are suspected of suppressing immune cell proliferation and effector immune cell function. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively measure the effects of AZT on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) priming and to determine if the major histocompatibility complex-restricted CTL killing was affected by AZT exposure. For this purpose, we employed a murine alloantigen model and limiting-dilution analysis (LDA) to estimate cytotoxic effector cell frequencies of alloreactive splenocytes treated with drug during antigen sensitization. This noninfectious model was chosen to avoid analysis of a virus-compromised immune system. Exposure of splenocytes to therapeutic concentrations of AZT (2 to 10 ?M) caused a two- to threefold dose-dependent reduction in CLT precursor frequency. This reduction was caused by decreased proliferation of alloantigen-specific CTLs rather than loss of function, because full cytolytic function could be restored by adjusting the AZT-treated effector/target cell ratios to that of untreated cells. In addition, when AZT was added to the assay system at various times during antigen sensitization there was a time-related loss of the suppressive effect on the generation of cytolytic effector function, suggesting that functional CTLs are not affected by even high doses of AZT. Taken together, the data indicate that the reduction of CTL function associated with AZT treatment is due to a quantitative decrease of effector cell precursor frequency rather than to direct drug cytotoxicity or interference with mediation of cytolysis. Furthermore, antigen-naive immune cells were most sensitive to this effect during the first few days following antigen encounter. PMID:10858351

Francke, Sabine; Orosz, Charles G.; Hayes, Kathleen A.; Mathes, Lawrence E.

2000-01-01

113

Oral Probiotic Control Skin Inflammation by Acting on Both Effector and Regulatory T Cells  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are believed to alleviate allergic and inflammatory skin disorders, but their impact on pathogenic effector T cells remains poorly documented. Here we show that oral treatment with the probiotic bacteria L. casei (DN-114 001) alone alleviates antigen-specific skin inflammation mediated by either protein-specific CD4+ T cells or hapten-specific CD8+ T cells. In the model of CD8+ T cell-mediated skin inflammation, which reproduces allergic contact dermatitis in human, inhibition of skin inflammation by L. casei is not due to impaired priming of hapten-specific IFN?-producing cytolytic CD8+ effector T cells. Alternatively, L. casei treatment reduces the recruitment of CD8+ effector T cells into the skin during the elicitation (i.e. symptomatic) phase of CHS. Inhibition of skin inflammation by L. casei requires MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells but not CD1d-restricted NK-T cells. L casei treatment enhanced the frequency of FoxP3+ Treg in the skin and increased the production of IL-10 by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in skin draining lymph nodes of hapten-sensitized mice. These data demonstrate that orally administered L. casei (DN-114 001) efficiently alleviate T cell-mediated skin inflammation without causing immune suppression, via mechanisms that include control of CD8+ effector T cells and involve regulatory CD4+ T cells. L. casei (DN-114 001) may thus represent a probiotic of potential interest for immunomodulation of T cell-mediated allergic skin diseases in human. PMID:19300508

Hacini-Rachinel, Feriel; Gheit, Hanane; Le Luduec, Jean-Benoit; Dif, Fariel; Nancey, Stéphane; Kaiserlian, Dominique

2009-01-01

114

PERSPECTIVE New Determinants of Receptor-Effector Coupling: Trafficking  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE New Determinants of Receptor-Effector Coupling: Trafficking and Compartmentation in the human genome), several different combinations of G protein subunits and multiple isoforms of effector (trafficking). Compartmentation and Caveolae The concept of receptor translocation is certainly not a new one

Ostrom, Rennolds

115

Tissue-tropic effector T cells: generation and targeting opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization of effector T cells to extralymphoid tissues is crucial for the generation of an effective immune response, but it also underlies many autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have highlighted a central role for draining lymph nodes and environmentally imprinted dendritic cells in the generation of tissue-tropic effector T cells. Here, I outline our current understanding of the

William W. Agace

2006-01-01

116

Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

117

The Salmonella effector AvrA mediates bacterial intracellular survival during infection in vivo  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium secretes the preformed AvrA effector protein into host cells. This acetyltransferase has been shown to modulate mammalian intestinal immune and survival responses by inhibition of JNK MAPK. To study the role of this effector in natural enteric infection, we used a mouse model to compare wild type Salmonella typhimurium to an isogenic AvrA null Salmonella mutant. Salmonella lacking AvrA induced increased intestinal inflammation, more intense systemic cytokine responses, and increased apoptosis in epithelial cells. Increased apoptosis was also observed in extra epithelial macrophages. AvrA null infected mice consistently showed higher bacterial burden within mucosal lymphoid tissues, spleen and liver by 5 days post infection, which indicated a more severe clinical course. To study the molecular mechanisms involved, recombinant adenoviruses expressing AvrA or mutant AvrA proteins were constructed, which showed appropriate expression and mediated the expected inhibition of JNK signaling. Cultured epithelial cells and macrophages transduced with AvrA expressing adenovirus were protected from apoptosis induced by exogenous stimuli. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that Salmonella AvrA modulates survival of infected macrophages likely via JNK suppression, and prevents macrophage death and rapid bacterial dissemination. AvrA suppression of apoptosis in infected macrophages may allow for establishment of a stable intracellular niche typical of intracellular pathogens. PMID:21899703

Wu, Huixia; Jones, Rheinallt M.; Neish, Andrew S.

2011-01-01

118

Effector analogues detect varied allosteric roles for conserved protein-effector interactions in pyruvate kinase isozymes†  

PubMed Central

The binding site for allosteric inhibitor (amino acid) is highly conserved between human liver pyruvate kinase (hL-PYK) and the rabbit muscle isozyme (rM1-PYK). To detail similarities/differences in the allosteric function of these two homologs, we quantified the binding of 45 amino acid analogues to hL-PYK and their allosteric impact on affinity for the substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). This complements a similar study previously completed for rM1-PYK. In hL-PYK, the minimum chemical requirements for effector binding are the same as those identified for rM1-PYK (i.e. the L-2-aminopropanaldehyde substructure of the effector is primarily responsible for binding). However different regions of the effector determine the magnitude of the allosteric response in hL-PYK vs. rM1-PYK. This finding is inconsistent with the idea that allosteric pathways are conserved between homologs of a protein family. PMID:21261284

Alontaga, Aileen Y.; Fenton, Aron W.

2011-01-01

119

A genome-wide screen identifies a Bordetella type III secretion effector and candidate effectors in other species.  

PubMed

Bordetella bronchiseptica utilizes a type III secretion system (TTSS) for induction of non-apoptotic cytotoxicity in host cells and modulation of host immunity. The identity of Bordetella TTSS effectors, however, has remained elusive. Here we report a genome-wide screen for TTSS effectors based on shared biophysical and functional characteristics of class I chaperones and their frequent colocalization with TTSS effectors. When applied to B. bronchiseptica, the screen identified the first TTSS chaperone-effector locus, btcA-bteA, and we experimentally confirmed its function. Expression of bteA is co-ordinated with expression of TTSS apparatus genes, BteA is secreted through the TTSS of B. bronchiseptica, it is required for cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells, and it is highly conserved in the human-adapted subspecies B. pertussis and B. parapertussis. Transfection of bteA into epithlieal cells results in rapid cell death, indicating that BteA alone is sufficient to induce potent cytotoxicity. Finally, an in vitro interaction between BteA and BtcA was demonstrated. The search for TTSS chaperones and effectors was then expanded to other bacterial genomes, including mammalian and insect pathogens, where we identified a large number of novel candidate chaperones and effectors. Although the majority of putative effectors are proteins of unknown function, several have similarities to eukaryotic protein domains or previously identified effectors from other species. PMID:16164564

Panina, Ekaterina M; Mattoo, Seema; Griffith, Natasha; Kozak, Natalia A; Yuk, Ming H; Miller, Jeff F

2005-10-01

120

Action selection in multi-effector decision making  

PubMed Central

Decision making and reinforcement learning over movements suffer from the curse of dimensionality: the space of possible movements is too vast to search or even represent in its entirety. When actions involve only a single effector, this problem can be ameliorated by considering that effector separately; accordingly, the brain’s sensorimotor systems can subdivide choice by representing values and actions separately for each effector. However, for many actions, such as playing the piano, the value of an action by an effector (e.g., a hand) depends inseparably on the actions of other effectors. By definition, the values of such coordinated multi-effector actions cannot be represented by effector-specific action values, such as those that have been most extensively investigated in parietal and premotor regions. For such actions, one possible solution is to choose according to more abstract valuations over different goods or options, which can then be mapped onto the necessary motor actions. Such an approach separates the learning and decision problem, which will often be lower-dimensional than the space of possible movements, from the multi-effector movement planning problem. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is thought to contain goods-based value signals, so we hypothesized that this region might preferentially drive multi-effector action selection. To examine how the brain solves this problem, we used fMRI to compare patterns of BOLD activity in humans during reward learning tasks in which options were selected through either unimanual or bimanual actions, and in which the response requirements in the latter condition inseparably coupled valuation across both hands. We found value signals in the bilateral medial motor cortex and vmPFC, and consistent with previous studies, the medial motor value signals contained contra-lateral biases indicating effector-specificity, while the vmPFC value signals did not exhibit detectable effector specificity. Although neither region’s value signaling differed significantly between bimanual and unimanual conditions, the vmPFC value region showed enhanced connectivity with the medial motor cortex during bimanual than during unimanual choices. The specific region implicated, the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, is thought to act as a hub that links subjective value signals to motor control centers. These results are consistent with the idea that while valuation for unilateral actions may be subserved by an effector-specific network, complex multi-effector actions preferentially implicate communication between motor regions and prefrontal regions, which may reflect increased top-down input into motor regions to guide action selection. PMID:23228512

Madlon-Kay, Seth; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D.

2012-01-01

121

System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot  

SciTech Connect

A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot.

Burry, David B. (Westminster, CO); Williams, Paul M. (Lafayette, CO)

1991-02-19

122

System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot  

DOEpatents

A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures.

Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

1991-02-19

123

Bacterial secreted effectors and caspase-3 interactions  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is a critical process that intrinsically links organism survival to its ability to induce controlled death. Thus, functional apoptosis allows organisms to remove perceived threats to their survival by targeting those cells that it determines pose a direct risk. Central to this process are apoptotic caspases, enzymes that form a signalling cascade, converting danger signals via initiator caspases into activation of the executioner caspase, caspase-3. This enzyme begins disassembly of the cell by activating DNA degrading enzymes and degrading the cellular architecture. Interaction of pathogenic bacteria with caspases, and in particular, caspase-3, can therefore impact both host cell and bacterial survival. With roles outside cell death such as cell differentiation, control of signalling pathways and immunomodulation also being described for caspase-3, bacterial interactions with caspase-3 may be of far more significance in infection than previously recognized. In this review, we highlight the ways in which bacterial pathogens have evolved to subvert caspase-3 both through effector proteins that directly interact with the enzyme or by modulating pathways that influence its activation and activity. PMID:25262664

Wall, Daniel M; McCormick, Beth A

2014-01-01

124

Different effectors of dimorphism in Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

Yarrowia lipolytica is an ascomycete with biotechnological potential. In common media, the fungus grows as a mixture of yeast-like and short mycelial cells. The environmental factors that affect dimorphism in the wild-type strain, W29, and its auxotrophic derivative, PO1a, were analyzed. In both strains, pH was the most important factor regulating the dimorphic transition. Mycelium formation was maximal at pH near neutrality and decreased as pH was lowered to become almost null at pH 3. Carbon and nitrogen sources, namely glucose and ammonium, were also important for mycelium formation; and their effect was antagonized by some alternative carbon and nitrogen sources. Citrate was an important positive effector of mycelium growth. Anaerobic stress induced formation of mycelial cells. The importance of the protein kinase A pathway was suggested by the inhibition of mycelium growth by cAMP. We propose that the interplay of these factors regulates the adaptation of the fungus, to better exploit its natural ecological niches. PMID:12420169

Ruiz-Herrera, José; Sentandreu, Rafael

2002-12-01

125

Hippo pathway effector Yap promotes cardiac regeneration  

PubMed Central

The adult mammalian heart has limited potential for regeneration. Thus, after injury, cardiomyocytes are permanently lost, and contractility is diminished. In contrast, the neonatal heart can regenerate owing to sustained cardiomyocyte proliferation. Identification of critical regulators of cardiomyocyte proliferation and quiescence represents an important step toward potential regenerative therapies. Yes-associated protein (Yap), a transcriptional cofactor in the Hippo signaling pathway, promotes proliferation of embryonic cardiomyocytes by activating the insulin-like growth factor and Wnt signaling pathways. Here we report that mice bearing mutant alleles of Yap and its paralog WW domain containing transcription regulator 1 (Taz) exhibit gene dosage-dependent cardiac phenotypes, suggesting redundant roles of these Hippo pathway effectors in establishing proper myocyte number and maintaining cardiac function. Cardiac-specific deletion of Yap impedes neonatal heart regeneration, resulting in a default fibrotic response. Conversely, forced expression of a constitutively active form of Yap in the adult heart stimulates cardiac regeneration and improves contractility after myocardial infarction. The regenerative activity of Yap is correlated with its activation of embryonic and proliferative gene programs in cardiomyocytes. These findings identify Yap as an important regulator of cardiac regeneration and provide an experimental entry point to enhance this process. PMID:23918388

Xin, Mei; Kim, Yuri; Sutherland, Lillian B.; Murakami, Masao; Qi, Xiaoxia; McAnally, John; Porrello, Enzo R.; Mahmoud, Ahmed I.; Tan, Wei; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Sadek, Hesham A.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

2013-01-01

126

Bioprospecting open reading frames for peptide effectors.  

PubMed

Recent successes in the development of small-molecule antagonists of protein-protein interactions designed based on co-crystal structures of peptides bound to their biological targets confirm that short peptides derived from interacting proteins can be high-value ligands for pharmacologic validation of targets and for identification of druggable sites. Evolved sequence space is likely to be enriched for interacting peptides, but identifying minimal peptide effectors within genomic sequence can be labor intensive. Here we describe the use of incremental truncation to diversify genetic material on the scale of open reading frames into comprehensive libraries of constituent peptides. The approach is capable of generating peptides derived from both continuous and discontinuous sequence elements, and is compatible with the expression of free linear or backbone cyclic peptides, with peptides tethered to amino- or carboxyl-terminal fusion partners or with the expression of peptides displayed within protein scaffolds (peptide aptamers). Incremental truncation affords a valuable source of molecular diversity to interrogate the druggable genome or evaluate the therapeutic potential of candidate genes. PMID:24146398

Xiong, Ling; Scott, Charles

2014-01-01

127

SUMO as a nuclear hormone receptor effector  

PubMed Central

Animal development is driven by robust, cell-specific gene expression programs. Understanding mechanistically how a single transcription factor (TF) can govern distinct programs with exquisite precision is a major challenge. We view TFs as signal integrators, taking information from co-regulator interactions, post-translational modifications, other transcription factors, chromatin state, DNA sequence and in some cases, specific noncovalent ligands, to determine the collection of genes regulated by a TF at any given time. Here, we describe a reductionist approach to combinatorial transcriptional regulation, focusing on a single C. elegans TF, the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-25, and a single post-translational modification, SUMO. We suggest that the ratio of sumoylated to unsumoylated NHR-25 could specify a switch-like cell-fate decision during vulval development. Direct examination of this “SUMO ratio” in vivo is challenging and we discuss possible solutions going forward. We also consider how sumoylation of multiple substrates might be coordinated during vulval development. Finally, we note that iteration of this approach could leverage our sumoylation findings to define the roles of other effectors of NHR-25 in the developing vulva and in other tissues. PMID:25254154

Ward, Jordan D; Yamamoto, Keith R; Asahina, Masako

2014-01-01

128

Human Urinary Exosomes as Innate Immune Effectors  

PubMed Central

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (Tamm–Horsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

Hiemstra, Thomas F.; Charles, Philip D.; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S.; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R. Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N.

2014-01-01

129

Modes of TAL effector-mediated repression  

PubMed Central

Engineered transcription activator-like effectors, or TALEs, have emerged as a new class of designer DNA-binding proteins. Their DNA recognition sites can be specified with great flexibility. When fused to appropriate transcriptional regulatory domains, they can serve as designer transcription factors, modulating the activity of targeted promoters. We created tet operator (tetO)-specific TALEs (tetTALEs), with an identical DNA-binding site as the Tet repressor (TetR) and the TetR-based transcription factors that are extensively used in eukaryotic transcriptional control systems. Different constellations of tetTALEs and tetO modified chromosomal transcription units were analyzed for their efficacy in mammalian cells. We find that tetTALE-silencers can entirely abrogate expression from the strong human EF1? promoter when binding upstream of the transcriptional control sequence. Remarkably, the DNA-binding domain of tetTALE alone can effectively counteract trans-activation mediated by the potent tettrans-activator and also directly interfere with RNA polymerase II transcription initiation from the strong CMV promoter. Our results demonstrate that TALEs can act as highly versatile tools in genetic engineering, serving as trans-activators, trans-silencers and also competitive repressors. PMID:25389273

Werner, Jeannette; Gossen, Manfred

2014-01-01

130

Expressing the Erwinia amylovora type III effector DspA/E in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strongly alters cellular trafficking.  

PubMed

Erwinia amylovora is responsible for fire blight, a necrotic disease of apples and pears. E. amylovora relies on a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce disease on host plants. DspA/E belongs to the AvrE family of type III effector. Effectors of the AvrE family are injected via the T3SS in plant cell and are important to promote bacterial growth following infection and to suppress plant defense responses. Their mode of action in the plant cells is unknown. Here we study the physiological effects induced by dspA/E expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of dspA/E in the yeast inhibits cell growth. This growth inhibition is associated with perturbations of the actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis. PMID:23650572

Siamer, Sabrina; Patrit, Oriane; Fagard, Mathilde; Belgareh-Touzé, Naïma; Barny, Marie-Anne

2011-12-01

131

Expressing the Erwinia amylovora type III effector DspA/E in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strongly alters cellular trafficking  

PubMed Central

Erwinia amylovora is responsible for fire blight, a necrotic disease of apples and pears. E. amylovora relies on a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce disease on host plants. DspA/E belongs to the AvrE family of type III effector. Effectors of the AvrE family are injected via the T3SS in plant cell and are important to promote bacterial growth following infection and to suppress plant defense responses. Their mode of action in the plant cells is unknown. Here we study the physiological effects induced by dspA/E expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of dspA/E in the yeast inhibits cell growth. This growth inhibition is associated with perturbations of the actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis. PMID:23650572

Siamer, Sabrina; Patrit, Oriane; Fagard, Mathilde; Belgareh-Touzé, Naïma; Barny, Marie-Anne

2011-01-01

132

Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

1992-01-01

133

An intelligent end-effector for a rehabilitation robot.  

PubMed

A UMI RTX robot, modified with limited end-effector sensors and a restricted but effective vision system, is currently used in a developmental education setting for severely physically disabled children. The low physical and cognitive abilities of the children involved in the project require a semi-autonomous robot with environmental sensing capability to operate in a task oriented mode. A variety of low-cost sensors including proximity, distance, force and slip sensors, have been investigated for integration in end-effectors for the RTX robot. The sensors employed on a modified end-effector are detailed and experimental results are presented. A design for an end-effector with integrated sensors is discussed. The integration of the sensor information into a high-level, task-oriented programming language is detailed and examples of high-level control sequences using sensor inputs are presented. Finally, the development of intelligent gripping strategies based on sensor information is discussed. PMID:2733012

Gosine, R G; Harwin, W S; Furby, L J; Jackson, R D

1989-01-01

134

Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

1992-11-01

135

Vision-based end-effector position error compensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a computationally efficient algorithm that provides the ability to accurately place an arm end-effector on a target designated in an image using low speed feed back from a fixed stero camera.

Bajracharya, Max; Backes, Paul; DiCicco, Matthew

2006-01-01

136

OX40: life beyond the effector T cell stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OX–40 receptor (OX–40R) is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of activated CD4+T cells. When engaged by an agonist such as anti–OX–40 antibody or the OX–40 ligand (OX–40L) during antigen presentation to T cell lines, the OX–40R generates a costimulatory signal that is as potent as CD28 costimulation. Engagement of OX–40R enhances effector and memory–effector T cell function

Andrew D. Weinberg; Anthony T. Vella; Michael Croft

1998-01-01

137

Th17 cells: Effector T cells with inflammatory properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon activation, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into effector T cells with specific effector functions and cytokine profiles. The Th1\\/Th2 paradigm has recently been reevaluated to include a third population of T helper cells, producing IL-17 and designated Th17. The differentiation of Th17 cells requires the coordinate and specific action of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-?.

Thomas Korn; Mohamed Oukka; Vijay Kuchroo; Estelle Bettelli

2007-01-01

138

Diverse type VI secretion phospholipases are functionally plastic antibacterial effectors.  

PubMed

Membranes allow the compartmentalization of biochemical processes and are therefore fundamental to life. The conservation of the cellular membrane, combined with its accessibility to secreted proteins, has made it a common target of factors mediating antagonistic interactions between diverse organisms. Here we report the discovery of a diverse superfamily of bacterial phospholipase enzymes. Within this superfamily, we defined enzymes with phospholipase A1 and A2 activity, which are common in host-cell-targeting bacterial toxins and the venoms of certain insects and reptiles. However, we find that the fundamental role of the superfamily is to mediate antagonistic bacterial interactions as effectors of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) translocation apparatus; accordingly, we name these proteins type VI lipase effectors. Our analyses indicate that PldA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a eukaryotic-like phospholipase D, is a member of the type VI lipase effector superfamily and the founding substrate of the haemolysin co-regulated protein secretion island II T6SS (H2-T6SS). Although previous studies have specifically implicated PldA and the H2-T6SS in pathogenesis, we uncovered a specific role for the effector and its secretory machinery in intra- and interspecies bacterial interactions. Furthermore, we find that this effector achieves its antibacterial activity by degrading phosphatidylethanolamine, the major component of bacterial membranes. The surprising finding that virulence-associated phospholipases can serve as specific antibacterial effectors suggests that interbacterial interactions are a relevant factor driving the continuing evolution of pathogenesis. PMID:23552891

Russell, Alistair B; LeRoux, Michele; Hathazi, Krisztina; Agnello, Danielle M; Ishikawa, Takahiko; Wiggins, Paul A; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Mougous, Joseph D

2013-04-25

139

Multiple activities of the plant pathogen type III effector proteins WtsE and AvrE require WxxxE motifs.  

PubMed

The broadly conserved AvrE-family of type III effectors from gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria includes important virulence factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these effectors function inside plant cells to promote disease. We have identified two conserved motifs in AvrE-family effectors: a WxxxE motif and a putative C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention/retrieval signal (ERMRS). The WxxxE and ERMRS motifs are both required for the virulence activities of WtsE and AvrE, which are major virulence factors of the corn pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and the tomato or Arabidopsis pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, respectively. The WxxxE and the predicted ERMRS motifs are also required for other biological activities of WtsE, including elicitation of the hypersensitive response in nonhost plants and suppression of defense responses in Arabidopsis. A family of type III effectors from mammalian bacterial pathogens requires WxxxE and subcellular targeting motifs for virulence functions that involve their ability to mimic activated G-proteins. The conservation of related motifs and their necessity for the function of type III effectors from plant pathogens indicates that disturbing host pathways by mimicking activated host G-proteins may be a virulence mechanism employed by plant pathogens as well. PMID:19445595

Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris R; Nomura, Kinya; Mecey, Christy; Uribe, Francisco; He, Sheng-Yang; Mackey, David; Coplin, David L

2009-06-01

140

Multiple Activities of the Plant Pathogen Type III Effector Proteins WtsE and AvrE1 require WxxxE Motifs  

PubMed Central

The broadly conserved AvrE-family of type III effectors from Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria includes important virulence factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these effectors function inside plant cells to promote disease. We have identified two conserved motifs in AvrE-family effectors: a WxxxE motif and a putative C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention/retrieval signal (ERMRS). The WxxxE and ERMRS motifs are both required for the virulence activities of WtsE and AvrE1, which are major virulence factors of the corn pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and the tomato/Arabidopsis pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, respectively. The WxxxE and the predicted ERMRS motifs are also required for other biological activities of WtsE, including elicitation of the hypersensitive response in nonhost plants and suppression of defense responses in Arabidopsis. A family of type III effectors from mammalian bacterial pathogens requires WxxxE and sub-cellular targeting motifs for virulence functions that involve their ability to mimic activated G-proteins. The conservation of related motifs and their necessity for the function of type III effectors from plant pathogens indicates that disturbing host pathways by mimicking activated host G-proteins may be a virulence mechanism employed by plant pathogens as well. PMID:19445595

Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris R.; Nomura, Kinya; Mecey, Christy; Uribe, Francisco; He, Sheng-Yang; Mackey, David; Coplin, David L.

2009-01-01

141

A Pathogen Type III Effector with a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Architecture  

PubMed Central

Type III effectors are virulence factors of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens delivered directly into host cells by the type III secretion nanomachine where they manipulate host cell processes such as the innate immunity and gene expression. Here, we show that the novel type III effector XopL from the model plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and in planta, induces plant cell death and subverts plant immunity. E3 ligase activity is associated with the C-terminal region of XopL, which specifically interacts with plant E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and mediates formation of predominantly K11-linked polyubiquitin chains. The crystal structure of the XopL C-terminal domain revealed a single domain with a novel fold, termed XL-box, not present in any previously characterized E3 ligase. Mutation of amino acids in the central cavity of the XL-box disrupts E3 ligase activity and prevents XopL-induced plant cell death. The lack of cysteine residues in the XL-box suggests the absence of thioester-linked ubiquitin-E3 ligase intermediates and a non-catalytic mechanism for XopL-mediated ubiquitination. The crystal structure of the N-terminal region of XopL confirmed the presence of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which may serve as a protein-protein interaction module for ubiquitination target recognition. While the E3 ligase activity is required to provoke plant cell death, suppression of PAMP responses solely depends on the N-terminal LRR domain. Taken together, the unique structural fold of the E3 ubiquitin ligase domain within the Xanthomonas XopL is unprecedented and highlights the variation in bacterial pathogen effectors mimicking this eukaryote-specific activity. PMID:23359647

Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Egler, Monique; Srikumar, Tharan; Raught, Brian; Lee, Justin; Scheel, Dierk; Savchenko, Alexei; Bonas, Ulla

2013-01-01

142

ATP as effector of inorganic pyrophosphatase of Escherichia coli . The role of residue Lys112 in binding effectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that PPi, methylenediphosphonate, and ATP act as effectors of Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatase (E-PPase), and that they compete for binding at the allosteric regulatory site. On the basis of\\u000a chemical modification and computer modeling of a structure of the enzyme-ATP complex, a number of amino acid residues presumably\\u000a involved in binding effectors has been revealed. Mutant

E. V. Rodina; N. N. Vorobyeva; S. A. Kurilova; T. S. Sitnik; T. I. Nazarova

2007-01-01

143

Distinct Roles of Cdc42 in Thymopoiesis and Effector and Memory T Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Cdc42 of the Rho GTPase family has been implicated in cell actin organization, proliferation, survival, and migration but its physiological role is likely cell-type specific. By a T cell-specific deletion of Cdc42 in mouse, we have recently shown that Cdc42 maintains naïve T cell homeostasis through promoting cell survival and suppressing T cell activation. Here we have further investigated the involvement of Cdc42 in multiple stages of T cell differentiation. We found that in Cdc42?/? thymus, positive selection of CD4+CD8+ double-positive thymocytes was defective, CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive thymocytes were impaired in migration and showed an increase in cell apoptosis triggered by anti-CD3/-CD28 antibodies, and thymocytes were hyporesponsive to anti-CD3/-CD28-induced cell proliferation and hyperresponsive to anti-CD3/-CD28-stimulated MAP kinase activation. At the periphery, Cdc42-deficient naive T cells displayed an impaired actin polymerization and TCR clustering during the formation of mature immunological synapse, and showed an enhanced differentiation to Th1 and CD8+ effector and memory cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, Cdc42?/? mice exhibited exacerbated liver damage in an induced autoimmune disease model. Collectively, these data establish that Cdc42 is critically involved in thymopoiesis and plays a restrictive role in effector and memory T cell differentiation and autoimmunity. PMID:21455314

Guo, Fukun; Zhang, Shuangmin; Tripathi, Pulak; Mattner, Jochen; Phelan, James; Sproles, Alyssa; Mo, Jun; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Grimes, H. Leighton; Hildeman, David; Zheng, Yi

2011-01-01

144

A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors  

E-print Network

Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, ...

Okujava, Rusudan

145

Innate Immunity in Plants: An Arms Race Between Pattern Recognition Receptors in Plants and Effectors in Microbial Pathogens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plant defense responses known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) begin when the plant is exposed to microbial elicitors named pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs). Recent studies provide an elegant explanation for the difficulty of demonstrating the role of PTI in plant disease resistance. It turns out that the important contribution of PTI to disease resistance is masked by pathogen virulence effectors that have evolved to suppress it.

Thomas Boller (University of Basel; Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center, Botanical Institute)

2009-05-08

146

Molecular determinants of resistance activation and suppression by Phytophthora infestans effector IPI-O  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite intensive breeding efforts, potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, remains a threat to potato production worldwide because newly evolved pathogen strains have overcome major resistance genes. The Rpi-blb1 gene (also known as RB), from the wild potato Sola...

147

Ancient class of translocated oomycete effectors targets the host nucleus  

PubMed Central

Pathogens use specialized secretion systems and targeting signals to translocate effector proteins inside host cells, a process that is essential for promoting disease and parasitism. However, the amino acid sequences that determine host delivery of eukaryotic pathogen effectors remain mostly unknown. The Crinkler (CRN) proteins of oomycete plant pathogens, such as the Irish potato famine organism Phytophthora infestans, are modular proteins with predicted secretion signals and conserved N-terminal sequence motifs. Here, we provide direct evidence that CRN N termini mediate protein transport into plant cells. CRN host translocation requires a conserved motif that is present in all examined plant pathogenic oomycetes, including the phylogenetically divergent species Aphanomyces euteiches that does not form haustoria, specialized infection structures that have been implicated previously in delivery of effectors. Several distinct CRN C termini localized to plant nuclei and, in the case of CRN8, required nuclear accumulation to induce plant cell death. These results reveal a large family of ubiquitous oomycete effector proteins that target the host nucleus. Oomycetes appear to have acquired the ability to translocate effector proteins inside plant cells relatively early in their evolution and before the emergence of haustoria. Finally, this work further implicates the host nucleus as an important cellular compartment where the fate of plant–microbe interactions is determined. PMID:20847293

Schornack, Sebastian; van Damme, Mireille; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cano, Liliana M.; Smoker, Matthew; Thines, Marco; Gaulin, Elodie; Kamoun, Sophien; Huitema, Edgar

2010-01-01

148

Tools for TAL effector design and target prediction.  

PubMed

TAL effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria during infection. They find their specific DNA targets via a string of contiguous, structural repeats that individually recognize single nucleotides (with some degeneracy) by virtue of polymorphisms at residue 13. The number of repeats and sequence of the amino acids at position 13 determine the nucleotide sequence of the DNA target. Due to this modularity, TAL effectors are readily engineered and have been used alone or as molecular fusions for targeted gene activation, gene repression, chromatin modification, chromatin tagging, and most broadly, for genome editing as TAL effector nucleases (TALENs). Several moderate and high-throughput cloning methods are in place for assembling TAL effector-based genetic constructs. Targeting is complicated to an extent by a general requirement for thymine to precede the DNA target, a requirement of TALENs to bind paired opposing sites separated by a defined range of distances, differential contributions of different repeat types to overall affinity, and a polarity to mismatch tolerance. Several computational tools are available online to aid in design and the identification of candidate off-target binding sites, as well as assembly and implementation. These tools vary in their approaches, capabilities, and relative utility for different types of TAL effector applications. Accuracy of off-target prediction is not well characterized yet for any of the tools and will require a better understanding of the qualitative and quantitative variation in the nucleotide preferences of individual repeats. PMID:24981075

Booher, Nicholas J; Bogdanove, Adam J

2014-09-01

149

Ancient class of translocated oomycete effectors targets the host nucleus.  

PubMed

Pathogens use specialized secretion systems and targeting signals to translocate effector proteins inside host cells, a process that is essential for promoting disease and parasitism. However, the amino acid sequences that determine host delivery of eukaryotic pathogen effectors remain mostly unknown. The Crinkler (CRN) proteins of oomycete plant pathogens, such as the Irish potato famine organism Phytophthora infestans, are modular proteins with predicted secretion signals and conserved N-terminal sequence motifs. Here, we provide direct evidence that CRN N termini mediate protein transport into plant cells. CRN host translocation requires a conserved motif that is present in all examined plant pathogenic oomycetes, including the phylogenetically divergent species Aphanomyces euteiches that does not form haustoria, specialized infection structures that have been implicated previously in delivery of effectors. Several distinct CRN C termini localized to plant nuclei and, in the case of CRN8, required nuclear accumulation to induce plant cell death. These results reveal a large family of ubiquitous oomycete effector proteins that target the host nucleus. Oomycetes appear to have acquired the ability to translocate effector proteins inside plant cells relatively early in their evolution and before the emergence of haustoria. Finally, this work further implicates the host nucleus as an important cellular compartment where the fate of plant-microbe interactions is determined. PMID:20847293

Schornack, Sebastian; van Damme, Mireille; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Cano, Liliana M; Smoker, Matthew; Thines, Marco; Gaulin, Elodie; Kamoun, Sophien; Huitema, Edgar

2010-10-01

150

The Phytophthora sojae Avr1d gene encodes an RxLR-dEER effector with presence and absence polymorphisms among pathogen strains.  

PubMed

Soybean root and stem rot is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. The interaction between P. sojae and soybean fits the "gene-for-gene" hypothesis. Although more than 10 P. sojae avirulence (Avr) effectors have been genetically identified, nearly half of genetically defined avr genes have been cloned. In a previous bioinformatic and global transcriptional analysis, we identified a P. sojae RxLR effector, Avr1d, which was 125 amino acids in length. Mapping data demonstrated that Avr1d presence or absence in the genome was co-segregated with the Avr1d avirulence phenotype in F2 populations. Transient expression of the Avr1d gene using co-bombardment in soybean isogenic lines revealed that this gene triggered a hypersensitive response (HR) in the presence of Rps1d. Sequencing of Avr1d genes in different P. sojae strains revealed two Avr1d alleles. Although polymorphic, the two Avr1d alleles could trigger Rps1d-mediated HR. P. sojae strains carrying either of the alleles were avirulent on Rps1d soybean lines. Avr1d was upregulated during the germinating cyst and early infection stages. Furthermore, transient expression of Avr1d in Nicotiana benthamiana suppressed BAX-induced cell death and enhanced P. capsici infection. Avr1d also suppressed effector-triggered immunity induction by associating with Avr1b and Rps1b, suggestive of a role in suppressing plant immunity. PMID:23594349

Yin, Weixiao; Dong, Suomeng; Zhai, Luchong; Lin, Yachun; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

2013-08-01

151

Graft rejection by cytolytic T cells. Specificity of the effector mechanism in the rejection of allogeneic marrow  

SciTech Connect

Cellular effector mechanisms of allograft rejection remain incompletely described. Characterizing the rejection of foreign-marrow allografts rather than solid-organ grafts has the advantage that the cellular composition of the marrow graft, as a single cell suspension, can be altered to include cellular components with differing antigen expression. Rejection of marrow grafts is sensitive to lethal doses of radiation in the mouse but resistant to sublethal levels of radiation. In an effort to identify cells mediating host resistance, lymphocytes were isolated and cloned from spleens of mice 7 days after sublethal TBI (650 cGy) and inoculation with allogeneic marrow. All clones isolated were cytolytic with specificity for MHC encoded gene products of the allogeneic marrow donor. When cloned cells were transferred in vivo into lethally irradiated (1025 cGy) recipients unable to reject allogeneic marrow, results utilizing splenic 125IUdR uptake indicated that these MHC-specific cytotoxic clones could suppress marrow proliferation. In order to characterize the effector mechanism and the ability of the clones to affect final engraftment, double donor chimeras were constructed so that 2 target cell populations differing at the MHC from each other and from the host were present in the same marrow allograft. Results directly demonstrated an ability of CTL of host MHC type to mediate graft rejection and characterized the effector mechanism as one with specificity for MHC gene products.

Nakamura, H.; Gress, R.E. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-02-01

152

Planar cell polarity effector gene Intu regulates cell fate-specific differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia  

PubMed Central

Genes involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway are essential for a number of developmental processes in mammals, such as convergent extension and ciliogenesis. Tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway are believed to mediate PCP signals in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner. However, how PCP signaling controls the morphogenesis of mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of inturned (Intu), a tissue-specific PCP effector gene, during hair follicle formation in mice. Tissue-specific disruption of Intu in embryonic epidermis resulted in hair follicle morphogenesis arrest because of the failure of follicular keratinocyte to differentiate. Targeting Intu in the epidermis resulted in almost complete loss of primary cilia in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, and a suppressed hedgehog signaling pathway. Surprisingly, the epidermal stratification and differentiation programs and barrier function were not affected. These results demonstrate that tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway control the differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia in a cell fate- and context-dependent manner, which may be critical in orchestrating the propagation and interpretation of polarity signals established by the core PCP components. PMID:22935613

Dai, D; Li, L; Huebner, A; Zeng, H; Guevara, E; Claypool, D J; Liu, A; Chen, J

2013-01-01

153

Immune suppression in cancer: Effects on immune cells, mechanisms and future therapeutic intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence indicates that the healthy immune system is necessary for control of malignant disease and that immune suppression associated with cancer contributes to its progression. Tumors have developed strategies to successfully evade the host immune system, and various molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for tumor evasion have been identified. Certain of these mechanisms target immune anti-tumor effector cells. Dysfunction and

Theresa L. Whiteside

2006-01-01

154

Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens  

PubMed Central

R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed ‘effector-triggered defence’ (ETD). Unlike PTI and ETI, ETD is mediated by R genes encoding cell surface-localised receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that engage the receptor-like kinase SOBIR1. In contrast to this extracellular recognition, ETI is initiated by intracellular detection of pathogen effectors. ETI is usually associated with fast, hypersensitive host cell death, whereas ETD often triggers host cell death only after an elapsed period of endophytic pathogen growth. In this opinion, we focus on ETD responses against foliar fungal pathogens of crops. PMID:24856287

Stotz, Henrik U.; Mitrousia, Georgia K.; de Wit, Pierre J.G.M.; Fitt, Bruce D.L.

2014-01-01

155

Structural Insights into Rab27 Recruitment by its Effectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of Rab GTPases associated with partial dysfunction has been linked to several human diseases characterized by a diminution in vesicle transport. Due to its direct implication in human disorders, the Rab27 subfamily is considered as a standard for vesicle docking studies. By which mechanism Rab27 effectors distinguish among the pool of Rab GTPases? What is the underneath machinery rendering the interaction of eleven distinct effectors specific of Rab27 when compared to other Rabs of the secretory pathway? By solving the X-ray structures of Rab27, both in its inactive form and active form bound to the effector protein Slp2-a, attempts have been given to unravel the molecular basis of regulation of the delivering process of vesicles to fusion by the Rab27 subfamily.

M. G. Chavas, Leonard; Ihara, Kentaro; Kawasaki, Masato; Wakatsuki, Soichi

156

Lineage relationship of effector and memory T cells.  

PubMed

Adaptive immunity is characterized by the ability to form long-lived immunological memory. Upon re-exposure to antigen, memory T cells respond more rapidly and robustly than naïve T cells, providing better clearance of pathogens. Recent reviews have reinforced the text-book view that memory T cells arise from effector cells. Although this notion is teleologically appealing, emerging data are more consistent with a model where naïve cells directly develop into memory cells without transitioning through an effector stage. A clear understanding of the lineage relationships between memory and effector cells has profound implications for the design of vaccines and for the development of effective T cell-based therapies. PMID:24148236

Restifo, Nicholas P; Gattinoni, Luca

2013-10-01

157

Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector  

SciTech Connect

The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD{ampersand}E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design.

Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

1997-09-30

158

How Do Filamentous Pathogens Deliver Effector Proteins into Plant Cells?  

PubMed Central

Fungal and oomycete plant parasites are among the most devastating pathogens of food crops. These microbes secrete effector proteins inside plant cells to manipulate host processes and facilitate colonization. How these effectors reach the host cytoplasm remains an unclear and debated area of plant research. In this article, we examine recent conflicting findings that have generated discussion in the field. We also highlight promising approaches based on studies of both parasite and host during infection. Ultimately, this knowledge may inform future broad spectrum strategies for protecting crops from such pathogens. PMID:24586116

Petre, Benjamin; Kamoun, Sophien

2014-01-01

159

Nanorobotic end-effectors: Design, fabrication, and in situ characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-robotic end-effectors have promising applications for nano-fabrication, nano-manufacturing, nano-optics, nano-medical, and nano-sensing; however, low performances of the conventional end-effectors have prevented the widespread utilization of them in various fields. There are two major difficulties in developing the end-effectors: their nano-fabrication and their advanced characterization in the nanoscale. Here we introduce six types of end-effectors: the nanotube fountain pen (NFP), the super-fine nanoprobe, the metal-filled carbon nanotube (m CNT)-based sphere-on-pillar (SOP) nanoantennas, the tunneling nanosensor, and the nanowire-based memristor. The investigations on the NFP are focused on nano-fluidics and nano-fabrications. The NFP could direct write metallic "inks" and fabricating complex metal nanostructures from 0D to 3D with a position servo control, which is critically important to future large-scale, high-throughput nanodevice production. With the help of NFP, we could fabricate the end-effectors such as super-fine nanoprobe and m CNT-based SOP nanoantennas. Those end-effectors are able to detect local flaws or characterize the electrical/mechanical properties of the nanostructure. Moreover, using electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy (EELS) technique during the operation of the SOP optical antenna opens a new basis for the application of nano-robotic end-effectors. The technique allows advanced characterization of the physical changes, such as carrier diffusion, that are directly responsible for the device's properties. As the device was coupled with characterization techniques of scanning-trasmission-electron-microscopy (STEM), the development of tunneling nanosensor advances this field of science into quantum world. Furthermore, the combined STEM-EELS technique plays an important role in our understanding of the memristive switching performance in the nanowire-based memristor. The developments of those nano-robotic end-effectors expend the study abilities in investigating the in situ nanotechnology, providing efficient ways in in situ nanostructure fabrication and the advanced characterization of the nanomaterials.

Fan, Zheng

160

Visual End-Effector Position Error Compensation for Planetary Robotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a vision-guided manipulation algorithm that improves arm end-effector positioning to subpixel accuracy and meets the highly restrictive imaging and computational constraints of a planetary robotic flight system. Analytical, simulation-based, and experimental analyses of the algorithm's effectiveness and sensitivity to camera and arm model error is presented along with results on several prototype research systems and 'ground-in-the-loop' technology experiments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles. A computationally efficient and robust subpixel end-effector fiducial detector that is instrumental to the algorithm's ability to achieve high accuracy is also described along with its validation results on MER data.

Bajracharya, Max; DiCicco, Matthew; Backes, Paul; Nickels, Kevin

2007-01-01

161

Ralstonia solanacearum Requires PopS, an Ancient AvrE-Family Effector, for Virulence and To Overcome Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defenses during Tomato Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT During bacterial wilt of tomato, the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum upregulates expression of popS, which encodes a type III-secreted effector in the AvrE family. PopS is a core effector present in all sequenced strains in the R. solanacearum species complex. The phylogeny of popS mirrors that of the species complex as a whole, suggesting that this is an ancient, vertically inherited effector needed for association with plants. A popS mutant of R. solanacearum UW551 had reduced virulence on agriculturally important Solanum spp., including potato and tomato plants. However, the popS mutant had wild-type virulence on a weed host, Solanum dulcamara, suggesting that some species can avoid the effects of PopS. The popS mutant was also significantly delayed in colonization of tomato stems compared to the wild type. Some AvrE-type effectors from gammaproteobacteria suppress salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defenses, suggesting that PopS, a betaproteobacterial ortholog, has a similar function. Indeed, the popS mutant induced significantly higher expression of tomato SA-triggered pathogenesis-related (PR) genes than the wild type. Further, pretreatment of roots with SA exacerbated the popS mutant virulence defect. Finally, the popS mutant had no colonization defect on SA-deficient NahG transgenic tomato plants. Together, these results indicate that this conserved effector suppresses SA-mediated defenses in tomato roots and stems, which are R. solanacearum’s natural infection sites. Interestingly, PopS did not trigger necrosis when heterologously expressed in Nicotiana leaf tissue, unlike the AvrE homolog DspEPcc from the necrotroph Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is consistent with the differing pathogenesis modes of necrosis-causing gammaproteobacteria and biotrophic R. solanacearum. PMID:24281716

Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Milling, Annett; Mitra, Raka M.; Hogan, Clifford S.; Ailloud, Florent; Prior, Philippe; Allen, Caitilyn

2013-01-01

162

Effector and Naturally Occurring Regulatory T Cells Display No Abnormalities in Activation Induced Cell Death in NOD Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Disturbed peripheral negative regulation might contribute to evolution of autoimmune insulitis in type 1 diabetes. This study evaluates the sensitivity of naïve/effector (Teff) and regulatory T cells (Treg) to activation-induced cell death mediated by Fas cross-linking in NOD and wild-type mice. Principal Findings Both effector (CD25?, FoxP3?) and suppressor (CD25+, FoxP3+) CD4+ T cells are negatively regulated by Fas cross-linking in mixed splenocyte populations of NOD, wild type mice and FoxP3-GFP tranegenes. Proliferation rates and sensitivity to Fas cross-linking are dissociated in Treg cells: fast cycling induced by IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation improve Treg resistance to Fas-ligand (FasL) in both strains. The effector and suppressor CD4+ subsets display balanced sensitivity to negative regulation under baseline conditions, IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation, indicating that stimulation does not perturb immune homeostasis in NOD mice. Effective autocrine apoptosis of diabetogenic cells was evident from delayed onset and reduced incidence of adoptive disease transfer into NOD.SCID by CD4+CD25? T cells decorated with FasL protein. Treg resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis retain suppressive activity in vitro. The only detectable differential response was reduced Teff proliferation and upregulation of CD25 following CD3-activation in NOD mice. Conclusion These data document negative regulation of effector and suppressor cells by Fas cross-linking and dissociation between sensitivity to apoptosis and proliferation in stimulated Treg. There is no evidence that perturbed AICD in NOD mice initiates or promotes autoimmune insulitis. PMID:21738739

Kaminitz, Ayelet; Yolcu, Esma S.; Askenasy, Enosh M.; Stein, Jerry; Yaniv, Isaac; Shirwan, Haval; Askenasy, Nadir

2011-01-01

163

Robotic End Effectors for Hard-Rock Climbing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Special-purpose robot hands (end effectors) now under development are intended to enable robots to traverse cliffs much as human climbers do. Potential applications for robots having this capability include scientific exploration (both on Earth and other rocky bodies in space), military reconnaissance, and outdoor search and rescue operations. Until now, enabling robots to traverse cliffs has been considered too difficult a task because of the perceived need of prohibitively sophisticated planning algorithms as well as end effectors as dexterous as human hands. The present end effectors are being designed to enable robots to attach themselves to typical rock-face features with less planning and simpler end effectors. This advance is based on the emulation of the equipment used by human climbers rather than the emulation of the human hand. Climbing-aid equipment, specifically cams, aid hooks, and cam hooks, are used by sport climbers when a quick ascent of a cliff is desired (see Figure 1). Currently two different end-effector designs have been created. The first, denoted the simple hook emulator, consists of three "fingers" arranged around a central "palm." Each finger emulates the function of a particular type of climbing hook (aid hook, wide cam hook, and a narrow cam hook). These fingers are connected to the palm via a mechanical linkage actuated with a leadscrew/nut. This mechanism allows the fingers to be extended or retracted. The second design, denoted the advanced hook emulator (see Figure 2), shares these features, but it incorporates an aid hook and a cam hook into each finger. The spring-loading of the aid hook allows the passive selection of the type of hook used. The end effectors can be used in several different modes. In the aid-hook mode, the aid hook on one of the fingers locks onto a horizontal ledge while the other two fingers act to stabilize the end effector against the cliff face. In the cam-hook mode, the broad, flat tip of the cam hook is inserted into a non-horizontal crack in the cliff face. A subsequent transfer of weight onto the end effector causes the tip to rotate within the crack, creating a passive, self-locking action of the hook relative to the crack. In the advanced hook emulator, the aid hook is pushed into its retracted position by contact with the cliff face as the cam hook tip is inserted into the crack. When a cliff face contains relatively large pockets or cracks, another type of passive self-locking can be used. Emulating the function of the piece of climbing equipment called a "cam" (note: not the same as a "cam hook"; see Figure 1), the fingers can be fully retracted and the entire end effector inserted into the feature. The fingers are then extended as far as the feature allows. Any weight then transferred to the end effector will tend to extend the fingers further due to frictional force, passively increasing the grip on the feature. In addition to the climbing modes, these end effectors can be used to walk on (either on the palm or the fingertips) and to grasp objects by fully extending the fingers.

Kennedy, Brett; Leger, Patrick

2004-01-01

164

Genome-scale identification of Legionella pneumophila effectors using a machine learning approach.  

PubMed

A large number of highly pathogenic bacteria utilize secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into host cells. Using these effectors, the bacteria subvert host cell processes during infection. Legionella pneumophila translocates effectors via the Icm/Dot type-IV secretion system and to date, approximately 100 effectors have been identified by various experimental and computational techniques. Effector identification is a critical first step towards the understanding of the pathogenesis system in L. pneumophila as well as in other bacterial pathogens. Here, we formulate the task of effector identification as a classification problem: each L. pneumophila open reading frame (ORF) was classified as either effector or not. We computationally defined a set of features that best distinguish effectors from non-effectors. These features cover a wide range of characteristics including taxonomical dispersion, regulatory data, genomic organization, similarity to eukaryotic proteomes and more. Machine learning algorithms utilizing these features were then applied to classify all the ORFs within the L. pneumophila genome. Using this approach we were able to predict and experimentally validate 40 new effectors, reaching a success rate of above 90%. Increasing the number of validated effectors to around 140, we were able to gain novel insights into their characteristics. Effectors were found to have low G+C content, supporting the hypothesis that a large number of effectors originate via horizontal gene transfer, probably from their protozoan host. In addition, effectors were found to cluster in specific genomic regions. Finally, we were able to provide a novel description of the C-terminal translocation signal required for effector translocation by the Icm/Dot secretion system. To conclude, we have discovered 40 novel L. pneumophila effectors, predicted over a hundred additional highly probable effectors, and shown the applicability of machine learning algorithms for the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogenesis determinants. PMID:19593377

Burstein, David; Zusman, Tal; Degtyar, Elena; Viner, Ram; Segal, Gil; Pupko, Tal

2009-07-01

165

A family of conserved bacterial effectors inhibits salicylic acid-mediated basal immunity and promotes disease necrosis in plants  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA)-mediated host immunity plays a central role in combating microbial pathogens in plants. Inactivation of SA-mediated immunity, therefore, would be a critical step in the evolution of a successful plant pathogen. It is known that mutations in conserved effector loci (CEL) in the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae (the ?CEL mutation), Erwinia amylovora (the dspA/E mutation), and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (the wtsE mutation) exert particularly strong negative effects on bacterial virulence in their host plants by unknown mechanisms. We found that the loss of virulence in ?CEL and dspA/E mutants was linked to their inability to suppress cell wall-based defenses and to cause normal disease necrosis in Arabidopsis and apple host plants. The ?CEL mutant activated SA-dependent callose deposition in wild-type Arabidopsis but failed to elicit high levels of callose-associated defense in Arabidopsis plants blocked in SA accumulation or synthesis. This mutant also multiplied more aggressively in SA-deficient plants than in wild-type plants. The hopPtoM and avrE genes in the CEL of P. syringae were found to encode suppressors of this SA-dependent basal defense. The widespread conservation of the HopPtoM and AvrE families of effectors in various bacteria suggests that suppression of SA-dependent basal immunity and promotion of host cell death are important virulence strategies for bacterial infection of plants. PMID:15210989

DebRoy, Sruti; Thilmony, Roger; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Nomura, Kinya; He, Sheng Yang

2004-01-01

166

Expression of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli map is significantly different than that of other type III secreted effectors in vivo.  

PubMed

The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded effectors EspF and Map are multifunctional and have an impact on the tight junction barrier while the non-LEE-encoded proteins NleH1 and NleH2 possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. In order to address the temporal expression of these important genes in vivo, their promoters were cloned upstream of the luxCDABE operon, and luciferase expression was measured in EPEC-infected mice by bioluminescence using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Bioluminescent images of living mice, of excised whole intestines, and of whole intestines longitudinally opened and washed were assessed. The majority of bioluminescent bacteria localized in the cecum by 3 h postinfection, indicating that the cecum is not only a major colonization site of EPEC but also a site of EPEC effector gene expression in mice. espF, nleH1, and nleH2 were abundantly expressed over the course of infection. In contrast, map expression was suppressed at 2 days postinfection, and at 4 days postinfection it was totally abolished. After 2 to 4 days postinfection, when map is suppressed, EPEC colonization is significantly reduced, indicating that map may be one of the factors required to maintain EPEC colonization. This was confirmed in a competitive colonization study and in two models of chronic infection, repeated exposure to ketamine and Citrobacter rodentium infection. Our data suggest that map expression contributes to the maintenance of EPEC colonization. PMID:25312947

Nguyen, Mai; Rizvi, Jason; Hecht, Gail

2015-01-01

167

Phytophthora infestans effector AVR3a is essential for virulence and manipulates plant immunity by stabilizing host E3 ligase CMPG1  

PubMed Central

Fungal and oomycete plant pathogens translocate effector proteins into host cells to establish infection. However, virulence targets and modes of action of their effectors are unknown. Effector AVR3a from potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans is translocated into host cells and occurs in two forms: AVR3aKI, which is detected by potato resistance protein R3a, strongly suppresses infestin 1 (INF1)-triggered cell death (ICD), whereas AVR3aEM, which evades recognition by R3a, weakly suppresses host ICD. Here we show that AVR3a interacts with and stabilizes host U-box E3 ligase CMPG1, which is required for ICD. In contrast, AVR3aKI/Y147del, a mutant with a deleted C-terminal tyrosine residue that fails to suppress ICD, cannot interact with or stabilize CMPG1. CMPG1 is stabilized by the inhibitors MG132 and epoxomicin, indicating that it is degraded by the 26S proteasome. CMPG1 is degraded during ICD. However, it is stabilized by mutations in the U-box that prevent its E3 ligase activity. In stabilizing CMPG1, AVR3a thus modifies its normal activity. Remarkably, given the potential for hundreds of effector genes in the P. infestans genome, silencing Avr3a compromises P. infestans pathogenicity, suggesting that AVR3a is essential for virulence. Interestingly, Avr3a silencing can be complemented by in planta expression of Avr3aKI or Avr3aEM but not the Avr3aKI/Y147del mutant. Our data provide genetic evidence that AVR3a is an essential virulence factor that targets and stabilizes the plant E3 ligase CMPG1, potentially to prevent host cell death during the biotrophic phase of infection. PMID:20457921

Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Armstrong, Miles R.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Boevink, Petra C.; Hein, Ingo; Taylor, Rosalind M.; Zhendong, Tian; Engelhardt, Stefan; Vetukuri, Ramesh R.; Harrower, Brian; Dixelius, Christina; Bryan, Glenn; Sadanandom, Ari; Whisson, Stephen C.; Kamoun, Sophien; Birch, Paul R. J.

2010-01-01

168

Developmental control of integrin expression regulates Th2 effector homing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrin CD18, a component of the LFA-1 complex that also includes CD11a, is essential for Th2, but not Th1, cell homing, but the explanation for this phenomenon remains obscure. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which Th2 effector responses require the LFA-1 complex. CD11a-deficient T ...

169

Toward a Comprehensive Map of the Effectors of Rab GTPases  

PubMed Central

Summary The Rab GTPases recruit peripheral membrane proteins to intracellular organelles. These Rab effectors typically mediate the motility of organelles and vesicles and contribute to the specificity of membrane traffic. However, for many Rabs, few, if any, effectors have been identified; hence, their role remains unclear. To identify Rab effectors, we used a comprehensive set of Drosophila Rabs for affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry to identify the proteins bound to each Rab. For many Rabs, this revealed specific interactions with Drosophila orthologs of known effectors. In addition, we found numerous Rab-specific interactions with known components of membrane traffic as well as with diverse proteins not previously linked to organelles or having no known function. We confirm over 25 interactions for Rab2, Rab4, Rab5, Rab6, Rab7, Rab9, Rab18, Rab19, Rab30, and Rab39. These include tethering complexes, coiled-coiled proteins, motor linkers, Rab regulators, and several proteins linked to human disease. PMID:25453831

Gillingham, Alison K.; Sinka, Rita; Torres, Isabel L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Munro, Sean

2014-01-01

170

Ehrlichia Moonlighting Effectors and Interkingdom Interactions with the Mononuclear Phagocyte  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular gram negative bacterium with a small genome that thrives in mammalian mononuclear phagoctyes by exploiting eukaryotic processes. Herein, we discuss the latest findings on moonlighting tandem repeat protein effectors and their secretion mechanisms, and novel molecular interkingdom interactions that provide insight into the intracellular pathobiology of ehrlichiae. PMID:24141087

Dunphy, Paige Selvy; Luo, Tian; McBride, Jere W.

2013-01-01

171

Interplay between Rab27a effectors in pancreatic ?-cells  

PubMed Central

The small GTPase Rab27a is a member of the Rab family that is involved in membrane trafficking in various kinds of cells. Rab27a has GTP- and GDP-bound forms, and their interconversion regulates intracellular signaling pathways. Typically, only a GTP-bound GTPase binds its specific effectors with the resulting downstream signals controlling specific cellular functions. We previously identified novel Rab27a-interacting proteins. Surprisingly, some of these proteins interacted with GDP-bound Rab27a. The present study reviews recent progress in our understanding of the roles of Rab27a and its effectors in the secretory process. In pancreatic ?-cells, GTP-bound Rab27a regulates insulin secretion at the pre-exocytotic stages via its GTP-specific effectors such as Exophilin8/Slac2-c/MyRIP and Slp4/Granuphilin. Glucose stimulation causes insulin exocytosis. Glucose stimulation also converts Rab27a from its GTP- to its GDP-bound form. GDP-bound Rab27a interacts with GDP-specific effectors and controls endocytosis of the secretory membrane. Thus, Rab27a cycling between GTP- and GDP-bound forms synchronizes with the recycling of secretory membrane to re-use the membrane and keep the ?-cell volume constant. PMID:25897360

Yamaoka, Mami; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

2015-01-01

172

Toxoplasma Polymorphic Effectors Determine Macrophage Polarization and Intestinal Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

European and North American strains of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii belong to three distinct clonal lineages, type I, type II, and type III, which differ in virulence. Understanding the basis of Toxoplasma strain differences and how secreted effectors work to achieve chronic infection is a major goal of current research. Here we show that type I and III infected macrophages,

Yiding Wang; Kenneth Hu; Lara Cornel; Erwan Boedec; Yi-Ching Ong; Yueh-hsiu Chien

2011-01-01

173

Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins  

E-print Network

and Pseudomonas fluorescens to inject HopPsyA into tobacco cells, thereby eliciting a hypersensitive responseColloquium Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins Alan Collmer; and ¶Department of Biological Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4004 Pseudomonas syringae

174

Recent developments in the transcriptional regulation of cytolytic effector cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factors have a profound influence on both the differentiation and effector function of cells of the immune system. T-bet controls the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells and the production of interferon-?, and it also affects the development and function of natural killer cells and natural killer T cells. Other factors such as eomesodermin, MEF, ETS1 and members of the

Michael J. Townsend; Brandon M. Sullivan; Graham M. Lord; Laurie H. Glimcher

2004-01-01

175

Consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation for effector T cell function in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The adoptive transfer of acutely primed and memory virus-immune CD8+ T cells causes enhanced meningitis in both cyclophosphamide (Cy) suppressed, and unsuppressed, recipients infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of meningitis is assessed by counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the cisterna magna, which allows measurement of significant inflammatory process ranging from 3 to more than 300 times the background number of cells found in mice injected with virus alone. Exposure of the donor immune population to ionizing radiation prior to transfer has shown that activated T cells from mice primed 7 or 8 days previously with virus may still promote a low level of meningitis in unsuppressed recipients following as much as 800 rads, while this effect is lost totally in Cy-suppressed mice at 600 rads. Memory T cells are more susceptible and show no evidence of in vivo effector function in either recipient population subsequent to 400 rads, a dose level which also greatly reduces the efficacy of acutely-primed T cells. The results are interpreted as indicating that heavily irradiated cells that are already fully functional show evidence of primary localization to the CNS and a limited capacity to cause pathology. Secondary localization, and events that require further proliferation of the T cells in vivo, are greatly inhibited by irradiation.

Rouse, B.T.; Hartley, D.; Doherty, P.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1989-01-01

176

The effector repertoire of enteropathogenic E. coli: ganging up on the host cell  

PubMed Central

Diarrhoeal disease caused by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is dependent on a delivery system that injects numerous bacterial ‘effector’ proteins directly into host cells. The best-described EPEC effectors are encoded together on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island and display high levels of multifunctionality and cooperativity within the host cell. More recently, effectors encoded outside the LEE (non-LEE effectors) have been discovered and their functions are beginning to be uncovered. The recent completion of the EPEC genome sequence suggests its effector repertoire consists of at least 21 effector proteins. Here, we describe the genomic location of effectors and discuss recent advances made on effector cellular function as well as their role in the infection process. PMID:19144561

Dean, Paul; Kenny, Brendan

2009-01-01

177

The Shigella flexneri OspB effector: an early immunomodulator.  

PubMed

Through the action of the type three secretion system (T3SS) Shigella flexneri delivers several effectors into host cells to promote cellular invasion, multiplication and to exploit host-cell signaling pathways to modulate the host innate immune response. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of many type III effectors, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the OspB effector is still poorly characterized. In this study we present new evidence that better elucidates the role of OspB as pro-inflammatory factor at very early stages of infection. Indeed, we demonstrate that, during the first hour of infection, OspB is required for full activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Activation of cPLA(2) ultimately leads to the production and secretion of PMN chemoattractant metabolite(s) uncoupled with release of IL-8. Moreover, we also present evidence that OspB is required for the development of the full and promptly inflammatory reaction characteristic of S. flexneri wild-type infection in vivo. Based on OspB and OspF similarity (both effectors share similar transcription regulation, temporal secretion into host cells and nuclear localization) we hypothesized that OspB and OspF effectors may form a pair aimed at modulating the host cell response throughout the infection process, with opposite effects. A model is presented to illustrate how OspB activity would promote S. flexneri invasion and bacterial dissemination at early critical phases of infection. PMID:25434600

Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; Scribano, Daniela; Limongi, Dolores; Petrucca, Andrea; Cannavacciuolo, Sonia; Schippa, Serena; Zagaglia, Carlo; Grossi, Milena; Nicoletti, Mauro

2015-01-01

178

Diverse type VI secretion phospholipases are functionally plastic antibacterial effectors  

PubMed Central

Membranes allow the compartmentalization of biochemical processes and are therefore fundamental to life. The conservation of the cellular membrane, combined with its accessibility to secreted proteins, has made it a common target of factors mediating antagonistic interactions between diverse organisms. Here we report the discovery of a diverse superfamily of bacterial phospholipase enzymes. Within this superfamily, we defined enzymes with phospholipase A1 (PLA1) and A2 (PLA2) activity, which are common in host cell-targeting bacterial toxins and the venoms of certain insects and reptiles1,2. However, we find that the fundamental role of the superfamily is to mediate antagonistic bacterial interactions as effectors of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) translocation apparatus; accordingly, we name these proteins type VI lipase effectors (Tle). Our analyses indicate that PldA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a eukaryotic-like phospholipase D (PLD)3, is a member of the Tle superfamily and the founding substrate of the haemolysin co-regulated protein secretion island II T6SS (H2-T6SS). While prior studies have specifically implicated PldA and the H2-T6SS in pathogenesis3–5, we uncovered a specific role for the effector and its secretory machinery in intra- and inter-species bacterial interactions. Furthermore we find that this effector achieves its antibacterial activity by degrading phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the major component of bacterial membranes. The surprising finding that virulence-associated phospholipases can serve as specific antibacterial effectors suggests that interbacterial interactions are a relevant factor driving the ongoing evolution of pathogenesis. PMID:23552891

Russell, Alistair B.; LeRoux, Michele; Hathazi, Kristina; Agnello, Danielle M.; Ishikawa, Takahiko; Wiggins, Paul A.; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Mougous, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

179

The HrpN effector of Erwinia amylovora, which is involved in type III translocation, contributes directly or indirectly to callose elicitation on apple leaves.  

PubMed

Erwinia amylovora is responsible for fire blight of apple and pear trees. Its pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) mediating the translocation of effectors into the plant cell. The DspA/E effector suppresses callose deposition on apple leaves. We found that E. amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 tts mutants or peptide flg22 do not trigger callose deposition as strongly as the dspA/E mutant on apple leaves. This suggests that, on apple leaves, callose deposition is poorly elicited by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as flg22 or other PAMPs harbored by tts mutants and is mainly elicited by injected effectors or by the T3SS itself. Callose elicitation partly depends on HrpW because an hrpW-dspA/E mutant elicits lower callose deposition than a dspA/E mutant. Furthermore, an hrpN-dspA/E mutant does not trigger callose deposition, indicating that HrpN is required to trigger this plant defense reaction. We showed that HrpN plays a general role in the translocation process. Thus, the HrpN requirement for callose deposition may be explained by its role in translocation: HrpN could be involved in the translocation of other effectors inducing callose deposition. Furthermore, HrpN may also directly contribute to the elicitation process because we showed that purified HrpN induces callose deposition. PMID:21463207

Boureau, Tristan; Siamer, Sabrina; Perino, Claude; Gaubert, Stéphane; Patrit, Oriane; Degrave, Alexandre; Fagard, Mathilde; Chevreau, Elisabeth; Barny, Marie-Anne

2011-05-01

180

N-Glycosylation of Effector Proteins by an ?-1,3-Mannosyltransferase Is Required for the Rice Blast Fungus to Evade Host Innate Immunity[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogenic fungi deploy secreted effectors to suppress plant immunity responses. These effectors operate either in the apoplast or within host cells, so they are putatively glycosylated, but the posttranslational regulation of their activities has not been explored. In this study, the ASPARAGINE-LINKED GLYCOSYLATION3 (ALG3)-mediated N-glycosylation of the effector, Secreted LysM Protein1 (Slp1), was found to be essential for its activity in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. ALG3 encodes an ?-1,3-mannosyltransferase for protein N-glycosylation. Deletion of ALG3 resulted in the arrest of secondary infection hyphae and a significant reduction in virulence. We observed that ?alg3 mutants induced massive production of reactive oxygen species in host cells, in a similar manner to ?slp1 mutants, which is a key factor responsible for arresting infection hyphae of the mutants. Slp1 sequesters chitin oligosaccharides to avoid their recognition by the rice (Oryza sativa) chitin elicitor binding protein CEBiP and the induction of innate immune responses, including reactive oxygen species production. We demonstrate that Slp1 has three N-glycosylation sites and that simultaneous Alg3-mediated N-glycosylation of each site is required to maintain protein stability and the chitin binding activity of Slp1, which are essential for its effector function. These results indicate that Alg3-mediated N-glycosylation of Slp1 is required to evade host innate immunity. PMID:24642938

Chen, Xiao-Lin; Shi, Tao; Yang, Jun; Shi, Wei; Gao, Xusheng; Chen, Deng; Xu, Xiaowen; Xu, Jin-Rong; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Peng, You-Liang

2014-01-01

181

Phytopathogenic bacteria deliver effectors of disease into plant hosts via a Type III secretion system. These Type III effectors  

E-print Network

the corre- sponding R gene [6­8]. Because isolates of phytopathgenic bacteria generally contain only one, and how the corresponding Avr proteins are exported from bacteria and perceived by host cells. Previous73 Phytopathogenic bacteria deliver effectors of disease into plant hosts via a Type III secretion

Dangl, Jeff

182

Ashley Richards Dissertation Proposal 2013 Eukaryotic post-translational modification of bacterial effectors  

E-print Network

. pneumophila in order to promote growth and replication. Many injected bacterial effectors are modified of bacterial effectors Keywords: asparagine hydroxylation, Legionella pneumophila, Yersinia pestis, bacterial can also be found in other injected bacterial effectors such as, the Outer Protein M (Yop

Heller, Paul

183

Planning Keypress and Reaching Responses: Effects of Response Location and Number of Potential Effectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In previous work the authors argued that the potential number of effectors in the response set is crucial in discriminating (multiple-effector) keypress from (single-effector) reaching responses. It is not clear, however, what influence the locus of responding (on vs. off the stimulus location for reaching and keypressing, respectively) has on…

Adam, Jos J.; Taminiau, Bettine; van Veen, Natasja; Ament, Bart; Rijcken, Jons M.; Meijer, Kenneth; Pratt, Jay

2008-01-01

184

From bacterial avirulence genes to effector functions via the hrp delivery system: an overview of 25 years of progress in our understanding of plant innate immunity.  

PubMed

Cloning the first avirulence (avr) gene has led not only to a deeper understanding of gene-for-gene interactions in plant disease, but also to fundamental insights into the suppression of basal defences against microbial attack. This article (focusing on Pseudomonas syringae) charts the development of ideas and research progress over the 25 years following the breakthrough achieved by Staskawicz and coworkers. Advances in gene cloning technology underpinned the identification of both avr and hrp genes, the latter being required for the activation of the defensive hypersensitive reaction (HR) and pathogenicity. The delivery of Avr proteins through the type III secretion machinery encoded by hrp gene clusters was demonstrated, and the activity of the proteins inside plant cells as elicitors of the HR was confirmed. Key roles for avr genes in pathogenic fitness have now been established. The rebranding of Avr proteins as effectors, proteins that suppress the HR and cell wall-based defences, has led to the ongoing search for their targets, and is generating new insights into the co-ordination of plant resistance against diverse microbes. Bioinformatics-led analysis of effector gene distribution in genomes has provided a remarkable view of the interchange of effectors and also their functional domains, as the arms race of attack and defence drives the evolution of microbial pathogenicity. The application of our accrued knowledge for the development of disease control strategies is considered. PMID:19849780

Mansfield, John W

2009-11-01

185

A smart end-effector for assembly of space truss structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique facility, the Automated Structures Research Laboratory, is being used to investigate robotic assembly of truss structures. A special-purpose end-effector is used to assemble structural elements into an eight meter diameter structure. To expand the capabilities of the facility to include construction of structures with curved surfaces from straight structural elements of different lengths, a new end-effector has been designed and fabricated. This end-effector contains an integrated microprocessor to monitor actuator operations through sensor feedback. This paper provides an overview of the automated assembly tasks required by this end-effector and a description of the new end-effector's hardware and control software.

Doggett, William R.; Rhodes, Marvin D.; Wise, Marion A.; Armistead, Maurice F.

1992-01-01

186

Dexamethasone suppression test  

MedlinePLUS

DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

187

A robot end effector exchange mechanism for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient robot operation requires the use of specialized end effectors or tools for tasks. In spacecraft applications, the microgravity environment precludes the use of gravitational forces to retain the tools in holding fixture. As a result of this, a retention mechanism which forms a part of the tool storage container is required. A unique approach to this problem has resulted in the development of an end effector exchange mechanism that meets the requirements for spaceflight applications while avoiding the complexity usually involved. This mechanism uses multiple latching cams both on the manipulator and in the tool storage container, combined with a system of catch rings to provide retention in both locations and the required failure tolerance. Because of the cam configuration the mechanism operates passively, requiring no electrical commands except those needed to move the manipulator into position. Similarly, it inherently provides interlocks to prevent the release of one cam before its opposite number is engaged.

Gorin, Barney F.

1990-01-01

188

Interferon-inducible effector mechanisms in cell-autonomous immunity  

PubMed Central

Interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of hundreds of genes as part of an elaborate antimicrobial programme designed to combat infection in all nucleated cells — a process termed cell-autonomous immunity. As described in this Review, recent genomic and subgenomic analyses have begun to assign functional properties to novel IFN-inducible effector proteins that restrict bacteria, protozoa and viruses in different subcellular compartments and at different stages of the pathogen life cycle. Several newly described host defence factors also participate in canonical oxidative and autophagic pathways by spatially coordinating their activities to enhance microbial killing. Together, these IFN-induced effector networks help to confer vertebrate host resistance to a vast and complex microbial world. PMID:22531325

MacMicking, John D.

2014-01-01

189

Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

1987-01-01

190

Salmonella effector proteins and host-cell responses  

PubMed Central

Acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium is a significant public health problem. This pathogen has very sophisticated molecular machinery encoded by the two pathogenicity islands, namely Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2). Remarkably, both SPI-1 and SPI-2 are very tightly regulated in terms of timing of expression and spatial localization of the encoded effectors during the infection process within the host cell. This regulation is governed at several levels, including transcription and translation, and by post-translational modifications. In the context of a finely tuned regulatory system, we will highlight how these effector proteins co-opt host signaling pathways that control the ability of the organism to infect and survive within the host, as well as elicit host proinflammatory responses. PMID:21984608

Srikanth, C.V.; Mercado-Lubo, Regino; Hallstrom, Kelly; McCormick, Beth A.

2013-01-01

191

Engineered antibody Fc variants with enhanced effector function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, a key effector function for the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies, is mediated primarily through a set of closely related Fc receptors with both activating and inhibitory activities. By using computational design algorithms and high-throughput screening, we have engineered a series of Fc variants with optimized Fc receptor affinity and specificity. The designed variants display >2 orders of magnitude enhancement of in vitro effector function, enable efficacy against cells expressing low levels of target antigen, and result in increased cytotoxicity in an in vivo preclinical model. Our engineered Fc regions offer a means for improving the next generation of therapeutic antibodies and have the potential to broaden the diversity of antigens that can be targeted for antibody-based tumor therapy. antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity | FcR | protein engineering | cancer

Lazar, Greg A.; Dang, Wei; Karki, Sher; Vafa, Omid; Peng, Judy S.; Hyun, Linus; Chan, Cheryl; Chung, Helen S.; Eivazi, Araz; Yoder, Sean C.; Vielmetter, Jost; Carmichael, David F.; Hayes, Robert J.; Dahiyat, Bassil I.

2006-03-01

192

TAL effectors are remote controls for gene activation.  

PubMed

TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors constitute a novel class of DNA-binding proteins with predictable specificity. They are employed by Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas which translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins via a type III secretion system (T3SS) into plant cells where they serve as virulence determinants. Inside the plant cell, TALs localize to the nucleus, bind to target promoters, and induce expression of plant genes. DNA-binding specificity of TALs is determined by a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat confers recognition of one base pair (bp) in the DNA. Rearrangement of repeat modules allows design of proteins with desired DNA-binding specificities. Here, we summarize how TAL specificity is encoded, first structural data and first data on site-specific TAL nucleases. PMID:21215685

Scholze, Heidi; Boch, Jens

2011-02-01

193

Targeting DNA Double-Strand Breaks with TAL Effector Nucleases  

PubMed Central

Engineered nucleases that cleave specific DNA sequences in vivo are valuable reagents for targeted mutagenesis. Here we report a new class of sequence-specific nucleases created by fusing transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to the catalytic domain of the FokI endonuclease. Both native and custom TALE-nuclease fusions direct DNA double-strand breaks to specific, targeted sites. PMID:20660643

Christian, Michelle; Cermak, Tomas; Doyle, Erin L.; Schmidt, Clarice; Zhang, Feng; Hummel, Aaron; Bogdanove, Adam J.; Voytas, Daniel F.

2010-01-01

194

Platelets as Cellular Effectors of Inflammation in Vascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Platelets are chief effector cells in hemostasis. In addition, they are multifaceted inflammatory cells with functions that span the continuum from innate immune responses to adaptive immunity. Activated platelets have key “thromboinflammatory” activities in a variety of vascular disorders and vasculopathies. Recently-identified inflammatory and immune activities provide insights into the biology of these versatile blood cells that are directly relevant to human vascular diseases. PMID:23704217

Rondina, Matthew T.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

2013-01-01

195

Mesenchymal stem cell effects on T-cell effector pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) are rare, multipotent progenitor cells that can be isolated and expanded from bone\\u000a marrow and other tissues. Strikingly, MSCs modulate the functions of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, natural killer\\u000a cells, monocyte\\/macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. T cells, activated to perform a range of different effector\\u000a functions, are the primary mediators of many

Michelle M Duffy; Thomas Ritter; Rhodri Ceredig; Matthew D Griffin

2011-01-01

196

Autonomous dexterous end-effectors for space robotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a knowledge-based controller is summarized for the Belgrade/USC robot hand, a five-fingered end effector, designed for maximum autonomy. The biological principles of the hand and its architecture are presented. The conceptual and software aspects of the grasp selection system are discussed, including both the effects of the geometry of the target object and the task to be performed. Some current research issues are presented.

Bekey, George A.; Iberall, Thea; Liu, Huan

1989-01-01

197

Multiple recognition of RXLR effectors is associated with nonhost resistance of pepper against Phytophthora infestans  

PubMed Central

Nonhost resistance (NHR) is a plant immune response to resist most pathogens. The molecular basis of NHR is poorly understood, but recognition of pathogen effectors by immune receptors, a response known as effector-triggered immunity, has been proposed as a component of NHR. We performed transient expression of 54 Phytophthora infestansRXLR effectors in pepper (Capsicum annuum) accessions. We used optimized heterologous expression methods and analyzed the inheritance of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions. Pepper showed a localized cell death response upon inoculation with P. infestans, suggesting that recognition of effectors may contribute to NHR in this system. Pepper accessions recognized as many as 36 effectors. Among the effectors, PexRD8 and Avrblb2 induced cell death in a broad range of pepper accessions. Segregation of effector-induced cell death in an F2 population derived from a cross between two pepper accessions fit 15 : 1, 9 : 7 or 3 : 1 ratios, depending on the effector. Our genetic data suggest that a single or two independent/complementary dominant genes are involved in the recognition of RXLR effectors. Multiple loci recognizing a series of effectors may underpin NHR of pepper to P. infestans and confer resistance durability. PMID:24889686

Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Shin-Young; Oh, Sang-Keun; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Saet-Byul; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kamoun, Sophien; Choi, Doil

2014-01-01

198

Against friend and foe: Type 6 effectors in plant-associated bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial secretion systems play critical roles in communication with neighboring bacteria and in the modulation of host immune responses via the secretion of small proteins called effectors. Several secretion systems have been identified and these are denoted types I-VII. Of these, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) and its effectors were only recently elucidated. Most studies on the role and significance of the T6SS and its effectors have focused on human pathogens. In this review, type 6 effectors from plant-associated beneficial and pathogenic bacteria are discussed, including effectors from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Dickeya dadanti, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Pectobacterium atroseptium, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas protegens. Type 6 effectors act in symbiosis, biofilm formation, virulence, and interbacterial competition. Understanding the impact of type 6 effectors on pathogenesis will contribute to the management of bacterial pathogens in crop plants by allowing the manipulation of intra and inter-specific interactions. PMID:25732741

Ryu, Choong-Min

2015-03-01

199

A secreted fungal effector of Glomus intraradices promotes symbiotic biotrophy.  

PubMed

Biotrophic fungi interacting with plants establish long-term relationships with their hosts to fulfill their life cycles. In contrast to necrotrophs, they need to contend with the defense mechanisms of the plant to develop within the host and feed on living cells. It is generally accepted that microbial pathogens produce and deliver a myriad of effector proteins to hijack the cellular program of their hosts. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are the most widespread biotrophs of plant roots. We investigated whether AM fungi use effector proteins to short-circuit the plant defense program. Here we show that Glomus intraradices secretes a protein, SP7, that interacts with the pathogenesis-related transcription factor ERF19 in the plant nucleus. ERF19 is highly induced in roots by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum trifolii as well as by several fungal extracts, but only transiently during mycorrhiza colonization. When constitutively expressed in roots, SP7 leads to higher mycorrhization while reducing the levels of C. trifolii-mediated defense responses. Furthermore, expression of SP7 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae attenuates root decay symptoms. Taken together, these results suggest that SP7 is an effector that contributes to develop the biotrophic status of AM fungi in roots by counteracting the plant immune program. PMID:21757354

Kloppholz, Silke; Kuhn, Hannah; Requena, Natalia

2011-07-26

200

Distinct in vivo roles of CD80 and CD86 in the effector T-cell responses inducing antigen-induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

CD80 and CD86 play a critical role in the initiation of T-cell responses. However, their role in the in vivo effector CD4+ T-cell responses has been less extensively investigated. The current studies have examined the functional relevance of CD80 and CD86 in the effector CD4+ T-cell responses inducing antigen-induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by sensitization to methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) on day 0, booster immunization (day 7) and intra-articular injection of mBSA (day 21). Control or anti-CD80 and/or anti-CD86 monoclonal antibodies were administered from day 21 to day 28. Arthritis severity and immune responses were assessed on day 28. The development of arthritis was significantly suppressed by inhibition of CD80 or CD86. Blockade of both CD80 and CD86 caused a trend towards reduced disease severity compared to control antibody-treated mice. Neutralization of CD80 attenuated accumulation of CD4+ T cells in joints and enhanced splenocyte production and circulating levels of interleukin-4. Inhibition of CD86 or both CD80 and CD86 reduced T-cell accumulation in joints without affecting T helper type 1/type 2 (Th1/Th2) differentiation or antibody levels. Blockade of CD86, and not CD80, significantly suppressed splenocyte interleukin-17 (IL-17) production. These results provide further in vivo evidence that CD80 and CD86 play important pathogenic roles in effector T-cell responses. CD80 exacerbates arthritis by downregulating systemic levels of IL-4 and increasing T-cell accumulation in joints without affecting IL-17 production. CD86 enhances disease severity by upregulating IL-17 production and increasing the accumulation of effector T cells in joints without affecting Th1/Th2 development. PMID:18217945

Odobasic, Dragana; Leech, Michelle T; Xue, Jin R; Holdsworth, Stephen R

2008-01-01

201

Prediction of bacterial type IV secreted effectors by C-terminal features  

PubMed Central

Background Many bacteria can deliver pathogenic proteins (effectors) through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to eukaryotic cytoplasm, causing host diseases. The inherent property, such as sequence diversity and global scattering throughout the whole genome, makes it a big challenge to effectively identify the full set of T4SS effectors. Therefore, an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction tool is urgently needed to help discover new effectors in a variety of bacterial species, especially those with few known effectors, e.g., Helicobacter pylori. Results In this research, we first manually annotated a full list of validated T4SS effectors from different bacteria and then carefully compared their C-terminal sequential and position-specific amino acid compositions, possible motifs and structural features. Based on the observed features, we set up several models to automatically recognize T4SS effectors. Three of the models performed strikingly better than the others and T4SEpre_Joint had the best performance, which could distinguish the T4SS effectors from non-effectors with a 5-fold cross-validation sensitivity of 89% at a specificity of 97%, based on the training datasets. An inter-species cross prediction showed that T4SEpre_Joint could recall most known effectors from a variety of species. The inter-species prediction tool package, T4SEpre, was further used to predict new T4SS effectors from H. pylori, an important human pathogen associated with gastritis, ulcer and cancer. In total, 24 new highly possible H. pylori T4S effector genes were computationally identified. Conclusions We conclude that T4SEpre, as an effective inter-species T4SS effector prediction software package, will help find new pathogenic T4SS effectors efficiently in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24447430

2014-01-01

202

A survey of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion system effector repertoire reveals several effectors that are deleterious when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The injection of nearly 30 effector proteins by the type III secretion system underlies the ability of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 to cause disease in tomato and other host plants. The search for effector functions is complicated by redundancy within the repertoire and by plant R-g...

203

Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses  

PubMed Central

Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

2013-01-01

204

Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.  

PubMed

Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

2013-09-24

205

Phytophthora sojae Avirulence Effector Avr3b is a Secreted NADH and ADP-ribose Pyrophosphorylase that Modulates Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Plants have evolved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to protect themselves from infection by diverse pathogens. Avirulence (Avr) effectors that trigger plant ETI as a result of recognition by plant resistance (R) gene products have been identified in many plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. However, the virulence functions of oomycete and fungal Avr effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we combined bioinformatics and genetics to identify Avr3b, a new Avr gene from Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen that causes soybean root rot. Avr3b encodes a secreted protein with the RXLR host-targeting motif and C-terminal W and Nudix hydrolase motifs. Some isolates of P. sojae evade perception by the soybean R gene Rps3b through sequence mutation in Avr3b and lowered transcript accumulation. Transient expression of Avr3b in Nicotiana benthamiana increased susceptibility to P. capsici and P. parasitica, with significantly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) around invasion sites. Biochemical assays confirmed that Avr3b is an ADP-ribose/NADH pyrophosphorylase, as predicted from the Nudix motif. Deletion of the Nudix motif of Avr3b abolished enzyme activity. Mutation of key residues in Nudix motif significantly impaired Avr3b virulence function but not the avirulence activity. Some Nudix hydrolases act as negative regulators of plant immunity, and thus Avr3b might be delivered into host cells as a Nudix hydrolase to impair host immunity. Avr3b homologues are present in several sequenced Phytophthora genomes, suggesting that Phytophthora pathogens might share similar strategies to suppress plant immunity. PMID:22102810

Dong, Suomeng; Yin, Weixiao; Kong, Guanghui; Yang, Xinyu; Qutob, Dinah; Chen, Qinghe; Kale, Shiv D.; Sui, Yangyang; Zhang, Zhengguang; Dou, Daolong; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gijzen, Mark; M. Tyler, Brett; Wang, Yuanchao

2011-01-01

206

Identification of novel type III secretion effectors in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Many gram-negative bacteria secrete so-called effector proteins via a type III secretion (T3S) system. Through genome screening for genes encoding potential T3S effectors, 60 candidates were selected from rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae MAFF311018 using these criteria: i) homologs of known T3S effectors in plant-pathogenic bacteria, ii) genes with expression regulated by hrp regulatory protein HrpX, or iii) proteins with N-terminal amino acid patterns associated with T3S substrates of Pseudomonas syringae. Of effector candidates tested with the Bordetella pertussis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter for translocation into plant cells, 16 proteins were translocated in a T3S system-dependent manner. Of these 16 proteins, nine were homologs of known effectors in other plant-pathogenic bacteria and seven were not. Most of the effectors were widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp.; however, some were specific to X. oryzae. Interestingly, all these effectors were expressed in an HrpX-dependent manner, suggesting coregulation of effectors and the T3S system. In X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, HpaB and HpaC (HpaP in X. oryzae pv. oryzae) have a central role in recruiting T3S substrates to the secretion apparatus. Secretion of all but one effector was reduced in both HpaB() and HpaP() mutant strains, indicating that HpaB and HpaP are widely involved in efficient secretion of the effectors. PMID:19061406

Furutani, Ayako; Takaoka, Minako; Sanada, Harumi; Noguchi, Yukari; Oku, Takashi; Tsuno, Kazunori; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Tsuge, Seiji

2009-01-01

207

Expression of the bacterial type III effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae down-regulates the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway leading to growth arrest.  

PubMed

Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (?sur4, ?fen1, ?ipt1, ?skn1, ?csg1, ?csg2, ?orm1, and ?orm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A ?cdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest. PMID:24828506

Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N; Barny, Marie-Anne

2014-06-27

208

Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol  

SciTech Connect

This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.

Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

1986-03-05

209

Type III chaperones & Co in bacterial plant pathogens: a set of specialized bodyguards mediating effector delivery  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria possess a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject bacterial proteins, called type III effectors (T3Es), into host cells through a specialized syringe structure. T3Es are virulence factors that can suppress plant immunity but they can also conversely be recognized by the plant and trigger specific resistance mechanisms. The T3SS and injected T3Es play a central role in determining the outcome of a host-pathogen interaction. Still little is known in plant pathogens on the assembly of the T3SS and the regulatory mechanisms involved in the temporal control of its biosynthesis and T3E translocation. However, recent insights point out the role of several proteins as prime candidates in the role of regulators of the type III secretion (T3S) process. In this review we report on the most recent advances on the regulation of the T3S by focusing on protein players involved in secretion/translocation regulations, including type III chaperones (T3Cs), type III secretion substrate specificity switch (T3S4) proteins and other T3S orchestrators. PMID:24319448

Lohou, David; Lonjon, Fabien; Genin, Stéphane; Vailleau, Fabienne

2013-01-01

210

Functionally diverse microRNA effector complexes are regulated by extracellular signaling  

PubMed Central

Summary Since microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the expression of many genes in cells, understanding how the miRNA pathway is regulated is an important area of investigation. We found that the Drosophila miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) exists in multiple forms. A constitutive form, called G-miRISC, is comprised of Ago1, miRNA, and GW182. Two distinct miRISC complexes that lack GW182 are regulated by mitogenic signaling. Exposure of cells to serum, lipids, or the tumor promoter PMA suppressed formation of these complexes. P-miRISC is comprised of Ago1, miRNA, and Loqs-PB, and it associates with mRNAs assembled into polysomes. The other regulated Ago1 complex associates with membranous organelles, and is likely an intermediate in miRISC recycling. The formation of these novel complexes is correlated with a five- to ten-fold stronger repression of target gene expression inside cells. Taken together, these results indicate that mitogenic signaling regulates the miRNA effector machinery to attenuate its repressive activities. PMID:24055343

Wu, Pei-Hsuan; Isaji, Mamiko; Carthew, Richard W.

2013-01-01

211

The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro–Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo. PMID:24862573

DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B.

2014-01-01

212

Investigation of a bio-inspired lift-enhancing effector on a 2D airfoil.  

PubMed

A flap mounted on the upper surface of an airfoil, called a 'lift-enhancing effector', has been shown in wind tunnel tests to have a similar function to a bird's covert feathers, which rise off the wing's surface in response to separated flows. The effector, fabricated from a thin Mylar sheet, is allowed to rotate freely about its leading edge. The tests were performed in the NCSU subsonic wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4 × 10(5). The maximum lift coefficient with the effector was the same as that for the clean airfoil, but was maintained over an angle-of-attack range from 12° to almost 20°, resulting in a very gentle stall behavior. To better understand the aerodynamics and to estimate the deployment angle of the free-moving effector, fixed-angle effectors fabricated out of stiff wood were also tested. A progressive increase in the stall angle of attack with increasing effector angle was observed, with diminishing returns beyond the effector angle of 60°. Drag tests on both the free-moving and fixed effectors showed a marked improvement in drag at high angles of attack. Oil flow visualization on the airfoil with and without the fixed-angle effectors proved that the effector causes the separation point to move aft on the airfoil, as compared to the clean airfoil. This is thought to be the main mechanism by which an effector improves both lift and drag. A comparison of the fixed-effector results with those from the free-effector tests shows that the free effector's deployment angle is between 30° and 45°. When operating at and beyond the clean airfoil's stall angle, the free effector automatically deploys to progressively higher angles with increasing angles of attack. This slows down the rapid upstream movement of the separation point and avoids the severe reduction in the lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient that are seen on the clean airfoil at the onset of stall. Thus, the effector postpones the stall by 4-8° and makes the stall behavior more gentle. The benefits of using the effector could include care-free operations at high angles of attack during perching and maneuvering flight, especially in gusty conditions. PMID:22498691

Johnston, Joe; Gopalarathnam, Ashok

2012-09-01

213

Fire Suppression and Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

Ruff, Gary A.

2004-01-01

214

Transgenic Plants That Express the Phytoplasma Effector SAP11 Show Altered Phosphate Starvation and Defense Responses1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular phosphate (Pi) and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and microRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24464367

Lu, Yen-Ting; Li, Meng-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Tan, Choon Meng; Su, Li-Wen; Lin, Wei-Yi; Shih, Hsien-Tzung; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen; Yang, Jun-Yi

2014-01-01

215

The glucose transporter Glut1 is selectively essential for CD4 T cell activation and effector function.  

PubMed

CD4 T cell activation leads to proliferation and differentiation into effector (Teff) or regulatory (Treg) cells that mediate or control immunity. While each subset prefers distinct glycolytic or oxidative metabolic programs in vitro, requirements and mechanisms that control T cell glucose uptake and metabolism in vivo are uncertain. Despite expression of multiple glucose transporters, Glut1 deficiency selectively impaired metabolism and function of thymocytes and Teff. Resting T cells were normal until activated, when Glut1 deficiency prevented increased glucose uptake and glycolysis, growth, proliferation, and decreased Teff survival and differentiation. Importantly, Glut1 deficiency decreased Teff expansion and the ability to induce inflammatory disease in vivo. Treg cells, in contrast, were enriched in vivo and appeared functionally unaffected and able to suppress Teff, irrespective of Glut1 expression. These data show a selective in vivo requirement for Glut1 in metabolic reprogramming of CD4 T cell activation and Teff expansion and survival. PMID:24930970

Macintyre, Andrew N; Gerriets, Valerie A; Nichols, Amanda G; Michalek, Ryan D; Rudolph, Michael C; Deoliveira, Divino; Anderson, Steven M; Abel, E Dale; Chen, Benny J; Hale, Laura P; Rathmell, Jeffrey C

2014-07-01

216

Activation and effector functions of human RORC+ innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells expressing the nuclear hormone receptor RORC have emerged as important players in human mucosal immunity. These cells combine innate modes of activation such as Toll-like receptor signaling with secretion of adaptive effector molecules including IL-2, BAFF and the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. This endows these cells with the ability to rapidly respond to changes in cytokine milieu as well as changes in microbial composition and to affect both intestinal homeostasis and activation of adaptive immune cells. PMID:21561752

Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio Domingo, Patricia; Reijmers, Rogier M; Cupedo, Tom

2011-06-01

217

A fly-by robotic tank inspection end effector  

SciTech Connect

A robotic end effector has been developed that is capable of performing fly-by-fly, electromagnetic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection of the inside of the U.S. Department of Energy`s waste storage tanks. Furthermore, the system is also capable of sizing defects through its unique NDE technique, Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM). The NDE data is recorded and logged electronically and is tagged with position data from the deploying manipulator, allowing a complete mapping of the tank walls and future return to defect sites.

Girtleman, M.M.; Robertson, B.; Gascor, T.; Wightman, B. [Oceaneering Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Hughes, G. [Oceaneering International, Aberdeen, (Scotland)

1996-12-31

218

Potential origins and horizontal transfer of type III secretion systems and effectors  

PubMed Central

A major virulence mechanism used by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria is the delivery of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm into host cells by type III secretion. Typically, genes encoding type III secretion systems (T3SS) and effectors have been horizontally acquired by the bacteria that employ them. In proteobacteria, and especially Salmonella, and attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens, the genetic structure of these systems presents as a large locus encoding a T3SS with a small number of effectors, plus numerous small unlinked loci encoding additional individual effectors. We discuss the generation of novel effectors, and the evolution of G+C content following acquisition. We also consider the currently held view that each locus has been acquired individually, as well as propose an alternative where recombination may have redistributed and broken up clusters of effectors. It is clear that the evolution of this virulence strategy is highly complex and challenging to analyze. PMID:22016859

Finlay, B Brett

2011-01-01

219

Perturbation of Maize Phenylpropanoid Metabolism by an AvrE Family Type III Effector from Pantoea stewartii1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

AvrE family type III effector proteins share the ability to suppress host defenses, induce disease-associated cell death, and promote bacterial growth. However, despite widespread contributions to numerous bacterial diseases in agriculturally important plants, the mode of action of these effectors remains largely unknown. WtsE is an AvrE family member required for the ability of Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii (Pnss) to proliferate efficiently and cause wilt and leaf blight symptoms in maize (Zea mays) plants. Notably, when WtsE is delivered by a heterologous system into the leaf cells of susceptible maize seedlings, it alone produces water-soaked disease symptoms reminiscent of those produced by Pnss. Thus, WtsE is a pathogenicity and virulence factor in maize, and an Escherichia coli heterologous delivery system can be used to study the activity of WtsE in isolation from other factors produced by Pnss. Transcriptional profiling of maize revealed the effects of WtsE, including induction of genes involved in secondary metabolism and suppression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Targeted metabolite quantification revealed that WtsE perturbs maize metabolism, including the induction of coumaroyl tyramine. The ability of mutant WtsE derivatives to elicit transcriptional and metabolic changes in susceptible maize seedlings correlated with their ability to promote disease. Furthermore, chemical inhibitors that block metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathways targeted by WtsE also disrupted the pathogenicity and virulence activity of WtsE. While numerous metabolites produced downstream of the shikimate pathway are known to promote plant defense, our results indicate that misregulated induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism also can be used to promote pathogen virulence. PMID:25635112

Asselin, Jo Ann E.; Lin, Jinshan; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Gentzel, Irene; Majerczak, Doris; Opiyo, Stephen O.; Zhao, Wanying; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Coplin, David L.; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Mackey, David

2015-01-01

220

Perturbation of Maize Phenylpropanoid Metabolism by an AvrE Family Type III Effector from Pantoea stewartii.  

PubMed

AvrE family type III effector proteins share the ability to suppress host defenses, induce disease-associated cell death, and promote bacterial growth. However, despite widespread contributions to numerous bacterial diseases in agriculturally important plants, the mode of action of these effectors remains largely unknown. WtsE is an AvrE family member required for the ability of Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii (Pnss) to proliferate efficiently and cause wilt and leaf blight symptoms in maize (Zea mays) plants. Notably, when WtsE is delivered by a heterologous system into the leaf cells of susceptible maize seedlings, it alone produces water-soaked disease symptoms reminiscent of those produced by Pnss. Thus, WtsE is a pathogenicity and virulence factor in maize, and an Escherichia coli heterologous delivery system can be used to study the activity of WtsE in isolation from other factors produced by Pnss. Transcriptional profiling of maize revealed the effects of WtsE, including induction of genes involved in secondary metabolism and suppression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Targeted metabolite quantification revealed that WtsE perturbs maize metabolism, including the induction of coumaroyl tyramine. The ability of mutant WtsE derivatives to elicit transcriptional and metabolic changes in susceptible maize seedlings correlated with their ability to promote disease. Furthermore, chemical inhibitors that block metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathways targeted by WtsE also disrupted the pathogenicity and virulence activity of WtsE. While numerous metabolites produced downstream of the shikimate pathway are known to promote plant defense, our results indicate that misregulated induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism also can be used to promote pathogen virulence. PMID:25635112

Asselin, Jo Ann E; Lin, Jinshan; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Gentzel, Irene; Majerczak, Doris; Opiyo, Stephen O; Zhao, Wanying; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Coplin, David L; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Mackey, David

2015-03-01

221

Computational predictions provide insights into the biology of TAL effector target sites.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are injected into host plant cells by Xanthomonas bacteria to function as transcriptional activators for the benefit of the pathogen. The DNA binding domain of TAL effectors is composed of conserved amino acid repeat structures containing repeat-variable diresidues (RVDs) that determine DNA binding specificity. In this paper, we present TALgetter, a new approach for predicting TAL effector target sites based on a statistical model. In contrast to previous approaches, the parameters of TALgetter are estimated from training data computationally. We demonstrate that TALgetter successfully predicts known TAL effector target sites and often yields a greater number of predictions that are consistent with up-regulation in gene expression microarrays than an existing approach, Target Finder of the TALE-NT suite. We study the binding specificities estimated by TALgetter and approve that different RVDs are differently important for transcriptional activation. In subsequent studies, the predictions of TALgetter indicate a previously unreported positional preference of TAL effector target sites relative to the transcription start site. In addition, several TAL effectors are predicted to bind to the TATA-box, which might constitute one general mode of transcriptional activation by TAL effectors. Scrutinizing the predicted target sites of TALgetter, we propose several novel TAL effector virulence targets in rice and sweet orange. TAL-mediated induction of the candidates is supported by gene expression microarrays. Validity of these targets is also supported by functional analogy to known TAL effector targets, by an over-representation of TAL effector targets with similar function, or by a biological function related to pathogen infection. Hence, these predicted TAL effector virulence targets are promising candidates for studying the virulence function of TAL effectors. TALgetter is implemented as part of the open-source Java library Jstacs, and is freely available as a web-application and a command line program. PMID:23526890

Grau, Jan; Wolf, Annett; Reschke, Maik; Bonas, Ulla; Posch, Stefan; Boch, Jens

2013-01-01

222

Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm sampler end effector  

SciTech Connect

This sampler end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized.

Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

1995-02-01

223

A Plethora of Virulence Strategies Hidden Behind Nuclear Targeting of Microbial Effectors  

PubMed Central

Plant immune responses depend on the ability to couple rapid recognition of the invading microbe to an efficient response. During evolution, plant pathogens have acquired the ability to deliver effector molecules inside host cells in order to manipulate cellular and molecular processes and establish pathogenicity. Following translocation into plant cells, microbial effectors may be addressed to different subcellular compartments. Intriguingly, a significant number of effector proteins from different pathogenic microorganisms, including viruses, oomycetes, fungi, nematodes, and bacteria, is targeted to the nucleus of host cells. In agreement with this observation, increasing evidence highlights the crucial role played by nuclear dynamics, and nucleocytoplasmic protein trafficking during a great variety of analyzed plant–pathogen interactions. Once in the nucleus, effector proteins are able to manipulate host transcription or directly subvert essential host components to promote virulence. Along these lines, it has been suggested that some effectors may affect histone packing and, thereby, chromatin configuration. In addition, microbial effectors may either directly activate transcription or target host transcription factors to alter their regular molecular functions. Alternatively, nuclear translocation of effectors may affect subcellular localization of their cognate resistance proteins in a process that is essential for resistance protein-mediated plant immunity. Here, we review recent progress in our field on the identification of microbial effectors that are targeted to the nucleus of host plant cells. In addition, we discuss different virulence strategies deployed by microbes, which have been uncovered through examination of the mechanisms that guide nuclear localization of effector proteins. PMID:22639625

Rivas, Susana; Genin, Stéphane

2011-01-01

224

Regulatory T cells sequentially migrate from the site of tissue inflammation to the draining LN to suppress the alloimmune response  

PubMed Central

To determine site and mechanism of suppression, regulatory T cell (Treg) migration and function were investigated in an islet allograft model. Treg first migrated from blood to the inflammed allografts, this depended on CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, and P- and E-selectin ligands, and was essential for suppression of alloimmunity. In the allograft, Treg were activated, upregulated effector molecules, migrated to the draining lymph nodes (dLN) in a CCR2, CCR5, and CCR7 fashion, and this movement was essential for optimal suppression. Treg inhibited dendritic cell migration in a TGF? and IL-10 dependent fashion; and suppressed antigen specific T effector cell migration, accumulation, and proliferation in dLNs and allografts. These results showed that sequential migration from blood to the target tissue and then to dLNs were required for nTreg to differentiate and execute fully their suppressive function, by inhibiting DC in the peripheral tissue, and T effector cell responses in dLN and allografts. PMID:19303390

Zhang, Nan; Schröppel, Bernd; Lal, Girdhari; Jakubzick, Claudia; Mao, Xia; Chen, Dan; Yin, Na; Jessberger, Rolf; Ochando, Jordi C.; Ding, Yaozhong; Bromberg, Jonathan S.

2009-01-01

225

Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer.  

PubMed

Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fc? receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein ? (SIRP?) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients. PMID:25667985

Weiskopf, Kipp; Weissman, Irving L

2015-03-01

226

Innovative technology summary report: Confined sluicing end effector  

SciTech Connect

A Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE) was field tested during the summer of 1997 in Tank W-3, one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It should be noted that the specific device used at the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstration was the Sludge Retrieval End-Effector (SREE), although in common usage it is referred to as the CSEE. Deployed by the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) and the Houdini remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the CSEE was used to mobilize and retrieve waste from the tank. After removing the waste, the CSEE was used to scarify the gunite walls of Tank W-3, removing approximately 0.1 in of material. The CSEE uses three rotating water-jets to direct a short-range pressurized jet of water to effectively mobilize the waste. Simultaneously, the water and dislodged tank waste, or scarified materials, are aspirated using a water-jet pump-driven conveyance system. The material is then pumped outside of the tank, where it can be stored for treatment. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed.

NONE

1998-09-01

227

Multiplicity of Effectors of the Cardioprotective Agent, Diazoxide  

PubMed Central

Diazoxide has been identified over the past 50 years to have a number of physiological effects, including lowering the blood pressure and rectifying hypoglycemia. Today it is used clinically to treat these conditions. More recently, another important mode of action emerged: diazoxide has powerful protective properties against cardiac ischemia. The heart has intrinsic protective mechanisms against ischemia injury; one of which is ischemic preconditioning. Diazoxide mimics ischemic preconditioning. The purpose of this treatise is to review the literature in an attempt to identify the many effectors of diazoxide and discuss how they may contribute diazoxide’s cardioprotective properties. Particular emphasis is placed on the concentration ranges in which diazoxide affects its different targets and how this compares with the concentrations commonly used to study cardioprotection. It is concluded that diazoxide may have several potential effectors that may potentially contribute to cardioprotection, including KATP channels in the pancreas, smooth muscle, endothelium, neurons and the mitochondrial inner membrane. Diazoxide may also affect other ion channels and ATPases and may directly regulate mitochondrial energetics. It is possible that the success of diazoxide lies in this promiscuity and that the compound acts to rebalance multiple physiological processes during cardiac ischemia. PMID:23792087

Coetzee, William A

2013-01-01

228

The effector protein Avr2 of the xylem-colonizing fungus Fusarium oxysporum activates the tomato resistance protein I-2 intracellularly.  

PubMed

To promote host colonization, many plant pathogens secrete effector proteins that either suppress or counteract host defences. However, when these effectors are recognized by the host's innate immune system, they trigger resistance rather than promoting virulence. Effectors are therefore key molecules in determining disease susceptibility or resistance. We show here that Avr2, secreted by the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), shows both activities: it is required for full virulence in a susceptible host and also triggers resistance in tomato plants carrying the resistance gene I-2. Point mutations in AVR2, causing single amino acid changes, are associated with I-2-breakingFol strains. These point mutations prevent recognition by I-2, both in tomato and when both genes are co-expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Fol strains carrying the Avr2 variants are equally virulent, showing that virulence and avirulence functions can be uncoupled. Although Avr2 is secreted into the xylem sap when Fol colonizes tomato, the Avr2 protein can be recognized intracellularly by I-2, implying uptake by host cells. PMID:19228334

Houterman, Petra M; Ma, Lisong; van Ooijen, Gerben; de Vroomen, Marianne J; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Takken, Frank L W; Rep, Martijn

2009-06-01

229

Regulation of Cell Wall-Bound Invertase in Pepper Leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type Three Effectors  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ?xopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ?xopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar-enhanced defense responses during Xcv infection. PMID:23272161

Sonnewald, Sophia; Priller, Johannes P. R.; Schuster, Julia; Glickmann, Eric; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Siebig, Stefan; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-01-01

230

Computational and Biochemical Analysis of the Xanthomonas Effector AvrBs2 and Its Role in the Modulation of Xanthomonas Type Three Effector Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectors of the bacterial type III secretion system provide invaluable molecular probes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of plant immunity and pathogen virulence. In this report, we focus on the AvrBs2 effector protein from the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe), the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper. Employing homology-based structural analysis, we generate a three-dimensional structural

Bingyu Zhao; Douglas Dahlbeck; Ksenia V. Krasileva; Richard W. Fong; Brian J. Staskawicz

2011-01-01

231

How filamentous pathogens co-opt plants; the ins and outs of eukaryotic effectors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research on effectors secreted by pathogens during host attack has dominated the field of molecular plant-microbe interactions over recent years. Functional analysis of type III secreted effectors that are injected by pathogenic bacteria into host cells has significantly advanced the field and demon...

232

Verticillium dahliae Sge1 differentially regulates expression of candidate effector genes.  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt diseases in hundreds of dicotyledonous plant species. However, thus far, only few V. dahliae effectors have been identified, and regulators of pathogenicity remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the V. dahliae homolog of Sge1, a transcriptional regulator that was previously implicated in pathogenicity and effector gene expression in Fusarium oxysporum. We show that V. dahliae Sge1 (VdSge1) is required for radial growth and production of asexual conidiospores, because VdSge1 deletion strains display reduced radial growth and reduced conidia production. Furthermore, we show that VdSge1 deletion strains have lost pathogenicity on tomato. Remarkably, VdSge1 is not required for induction of Ave1, the recently identified V. dahliae effector that activates resistance mediated by the Ve1 immune receptor in tomato. Further assessment of the role of VdSge1 in the induction of the nine most highly in-planta-induced genes that encode putative effectors revealed differential activity. Although the expression of one putative effector gene in addition to Ave1 was not affected by VdSge1 deletion, VdSge1 appeared to be required for the expression of six putative effector genes, whereas two of the putative effectors genes were found to be negatively regulated by VdSge1. In conclusion, our data suggest that VdSge1 differentially regulates V. dahliae effector gene expression. PMID:22970788

Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Thomma, Bart P H J

2013-02-01

233

A widespread bacterial type VI secretion effector superfamily identified using a heuristic approach  

PubMed Central

Summary Sophisticated mechanisms are employed to facilitate information exchange between interfacing bacteria. A type VI secretion system (T6SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to deliver cell wall-targeting effectors to neighboring cells. However, the generality of bacteriolytic effectors, and moreover, of antibacterial T6S, remained unknown. Using parameters derived from experimentally validated bacterial T6SS effectors and informatics, we identified a phylogenetically disperse superfamily of T6SS-associated peptidoglycan-degrading effectors. The effectors separate into four families composed of peptidoglycan amidase enzymes of differing specificities. Effectors strictly co-occur with cognate immunity proteins, indicating that self-intoxication is a general property of antibacterial T6SSs and effector delivery by the system exerts a strong selective pressure in nature. The presence of antibacterial effectors in a plethora of organisms, including many that inhabit or infect polymicrobial niches in the human body, suggests that the system could mediate interbacterial interactions of both environmental and clinical significance. PMID:22607806

Russell, Alistair B.; Singh, Pragya; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Bui, Nhat Khai; Hood, Rachel D.; Carl, Mike A.; Agnello, Danielle M.; Schwarz, Sandra; Goodlett, David R.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D.

2012-01-01

234

A widespread bacterial type VI secretion effector superfamily identified using a heuristic approach.  

PubMed

Sophisticated mechanisms are employed to facilitate information exchange between interfacing bacteria. A type VI secretion system (T6SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to deliver cell wall-targeting effectors to neighboring cells. However, the generality of bacteriolytic effectors and, moreover, of antibacterial T6S remained unknown. Using parameters derived from experimentally validated bacterial T6SS effectors we identified a phylogenetically disperse superfamily of T6SS-associated peptidoglycan-degrading effectors. The effectors separate into four families composed of peptidoglycan amidase enzymes of differing specificities. Effectors strictly co-occur with cognate immunity proteins, indicating that self-intoxication is a general property of antibacterial T6SSs and effector delivery by the system exerts a strong selective pressure in nature. The presence of antibacterial effectors in a plethora of organisms, including many that inhabit or infect polymicrobial niches in the human body, suggests that the system could mediate interbacterial interactions of both environmental and clinical significance. PMID:22607806

Russell, Alistair B; Singh, Pragya; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Bui, Nhat Khai; Hood, Rachel D; Carl, Mike A; Agnello, Danielle M; Schwarz, Sandra; Goodlett, David R; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D

2012-05-17

235

The design of scaled robotic end effectors to mimic razor clam burrowing  

E-print Network

This thesis reviews the design of two scaled mechanical end effectors that mimic the digging of Ensis directus, the Atlantic Razor Clam. Modeled after a 0.5x Ensis scale device, the end effectors are 1.0x and 2.0x Ensis ...

Bollini, Mario Attilio

2009-01-01

236

End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment  

SciTech Connect

The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

King, R.H.

1993-09-01

237

Intervention of Phytohormone Pathways by Pathogen Effectors[OPEN  

PubMed Central

The constant struggle between plants and microbes has driven the evolution of multiple defense strategies in the host as well as offense strategies in the pathogen. To defend themselves from pathogen attack, plants often rely on elaborate signaling networks regulated by phytohormones. In turn, pathogens have adopted innovative strategies to manipulate phytohormone-regulated defenses. Tactics frequently employed by plant pathogens involve hijacking, evading, or disrupting hormone signaling pathways and/or crosstalk. As reviewed here, this is achieved mechanistically via pathogen-derived molecules known as effectors, which target phytohormone receptors, transcriptional activators and repressors, and other components of phytohormone signaling in the host plant. Herbivores and sap-sucking insects employ obligate pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasma, or symbiotic bacteria to intervene with phytohormone-regulated defenses. Overall, an improved understanding of phytohormone intervention strategies employed by pests and pathogens during their interactions with plants will ultimately lead to the development of new crop protection strategies. PMID:24920334

Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

2014-01-01

238

Cell-Autonomous Effector Mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Few pathogens run the gauntlet of sterilizing immunity like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This organism infects mononuclear phagocytes and is also ingested by neutrophils, both of which possess an arsenal of cell-intrinsic effector mechanisms capable of eliminating it. Here Mtb encounters acid, oxidants, nitrosylating agents, and redox congeners, often exuberantly delivered under low oxygen tension. Further pressure is applied by withholding divalent Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+, as well as by metabolic privation in the form of carbon needed for anaplerosis and aromatic amino acids for growth. Finally, host E3 ligases ubiquinate, cationic peptides disrupt, and lysosomal enzymes digest Mtb as part of the autophagic response to this particular pathogen. It is a testament to the evolutionary fitness of Mtb that sterilization is rarely complete, although sufficient to ensure most people infected with this airborne bacterium remain disease-free. PMID:25081628

MacMicking, John D.

2014-01-01

239

Effector and Memory T cell Responses to Commensal Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Barrier surfaces are home to a vast population of commensal organisms that together encode millions of proteins, each of them possessing several potential foreign antigens. Regulation of immune responses to this enormous antigenic load represents a tremendous challenge for the immune system. Tissues exposed to commensals have developed elaborate systems of regulation including specialized populations of resident lymphocytes that maintain barrier function and limit potential responses to commensal antigens. However, in settings of infection and inflammation these regulatory mechanisms are compromised and specific effector responses against commensal bacteria can develop. This review discusses the circumstances controlling the fate of commensal specific T cells and how dysregulation of these responses could lead to severe pathological outcomes. PMID:23643444

Belkaid, Yasmine; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Hand, Timothy W.

2013-01-01

240

Modulation of innate immunity by Toxoplasma gondii virulence effectors  

PubMed Central

Preface Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of animals and humans that can cause serious opportunistic infections. However, the majority of infections are asymptomatic possibly because the organism has co-evolved with its many vertebrate hosts and has developed multiple strategies to persist asymptomatically for the lifetime of the host. Over the past two decades, infection studies in the mouse, combined with forward genetic approaches aimed at unraveling the molecular basis of infection, have revealed that T. gondii virulence is mediated, in part, by secretion of effector proteins into the host cell during invasion. Here, we review recent advances that illustrate how these virulence factors disarm innate immunity and promote survival of the parasite. PMID:23070557

Hunter, Christopher A.; Sibley, L. David

2013-01-01

241

Gibberellin Perception by the Gibberellin Receptor and its Effector Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gibberellins control a diverse range of growth and developmental processes in higher plants and have been widely utilized in the agricultural industry. By binding to a nuclear receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), gibberellins regulate gene expression by promoting degradation of the transcriptional regulator DELLA proteins. The precise manner in which GID1 discriminates and becomes activated by bioactive gibberellins for specific binding to DELLA proteins remains unclear. We present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Arabidopsis thaliana GID1A, a bioactive gibberellin and the N-terminal DELLA domain of GAI. In this complex, GID1a occludes gibberellin in a deep binding pocket covered by its N-terminal helical switch region, which in turn interacts with the DELLA domain containing DELLA, VHYNP and LExLE motifs. Our results establish a structural model of a plant hormone receptor which is distinct from the hormone-perception mechanism and effector recognition of the known auxin receptors.

Hakoshima, Toshio; Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Sun, Tai-Ping

242

Immune Effector Mechanisms Implicated in Atherosclerosis: From Mice to Humans  

PubMed Central

According to the traditional view, atherosclerosis results from a passive buildup of cholesterol in the artery wall. Yet, burgeoning evidence implicates inflammation and immune effector mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this disease. Both innate and adaptive immunity operate during atherogenesis and link many traditional risk factors to altered arterial functions. Inflammatory pathways have become targets in the quest for novel preventive and therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease, a growing contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here we review current experimental and clinical knowledge of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through an immunological lens and how host defense mechanisms essential for survival of the species actually contribute to this chronic disease but also present new opportunities for its mitigation. PMID:23809160

Libby, Peter; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Hansson, Göran K.

2013-01-01

243

Type VI secretion effectors: poisons with a purpose  

PubMed Central

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates interactions between a diverse range of Gram-negative bacterial species. Recent studies have led to a drastic increase in the number of characterized T6SS effector proteins and produced a more complete and nuanced view of the adaptive significance of the system. While the system is most often implicated in antagonism, in this review we consider the case for its involvement in both antagonistic and non-antagonistic behaviors. Clarifying the roles that T6S plays in microbial communities will contribute to broader efforts to understand the importance of microbial interactions in maintaining human and environmental health, and will inform efforts to manipulate these interactions for therapeutic or environmental benefit. PMID:24384601

Russell, Alistair B.; Peterson, S. Brook; Mougous, Joseph D.

2014-01-01

244

Effector and memory T cell responses to commensal bacteria.  

PubMed

Barrier surfaces are home to a vast population of commensal organisms that together encode millions of proteins; each of them possessing several potential foreign antigens. Regulation of immune responses to this enormous antigenic load represents a tremendous challenge for the immune system. Tissues exposed to commensals have developed elaborate systems of regulation including specialized populations of resident lymphocytes that maintain barrier function and limit potential responses to commensal antigens. However, in settings of infection and inflammation these regulatory mechanisms are compromised and specific effector responses against commensal bacteria can develop. This review discusses the circumstances controlling the fate of commensal specific T cells and how dysregulation of these responses could lead to severe pathological outcomes. PMID:23643444

Belkaid, Yasmine; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Hand, Timothy W

2013-06-01

245

Electroporation of Functional Bacterial Effectors into Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

The study of protein interactions in the context of living cells can generate critical information about localization, dynamics, and interacting partners. This information is particularly valuable in the context of host-pathogen interactions. Many pathogen proteins function within host cells in a variety of way such as, enabling evasion of the host immune system and survival within the intracellular environment. To study these pathogen-protein host-cell interactions, several approaches are commonly used, including: in vivo infection with a strain expressing a tagged or mutant protein, or introduction of pathogen genes via transfection or transduction. Each of these approaches has advantages and disadvantages. We sought a means to directly introduce exogenous proteins into cells. Electroporation is commonly used to introduce nucleic acids into cells, but has been more rarely applied to proteins although the biophysical basis is exactly the same. A standard electroporator was used to introduce affinity-tagged bacterial effectors into mammalian cells. Human epithelial and mouse macrophage cells were cultured by traditional methods, detached, and placed in 0.4 cm gap electroporation cuvettes with an exogenous bacterial pathogen protein of interest (e.g. Salmonella Typhimurium GtgE). After electroporation (0.3 kV) and a short (4 hr) recovery period, intracellular protein was verified by fluorescently labeling the protein via its affinity tag and examining spatial and temporal distribution by confocal microscopy. The electroporated protein was also shown to be functional inside the cell and capable of correct subcellular trafficking and protein-protein interaction. While the exogenous proteins tended to accumulate on the surface of the cells, the electroporated samples had large increases in intracellular effector concentration relative to incubation alone. The protocol is simple and fast enough to be done in a parallel fashion, allowing for high-throughput characterization of pathogen proteins in host cells including subcellular targeting and function of virulence proteins. PMID:25650771

Sontag, Ryan L.; Mihai, Cosmin; Orr, Galya; Savchenko, Alexei; Skarina, Tatiana; Cui, Hong; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Brown, Roslyn N.

2015-01-01

246

Electroporation of functional bacterial effectors into Mammalian cells.  

PubMed

The study of protein interactions in the context of living cells can generate critical information about localization, dynamics, and interacting partners. This information is particularly valuable in the context of host-pathogen interactions. Many pathogen proteins function within host cells in a variety of way such as, enabling evasion of the host immune system and survival within the intracellular environment. To study these pathogen-protein host-cell interactions, several approaches are commonly used, including: in vivo infection with a strain expressing a tagged or mutant protein, or introduction of pathogen genes via transfection or transduction. Each of these approaches has advantages and disadvantages. We sought a means to directly introduce exogenous proteins into cells. Electroporation is commonly used to introduce nucleic acids into cells, but has been more rarely applied to proteins although the biophysical basis is exactly the same. A standard electroporator was used to introduce affinity-tagged bacterial effectors into mammalian cells. Human epithelial and mouse macrophage cells were cultured by traditional methods, detached, and placed in 0.4 cm gap electroporation cuvettes with an exogenous bacterial pathogen protein of interest (e.g. Salmonella Typhimurium GtgE). After electroporation (0.3 kV) and a short (4 hr) recovery period, intracellular protein was verified by fluorescently labeling the protein via its affinity tag and examining spatial and temporal distribution by confocal microscopy. The electroporated protein was also shown to be functional inside the cell and capable of correct subcellular trafficking and protein-protein interaction. While the exogenous proteins tended to accumulate on the surface of the cells, the electroporated samples had large increases in intracellular effector concentration relative to incubation alone. The protocol is simple and fast enough to be done in a parallel fashion, allowing for high-throughput characterization of pathogen proteins in host cells including subcellular targeting and function of virulence proteins. PMID:25650771

Sontag, Ryan L; Mihai, Cosmin; Orr, Galya; Savchenko, Alexei; Skarina, Tatiana; Cui, Hong; Cort, John R; Adkins, Joshua N; Brown, Roslyn N

2015-01-01

247

Protection after stroke: cellular effectors of neurovascular unit integrity  

PubMed Central

Neurological disorders are prevalent worldwide. Cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs), which account for 55% of all neurological diseases, are the leading cause of permanent disability, cognitive and motor disorders and dementia. Stroke affects the function and structure of blood-brain barrier, the loss of cerebral blood flow regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and the loss of neural connections. Currently, no gold standard treatments are available outside the acute therapeutic window to improve outcome in stroke patients. Some promising candidate targets have been identified for the improvement of long-term recovery after stroke, such as Rho GTPases, cell adhesion proteins, kinases, and phosphatases. Previous studies by our lab indicated that Rho GTPases (Rac and RhoA) are involved in both tissue damage and survival, as these proteins are essential for the morphology and movement of neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells, thus playing a critical role in the balance between cell survival and death. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of RhoA/ROCK blocks the activation of the neurodegeneration cascade. In addition, Rac and synaptic adhesion proteins (p120 catenin and N-catenin) play critical roles in protection against cerebral infarction and in recovery by supporting the neurovascular unit and cytoskeletal remodeling activity to maintain the integrity of the brain parenchyma. Interestingly, neuroprotective agents, such as atorvastatin, and CDK5 silencing after cerebral ischemia and in a glutamate-induced excitotoxicity model may act on the same cellular effectors to recover neurovascular unit integrity. Therefore, future efforts must focus on individually targeting the structural and functional roles of each effector of neurovascular unit and the interactions in neural and non-neural cells in the post-ischemic brain and address how to promote the recovery or prevent the loss of homeostasis in the short, medium and long term. PMID:25177270

Posada-Duque, Rafael Andres; Barreto, George E.; Cardona-Gomez, Gloria Patricia

2014-01-01

248

Arf GTPases and their effectors: assembling multivalent membrane-binding platforms.  

PubMed

Arf GTPases are major regulators of membrane traffic and organelle structure in eukaryotes where they recruit many different effectors, including components of vesicular coats, proteins that tether membranes, sort lipids or have diverse other functions in vesicular traffic, and bacterial proteins that divert Arf functions in host cells. A dozen of structures of unrelated effectors bound to Arf1, Arf6 or their close relative Arl1 are available, revealing that Arf GTPases do not recognize preferred structures in their effectors. In contrast, a trait common to many Arf/effector complexes is that they are juxtaposed to membranes by multiple protein/membrane contacts, yet of diverse sizes, shapes and physicochemistry. The common function of Arf GTPases thus appears to be their ability to assemble versatile, multivalent membrane-binding platforms, resulting in optimal orientation and allosteric regulation of their effectors leading to a plethora of membrane-localized functions. PMID:25460270

Cherfils, Jacqueline

2014-12-01

249

Notch Regulates Cytolytic Effector Function in CD8+ T Cells1  

PubMed Central

The maturation of naive CD8+ T cells into effector CTLs is a critical feature of a functional adaptive immune system. Development of CTLs depends, in part, upon the expression of the transcriptional regulator eomesodermin (EOMES), which is thought to regulate expression of two key effector molecules, perforin and granzyme B. Although EOMES is important for effector CTL development, the precise mechanisms regulating CD8+ effector cell maturation remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that Notch1 regulates the expression of EOMES, perforin, and granzyme B through direct binding to the promoters of these crucial effector molecules. By abrogating Notch signaling, both biochemically as well as genetically, we conclude that Notch activity mediates CTL activity through direct regulation of EOMES, perforin, and granzyme B. PMID:19265115

Cho, Ok Hyun; Shin, Hyun Mu; Miele, Lucio; Golde, Todd E.; Fauq, Abdul; Minter, Lisa M.; Osborne, Barbara A.

2015-01-01

250

TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA-targeting proteins.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas. They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide resistance. DNA-binding specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats in each protein that correspond one-to-one with different nucleotides. This code has facilitated target identification and opened new avenues for engineering disease resistance. It has also enabled TAL effector customization for targeted gene control, genome editing, and other applications. This article reviews the structural basis for TAL effector-DNA specificity, the impact of the TAL effector-DNA code on plant pathology and engineered resistance, and recent accomplishments and future challenges in TAL effector-based DNA targeting. PMID:23707478

Doyle, Erin L; Stoddard, Barry L; Voytas, Daniel F; Bogdanove, Adam J

2013-08-01

251

Origins of ?? T cell effector subsets: a riddle wrapped in an enigma.  

PubMed

?? and ?? T cells are thought to arise from a common precursor in the thymus but play distinct roles in pathogen resistance. Although conventional ?? T cells exit the thymus in a naive state and acquire effector function in the periphery, the effector fate of many ?? T cells is specified in the thymus and exhibits limited plasticity thereafter. This review describes the current models that have been proposed to explain the acquisition of effector fate by ?? T cells, as well as the apparent linkage to V? gene usage. The two predominant models are the predetermination model, which suggests that effector fate is determined prior to TCR expression, perhaps in association with the developmental timing of V? rearrangement, and the TCR-dependence model, which proposes that the nature of the TCR signal, particularly its intensity or duration, plays an important role in influencing effector fate. PMID:25326547

Fahl, Shawn P; Coffey, Francis; Wiest, David L

2014-11-01

252

Antibody inhibition of cytomegalovirus: the role of natural killer and macrophage effector cells.  

PubMed

To explore mechanisms by which antibody might inhibit cytomegalovirus (CMV), we measured the ability of intravenous CMV-IgG (CytoGam) to reduce viral yield in the presence of effector cells. Foreskin fibroblasts were infected with a clinical strain of CMV, and CytoGam was added along with effector cells consisting of either unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), natural killer (NK) cells, or macrophages. The combination of CytoGam and either of the effector cell types markedly inhibited established CMV infection in vitro. In addition, CytoGam combined with effector cells protected the monolayer from CMV-induced cytopathic effects. Antibody-dependent, effector cell-mediated functions may underlie the ability of CytoGam to prevent or modulate CMV infection in vivo. PMID:11926747

Forthal, D N; Phan, T; Landucci, G

2001-01-01

253

TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA targeting proteins  

PubMed Central

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas. They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide resistance. DNA binding specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats in each protein that correspond one-to-one with different nucleotides. This code has facilitated target identification and opened new avenues for engineering disease resistance. It has also enabled TAL effector customization for targeted gene control, genome editing, and other applications. This article reviews the structural basis for TAL effector-DNA specificity, the impact of the TAL effector-DNA code on plant pathology and engineered resistance, and recent accomplishments and future challenges in TAL effector-based DNA targeting. PMID:23707478

Doyle, Erin L.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Bogdanove, Adam J.

2013-01-01

254

The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system employs diverse effector modules for intraspecific competition  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that consists of over 200 serogroups with differing pathogenic potential. Only strains that express the virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) are capable of pandemic spread of cholera diarrhoea. Regardless, all V. cholerae strains sequenced to date harbour genes for the type VI secretion system (T6SS) that translocates effectors into neighbouring eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Here we report that the effectors encoded within these conserved gene clusters differ widely among V. cholerae strains, and that immunity proteins encoded immediately downstream from the effector genes protect their host from neighbouring bacteria producing corresponding effectors. As a consequence, strains with matching effector-immunity gene sets can coexist, while strains with different sets compete against each other. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS contributes to the competitive behaviour of this species. PMID:24686479

Unterweger, Daniel; Miyata, Sarah T.; Bachmann, Verena; Brooks, Teresa M.; Mullins, Travis; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Provenzano, Daniele; Pukatzki, Stefan

2014-01-01

255

Growth hormone suppression test  

MedlinePLUS

... level of GH, a condition that leads to gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults. It is ... during the suppression test, the doctor will suspect gigantism or acromegaly. You may need to be retested ...

256

The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini  

PubMed Central

Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their hosts. PMID:24715894

Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Jones, David A.; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

2014-01-01

257

At the Frontier; RXLR Effectors Crossing the Phytophthora–Host Interface  

PubMed Central

Plants are constantly beset by pathogenic organisms. To successfully infect their hosts, plant pathogens secrete effector proteins, many of which are translocated to the inside of the host cell where they manipulate normal physiological processes and undermine host defense. The way by which effectors cross the frontier to reach the inside of the host cell varies among different classes of pathogens. For oomycete plant pathogens – like the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans – it has been shown that effector translocation to the host cell cytoplasm is dependent on conserved amino acid motifs that are present in the N-terminal part of effector proteins. One of these motifs, known as the RXLR motif, has a strong resemblance with a host translocation motif found in effectors secreted by Plasmodium species. These malaria parasites, that reside inside specialized vacuoles in red blood cells, make use of a specific protein translocation complex to export effectors from the vacuole into the red blood cell. Whether or not also oomycete RXLR effectors require a translocation complex to cross the frontier is still under investigation. For one P. infestans RXLR effector named IPI-O we have found a potential host target that could play a role in establishing the first contact between this effector and the host cell. This membrane spanning lectin receptor kinase, LecRK-I.9, interacts with IPI-O via the tripeptide RGD that overlaps with the RXLR motif. In animals, RGD is a well-known cell adhesion motif; it binds to integrins, which are membrane receptors that regulate many cellular processes and which can be hijacked by pathogens for either effector translocation or pathogen entry into host cells. PMID:22645549

Bouwmeester, Klaas; Meijer, Harold J. G.; Govers, Francine

2011-01-01

258

The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.  

PubMed

Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their hosts. PMID:24715894

Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

2014-01-01

259

Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model  

SciTech Connect

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

2013-08-12

260

MITEs in the promoters of effector genes allow prediction of novel virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici (Fol) has accessory, lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes that can be transferred horizontally between strains. A single LS chromosome in the Fol4287 reference strain harbors all known Fol effector genes. Transfer of this pathogenicity chromosome confers virulence to a previously non-pathogenic recipient strain. We hypothesize that expression and evolution of effector genes is influenced by their genomic context. Results To gain a better understanding of the genomic context of the effector genes, we manually curated the annotated genes on the pathogenicity chromosome and identified and classified transposable elements. Both retro- and DNA transposons are present with no particular overrepresented class. Retrotransposons appear evenly distributed over the chromosome, while DNA transposons tend to concentrate in large chromosomal subregions. In general, genes on the pathogenicity chromosome are dispersed within the repeat landscape. Effector genes are present within subregions enriched for DNA transposons. A miniature Impala (mimp) is always present in their promoters. Although promoter deletion studies of two effector gene loci did not reveal a direct function of the mimp for gene expression, we were able to use proximity to a mimp as a criterion to identify new effector gene candidates. Through xylem sap proteomics we confirmed that several of these candidates encode proteins secreted during plant infection. Conclusions Effector genes in Fol reside in characteristic subregions on a pathogenicity chromosome. Their genomic context allowed us to develop a method for the successful identification of novel effector genes. Since our approach is not based on effector gene similarity, but on unique genomic features, it can easily be extended to identify effector genes in Fo strains with different host specificities. PMID:23432788

2013-01-01

261

A Rapid One-Generation Genetic Screen in a Drosophila Model to Capture Rhabdomyosarcoma Effectors and Therapeutic Targets  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive childhood malignancy of neoplastic muscle-lineage precursors that fail to terminally differentiate into syncytial muscle. The most aggressive form of RMS, alveolar-RMS, is driven by misexpression of the PAX-FOXO1 oncoprotein, which is generated by recurrent chromosomal translocations that fuse either the PAX3 or PAX7 gene to FOXO1. The molecular underpinnings of PAX-FOXO1?mediated RMS pathogenesis remain unclear, however, and clinical outcomes poor. Here, we report a new approach to dissect RMS, exploiting a highly efficient Drosophila PAX7-FOXO1 model uniquely configured to uncover PAX-FOXO1 RMS genetic effectors in only one generation. With this system, we have performed a comprehensive deletion screen against the Drosophila autosomes and demonstrate that mutation of Mef2, a myogenesis lynchpin in both flies and mammals, dominantly suppresses PAX7-FOXO1 pathogenicity and acts as a PAX7-FOXO1 gene target. Additionally, we reveal that mutation of mastermind, a gene encoding a MEF2 transcriptional coactivator, similarly suppresses PAX7-FOXO1, further pointing toward MEF2 transcriptional activity as a PAX-FOXO1 underpinning. These studies show the utility of the PAX-FOXO1 Drosophila system as a robust one-generation (F1) RMS gene discovery platform and demonstrate how Drosophila transgenic conditional expression models can be configured for the rapid dissection of human disease. PMID:25491943

Galindo, Kathleen A.; Endicott, Tiana R.; Avirneni-Vadlamudi, Usha; Galindo, Rene L.

2014-01-01

262

The novel GrCEP12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated PTI  

PubMed Central

The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. In addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development,1 nematode secreted effectors are becoming recognized as suppressors of plant immunity.2-4 Recently we reported that the effector ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (GrUBCEP12) from G. rostochiensis is processed into free ubiquitin and a 12-amino acid GrCEP12 peptide in planta. Transgenic potato lines overexpressing the derived GrCEP12 peptide showed increased susceptibility to G. rostochiensis and to an unrelated bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies, suggesting that GrCEP12 has a role in suppressing host basal defense or possibly pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) during the parasitic interaction.3 To determine if GrCEP12 functions as a PTI suppressor we evaluated whether GrCEP12 suppresses flg22-induced PTI responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, we found that transient expression of GrCEP12 in N. benthamiana leaves suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the induction of two PTI marker genes triggered by the bacterial PAMP flg22, providing direct evidence that GrCEP12 indeed has an activity in PTI suppression. PMID:23803745

Chen, Shiyan; Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong

2013-01-01

263

The novel GrCEP12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated PTI.  

PubMed

The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. In addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development, (1) nematode secreted effectors are becoming recognized as suppressors of plant immunity. (2)(-) (4) Recently we reported that the effector ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (GrUBCEP12) from G. rostochiensis is processed into free ubiquitin and a 12-amino acid GrCEP12 peptide in planta. Transgenic potato lines overexpressing the derived GrCEP12 peptide showed increased susceptibility to G. rostochiensis and to an unrelated bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies, suggesting that GrCEP12 has a role in suppressing host basal defense or possibly pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) during the parasitic interaction. (3) To determine if GrCEP12 functions as a PTI suppressor we evaluated whether GrCEP12 suppresses flg22-induced PTI responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, we found that transient expression of GrCEP12 in N. benthamiana leaves suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the induction of two PTI marker genes triggered by the bacterial PAMP flg22, providing direct evidence that GrCEP12 indeed has an activity in PTI suppression. PMID:23803745

Chen, Shiyan; Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong

2013-09-01

264

Tumor suppressive functions of ceramide: evidence and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Studies over the past two decades have identified ceramide as a multifunctional central molecule in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Given its diverse tumor suppressive activities, molecular understanding of ceramide action will produce fundamental insights into processes that limit tumorigenesis and may identify key molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Ceramide can be activated by a diverse array of stresses such as heat shock, genotoxic damage, oxidative stress and anticancer drugs. Ceramide triggers a variety of tumor suppressive and anti-proliferative cellular programs such as apoptosis, autophagy, senescence, and necroptosis by activating or repressing key effector molecules. Defects in ceramide generation and metabolism in cancer contribute to tumor cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. The potent and versatile anticancer activity profile of ceramide has motivated drug development efforts to (re-)activate ceramide in established tumors. This review focuses on our current understanding of the tumor suppressive functions of ceramide and highlights the potential downstream targets of ceramide which are involved in its tumor suppressive action. PMID:25702155

Galadari, Sehamuddin; Rahman, Anees; Pallichankandy, Siraj; Thayyullathil, Faisal

2015-05-01

265

Plasmodium suppresses expansion of T cell responses to heterologous infections.  

PubMed

Plasmodium remains a major pathogen causing malaria and impairing defense against other infections. Defining how Plasmodium increases susceptibility to heterologous pathogens may lead to interventions that mitigate the severity of coinfections. Previous studies proposed that reduced T cell responses during coinfections are due to diminished recruitment of naive T cells through infection-induced decreases in chemokine CCL21. We found that, although Listeria infections reduced expression of CCL21 in murine spleens, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-specific T cell responses were not impaired during Listeria + LCMV coinfection, arguing against a major role for this chemokine in coinfection-induced T cell suppression. In our experiments, Plasmodium yoelii infection led to a reduced CD8(+) T cell response to a subsequent Listeria infection. We propose an alternative mechanism whereby P. yoelii suppresses Listeria-specific T cell responses. We found that Listeria-specific T cells expanded more slowly and resulted in lower numbers in response to coinfection with P. yoelii. Mathematical modeling and experimentation revealed greater apoptosis of Listeria-specific effector T cells as the main mechanism, because P. yoelii infections did not suppress the recruitment or proliferation rates of Listeria-specific T cells. Our results suggest that P. yoelii infections suppress immunity to Listeria by causing increased apoptosis in Listeria-specific T cells, resulting in a slower expansion rate of T cell responses. PMID:25505280

White, Chelsi E; Villarino, Nicolas F; Sloan, Sarah S; Ganusov, Vitaly V; Schmidt, Nathan W

2015-01-15

266

Tim-3-Expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Human Tuberculosis (TB) Exhibit Polarized Effector Memory Phenotypes and Stronger Anti-TB Effector Functions  

PubMed Central

T-cell immune responses modulated by T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in humans remain poorly understood. Here, we found that active TB patients exhibited increases in numbers of Tim-3-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which preferentially displayed polarized effector memory phenotypes. Consistent with effector phenotypes, Tim-3+CD4+ and Tim-3+CD8+ T-cell subsets showed greater effector functions for producing Th1/Th22 cytokines and CTL effector molecules than Tim-3? counterparts, and Tim-3-expressing T cells more apparently limited intracellular Mtb replication in macrophages. The increased effector functions for Tim-3-expressing T cells consisted with cellular activation signaling as Tim-3+CD4+ and Tim-3+CD8+ T-cell subsets expressed much higher levels of phosphorylated signaling molecules p38, stat3, stat5, and Erk1/2 than Tim-3- controls. Mechanistic experiments showed that siRNA silencing of Tim-3 or soluble Tim-3 treatment interfering with membrane Tim-3-ligand interaction reduced de novo production of IFN-? and TNF-? by Tim-3-expressing T cells. Furthermore, stimulation of Tim-3 signaling pathways by antibody cross-linking of membrane Tim-3 augmented effector function of IFN-? production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, suggesting that Tim-3 signaling helped to drive stronger effector functions in active TB patients. This study therefore uncovered a previously unknown mechanism for T-cell immune responses regulated by Tim-3, and findings may have implications for potential immune intervention in TB. PMID:23144609

Liao, Hongying; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hua; Li, Shaoyuan; Luo, Yanfen; Fang, Danyun; Li, Guobao; Zhou, Boping; Shen, Ling; Chen, Crystal Y.; Huang, Dan; Cai, Jiye; Cao, Kaiyuan; Jiang, Lifang; Zeng, Gucheng; Chen, Zheng W.

2012-01-01

267

Regulation of the generation and maintenance of T-cell memory: a direct, default pathway from effectors to memory cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory T cells are derived directly from effector cells without need for additional antigen, TcR triggering or induced cytokines. A large fraction of effectors can become memory cells without division, supporting a default pathway with little further differentiation. This suggests that the same signals during infection\\/vaccination determine the extent and nature of both effector and memory cell development.

Susan L. Swain

2003-01-01

268

Effector Memory T Lymphocytes Can Express FcRIIIa and Mediate Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human memory T cells are comprised of distinct populations with different homing potential and effector functions: central memory T cells that mount recall responses to Ags in secondary lymphoid organs, and effector memory T cells that confer immediate protection in peripheral tissues. In the present study we demonstrate that a proportion of effector memory T cells express FcRIIIa (CD16), are

Beatrice Clemenceau; Regine Vivien; Mathilde Berthome; Nelly Robillard; Richard Garand; Geraldine Gallot; Solene Vollant; Henri Vie

269

The effector T cell response to ryegrass pollen is counterregulated by simultaneous induction of regulatory T cells.  

PubMed

Allergy is associated with pathological Th2 responses to otherwise harmless environmental Ags. In contrast, nonallergic individuals mount nonpathological immune responses to allergens, partly attributed to regulatory T cell (Treg) activity. Although thymus-derived natural Tregs have been shown to maintain tolerance to self-Ags and prevent autoimmunity, the generation of Tregs specific to non-self-Ags is less well understood. We investigated the potential for induction of Tregs from PBMCs of ryegrass pollen-allergic or healthy subjects by stimulation in vitro with ryegrass pollen extract in the absence of additional exogenous stimuli. We found that two subsets of proliferating CD4(+) T cells were induced, one expressing intermediate levels of Foxp3 (and IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-17, or IL-2) and the other expressing high levels of Foxp3 (and no effector cytokines). After enrichment based on CD39 expression, the Foxp3(hi) subset suppressed CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production. The Foxp3(hi) Treg originated from both conversion of dividing non-Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(hi)) and expansion of natural Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)). Stable functional Tregs expressing high levels of Foxp3 were induced simultaneously with effector T cells by allergen stimulation. Induction of Foxp3(hi) Tregs was reduced in allergic subjects. These results indicate that the cogeneration of Foxp3(hi) Tregs in response to allergen may be a mechanism for controlling allergic reactions in healthy individuals, which is impaired in those with allergies. PMID:20308632

Mittag, Diana; Scholzen, Anja; Varese, Nirupama; Baxter, Lorraine; Paukovics, Geza; Harrison, Leonard C; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

2010-05-01

270

A Massive Expansion of Effector Genes Underlies Gall-Formation in the Wheat Pest Mayetiola destructor.  

PubMed

Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms that these arthropods use to induce plant galls are poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a plant parasitic gall midge and a pest of wheat (Triticum spp.), with the aim of identifying genic modifications that contribute to its plant-parasitic lifestyle. Among several adaptive modifications, we discovered an expansive reservoir of potential effector proteins. Nearly 5% of the 20,163 predicted gene models matched putative effector gene transcripts present in the M. destructor larval salivary gland. Another 466 putative effectors were discovered among the genes that have no sequence similarities in other organisms. The largest known arthropod gene family (family SSGP-71) was also discovered within the effector reservoir. SSGP-71 proteins lack sequence homologies to other proteins, but their structures resemble both ubiquitin E3 ligases in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents responsible for arthropod-induced plant gall formation. PMID:25660540

Zhao, Chaoyang; Escalante, Lucio Navarro; Chen, Hang; Benatti, Thiago R; Qu, Jiaxin; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Waterhouse, Robert M; Wheeler, David; Andersson, Martin N; Bao, Riyue; Batterton, Matthew; Behura, Susanta K; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Caragea, Doina; Carolan, James C; Coyle, Marcus; El-Bouhssini, Mustapha; Francisco, Liezl; Friedrich, Markus; Gill, Navdeep; Grace, Tony; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Herndon, Nicolae; Holder, Michael; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Johnson, Alisha J; Kalra, Divya; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Lara, Fremiet; Lee, Sandra L; Liu, Xuming; Löfstedt, Christer; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Muzny, Donna M; Nagar, Swapnil; Nazareth, Lynne V; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Peterson, Brittany F; Pu, Ling-Ling; Robertson, Hugh M; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Scherer, Steven E; Shreve, Jacob T; Simmons, DeNard; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Thornton, Rebecca L; Xue, Kun; Weissenberger, George M; Williams, Christie E; Worley, Kim C; Zhu, Dianhui; Zhu, Yiming; Harris, Marion O; Shukle, Richard H; Werren, John H; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Chen, Ming-Shun; Brown, Susan J; Stuart, Jeffery J; Richards, Stephen

2015-03-01

271

Influence of prior use of the same or different effectors in a reaching action.  

PubMed

Use of different effectors in two consecutive actions could generate an attentional shift between the effectors with shorter latencies in the second action of reaching. 18 participants (10 men; M age = 21.3 yr.) participated in an experiment with two main variables: (1) effector switching with two levels (Switching and No Switching), where the participants use or do not use a different motor effector for each action; (2) lifting muscles, i.e., the muscles involved in the first phase of the reaching, with two levels (finger-lifting muscle and palm-lifting muscle). Premotor time, Motor time, Reaction time, Movement time, and Total time were measured. For Premotor, Movement, and Total times, faster responses were observed when there was no switching of the effector. This delay could be due to an attentional shift between motor effectors and its relations with motor processes. Possible applications include the ergonomic design of device controls, considering that the use of the same effector is beneficial when fast reaction times are sought. PMID:24724518

Gálvez-García, Germán; Gabaude, Catherine; de la Rosa, Francisco David; Gomez, Emilio

2014-02-01

272

Manipulation of plant cells by cyst and root-knot nematode effectors.  

PubMed

A key feature of sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes is the release of effector proteins from their esophageal gland cells through their stylets into host roots. These proteinaceous stylet secretions have been shown to be crucial for successful parasitism by mediating the transition of normal root cells into specialized feeding sites and by negating plant defenses. Recent technical advances of purifying mRNA from esophageal gland cells of plant-parasitic nematodes coupled with emerging sequencing technologies is steadily expanding our knowledge of nematode effector repertoires. Host targets and biological activities of a number of nematode effectors are continuously being reported and, by now, a first picture of the complexity of sedentary nematode parasitism at the molecular level is starting to take shape. In this review, we highlight effector mechanisms that recently have been uncovered by studying the host-pathogen interaction. These mechanisms range from mediating susceptibility of host plants to the actual triggering of defense responses. In particular, we portray and discuss the mechanisms by which nematode effectors modify plant cell walls, negate host defense responses, alter auxin and polyamine signaling, mimic plant molecules, regulate stress signaling, and activate hypersensitive responses. Continuous molecular characterization of newly discovered nematode effectors will be needed to determine how these effectors orchestrate host signaling pathways and biological processes leading to successful parasitism. PMID:22809272

Hewezi, Tarek; Baum, Thomas J

2013-01-01

273

Deregulation of Rab and Rab Effector Genes in Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence indicates that Rab GTPases, key regulators of intracellular transport in eukaryotic cells, play an important role in cancer. We analysed the deregulation at the transcriptional level of the genes encoding Rab proteins and Rab-interacting proteins in bladder cancer pathogenesis, distinguishing between the two main progression pathways so far identified in bladder cancer: the Ta pathway characterized by a high frequency of FGFR3 mutation and the carcinoma in situ pathway where no or infrequent FGFR3 mutations have been identified. A systematic literature search identified 61 genes encoding Rab proteins and 223 genes encoding Rab-interacting proteins. Transcriptomic data were obtained for normal urothelium samples and for two independent bladder cancer data sets corresponding to 152 and 75 tumors. Gene deregulation was analysed with the SAM (significant analysis of microarray) test or the binomial test. Overall, 30 genes were down-regulated, and 13 were up-regulated in the tumor samples. Five of these deregulated genes (LEPRE1, MICAL2, RAB23, STXBP1, SYTL1) were specifically deregulated in FGFR3-non-mutated muscle-invasive tumors. No gene encoding a Rab or Rab-interacting protein was found to be specifically deregulated in FGFR3-mutated tumors. Cluster analysis showed that the RAB27 gene cluster (comprising the genes encoding RAB27 and its interacting partners) was deregulated and that this deregulation was associated with both pathways of bladder cancer pathogenesis. Finally, we found that the expression of KIF20A and ZWINT was associated with that of proliferation markers and that the expression of MLPH, MYO5B, RAB11A, RAB11FIP1, RAB20 and SYTL2 was associated with that of urothelial cell differentiation markers. This systematic analysis of Rab and Rab effector gene deregulation in bladder cancer, taking relevant tumor subgroups into account, provides insight into the possible roles of Rab proteins and their effectors in bladder cancer pathogenesis. This approach is applicable to other group of genes and types of cancer. PMID:22724020

Ho, Joel R.; Chapeaublanc, Elodie; Kirkwood, Lisa; Nicolle, Remy; Benhamou, Simone; Lebret, Thierry; Allory, Yves; Southgate, Jennifer; Radvanyi, François; Goud, Bruno

2012-01-01

274

Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested manipulator systems in time for space stations operations in the early 1990s.

Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

1988-01-01

275

Mining novel effector proteins from the esophageal gland cells of Meloidogyne incognita  

PubMed Central

Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most economically damaging plant pathogens in agriculture and horticulture. Identifying and characterizing the effector proteins, which M. incognita secretes into its host plants during infection, is an important step towards finding new ways to manage this pest. In this study we have identified the cDNAs for 18 putative effectors, i.e., proteins that have the potential to facilitate M. incognita parasitism of host plants. These putative effectors are secretory proteins that do not contain transmembrane domains and whose genes are specifically expressed in the secretory gland cells of the nematode, indicating that they are likely secreted from the nematode through its stylet. We have determined that in the plant cells, these putative effectors are likely to localize to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the transcripts of many of these novel effectors are specifically up-regulated during different stages of the nematode’s life cycle, indicating that they function at specific stages during M. incognita parasitism. The predicted proteins showed little to no homology to known proteins from free-living nematode species, suggesting that they evolved recently to support the parasitic lifestyle. On the other hand, several of the effectors are part of gene families within the M. incognita genome as well as that of Meloidogyne hapla, which points to an important role that these putative effectors are playing in both parasites. With the discovery of these putative effectors we have increased our knowledge of the effector repertoire utilized by root-knot nematodes to infect, feed, and reproduce on their host plants. Future studies investigating the roles these proteins play in planta will help mitigate the effects of this damaging pest. PMID:24875667

Rutter, William B.; Hewezi, Tarek; Abubucker, Sahar; Maier, Tom R.; Huang, Guozhong; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hussey, Richard S.; Baum, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

276

Mining novel effector proteins from the esophageal gland cells of Meloidogyne incognita.  

PubMed

Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most economically damaging plant pathogens in agriculture and horticulture. Identifying and characterizing the effector proteins which M. incognita secretes into its host plants during infection is an important step toward finding new ways to manage this pest. In this study, we have identified the cDNAs for 18 putative effectors (i.e., proteins that have the potential to facilitate M. incognita parasitism of host plants). These putative effectors are secretory proteins that do not contain transmembrane domains and whose genes are specifically expressed in the secretory gland cells of the nematode, indicating that they are likely secreted from the nematode through its stylet. We have determined that, in the plant cells, these putative effectors are likely to localize to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the transcripts of many of these novel effectors are specifically upregulated during different stages of the nematode's life cycle, indicating that they function at specific stages during M. incognita parasitism. The predicted proteins showed little to no homology to known proteins from free-living nematode species, suggesting that they evolved recently to support the parasitic lifestyle. On the other hand, several of the effectors are part of gene families within the M. incognita genome as well as that of M. hapla, which points to an important role that these putative effectors are playing in both parasites. With the discovery of these putative effectors, we have increased our knowledge of the effector repertoire utilized by root-knot nematodes to infect, feed on, and reproduce on their host plants. Future studies investigating the roles that these proteins play in planta will help mitigate the effects of this damaging pest. PMID:24875667

Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Abubucker, Sahar; Maier, Tom R; Huang, Guozhong; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

2014-09-01

277

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

278

Effector specialization in a lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen.  

PubMed

Accelerated gene evolution is a hallmark of pathogen adaptation following a host jump. Here, we describe the biochemical basis of adaptation and specialization of a plant pathogen effector after its colonization of a new host. Orthologous protease inhibitor effectors from the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and its sister species, Phytophthora mirabilis, which is responsible for infection of Mirabilis jalapa, are adapted to protease targets unique to their respective host plants. Amino acid polymorphisms in both the inhibitors and their target proteases underpin this biochemical specialization. Our results link effector specialization to diversification and speciation of this plant pathogen. PMID:24482481

Dong, Suomeng; Stam, Remco; Cano, Liliana M; Song, Jing; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Oliva, Ricardo; Liu, Zhenyu; Tian, Miaoying; Win, Joe; Banfield, Mark J; Jones, Alexandra M E; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Kamoun, Sophien

2014-01-31

279

INTACT B7-H3 SIGNALING PROMOTES ALLOGRAFT PROLONGATION THROUGH PREFERENTIAL SUPPRESSION OF TH1 EFFECTOR RESPONSES  

PubMed Central

Ligands of the B7 family provide both positive and negative costimulatory signals to the CD28 family of receptors on T lymphocytes, the balance of which determines the immune response. B7-H3 is a member of the B7 family whose function in T-cell activation has been the subject of some controversy: in autoimmunity and tumor immunity, it has been described as both costimulatory and coinhibitory, while in transplantation, B7-H3 signaling is thought to contribute to graft rejection. However, we now demonstrate results to the contrary. Signaling through a putative B7-H3 receptor prolonged allograft survival in a fully MHC-mismatched cardiac model and promoted a shift towards a Th2 milieu; conversely, B7-H3 blockade, achieved by use of a blocking antibody, resulted in accelerated rejection, an effect associated with enhanced IFN-? production. Finally, graft prolongation achieved by CTLA4 Ig was shortened both by B7-H3 blockade and the absence of recipient B7-H3. These findings suggest a coinhibitory role for B7-H3. However, experience with other CD28/B7 family members suggests that immune redundancy plays a crucial role in determining the functions of various pathways. Given the abundance of conflicting data, it is plausible that, under differing conditions, B7-H3 may have both positive and negative costimulatory functions. PMID:22733595

Ueno, Takuya; Yeung, Melissa Y.; McGrath, Martina; Yang, Sunmi; Zaman, Nadia; Snawder, Benjamin; Magee, Ciara N.; Gorbatov, Rostic; Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Azuma, Miyuki; Freeman, Gordon J.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Najafian, Nader

2013-01-01

280

Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance  

SciTech Connect

Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

2008-08-01

281

TALEs from a Spring – Superelasticity of Tal Effector Protein Structures  

PubMed Central

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are DNA-related proteins that recognise and bind specific target sequences to manipulate gene expression. Recently determined crystal structures show that their common architecture reveals a superhelical overall structure that may undergo drastic conformational changes. To establish a link between structure and dynamics in TALE proteins we have employed coarse-grained elastic-network modelling of currently available structural data and implemented a force-probe setup that allowed us to investigate their mechanical behaviour in computer experiments. Based on the measured force-extension curves we conclude that TALEs exhibit superelastic dynamical properties allowing for large-scale global conformational changes along their helical axis, which represents the soft direction in such proteins. For moderate external forcing the TALE models behave like linear springs, obeying Hooke's law, and the investigated structures can be characterised and compared by a corresponding spring constant. We show that conformational flexibility underlying the large-scale motions is not homogeneously distributed over the TALE structure, but instead soft spot residues around which strain is accumulated and which turn out to represent key agents in the transmission of conformational motions are identified. They correspond to the RVD loop residues that have been experimentally determined to play an eminent role in the binding process of target DNA. PMID:25313859

Flechsig, Holger

2014-01-01

282

Autoimmune effector memory T cells: the bad and the good  

PubMed Central

Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity, a defense mechanism endowed to vertebrates during evolution. However, an autoimmune pathogenic role of memory lymphocytes is also emerging with accumulating evidence, despite reasonable skepticism on their existence in a chronic setting of autoimmune damage. It is conceivable that autoimmune memory would be particularly harmful since memory cells would constantly “remember” and attack the body's healthy tissues. It is even more detrimental given the resistance of memory T cells to immunomodulatory therapies. In this review, we focus on self-antigen-reactive CD4+ effector memory T (TEM) cells, surveying the evidence for the role of the TEM compartment in autoimmune pathogenesis. We will also discuss the role of TEM cells in chronic and acute infectious disease settings and how they compare to their counterparts in autoimmune diseases. With their long-lasting potency, the autoimmune TEM cells could also play a critical role in anti-tumor immunity, which may be largely based on their reactivity to self-antigens. Therefore, although autoimmune TEM cells are “bad” due to their role in relentless perpetration of tissue damage in autoimmune disease settings, they are unlikely a by-product of industrial development along the modern surge of autoimmune disease prevalence. Rather, they may be a product of evolution for their “good” in clearing damaged host cells in chronic infections and malignant cells in cancer settings. PMID:24203440

Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin

2014-01-01

283

Tissue-specific effector functions of innate lymphoid cells  

PubMed Central

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) is the collective term for a group of related innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the more recently discovered non-NK ILCs, which all lack rearranged antigen receptors such as those expressed by T and B cells. Similar to NK cells, the newly discovered ILCs depend on the transcription factor Id2 and the common ?-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor for development. However, in contrast to NK cells, non-NK ILCs also require interleukin-7. In addition to the cytotoxic functions of NK cells, assuring protection against tumour development and viruses, new data indicate that ILCs contribute to a wide range of homeostatic and pathophysiological conditions in various organs via specialized cytokine production capabilities. Here we summarize current knowledge on ILCs with a particular emphasis on their tissue-specific effector functions, in the gut, liver, lungs and uterus. When possible, we try to highlight the role that these cells play in humans. PMID:23489335

Björkström, Niklas K; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Mjösberg, Jenny

2013-01-01

284

Evaluation of Nod-Like Receptor (NLR) Effector Domain Interactions  

PubMed Central

Members of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family recognize intracellular pathogens and recruit a variety of effector molecules, including pro-caspases and kinases, which in turn are implicated in cytokine processing and NF-?B activation. In order to elucidate the intricate network of NLR signaling, which is still fragmentary in molecular terms, we applied comprehensive yeast two-hybrid analysis for unbiased evaluation of physical interactions between NLRs and their adaptors (ASC, CARD8) as well as kinase RIPK2 and inflammatory caspases (C1, C2, C4, C5) under identical conditions. Our results confirmed the interaction of NOD1 and NOD2 with RIPK2, and between NLRP3 and ASC, but most importantly, our studies revealed hitherto unrecognized interactions of NOD2 with members of the NLRP subfamily. We found that NOD2 specifically and directly interacts with NLRP1, NLRP3 and NLRP12. Furthermore, we observed homodimerization of the RIPK2 CARD domains and identified residues in NOD2 critical for interaction with RIPK2. In conclusion, our work provides further evidence for the complex network of protein-protein interactions underlying NLR function. PMID:19337385

Kufer, Thomas A.; Schwarzenbacher, Robert

2009-01-01

285

No death without life: vital functions of apoptotic effectors  

PubMed Central

As a result of the genetic experiments performed in Caenorhabditis elegans, it has been tacitly assumed that the core proteins of the ‘apoptotic machinery’ (CED-3, -4, -9 and EGL-1) would be solely involved in cell death regulation/execution and would not exert any functions outside of the cell death realm. However, multiple studies indicate that the mammalian orthologs of these C. elegans proteins (i.e. caspases, Apaf-1 and multidomain proteins of the Bcl-2 family) participate in cell death-unrelated processes. Similarly, loss-of-function mutations of ced-4 compromise the mitotic arrest of DNA-damaged germline cells from adult nematodes, even in a context in which the apoptotic machinery is inoperative (for instance due to mutations of egl-1 or ced-3). Moreover, EGL-1 is required for the activation of autophagy in starved nematodes. Finally, the depletion of caspase-independent death effectors, such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G, provokes cell death-independent consequences, both in mammals and in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). These results corroborate the conjecture that any kind of protein that has previously been specifically implicated in apoptosis might have a phylogenetically conserved apoptosis-unrelated function, most likely as part of an adaptive response to cellular stress. PMID:18309324

Galluzzi, L; Joza, N; Tasdemir, E; Maiuri, MC; Hengartner, M; Abrams, JM; Tavernarakis, N; Penninger, J; Madeo, F; Kroemer, G

2010-01-01

286

Receptor-coupled effector systems and their interactions  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the modulation of intracellular signal generation by receptor-coupled effector systems in B lymphocytes, and whether these alterations are consistent with the effects of prostaglandins. TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate) and sn-1,2,-dioctanoylglycerol (diC{sub 8}) substitute for lipid derived signals which activate protein kinase C. Pretreating splenocytes from athymic nude mice with 100nM TPA or 5 {mu}M diC{sub 8} potentiated the forskolin-induced increased in cAMP (measured by radioimmunoassay) 2.5 and 3.0 times (respectively), but they decreased the PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP rise 48% and 35% (respectively). Goat anti-mouse IgM, which activates diacylglycerol production, potentiated the forskolin-induced cAMP increase by 76%, but reduced that of PGE{sub 1} by 30%. Rabbit anti-mouse IgG, its F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragment, or goat anti-mouse IGM induced increases in the cytosolic free (Ca{sup 2+}), (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}, which TPA inhibited. In contrast, TPA potential antibody-induced {sup 3}H-thymidine (85x) and {sup 3}H-uridine (30x) uptake in B lymphocytes.

Wiener, E.C.

1988-01-01

287

Molecular diversity of antimicrobial effectors in the oyster Crassostrea gigas  

PubMed Central

Background To gain insight into the molecular diversity of antimicrobial peptides and proteins in the oyster Crassostrea gigas, we characterized and compared the sequence polymorphism of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), Cg-Defensins (Cg-Defs) and Cg-Proline Rich peptide (Cg-Prp), and of the bactericidal permeability increasing protein, Cg-BPI. For that, we analyzed genomic and transcript sequences obtained by specific PCR amplification and in silico searches. Results High diversification among the three antimicrobial effectors was evidenced by this polymorphism survey. On the basis of sequence phylogenies, each AMP aggregates into clearly defined groups of variants and is the product of a multigenic family displaying a variety of gene structures. In contrast, Cg-bpi forms a single group and is encoded by a single gene copy. Moreover, we identified for both AMPs several genetic mechanisms of diversification such as recombination, parallel mutations leading to phylogenetic homoplasy and indel events. In addition, the non synonymous to synonymous substitutions ratio by codon (dN/dS) revealed several negatively and positively selected sites for both AMPs, suggesting that directional selection pressures have shaped their sequence variations. Conclusions This study shows for the first time in a mollusc that antimicrobial peptides and proteins have been subject to distinct patterns of diversification and we evidence the existence of different evolutionary routes leading to such sequence variability. PMID:20100329

2010-01-01

288

Edinburgh Research Explorer A library of mammalian effector modules for synthetic  

E-print Network

of synthetic morphogenetic driver genes to control (separately) mammalian cell adhesion, locomotion, fusion for developmental biology and tissue engineering. Keywords: Synthetic morphology, Synthetic biology, MorphogenesisEdinburgh Research Explorer A library of mammalian effector modules for synthetic morphology

Millar, Andrew J.

289

Lifestyles of the effector-rich: genome-enabled characterization of bacterial plant pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genome sequencing of bacterial plant pathogens is providing transformative insights into the complex network of molecular plant-microbe interactions mediated by extracellular effectors during pathogenesis. Bacterial pathogens sequenced to completion are phylogenetically diverse and vary significant...

290

Intrathymic programming of effector fates in three molecularly distinct ?? T cell subtypes  

E-print Network

Innate ?? T cells function in the early phase of immune responses. Although innate ?? T cells have often been studied as one homogenous population, they can be functionally classified into effector subsets on the basis of ...

Narayan, Kavitha

291

Effectors and memories: Bcl6 and Blimp1 in T and B lymphocyte differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 have recently been identified as key transcriptional regulators of effector and memory differentiation in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 were previously known to be critical regulators of effector and memory differentiation of B lymphocytes. The new findings unexpectedly point to the Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 regulatory axis as a ubiquitous mechanism for controlling

Robert J Johnston; Stephen P Schoenberger; Shane Crotty

2010-01-01

292

Leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 mediates early effector T cell recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was originally described as a potent lipid myeloid cell chemoattractant, rapidly generated from innate immune cells, that activates leukocytes through the G protein–coupled receptor BLT1. We report here that BLT1 is expressed on effector CD4+ T cells generated in vitro as well as in vivo when effector T cells migrate out of the lymphoid compartment and are

Andrew M Tager; Shannon K Bromley; Benjamin D Medoff; Sabina A Islam; Scott D Bercury; Erik B Friedrich; Andrew D Carafone; Robert E Gerszten; Andrew D Luster

2003-01-01

293

The Downy Mildew Effector Proteins ATR1 and ATR13 Promote Disease Susceptibility in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The downy mildew (Hyaloperonospora parasitica) effector proteins ATR1 and ATR13 trigger RPP1-Nd\\/WsB- and RPP13-Nd- dependent resistance, respectively, in Arabidopsis thaliana. To better understand the functions of these effectors during compatible and incompatible interactions of H. parasitica isolates on Arabidopsis accessions, we developed a novel delivery system using Pseudomonas syringae type III secretion via fusions of ATRs to the N terminus

Kee Hoon Sohn; Rita Lei; Adnane Nemri; Jonathan D. G. Jones

2007-01-01

294

Structural Insights into the Effector – Immunity System Tae4/Tai4 from Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Type-6-secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria are widely distributed needle-like multi-protein complexes that are involved in microbial defense mechanisms. During bacterial competition these injection needles dispense effector proteins into the periplasm of competing bacteria where they induce degradation of the peptidoglycan scaffold and lead to cell lysis. Donor cells co-produce immunity proteins and shuttle them into their own periplasm to prevent accidental toxication by siblings. Recently, a plethora of previously unidentified hydrolases have been suggested to be peptidoglycan degrading amidases. These hydrolases are part of effector/immunity pairs that have been associated with bacterial warfare by type-6-secretion systems. The Tae4 and Tai4 operon encoded by Salmonella typhimurium is one of these newly discovered effector/immunity pairs. The Tae4 effector proteins induce cell lysis by cleaving the ?-D-glutamyl-L-meso-diaminopimelic acid amide bond of acceptor stem muropeptides of the Gram-negative peptidoglycan. Although homologues of the Tae4/Tai4 system have been identified in various different pathogens, little is known about the functional mechanism of effector protein activity and their inhibition by the cognate immunity proteins. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of the effector Tae4 of S. typhimurium in complex with its immunity protein Tai4. We show that Tae4 contains a classical NlpC/P60-peptidase core which is common to other effector proteins of the type-6-secretion system. However, Tae4 has unique structural features that are exclusively conserved within the family of Tae4 effectors and which are important for the substrate specificity. Most importantly, we show that although the overall structure of Tai4 is different to previously described immunity proteins, the essential mode of enzyme inhibition is conserved. Additionally, we provide evidence that inhibition in the Tae4/Tai4 heterotetramer relies on a central Tai4 dimer in order to acquire functionality. PMID:23826277

Benz, Juliane; Reinstein, Jochen; Meinhart, Anton

2013-01-01

295

Resistance to transforming growth factor ?-mediated tumor suppression in melanoma: are multiple mechanisms in place?  

PubMed

Resistance to transforming growth factor (TGF) ?-mediated tumor suppression in melanoma appears to be a crucial step in tumor aggressiveness since it is usually coupled with the ability of TGF? to drive the oncogenic process via autocrine and paracrine effects. In this review, we will focus mainly on the mechanisms of escape from TGF?-induced cell cycle arrest because the mechanisms of resistance to TGF?-mediated apoptosis are still essentially speculative. As expected, some of these mechanisms can directly affect the function of the main downstream effectors of TGF?, Smad2 and Smad3, resulting in compromised Smad-mediated antiproliferative activity. Other mechanisms can counteract or overcome TGF?-mediated cell cycle arrest independently of the Smads. In melanoma, some models of resistance to TGF? have been suggested and will be described. In addition, we propose additional models of resistance taking into consideration the information available on the dysregulation of fundamental cellular effectors and signaling pathways in melanoma. PMID:20656791

Lasfar, Ahmed; Cohen-Solal, Karine A

2010-10-01

296

Resistance to transforming growth factor ?-mediated tumor suppression in melanoma: are multiple mechanisms in place?  

PubMed Central

Resistance to transforming growth factor (TGF) ?-mediated tumor suppression in melanoma appears to be a crucial step in tumor aggressiveness since it is usually coupled with the ability of TGF? to drive the oncogenic process via autocrine and paracrine effects. In this review, we will focus mainly on the mechanisms of escape from TGF?-induced cell cycle arrest because the mechanisms of resistance to TGF?-mediated apoptosis are still essentially speculative. As expected, some of these mechanisms can directly affect the function of the main downstream effectors of TGF?, Smad2 and Smad3, resulting in compromised Smad-mediated antiproliferative activity. Other mechanisms can counteract or overcome TGF?-mediated cell cycle arrest independently of the Smads. In melanoma, some models of resistance to TGF? have been suggested and will be described. In addition, we propose additional models of resistance taking into consideration the information available on the dysregulation of fundamental cellular effectors and signaling pathways in melanoma. PMID:20656791

Lasfar, Ahmed; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.

2010-01-01

297

New clues in the nucleus: transcriptional reprogramming in effector-triggered immunity  

PubMed Central

The robustness of plant effector-triggered immunity is correlated with massive alterations of the host transcriptome. Yet the molecular mechanisms that cause and underlie this reprogramming remain obscure. Here we will review recent advances in deciphering nuclear functions of plant immune receptors and of associated proteins. Important open questions remain, such as the identities of the primary transcription factors involved in control of effector-triggered immune responses, and indeed whether this can be generalized or whether particular effector-resistance protein interactions impinge on distinct sectors in the transcriptional response web. Multiple lines of evidence have implicated WRKY transcription factors at the core of responses to microbe-associated molecular patterns and in intersections with effector-triggered immunity. Recent findings from yeast two-hybrid studies suggest that members of the TCP transcription factor family are targets of several effectors from diverse pathogens. Additional transcription factor families that are directly or indirectly involved in effector-triggered immunity are likely to be identified. PMID:24062762

Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Garner, Christopher M.; Gassmann, Walter

2013-01-01

298

Computational prediction of type III and IV secreted effectors in Gram-negative bacteria  

SciTech Connect

In this review, we provide an overview of the methods employed by four recent papers that described novel methods for computational prediction of secreted effectors from type III and IV secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria. The results of the studies in terms of performance at accurately predicting secreted effectors and similarities found between secretion signals that may reflect biologically relevant features for recognition. We discuss the web-based tools for secreted effector prediction described in these studies and announce the availability of our tool, the SIEVEserver (http://www.biopilot.org). Finally, we assess the accuracy of the three type III effector prediction methods on a small set of proteins not known prior to the development of these tools that we have recently discovered and validated using both experimental and computational approaches. Our comparison shows that all methods use similar approaches and, in general arrive at similar conclusions. We discuss the possibility of an order-dependent motif in the secretion signal, which was a point of disagreement in the studies. Our results show that there may be classes of effectors in which the signal has a loosely defined motif, and others in which secretion is dependent only on compositional biases. Computational prediction of secreted effectors from protein sequences represents an important step toward better understanding the interaction between pathogens and hosts.

McDermott, Jason E.; Corrigan, Abigail L.; Peterson, Elena S.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Niemann, George; Cambronne, Eric; Sharp, Danna; Adkins, Joshua N.; Samudrala, Ram; Heffron, Fred

2011-01-01

299

Evolution of RXLR-Class Effectors in the Oomycete Plant Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora plant pathogens contain many hundreds of effectors potentially involved in infection of host plants. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that these effectors evolve rapidly and have been subject to recent expansions. We examined the recent sequence evolution of RXLR-class effector gene families in the sudden oak death pathogen, P. ramorum. We found that P. ramorum RXLR effectors have taken multiple evolutionary paths, including loss or gain of repeated domains, recombination or gene conversion among paralogs, and selection on point mutations. Sequencing of homologs from two subfamilies in P. ramorum’s closest known relatives revealed repeated gene duplication and divergence since speciation with P. lateralis. One family showed strong signatures of recombination while the other family has evolved primarily by point mutation. Comparison of a small number of the hundreds of RXLR-class effectors across three clonal lineages of P. ramorum shows striking divergence in alleles among lineages, suggesting the potential for functional differences between lineages. Our results suggest future avenues for examination of rapidly evolving effectors in P. ramorum, including investigation of the functional and coevolutionary significance of the patterns of sequence evolution that we observed. PMID:24244484

Goss, Erica M.; Press, Caroline M.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

2013-01-01

300

Systematic analysis of the regulation of type three secreted effectors in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Background The type III secretion system (TTSS) is an important virulence determinant of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. It enables the injection of effector proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. These effectors ultimately manipulate the cellular functions of the infected organism. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes two virulence associated TTSSs encoded by the Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPI) 1 and 2 that are required for the intestinal and systemic phases of the infection, respectively. However, recent studies suggest that the roles of these TTSSs are not restricted to these compartments. The regulation of TTSSs in Salmonella is very complex with several regulators operating to activate or to repress expression depending on the environmental conditions. Results We performed a systematic analysis of the regulation of type III effectors during growth in vitro. We have tested the ability of seven regulatory genes to regulate ten effector genes. Each regulator was expressed in the absence of the other six to avoid cascade effects. Our results confirm and extend the previously reported regulation of TTSS1 and TTSS2 effectors by InvF-SicA and SsrB respectively. Conclusion The set of strains constructed for this study can be used to quickly and systematically study the regulation of newly identified effector genes of Salmonella enterica. The approach we have used can also be applied to study complex regulatory cascades in other bacterial species. PMID:17233907

Dieye, Yakhya; Dyszel, Jessica L; Kader, Rebin; Ahmer, Brian MM

2007-01-01

301

Of PAMPs and Effectors: The Blurred PTI-ETI Dichotomy[OA  

PubMed Central

Typically, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are considered to be conserved throughout classes of microbes and to contribute to general microbial fitness, whereas effectors are species, race, or strain specific and contribute to pathogen virulence. Both types of molecule can trigger plant immunity, designated PAMP-triggered and effector-triggered immunity (PTI and ETI, respectively). However, not all microbial defense activators conform to the common distinction between PAMPs and effectors. For example, some effectors display wide distribution, while some PAMPs are rather narrowly conserved or contribute to pathogen virulence. As effectors may elicit defense responses and PAMPs may be required for virulence, single components cannot exclusively be referred to by one of the two terms. Therefore, we put forward that the distinction between PAMPs and effectors, between PAMP receptors and resistance proteins, and, therefore, also between PTI and ETI, cannot strictly be maintained. Rather, as illustrated by examples provided here, there is a continuum between PTI and ETI. We argue that plant resistance is determined by immune receptors that recognize appropriate ligands to activate defense, the amplitude of which is likely determined by the level required for effective immunity. PMID:21278123

Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.

2011-01-01

302

In-flight adaptive performance optimization (APO) control using redundant control effectors of an aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.

Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

303

Characterization of novel store-operated calcium entry effectors.  

PubMed

2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB) is a well-known effector of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry of several cell types such as immune cells, platelets and smooth muscle cells. 2-APB has a dual effect: potentiation at 1-5?M and inhibition at >30?M. Unfortunately, it is also able to modify the activity of other Ca(2+) transporters and, thus, cannot be used as a therapeutic tool to control the leukocyte activity in diseases like inflammation. Previously, we have shown that SOCE potentiation by 2-APB depends on the presence of the central boron-oxygen core (BOC) and that the phenyl groups determine the sensitivity of the molecule to inhibit and/or potentiate the SOCE. We hypothesized that by modifying the two phenyl groups of 2-APB, we could identify more efficient and specific analogues. In fact, the addition of methoxyl groups to one phenyl group greatly decreased the potentiation ability without any significant effect on the inhibition. Surprisingly, when the free rotation of the two phenyl groups was blocked by a new hydrocarbon bridge, the BOC was no longer able to potentiate. Furthermore, larger aryl groups than phenyl also impaired the activity of the BOC. Thus, the potentiation site in the Ca(2+) channel is not accessible by the BOC when the lateral groups are too large or unable to freely rotate. However, these molecules are potent inhibitors of store-operated calcium entry with affinities below 1?M, and they can block the activation of the Jurkat T cells. Thus, it is possible to characterize 2-APB analogues with different properties that could be the first step in the discovery of new immunomodulators. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau. PMID:24657813

Djillani, Alaeddine; Nüße, Oliver; Dellis, Olivier

2014-10-01

304

Interactions between surround suppression and interocular suppression in human vision.  

PubMed

Several types of suppression phenomena have been observed in the visual system. For example, the ability to detect a target stimulus is often impaired when the target is embedded in a high-contrast surround. This contextual modulation, known as surround suppression, was formerly thought to occur only in the periphery. Another type of suppression phenomena is interocular suppression, in which the sensitivity to a monocular target is reduced by a superimposed mask in the opposite eye. Here, we explored how the two types of suppression operating across different spatial regions interact with one another when they simultaneously exert suppressive influences on a common target presented at the fovea. In our experiments, a circular target grating presented to the fovea of one eye was suppressed interocularly by a noise pattern of the same size in the other eye. The foveal stimuli were either shown alone or surrounded by a monocular annular grating. The orientation and eye-of-origin of the surround grating were varied. We found that the detection of the foveal target subjected to interocular suppression was severely impaired by the addition of the surround grating, indicating strong surround suppression in the fovea. In contrast, when the interocular suppression was released by superimposing a binocular fusion ring onto both the target and the dichoptic mask, the surround suppression effect was found to be dramatically decreased. In addition, the surround suppression was found to depend on the contrast of the dichoptic noise with the greatest surround suppression effect being obtained only when the noise contrast was at an intermediate level. These findings indicate that surround suppression and interocular suppression are not independent of each other, but there are strong interactions between them. Moreover, our results suggest that strong surround suppression may also occur at the fovea and not just the periphery. PMID:22662270

Cai, Yong-Chun; Lu, Shena; Li, Chao-Yi

2012-01-01

305

Event-related alpha suppression in response to facial motion.  

PubMed

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors. PMID:24586735

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J; Spencer, Janine V; O'Brien, Justin M D

2014-01-01

306

The structure and specificity of the type III secretion system effector NleC suggest a DNA mimicry mechanism of substrate recognition.  

PubMed

Many pathogenic bacteria utilize the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins directly into host cells, facilitating colonization. In enterohemmorhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of T3SS effectors is essential for suppression of the inflammatory response in hosts, including humans. Identified as a zinc protease that cleaves NF-?B transcription factors, NleC is one such effector. Here, we investigate NleC substrate specificity, showing that four residues around the cleavage site in the DNA-binding loop of the NF-?B subunit RelA strongly influence the cleavage rate. Class I NF-?B subunit p50 is cleaved at a reduced rate consistent with conservation of only three of these four residues. However, peptides containing 10 residues on each side of the scissile bond were not efficiently cleaved by NleC, indicating that elements distal from the cleavage site are also important for substrate recognition. We present the crystal structure of NleC and show that it mimics DNA structurally and electrostatically. Consistent with this model, mutation of phosphate-mimicking residues in NleC reduces the level of RelA cleavage. We propose that global recognition of NF-?B subunits by DNA mimicry combined with a high sequence selectivity for the cleavage site results in exquisite NleC substrate specificity. The structure also shows that despite undetectable similarity of its sequence to those of other Zn(2+) proteases beyond its conserved HExxH Zn(2+)-binding motif, NleC is a member of the Zincin protease superfamily, albeit divergent from its structural homologues. In particular, NleC displays a modified ?-loop motif that may be important for folding and refolding requirements implicit in T3SS translocation. PMID:25040221

Turco, Michelle Marian; Sousa, Marcelo Carlos

2014-08-12

307

Assessing the suppressive activity of Foxp3? regulatory T cells.  

PubMed

Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) balance the mammalian immune system by mechanisms that are yet to be elucidated in their entirety. Methods employed to quantify the regulatory activity of Tregs in vitro are an important tool in cellular immunology, but can be technically demanding and subjected to variation. In this manuscript, we describe in detail a robust Treg suppression assay based on the flow cytometric quantification of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector T cell functions. This method can provide valuable insights into the immunosuppressive activity of Foxp3(+) Tregs and is versatile with regard to genetic or pharmacologic manipulations. Additionally, novel regulatory immune cells can be characterized by using this assay. PMID:25150999

Mayer, Christian Thomas; Sparwasser, Tim

2014-01-01

308

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOEpatents

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

1994-03-15

309

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOEpatents

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

1994-03-15

310

Transfer of tolerance to collagen type V suppresses Th-17 lymphocyte mediated acute lung transplant rejection  

PubMed Central

Background Rat lung allograft rejection is mediated by collagen type V (col(V)) specific Th17 cells. Adoptive transfer of these cells is sufficient to induce rejection pathology in isografts, whereas tolerance to col(V) suppresses allograft rejection. We therefore tested if regulatory T cells from tolerant rats could suppress the Th17 mediated rejection in the syngeneic model of lung transplantation. Methods Rats were subjected to syngeneic left lung transplantation and acute rejection was induced by adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from col(V)-immunized rats. Tolerance was induced by intravenous (iv) injection of col(V) and spleen lymphocytes were used for adoptive transfer. CD4+ T cells were depleted using magnetic beads. Lung isografts were analyzed using micro-PET imaging and histochemistry. The transvivo delayed type hypersensitivity (TV-DTH) assay was used to analyze the Th17 response. Results Adoptive co-transfer of col(V)-specific effector cells with cells from col(V) tolerized rats suppressed severe vasculitis and bronchiolitis with parenchymal inflammation, and the expression of IL-17 transcripts in mediastinal lymph nodes induced by effector cells alone. Analysis by TV-DTH showed that the reactivity to col(V) was dependent on the presence of TNF-? and IL-17, but not IFN-?. Depletion of CD4+ T cells from the suppressor cell population abrogated the col(V)-specific protection. Conclusion Th17 mediated acute rejection after lung transplantation is ameliorated by CD4+ col(V)-specific regulatory T cells. The mechanism for this Th17 suppression is consistent with tolerance induction to col(V). The goal of transplantation treatment therefore should target Th17 development and not suppression of T cell activation by suppressing IL-2. PMID:20029330

Braun, Ruedi K.; Molitor-Dart, Melanie; Wigfield, Christopher; Xiang, Zhuzai; Fain, Sean B.; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Seroogy, Christine M.; Burlingham, William J.; Wilkes, David S.; Brand, David D.; Torrealba, Jose; Love, Robert B.

2009-01-01

311

Design of endoscopic micro-robotic end effectors: safety and performance evaluation based on physical intestinal tissue damage characteristics.  

PubMed

During the last several years, legged locomotive mechanism has been considered as one of the main self-propelling mechanisms for future endoscopic microrobots due to its superior propulsion efficiency of an endoscopic microrobot inside the intestinal track. Nevertheless, its clinical application has been largely limited since the legged locomotive mechanism utilizes an end effector which has a sharp tip to generate sufficient traction by physically penetrating and interlocking with the intestinal tissue. This can cause excessive physical tissue damage or even complete perforation of the intestinal wall that can lead to abdominal inflammation. Hence, in this work two types of new end effectors, penetration-limited end effector (PLEE) and bi-material structured end effector (BMEE) were specially designed to acquire high medical safety as well as effective traction generation performance. The microscopic end effector specimens were fabricated with micro-wire electric discharge machining process. Traction generation performance of the end effectors was evaluated by direct measurement of resistance forces during contact-sliding tests using a custom-built contact-sliding tester. The safety of the end effector design was evaluated by examination of microscopic intestinal tissue damage using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Physical damage characteristics of the intestinal tissue and related contact physics of the end effectors were discussed. From the results, the end effectors were evaluated with respect to their prospects in future medical applications as safe end effectors as well as micro-surgical tools. PMID:24634056

Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Dae-Eun; Yang, Sungwook; Yoon, Eui-Sung

2014-06-01

312

Naturally occurring nonpathogenic isolates of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae lack a type III secretion system and effector gene orthologues.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas syringae causes plant diseases, and the main virulence mechanism is a type III secretion system (T3SS) that translocates dozens of effector proteins into plant cells. Here we report the existence of a subgroup of P. syringae isolates that do not cause disease on any plant species tested. This group is monophyletic and most likely evolved from a pathogenic P. syringae ancestor through loss of the T3SS. In the nonpathogenic isolate P. syringae 508 the genomic region that in pathogenic P. syringae strains contains the hrp-hrc cluster coding for the T3SS and flanking effector genes is absent. P. syringae 508 was also surveyed for the presence of effector orthologues from the closely related pathogenic strain P. syringae pv. syringae B728a, but none were detected. The absence of the hrp-hrc cluster and effector orthologues was confirmed for other nonpathogenic isolates. Using the AvrRpt2 effector as reporter revealed the inability of P. syringae 508 to translocate effectors into plant cells. Adding a plasmid-encoded T3SS and the P. syringae pv. syringae 61 effector gene hopA1 increased in planta growth almost 10-fold. This suggests that P. syringae 508 supplemented with a T3SS could be used to determine functions of individual effectors in the context of a plant infection, avoiding the confounding effect of other effectors with similar functions present in effector mutants of pathogenic isolates. PMID:18263729

Mohr, Toni J; Liu, Haijie; Yan, Shuangchun; Morris, Cindy E; Castillo, José A; Jelenska, Joanna; Vinatzer, Boris A

2008-04-01

313

CCR2-dependent dendritic cell accumulation in the central nervous system during early effector experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is essential for effector T cell restimulation in situ and disease progression.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs)--although absent from the healthy CNS parenchyma--rapidly accumulate within brain and spinal cord tissue during neuroinflammation associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; a mouse model of multiple sclerosis). Yet, although DCs have been appreciated for their role in initiating adaptive immune responses in peripheral lymphoid organ tissues, how DCs infiltrate the CNS and contribute to ongoing neuroinflammation in situ is poorly understood. In this study, we report the following: 1) CD11c(+) bone marrow-derived DCs and CNS-infiltrating DCs express chemokine receptor CCR2; 2) compared with CCR2(+/+) cells, adoptively transferred CCR2(-/-) bone marrow-derived DCs or DC precursors do not accumulate in the CNS during EAE, despite abundance in blood; 3) CCR2(-/-) DCs show less accumulation in the inflamed CNS in mixed bone marrow chimeras, when compared with CCR2(+/+) DCs; and 4) ablation of CCR2(+/+) DCs during EAE clinical onset delays progression and attenuates cytokine production by infiltrating T cells. Whereas the role of CCR2 in monocyte migration into the CNS has been implicated previously, the role of CCR2 in DC infiltration into the CNS has never been directly addressed. Our data suggest that CCR2-dependent DC recruitment to the CNS during ongoing neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in effector T cell cytokine production and disease progression, and signify that CNS-DCs and circulating DC precursors might be key therapeutic targets for suppressing ongoing neuroinflammation in CNS autoimmune diseases. PMID:25505278

Clarkson, Benjamin D; Walker, Alec; Harris, Melissa G; Rayasam, Aditya; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

2015-01-15

314

Menstrual suppression: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Menstrual suppression to provide relief of menstrual-related symptoms or to manage medical conditions associated with menstrual morbidity or menstrual exacerbation has been used clinically since the development of steroid hormonal therapies. Options range from the extended or continuous use of combined hormonal oral contraceptives, to the use of combined hormonal patches and rings, progestins given in a variety of formulations from intramuscular injection to oral therapies to intrauterine devices, and other agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. The agents used for menstrual suppression have variable rates of success in inducing amenorrhea, but typically have increasing rates of amenorrhea over time. Therapy may be limited by side effects, most commonly irregular, unscheduled bleeding. These therapies can benefit women’s quality of life, and by stabilizing the hormonal milieu, potentially improve the course of underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or a seizure disorder. This review addresses situations in which menstrual suppression may be of benefit, and lists options which have been successful in inducing medical amenorrhea. PMID:25018654

Hillard, Paula Adams

2014-01-01

315

Vibrotactile suppression of tinnitus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Society's 142nd meeting, the efficacy of high frequency bone conducted stimulation in suppressing tinnitus was presented. The hypothesized mechanism was the reprogramming of frequency tuning of auditory neurons in the central nervous system, secondarily to peripheral hearing loss. This mechanism is unlikely in cases of tinnitus in the presence of normal audiometric sensitivity. There is the possibility that hearing loss above 10 kHz can play a role in tinnitus, an association not thoroughly explored. Somatomotor stimulation influencing the quality of tinnitus has been reported, as have interconnections of the auditory and somatosensory systems. There would appear to be an evolutionary advantage of linking the sensorimotor organization of the external ear and the auditory function of the brainstem in sound localization. Thus, stimulation of the pinna and post auricular area may be a means of suppressing tinnitus. To that end a thin aluminum ceramic bimorph was constructed to fit on the inner surface of the pinna. When driven by low (<100 Hz) and high (>10 kHz) frequencies multiplied by MHz carriers, demodulation in the skin resulted in vibrotactile stimulation. Tactile stimulation was an adjunct to the high frequencies resulting in a multimodal suppressive effect in a small pilot study.

Lenhardt, Martin L.

2002-05-01

316

A plant phosphoswitch platform repeatedly targeted by type III effector proteins regulates the output of both tiers of plant immune receptors.  

PubMed

Plants detect microbes via two functionally interconnected tiers of immune receptors. Immune detection is suppressed by equally complex pathogen mechanisms. The small plasma-membrane-tethered protein RIN4 negatively regulates microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered responses, which are derepressed upon bacterial flagellin perception. We demonstrate that recognition of the flagellin peptide MAMP flg22 triggers accumulation of RIN4 phosphorylated at serine 141 (pS141) that mediates derepression of several immune outputs. RIN4 is targeted by four bacterial type III effector proteins, delivered temporally after flagellin perception. Of these, AvrB acts with a host kinase to increase levels of RIN4 phosphorylated at threonine 166 (pT166). RIN4 pT166 is epistatic to RIN4 pS141. Thus, AvrB contributes to virulence by enhancing "rerepression" of immune system outputs. Our results explain the evolution of independent effectors that antagonize accumulation of RIN4 pS141 and of a specific plant intracellular NLR protein, RPM1, which is activated by AvrB-mediated accumulation of RIN4 pT166. PMID:25299334

Chung, Eui-Hwan; El-Kasmi, Farid; He, Yijian; Loehr, Alex; Dangl, Jeffery L

2014-10-01

317

Structures of the flax-rust effector AvrM reveal insights into the molecular basis of plant-cell entry and effector-triggered immunity  

PubMed Central

Fungal and oomycete pathogens cause some of the most devastating diseases in crop plants, and facilitate infection by delivering a large number of effector molecules into the plant cell. AvrM is a secreted effector protein from flax rust (Melampsora lini) that can internalize into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen, binds to phosphoinositides (PIPs), and is recognized directly by the resistance protein M in flax (Linum usitatissimum), resulting in effector-triggered immunity. We determined the crystal structures of two naturally occurring variants of AvrM, AvrM-A and avrM, and both reveal an L-shaped fold consisting of a tandem duplicated four-helix motif, which displays similarity to the WY domain core in oomycete effectors. In the crystals, both AvrM variants form a dimer with an unusual nonglobular shape. Our functional analysis of AvrM reveals that a hydrophobic surface patch conserved between both variants is required for internalization into plant cells, whereas the C-terminal coiled-coil domain mediates interaction with M. AvrM binding to PIPs is dependent on positive surface charges, and mutations that abrogate PIP binding have no significant effect on internalization, suggesting that AvrM binding to PIPs is not essential for transport of AvrM across the plant membrane. The structure of AvrM and the identification of functionally important surface regions advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying how effectors enter plant cells and how they are detected by the plant immune system. PMID:24101475

Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J.; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Rafiqi, Maryam; Rahman, Motiur; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Hardham, Adrienne R.; Jones, David A.; Anderson, Peter A.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kobe, Bostjan

2013-01-01

318

DEEP—A tool for differential expression effector prediction  

PubMed Central

High-throughput methods for measuring transcript abundance, like SAGE or microarrays, are widely used for determining differences in gene expression between different tissue types, dignities (normal/malignant) or time points. Further analysis of such data frequently aims at the identification of gene interaction networks that form the causal basis for the observed properties of the systems under examination. To this end, it is usually not sufficient to rely on the measured gene expression levels alone; rather, additional biological knowledge has to be taken into account in order to generate useful hypotheses about the molecular mechanism leading to the realization of a certain phenotype. We present a method that combines gene expression data with biological expert knowledge on molecular interaction networks, as described by the TRANSPATH1 database on signal transduction, to predict additional—and not necessarily differentially expressed—genes or gene products which might participate in processes specific for either of the examined tissues or conditions. In a first step, significance values for over-expression in tissue/condition A or B are assigned to all genes in the expression data set. Genes with a significance value exceeding a certain threshold are used as starting points for the reconstruction of a graph with signaling components as nodes and signaling events as edges. In a subsequent graph traversal process, again starting from the previously identified differentially expressed genes, all encountered nodes ‘inherit’ all their starting nodes’ significance values. In a final step, the graph is visualized, the nodes being colored according to a weighted average of their inherited significance values. Each node's, or sub-network's, predominant color, ranging from green (significant for tissue/condition A) over yellow (not significant for either tissue/condition) to red (significant for tissue/condition B), thus gives an immediate visual clue on which molecules—differentially expressed or not—may play pivotal roles in the tissues or conditions under examination. The described method has been implemented in Java as a client/server application and a web interface called DEEP (Differential Expression Effector Prediction). The client, which features an easy-to-use graphical interface, can freely be downloaded from the following URL: http://deep.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de PMID:17584786

Degenhardt, Jost; Haubrock, Martin; Dönitz, Jürgen; Wingender, Edgar; Crass, Torsten

2007-01-01

319

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Bsa Type III Secretion System Effectors Using Hypersecreting Mutants  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. One of the virulence factors critical for early stages of infection is the Burkholderia secretion apparatus (Bsa) Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS), a molecular syringe that injects bacterial proteins, called effectors, into eukaryotic cells where they subvert cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Although the Bsa T3SS itself is known to be important for invasion, intracellular replication, and virulence, only a few genuine effector proteins have been identified and the complete repertoire of proteins secreted by the system has not yet been fully characterized. We constructed a mutant lacking bsaP, a homolog of the T3SS “gatekeeper” family of proteins that exert control over the timing and magnitude of effector protein secretion. Mutants lacking BsaP, or the T3SS translocon protein BipD, were observed to hypersecrete the known Bsa effector protein BopE, providing evidence of their role in post-translational control of the Bsa T3SS and representing key reagents for the identification of its secreted substrates. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ), a gel-free quantitative proteomics technique, was used to compare the secreted protein profiles of the Bsa T3SS hypersecreting mutants of B. pseudomallei with the isogenic parent strain and a bsaZ mutant incapable of effector protein secretion. Our study provides one of the most comprehensive core secretomes of B. pseudomallei described to date and identified 26 putative Bsa-dependent secreted proteins that may be considered candidate effectors. Two of these proteins, BprD and BapA, were validated as novel effector proteins secreted by the Bsa T3SS of B. pseudomallei. PMID:25635268

Vander Broek, Charles W.; Chalmers, Kevin J.; Stevens, Mark P.; Stevens, Joanne M.

2015-01-01

320

Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25+/highCD127Ø/lowFoxP3+, and effector T cells were defined as CD25+CD127+FoxP3Ø. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4+TREG and CD28+TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L+TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR+, HLA-DR+, OX40+, and CD45RO+ cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L+ cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L+TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25098715

Mesquita Júnior, D.; Cruvinel, W.M.; Araujo, J.A.P.; Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G.; Andrade, L.E.C.

2014-01-01

321

A Mec17-Myosin II Effector Axis Coordinates Microtubule Acetylation and Actin Dynamics to Control Primary Cilium Biogenesis  

PubMed Central

Primary cilia are specialized, acetylated microtubule-based signaling processes. Cilium assembly is activated by cellular quiescence and requires reconfiguration of microtubules, the actin cytoskeleton, and vesicular trafficking machinery. How these components are coordinated to activate ciliogenesis remains unknown. Here we identify the microtubule acetyltransferase Mec-17 and myosin II motors as the key effectors in primary cilium biogenesis. We found that myosin IIB (Myh10) is required for cilium formation; however, myosin IIA (Myh9) suppresses it. Myh10 binds and antagonizes Myh9 to increase actin dynamics, which facilitates the assembly of the pericentrosomal preciliary complex (PPC) that supplies materials for cilium growth. Importantly, Myh10 expression is upregulated by serum-starvation and this induction requires Mec-17, which is itself accumulated upon cellular quiescence. Pharmacological stimulation of microtubule acetylation also induces Myh10 expression and cilium formation. Thus cellular quiescence induces Mec17 to couple the production of acetylated microtubules and Myh10, whose accumulation overcomes the inhibitory role of Myh9 and initiates ciliogenesis. PMID:25494100

Rao, Yanhua; Hao, Rui; Wang, Bin; Yao, Tso-Pang

2014-01-01

322

Sequential Induction of Effector Function, Tissue Migration and Cell Death during Polyclonal Activation of Mouse Regulatory T-Cells  

PubMed Central

The ability of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) to produce interleukin (IL)-10 is important for the limitation of inflammation at environmental interfaces like colon or lung. Under steady state conditions, however, few Tregs produce IL-10 ex vivo. To investigate the origin and fate of IL-10 producing Tregs we used a superagonistic mouse anti-mouse CD28 mAb (CD28SA) for polyclonal in vivo stimulation of Tregs, which not only led to their numeric expansion but also to a dramatic increase in IL-10 production. IL-10 secreting Tregs strongly upregulated surface receptors associated with suppressive function as compared to non-producing Tregs. Furthermore, polyclonally expanding Tregs shifted their migration receptor pattern after activation from a CCR7+CCR5? lymph node-seeking to a CCR7?CCR5+ inflammation-seeking phenotype, explaining the preferential recruitment of IL-10 producers to sites of ongoing immune responses. Finally, we observed that IL-10 producing Tregs from CD28SA stimulated mice were more apoptosis-prone in vitro than their IL-10 negative counterparts. These findings support a model where prolonged activation of Tregs results in terminal differentiation towards an IL-10 producing effector phenotype associated with a limited lifespan, implicating built-in termination of immunosuppression. PMID:23226238

Langenhorst, Daniela; Gogishvili, Tea; Ribechini, Eliana; Kneitz, Susanne; McPherson, Kirsty; Lutz, Manfred B.; Hünig, Thomas

2012-01-01

323

Halofuginone-induced amino acid starvation regulates Stat3-dependent Th17 effector function and reduces established autoimmune inflammation  

PubMed Central

The IL-23 pathway is genetically linked to autoimmune disease in humans and is required for pathogenic Th17 cell functions in mice. However, as IL-23R-expressing mature Th17 cells are rare and poorly defined in mice at steady-state, little is known about IL-23 signaling. Here we show that the endogenous CCR6+ memory T cell compartment present in peripheral lymphoid organs of unmanipulated mice expresses Il23r ex vivo, displays marked pro-inflammatory responses to IL-23 stimulation in vitro, and is capable of transferring experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor, halofuginone (HF), blocks IL-23-induced Stat3 phosphorylation and IL-23-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in endogenous CCR6+ Th17 cells via activation of the amino acid starvation response (AAR) pathway. In vivo, HF shows therapeutic efficacy in EAE, reducing both established disease progression and local Th17 cell effector function within the CNS. Mechanistically, AAR activation impairs Stat3 responses downstream of multiple cytokine receptors via selective, post-transcriptional suppression of Stat3 protein levels. Thus, our study reveals latent pathogenic functions of endogenous Th17 cells that are regulated by both IL-23 and AAR pathways, and identifies a novel regulatory pathway targeting Stat3 that may underlie selective immune regulation by the AAR. PMID:24489094

Carlson, Thaddeus J.; Pellerin, Alex; Djuretic, Ivana M.; Trivigno, Catherine; Koralov, Sergei B.; Rao, Anjana; Sundrud, Mark S.

2014-01-01

324

Compatibility in the Ustilago maydis–Maize Interaction Requires Inhibition of Host Cysteine Proteases by the Fungal Effector Pit2  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize, with large plant tumors being formed as the most prominent disease symptoms. During all steps of infection, U. maydis depends on a biotrophic interaction, which requires an efficient suppression of plant immunity. In a previous study, we identified the secreted effector protein Pit2, which is essential for maintenance of biotrophy and induction of tumors. Deletion mutants for pit2 successfully penetrate host cells but elicit various defense responses, which stops further fungal proliferation. We now show that Pit2 functions as an inhibitor of a set of apoplastic maize cysteine proteases, whose activity is directly linked with salicylic-acid-associated plant defenses. Consequently, protease inhibition by Pit2 is required for U. maydis virulence. Sequence comparisons with Pit2 orthologs from related smut fungi identified a conserved sequence motif. Mutation of this sequence caused loss of Pit2 function. Consequently, expression of the mutated protein in U. maydis could not restore virulence of the pit2 deletion mutant, indicating that the protease inhibition by Pit2 is essential for fungal virulence. Moreover, synthetic peptides of the conserved sequence motif showed full activity as protease inhibitor, which identifies this domain as a new, minimal protease inhibitor domain in plant-pathogenic fungi. PMID:23459172

Mueller, André N.; Ziemann, Sebastian; Treitschke, Steffi; Aßmann, Daniela; Doehlemann, Gunther

2013-01-01

325

Suppression of natural and activated human antitumour cytotoxicity by human seminal plasma.  

PubMed Central

The influence of human seminal plasma (SP) and whole semen (S) on the expression of natural cytotoxicity by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) was examined. Marked suppression of natural cytotoxicity against K562 targets was observed when effectors were pre-treated for 1 h with SP or S diluted up to 1:400. Abrogation of cytolytic activity by SP was not the result of direct lymphotoxicity, although a reduction of approximately 50% in the number of target binding cells was observed. In addition, the cytotoxicity of interferon (alpha-IFN, beta-IFN, gamma-IFN) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) activated human PBMNC was suppressed by components present in human SP, although IL-2 activated human PBMC were relatively resistant to suppression compared with other effector (spontaneous or activated) populations. Following 1 h exposure to SP, PBMNC failed to recover more than 25% of their initial cytotoxic potential upon further in vitro incubation (18 h) in the absence of SP. However, both interferon and IL-2 caused an increase in the cytotoxicity of these populations, in some instances to the level obtained with control, IFN or IL-2 activated PBMNC. The biological significance of SP as an inhibitor of immune function under experimentally defined conditions is discussed in relation to its possible role in vivo. PMID:2423280

Rees, R C; Vallely, P; Clegg, A; Potter, C W

1986-01-01

326

WtsE, an AvrE-family type III effector protein of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, causes cell death in non-host plants.  

PubMed

Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss) causes Stewart's bacterial wilt of sweet corn and leaf blight of maize. The pathogenicity of Pnss depends on synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide and an Hrp type III secretion system. WtsE, a type III secreted effector protein, is essential for the virulence of Pnss on corn. It belongs to the AvrE family of effectors, which includes DspA/E from Erwinia amylovora and AvrE1 from Pseudomonas syringae. Previously, WtsE was shown to cause disease-associated cell death in its host plant, sweet corn. Here, we examine the biological activity of WtsE in several non-host plants. WtsE induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana, tobacco, beet and Arabidopsis thaliana when it was transiently produced in plant cells following agroinfiltration or translocated into plant cells from Pnss, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph). WtsE-induced cell death in N. benthamiana, tobacco and beet resembled a hypersensitive response and in N. benthamiana it was delayed by cycloheximide. Interestingly, WtsE strongly promoted the growth of Pnss in N. benthamiana prior to the onset of cell death. Deletion derivatives of WtsE that failed to induce cell death in N. benthamiana and tobacco also did not complement wtsE mutants of Pnss for virulence in sweet corn, indicating a correlation between the two activities. WtsE also induced cell death in A. thaliana, where it suppressed basal defences induced by Pph. Thus, WtsE has growth-promoting, defence-suppressing and cell death-inducing activities in non-host plants. Expression of WtsE also prevented the growth of yeast, possibly due to an innate toxicity to eukaryotic cells. PMID:19018993

Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris; Ewert, Sophie; Sreerekha, Mysore-Venkatarau; Mackey, David; Coplin, David

2008-09-01

327

Secreted Fungal Effector Lipase Releases Free Fatty Acids to Inhibit Innate Immunity-Related Callose Formation during Wheat Head Infection[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The deposition of the (1,3)-?-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant’s innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant ?fgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the ?fgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and ?-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with ?fgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the ?fgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and ?-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection. PMID:24686113

Blümke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Björn; Bode, Rainer; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A.

2014-01-01

328

Next generation fire suppressants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral ban microprocessors controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

Brown, Jerry A.

1995-01-01

329

Wind Tunnel Test of an RPV with Shape-Change Control Effector and Sensor Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of novel control effector concepts have recently emerged that may enable new approaches to flight control. In particular, the potential exists to shift the composition of the typical aircraft control effector suite from a small number of high authority, specialized devices (rudder, aileron, elevator, flaps), toward larger numbers of smaller, less specialized, distributed device arrays. The concept envisions effector and sensor networks composed of relatively small high-bandwidth devices able to simultaneously perform a variety of control functions using feedback from disparate data sources. To investigate this concept, a remotely piloted flight vehicle has been equipped with an array of 24 trailing edge shape-change effectors and associated pressure measurements. The vehicle, called the Multifunctional Effector and Sensor Array (MESA) testbed, was recently tested in NASA Langley's 12-ft Low Speed wind tunnel to characterize its stability properties, control authorities, and distributed pressure sensitivities for use in a dynamic simulation prior to flight testing. Another objective was to implement and evaluate a scheme for actively controlling the spanwise pressure distribution using the shape-change array. This report describes the MESA testbed, design of the pressure distribution controller, and results of the wind tunnel test.

Raney, David L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Sloan, Adam R.; Barnwell, William G.; Lion, S. Todd; Hautamaki, Bret A.

2004-01-01

330

An Unbiased Method for Clustering Bacterial Effectors Using Host Cellular Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

We present a novel method implementing unbiased high-content morphometric cell analysis to classify bacterial effector phenotypes. This clustering methodology represents a significant advance over more qualitative visual approaches and can also be used to classify, and therefore predict the likely function of, unknown effector genes from any microbial genome. As a proof of concept, we use this approach to investigate 23 genetic regions predicted to encode antimacrophage effectors located across the genome of the insect and human pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Statistical cluster analysis using multiple cellular measures categorized treated macrophage phenotypes into three major groups relating to their putative functionality: (i) adhesins, (ii) cytolethal toxins, and (iii) cytomodulating toxins. Further investigation into their effects on phagocytosis revealed that several effectors also modulate this function and that the nature of this modulation (increased or decreased phagocytosis) is linked to the phenotype cluster group. Categorizing potential functionalities in this way allows rapid functional follow-up of key candidates for more-directed cell biological or biochemical investigation. Such an unbiased approach to the classification of candidate effectors will be useful for describing virulence-related regions in a wide range of genomes and will be useful in assigning putative functions to the growing number of microbial genes whose function remains unclear from homology searching. PMID:24296505

Hodgson, David J.

2014-01-01

331

The Chlamydia Effector Chlamydial Outer Protein N (CopN) Sequesters Tubulin and Prevents Microtubule Assembly*  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that utilize a type three secretion system to manipulate host cell processes. Genetic manipulations are currently not possible in Chlamydia, necessitating study of effector proteins in heterologous expression systems and severely complicating efforts to relate molecular strategies used by Chlamydia to the biochemical activities of effector proteins. CopN is a chlamydial type three secretion effector that is essential for virulence. Heterologous expression of CopN in cells results in loss of microtubule spindles and metaphase plate formation and causes mitotic arrest. CopN is a multidomain protein with similarity to type three secretion system “plug” proteins from other organisms but has functionally diverged such that it also functions as an effector protein. We show that CopN binds directly to ??-tubulin but not to microtubules (MTs). Furthermore, CopN inhibits tubulin polymerization by sequestering free ??-tubulin, similar to one of the mechanisms utilized by stathmin. Although CopN and stathmin share no detectable sequence identity, both influence MT formation by sequestration of ??-tubulin. CopN displaces stathmin from preformed stathmin-tubulin complexes, indicating that the proteins bind overlapping sites on tubulin. CopN is the first bacterial effector shown to disrupt MT formation directly. This recognition affords a mechanistic understanding of a strategy Chlamydia species use to manipulate the host cell cycle. PMID:21841198

Archuleta, Tara L.; Du, Yaqing; English, Chauca A.; Lory, Stephen; Lesser, Cammie; Ohi, Melanie D.; Ohi, Ryoma; Spiller, Benjamin W.

2011-01-01

332

Multiple Redundant Effector Mechanisms of CD8+ T Cells Protect against Influenza Infection  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that mice challenged with a lethal dose of PR8-OVAI are protected by injection of 4 to 8 × 106 in vitro - generated Tc1 or Tc17 CD8+ effectors. Viral load, lung damage and loss of lung function are all reduced following transfer. Weight loss is reduced and survival increased. We sought here to define the mechanism of this protection. CD8+ effectors exhibit multiple effector activities, perforin-, FasL- and TRAIL- mediated cytotoxicity, secretion of multiple cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IFN-? and TNF) and chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10). Transfer of CD8+ effectors into recipients, prior to infection, elicits enhanced recruitment of host neutrophils, NK cells, macrophages, and B cells. All of these events have the potential to protect against viral infections. Removal of any one, however, of these potential mechanisms was without effect on protection. Even the simultaneous removal of host T cells, host B cells and host neutrophils combined with the elimination of perforin mediated lytic mechanisms in the donor cells failed to reduce their ability to protect. We conclude that CD8+ effector T cells can protect against the lethal effects of viral infection by means of a large number of redundant mechanisms. PMID:23197262

Hamada, Hiromasa; Bassity, Elizabeth; Flies, Amanda; Strutt, Tara M.; Garcia-Hernandez, Maria de Luz; McKinstry, K. Kai; Zou, Tie; Swain, Susan L.; Dutton, Richard W.

2013-01-01

333

Perturbation of host ubiquitin systems by plant pathogen/pest effector proteins  

PubMed Central

Microbial pathogens and pests of animals and plants secrete effector proteins into host cells, altering cellular physiology to the benefit of the invading parasite. Research in the past decade has delivered significant new insights into the molecular mechanisms of how these effector proteins function, with a particular focus on modulation of host immunity-related pathways. One host system that has emerged as a common target of effectors is the ubiquitination system in which substrate proteins are post-translationally modified by covalent conjugation with the small protein ubiquitin. This modification, typically via isopeptide bond formation through a lysine side chain of ubiquitin, can result in target degradation, relocalization, altered activity or affect protein–protein interactions. In this review, I focus primarily on how effector proteins from bacterial and filamentous pathogens of plants and pests perturb host ubiquitination pathways that ultimately include the 26S proteasome. The activities of these effectors, in how they affect ubiquitin pathways in plants, reveal how pathogens have evolved to identify and exploit weaknesses in this system that deliver increased pathogen fitness. PMID:25339602

Banfield, Mark J

2015-01-01

334

Translocation of Magnaporthe oryzae effectors into rice cells and their subsequent cell-to-cell movement.  

PubMed

Knowledge remains limited about how fungal pathogens that colonize living plant cells translocate effector proteins inside host cells to regulate cellular processes and neutralize defense responses. To cause the globally important rice blast disease, specialized invasive hyphae (IH) invade successive living rice (Oryza sativa) cells while enclosed in host-derived extrainvasive hyphal membrane. Using live-cell imaging, we identified a highly localized structure, the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC), which accumulates fluorescently labeled effectors secreted by IH. In each newly entered rice cell, effectors were first secreted into BICs at the tips of the initially filamentous hyphae in the cell. These tip BICs were left behind beside the first-differentiated bulbous IH cells as the fungus continued to colonize the host cell. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments showed that the effector protein PWL2 (for prevents pathogenicity toward weeping lovegrass [Eragrostis curvula]) continued to accumulate in BICs after IH were growing elsewhere. PWL2 and BAS1 (for biotrophy-associated secreted protein 1), BIC-localized secreted proteins, were translocated into the rice cytoplasm. By contrast, BAS4, which uniformly outlines the IH, was not translocated into the host cytoplasm. Fluorescent PWL2 and BAS1 proteins that reached the rice cytoplasm moved into uninvaded neighbors, presumably preparing host cells before invasion. We report robust assays for elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underpin effector secretion into BICs, translocation to the rice cytoplasm, and cell-to-cell movement in rice. PMID:20435900

Khang, Chang Hyun; Berruyer, Romain; Giraldo, Martha C; Kankanala, Prasanna; Park, Sook-Young; Czymmek, Kirk; Kang, Seogchan; Valent, Barbara

2010-04-01

335

Antigen-Free Adjuvant Assists Late Effector CD4 T Cells to Transit to Memory in Lymphopenic Hosts  

PubMed Central

The events controlling the transition of T cells from effector to memory remain largely undefined. Many models have been put forth to account for the origin of memory precursors, but for CD4 T cells initial studies reported that memory T cells derive from IFN? non-producing effectors while others suggested that memory emanates from highly activated IFN?-producing effectors. Herein, using cell proliferation, expression of activation markers, and production of IFN? as a measure of activation, we defined two types of effector CD4 T cells and investigated memory generation. The moderately activated early effectors readily transit to memory while the highly activated late effectors, regardless of their IFN?-production, develop minimal memory. Boosting with antigen free adjuvant, however, rescues late effectors from cell death and sustains both survival and IFN? cytokine responses in lymphopenic hosts. The adjuvant-mediated memory transition of late effectors involves the function of toll-like receptors (TLRs) most notably TLR9. These findings uncover the mechanism by which late effector CD4 T cells are driven to transit to memory and suggest that timely boosts with adjuvant may enhance vaccine efficacy. PMID:23817422

Guloglu, F. Betul; Ellis, Jason S.; Wan, Xiaoxiao; Dhakal, Mermagya; Hoeman, Christine M.; Cascio, Jason A.; Zaghouani, Habib

2013-01-01

336

Effector genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria promote transmission and enhance other fitness traits in the field.  

PubMed Central

Establishing durable disease resistance in agricultural crops, where much of the plant defense is provided through effector-R gene interactions, is complicated by the ability of pathogens to overcome R gene resistance by losing the corresponding effector gene. Many proposed methods to maintain disease resistance in the field depend on the idea that effector gene loss results in a fitness cost to the pathogen. In this article we test for fitness costs of effector gene function loss. We created directed knockouts of up to four effector genes from the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (Xav) and examined the effect of the loss of a functional gene product on several important fitness parameters in the field. These traits included transmission, lesion development, and epiphytic survival. We found that the products of all four effector genes had significant and often additive effects on fitness traits. Additional greenhouse tests revealed costs of effector gene loss on in planta growth and further showed that the effects on lesion development were separable from the effects on growth. Observable fitness effects of the three plasmid-borne effector genes were dependent upon the loss of functional avrBs2, indicating that complex functional interactions exist among effector genes with Xav. PMID:15020460

Wichmann, Gale; Bergelson, Joy

2004-01-01

337

Learning-based position control of a closed-kinematic chain robot end-effector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A trajectory control scheme whose design is based on learning theory, for a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot end-effector built to study robotic assembly of NASA hardwares in space is presented. The control scheme consists of two control systems: the feedback control system and the learning control system. The feedback control system is designed using the concept of linearization about a selected operating point, and the method of pole placement so that the closed-loop linearized system is stabilized. The learning control scheme consisting of PD-type learning controllers, provides additional inputs to improve the end-effector performance after each trial. Experimental studies performed on a 2 DOF end-effector built at CUA, for three tracking cases show that actual trajectories approach desired trajectories as the number of trials increases. The tracking errors are substantially reduced after only five trials.

Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei

1990-01-01

338

Control of vertebrate intraflagellar transport by the planar cell polarity effector Fuz  

PubMed Central

Cilia play key roles in development and homeostasis, and defects in cilia structure or function lead to an array of human diseases. Ciliogenesis is accomplished by the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system, a set of proteins governing bidirectional transport of cargoes within ciliary axonemes. In this paper, we present a novel platform for in vivo analysis of vertebrate IFT dynamics. Using this platform, we show that the planar cell polarity (PCP) effector Fuz was required for normal IFT dynamics in vertebrate cilia, the first evidence directly linking PCP to the core machinery of ciliogenesis. Further, we show that Fuz played a specific role in trafficking of retrograde, but not anterograde, IFT proteins. These data place Fuz in the small group of known IFT effectors outside the core machinery and, additionally, identify Fuz as a novel cytoplasmic effector that differentiates between the retrograde and anterograde IFT complexes. PMID:22778277

Brooks, Eric R.

2012-01-01

339

Bacterial effectors target the plant cell nucleus to subvert host transcription  

PubMed Central

In order to promote virulence, Gram-negative bacteria have evolved the ability to inject so-called type III effector proteins into host cells. The plant cell nucleus appears to be a subcellular compartment repeatedly targeted by bacterial effectors. In agreement with this observation, mounting evidence suggests that manipulation of host transcription is a major strategy developed by bacteria to counteract plant defense responses. It has been suggested that bacterial effectors may adopt at least three alternative, although not mutually exclusive, strategies to subvert host transcription. T3Es may (1) act as transcription factors that directly activate transcription in host cells, (2) affect histone packing and chromatin configuration, and/or (3) directly target host transcription factor activity. Here, we provide an overview on how all these strategies may lead to host transcriptional re-programming and, as a result, to improved bacterial multiplication inside plant cells. PMID:22353865

Canonne, Joanne; Rivas, Susana

2012-01-01

340

Uncoupling T-cell expansion from effector differentiation in cell-based immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Summary Adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with advanced cancer. Eradication of tumor in mouse models and humans correlates with both a high dose of adoptively transferred cells and cells with a minimally differentiated phenotype that maintain replicative capacity and multipotency. We speculate that response to ACT not only requires transfer of cells with immediate cytolytic effector function to kill the bulk of fast-growing tumor, but also transfer of tumor-specific cells that maintain an ability for self-renewal and the capacity to produce a continual supply of cytolytic effector progeny until all malignant cells are eliminated. Current in vitro methods to expand cells to sufficient numbers and still maintain a minimally differentiated phenotype are hindered by the biological coupling of clonal expansion and effector differentiation. Therefore, a better understanding of the physiologic mechanism that couples cell expansion and differentiation in CD8+ T cells may improve the efficacy of ACT. PMID:24329803

2013-01-01

341

Human-like characteristics for high degree of freedom robotic door-opening end-effector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the field of military Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV's), military units are forced to sweep largely populated cities and towns in search of hostile enemies. These urban types of operations are referred to as MOUT (Military Operations on Urban Terrain). During urban operations, these UGV's encounter difficulties when opening doors. Current manipulator end effectors have these difficulties, because they are not designed to mimic human hand operations. This paper explains the mechanical nature of the Modular Universal Door Opening End-effector (MUDOE). MUDOE is a result of our development research to improve robotic manipulators ability to negotiate closed doors. The presented solution has the ability to mimic human hand characteristics when opening doors. The end-effector possesses an ability to maintain a high Degree of Freedom (DoF), and grasp the doorknob by applying equally distributed forces to all points of contact.

Gray, Jeremy P.; Campagna, Frank

2011-05-01

342

Control of vertebrate intraflagellar transport by the planar cell polarity effector Fuz.  

PubMed

Cilia play key roles in development and homeostasis, and defects in cilia structure or function lead to an array of human diseases. Ciliogenesis is accomplished by the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system, a set of proteins governing bidirectional transport of cargoes within ciliary axonemes. In this paper, we present a novel platform for in vivo analysis of vertebrate IFT dynamics. Using this platform, we show that the planar cell polarity (PCP) effector Fuz was required for normal IFT dynamics in vertebrate cilia, the first evidence directly linking PCP to the core machinery of ciliogenesis. Further, we show that Fuz played a specific role in trafficking of retrograde, but not anterograde, IFT proteins. These data place Fuz in the small group of known IFT effectors outside the core machinery and, additionally, identify Fuz as a novel cytoplasmic effector that differentiates between the retrograde and anterograde IFT complexes. PMID:22778277

Brooks, Eric R; Wallingford, John B

2012-07-01

343

Coxiella burnetii effector proteins that localize to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane promote intracellular replication.  

PubMed

The intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii directs biogenesis of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that acquires host endolysosomal components. Formation of a PV that supports C. burnetii replication requires a Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4BSS) that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytosol. Thus, a subset of T4BSS effectors are presumed to direct PV biogenesis. Recently, the PV-localized effector protein CvpA was found to promote C. burnetii intracellular growth and PV expansion. We predict additional C. burnetii effectors localize to the PV membrane and regulate eukaryotic vesicle trafficking events that promote pathogen growth. To identify these vacuolar effector proteins, a list of predicted C. burnetii T4BSS substrates was compiled using bioinformatic criteria, such as the presence of eukaryote-like coiled-coil domains. Adenylate cyclase translocation assays revealed 13 proteins were secreted in a Dot/Icm-dependent fashion by C. burnetii during infection of human THP-1 macrophages. Four of the Dot/Icm substrates, termed Coxiella vacuolar protein B (CvpB), CvpC, CvpD, and CvpE, labeled the PV membrane and LAMP1-positive vesicles when ectopically expressed as fluorescently tagged fusion proteins. C. burnetii ?cvpB, ?cvpC, ?cvpD, and ?cvpE mutants exhibited significant defects in intracellular replication and PV formation. Genetic complementation of the ?cvpD and ?cvpE mutants rescued intracellular growth and PV generation, whereas the growth of C. burnetii ?cvpB and ?cvpC was rescued upon cohabitation with wild-type bacteria in a common PV. Collectively, these data indicate C. burnetii encodes multiple effector proteins that target the PV membrane and benefit pathogen replication in human macrophages. PMID:25422265

Larson, Charles L; Beare, Paul A; Voth, Daniel E; Howe, Dale; Cockrell, Diane C; Bastidas, Robert J; Valdivia, Raphael H; Heinzen, Robert A

2015-02-01

344

Effector-Independent Motor Sequence Representations Exist in Extrinsic and Intrinsic Reference Frames  

PubMed Central

Many daily activities rely on the ability to produce meaningful sequences of movements. Motor sequences can be learned in an effector-specific fashion (such that benefits of training are restricted to the trained hand) or an effector-independent manner (meaning that learning also facilitates performance with the untrained hand). Effector-independent knowledge can be represented in extrinsic/world-centered or in intrinsic/body-centered coordinates. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern analysis to determine the distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic finger sequence representations across the human neocortex. Participants practiced four sequences with one hand for 4 d, and then performed these sequences during fMRI with both left and right hand. Between hands, these sequences were equivalent in extrinsic or intrinsic space, or were unrelated. In dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), we found that sequence-specific activity patterns correlated higher for extrinsic than for unrelated pairs, providing evidence for an extrinsic sequence representation. In contrast, primary sensory and motor cortices showed effector-independent representations in intrinsic space, with considerable overlap of the two reference frames in caudal PMd. These results suggest that effector-independent representations exist not only in world-centered, but also in body-centered coordinates, and that PMd may be involved in transforming sequential knowledge between the two. Moreover, although effector-independent sequence representations were found bilaterally, they were stronger in the hemisphere contralateral to the trained hand. This indicates that intermanual transfer relies on motor memories that are laid down during training in both hemispheres, but preferentially draws upon sequential knowledge represented in the trained hemisphere. PMID:24695723

Wiestler, Tobias; Waters-Metenier, Sheena

2014-01-01

345

Terrific Protein Traffic: The Mystery of Effector Protein Delivery by Filamentous Plant Pathogens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Many biotrophic fungal and oomycete plant pathogens deliver effector proteins directly into host cells during infection. Recent advances are revealing the extensive effector repertoires of these pathogens and are beginning to shed light on how they manipulate host cells to establish a parasitic relationship. The current explosion of information is opening new research avenues in molecular plant pathology and is providing new opportunities to limit the impact of plant disease on food production.

Ralph Panstruga (Max-Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research; Department of Plant-Microbe Interactions)

2009-05-08

346

The pore-forming bacterial effector, VopQ, halts autophagic turnover.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahemolyticus Type III effector VopQ is both necessary and sufficient to induce autophagy within one hour of infection. We demonstrated that VopQ interacts with the Vo domain of the conserved vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Membrane-associated VopQ subsequently forms pores in the membranes of acidic compartments, resulting in immediate release of protons without concomitant release of lumenal protein contents. These studies show how a bacterial pathogen can compromise host ion potentials using a gated pore-forming effector to equilibrate levels of small molecules found in endolysosomal compartments and disrupt cellular processes such as autophagy. PMID:24145145

Sreelatha, Anju; Orth, Kim; Starai, Vincent J

2013-12-01

347

Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The LDUA System consists of a deployment vehicle, a vertical positioning mast, a light duty multi-axis robotic arm, a tank riser interface and confinement, a tool interface plate, a control system, and an operations control trailer. The criteria specified in this document will apply to all end effector systems being developed for use on or with the LDUA system at the Hanford site. The requirement stipulated in this document are mandatory.

Pardini, A.F.

1995-01-03

348

The pore-forming bacterial effector, VopQ, halts autophagic turnover  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahemolyticus Type III effector VopQ is both necessary and sufficient to induce autophagy within one hour of infection. We demonstrated that VopQ interacts with the Vo domain of the conserved vacuolar H+-ATPase. Membrane-associated VopQ subsequently forms pores in the membranes of acidic compartments, resulting in immediate release of protons without concomitant release of lumenal protein contents. These studies show how a bacterial pathogen can compromise host ion potentials using a gated pore-forming effector to equilibrate levels of small molecules found in endolysosomal compartments and disrupt cellular processes such as autophagy. PMID:24145145

Sreelatha, Anju; Orth, Kim; Starai, Vincent J

2013-01-01

349

Transcriptional control of effector and memory CD8+ T cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

During an infection, T cells can differentiate into multiple types of effector and memory T cells, which help to mediate pathogen clearance and provide long-term protective immunity. These cells can vary in their phenotype, function and location, and in their long-term fate in terms of their ability to populate the memory T cell pool. Over the past decade, the signalling pathways and transcriptional programmes that regulate the formation of heterogeneous populations of effector and memory CD8+ T cells have started to be characterized, and this Review discusses the major advances in these areas. PMID:23080391

Kaech, Susan M.; Cui, Weiguo

2014-01-01

350

Platelets: versatile effector cells in hemostasis, inflammation, and the immune continuum  

PubMed Central

Platelets are chief effector cells in hemostasis. In addition, however, their specializations include activities and intercellular interactions that make them key effectors in inflammation and in the continuum of innate and adaptive immunity. This review focuses on the immune features of human platelets and platelets from experimental animals and on interactions between inflammatory, immune, and hemostatic activities of these anucleate but complex and versatile cells. The experimental findings and evidence for physiologic immune functions include previously unrecognized biologic characteristics of platelets and are paralleled by new evidence for unique roles of platelets in inflammatory, immune, and thrombotic diseases. PMID:21818701

Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Campbell, Robert A.; Weyrich, Andrew S.

2015-01-01

351

Insect antiviral innate immunity: pathways, effectors, and connections  

PubMed Central

Insects are infected by a wide array of viruses some of which are insect-restricted and pathogenic, and some of which are transmitted by biting insects to vertebrates. The medical and economic importance of these viruses heightens the need to understand the interaction between the infecting pathogen and the insect immune system in order to develop transmission interventions. The interaction of the virus with the insect host innate immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of infection. The major mechanism of antiviral defense is the siRNA pathway that responds through the detection of virus-derived dsRNA to suppress virus replication. However, other innate antimicrobial pathways such as Imd, Toll, Jak-STAT, and the autophagy pathway have also been shown to play important roles in antiviral immunity. In this review we provide an overview of the current understanding of the main insect antiviral pathways and examine recent findings that further our understanding of the roles of these pathways in facilitating a systemic and specific response to infecting viruses. PMID:24120681

Kingsolver, Megan B.; Huang, Zhijing; Hardy, Richard W.

2014-01-01

352

Searching algorithm for type IV secretion system effectors 1.0: a tool for predicting type IV effectors and exploring their genomic context.  

PubMed

Type IV effectors (T4Es) are proteins produced by pathogenic bacteria to manipulate host cell gene expression and processes, divert the cell machinery for their own profit and circumvent the immune responses. T4Es have been characterized for some bacteria but many remain to be discovered. To help biologists identify putative T4Es from the complete genome of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, we developed a Perl-based command line bioinformatics tool called S4TE (searching algorithm for type-IV secretion system effectors). The tool predicts and ranks T4E candidates by using a combination of 13 sequence characteristics, including homology to known effectors, homology to eukaryotic domains, presence of subcellular localization signals or secretion signals, etc. S4TE software is modular, and specific motif searches are run independently before ultimate combination of the outputs to generate a score and sort the strongest T4Es candidates. The user keeps the possibility to adjust various searching parameters such as the weight of each module, the selection threshold or the input databases. The algorithm also provides a GC% and local gene density analysis, which strengthen the selection of T4E candidates. S4TE is a unique predicting tool for T4Es, finding its utility upstream from experimental biology. PMID:23945940

Meyer, Damien F; Noroy, Christophe; Moumène, Amal; Raffaele, Sylvain; Albina, Emmanuel; Vachiéry, Nathalie

2013-11-01

353

Pressure suppression system  

DOEpatents

A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

Gluntz, D.M.

1994-10-04

354

Pressure suppression system  

DOEpatents

A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

355

Adipocyte pseudohypoxia suppresses lipolysis and facilitates benign adipose tissue expansion.  

PubMed

Prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHDs) sense cellular oxygen upstream of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling, leading to HIF degradation in normoxic conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that adipose PHD2 inhibition plays a key role in the suppression of adipocyte lipolysis. Adipose Phd2 gene ablation in mice enhanced adiposity, with a parallel increase in adipose vascularization associated with reduced circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels and normal glucose homeostasis. Phd2 gene-depleted adipocytes exhibited lower basal lipolysis in normoxia and reduced ?-adrenergic-stimulated lipolysis in both normoxia and hypoxia. A selective PHD inhibitor suppressed lipolysis in murine and human adipocytes in vitro and in vivo in mice. PHD2 genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition attenuated protein levels of the key lipolytic effectors hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), suggesting a link between adipocyte oxygen sensing and fatty acid release. PHD2 mRNA levels correlated positively with mRNA levels of AB-hydrolase domain containing-5, an activator of ATGL, and negatively with mRNA levels of lipid droplet proteins, perilipin, and TIP47 in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Therapeutic pseudohypoxia caused by PHD2 inhibition in adipocytes blunts lipolysis and promotes benign adipose tissue expansion and may have therapeutic applications in obesity or lipodystrophy. PMID:25377876

Michailidou, Zoi; Morton, Nicholas M; Moreno Navarrete, José Maria; West, Christopher C; Stewart, Kenneth J; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Schofield, Christopher J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Ratcliffe, Peter J

2015-03-01

356

Suppression of autoimmune retinal inflammation by an antiangiogenic drug.  

PubMed

Chronic and recurrent uveitis account for approximately 10% of legal blindness in the western world. Autoimmune uveitis is driven by activated CD4(+) T cells that differentiate into effector T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17) which release proinflammatory cytokines that damage the retina. In this study we investigated the effect of the methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) inhibitor, Lodamin, on T cell activation and differentiation. MetAp2 is an enzyme which regulates cellular protein synthesis and is highly expressed in T cells. Lodamin was found to suppress T cell receptor (TCR) mediated T cell proliferation and reduced the production of Th1 and Th17 cells. Further, Lodamin suppressed overall inflammation in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) by a six fold. This effect was attributed in part to a reduction in retinal proinflammatory cytokines, down regulation of MetAP2 expression in purified lymph node CD4(+) T cells, and a general normalization of the systemic immune reaction. PMID:23785488

Yoshimura, Takeru; Benny, Ofra; Bazinet, Lauren; D'Amato, Robert J

2013-01-01

357

Silencing of Host Cell CYBB Gene Expression by the Nuclear Effector AnkA of the Intracellular Pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coevolution of intracellular bacterial pathogens and their host cells resulted in the appearance of effector molecules that when translocated into the host cell modulate its function, facilitating bacterial survival within the hostile host environment. Some of these effectors interact with host chromatin and other nuclear compo- nents. In this report, we show that the AnkA protein of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which

Jose C. Garcia-Garcia; Kristen E. Rennoll-Bankert; Shaaretha Pelly; Aaron M. Milstone; J. Stephen Dumler

2009-01-01

358

Identification and Characterisation of a Hyper-Variable Apoplastic Effector Gene Family of the Potato Cyst Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism. PMID:25255291

Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J.; Jones, John T.; Urwin, Peter E.

2014-01-01

359

MODULATION OF THE NF-KAPPA B SIGNALING PATHWAY BY THE BACTERIAL TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM EFFECTORS  

E-print Network

(s) was unknown. In this thesis, my goals were to identify T3SS effectors from attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens responsible for modulating NF-?B activation and reveal the working mechanism of these identified effectors. In the first project, NleH1 and NleH2...

Gao, Xiaofei

2012-08-31

360

Identification and characterisation of a hyper-variable apoplastic effector gene family of the potato cyst nematodes.  

PubMed

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism. PMID:25255291

Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J; Jones, John T; Urwin, Peter E

2014-09-01

361

A bacterial type III effector family uses the papain-like hydrolytic activity to arrest the host cell cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic bacteria deliver effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion apparatus to modulate the host function. We identify a family of proteins, homologous to the type III effector Cif from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, in pathogens including Yersinia, Photorhabdus, and Burkholderia that contain functional type III secretion systems. Like Cif, this family of proteins is capable of arresting

Qing Yao; Jixin Cui; Yongqun Zhu; Guolun Wang; Liyan Hu; Chengzu Long; Ran Cao; Xinqi Liu; Niu Huang; She Chen; Liping Liu; Feng Shao

2009-01-01

362

Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, while plants in turn utilize immune receptors to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. alb...

363

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2014 125 Locating End-Effector Tips in Robotic Micromanipulation  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2014 125 Locating End-Effector Tips in Robotic Micromanipulation Jun Liu, Zheng Gong, Kathryn Tang, Zhe Lu, Changhai Ru, Jun Luo, Shaorong Xie, and Yu Sun Abstract--In robotic micromanipulation, end-effector tips must be first located under

Sun, Yu

364

The chemically inducible expression of Erwinia amylovora bacterial effectors EopB1 and HopCEa in apple  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease, utilizes a type three secretion system to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. To investigate the role of individual bacterial effector proteins, we have engineered an apple host that transgenically expresses the bacterial effe...

365

Wake of the flood: ascribing functions to the wave of type III effector proteins of phytopathogenic bacteria  

E-print Network

Wake of the flood: ascribing functions to the wave of type III effector proteins of phytopathogenic cell for the pathogen's benefit. This is evidenced by the flood of effector genes that have recently of R-mediated recogni- tion. Basal defense is genetically defined [8], and steps required for basal

Dangl, Jeff

366

Global Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of Magnaporthe oryzae Epidemic Isolate 98-06 Uncover Novel Effectors and Pathogenicity-Related Genes, Revealing Gene Gain and Lose Dynamics in Genome Evolution.  

PubMed

Genome dynamics of pathogenic organisms are driven by pathogen and host co-evolution, in which pathogen genomes are shaped to overcome stresses imposed by hosts with various genetic backgrounds through generation of a variety of isolates. This same principle applies to the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the rice host; however, genetic variations among different isolates of M. oryzae remain largely unknown, particularly at genome and transcriptome levels. Here, we applied genomic and transcriptomic analytical tools to investigate M. oryzae isolate 98-06 that is the most aggressive in infection of susceptible rice cultivars. A unique 1.4 Mb of genomic sequences was found in isolate 98-06 in comparison to reference strain 70-15. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed the presence of two critical expression patterns of M. oryzae based on 64 known pathogenicity-related (PaR) genes. In addition, 134 candidate effectors with various segregation patterns were identified. Five tested proteins could suppress BAX-mediated programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Characterization of isolate-specific effector candidates Iug6 and Iug9 and PaR candidate Iug18 revealed that they have a role in fungal propagation and pathogenicity. Moreover, Iug6 and Iug9 are located exclusively in the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC) and their overexpression leads to suppression of defense-related gene expression in rice, suggesting that they might participate in biotrophy by inhibiting the SA and ET pathways within the host. Thus, our studies identify novel effector and PaR proteins involved in pathogenicity of the highly aggressive M. oryzae field isolate 98-06, and reveal molecular and genomic dynamics in the evolution of M. oryzae and rice host interactions. PMID:25837042

Dong, Yanhan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Miaomiao; Jing, Maofeng; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Muxing; Guo, Xianxian; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Yue; Liu, Yongfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Ye, Wenwu; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Yuanchao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

2015-04-01

367

Global Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of Magnaporthe oryzae Epidemic Isolate 98-06 Uncover Novel Effectors and Pathogenicity-Related Genes, Revealing Gene Gain and Lose Dynamics in Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

Genome dynamics of pathogenic organisms are driven by pathogen and host co-evolution, in which pathogen genomes are shaped to overcome stresses imposed by hosts with various genetic backgrounds through generation of a variety of isolates. This same principle applies to the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the rice host; however, genetic variations among different isolates of M. oryzae remain largely unknown, particularly at genome and transcriptome levels. Here, we applied genomic and transcriptomic analytical tools to investigate M. oryzae isolate 98-06 that is the most aggressive in infection of susceptible rice cultivars. A unique 1.4 Mb of genomic sequences was found in isolate 98-06 in comparison to reference strain 70-15. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed the presence of two critical expression patterns of M. oryzae based on 64 known pathogenicity-related (PaR) genes. In addition, 134 candidate effectors with various segregation patterns were identified. Five tested proteins could suppress BAX-mediated programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Characterization of isolate-specific effector candidates Iug6 and Iug9 and PaR candidate Iug18 revealed that they have a role in fungal propagation and pathogenicity. Moreover, Iug6 and Iug9 are located exclusively in the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC) and their overexpression leads to suppression of defense-related gene expression in rice, suggesting that they might participate in biotrophy by inhibiting the SA and ET pathways within the host. Thus, our studies identify novel effector and PaR proteins involved in pathogenicity of the highly aggressive M. oryzae field isolate 98-06, and reveal molecular and genomic dynamics in the evolution of M. oryzae and rice host interactions. PMID:25837042

Dong, Yanhan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Miaomiao; Jing, Maofeng; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Muxing; Guo, Xianxian; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Yue; Liu, Yongfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Ye, Wenwu; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Yuanchao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

2015-01-01

368

The transcription factor BATF operates as an essential differentiation checkpoint in early effector CD8+ T cells  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor BATF is required for interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cell (TH17) and follicular helper T cell (TFH) differentiation. Here, we show that BATF also has a fundamental role in regulating effector CD8+ T cell differentiation. BATF-deficient CD8+ T cells show profound defects in effector expansion and undergo proliferative and metabolic catastrophe early after antigen encounter. BATF, together with IRF4 and Jun proteins, binds to and promotes early expression of genes encoding lineage-specific transcription-factors (T-bet and Blimp-1) and cytokine receptors, while paradoxically repressing genes encoding effector molecules (IFN-? and granzyme B). Thus, BATF amplifies TCR-dependent transcription factor expression and augments inflammatory signal propagation but restrains effector gene expression. This checkpoint prevents irreversible commitment to an effector fate until a critical threshold of downstream transcriptional activity has been achieved. PMID:24584090

Kurachi, Makoto; Barnitz, R. Anthony; Yosef, Nir; Odorizzi, Pamela M.; Dilorio, Michael A.; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Yates, Kathleen; Godec, Jernej; Klatt, Martin G.; Regev, Aviv; Wherry, E. John; Haining, W. Nicholas

2014-01-01

369

Histamine suppresses regulatory T cells mediated by TGF-? in murine chronic allergic contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress effector T cells and ameliorate contact hypersensitivity (CH); however, the role of Tregs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) has not been assessed. Repeated elicitation of CH has been used to produce CACD models in mice. We previously showed that the presence of histamine facilitates the creation of eczematous lesions in this model using histidine decarboxylase (HDC) (-/-) mice. Therefore, the effects of histamine on Tregs in the CACD model were investigated in this study. CACD was developed by repeated epicutaneous application of 2, 4, 6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) murine skin to assess the effects of histamine in CACD. Histamine aggravated CACD in the murine model and suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin. Histamine also suppressed the level of TGF-?1 in this model. Recombinant TGF-?1 or anti-TGF-?1 antibody was injected into the dorsal dermis of HDC (+/+) mice daily just before TNCB challenge to determine the effects of histamine-regulated TGF-? on the Treg population in CACD. Recombinant TGF-?1 injection promoted the infiltration of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10; however, anti-TGF-?1 antibody injection suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10. Histamine suppresses the number of Tregs in CACD, and this effect is mediated by TGF-?. PMID:25651189

Tamaka, Kyoko; Seike, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Tamio; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

2015-04-01

370

Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes  

PubMed Central

The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology. PMID:23509714

Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Serapio-Palacios, Antonio; Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia

2013-01-01

371

Homeostasis of Peripheral Immune Effectors Christina Warrender a, Stephanie Forrest a,c  

E-print Network

, particularly alveolar macro- phages. Our interest is in the distributed control mechanisms that allow alveolar macrophages. In one model, local cells divide to replenish the population; in the other, only of peripheral effector population homeosta- sis, focusing on alveolar macrophages for concreteness. Alveolar

Forrest, Stephanie

372

Mutualistic Co-evolution of Type III Effector Genes in Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum  

PubMed Central

Two diametric paradigms have been proposed to model the molecular co-evolution of microbial mutualists and their eukaryotic hosts. In one, mutualist and host exhibit an antagonistic arms race and each partner evolves rapidly to maximize their own fitness from the interaction at potential expense of the other. In the opposing model, conflicts between mutualist and host are largely resolved and the interaction is characterized by evolutionary stasis. We tested these opposing frameworks in two lineages of mutualistic rhizobia, Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. To examine genes demonstrably important for host-interactions we coupled the mining of genome sequences to a comprehensive functional screen for type III effector genes, which are necessary for many Gram-negative pathogens to infect their hosts. We demonstrate that the rhizobial type III effector genes exhibit a surprisingly high degree of conservation in content and sequence that is in contrast to those of a well characterized plant pathogenic species. This type III effector gene conservation is particularly striking in the context of the relatively high genome-wide diversity of rhizobia. The evolution of rhizobial type III effectors is inconsistent with the molecular arms race paradigm. Instead, our results reveal that these loci are relatively static in rhizobial lineages and suggest that fitness conflicts between rhizobia mutualists and their host plants have been largely resolved. PMID:23468637

Jiang, Yuan; Creason, Allison L.; Thireault, Caitlin A.; Sachs, Joel L.; Chang, Jeff H.

2013-01-01

373

Mechanism of IRSp53 inhibition and combinatorial activation by Cdc42 and downstream effectors  

PubMed Central

The Rho family GTPase effector IRSp53 has essential roles in filopodia formation and neuronal development, but its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. IRSp53 contains a membrane-binding BAR domain followed by an unconventional CRIB motif that overlaps with a proline-rich region (CRIB–PR) and an SH3 domain that recruits actin cytoskeleton effectors. Using a fluorescence reporter assay, we show that human IRSp53 adopts a closed inactive conformation that opens synergistically with the binding of human Cdc42 to the CRIB–PR and effector proteins, such as the tumor-promoting factor Eps8, to the SH3 domain. The crystal structure of Cdc42 bound to the CRIB–PR reveals a new mode of effector binding to Rho family GTPases. Structure-inspired mutations disrupt autoinhibition and Cdc42 binding in vitro and decouple Cdc42- and IRSp53-dependent filopodia formation in cells. The data support a combinatorial mechanism of IRSp53 activation. PMID:24584464

Kast, David J; Yang, Changsong; Disanza, Andrea; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Madasu, Yadaiah; Scita, Giorgio; Svitkina, Tatyana; Dominguez, Roberto

2014-01-01

374

Using Hierarchical Clustering of Secreted Protein Families to Classify and Rank Candidate Effectors of Rust Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of

Diane G. O. Saunders; Joe Win; Liliana M. Cano; Les J. Szabo; Sophien Kamoun; Sylvain Raffaele

2012-01-01

375

Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naive T lymphocytes travel to T-cell areas of secondary lymphoid organs in search of antigen presented by dendritic cells. Once activated, they proliferate vigorously, generating effector cells that can migrate to B-cell areas or to inflamed tissues. A fraction of primed T lymphocytes persists as circulating memory cells that can confer protection and give, upon secondary challenge, a qualitatively different

Federica Sallusto; Danielle Lenig; Reinhold Förster; Martin Lipp; Antonio Lanzavecchia

1999-01-01

376

Effects of altered auditory feedback across effector systems: production of melodies by keyboard and singing.  

PubMed

We report an experiment that tested whether effects of altered auditory feedback (AAF) during piano performance differ from its effects during singing. These effector systems differ with respect to the mapping between motor gestures and pitch content of auditory feedback. Whereas this action-effect mapping is highly reliable during phonation in any vocal motor task (singing or speaking), mapping between finger movements and pitch occurs only in limited situations, such as piano playing. Effects of AAF in both tasks replicated results previously found for keyboard performance (Pfordresher, 2003), in that asynchronous (delayed) feedback slowed timing whereas alterations to feedback pitch increased error rates, and the effect of asynchronous feedback was similar in magnitude across tasks. However, manipulations of feedback pitch had larger effects on singing than on keyboard production, suggesting effector-specific differences in sensitivity to action-effect mapping with respect to feedback content. These results support the view that disruption from AAF is based on abstract, effector independent, response-effect associations but that the strength of associations differs across effector systems. PMID:22100135

Pfordresher, Peter Q; Mantell, James T

2012-01-01

377

Adaptive immune responses are directed by at least three different types of effector CD4+  

E-print Network

Adaptive immune responses are directed by at least three different types of effector CD4+ T helper immu nization with soluble extract from Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites was almost as high in the absence4independent TH 2cell responses are also mounted to other types of antigen17 , with the most potent

Cai, Long

378

Global diversity and distribution of three necrotrophic effectors in Phaeosphaeria nodorum and related species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Population genetic and phylogenetic studies showed that P. nodorum is a member of a species-complex that likely shares its center of origin with wheat. We examined the evolutionary history of three known necrotrophic effectors (NEs) produced by Phaeosphaeria nodorum and compared it to neutral loci. ...

379

Effects of the Geometry of the Immunological Synapse on the Delivery of Effector Molecules  

E-print Network

Effects of the Geometry of the Immunological Synapse on the Delivery of Effector Molecules Daniel of the immunological synapse formed between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell raise many questions about its between T cells and antigen- presenting cells (APCs) (termed ``immunological synapses'') have been

Coombs, Daniel

380

Course Objective 1 1a Describe the cells, products, and effector responses of the immune system  

E-print Network

, and effector responses of the immune system 2 1a Describe an immune response from are recognized, presented to the immune system, and how this influences vaccine design 7 1a drugs alter the function of the immune system 11 1a, 1b Explain the consequences

Myers, Lawrence C.

381

Effector diversification within compartments of the Leptosphaeria maculans genome affected by Repeat-Induced Point mutations  

PubMed Central

Fungi are of primary ecological, biotechnological and economic importance. Many fundamental biological processes that are shared by animals and fungi are studied in fungi due to their experimental tractability. Many fungi are pathogens or mutualists and are model systems to analyse effector genes and their mechanisms of diversification. In this study, we report the genome sequence of the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans and characterize its repertoire of protein effectors. The L. maculans genome has an unusual bipartite structure with alternating distinct guanine and cytosine-equilibrated and adenine and thymine (AT)-rich blocks of homogenous nucleotide composition. The AT-rich blocks comprise one-third of the genome and contain effector genes and families of transposable elements, both of which are affected by repeat-induced point mutation, a fungal-specific genome defence mechanism. This genomic environment for effectors promotes rapid sequence diversification and underpins the evolutionary potential of the fungus to adapt rapidly to novel host-derived constraints. PMID:21326234

Rouxel, Thierry; Grandaubert, Jonathan; Hane, James K.; Hoede, Claire; van de Wouw, Angela P.; Couloux, Arnaud; Dominguez, Victoria; Anthouard, Véronique; Bally, Pascal; Bourras, Salim; Cozijnsen, Anton J.; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.; Degrave, Alexandre; Dilmaghani, Azita; Duret, Laurent; Fudal, Isabelle; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Gout, Lilian; Glaser, Nicolas; Linglin, Juliette; Kema, Gert H. J.; Lapalu, Nicolas; Lawrence, Christopher B.; May, Kim; Meyer, Michel; Ollivier, Bénédicte; Poulain, Julie; Schoch, Conrad L.; Simon, Adeline; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Stachowiak, Anna; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Tyler, Brett M.; Vincent, Delphine; Weissenbach, Jean; Amselem, Joëlle; Quesneville, Hadi; Oliver, Richard P.; Wincker, Patrick; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène; Howlett, Barbara J.

2011-01-01

382

A Novel End-Effector Design for Robotics in Image Guided Needle Procedures  

PubMed Central

Robotic end-effectors are being developed to facilitate image-guided minimally-invasive needle-based procedures such as tumor ablation, biopsy, thoracentesis, and blood sampling. A novel mechanical end-effector was designed to address the challenges associated with any major needle-based procedure, focusing on liver biopsy and ablation. In this end-effector embodiment, the distal end of a single articulating arm can grip needles and instruments and allow a fairly high number of degrees of freedom of movement during the complex motions associated with positioning and driving needles, as well as the periodic motions associated with breathing patterns. Tightening a cable that runs through the articulations fixes the arm in a rigid state, allowing insertion of the gripped needle. In its final form, we diagram a design that will require electro-mechanical stimulation and remote joystick control. Moreover, we discuss how cranial-caudal motion of soft tissue organs and the associated forces affect design constraints. A simulation protocol describes the use of tissue phantoms with mechanical properties in the range of hepatic tissue and the overlying abdominal wall. Finally, an in vivo protocol details the possible use of a robotic arm coupled with our end-effector in an image-guided interventional suite. Such a switchable and flexible mode for a robotic arm overcomes much of the current limitations for automated needle placements for mobile targets, subject to breathing or patient motion and the inherent risks thereof. PMID:17520618

Sun, David; Willingham, Chris; Durrani, Amir; King, Paul; Cleary, Kevin; Wood, Bradford

2008-01-01

383

Research report Programming effectors and coordination in bimanual in-phase mirror  

E-print Network

(RT), contingent negative variation (CNV), and alpha and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD as well as beta ERD. It is suggested that with in-phase precueing, abstract programming of coordination effectors are pre-specified. Alpha ERD underwent regional modulations dependent on the type of preparation

Caldara, Roberto

384

QM/MM studies of Phosphothreonine Lyase Catalysis in Bacterial Effector SpvC  

E-print Network

QM/MM studies of Phosphothreonine Lyase Catalysis in Bacterial Effector SpvC Zhihong Ke1 and density functional theory study of phosphothreonine lyase catalysis. J. Phys. Chem. B;113/mol, in excellent agreement with the experimental result. In contrast to the DFT study, the ab initio QM/MM MD

Maccabe, Barney

385

Nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase: a pleiotropic effector in microbial colonization under interdisciplinary characterization  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence identifies multiple roles for nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase in host-microbe interaction. We provide the first synopsis of utilization of this molecule by various microorganisms during colonization of host tissues. Additionally, we propose novel mechanisms this effector may participate in, which could be crucial for microbial adaptation in chronic host infection. PMID:22079150

Spooner, Ralee; Yilmaz, Özlem

2011-01-01

386

Structural Analysis of Substrate and Effector Binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis D-3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase,  

E-print Network

Structural Analysis of Substrate and Effector Binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis D-3Ved June 3, 2008 ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis D-3-phosphoglycerate catalysis. D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH, EC 1.1.1.95) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M

Grant, Gregory

387

Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrRpt2 alters Arabidopsis thaliana auxin physiology  

E-print Network

Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrRpt2 alters Arabidopsis thaliana auxin physiology auxin physiology, including longer primary roots, increased number of lateral roots, and increased sensitivity to exogenous auxin. They also had increased levels of free indole acetic acid (IAA). The presence

Sheen, Jen

388

Enzymology and Ecology of the Nitrogen Cycle 189 The role of effector molecules in signal  

E-print Network

Enzymology and Ecology of the Nitrogen Cycle 189 The role of effector molecules in signal, the great majority of which are involved in cellular nitrogen metabolism. The regulatory activities of PII involved in cellular nitrogen metabolism, and hence PII proteins are considered to be pivotal regulators

Merrick, Mike

389

Sustained effector function of IL-12/15/18-preactivated NK cells against established tumors.  

PubMed

Natural killer cell (NK cell)-based immunotherapy of cancer is hampered by the transient effector function of NK cells. Recently, mouse IL-12/15/18-preactivated NK cells were shown to persist with sustained effector function in vivo. Our study investigated the antitumor activity of such NK cells. A single injection of syngeneic IL-12/15/18-preactivated NK cells, but neither naive nor IL-15- or IL-2-pretreated NK cells, combined with irradiation substantially reduced growth of established mouse tumors. Radiation therapy (RT) was essential for the antitumor activity of transferred NK cells. IL-12/15/18-preactivated NK cells expressed high levels of IL-2R? (CD25), and their rapid in vivo proliferation depended on IL-2 produced by CD4+ T cells. IL-12/15/18-preactivated NK cells accumulated in the tumor tissue and persisted at high cell numbers with potent effector function that required the presence of CD4+ T cells. RT greatly increased numbers and function of transferred NK cells. Human IL-12/15/18-preactivated NK cells also displayed sustained effector function in vitro. Our study provides a better understanding for the rational design of immunotherapies of cancer that incorporate NK cells. Moreover, our results reveal an essential role of CD4+ T cell help for sustained antitumor activity by NK cells linking adaptive and innate immunity. PMID:23209317

Ni, Jing; Miller, Matthias; Stojanovic, Ana; Garbi, Natalio; Cerwenka, Adelheid

2012-12-17

390

Human reinforcement learning subdivides structured action spaces by learning effector-specific values  

PubMed Central

Humans and animals are endowed with a large number of effectors. Although this enables great behavioral flexibility, it presents an equally formidable reinforcement learning problem of discovering which actions are most valuable, due to the high dimensionality of the action space. An unresolved question is how neural systems for reinforcement learning – such as prediction error signals for action valuation associated with dopamine and the striatum – can cope with this “curse of dimensionality.” We propose a reinforcement learning framework that allows for learned action valuations to be decomposed into effector-specific components when appropriate to a task, and test it by studying to what extent human behavior and BOLD activity can exploit such a decomposition in a multieffector choice task. Subjects made simultaneous decisions with their left and right hands and received separate reward feedback for each hand movement. We found that choice behavior was better described by a learning model that decomposed the values of bimanual movements into separate values for each effector, rather than a traditional model that treated the bimanual actions as unitary with a single value. A decomposition of value into effector-specific components was also observed in value-related BOLD signaling, in the form of lateralized biases in striatal correlates of prediction error and anticipatory value correlates in the intraparietal sulcus. These results suggest that the human brain can use decomposed value representations to “divide and conquer” reinforcement learning over high-dimensional action spaces. PMID:19864565

Gershman, Samuel J.; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D.

2009-01-01

391

Critical requirement for the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein in Th2 effector function  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) regulates actin polymerization via activation of Arp2/3 and plays a role in the dynamics of the immunological synapse. How these events influence subsequent gene expression and effector function is unclear. We studied the role of WASp in CD4+ T cell effe...

392

Effector Genomics Accelerates Discovery and Functional Profiling of Potato Disease Resistance and Phytophthora Infestans Avirulence Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R) genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted

Vivianne G. A. A. Vleeshouwers; Hendrik Rietman; Pavel Krenek; Nicolas Champouret; Carolyn Young; Sang-Keun Oh; Miqia Wang; Klaas Bouwmeester; Ben Vosman; Richard G. F. Visser; Evert Jacobsen; Francine Govers; Sophien Kamoun; Edwin A. G. van der Vossen; Hany A. El-Shemy

2008-01-01

393

Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and Phytophthora infestans avirulence genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R) genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted

Vivianne G. A. A. Vleeshouwers; Hendrik Rietman; Pavel Krenek; Nicolas Champouret; Carolyn Young; Sang-Keun Oh; Miqia Wang; Klaas Bouwmeester; Ben Vosman; Richard G. F. Visser; Evert Jacobsen; Francine Govers; Sophien Kamoun; Vossen van der E. A. G

2008-01-01

394

Optimal effector functions in human natural killer cells rely upon autocrine bone morphogenetic protein signaling  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells are critical for innate tumor immunity due to their specialized ability to recognize and kill neoplastically transformed cells. However, NK cells require a specific set of cytokine-mediated signals to achieve optimal effector function. Th1-associated cytokines promote effector functions which are inhibited by the prototypic Th-2 cytokine IL-4 and the TGF-? superfamily members TGF-?1 and activin-A. Interestingly, the largest subgroup of the TGF-? superfamily are the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), but the effects of BMP signaling to NK cell effector functions have not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that blood-circulating NK cells express type I and II BMP receptors, BMP-2 and BMP-6 ligands, and phosphorylated isoforms of Smad-1/-5/-8 which mediate BMP family member signaling. In opposition to the inhibitory effects of TGF-?1 or activin-A, autocrine BMP signaling was supportive to NK cell function. Mechanistic investigations in cytokine and TLR-L activated NK cells revealed that BMP signaling optimized IFN-? and global cytokine and chemokine production; phenotypic activation and proliferation; autologous DC activation and target cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings identify a novel auto-activatory pathway that is essential for optimal NK cell effector function, one which might be therapeutically manipulated to help eradicate tumors. PMID:25038228

Mc Alpine, Tristan; Wei, Heng; Martínez, Víctor G.; Entrena, Ana; Melen, Gustavo J; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Phythian-Adams, Alexander; Sacedón, Rosa; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Cebon, Jonathan; Ramírez, Manuel

2014-01-01

395

Identification of a Brucella spp. secreted effector specifically interacting with human small GTPase Rab2  

E-print Network

trafficking of their vacuole, presumably by the use of yet unknown translocated effectors. To identify-containing vacuoles, compared with the wild-type strain. We observed altered kinetics of intracellular trafficking symptoms include abortion or sterility in infected animals and Malta fever in humans (Moreno and Moriyon

396

Recognition of the Hyaloperonospora parasitica effector ATR13 triggers resistance against oomycete, bacterial, and viral pathogens.  

PubMed

Phytopathogenic oomycetes cause some of the most devastating diseases affecting agricultural crops. Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a native oomycete pathogen of Arabidopsis and is related to other oomycete phytopathogens that include several species of Phytophthora, including the causal agent of potato late blight. Recently, four oomycete effector genes have been isolated, and several oomycete genomes have been sequenced. We have developed an efficient and genetically amenable system to test putative effector genes using the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The H. parasitica effector protein ATR13 was delivered via P. syringae by fusing the ATR13 gene with the avrRpm1 type three secretion signal peptide, a bacterial sequence that allows transfer of proteins into the host cell through the bacterial type III secretion system. We also inserted ATR13 into the genome of the turnip mosaic virus, a single-stranded RNA virus. Our results show that delivery of ATR13 via the bacterial or viral pathogen triggers defense responses in plants containing the cognate resistance protein RPP13(Nd), which restricts proliferation of both pathogens. Hence, recognition of ATR13 by RPP13 initiates defense responses that are effective against oomycete, bacterial and viral pathogens, pointing to a common defense mechanism. We have characterized regions of the RPP13(Nd) resistance protein that are essential for effector recognition and/or downstream signaling, using transient coexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana. PMID:18198274

Rentel, Maike C; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Zhao, Bingyu; Staskawicz, Brian J

2008-01-22

397

Recognition of the Hyaloperonospora parasitica effector ATR13 triggers resistance against oomycete, bacterial, and viral pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytopathogenic oomycetes cause some of the most devastating diseases affecting agricultural crops. Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a native oomycete pathogen of Arabidopsis and is related to other oomycete phytopathogens that include several species of Phytophthora, including the causal agent of potato late blight. Recently, four oomycete effector genes have been isolated, and several oomycete genomes have been sequenced. We have developed

Maike C. Rentel; Lauriebeth Leonelli; Douglas Dahlbeck; Bingyu Zhao; Brian J. Staskawicz

2008-01-01

398

Recognition of the Hyaloperonospora parasitica effector ATR13 triggers resistance against oomycete, bacterial, and viral pathogens  

PubMed Central

Phytopathogenic oomycetes cause some of the most devastating diseases affecting agricultural crops. Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a native oomycete pathogen of Arabidopsis and is related to other oomycete phytopathogens that include several species of Phytophthora, including the causal agent of potato late blight. Recently, four oomycete effector genes have been isolated, and several oomycete genomes have been sequenced. We have developed an efficient and genetically amenable system to test putative effector genes using the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The H. parasitica effector protein ATR13 was delivered via P. syringae by fusing the ATR13 gene with the avrRpm1 type three secretion signal peptide, a bacterial sequence that allows transfer of proteins into the host cell through the bacterial type III secretion system. We also inserted ATR13 into the genome of the turnip mosaic virus, a single-stranded RNA virus. Our results show that delivery of ATR13 via the bacterial or viral pathogen triggers defense responses in plants containing the cognate resistance protein RPP13Nd, which restricts proliferation of both pathogens. Hence, recognition of ATR13 by RPP13 initiates defense responses that are effective against oomycete, bacterial and viral pathogens, pointing to a common defense mechanism. We have characterized regions of the RPP13Nd resistance protein that are essential for effector recognition and/or downstream signaling, using transient coexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana. PMID:18198274

Rentel, Maike C.; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Zhao, Bingyu; Staskawicz, Brian J.

2008-01-01

399

High Efficiency Ex Vivo Cloning of Antigen-Specific Human Effector T Cells  

PubMed Central

While cloned T cells are valuable tools for the exploration of immune responses against viruses and tumours, current cloning methods do not allow inferences to be made about the function and phenotype of a clone's in vivo precursor, nor can precise cloning efficiencies be calculated. Additionally, there is currently no general method for cloning antigen-specific effector T cells directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, without the need for prior expansion in vitro. Here we describe an efficient method for cloning effector T cells ex vivo. Functional T cells are detected using optimised interferon gamma capture following stimulation with viral or tumour cell-derived antigen. In combination with multiple phenotypic markers, single effector T cells are sorted using a flow cytometer directly into multi-well plates, and cloned using standard, non antigen-specific expansion methods. We provide examples of this novel technology to generate antigen-reactive clones from healthy donors using Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus as representative viral antigen sources, and from two melanoma patients using autologous melanoma cells. Cloning efficiency, clonality, and retention/loss of function are described. Ex vivo effector cell cloning provides a rapid and effective method of deriving antigen-specific T cells clones with traceable in vivo precursor function and phenotype. PMID:25368986

Neller, Michelle A.; Lai, Michael H.-L.; Lanagan, Catherine M.; O?Connor, Linda E.; Pritchard, Antonia L.; Martinez, Nathan R.; Schmidt, Christopher W.

2014-01-01

400

2009NatureAmerica,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Effector T cells control lung inflammation during  

E-print Network

-inflammatory property of antiviral CD8+ and CD4+ effector T cells (Teff cells) in the infected periphery during acute in the infected lungs in large amounts--exclusively by infiltrating virus-specific Teff cells, with CD8+ Teff cells contributing a larger fraction of the IL-10 produced. These Teff cells in the periphery

401

Representation of the Speech Effectors in the Human Motor Cortex: Somatotopy or Overlap?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Somatotopy within the orofacial region of the human motor cortex has been a central concept in interpreting the results of neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies of normal and disordered speech. Yet, somatotopy has been challenged by studies showing overlap among the effectors within the homunculus. In order to address this…

Takai, Osamu; Brown, Steven; Liotti, Mario

2010-01-01

402

Molecular characterization of proteolytic cleavage sites of the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2  

E-print Network

Molecular characterization of proteolytic cleavage sites of the Pseudomonas syringae effector Avr proteolytic cleavage of a synthetic substrate, demonstrating that these sequences are cleavage recognition cleavage sites, and mutation of both sites resulted in cleav- age-resistant RIN4. Growth of Pseudomonas

Sjölander, Kimmen

403

Paradoxical effects of thought suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a first experiment, subjects verbalizing the stream of consciousness for a 5-min period were asked to try not to think of a white bear, but to ring a bell in case they did. As indicated both by mentions and by bell rings, they were unable to suppress the thought as instructed. On being asked after this suppression task to

Daniel M. Wegner; David J. Schneider; Samuel R. Carter III; Teri L. White

1987-01-01

404

An Alternative to Thought Suppression?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

Boice, Robert

2012-01-01

405

Group Differences in Suppression Skill.  

PubMed

It is proposed that there are group differences in suppression skill, and one such grouping is the distinction between more versus less skilled university-aged comprehenders. Experiments supporting this proposal and demonstrating that university-aged adults differ in their ability to suppress irrelevant, inappropriate, potentially interfering information are reviewed. Many of these experiments have been replicated with other groups, which also hypothetically differ in their ability to suppress inappropriate information. Two new sets of experiments are reviewed. In one, the prediction that less skilled comprehenders- because they are less skilled at suppression- should be better at comprehending puns is evaluated. In the other, the prediction that less skilled comprehenders- because they are less skilled at suppression- are better able to shift to a different meaning of a homonym is evaluated. Both sets of data are evaluated with respect to a general slowing explanation and scaling artifacts. PMID:25285030

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

1997-01-01

406

Neural correlates of thought suppression.  

PubMed

The present report used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural correlates of thought suppression. Subjects were imaged while alternately (i) attempting to suppress a particular thought, (ii) attempting to suppress all thoughts, or (iii) thinking freely about any thought. Suppression of a particular thought, when compared to the free-thought control condition, revealed greater activation in the anterior cingulate. When the task of suppressing all conscious thoughts was compared to free-thought, a more distributed network of brain regions, including the anterior cingulate and the insula, was activated. These findings are consistent with previous research on cognitive control and may provide potential insights into psychological disorders involving recurring, intrusive thoughts. PMID:14572519

Wyland, Carrie L; Kelley, William M; Macrae, C Neil; Gordon, Heather L; Heatherton, Todd F

2003-01-01

407

Modulation of the Immune and Inflammatory Responses by Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Extracts: Role of Myeloid Dendritic Cells in Effector and Regulatory Functions of CD4+ Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

The optimal immune response to malaria infection comprises rapid induction of inflammatory responses promptly counteracted by regulatory mechanisms to prevent immunopathology. To evaluate the role of dendritic cells (DC) in the balance of parasite-induced inflammatory/anti-inflammatory mechanisms, we studied the activity of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), previously exposed to soluble extracts of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (PfSE), in the differentiation of CD4 cells isolated from donors never exposed to malaria infection. We show that MDDC exposed to PfSE are extremely efficient to induce a contemporary differentiation of TH1 effector cells and T regulatory (Treg) cells in CD4 T cells even when exposed to low concentrations of parasitic extracts. Treg cells induced by MDDC infected with PfSE (MDDC-PfSE) produce transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and are endowed with strong suppressive properties. They also show phenotypical and functional peculiarities, such as the contemporary expression of markers of Treg and TH1 differentiation and higher sensitivity to TLR4 ligands both inducing an increasing production of suppressive cytokines. On the whole, our data indicate that MDDC exposed to PfSE orchestrate a well-balanced immune response with timely differentiation of TH1 and Treg cells in CD4 cells from nonimmune donors and suggest that, during the infection, the role of MDCC could be particularly relevant in low-parasitemia conditions. PMID:23509139

Clemente, Ann Maria; Fadigati, Giulia; Caporale, Roberto; Marchese, Damiano G.; Castronovo, Giuseppe; Sannella, Anna Rosa; Severini, Carlo; Verra, Federica; Garaci, Enrico; Cozzolino, Federico

2013-01-01

408

Modulation of the immune and inflammatory responses by Plasmodium falciparum schizont extracts: role of myeloid dendritic cells in effector and regulatory functions of CD4+ lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The optimal immune response to malaria infection comprises rapid induction of inflammatory responses promptly counteracted by regulatory mechanisms to prevent immunopathology. To evaluate the role of dendritic cells (DC) in the balance of parasite-induced inflammatory/anti-inflammatory mechanisms, we studied the activity of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), previously exposed to soluble extracts of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (PfSE), in the differentiation of CD4 cells isolated from donors never exposed to malaria infection. We show that MDDC exposed to PfSE are extremely efficient to induce a contemporary differentiation of TH1 effector cells and T regulatory (Treg) cells in CD4 T cells even when exposed to low concentrations of parasitic extracts. Treg cells induced by MDDC infected with PfSE (MDDC-PfSE) produce transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and are endowed with strong suppressive properties. They also show phenotypical and functional peculiarities, such as the contemporary expression of markers of Treg and TH1 differentiation and higher sensitivity to TLR4 ligands both inducing an increasing production of suppressive cytokines. On the whole, our data indicate that MDDC exposed to PfSE orchestrate a well-balanced immune response with timely differentiation of TH1 and Treg cells in CD4 cells from nonimmune donors and suggest that, during the infection, the role of MDCC could be particularly relevant in low-parasitemia conditions. PMID:23509139

Clemente, Ann Maria; Fadigati, Giulia; Caporale, Roberto; Marchese, Damiano G; Castronovo, Giuseppe; Sannella, Anna Rosa; Severini, Carlo; Verra, Federica; Garaci, Enrico; Cozzolino, Federico; Torcia, Maria Gabriella

2013-05-01

409

Regulatory T cell responses develop in parallel to Th responses and control the magnitude and phenotype of the Th effector population.  

PubMed

Host survival during schistosomiasis requires the development of a tightly regulated and Th2-polarized immune response against parasite egg Ags. In this system, Th1 response suppression has been thought to be enforced through the production of IL-10 by Th2 cells and natural T regulatory (Treg) cells. By comparing Th responses in schistosome e