Sample records for effector xopn suppresses

  1. Tomato TFT1 Is Required for PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Mutations that Prevent T3S Effector XopN from Binding to TFT1 Attenuate Xanthomonas Virulence

    E-print Network

    Aakre, Christopher David

    XopN is a type III effector protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria that suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in tomato. Previous work reported that XopN interacts with the tomato 14-3-3 isoform TFT1; ...

  2. Suppression of type III effector secretion by polymers.

    PubMed

    Ohgita, Takashi; Hayashi, Naoki; Gotoh, Naomasa; Kogure, Kentaro

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria secrete effector proteins required for successful infection and expression of toxicity into host cells. The type III secretion apparatus is involved in these processes. Previously, we showed that the viscous polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 suppressed effector secretion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We thus considered that other viscous polymers might also suppress secretion. We initially showed that PEG200 (formed from the same monomer (ethylene glycol) as PEG8000, but which forms solutions of lower viscosity than the latter compound) did not decrease effector secretion. By contrast, alginate, a high-viscous polymer formed from mannuronic and guluronic acid, unlike PEG8000, effectively inhibited secretion. The effectiveness of PEG8000 and alginate in this regard was closely associated with polymer viscosity, but the nature of viscosity dependence differed between the two polymers. Moreover, not only the natural polymer alginate, but also mucin, which protects against infection, suppressed secretion. We thus confirmed that polymer viscosity contributes to the suppression of effector secretion, but other factors (e.g. electrostatic interaction) may also be involved. Moreover, the results suggest that regulation of bacterial secretion by polymers may occur naturally via the action of components of biofilm or mucin layer. PMID:24335606

  3. Bacterial Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Immunity by Targeting BAK1

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Jinggeng

    2013-07-19

    Pseudomonas syringae delivers a plethora of effector proteins into host cells to sabotage host immune responses and physiology to favor infection. We have previously shown that P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis...

  4. Bacterial effector HopF2 interacts with AvrPto and suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity at the plasma membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogenic bacteria inject a cocktail of effector proteins into host plant cells to modulate the host immune response, thereby promoting pathogenicity. How or whether these effectors work cooperatively is largely unknown. The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses the host plan...

  5. Bacterial effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shujing; Lu, Dongping; Kabbage, Mehdi; Wei, Hai-Lei; Swingle, Bryan; Records, Angela R.; Dickman, Martin; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

    2011-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens inject a cocktail of effector proteins into host cells through type III secretion systems. These effectors act in concert to modulate host physiology and immune signaling, thereby promoting pathogenicity. In search for additional Pseudomonas syringae effectors in suppressing plant innate immunity triggered by pathogen or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs), we identified P. syringae tomato DC3000 effector HopF2 as a potent suppressor of early immune response gene transcription and MAP kinase (MAPK) signaling activated by multiple MAMPs, including bacterial flagellin, elongation factor Tu, peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and HrpZ1 harpin, and fungal chitin. The conserved surface-exposed residues of HopF2 are essential for its MAMP suppression activity. HopF2 is targeted to the plant plasma membrane through a putative myristoylation site, and the membrane association appears to be required for its MAMP suppression function. Expression of HopF2 in plants potently diminished the flagellin-induced phosphorylation of BIK1, a plasma membrane-associated cytoplasmic kinase, which is rapidly phosphorylated within one minute upon flagellin perception. Thus, HopF2 likely intercepts MAMP signaling at the plasma membrane immediately upon signal perception. Consistent with the potent suppression function of multiple MAMP signaling, expression of HopF2 in transgenic plants compromised plant nonhost immunity to bacteria P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, and plant immunity to a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. PMID:21198360

  6. Pseudomonas syringae Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Immunity by Targeting BAK1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinggeng; Wu, Shujing; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chenglong; Sheen, Jen; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas syringae delivers a plethora of effector proteins into host cells to sabotage immune responses and modulate physiology to favor infection. We have previously shown that P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity triggered by multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) at the plasma membrane. We show here that HopF2 possesses distinct mechanisms in the suppression of two branches of MAMP-activated MAP kinase (MPK) cascades. Besides blocking MKK5 (MPK kinase 5) activation in the MEKK1/MEKKs-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascade, HopF2 targets additional component(s) upstream of MEKK1 in the MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 cascade and plasma membrane-localized receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 and its homologs. We further show that HopF2 directly targets BAK1, a plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase involved in multiple MAMP signaling. The interaction between BAK1 and HopF2 or two other P. syringae effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB, was confirmed in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with BAK1 as a physiological target of AvrPto, AvrPtoB and HopF2, the strong growth defects or lethality associated with ectopic expression of these effectors in wild-type Arabidopsis transgenic plants were largely alleviated in bak1 mutant plants. Thus, our results provide genetic evidence to further support that BAK1 is a physiological target of AvrPto, AvrPtoB and HopF2. Identification of BAK1 as an additional target of HopF2 virulence not only explains HopF2 suppression of multiple MAMP signaling at the plasma membrane, but also supports the notion that pathogen virulence effectors act through multiple targets in host cells. PMID:24237140

  7. The Pseudomonas syringae effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis immunity by targeting BAK1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinggeng; Wu, Shujing; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chenglong; Sheen, Jen; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae delivers a plethora of effector proteins into host cells to sabotage immune responses and modulate physiology to favor infection. The P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity triggered by multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) at the plasma membrane. We show here that HopF2 possesses distinct mechanisms for suppression of two branches of MAMP-activated MAP kinase (MAPK) cascades. In addition to blocking MKK5 (MAPK kinase 5) activation in the MEKK1 (MAPK kinase kinase 1)/MEKKs-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascade, HopF2 targets additional component(s) upstream of MEKK1 in the MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 cascade and the plasma membrane-localized receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 and its homologs. We further show that HopF2 directly targets BAK1, a plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase that is involved in multiple MAMP signaling. The interaction between BAK1 and HopF2 and between two other P. syringae effectors, AvrPto and AvrPtoB, was confirmed in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with BAK1 as a physiological target of AvrPto, AvrPtoB and HopF2, the strong growth defects or lethality associated with ectopic expression of these effectors in wild-type Arabidopsis transgenic plants were largely alleviated in bak1 mutant plants. Thus, our results provide genetic evidence to show that BAK1 is a physiological target of AvrPto, AvrPtoB and HopF2. Identification of BAK1 as an additional target of HopF2 virulence not only explains HopF2 suppression of multiple MAMP signaling at the plasma membrane, but also supports the notion that pathogen virulence effectors act through multiple targets in host cells. PMID:24237140

  8. Bacterial Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Immunity by Targeting BAK1 

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Jinggeng

    2013-07-19

    been shown that RIN4, a component involved in both PTI and ETI, is targeted and suppressed by HopF2 (Wilton et al., 2010). HopF2 also targets MAPK kinase 5 (MKK5) and suppresses MKK5 phosphorylation to downstream MPK3/6 through its ADP- 5..., R., Elmore, J., Felsensteiner, C., Coaker, G., and Desveaux, D. (2010). The type III effector HopF2Pto targets Arabidopsis RIN4 protein to promote Pseudomonas syringae virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, 2349- 2354. Wu, S., Lu, D., Kabbage...

  9. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopD1 suppresses effector-triggered immunity, localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, and targets the Arabidopsis transcription factor NTL9.

    PubMed

    Block, Anna; Toruño, Tania Y; Elowsky, Christian G; Zhang, Chi; Steinbrenner, Jens; Beynon, Jim; Alfano, James R

    2014-03-01

    • Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors are known to suppress plant immunity to promote bacterial virulence. However, the activities and targets of these effectors are not well understood. • We used genetic, molecular, and cell biology methods to characterize the activities, localization, and target of the HopD1 type III effector in Arabidopsis. • HopD1 contributes to P. syringae virulence in Arabidopsis and reduces effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses but not pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) responses. Plants expressing HopD1 supported increased growth of ETI-inducing P. syringae strains compared with wild-type Arabidopsis. We show that HopD1 interacts with the membrane-tethered Arabidopsis transcription factor NTL9 and demonstrate that this interaction occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A P. syringae hopD1 mutant and ETI-inducing P. syringae strains exhibited enhanced growth on Arabidopsis ntl9 mutant plants. Conversely, growth of P. syringae strains was reduced in plants expressing a constitutively active NTL9 derivative, indicating that NTL9 is a positive regulator of plant immunity. Furthermore, HopD1 inhibited the induction of NTL9-regulated genes during ETI but not PTI. • HopD1 contributes to P. syringae virulence in part by targeting NTL9, resulting in the suppression of ETI responses but not PTI responses and the promotion of plant pathogenicity. PMID:24329768

  10. The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Gawehns, F; Houterman, P M; Ichou, F Ait; Michielse, C B; Hijdra, M; Cornelissen, B J C; Rep, M; Takken, F L W

    2014-04-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins). Most Six proteins are unique to F. oxysporum, but Six6 is an exception; a homolog is also present in two Colletotrichum spp. SIX6 expression was found to require living host cells and a knockout of SIX6 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici compromised virulence, classifying it as a genuine effector. Heterologous expression of SIX6 did not affect growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana toward Verticillium dahliae, Pseudomonas syringae, or F. oxysporum, suggesting a specific function for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Six6 in the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici- tomato pathosystem. Remarkably, Six6 was found to specifically suppress I-2-mediated cell death (I2CD) upon transient expression in N. benthamiana, whereas it did not compromise the activity of other cell-death-inducing genes. Still, this I2CD suppressing activity of Six6 does not allow the fungus to overcome I-2 resistance in tomato, suggesting that I-2-mediated resistance is independent from cell death. PMID:24313955

  11. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria type III effector XopQ interacts with tomato and pepper 14-3-3 isoforms to suppress effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Teper, Doron; Salomon, Dor; Sunitha, Sukumaran; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sessa, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to host-adapted pathogens is associated with rapid cell death at the infection site. The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) interferes with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion system. Here, we show that the Xcv effector XopQ suppresses cell death induced by components of the ETI-associated MAP kinase cascade MAPKKK? MEK2/SIPK and by several R/avr gene pairs. Inactivation of xopQ by insertional mutagenesis revealed that this effector inhibits ETI-associated cell death induced by avirulent Xcv in resistant pepper (Capsicum annuum), and enhances bacterial growth in resistant pepper and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Using protein-protein interaction studies in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in planta, we identified the tomato 14-3-3 isoform SlTFT4 and homologs from other plant species as XopQ interactors. A mutation in the putative 14-3-3 binding site of XopQ impaired interaction of the effector with CaTFT4 in yeast and its virulence function in planta. Consistent with a role in ETI, TFT4 mRNA abundance increased during the incompatible interaction of tomato and pepper with Xcv. Silencing of NbTFT4 in Nicotiana benthamiana significantly reduced cell death induced by MAPKKK?. In addition, silencing of CaTFT4 in pepper delayed the appearance of ETI-associated cell death and enhanced growth of virulent and avirulent Xcv, demonstrating the requirement of TFT4 for plant immunity to Xcv. Our results suggest that the XopQ virulence function is to suppress ETI and immunity-associated cell death by interacting with TFT4, which is an important component of ETI and a bona fide target of XopQ. PMID:24279912

  12. Neutrophil effector responses are suppressed by secretory phospholipase A2 modified HDL.

    PubMed

    Curcic, Sanja; Holzer, Michael; Frei, Robert; Pasterk, Lisa; Schicho, Rudolf; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2015-02-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) generates bioactive lysophospholipids implicated in acute and chronic inflammation, but the pathophysiologic role of sPLA2 is poorly understood. Given that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is the major substrate for sPLA2 in plasma, we investigated the effects of sPLA2-mediated modification of HDL (sPLA2-HDL) on neutrophil function, an essential arm of the innate immune response and atherosclerosis. Treatment of neutrophils with sPLA2-HDL rapidly prevented agonist-induced neutrophil activation, including shape change, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, CD11b activation, adhesion under flow and migration of neutrophils. The cholesterol-mobilizing activity of sPLA2-HDL was markedly increased when compared to native HDL, promoting a significant reduction of cholesterol-rich signaling microdomains integral to cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, sPLA2-HDL effectively suppressed agonist-induced rise in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Native HDL showed no significant effects and removing lysophospholipids from sPLA2-HDL abolished all anti-inflammatory activities. Overall, our studies suggest that the increased cholesterol-mobilizing activity of sPLA2-HDL and suppression of rise in intracellular Ca(2+) levels are likely mechanism that counteracts agonist-induced activation of neutrophils. These counterintuitive findings imply that neutrophil trafficking and effector responses are altered by sPLA2-HDL during inflammatory conditions. PMID:25463476

  13. Functionally Redundant RXLR Effectors from Phytophthora infestans Act at Different Steps to Suppress Early flg22-Triggered Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fraiture, Malou; Liu, Xiaoyu; Boevink, Petra C.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Chen, Ying; Kandel, Kabindra; Sessa, Guido; Birch, Paul R. J.; Brunner, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequences of several economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes have revealed the presence of large families of so-called RXLR effectors. Functional screens have identified RXLR effector repertoires that either compromise or induce plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying the modes of action of these effectors in planta. The perception of highly conserved pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs), such as flg22, triggers converging signaling pathways recruiting MAP kinase cascades and inducing transcriptional re-programming, yielding a generic anti-microbial response. We used a highly synchronizable, pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify a set of RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans (PiRXLRs), the causal agent of potato and tomato light blight that manipulate early stages of flg22-triggered signaling. Of thirty-three tested PiRXLR effector candidates, eight, called Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response (SFI), significantly suppressed flg22-dependent activation of a reporter gene under control of a typical MAMP-inducible promoter (pFRK1-Luc) in tomato protoplasts. We extended our analysis to Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-host plant species of P. infestans. From the aforementioned eight SFI effectors, three appeared to share similar functions in both Arabidopsis and tomato by suppressing transcriptional activation of flg22-induced marker genes downstream of post-translational MAP kinase activation. A further three effectors interfere with MAMP signaling at, or upstream of, the MAP kinase cascade in tomato, but not in Arabidopsis. Transient expression of the SFI effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans and, for the most potent effector, SFI1, nuclear localization is required for both suppression of MAMP signaling and virulence function. The present study provides a framework to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the manipulation of host MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI) by P. infestans and to understand the basis of host versus non-host resistance in plants towards P. infestans. PMID:24763622

  14. Piceatannol inhibits effector T cell functions by suppressing TcR signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Gab; Park, Hong-Jai; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Choi, Je-Min

    2015-04-01

    Piceatannol, a metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine and grapes, displays a wide spectrum of biological activity. Although the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumorigenesis activity of piceatannol has been extensively studied, its role in the adaptive immune response has received less attention. Here we investigated the role of piceatannol, a well-known Syk inhibitor, in T cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation using isolated murine splenic T cells from C57BL/6 mice. Piceatannol treatment inhibited surface expression of CD4 and CD8 T cell activation markers CD25 and CD69, reduced production of cytokines IFN?, IL-2, and IL-17, and suppressed proliferation of activated T cells. Moreover, piceatannol treatment significantly inhibited differentiation of CD4(+)CD25(-)CD62L(+) naïve CD4 T cells into Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, presumably due to inhibition of TcR signaling through p-Erk, p-Akt, and p-p38. Piceatannol appears to be a useful nutritional or pharmacological biomolecule that regulates effector T cell functions such as cytokine production, differentiation, and proliferation. PMID:25676533

  15. The effector SPRYSEC-19 of Globodera rostochiensis suppresses CC-NB-LRR-mediated disease resistance in plants.

    PubMed

    Postma, Wiebe J; Slootweg, Erik J; Rehman, Sajid; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Tytgat, Tom O G; van Gelderen, Kasper; Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Roosien, Jan; Pomp, Rikus; van Schaik, Casper; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2012-10-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis invades roots of host plants where it transforms cells near the vascular cylinder into a permanent feeding site. The host cell modifications are most likely induced by a complex mixture of proteins in the stylet secretions of the nematodes. Resistance to nematodes conferred by nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins usually results in a programmed cell death in and around the feeding site, and is most likely triggered by the recognition of effectors in stylet secretions. However, the actual role of these secretions in the activation and suppression of effector-triggered immunity is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effector SPRYSEC-19 of G. rostochiensis physically associates in planta with the LRR domain of a member of the SW5 resistance gene cluster in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Unexpectedly, this interaction did not trigger defense-related programmed cell death and resistance to G. rostochiensis. By contrast, agroinfiltration assays showed that the coexpression of SPRYSEC-19 in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana suppresses programmed cell death mediated by several coiled-coil (CC)-NB-LRR immune receptors. Furthermore, SPRYSEC-19 abrogated resistance to Potato virus X mediated by the CC-NB-LRR resistance protein Rx1, and resistance to Verticillium dahliae mediated by an unidentified resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum). The suppression of cell death and disease resistance did not require a physical association of SPRYSEC-19 and the LRR domains of the CC-NB-LRR resistance proteins. Altogether, our data demonstrated that potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that enable the suppression of programmed cell death and disease resistance mediated by several CC-NB-LRR proteins in plants. PMID:22904163

  16. Molecular determinants of resistance activation and suppression by Phytophthora infestans effector IPI-O

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is able to rapidly evolve to overcome resistance genes. The pathogen accomplishes this by secreting an arsenal of proteins, termed effectors, that function to modify host cells. Although hundreds of candidate effectors have been identified in ...

  17. A Virulence Essential CRN Effector of Phytophthora capsici Suppresses Host Defense and Induces Cell Death in Plant Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Ma, Huifei; Zhang, Meixiang; Xu, Jing; He, Feng; Ye, Tingyue; Shen, Danyu; Chen, Yanyu; Rajput, Nasir Ahmed; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a soil-borne plant pathogen with a wide range of hosts. The pathogen secretes a large array of effectors during infection of host plants, including Crinkler (CRN) effectors. However, it remains largely unknown on the roles of these effectors in virulence especially in P. capsici. In this study, we identified a cell death-inducing CRN effector PcCRN4 using agroinfiltration approach. Transient expression of PcCRN4 gene induced cell death in N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and Solanum lycopersicum. Overexpression of the gene in N. benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to P. capsici. Subcellular localization results showed that PcCRN4 localized to the plant nucleus, and the localization was required for both of its cell death-inducing activity and virulent function. Silencing PcCRN4 gene in P. capsici significantly reduced pathogen virulence. The expression of the pathogenesis-related gene PR1b in N. benthamiana was significantly induced when plants were inoculated with PcCRN4-silenced P. capsici transformant compared to the wilt-type. Callose deposits were also abundant at sites inoculated with PcCRN4-silenced transformant, indicating that silencing of PcCRN4 in P. capsici reduced the ability of the pathogen to suppress plant defenses. Transcriptions of cell death-related genes were affected when PcCRN4-silenced line were inoculated on Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that PcCRN4 may induce cell death by manipulating cell death-related genes. Overall, our results demonstrate that PcCRN4 is a virulence essential effector and it needs target to the plant nucleus to suppress plant immune responses. PMID:26011314

  18. A Virulence Essential CRN Effector of Phytophthora capsici Suppresses Host Defense and Induces Cell Death in Plant Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Ma, Huifei; Zhang, Meixiang; Xu, Jing; He, Feng; Ye, Tingyue; Shen, Danyu; Chen, Yanyu; Rajput, Nasir Ahmed; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a soil-borne plant pathogen with a wide range of hosts. The pathogen secretes a large array of effectors during infection of host plants, including Crinkler (CRN) effectors. However, it remains largely unknown on the roles of these effectors in virulence especially in P. capsici. In this study, we identified a cell death-inducing CRN effector PcCRN4 using agroinfiltration approach. Transient expression of PcCRN4 gene induced cell death in N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and Solanum lycopersicum. Overexpression of the gene in N. benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to P. capsici. Subcellular localization results showed that PcCRN4 localized to the plant nucleus, and the localization was required for both of its cell death-inducing activity and virulent function. Silencing PcCRN4 gene in P. capsici significantly reduced pathogen virulence. The expression of the pathogenesis-related gene PR1b in N. benthamiana was significantly induced when plants were inoculated with PcCRN4-silenced P. capsici transformant compared to the wilt-type. Callose deposits were also abundant at sites inoculated with PcCRN4-silenced transformant, indicating that silencing of PcCRN4 in P. capsici reduced the ability of the pathogen to suppress plant defenses. Transcriptions of cell death-related genes were affected when PcCRN4-silenced line were inoculated on Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that PcCRN4 may induce cell death by manipulating cell death-related genes. Overall, our results demonstrate that PcCRN4 is a virulence essential effector and it needs target to the plant nucleus to suppress plant immune responses. PMID:26011314

  19. Functional analysis of plant defense suppression and activation by the Xanthomonas core type III effector XopX

    PubMed Central

    Stork, William; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Many phytopathogenic type III secretion effectors (T3Es) have been shown to target and suppress plant immune signaling, but perturbation of the plant immune system by T3Es can also elicit a plant response. XopX is a “core” Xanthomonas T3E that contributes to growth and symptom development during Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe) infection of tomato, but its functional role is undefined. We tested the effect of XopX on several aspects of plant immune signaling. XopX promoted ethylene production and plant cell death (PCD) during Xe infection of susceptible tomato and in transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, which is consistent with its requirement for the development of Xe-induced disease symptoms. Additionally, although XopX suppressed flagellin-induced reactive oxygen species, it promoted the accumulation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) gene transcripts. Surprisingly, XopX co-expression with other PCD elicitors resulted in delayed PCD, suggesting antagonism between XopX-dependent PCD and other PCD pathways. However, we found no evidence that XopX contributed to the suppression of effector-triggered immunity during Xe-tomato interactions, suggesting that XopX’s primary virulence role is to modulate PTI. These results highlight the dual role of a core Xanthomonas T3E in simultaneously suppressing and activating plant defense responses. PMID:25338145

  20. Functional Analysis of Plant Defense Suppression and Activation by the Xanthomonas Core Type III Effector XopX.

    PubMed

    Stork, William; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2015-02-01

    Many phytopathogenic type III secretion effector proteins (T3Es) have been shown to target and suppress plant immune signaling but perturbation of the plant immune system by T3Es can also elicit a plant response. XopX is a "core" Xanthomonas T3E that contributes to growth and symptom development during Xanthomonas euvesicatoria infection of tomato but its functional role is undefined. We tested the effect of XopX on several aspects of plant immune signaling. XopX promoted ethylene production and plant cell death (PCD) during X. euvesicatoria infection of susceptible tomato and in transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, which is consistent with its requirement for the development of X. euvesicatoria-induced disease symptoms. Additionally, although XopX suppressed flagellin-induced reactive oxygen species, it promoted the accumulation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) gene transcripts. Surprisingly, XopX coexpression with other PCD elicitors resulted in delayed PCD, suggesting antagonism between XopX-dependent PCD and other PCD pathways. However, we found no evidence that XopX contributed to the suppression of effector-triggered immunity during X. euvesicatoria-tomato interactions, suggesting that XopX's primary virulence role is to modulate PTI. These results highlight the dual role of a core Xanthomonas T3E in simultaneously suppressing and activating plant defense responses. PMID:25338145

  1. Repression of SATB1 in regulatory T cells is required for suppressive function and inhibition of effector differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Marc; Thabet, Yasser; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Sadlon, Timothy; Classen, Sabine; Lahl, Katharina; Basu, Samik; Zhou, Xuyu; Bailey-Bucktrout, Samantha L.; Krebs, Wolfgang; Schönfeld, Eva A.; Böttcher, Jan; Golovina, Tatiana; Mayer, Christian T.; Hofmann, Andrea; Sommer, Daniel; Debey-Pascher, Svenja; Endl, Elmar; Limmer, Andreas; Hippen, Keli L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Balderas, Robert; Quast, Thomas; Waha, Andreas; Mayer, Günter; Famulok, Michael; Knolle, Percy A.; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Kolanus, Waldemar; Schermer, Bernhard; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Barry, Simon C.; Sparwasser, Tim; Riley, James L.; Schultze, Joachim L.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Lack of effector T cell (Teff) function and gain of suppressive activity by Treg are dependent on the transcriptional program induced by Foxp3. Here we report repression of SATB1, a genome organizer regulating chromatin structure and gene expression, as crucial for Treg phenotype and function. Foxp3, acting as a transcriptional repressor, directly suppressed the SATB1 locus and indirectly through induction of microRNAs that bound the SATB1 3?UTR. Release of SATB1 from Foxp3 control in Treg caused loss of suppressive function, establishment of transcriptional Teff programs and induction of Teff cytokines. These data support that inhibition of SATB1-mediated modulation of global chromatin remodelling is pivotal for maintaining Treg functionality. PMID:21841785

  2. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Type III Effector HopM1 Suppresses Arabidopsis Defenses Independent of Suppressing Salicylic Acid Signaling and of Targeting AtMIN7

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Anju; Sreerekha, Mysore-Venkatarau; Whitehill, Justin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Mackey, David

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 (Pto) delivers several effector proteins promoting virulence, including HopM1, into plant cells via type III secretion. HopM1 contributes to full virulence of Pto by inducing degradation of Arabidopsis proteins, including AtMIN7, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola strain NPS3121 (Pph) lacks a functional HopM1 and elicits robust defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana, including accumulation of pathogenesis related 1 (PR-1) protein and deposition of callose-containing cell wall fortifications. We have examined the effects of heterologously expressed HopM1Pto on Pph-induced defenses. HopM1 suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression, a widely used marker for salicylic acid (SA) signaling and systemic acquired resistance. Surprisingly, HopM1 reduces PR-1 expression without affecting SA accumulation and also suppresses the low levels of PR-1 expression apparent in SA-signaling deficient plants. Further, HopM1 enhances the growth of Pto in SA-signaling deficient plants. AtMIN7 contributes to Pph-induced PR-1 expression. However, HopM1 fails to degrade AtMIN7 during Pph infection and suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression and callose deposition in wild-type and atmin7 plants. We also show that the HopM1-mediated suppression of PR-1 expression is not observed in plants lacking the TGA transcription factor, TGA3. Our data indicate that HopM1 promotes bacterial virulence independent of suppressing SA-signaling and links TGA3, AtMIN7, and other HopM1 targets to pathways distinct from the canonical SA-signaling pathway contributing to PR-1 expression and callose deposition. Thus, efforts to understand this key effector must consider multiple targets and unexpected outputs of its action. PMID:24324742

  3. Integrin ?v?8-Mediated TGF-? Activation by Effector Regulatory T Cells Is Essential for Suppression of T-Cell-Mediated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, John J.; Kelly, Aoife; Smedley, Catherine; Bauché, David; Campbell, Simon; Marie, Julien C.; Travis, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a pivotal role in suppressing self-harmful T cell responses, but how Treg cells mediate suppression to maintain immune homeostasis and limit responses during inflammation is unclear. Here we show that effector Treg cells express high amounts of the integrin ?v?8, which enables them to activate latent transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Treg-cell-specific deletion of integrin ?v?8 did not result in a spontaneous inflammatory phenotype, suggesting that this pathway is not important in Treg-cell-mediated maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, Treg cells lacking expression of integrin ?v?8 were unable to suppress pathogenic T cell responses during active inflammation. Thus, our results identify a mechanism by which Treg cells suppress exuberant immune responses, highlighting a key role for effector Treg-cell-mediated activation of latent TGF-? in suppression of self-harmful T cell responses during active inflammation. PMID:25979421

  4. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC? memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- ?, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

  5. p57Kip2 is an unrecognized DNA damage response effector molecule that functions in tumor suppression and chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Jia, H; Cong, Q; Chua, J F L; Liu, H; Xia, X; Zhang, X; Lin, J; Habib, S L; Ao, J; Zuo, Q; Fu, C; Li, B

    2015-07-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) helps to maintain genome integrity, suppress tumorigenesis and mediate the radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic effects on cancer. Here we report that p57Kip2, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor implicated in the development of tumor-prone Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, is an effector molecule of the DNA-damage response. Genotoxic stress induces p57Kip2 expression via the bone morphogenetic protein-Smad1 and Atm-p38MAPK-Atf2 pathways in p53-proficient or -deficient cells and requires the Smad1-Atf2 complex that facilitates their recruitment to the p57Kip2 promoter. Elevated p57Kip2 induces G1/S phase cell cycle arrest but inhibits cell death in response to DNA damage and acts in parallel with p53 to suppress cell transformation and tumor formation. p57Kip2 is also upregulated in stage I and II clinical rectal tumor samples, likely due to genome instability of precancerous and/or early cancer cells. Targeting p57Kip2 in primary rectal cancer cells and tumor models resulted in increased sensitivity to doxorubicin, suggesting that p57Kip2 has a role in chemoresistance, which is consistent with its pro-survival function. These findings place p57Kip2 in DDR and uncover molecular mechanisms by which p57Kip2 suppresses tumorigenesis and causes chemoresistance. PMID:25195859

  6. Increased Sensitivity of CD4+ T-Effector Cells to CD4+CD25+ Treg Suppression Compensates for Reduced Treg Number in Asymptomatic HIV1 Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgina Thorborn; Laura Pomeroy; Heidi Isohanni; Melissa Perry; Barry Peters; Annapurna Vyakarnam; Douglas F. Nixon

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundIn HIV infection, uncontrolled immune activation and disease progression is attributed to declining CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) numbers. However, qualitative aspects of Treg function in HIV infection, specifically the balance between Treg cell suppressive potency versus suppressibility of effector cells, remain poorly understood. This report addresses this issue.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA classic suppression assay to measure CD4+CD45RO+CD25hi Treg cells to suppress the

  7. Type III Effector AvrPtoB Requires Intrinsic E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity to Suppress Plant Cell Death and Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Abramovitch; Radmila Janjusevic; C. Erec Stebbins; Gregory B. Martin

    2006-01-01

    Microbial pathogens of both plants and animals employ virulence factors that suppress the host immune response. The tomato pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects the AvrPtoB type III effector protein into the plant cell to suppress programmed cell death (PCD) associated with plant immunity. AvrPtoB also inhibits PCD in yeast, indicating that AvrPtoB manipulates a conserved component of eukaryotic PCD. To identify

  8. Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Dezi A; De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2014-07-01

    The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants. PMID:24654979

  9. The Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector HopF2 Suppresses Arabidopsis Stomatal Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Brenden; Lee, Donghyuk; Mott, Adam; Wilton, Michael; Liu, Jun; Liu, Yulu C.; Angers, Stephane; Coaker, Gitta

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae subverts plant immune signalling through injection of type III secreted effectors (T3SE) into host cells. The T3SE HopF2 can disable Arabidopsis immunity through Its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Proteomic analysis of HopF2 interacting proteins identified a protein complex containing ATPases required for regulating stomatal aperture, suggesting HopF2 may manipulate stomatal immunity. Here we report HopF2 can inhibit stomatal immunity independent of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Transgenic expression of HopF2 in Arabidopsis inhibits stomatal closing in response to P. syringae and increases the virulence of surface inoculated P. syringae. Further, transgenic expression of HopF2 inhibits flg22 induced reactive oxygen species production. Intriguingly, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity is dispensable for inhibiting stomatal immunity and flg22 induced reactive oxygen species. Together, this implies HopF2 may be a bifunctional T3SE with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity required for inhibiting apoplastic immunity and an independent function required to inhibit stomatal immunity. PMID:25503437

  10. Analysis of Putative Apoplastic Effectors from the Nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and Identification of an Expansin-Like Protein That Can Induce and Suppress Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Geri?; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses. PMID:25606855

  11. Analysis of putative apoplastic effectors from the nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and identification of an expansin-like protein that can induce and suppress host defenses.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Geri?; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses. PMID:25606855

  12. Effector-mediated suppression of chitin-triggered immunity by magnaporthe oryzae is necessary for rice blast disease.

    PubMed

    Mentlak, Thomas A; Kombrink, Anja; Shinya, Tomonori; Ryder, Lauren S; Otomo, Ippei; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Terauchi, Ryohei; Nishizawa, Yoko; Shibuya, Naoto; Thomma, Bart P H J; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    Plants use pattern recognition receptors to defend themselves from microbial pathogens. These receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate signaling pathways that lead to immunity. In rice (Oryza sativa), the chitin elicitor binding protein (CEBiP) recognizes chitin oligosaccharides released from the cell walls of fungal pathogens. Here, we show that the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae overcomes this first line of plant defense by secreting an effector protein, Secreted LysM Protein1 (Slp1), during invasion of new rice cells. We demonstrate that Slp1 accumulates at the interface between the fungal cell wall and the rice plasma membrane, can bind to chitin, and is able to suppress chitin-induced plant immune responses, including generation of reactive oxygen species and plant defense gene expression. Furthermore, we show that Slp1 competes with CEBiP for binding of chitin oligosaccharides. Slp1 is required by M. oryzae for full virulence and exerts a significant effect on tissue invasion and disease lesion expansion. By contrast, gene silencing of CEBiP in rice allows M. oryzae to cause rice blast disease in the absence of Slp1. We propose that Slp1 sequesters chitin oligosaccharides to prevent PAMP-triggered immunity in rice, thereby facilitating rapid spread of the fungus within host tissue. PMID:22267486

  13. Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector PexRD2 Interacts with Host MAPKKK? to Suppress Plant Immune Signaling[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    King, Stuart R.F.; McLellan, Hazel; Boevink, Petra C.; Armstrong, Miles R.; Bukharova, Tatyana; Sukarta, Octavina; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Birch, Paul R.J.; Banfield, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are key players in plant immune signaling pathways, transducing the perception of invading pathogens into effective defense responses. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, deliver RXLR effector proteins to plant cells to modulate host immune signaling and promote colonization. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these effectors act in plant cells is limited. Here, we report that the P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 interacts with the kinase domain of MAPKKK?, a positive regulator of cell death associated with plant immunity. Expression of PexRD2 or silencing MAPKKK? in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans. We show that PexRD2 perturbs signaling pathways triggered by or dependent on MAPKKK?. By contrast, homologs of PexRD2 from P. infestans had reduced or no interaction with MAPKKK? and did not promote disease susceptibility. Structure-led mutagenesis identified PexRD2 variants that do not interact with MAPKKK? and fail to support enhanced pathogen growth or perturb MAPKKK? signaling pathways. Our findings provide evidence that P. infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 has evolved to interact with a specific host MAPKKK to perturb plant immunity–related signaling. PMID:24632534

  14. Fungal effectors and plant susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Libera; Lanver, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel; Tanaka, Shigeyuki; Liang, Liang; Tollot, Marie; Zuccaro, Alga; Reissmann, Stefanie; Kahmann, Regine

    2015-04-29

    Plants can be colonized by fungi that have adopted highly diverse lifestyles, ranging from symbiotic to necrotrophic. Colonization is governed in all systems by hundreds of secreted fungal effector molecules. These effectors suppress plant defense responses and modulate plant physiology to accommodate fungal invaders and provide them with nutrients. Fungal effectors either function in the interaction zone between the fungal hyphae and host or are transferred to plant cells. This review describes the effector repertoires of 84 plant-colonizing fungi. We focus on the mechanisms that allow these fungal effectors to promote virulence or compatibility, discuss common plant nodes that are targeted by effectors, and provide recent insights into effector evolution. In addition, we address the issue of effector uptake in plant cells and highlight open questions and future challenges. PMID:25923844

  15. Pseudomonas syringae Effector AvrPphB Suppresses AvrB-Induced Activation of RPM1 but Not AvrRpm1-Induced Activation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew R; Ashfield, Tom; Innes, Roger W

    2015-06-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB triggers a hypersensitive resistance response in Arabidopsis and soybean plants expressing the disease resistance (R) proteins RPM1 and Rpg1b, respectively. In Arabidopsis, AvrB induces RPM1-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) to phosphorylate a disease regulator known as RIN4, which subsequently activates RPM1-mediated defenses. Here, we show that AvrPphB can suppress activation of RPM1 by AvrB and this suppression is correlated with the cleavage of RIPK by AvrPphB. Significantly, AvrPphB does not suppress activation of RPM1 by AvrRpm1, suggesting that RIPK is not required for AvrRpm1-induced modification of RIN4. This observation indicates that AvrB and AvrRpm1 recognition is mediated by different mechanisms in Arabidopsis, despite their recognition being determined by a single R protein. Moreover, AvrB recognition but not AvrRpm1 recognition is suppressed by AvrPphB in soybean, suggesting that AvrB recognition requires a similar molecular mechanism in soybean and Arabidopsis. In support of this, we found that phosphodeficient mutations in the soybean GmRIN4a and GmRIN4b proteins are sufficient to block Rpg1b-mediated hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana glutinosa. Taken together, our results indicate that AvrB and AvrPphB target a conserved defense signaling pathway in Arabidopsis and soybean that includes RIPK and RIN4. PMID:25625821

  16. Suppression of the SOX2 Neural Effector Gene by PRDM1 Promotes Human Germ Cell Fate in Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Ying; Chiu, Feng-Lan; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Hsin-Fu; Chuang, Ching-Yu; Yang, Shii-Yi; Hou, Pei-Shan; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Lin, Kuo-I

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation underlying human primordial germ cell (PGC) differentiation are largely unknown. The transcriptional repressor Prdm1/Blimp-1 is known to play a critical role in controlling germ cell specification in mice. Here, we show that PRDM1 is expressed in developing human gonads and contributes to the determination of germline versus neural fate in early development. We show that knockdown of PRDM1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) impairs germline potential and upregulates neural genes. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRDM1 in hESCs promotes the generation of cells that exhibit phenotypic and transcriptomic features of early PGCs. Furthermore, PRDM1 suppresses transcription of SOX2. Overexpression of SOX2 in hESCs under conditions favoring germline differentiation skews cell fate from the germline to the neural lineage. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PRDM1 serves as a molecular switch to modulate the divergence of neural or germline fates through repression of SOX2 during human development. PMID:24527393

  17. Suppression of the AvrBs1-specific hypersensitive response by the YopJ effector homolog AvrBsT from Xanthomonas depends on a SNF1-related kinase.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Robert; Büttner, Daniela; Escolar, Lucia; Schulze, Sebastian; Seiferth, Anja; Bonas, Ulla

    2010-09-01

    *Pathogenicity of the Gram-negative plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) depends on a type III secretion system that translocates a cocktail of > 25 type III effector proteins into the plant cell. *In this study, we identified the effector AvrBsT as a suppressor of specific plant defense. AvrBsT belongs to the YopJ/AvrRxv protein family, members of which are predicted to act as proteases and/or acetyltransferases. *AvrBsT suppresses the hypersensitive response (HR) that is elicited by the effector protein AvrBs1 from Xcv in resistant pepper plants. HR suppression occurs inside the plant cell and depends on a conserved predicted catalytic residue of AvrBsT. Yeast two-hybrid based analyses identified plant interaction partners of AvrBs1 and AvrBsT, including a putative regulator of sugar metabolism, SNF1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1), as interactor of AvrBsT. Intriguingly, gene silencing experiments revealed that SnRK1 is required for the induction of the AvrBs1-specific HR. *We therefore speculate that SnRK1 is involved in the AvrBsT-mediated suppression of the AvrBs1-specific HR. PMID:20609114

  18. The Xanthomonas campestris Type III Effector XopJ Targets the Host Cell Proteasome to Suppress Salicylic-Acid Mediated Plant Defence

    PubMed Central

    Börnke, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) requires type III effector proteins (T3Es) for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ?xopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ?xopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ?xopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed. PMID:23785289

  19. TLR4/MyD88-induced CD11b+Gr-1 int F4/80+ non-migratory myeloid cells suppress Th2 effector function in the lung.

    PubMed

    Arora, M; Poe, S L; Oriss, T B; Krishnamoorthy, N; Yarlagadda, M; Wenzel, S E; Billiar, T R; Ray, A; Ray, P

    2010-11-01

    In humans, environmental exposure to a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protects from allergic asthma, the immunological underpinnings of which are not well understood. In mice, exposure to a high LPS dose blunted house dust mite-induced airway eosinophilia and T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine production. Although adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced allergic airway inflammation in control mice, they were unable to do so in LPS-exposed mice. LPS promoted the development of a CD11b(+)Gr1(int)F4/80(+) lung-resident cell resembling myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent manner that suppressed lung dendritic cell (DC)-mediated reactivation of primed Th2 cells. LPS effects switched from suppressive to stimulatory in MyD88(-/-) mice. Suppression of Th2 effector function was reversed by anti-interleukin-10 (IL-10) or inhibition of arginase 1. Lineage(neg) bone marrow progenitor cells could be induced by LPS to develop into CD11b(+)Gr1(int)F4/80(+)cells both in vivo and in vitro that when adoptively transferred suppressed allergen-induced airway inflammation in recipient mice. These data suggest that CD11b(+)Gr1(int)F4/80(+) cells contribute to the protective effects of LPS in allergic asthma by tempering Th2 effector function in the tissue. PMID:20664577

  20. TLR4/MyD88-Induced CD11b+Gr-1intF4/80+ Non-Migratory Myeloid Cells Suppress Th2 Effector Function in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Meenakshi; Poe, Stephanie L.; Oriss, Timothy B.; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Yarlagadda, Manohar; Wenzel, Sally E.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Ray, Anuradha; Ray, Prabir

    2010-01-01

    In humans, environmental exposure to a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protects from allergic asthma the immunological underpinnings of which are not well understood. In mice, exposure to a high LPS dose blunted house dust mite-induced airway eosinophilia and Th2 cytokine production. While adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced allergic airway inflammation in control mice, they were unable to do so in LPS-exposed mice. LPS promoted the development of a CD11b+Gr1intF4/80+ lung-resident cell resembling myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a TLR4- and MyD88-dependent fashion that suppressed lung dendritic cell (DC)-mediated reactivation of primed Th2 cells. LPS effects switched from suppressive to stimulatory in MyD88-/- mice. Suppression of Th2 effector function was reversed by anti-IL-10 or inhibition of Arginase 1. Lineageneg bone marrow progenitor cells could be induced by LPS to develop into CD11b+Gr1intF4/80+ cells both in vivo and in vitro which when adoptively transferred suppressed allergen-induced airway inflammation in recipient mice. These data suggest that CD11b+Gr1intF4/80+ cells contribute to the protective effects of LPS in allergic asthma by tempering Th2 effector function in the tissue. PMID:20664577

  1. Phenotypic analysis of apoplastic effectors from the phytopathogenic nematode, Globodera rostochiensis demonstrates that an expansin can induce and suppress host defenses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) is an important pest of potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm to successfully infect their hosts. We have identifie...

  2. [Effector proteins of Clamidia].

    PubMed

    Kariagina, A S; Alekseevski?, A V; Spirin, S A; Zigangirova, N A; Gintsburg, A L

    2009-01-01

    The review summarizes the recent published data on molecular mechanisms of Chlamidiae - host cell interaction, first of all on chlamydial effector proteins. Such proteins as well as III transport system proteins that transfer many effector proteins into host cytoplasm are attractive targets for drug therapy of chlamydial infections. The majority of the data concerns two species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. C. trachomatis protein TARP, which is presynthesized in elementary bodies, plays an essential role in the initial stages of the infection. Patogen proteins participating in the next stage, that is the intracellular inclusion traffic to the centrosome, are CT229 of C. trachomatis and Cpn0585 of C. pneumoniae, which interact with cellular Rab GTPases. In C. trachomatis, IncA protein plays a key role in chlamydial inclusions fusion, CT847 modulates life cycle of the host cell, LDA3 is essential in acquisition of nutrients. CPAF protease and inclusion membrane proteins IncG and CADD participate in suppression of apoptosis of infected cells. The proteases CPAF and CT441, as well as deubiquitinating ChlaDub1 protein, contribute to avoiding the immune response. PMID:20088373

  3. End effectors and grapple fixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersluis, Ron; Quittner, Erik

    1992-01-01

    An end effector has been developed for use with a space station remote manipulator system where capture and release capabilities are required, and which will provide for the transfer of substantial loads together with electrical power and signals across the end effector grapple fixture interface. The end effector has a latching mechanism for the transfer of substantial loads across the end effector grapple fixture interface. The functions associated with known nonlatching end effectors, namely their snaring and rigidizing capabilities, are maintained and can be operated independently of the new latching mechanisms and umbilical connectors of the end effector. The end effector is capable of functioning equally as a wrist (manipulator) and shoulder (arm base) unit. Applications of the new end effector include space station assembly, payload handling, capture of free-flyers, payload servicing, and providing stable bases for extravehicular activity work stations or robotic devices.

  4. EFFECTOR CELL BLOCKADE

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, John W.; Nossal, G. J. V.

    1974-01-01

    This study describes the effects of incubating antibody-forming cells (AFC), either as mass cell suspensions, or as single AFC in microdroplets, with antigens against which the cells display specificity. Most of the work was done with hapten-specific anti-DNP-AFC, but AFC with specificity against flagellar antigens or fowl gamma globulin (FGG) were also included. It was noted that 30-min incubation of AFC with highly multivalent forms of antigen caused a substantial partial suppression of the antibody-forming performance of the AFC as measured by a hemolytic plaque test. Thus, when cell suspensions containing anti-DNP plaque-forming cells (PFC), were incubated for 30 min at 37°C with 100 µg of DNP-polymerized flagellin (DNP-POL), the number of plaques appearing after washing of the cells and placing them in plaque-revealing erythrocyte monolayers was reduced to 50% or less compared with the number of plaques observed with control portions preincubated with medium alone. Preincubation with DNP-lysine, with oligovalent DNP-protein conjugates, or with irrelevant antigens produced no such inhibition. Studies where preinhibited PFC suspensions were mixed with control suspensions before assay showed that a nonspecific carryover of antigen into the assay system was not involved. The inhibitory effect could also be initiated by holding cells at 0°C with DNP-POL, but in that case, inhibition only became manifest after cells were incubated for 30 min at 37°C before being placed in plaque-revealing monolayers. This suggested that inhibition was initiated by adsorption of multivalent antigen onto PFC-surface Ig, but required some active process before secretion actually slowed down. The effect was dose- and time-dependent, antigen-specific, and generalized for all antigens studied. As well as yielding reduced plaque numbers, the preinhibited cells also gave smaller, more turbid plaques, suggesting a reduction in antibody-forming rate by each PFC rather than the elimination of PFC. Consistent with this suggestion was the observation that the degree of inhibition of plaque formation could be increased by decreasing the sensitivity of the assay so that only AFC secreting at high rates were detected. A micromanipulation study, where single PFC were subjected to inhibition, and were then tested for the rate at which they could cause hemolysis, showed a 68% inhibition of mean secretory rate. Micromanipulation studies were performed to test the amount of cell surface-associated Ig on control and preinhibited PFC. For this, single PFC were held with [125I]antiglobulin and quantitative radioautography was performed. No significant difference emerged, suggesting that retention of secreted Ig on cell-attached antigen was not the cause of inhibition. The results are discussed in the framework of tolerance models and blocking effects at the T-cell level by antigen-antibody complexes. The name effector cell blockade is suggested in the belief that the phenomenon may be a general one applying to both T and B cells. PMID:4133616

  5. Robotic end effector

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, R.L.

    1993-10-05

    An end effector is described for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion. 7 figures.

  6. GEF-effector interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Arf family of small GTP-binding proteins, or GTPases, are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that catalyze GDP release from their substrate Arf, allowing GTP to bind. In the secretory pathway, Arf1 is first activated by GBF1 at the cis-Golgi, then by BIG1 and BIG2 at the trans-Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN). Upon activation, Arf1-GTP interacts with effectors such as coat complexes, and is able to recruit different coat complexes to different membrane sites in cells. The COPI coat is primarily recruited to cis-Golgi membranes, whereas other coats, such as AP-1/clathrin, and GGA/clathrin, are recruited to the trans-Golgi and the TGN. Although Arf1-GTP is required for stable association of these various coats to membranes, and is sufficient in vitro, other molecules, such as vesicle cargo and coat receptors on the membrane, contribute to specificity of coat recruitment in cells. Another mechanism to achieve specificity is interaction of effectors such as coats with the GEF itself, which would increase the concentration of a given coat in proximity to the site where Arf is activated, thus favoring its recruitment. This interaction between a GEF and an effector could also provide a mechanism for spatial organization of vesicle budding sites, similar to that described for Cdc42-mediated establishment of polarity sites such as the emerging bud in yeast. Another factor affecting the amount of freely diffusible Arf1-GTP in membranes is the GEF(s) themselves acting as effectors. Sec7p, the yeast homolog of mammalian BIG1 and BIG2, and Arno/cytohesin 2, a PM-localized Arf1 GEF, both bind to Arf1-GTP. This binding to the products of the exchange reaction establishes a positive feedback loop for activation. PMID:25610717

  7. Transgenic expression of Erwinia amylovora effectors eopB1 and hopCEa in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea), the causal agent of fire blight, uses a type three secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Once inside the host cell, these effector proteins are thought to be involved with suppressing host defense responses, redirecting normal host metab...

  8. Sequential Delivery of Host-Induced Virulence Effectors by Appressoria and Intracellular Hyphae of the Phytopathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum

    PubMed Central

    Kleemann, Jochen; Neumann, Ulla; van Themaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van der Does, H. Charlotte; Hacquard, Stéphane; Stüber, Kurt; Will, Isa; Schmalenbach, Wolfgang; Schmelzer, Elmon; O'Connell, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytopathogens secrete effector proteins to manipulate their hosts for effective colonization. Hemibiotrophic fungi must maintain host viability during initial biotrophic growth and elicit host death for subsequent necrotrophic growth. To identify effectors mediating these opposing processes, we deeply sequenced the transcriptome of Colletotrichum higginsianum infecting Arabidopsis. Most effector genes are host-induced and expressed in consecutive waves associated with pathogenic transitions, indicating distinct effector suites are deployed at each stage. Using fluorescent protein tagging and transmission electron microscopy-immunogold labelling, we found effectors localised to stage-specific compartments at the host-pathogen interface. In particular, we show effectors are focally secreted from appressorial penetration pores before host invasion, revealing new levels of functional complexity for this fungal organ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that antagonistic effectors either induce or suppress plant cell death. Based on these results we conclude that hemibiotrophy in Colletotrichum is orchestrated through the coordinated expression of antagonistic effectors supporting either cell viability or cell death. PMID:22496661

  9. Two-axis angular effector

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM); Phelan, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Van Zuiden, Don M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-21

    A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

  10. Effector Glycosyltransferases in Legionella

    PubMed Central

    Belyi, Yury; Jank, Thomas; Aktories, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Legionella causes severe pneumonia in humans. The pathogen produces an array of effectors, which interfere with host cell functions. Among them are the glucosyltransferases Lgt1, Lgt2 and Lgt3 from L. pneumophila. Lgt1 and Lgt2 are produced predominately in the post-exponential phase of bacterial growth, while synthesis of Lgt3 is induced mainly in the lag-phase before intracellular replication of bacteria starts. Lgt glucosyltransferases are structurally similar to clostridial glucosylating toxins. The enzymes use UDP–glucose as a donor substrate and modify eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A at serine-53. This modification results in inhibition of protein synthesis and death of target cells.In addition to Lgts, Legionella genomes disclose several genes, coding for effector proteins likely to possess glycosyltransferase activities, including SetA (subversion of eukaryotic vesicle trafficking A), which influences vesicular trafficking in the yeast model system and displays tropism for late endosomal/lysosomal compartments of mammalian cells. This review mainly discusses recent results on the structure–function relationship of Lgt glucosyltransferases. PMID:21833323

  11. Inactivation of Effector Caspases through Nondegradative Polyubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Ditzel, Mark; Broemer, Meike; Tenev, Tencho; Bolduc, Clare; Lee, Tom V.; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T.G.; Elliott, Richard; Zvelebil, Marketa; Blagoev, Blagoy; Bergmann, Andreas; Meier, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Ubiquitin-mediated inactivation of caspases has long been postulated to contribute to the regulation of apoptosis. However, detailed mechanisms and functional consequences of caspase ubiquitylation have not been demonstrated. Here we show that the Drosophila Inhibitor of Apoptosis 1, DIAP1, blocks effector caspases by targeting them for polyubiquitylation and nonproteasomal inactivation. We demonstrate that the conjugation of ubiquitin to drICE suppresses its catalytic potential in cleaving caspase substrates. Our data suggest that ubiquitin conjugation sterically interferes with substrate entry and reduces the caspase’s proteolytic velocity. Disruption of drICE ubiquitylation, either by mutation of DIAP1’s E3 activity or drICE’s ubiquitin-acceptor lysines, abrogates DIAP1’s ability to neutralize drICE and suppress apoptosis in vivo. We also show that DIAP1 rests in an “inactive” conformation that requires caspase-mediated cleavage to subsequently ubiquitylate caspases. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that effector caspases regulate their own inhibition through a negative feedback mechanism involving DIAP1 “activation” and nondegradative polyubiquitylation. PMID:19026784

  12. Inactivation of effector caspases through nondegradative polyubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Ditzel, Mark; Broemer, Meike; Tenev, Tencho; Bolduc, Clare; Lee, Tom V; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Elliott, Richard; Zvelebil, Marketa; Blagoev, Blagoy; Bergmann, Andreas; Meier, Pascal

    2008-11-21

    Ubiquitin-mediated inactivation of caspases has long been postulated to contribute to the regulation of apoptosis. However, detailed mechanisms and functional consequences of caspase ubiquitylation have not been demonstrated. Here we show that the Drosophila Inhibitor of Apoptosis 1, DIAP1, blocks effector caspases by targeting them for polyubiquitylation and nonproteasomal inactivation. We demonstrate that the conjugation of ubiquitin to drICE suppresses its catalytic potential in cleaving caspase substrates. Our data suggest that ubiquitin conjugation sterically interferes with substrate entry and reduces the caspase's proteolytic velocity. Disruption of drICE ubiquitylation, either by mutation of DIAP1's E3 activity or drICE's ubiquitin-acceptor lysines, abrogates DIAP1's ability to neutralize drICE and suppress apoptosis in vivo. We also show that DIAP1 rests in an "inactive" conformation that requires caspase-mediated cleavage to subsequently ubiquitylate caspases. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that effector caspases regulate their own inhibition through a negative feedback mechanism involving DIAP1 "activation" and nondegradative polyubiquitylation. PMID:19026784

  13. TGF-? Enhances Effector Th1 Cell Activation but Promotes Self-Regulation via IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Huss, David J.; Winger, Ryan C.; Peng, Haiyan; Yang, Yuhong; Racke, Michael K.; Lovett-Racke, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Myelin-specific effector Th1 cells are able to perpetuate CNS inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model representative of multiple sclerosis. Although the effects of cytokines in the CNS microenvironment on naive CD4+ T cells have been well described, much less is known about their ability to influence Ag-experienced effector cells. TGF-? is a multifunctioning cytokine present in the healthy and inflamed CNS with well-characterized suppressive effects on naive T cell functions. However, the effects of TGF-? on effector Th1 cells are not well defined. Using myelin-specific TCR transgenic mice, we demonstrate that TGF-? elicits differential effects on naive versus effector Th1 cells. TGF-? enhances cellular activation, proliferation, and cytokine production of effector Th1 cells; however, adoptive transfer of these cells into naive mice showed a reduction in encephalitogenicity. We subsequently demonstrate that the reduced encephalitogenic capacity is due to the ability of TGF-? to promote the self-regulation of Th1 effector cells via IL-10 production. These data demonstrate a mechanism by which TGF-? is able to suppress the encephalitogenicity of myelin-specific Th1 effector cells that is unique from its suppression of naive T cells. PMID:20393141

  14. RAR1, a Central Player in Plant Immunity, is Targeted by Pseudomonas syringae Effector AvrB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic bacterial effectors suppress Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)-triggered host immunity, thereby promoting parasitism. In the presence of cognate resistance genes, it is proposed that plants detect the virulence activity of bacterial effectors and trigger a defense response, ref...

  15. Distinct Pseudomonas type-III effectors use a cleavable transit peptide to target chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyong; Froehlich, John E; Elowsky, Christian; Msanne, Joseph; Ostosh, Andrew C; Zhang, Chi; Awada, Tala; Alfano, James R

    2014-01-01

    The pathogen Pseudomonas syringae requires a type-III protein secretion system and the effector proteins it injects into plant cells for pathogenesis. The primary role for P. syringae type-III effectors is the suppression of plant immunity. The P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopK1 type-III effector was known to suppress the hypersensitive response (HR), a programmed cell death response associated with effector-triggered immunity. Here we show that DC3000 hopK1 mutants are reduced in their ability to grow in Arabidopsis, and produce reduced disease symptoms. Arabidopsis transgenically expressing HopK1 are reduced in PAMP-triggered immune responses compared with wild-type plants. An N-terminal region of HopK1 shares similarity with the corresponding region in the well-studied type-III effector AvrRps4; however, their C-terminal regions are dissimilar, indicating that they have different effector activities. HopK1 is processed in planta at the same processing site found in AvrRps4. The processed forms of HopK1 and AvrRps4 are chloroplast localized, indicating that the shared N-terminal regions of these type-III effectors represent a chloroplast transit peptide. The HopK1 contribution to virulence and the ability of HopK1 and AvrRps4 to suppress immunity required their respective transit peptides, but the AvrRps4-induced HR did not. Our results suggest that a primary virulence target of these type-III effectors resides in chloroplasts, and that the recognition of AvrRps4 by the plant immune system occurs elsewhere. Moreover, our results reveal that distinct type-III effectors use a cleavable transit peptide to localize to chloroplasts, and that targets within this organelle are important for immunity. PMID:24299018

  16. Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Effector Cells Selectively Lyse Human Melanoma Cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Gregor; Bumol, Thomas F.; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1983-09-01

    Monoclonal antibody 9.2.27 (mAb 9.2.27) directed to a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan on human melanoma cells was able to suppress tumor growth in athymic (nu/nu) mice more effectively when bound with polyethylene glycol to murine effector cells than when injected alone. These ``armed'' effector cells also proved more effective than the monoclonal antibody in eliciting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against human melanoma target cells in vitro.

  17. TAL effector-DNA specificity.

    PubMed

    Scholze, Heidi; Boch, Jens

    2010-01-01

    TAL effectors are important virulence factors of bacterial plant pathogenic Xanthomonas, which infect a wide variety of plants including valuable crops like pepper, rice, and citrus. TAL proteins are translocated via the bacterial type III secretion system into host cells and induce transcription of plant genes by binding to target gene promoters. Members of the TAL effector family differ mainly in their central domain of tandemly arranged repeats of typically 34 amino acids each with hypervariable di-amino acids at positions 12 and 13. We recently showed that target DNA-recognition specificity of TAL effectors is encoded in a modular and clearly predictable mode. The repeats of TAL effectors feature a surprising one repeat-to-one-bp correlation with different repeat types exhibiting a different DNA base pair specificity. Accordingly, we predicted DNA specificities of TAL effectors and generated artificial TAL proteins with novel DNA recognition specificities. We describe here novel artificial TALs and discuss implications for the DNA recognition specificity. The unique TAL-DNA binding domain allows design of proteins with potentially any given DNA recognition specificity enabling many uses for biotechnology. PMID:21178484

  18. RNAi Effector Diversity in Nematodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnathan J. Dalzell; Paul McVeigh; Neil D. Warnock; Makedonka Mitreva; David Mc K. Bird; Pierre Abad; Colin C. Fleming; Tim A. Day; Angela Mousley; Nikki J. Marks; Aaron G. Maule

    2011-01-01

    While RNA interference (RNAi) has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were

  19. Improving a Gripper End Effector

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O Dennis; Smith, Christopher M.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2001-01-31

    This paper discusses the improvement made to an existing four-bar linkage gripping end effector to adapt it for use in a current project. The actuating linkage was modified to yield higher jaw force overall and particularly in the critical range of jaw displacement

  20. SOBER1 phospholipase activity suppresses phosphatidic acid accumulation and plant immunity

    E-print Network

    Mudgettt, Mary Beth

    defense cascades, often referred to as effector-triggered immunity (ETI) (6). To suppress plant immunity are consistent with the model that SOBER1 PLA2 activity suppresses PLD-dependent production of PA in response

  1. Translocation and functional analysis of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 type III secretion system effectors reveals two novel effector families of the Pseudomonas syringae complex.

    PubMed

    Matas, Isabel M; Castañeda-Ojeda, M Pilar; Aragón, Isabel M; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Murillo, Jesús; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Ramos, Cayo

    2014-05-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 causes olive knot disease and is a model pathogen for exploring bacterial infection of woody hosts. The type III secretion system (T3SS) effector repertoire of this strain includes 31 effector candidates plus two novel candidates identified in this study which have not been reported to translocate into plant cells. In this work, we demonstrate the delivery of seven NCPPB 3335 effectors into Nicotiana tabacum leaves, including three proteins from two novel families of the P. syringae complex effector super-repertoire (HopBK and HopBL), one of which comprises two proteins (HopBL1 and HopBL2) that harbor a SUMO protease domain. When delivered by P. fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS, all seven effectors were found to suppress the production of defense-associated reactive oxygen species. Moreover, six of these effectors, including the truncated versions of HopAA1 and HopAZ1 encoded by NCPPB 3335, suppressed callose deposition. The expression of HopAZ1 and HopBL1 by functionally effectorless P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000D28E inhibited the hypersensitive response in tobacco and, additionally, expression of HopBL2 by this strain significantly increased its competitiveness in N. benthamiana. DNA sequences encoding HopBL1 and HopBL2 were uniquely detected in a collection of 31 P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains and other P. syringae strains isolated from woody hosts, suggesting a relevant role of these two effectors in bacterial interactions with olive and other woody plants. PMID:24329173

  2. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  3. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  4. Novel Type III Effectors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, David; Satanower, Shirley; Simovitch, Michal; Belnik, Yana; Zehavi, Meital; Yerushalmi, Gal; Ben-Aroya, Shay

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic and acute infections in immunocompromised patients. Most P. aeruginosa strains encode an active type III secretion system (T3SS), utilized by the bacteria to deliver effector proteins from the bacterial cell directly into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Four T3SS effectors have been discovered and extensively studied in P. aeruginosa: ExoT, ExoS, ExoU, and ExoY. This is especially intriguing in light of P. aeruginosa’s ability to infect a wide range of hosts. We therefore hypothesized that additional T3SS effectors that have not yet been discovered are encoded in the genome of P. aeruginosa. Here, we applied a machine learning classification algorithm to identify novel P. aeruginosa effectors. In this approach, various types of data are integrated to differentiate effectors from the rest of the open reading frames of the bacterial genome. Due to the lack of a sufficient learning set of positive effectors, our machine learning algorithm integrated genomic information from another Pseudomonas species and utilized dozens of features accounting for various aspects of the effector coding genes and their products. Twelve top-ranking predictions were experimentally tested for T3SS-specific translocation, leading to the discovery of two novel T3SS effectors. We demonstrate that these effectors are not part of the injection structural complex and report initial efforts toward their characterization. PMID:25784698

  5. The role of effectors in nonhost resistance to filamentous plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Remco; Mantelin, Sophie; McLellan, Hazel; Thilliez, Gaëtan

    2014-01-01

    In nature, most plants are resistant to a wide range of phytopathogens. However, mechanisms contributing to this so-called nonhost resistance (NHR) are poorly understood. Besides constitutive defenses, plants have developed two layers of inducible defense systems. Plant innate immunity relies on recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In compatible interactions, pathogenicity effector molecules secreted by the invader can suppress host defense responses and facilitate the infection process. Additionally, plants have evolved pathogen-specific resistance mechanisms based on recognition of these effectors, which causes secondary defense responses. The current effector-driven hypothesis is that NHR in plants that are distantly related to the host plant is triggered by PAMP recognition that cannot be efficiently suppressed by the pathogen, whereas in more closely related species, nonhost recognition of effectors would play a crucial role. In this review we give an overview of current knowledge of the role of effector molecules in host and NHR and place these findings in the context of the model. We focus on examples from filamentous pathogens (fungi and oomycetes), discuss their implications for the field of plant-pathogen interactions and relevance in plant breeding strategies for development of durable resistance in crops. PMID:25426123

  6. Distinct Functions of Autoreactive Memory and Effector CD4+ T Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Elyaman, Wassim; Kivisäkk, Pia; Reddy, Jay; Chitnis, Tanuja; Raddassi, Khadir; Imitola, Jaime; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Yagita, Hideo; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Khoury, Samia J.

    2008-01-01

    The persistence of human autoimmune diseases is thought to be mediated predominantly by memory T cells. We investigated the phenotype and migration of memory versus effector T cells in vivo in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found that memory CD4+ T cells up-regulated the activation marker CD44 as well as CXCR3 and ICOS, proliferated more and produced more interferon-? and less interleukin-17 compared to effector T cells. Moreover, adoptive transfer of memory T cells into T cell receptor (TCR)???/? recipients induced more severe disease than did effector CD4+ T cells with marked central nervous system inflammation and axonal damage. The uniqueness of disease mediated by memory T cells was confirmed by the differential susceptibility to immunomodulatory therapies in vivo. CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory signal blockade by CTLA4Ig suppressed effector cell-mediated EAE but had minimal effects on disease induced by memory cells. In contrast, ICOS-B7h blockade exacerbated effector T cell-induced EAE but protected from disease induced by memory T cells. However, blockade of the OX40 (CD134) costimulatory pathway ameliorated disease mediated by both memory and effector T cells. Our data extend the understanding of the pathogenicity of autoreactive memory T cells and have important implications for the development of novel therapies for human autoimmune diseases. PMID:18583313

  7. IAPs are functionally non-equivalent and regulate effector caspases through distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tenev, Tencho; Zachariou, Anna; Wilson, Rebecca; Ditzel, Mark; Meier, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Some members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family suppress apoptosis by neutralizing caspases. The current model suggests that all caspase-regulatory IAPs function as direct enzyme inhibitors, blocking effector caspases by binding to their catalytically active pockets. Here we show that IAPs are functionally non-equivalent and regulate effector caspases through distinct mechanisms. Whereas XIAP binds directly to the active-site pockets of effector caspases, we find that regulation of effector caspases by Drosophila IAP1 (DIAP1) requires an evolutionarily conserved IAP-binding motif (IBM) at the neo-amino terminus of the large caspase subunit. Remarkably, unlike XIAP, DIAP1-sequestered effector caspases remain catalytically active, suggesting that DIAP1 does not function as a bona fide enzyme inhibitor. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mammalian IAP c-IAP1 interacts with caspase-7 in an exclusively IBM-dependent, but active site pocket-independent, manner that is mechanistically similar to DIAP1. The importance of IBM-mediated regulation of effector-caspases in vivo is substantiated by the enhanced apoptotic potency of IBM-mutant versions of drICE, DCP-1 and caspase-7. PMID:15580265

  8. A bacterial type III secretion-based delivery system for functional assays of fungal effectors in cereals.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Ellis, Jeffery G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of candidate effectors are being identified by genome sequencing of fungal pathogens and in planta expression studies. These effectors are both a boon and a curse for pathogens as they modulate the host cellular environment or suppress defense response to allow fungal growth as well as become targets of plant resistance (R) proteins. Recognition of a fungal effector by a plant R protein triggers a hypersensitive reaction (HR) leading to death of plant cells in and around the infection site, thus preventing further proliferation of the pathogen. Such HR induction has been used as an indicator of effector activity in functional assays of candidate effectors in dicots based on Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. However, the Agrobacterium assay is not functional in cereal leaves. We therefore have adapted an alternative assay based on effector protein delivery using the type III secretion system (T3SS) of a non-pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. for use in wheat and other cereals. Here, we describe protocols for delivery of effector proteins into wheat and barley cells using the AvrRpm1 T3SS signal in the engineered non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Effector-to-Host Analyzer (EtHAn). For ease of making expression clones we have generated the GATEWAY cloning compatible vectors. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (Cya) reporter protein can be used as an effective marker for fusion protein delivery into wheat and barley by this system. PMID:24643568

  9. Plant targets for Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors: Virulence targets or guarded decoys?

    PubMed Central

    Block, Anna; Alfano, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae can suppress both pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) by the injection of type III effector (T3E) proteins into host cells. T3Es achieve immune suppression using a variety of strategies including interference with immune receptor signaling, blocking RNA pathways and vesicle trafficking, and altering organelle function. T3Es can be recognized directly or indirectly by resistance proteins monitoring specific T3E targets resulting in ETI. It is presently unclear whether the monitored targets represent bona fide virulence targets or guarded decoys. Extensive overlap between PTI and ETI signaling suggests that T3Es may suppress both pathways through common targets and by possessing multiple activities. PMID:21227738

  10. Distinct Sets of Rab6 Effectors Contribute to ZW10- and COG-Dependent Golgi Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Waqar; Liu, Shijie; Storrie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the Golgi apparatus is determined in part by the interaction of Rab proteins and their diverse array of effectors. Here, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize a small subset of effectors that mimicked the effects of Rab6 on Golgi ribbon organization. In a visual-based, candidate-protein screen, we found that the individual depletion of any of three Rab6 effectors, myosin IIA (MyoIIA), Kif20A, and Bicaudal D (BicD), was sufficient to suppress Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal coupled to retrograde tether proteins in a manner paralleling Rab6. MyoIIA and Kif20A depletion were pathway selective and suppressed ZW10-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal only while BicD depletion, like Rab6, suppressed both ZW10- and COG-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation. The MyoIIA effects could be produced in short term assays by the reversible myosin inhibitor, blebbistatin. At the electron microscope level, the effects of BicD-depletion mimicked many of those of Rab6-depletion: longer and more continuous Golgi cisternae and a pronounced accumulation of coated vesicles. Functionally, BicD-depleted cells were inhibited in transport of newly synthesized VSV-G protein to the cell surface. In sum, our results indicate small, partially overlapping subsets of Rab6 effectors are differentially important to two tether-dependent pathways essential to Golgi organization and function. PMID:24575842

  11. Distinct sets of Rab6 effectors contribute to ZW10--and COG-dependent Golgi homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Waqar; Liu, Shijie; Storrie, Brian

    2014-06-01

    The organization of the Golgi apparatus is determined in part by the interaction of Rab proteins and their diverse array of effectors. Here, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize a small subset of effectors that mimicked the effects of Rab6 on Golgi ribbon organization. In a visual-based, candidate protein screen, we found that the individual depletion of any of three Rab6 effectors, myosin IIA (MyoIIA), Kif20A and Bicaudal D (BicD), was sufficient to suppress Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal coupled to retrograde tether proteins in a manner paralleling Rab6. MyoIIA and Kif20A depletions were pathway selective and suppressed ZW10-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation/dispersal only whereas BicD depletion, like Rab6, suppressed both ZW10- and COG-dependent Golgi ribbon fragmentation. The MyoIIA effects could be produced in short-term assays by the reversible myosin inhibitor, blebbistatin. At the electron microscope level, the effects of BicD-depletion mimicked many of those of Rab6-depletion: longer and more continuous Golgi cisternae and a pronounced accumulation of coated vesicles. Functionally, BicD-depleted cells were inhibited in transport of newly synthesized VSV-G protein to the cell surface. In summary, our results indicate small, partially overlapping subsets of Rab6 effectors are differentially important to two tether-dependent pathways essential to Golgi organization and function. PMID:24575842

  12. Orbital maneuvering vehicle end effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An end effector device (A) for grasping and holding an article such as a handle (18) of a space telescope is disclosed. The device includes a V-shaped capture window (74) defined as inclined surfaces (76, 78) in parallel face plates (22, 24) which converge toward a retainer recess (54) in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers (26, 28) which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess (54) where latches (50) lock handle (18) in the recess. To align the capture window, plates (22, 24) may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base (64).

  13. Deciphering and Reversing Tumor Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Motz, Greg T.; Coukos, George

    2013-01-01

    Generating an anti-tumor immune response is a multi-step process that is executed by effector T cells that can recognize and kill tumor targets. However, tumors employ multiple strategies to attenuate the effectiveness of T cell-mediated attack. This is achieved by interfering with nearly every step required for effective immunity, from deregulation of antigen-presenting cells, to establishment of a physical barrier at the vasculature that prevents homing of effector tumor-rejecting cells, and through the suppression of effector lymphocytes through the recruitment and activation of immunosuppressive cells like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tolerogenic monocytes and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we review the ways in which tumors exert immune suppression and highlight the new therapies that seek to reverse this phenomenon and promote anti-tumor immunity. Understanding anti-tumor immunity, and how it becomes disabled by tumors, will ultimately lead to improved immune therapies and prolonged survival of patients. PMID:23890064

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control. PMID:25840680

  15. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of the contract, the focus remains on the RTIEE.

  16. Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2 is a conserved RxLR effector that promotes infection in soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-12-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts. PMID:25387135

  17. Advances in experimental methods for the elucidation of Pseudomonas syringae effector function with a focus on AvrPtoB

    PubMed Central

    Munkvold, Kathy R.; Martin, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pseudomonas syringae infects a wide range of plant species through the use of a type III secretion system. The effector proteins injected into the plant cell through this molecular syringe serve as promoters of disease by subverting the plant immune response to the benefit of the bacteria in the intercellular space. The targets and activities of a subset of effectors have been elucidated recently. In this article, we focus on the experimental approaches that have proved most successful in probing the molecular basis of effectors, ranging from loss-of-function to gain-of-function analyses utilizing several techniques for effector delivery into plants. In particular, we highlight how these diverse approaches have been applied to the study of one effector—AvrPtoB—a multifunctional protein with the ability to suppress both effector-triggered immunity and pathogen (or microbe)-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity. Taken together, advances in this field illustrate the need for multiple experimental approaches when elucidating the function of a single effector. PMID:19849784

  18. Advances in experimental methods for the elucidation of Pseudomonas syringae effector function with a focus on AvrPtoB.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, Kathy R; Martin, Gregory B

    2009-11-01

    Pseudomonas syringae infects a wide range of plant species through the use of a type III secretion system. The effector proteins injected into the plant cell through this molecular syringe serve as promoters of disease by subverting the plant immune response to the benefit of the bacteria in the intercellular space. The targets and activities of a subset of effectors have been elucidated recently. In this article, we focus on the experimental approaches that have proved most successful in probing the molecular basis of effectors, ranging from loss-of-function to gain-of-function analyses utilizing several techniques for effector delivery into plants. In particular, we highlight how these diverse approaches have been applied to the study of one effector--AvrPtoB--a multifunctional protein with the ability to suppress both effector-triggered immunity and pathogen (or microbe)-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity. Taken together, advances in this field illustrate the need for multiple experimental approaches when elucidating the function of a single effector. PMID:19849784

  19. Targeting of plant pattern recognition receptor-triggered immunity by bacterial type-III secretion system effectors.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    During infection, microbes are detected by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to an innate immune response that prevents microbial ingress. Therefore, successful pathogens must evade or inhibit PRR-triggered immunity to cause disease. In the past decade, a number of type-III secretion system effector (T3Es) proteins from plant pathogenic bacteria have been shown to suppress this layer of innate immunity. More recently, the detailed mechanisms of action have been defined for several of these effectors. Interestingly, effectors display a wide array of virulence targets, being able to prevent activation of immune receptors and to hijack immune signaling pathways. Besides being a fascinating example of pathogen-host co-evolution, effectors have also emerged as valuable tools to dissect important biological processes in host cells. PMID:25461568

  20. A TAL Effector Toolbox for Genome Engineering

    E-print Network

    Sanjana, Neville E.

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas sp. The DNA-binding domain of each TALE consists of tandem 34–amino acid repeat ...

  1. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silcox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  2. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  3. Candidate effector gene identification in the ascomycete fungal phytopathogen Venturia inaequalis by expressed sequence tag analysis.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Joanna K; Mesarich, Carl H; Rees-George, Jonathan; Cui, Wei; Fitzgerald, Anna; Win, Joe; Plummer, Kim M; Templeton, Matthew D

    2009-05-01

    The hemi-biotrophic fungus Venturia inaequalis infects members of the Maloideae, causing the economically important apple disease, scab. The plant-pathogen interaction of Malus and V. inaequalis follows the gene-for-gene model. cDNA libraries were constructed, and bioinformatic analysis of the resulting expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was used to characterize potential effector genes. Effectors are small proteins, secreted in planta, that are assumed to facilitate infection. Therefore, a cDNA library was constructed from a compatible interaction. To distinguish pathogen from plant sequences, the library was probed with genomic DNA from V. inaequalis to enrich for pathogen genes, and cDNA libraries were constructed from in vitro-grown material. A suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for cellophane-induced genes was included, as growth on cellophane may mimic that in planta, with the differentiation of structures resembling those formed during plant colonization. Clustering of ESTs from the in planta and in vitro libraries indicated a fungal origin of the resulting non-redundant sequence. A total of 937 ESTs was classified as putatively fungal, which could be assembled into 633 non-redundant sequences. Sixteen new candidate effector genes were identified from V. inaequalis based on features common to characterized effector genes from filamentous fungi, i.e. they encode a small, novel, cysteine-rich protein, with a putative signal peptide. Three of the 16 candidates, in particular, conformed to most of the protein structural characteristics expected of fungal effectors and showed significant levels of transcriptional up-regulation during in planta growth. In addition to candidate effector genes, this collection of ESTs represents a valuable genomic resource for V. inaequalis. PMID:19400844

  4. Rho GTPases and their effector proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, A L; Hall, A

    2000-01-01

    Rho GTPases are molecular switches that regulate many essential cellular processes, including actin dynamics, gene transcription, cell-cycle progression and cell adhesion. About 30 potential effector proteins have been identified that interact with members of the Rho family, but it is still unclear which of these are responsible for the diverse biological effects of Rho GTPases. This review will discuss how Rho GTPases physically interact with, and regulate the activity of, multiple effector proteins and how specific effector proteins contribute to cellular responses. To date most progress has been made in the cytoskeleton field, and several biochemical links have now been established between GTPases and the assembly of filamentous actin. The main focus of this review will be Rho, Rac and Cdc42, the three best characterized mammalian Rho GTPases, though the genetic analysis of Rho GTPases in lower eukaryotes is making increasingly important contributions to this field. PMID:10816416

  5. TAL effectors: tools for DNA Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Jankele, Radek

    2014-01-01

    Xanthomonas phytopathogenic bacteria produce unique transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins that recognize and activate specific plant promoters through a set of tandem repeats. A unique TALE-DNA-binding code uses two polymorphic amino acids in each repeat to mediate recognition of specific nucleotides. The order of repeats determines effector’s specificity toward the cognate nucleotide sequence of the sense DNA strand. Artificially designed TALE-DNA-binding domains fused to nuclease or activation and repressor domains provide an outstanding toolbox for targeted gene editing and gene regulation in research, biotechnology and gene therapy. Gene editing with custom-designed TALE nucleases (TALENs) extends the repertoire of targeted genome modifications across a broad spectrum of organisms ranging from plants and insect to mammals. PMID:24907364

  6. Cellular senescence and its effector programs

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Rafik; Sadaie, Mahito; Hoare, Matthew; Narita, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response that accompanies stable exit from the cell cycle. Classically, senescence, particularly in human cells, involves the p53 and p16/Rb pathways, and often both of these tumor suppressor pathways need to be abrogated to bypass senescence. In parallel, a number of effector mechanisms of senescence have been identified and characterized. These studies suggest that senescence is a collective phenotype of these multiple effectors, and their intensity and combination can be different depending on triggers and cell types, conferring a complex and diverse nature to senescence. Series of studies on senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in particular have revealed various layers of functionality of senescent cells in vivo. Here we discuss some key features of senescence effectors and attempt to functionally link them when it is possible. PMID:24449267

  7. Gene Duplication and Fragment Recombination Drive Functional Diversification of a Superfamily of Cytoplasmic Effectors in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Ye, Wenwu; Liu, Li; Liu, Peihan; Wu, Yuren; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora and other oomycetes secrete a large number of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling and necrosis inducing proteins (CRN), or Crinkler. Here, we first investigated the evolutionary patterns and mechanisms of CRN effectors in Phytophthora sojae and compared them to two other Phytophthora species. The genes encoding CRN effectors could be divided into 45 orthologous gene groups (OGG), and most OGGs unequally distributed in the three species, in which each underwent large number of gene gains or losses, indicating that the CRN genes expanded after species evolution in Phytophthora and evolved through pathoadaptation. The 134 expanded genes in P. sojae encoded family proteins including 82 functional genes and expressed at higher levels while the other 68 genes encoding orphan proteins were less expressed and contained 50 pseudogenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that most expanded genes underwent gene duplication or/and fragment recombination. Three different mechanisms that drove gene duplication or recombination were identified. Finally, the expanded CRN effectors exhibited varying pathogenic functions, including induction of programmed cell death (PCD) and suppression of PCD through PAMP-triggered immunity or/and effector-triggered immunity. Overall, these results suggest that gene duplication and fragment recombination may be two mechanisms that drive the expansion and neofunctionalization of the CRN family in P. sojae, which aids in understanding the roles of CRN effectors within each oomycete pathogen. PMID:23922898

  8. A Family of Bacterial Cysteine Protease Type III Effectors Utilizes Acylation-dependent and -independent Strategies to Localize to Plasma Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Dowen, Robert H.; Engel, James L.; Shao, Feng; Ecker, Joseph R.; Dixon, Jack E.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial phytopathogens employ a type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into the plant cell to suppress defense pathways; however, the molecular mechanisms and subcellular localization strategies that drive effector function largely remain a mystery. Here, we demonstrate that the plant plasma membrane is the primary site for subcellular localization of the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrPphB and five additional cysteine protease family members. AvrPphB and two AvrPphB-like effectors, ORF4 and NopT, autoproteolytically process following delivery into the plant cell to expose embedded sites for fatty acylation. Host-dependent lipidation of these three effectors directs plasma membrane localization and is required for the avirulence activity of AvrPphB. Surprisingly, the AvrPphB-like effectors RipT, HopC1, and HopN1 utilize an acylation-independent mechanism to localize to the cellular plasma membrane. Although some AvrPphB-like effectors employ acylation-independent localization strategies, others hijack the eukaryotic lipidation machinery to ensure plasma membrane localization, illustrating the diverse tactics employed by type III effectors to target specific subcellular compartments. PMID:19346252

  9. EZH2 is crucial for both differentiation of regulatory T cells and T effector cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiang-Ping; Jiang, Kan; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Vahedi, Golnaz; Afzali, Behdad; Sciume, Giuseppe; Bonelli, Michael; Sun, Hong-Wei; Jankovic, Dragana; Kanno, Yuka; Sartorelli, Vittorio; O’Shea, John J.; Laurence, Arian

    2015-01-01

    The roles of EZH2 in various subsets of CD4+ T cells are controversial and its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. FOXP3-positive Treg cells are a critical helper T cell subset, and dysregulation of Treg generation or function results in systemic autoimmunity. FOXP3 associates with EZH2 to mediate gene repression and suppressive function. Herein, we demonstrate that deletion of Ezh2 in CD4 T cells resulted in reduced numbers of Treg cells in vivo and differentiation in vitro and an increased proportion of memory CD4 T cells in part due to exaggerated production of effector cytokines. Furthermore, we found that both Ezh2-deficient Treg cells and T effector cells were functionally impaired in vivo: Tregs failed to constrain autoimmune colitis and T effector cells neither provided a protective response to T. gondii infection nor mediated autoimmune colitis. The dichotomous function of EZH2 in regulating differentiation and senescence in effector and regulatory T cells helps to explain the apparent existing contradictions in literature. PMID:26090605

  10. EZH2 is crucial for both differentiation of regulatory T cells and T effector cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Ping; Jiang, Kan; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Vahedi, Golnaz; Afzali, Behdad; Sciume, Giuseppe; Bonelli, Michael; Sun, Hong-Wei; Jankovic, Dragana; Kanno, Yuka; Sartorelli, Vittorio; O'Shea, John J; Laurence, Arian

    2015-01-01

    The roles of EZH2 in various subsets of CD4(+) T cells are controversial and its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. FOXP3-positive Treg cells are a critical helper T cell subset, and dysregulation of Treg generation or function results in systemic autoimmunity. FOXP3 associates with EZH2 to mediate gene repression and suppressive function. Herein, we demonstrate that deletion of Ezh2 in CD4 T cells resulted in reduced numbers of Treg cells in vivo and differentiation in vitro and an increased proportion of memory CD4 T cells in part due to exaggerated production of effector cytokines. Furthermore, we found that both Ezh2-deficient Treg cells and T effector cells were functionally impaired in vivo: Tregs failed to constrain autoimmune colitis and T effector cells neither provided a protective response to T. gondii infection nor mediated autoimmune colitis. The dichotomous function of EZH2 in regulating differentiation and senescence in effector and regulatory T cells helps to explain the apparent existing contradictions in literature. PMID:26090605

  11. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  12. Identification of novel Coxiella burnetii Icm/Dot effectors and genetic analysis of their involvement in modulating a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Ziv; Burstein, David; Schwartz, Kierstyn; Shuman, Howard A; Pupko, Tal; Segal, Gil

    2014-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a human intracellular pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host cells. To identify novel C. burnetii effectors, we applied a machine-learning approach to predict C. burnetii effectors, and examination of 20 such proteins resulted in the identification of 13 novel effectors. To determine whether these effectors, as well as several previously identified effectors, modulate conserved eukaryotic pathways, they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects on yeast growth were examined under regular growth conditions and in the presence of caffeine, a known modulator of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. In the presence of caffeine, expression of the effectors CBU0885 and CBU1676 caused an enhanced inhibition of yeast growth, and the growth inhibition of CBU0388 was suppressed. Furthermore, analysis of synthetic lethality effects and examination of the activity of the CWI MAP kinase transcription factor Rlm1 indicated that CBU0388 enhances the activation of this MAP kinase pathway in yeast, while CBU0885 and CBU1676 abolish this activation. Additionally, coexpression of CBU1676 and CBU0388 resulted in mutual suppression of their inhibition of yeast growth. These results strongly indicate that these three effectors modulate the CWI MAP kinase pathway in yeast. Moreover, both CBU1676 and CBU0885 were found to contain a conserved haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) domain, which was found to be required for their activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that MAP kinase pathways are most likely targeted by C. burnetii Icm/Dot effectors. PMID:24958706

  13. Lymphokine regulation of macrophage effector activities.

    PubMed

    Nacy, C A; Belosevic, M; Crawford, R M; Healy, A T; Schreiber, R D; Meltzer, M S

    1988-01-01

    Our concept of the regulation of macrophage activation is ever expanding and contracting. In regard to the number of LK that regulate macrophages killing activities, we have entered a new phase. In the beginning there was one macrophage activation factor, MIF; then there were many macrophage activation factors, most uncharacterized and bearing a variety of names. Then came IFN, a genetically cloned single reagent that induced destruction of virtually every target assessed; all activities of macrophages were assumed to be regulated by IFN. Once again, however, the LK universe is expanding: the number of single, cloned reagents that induce macrophage killing activities is amazing. With just two targets, a fibrosarcoma cell and an intracellular amastigote of L. major, we can identify 5 different macrophage activation factors, four of which are cloned and sequenced. As more recombinant reagents become available, the story of macrophage activation is likely to become even more complex. It is fascinating not only that certain of the LK are capable of inducing single effector reactions in the absence of effects on other effector activities, but also that at least one effector reaction requires the cooperation of several molecularly distinct LK. The complexity of LK activation factors that regulate a single effector reaction in vitro is compounded by the complexity in effector cell populations. For example, inflammatory macrophages exposed to LK kill the fibrosarcoma tumor target 5 to 10-fold better than an equal number of resident peritoneal macrophages. In contrast, LK treated resident macrophages eliminate intracellular amastigotes of leishmania far more efficiently than inflammatory cells. Thus, changes in cell populations dramatically affect the capacity to demonstrate a single effector reaction. Further, simple changes in assay conditions also determine whether an effector reaction can be observed in vitro. And superimposed upon all these layers of complexity is the target itself. The mechanisms a macrophages uses to block the replication of a virus may be totally ineffective in the destruction of a multicellular helminth, such as Schistosoma mansoni. And there is no reason to suspect that the extracellular destruction of a tumor target occurs by the same means that the macrophage uses to kill an intracytoplasmic bacterium, such as a rickettsia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3059762

  14. Computational and Biochemical Analysis of the Xanthomonas Effector AvrBs2 and Its Role in the Modulation of Xanthomonas Type Three Effector Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bingyu; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Krasileva, Ksenia V.; Fong, Richard W.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Effectors of the bacterial type III secretion system provide invaluable molecular probes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of plant immunity and pathogen virulence. In this report, we focus on the AvrBs2 effector protein from the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe), the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper. Employing homology-based structural analysis, we generate a three-dimensional structural model for the AvrBs2 protein and identify catalytic sites in its putative glycerolphosphodiesterase domain (GDE). We demonstrate that the identified catalytic region of AvrBs2 was able to functionally replace the GDE catalytic site of the bacterial glycerophosphodiesterase BhGlpQ cloned from Borrelia hermsii and is required for AvrBs2 virulence. Mutations in the GDE catalytic domain did not disrupt the recognition of AvrBs2 by the cognate plant resistance gene Bs2. In addition, AvrBs2 activation of Bs2 suppressed subsequent delivery of other Xanthomonas type III effectors into the host plant cells. Investigation of the mechanism underlying this modulation of the type III secretion system may offer new strategies to generate broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial pathogens. PMID:22144898

  15. Perivascular leukocyte clusters are essential for efficient activation of effector T cells in the skin.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Yohei; Egawa, Gyohei; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Ono, Sachiko; Hanakawa, Sho; Okada, Takaharu; Kusuba, Nobuhiro; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kitoh, Akihiko; Honda, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Saeko; Tsuchiya, Soken; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Ishii, Ken J; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Yagita, Hideo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Kubo, Masato; Ng, Lai guan; Hashimoto, Takashi; Fuentes, Judilyn; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    It remains largely unclear how antigen-presenting cells (APCs) encounter effector or memory T cells efficiently in the periphery. Here we used a mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model to show that upon epicutaneous antigen challenge, dendritic cells (DCs) formed clusters with effector T cells in dermal perivascular areas to promote in situ proliferation and activation of skin T cells in a manner dependent on antigen and the integrin LFA-1. We found that DCs accumulated in perivascular areas and that DC clustering was abrogated by depletion of macrophages. Treatment with interleukin 1? (IL-1?) induced production of the chemokine CXCL2 by dermal macrophages, and DC clustering was suppressed by blockade of either the receptor for IL-1 (IL-1R) or the receptor for CXCL2 (CXCR2). Our findings suggest that the dermal leukocyte cluster is an essential structure for elicitating acquired cutaneous immunity. PMID:25240383

  16. A central role for Notch in effector CD8+ T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Ronald A.; Helbig, Christina; Gentek, Rebecca; Kent, Andrew; Laidlaw, Brian J.; Dominguez, Claudia X.; de Souza, Yevan S.; van Trierum, Stella E.; van Beek, Ruud; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; ten Brinke, Anja; Willemsen, A. Marcel; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Kaech, Susan M.; Blander, J. Magarian; van Gisbergen, Klaas; Amsen, Derk

    2014-01-01

    Activated CD8+ T cells choose between terminal effector cell (TEC) or memory precursor cell (MPC) fates. We show that Notch controls this choice. Notch promoted differentiation of immediately protective TECs and was correspondingly required for clearance of an acute influenza virus infection. Notch activated a major portion of the TEC-specific gene expression program and suppressed the MPC-specific program. Expression of Notch receptors was induced on naïve CD8+ T cells by inflammatory mediators and interleukin 2 (IL-2) via mTOR and T-bet dependent pathways. These pathways were subsequently amplified downstream of Notch, creating a positive feedback loop. Notch thus functions as a central hub where information from different sources converges to match effector T cell differentiation to the demands of the infection. PMID:25344724

  17. Impact of end effector technology on telemanipulation performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Szakaly, Z.; Ohm, T.

    1990-01-01

    Generic requirements for end effector design are briefly summarized as derived from generic functional and operational requirements. Included is a brief summary of terms and definitions related to end effector technology. The second part contains a brief overview of end effector technology work as JPL during the past ten years, with emphasis on the evolution of new mechanical, sensing and control capabilities of end effectors. The third and major part is devoted to the description of current end effector technology. The ongoing work addresses mechanical, sensing and control details with emphasis on mechanical ruggedness, increased resolution in sensing, and close electronic and control integration with overall telemanipulator control system.

  18. Exocyst function regulated by effector phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Wei Chen; Dara Leto; Junyu Xiao; John Goss; Qian Wang; Jordan A. Shavit; Tingting Xiong; Genggeng Yu; David Ginsburg; Derek Toomre; Zhaohui Xu; Alan R. Saltiel

    2011-01-01

    The exocyst complex tethers vesicles at sites of fusion through interactions with small GTPases. The G protein RalA resides on Glut4 vesicles, and binds to the exocyst after activation by insulin, but must then disengage to ensure continuous exocytosis. Here we report that, after recognition of the exocyst by activated RalA, disengagement occurs through phosphorylation of its effector Sec5, rather

  19. Fire Suppression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Presser; J. C. Yang

    \\u000a Water sprinkler sprays (with relatively large droplet sizes) in residential and commercial structures are probably the most\\u000a well-known application of sprays in fire suppression. In more recent years, water mists (characterized by reduced droplet\\u000a sizes, which may contain additives) have been considered as a replacement for Halon 1301, the most common fire suppressant\\u000a chemical aboard aircraft and ships, but banned

  20. Design and fabrication of an end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, F. R. E.; Umholtz, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The construction is described of a prototype mechanical hand or 'end effector' for use on a remotely controlled robot, but with possible application as a prosthetic device. An analysis of hand motions is reported, from which it is concluded that the two most important manipulations (apart from grasps) are to be able to pick up a tool and draw it into a nested grip against the palm, and to be able to hold a pistol-grip tool such as an electric drill and pull the trigger. A model was tested and found capable of both these operations.

  1. Direct-drive active compliant end effector (active RCC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kazerooni

    1988-01-01

    A fast, lightweight, active end-effector, which can be attached to the endpoint of a commercial robot manipulator, has been designed and built using an impedance-control method. This control method causes the end-effector to behave dynamically as a two-dimensional remote center compliance (RCC). The compliancy is in this active end-effector is electronic and can be modulated by an online computer. The

  2. The fungal core effector Pep1 is conserved across smuts of dicots and monocots.

    PubMed

    Hemetsberger, Christoph; Mueller, André N; Matei, Alexandra; Herrberger, Christian; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Mishra, Bagdevi; Sharma, Rahul; Thines, Marco; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2015-05-01

    The secreted fungal effector Pep1 is essential for penetration of the host epidermis and establishment of biotrophy in the Ustilago maydis-maize pathosystem. Previously, Pep1 was found to be an inhibitor of apoplastic plant peroxidases, which suppresses the oxidative burst, a primary immune response of the host plant and enables fungal colonization. To investigate the conservation of Pep1 in other pathogens, genomes of related smut species were screened for pep1 orthologues. Pep1 proteins were produced in Escherichia coli for functional assays. The biological function of Pep1 was tested by heterologous expression in U. maydis and Hordeum vulgare. Pep1 orthologues revealed a remarkable degree of sequence conservation, indicating that this effector might play a fundamental role in virulence of biotrophic smut fungi. Pep1 function and its role in virulence are conserved in different pathogenic fungi, even across the monocot-dicot border of host plants. The findings described in this study classify Pep1 as a phylogenetically conserved fungal core effector. Furthermore, we documented the influence of Pep1 on the disease caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei which is a non-smut-related pathosystem. PMID:25628012

  3. How Ras-related proteins talk to their effectors.

    PubMed

    Wittinghofer, A; Nassar, N

    1996-12-01

    More and more effectors for the Ras-related protein superfamily are being discovered and it is emerging that these GTP-binding proteins interact with more than one effector to generate more than one cellular signal. Atomic details for the interaction of Rap/Ras with one of the effectors, the protein kinase c-Raf-1, have recently become available by X-ray structure analysis. The implications for the specificity of the signal transduction pathway, and how the GTP-dependent switch mechanism modulates the interaction with effectors will be discussed here, using Ras as a paradigm. PMID:9009833

  4. The role of inducer cells in mediating in vitro suppression of feline immunodeficiency virus replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anagha P Phadke; In-Soo Choi; Zhongxia Li; Eric Weaver; Ellen W Collisson

    2004-01-01

    CD8+ T-cell-mediated suppression of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication has been described by several groups, although the mechanisms of activation and conditions for viral suppression vary with the methodologies. We have previously reported that CD8+ T-cell-mediated suppression of FIV replication required inducer cell stimulation of the effector cells. The focus of the present study was to examine the essential role

  5. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ Type III Effector Family in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer D.; Wilton, Mike; Mott, G . Adam; Lu, Wenwan; Hassan, Jana A.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20–30 different type III effector (T3SE) proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis. PMID:25546415

  6. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ type III effector family in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer D; Wilton, Mike; Mott, G Adam; Lu, Wenwan; Hassan, Jana A; Guttman, David S; Desveaux, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE) proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis. PMID:25546415

  7. The Xanthomonas campestris Type III Effector XopJ Proteolytically Degrades Proteasome Subunit RPT61[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many animal and plant pathogenic bacteria inject type III effector (T3E) proteins into their eukaryotic host cells to suppress immunity. The Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ) family of T3Es is a widely distributed family of effector proteins found in both animal and plant pathogens, and its members are highly diversified in virulence functions. Some members have been shown to possess acetyltransferase activity; however, whether this is a general feature of YopJ family T3Es is currently unknown. The T3E Xanthomonas outer protein J (XopJ), a YopJ family effector from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria, interacts with the proteasomal subunit Regulatory Particle AAA-ATPase6 (RPT6) in planta to suppress proteasome activity, resulting in the inhibition of salicylic acid-related immune responses. Here, we show that XopJ has protease activity to specifically degrade RPT6, leading to reduced proteasome activity in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. Proteolytic degradation of RPT6 was dependent on the localization of XopJ to the plasma membrane as well as on its catalytic triad. Mutation of the Walker B motif of RPT6 prevented XopJ-mediated degradation of the protein but not XopJ interaction. This indicates that the interaction of RPT6 with XopJ is dependent on the ATP-binding activity of RPT6, but proteolytic cleavage additionally requires its ATPase activity. Inhibition of the proteasome impairs the proteasomal turnover of Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis-Related1 (NPR1), the master regulator of salicylic acid responses, leading to the accumulation of ubiquitinated NPR1, which likely interferes with the full induction of NPR1 target genes. Our results show that YopJ family T3Es are not only highly diversified in virulence function but also appear to possess different biochemical activities. PMID:25739698

  8. Acireductone Dioxygenase 1 (ARD1) Is an Effector of the Heterotrimeric G Protein ? Subunit in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Erin J.; Wang, Helen X.; Jiang, Kun; Perovic, Iva; Deshpande, Aditi; Pochapsky, Thomas C.; Temple, Brenda R. S.; Hicks, Stephanie N.; Harden, T. Kendall; Jones, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are conserved from plants to mammals, but the complexity of each system varies. Arabidopsis thaliana contains one G?, one G? (AGB1), and at least three G? subunits, allowing it to form three versions of the heterotrimer. This plant model is ideal for genetic studies because mammalian systems contain hundreds of unique heterotrimers. The activation of these complexes promotes interactions between both the G? subunit and the G?? dimer with enzymes and scaffolds to propagate signaling to the cytoplasm. However, although effectors of G? and G? are known in mammals, no G? effectors were previously known in plants. Toward identifying AGB1 effectors, we genetically screened for dominant mutations that suppress G?-null mutant (agb1-2) phenotypes. We found that overexpression of acireductone dioxygenase 1 (ARD1) suppresses the 2-day-old etiolated phenotype of agb1-2. ARD1 is homologous to prokaryotic and eukaryotic ARD proteins; one function of ARDs is to operate in the methionine salvage pathway. We show here that ARD1 is an active metalloenzyme, and AGB1 and ARD1 both control embryonic hypocotyl length by modulating cell division; they also may contribute to the production of ethylene, a product of the methionine salvage pathway. ARD1 physically interacts with AGB1, and ARD enzymatic activity is stimulated by AGB1 in vitro. The binding interface on AGB1 was deduced using a comparative evolutionary approach and tested using recombinant AGB1 mutants. A possible mechanism for AGB1 activation of ARD1 activity was tested using directed mutations in a loop near the substrate-binding site. PMID:21712381

  9. Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins

    E-print Network

    on a type III secretion system to inject virulence effector proteins into host cells. In P. syringae, hrp hrc genes encode the Hrp (type III secretion) system, and avirulence (avr) and Hrp- dependent outer protein (hop) genes encode effector proteins. The hrp hrc genes of P. syringae pv syringae 61, P. syringae

  10. Disruption of Signaling by Yersinia Effector YopJ, a

    E-print Network

    Mudgettt, Mary Beth

    pestis is the bacterial pathogen that caused the Black Death in the Middle Ages (1). Yersinia speciesDisruption of Signaling by Yersinia Effector YopJ, a Ubiquitin-Like Protein Protease Kim Orth,1 Brian Staskawicz,2 Jack E. Dixon1 * Homologs of the Yersinia virulence effector YopJ are found in both

  11. Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Collmer; Jorge L. Badel; Amy O. Charkowski; Wen-Ling Deng; Derrick E. Fouts; Adela R. Ramos; Amos H. Rehm; Deborah M. Anderson; Olaf Schneewind; Karin van Dijk; James R. Alfano

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a member of an important group of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals that depend on a type III secretion system to inject virulence effector proteins into host cells. In P. syringae, hrpyhrc genes encode the Hrp (type III secretion) system, and avirulence (avr) and Hrp- dependent outer protein (hop) genes encode effector proteins. The hrpyhrc

  12. Analysis of new type III effectors from Xanthomonas uncovers XopB and XopS as suppressors of plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Sebastian; Kay, Sabine; Büttner, Daniela; Egler, Monique; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Hause, Gerd; Krüger, Antje; Lee, Justin; Müller, Oliver; Scheel, Dierk; Szczesny, Robert; Thieme, Frank; Bonas, Ulla

    2012-09-01

    The pathogenicity of the Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) is dependent on type III effectors (T3Es) that are injected into plant cells by a type III secretion system and interfere with cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. In this study, we analyzed eight T3Es from Xcv strain 85-10, six of which were newly identified effectors. Genetic studies and protoplast expression assays revealed that XopB and XopS contribute to disease symptoms and bacterial growth, and suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered plant defense gene expression. In addition, XopB inhibits cell death reactions induced by different T3Es, thus suppressing defense responses related to both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). XopB localizes to the Golgi apparatus and cytoplasm of the plant cell and interferes with eukaryotic vesicle trafficking. Interestingly, a XopB point mutant derivative was defective in the suppression of ETI-related responses, but still interfered with vesicle trafficking and was only slightly affected with regard to the suppression of defense gene induction. This suggests that XopB-mediated suppression of PTI and ETI is dependent on different mechanisms that can be functionally separated. PMID:22738163

  13. Advanced Aerodynamic Design of Passive Porosity Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Viken, Sally A.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes aerodynamic design work aimed at developing a passive porosity control effector system for a generic tailless fighter aircraft. As part of this work, a computational design tool was developed and used to layout passive porosity effector systems for longitudinal and lateral-directional control at a low-speed, high angle of attack condition. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted using the NASA Langley computational fluid dynamics code USM3D, in conjunction with a newly formulated surface boundary condition for passive porosity. Results indicate that passive porosity effectors can provide maneuver control increments that equal and exceed those of conventional aerodynamic effectors for low-speed, high-alpha flight, with control levels that are a linear function of porous area. This work demonstrates the tremendous potential of passive porosity to yield simple control effector systems that have no external moving parts and will preserve an aircraft's fixed outer mold line.

  14. Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malladi, Narasimha

    1993-01-01

    NASA is developing a mechanism to manipulate and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic modules. The mechanism consists of the following: a base with three motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. The robotics section was tasked with the automation of the RIEE unit. In this report, for the automation of the RIEE unit, application of the Perceptics Vision System was conceptually developed to determine the position and orientation of the RIEE relative to the logistic module, and a MathCad program is written to display the needed displacements for precise alignment and final insertion of the Rack. The uniqueness of this report is that the whole report is in fact a MathCad program including text, derivations, and executable equations with example inputs and outputs.

  15. Intervention of Phytohormone Pathways by Pathogen Effectors.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

    2014-06-10

    The constant struggle between plants and microbes has driven the evolution of multiple defense strategies in the host as well as offense strategies in the pathogen. To defend themselves from pathogen attack, plants often rely on elaborate signaling networks regulated by phytohormones. In turn, pathogens have adopted innovative strategies to manipulate phytohormone-regulated defenses. Tactics frequently employed by plant pathogens involve hijacking, evading, or disrupting hormone signaling pathways and/or crosstalk. As reviewed here, this is achieved mechanistically via pathogen-derived molecules known as effectors, which target phytohormone receptors, transcriptional activators and repressors, and other components of phytohormone signaling in the host plant. Herbivores and sap-sucking insects employ obligate pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasma, or symbiotic bacteria to intervene with phytohormone-regulated defenses. Overall, an improved understanding of phytohormone intervention strategies employed by pests and pathogens during their interactions with plants will ultimately lead to the development of new crop protection strategies. PMID:24920334

  16. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  17. Cerato-platanins: elicitors and effectors.

    PubMed

    Pazzagli, Luigia; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Barsottini, Mario; Vargas, Walter A; Scala, Aniello; Mukherjee, Prasun K

    2014-11-01

    Cerato-platanins are an interesting group of small, secreted, cysteine-rich proteins that have been implicated in virulence of certain plant pathogenic fungi. The relatively recent discovery of these proteins in plant beneficial fungi like Trichoderma spp., and their positive role in induction of defense in plants against invading pathogens has raised the question as to whether these proteins are effectors or elicitor molecules. Here we present a comprehensive review on the occurrence of these conserved proteins across the fungal kingdom, their structure-function relationships, and their physiological roles in plant pathogenic and symbiotic fungi. We also discuss the usefulness of these proteins in evolving strategies for crop protection through a transgenic approach or direct application as elicitors. PMID:25438788

  18. The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein XopDXcc8004 triggers plant disease tolerance by targeting DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    Tan, Leitao; Rong, Wei; Luo, Hongli; Chen, Yinhua; He, Chaozu

    2014-11-01

    Plants protect themselves from the harmful effects of pathogens by resistance and tolerance. Disease resistance, which eliminates pathogens, can be modulated by bacterial type III effectors. Little is known about whether disease tolerance, which sustains host fitness with a given pathogen burden, is regulated by effectors. Here, we examined the effects of the Xanthomonas effector protein XopDXcc8004 on plant disease defenses by constructing knockout and complemented Xanthomonas strains, and performing inoculation studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus XiaoJinZhong) and Arabidopsis plants. XopDXcc8004 suppresses disease symptoms without changing bacterial titers in infected leaves. In Arabidopsis, XopDXcc8004 delays the hormone gibberellin (GA)-mediated degradation of RGA (repressor of ga1-3), one of five DELLA proteins that repress GA signaling and promote plant tolerance under biotic and abiotic stresses. The ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif-containing region of XopDXcc8004 interacts with the DELLA domain of RGA and might interfere with the GA-induced binding of GID1, a GA receptor, to RGA. The EAR motif was found to be present in a number of plant transcriptional regulators. Thus, our data suggest that bacterial pathogens might have evolved effectors, which probably mimic host components, to initiate disease tolerance and enhance their survival. PMID:25040905

  19. Action selection in multi-effector decision making

    PubMed Central

    Madlon-Kay, Seth; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making and reinforcement learning over movements suffer from the curse of dimensionality: the space of possible movements is too vast to search or even represent in its entirety. When actions involve only a single effector, this problem can be ameliorated by considering that effector separately; accordingly, the brain’s sensorimotor systems can subdivide choice by representing values and actions separately for each effector. However, for many actions, such as playing the piano, the value of an action by an effector (e.g., a hand) depends inseparably on the actions of other effectors. By definition, the values of such coordinated multi-effector actions cannot be represented by effector-specific action values, such as those that have been most extensively investigated in parietal and premotor regions. For such actions, one possible solution is to choose according to more abstract valuations over different goods or options, which can then be mapped onto the necessary motor actions. Such an approach separates the learning and decision problem, which will often be lower-dimensional than the space of possible movements, from the multi-effector movement planning problem. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is thought to contain goods-based value signals, so we hypothesized that this region might preferentially drive multi-effector action selection. To examine how the brain solves this problem, we used fMRI to compare patterns of BOLD activity in humans during reward learning tasks in which options were selected through either unimanual or bimanual actions, and in which the response requirements in the latter condition inseparably coupled valuation across both hands. We found value signals in the bilateral medial motor cortex and vmPFC, and consistent with previous studies, the medial motor value signals contained contra-lateral biases indicating effector-specificity, while the vmPFC value signals did not exhibit detectable effector specificity. Although neither region’s value signaling differed significantly between bimanual and unimanual conditions, the vmPFC value region showed enhanced connectivity with the medial motor cortex during bimanual than during unimanual choices. The specific region implicated, the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, is thought to act as a hub that links subjective value signals to motor control centers. These results are consistent with the idea that while valuation for unilateral actions may be subserved by an effector-specific network, complex multi-effector actions preferentially implicate communication between motor regions and prefrontal regions, which may reflect increased top-down input into motor regions to guide action selection. PMID:23228512

  20. Rhizobia utilize pathogen-like effector proteins during symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Kambara, Kumiko; Ardissone, Silvia; Kobayashi, Hajime; Saad, Maged M; Schumpp, Olivier; Broughton, William J; Deakin, William J

    2009-01-01

    A type III protein secretion system (T3SS) is an important host range determinant for the infection of legumes by Rhizobium sp. NGR234. Although a functional T3SS can have either beneficial or detrimental effects on nodule formation, only the rhizobial-specific positively acting effector proteins, NopL and NopP, have been characterized. NGR234 possesses three open reading frames potentially encoding homologues of effector proteins from pathogenic bacteria. NopJ, NopM and NopT are secreted by the T3SS of NGR234. All three can have negative effects on the interaction with legumes, but NopM and NopT also stimulate nodulation on certain plants. NopT belongs to a family of pathogenic effector proteases, typified by the avirulence protein, AvrPphB. The protease domain of NopT is required for its recognition and a subsequent strong inhibition in infection of Crotalaria juncea. In contrast, the negative effects of NopJ are relatively minor when compared with those induced by its Avr homologues. Thus NGR234 uses a mixture of rhizobial-specific and pathogen-derived effector proteins. Whereas some legumes recognize an effector as potentially pathogen-derived, leading to a block in the infection process, others perceive both the negative- and positive-acting effectors concomitantly. It is this equilibrium of effector action that leads to modulation of symbiotic development. PMID:19019163

  1. Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Rovenich, Hanna; Boshoven, Jordi C; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2014-08-01

    Microorganisms play essential roles in almost every environment on earth. For instance, microbes decompose organic material, or establish symbiotic relationships that range from pathogenic to mutualistic. Symbiotic relationships have been particularly well studied for microbial plant pathogens and have emphasized the role of effectors; secreted molecules that support host colonization. Most effectors characterized thus far play roles in deregulation of host immunity. Arguably, however, pathogens not only deal with immune responses during host colonization, but also encounter other microbes including competitors, (myco)parasites and even potential co-operators. Thus, part of the effector catalog may target microbiome co-inhabitants rather than host physiology. PMID:24879450

  2. A Downy Mildew Effector Attenuates Salicylic Acid–Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis by Interacting with the Host Mediator Complex

    PubMed Central

    Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Asai, Shuta; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Piquerez, Sophie; Fabro, Georgina; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are continually exposed to pathogen attack but usually remain healthy because they can activate defences upon perception of microbes. However, pathogens have evolved to overcome plant immunity by delivering effectors into the plant cell to attenuate defence, resulting in disease. Recent studies suggest that some effectors may manipulate host transcription, but the specific mechanisms by which such effectors promote susceptibility remain unclear. We study the oomycete downy mildew pathogen of Arabidopsis, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), and show here that the nuclear-localized effector HaRxL44 interacts with Mediator subunit 19a (MED19a), resulting in the degradation of MED19a in a proteasome-dependent manner. The Mediator complex of ?25 proteins is broadly conserved in eukaryotes and mediates the interaction between transcriptional regulators and RNA polymerase II. We found MED19a to be a positive regulator of immunity against Hpa. Expression profiling experiments reveal transcriptional changes resembling jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) signalling in the presence of HaRxL44, and also 3 d after infection with Hpa. Elevated JA/ET signalling is associated with a decrease in salicylic acid (SA)–triggered immunity (SATI) in Arabidopsis plants expressing HaRxL44 and in med19a loss-of-function mutants, whereas SATI is elevated in plants overexpressing MED19a. Using a PR1::GUS reporter, we discovered that Hpa suppresses PR1 expression specifically in cells containing haustoria, into which RxLR effectors are delivered, but not in nonhaustoriated adjacent cells, which show high PR1::GUS expression levels. Thus, HaRxL44 interferes with Mediator function by degrading MED19, shifting the balance of defence transcription from SA-responsive defence to JA/ET-signalling, and enhancing susceptibility to biotrophs by attenuating SA-dependent gene expression. PMID:24339748

  3. Human Urinary Exosomes as Innate Immune Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Thomas F.; Charles, Philip D.; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S.; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R. Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (Tamm–Horsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

  4. Modes of TAL effector-mediated repression

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Jeannette; Gossen, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Engineered transcription activator-like effectors, or TALEs, have emerged as a new class of designer DNA-binding proteins. Their DNA recognition sites can be specified with great flexibility. When fused to appropriate transcriptional regulatory domains, they can serve as designer transcription factors, modulating the activity of targeted promoters. We created tet operator (tetO)-specific TALEs (tetTALEs), with an identical DNA-binding site as the Tet repressor (TetR) and the TetR-based transcription factors that are extensively used in eukaryotic transcriptional control systems. Different constellations of tetTALEs and tetO modified chromosomal transcription units were analyzed for their efficacy in mammalian cells. We find that tetTALE-silencers can entirely abrogate expression from the strong human EF1? promoter when binding upstream of the transcriptional control sequence. Remarkably, the DNA-binding domain of tetTALE alone can effectively counteract trans-activation mediated by the potent tettrans-activator and also directly interfere with RNA polymerase II transcription initiation from the strong CMV promoter. Our results demonstrate that TALEs can act as highly versatile tools in genetic engineering, serving as trans-activators, trans-silencers and also competitive repressors. PMID:25389273

  5. Bacterial secreted effectors and caspase-3 interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Daniel M; McCormick, Beth A

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is a critical process that intrinsically links organism survival to its ability to induce controlled death. Thus, functional apoptosis allows organisms to remove perceived threats to their survival by targeting those cells that it determines pose a direct risk. Central to this process are apoptotic caspases, enzymes that form a signalling cascade, converting danger signals via initiator caspases into activation of the executioner caspase, caspase-3. This enzyme begins disassembly of the cell by activating DNA degrading enzymes and degrading the cellular architecture. Interaction of pathogenic bacteria with caspases, and in particular, caspase-3, can therefore impact both host cell and bacterial survival. With roles outside cell death such as cell differentiation, control of signalling pathways and immunomodulation also being described for caspase-3, bacterial interactions with caspase-3 may be of far more significance in infection than previously recognized. In this review, we highlight the ways in which bacterial pathogens have evolved to subvert caspase-3 both through effector proteins that directly interact with the enzyme or by modulating pathways that influence its activation and activity. PMID:25262664

  6. Gunite Scarifying End Effector. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2001-09-01

    The Gunite Scarifying End Effector (GSEE) is designed to remove a layer of the gunite tank walls, which are contaminated with radioactivity. Removing this radioactivity is necessary to close the tank.

  7. Memory versus effector immune responses in oncolytic virotherapies.

    PubMed

    Macnamara, Cicely; Eftimie, Raluca

    2015-07-21

    The main priority when designing cancer immuno-therapies has been to seek viable biological mechanisms that lead to permanent cancer eradication or cancer control. Understanding the delicate balance between the role of effector and memory cells on eliminating cancer cells remains an elusive problem in immunology. Here we make an initial investigation into this problem with the help of a mathematical model for oncolytic virotherapy; although the model can in fact be made general enough to be applied also to other immunological problems. According to this model, we find that long-term cancer control is associated with a large number of persistent effector cells (irrespective of the initial peak in effector cell numbers). However, this large number of persistent effector cells is sustained by a relatively large number of memory cells. Moreover, the results of the mathematical model suggest that cancer control from a dormant state cannot be predicted by the size of the memory population. PMID:25882747

  8. Distinct regulation of effector and memory T-cell differentiation

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    -bet, Eomes and Blimp-1, all of which are crucial in the differentiation and homoeostasis of effector: transcription factors; Blimp-1; Bcl-6; T-bet; IL2; IL12 During an immune response, nai¨ve T cells respond

  9. A nematode effector protein similar to annexins in host plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nrupali Patel; Noureddine Hamamouch; Chunying Li; Tarek Hewezi; Richard S. Hussey; Thomas J. Baum; Melissa G. Mitchum; Eric L. Davis

    2010-01-01

    Nematode parasitism genes encode secreted effector proteins that play a role in host infection. A homologue of the expressed Hg4F01 gene of the root-parasitic soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, encoding an annexin-like effector, was isolated in the related Heterodera schachtii to facilitate use of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host. Hs4F01 and its protein product were exclusively expressed within the

  10. ATP as effector of inorganic pyrophosphatase of Escherichia coli . The role of residue Lys112 in binding effectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Rodina; N. N. Vorobyeva; S. A. Kurilova; T. S. Sitnik; T. I. Nazarova

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that PPi, methylenediphosphonate, and ATP act as effectors of Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatase (E-PPase), and that they compete for binding at the allosteric regulatory site. On the basis of\\u000a chemical modification and computer modeling of a structure of the enzyme-ATP complex, a number of amino acid residues presumably\\u000a involved in binding effectors has been revealed. Mutant

  11. A Legionella effector modulates host cytoskeletal structure by inhibiting actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhenhua; Stephenson, Robert; Qiu, Jiazhang; Zheng, Shijun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Successful infection by the opportunistic pathogen Legionella pneumophila requires the collective activity of hundreds of virulence proteins delivered into the host cell by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. These virulence proteins, also called effectors modulate distinct host cellular processes to create a membrane-bound niche called the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV) supportive of bacterial growth. We found that Ceg14(Lpg0437), a Dot/Icm substrate is toxic to yeast and such toxicity can be alleviated by overexpression of profilin, a protein involved in cytoskeletal structure in eukaryotes. We further showed that mutations in profilin affect actin binding but not other functions such as interactions with poly-L-proline or phosphatidylinositol, abolish its suppressor activity. Consistent with the fact the profilin suppresses its toxicity, expression of Ceg14 but not its non-toxic mutants in yeast affects actin distribution and budding of daughter cells. Although Ceg14 does not detectably interact with profilin, it co-sediments with filamentous actin and inhibits actin polymerization, causing the accumulation of short actin filaments. These results reveal that multiple L. pneumophila effectors target components of the host cytoskeleton. PMID:24286927

  12. A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors

    E-print Network

    Okujava, Rusudan

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, ...

  13. The Hippo pathway effector Yki downregulates Wg signaling to promote retinal differentiation in the Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Wittkorn, Erika; Sarkar, Ankita; Garcia, Kristine; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Singh, Amit

    2015-06-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway is known to regulate cell proliferation and maintain tissue homeostasis during development. We found that activation of Yorkie (Yki), the effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, causes separable effects on growth and differentiation of the Drosophila eye. We present evidence supporting a role for Yki in suppressing eye fate by downregulation of the core retinal determination genes. Other upstream regulators of the Hippo pathway mediate this effect of Yki on retinal differentiation. Here, we show that, in the developing eye, Yki can prevent retinal differentiation by blocking morphogenetic furrow (MF) progression and R8 specification. The inhibition of MF progression is due to ectopic induction of Wingless (Wg) signaling and Homothorax (Hth), the negative regulators of eye development. Modulating Wg signaling can modify Yki-mediated suppression of eye fate. Furthermore, ectopic Hth induction due to Yki activation in the eye is dependent on Wg. Last, using Cut (Ct), a marker for the antennal fate, we show that suppression of eye fate by hyperactivation of yki does not change the cell fate (from eye to antenna-specific fate). In summary, we provide the genetic mechanism by which yki plays a role in cell fate specification and differentiation - a novel aspect of Yki function that is emerging from multiple model organisms. PMID:25977365

  14. Innate immunity in plants: An arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Boller, Thomas; He, Sheng Yang

    2009-01-01

    For many years, research on a suite of plant defense responses initiated when plants are exposed to general microbial elicitors was underappreciated, for a good reason: There has been no critical experimental demonstration of their importance in mediating plant resistance during pathogen infection. Today, these microbial elicitors are named pathogen/microbe - associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs) and the plant responses called PAMP - triggered immunity (PTI). Recent studies provide an elegant explanation for the difficulty of demonstrating the role of PTI in plant disease resistance. It turns out that the important contribution of PTI to disease resistance is masked by pathogen virulence effectors that have evolved to suppress it. PMID:19423812

  15. Innate Immunity in Plants: An Arms Race Between Pattern Recognition Receptors in Plants and Effectors in Microbial Pathogens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thomas Boller (University of Basel; Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center, Botanical Institute)

    2009-05-08

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plant defense responses known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) begin when the plant is exposed to microbial elicitors named pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs). Recent studies provide an elegant explanation for the difficulty of demonstrating the role of PTI in plant disease resistance. It turns out that the important contribution of PTI to disease resistance is masked by pathogen virulence effectors that have evolved to suppress it.

  16. Ras Effector Mutant Expression Suggest a Negative Regulator Inhibits Lung Tumor Formation

    PubMed Central

    Vandal, Guillaume; Geiling, Benjamin; Dankort, David

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the most deadly malignancy in industrialized countries and accounts for 18% of all cancer-related deaths worldwide. Over 70% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are diagnosed at a late stage, with a 5-year survival below 10%. KRAS and the EGFR are frequently mutated in NSCLC and while targeted therapies for patients with EGFR mutations exist, oncogenic KRAS is thus far not druggable. KRAS activates multiple signalling pathways, including the PI3K/Akt pathway, the Raf-Mek-Erk pathway and the RalGDS/Ral pathway. Lung-specific expression of BrafV600E, the most prevalent BRAF mutation found in human tumors, results in Raf-Mek-Erk pathway activation and in the formation of benign adenomas that undergo widespread senescence in a Cre-activated Braf mouse model (BrafCA). However, oncogenic KRAS expression in mice induces adenocarcinomas, suggesting additional KRAS-activated pathways cooperate with sustained RAF-MEK-ERK signalling to bypass the oncogene-induced senescence proliferation arrest. To determine which KRAS effectors were responsible for tumor progression, we created four effector domain mutants (S35, G37, E38 and C40) in G12V-activated KRAS and expressed these alone or with BrafV600E in mouse lungs… The S35 and E38 mutants bind to Raf proteins but not PI3K or RalGDS; the G37 mutant binds to RalGDS and not Raf or PI3K and the C40 mutant is specific to PI3K. We designed lentiviral vectors to code for Cre recombinase along with KRAS mutants (V12, V12/S35, V12/G37, V12/E38 or V12/C40) or EGFP as a negative control.. These lentiviruses were used to infect BrafCA and wild-type mice. Surprisingly there was a significant decrease in tumor number and penetrance with each KRAS effector domain mutant relative to controls, suggesting that KRAS directly activates effectors with tumor suppressive functions. PMID:24489653

  17. Ras effector mutant expression suggest a negative regulator inhibits lung tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Vandal, Guillaume; Geiling, Benjamin; Dankort, David

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the most deadly malignancy in industrialized countries and accounts for 18% of all cancer-related deaths worldwide. Over 70% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are diagnosed at a late stage, with a 5-year survival below 10%. KRAS and the EGFR are frequently mutated in NSCLC and while targeted therapies for patients with EGFR mutations exist, oncogenic KRAS is thus far not druggable. KRAS activates multiple signalling pathways, including the PI3K/Akt pathway, the Raf-Mek-Erk pathway and the RalGDS/Ral pathway. Lung-specific expression of BrafV600E, the most prevalent BRAF mutation found in human tumors, results in Raf-Mek-Erk pathway activation and in the formation of benign adenomas that undergo widespread senescence in a Cre-activated Braf mouse model (Braf(CA)). However, oncogenic KRAS expression in mice induces adenocarcinomas, suggesting additional KRAS-activated pathways cooperate with sustained RAF-MEK-ERK signalling to bypass the oncogene-induced senescence proliferation arrest. To determine which KRAS effectors were responsible for tumor progression, we created four effector domain mutants (S35, G37, E38 and C40) in G12V-activated KRAS and expressed these alone or with BrafV600E in mouse lungs... The S35 and E38 mutants bind to Raf proteins but not PI3K or RalGDS; the G37 mutant binds to RalGDS and not Raf or PI3K and the C40 mutant is specific to PI3K. We designed lentiviral vectors to code for Cre recombinase along with KRAS mutants (V12, V12/S35, V12/G37, V12/E38 or V12/C40) or EGFP as a negative control.. These lentiviruses were used to infect Braf(CA) and wild-type mice. Surprisingly there was a significant decrease in tumor number and penetrance with each KRAS effector domain mutant relative to controls, suggesting that KRAS directly activates effectors with tumor suppressive functions. PMID:24489653

  18. Identification of a Novel Effector Domain of BIN1 for Cancer Suppression

    E-print Network

    Kihara, Daisuke

    interacts with and inhibits the c-MYC transcription factor through the BIN1 MYC-binding domain (MBD and was sufficient to inhibit cancer growth, regardless of dysregulated c-MYC activity. Our results suggest-independent cancer suppressor. J. Cell. Biochem. 112: 2992­3001, 2011. ß 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. KEY WORDS: BIN1; c-MYC

  19. Molecular determinants of resistance activation and suppression by Phytophthora infestans effector IPI-O

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite intensive breeding efforts, potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, remains a threat to potato production worldwide because newly evolved pathogen strains have overcome major resistance genes. The Rpi-blb1 gene (also known as RB), from the wild potato Sola...

  20. OX40 costimulation can abrogate Foxp3+ regulatory T cell-mediated suppression of antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Naomi; Murata, Satoshi; Ueki, Tomoyuki; Mekata, Eiji; Reilly, R. Todd; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.; Tani, Tohru

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in maintaining immunological tolerance that is one of the main obstacles to overcome for improving antitumor immunity. Recently, the Treg has been shown to constitutively express OX40 (CD134), which is a member of the TNF receptor family that is transiently expressed on effector T cells after TCR triggering, and through which the signal enhances effector T cell proliferation and memory T cell development. However, little is known about the role of OX40 costimulation to Tregs in tumor immunology. Here we show that OX40 signaling modulates the function of naturally occurring Tregs in vitro and in vivo. Foxp3 expression on Tregs was reduced by OX40 costimulation, but not by IL-2 stimulation. Tregs suppressed the proliferation of naïve CD4+ CD25? T cells after TCR triggering, in contrast, OX40 costimulated Tregs that reduced Foxp3 expression reversed the suppressive function. In addition, Tregs inhibited the proliferation of TCR stimulated (primed) CD4+ T cells and naïve CD8+ T cells after TCR-mediated activation, however, Tregs with OX40 costimulation lost their suppressive function. Interestingly, Tregs minimally suppressed the proliferation or the cytokine secreting of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells after Ag-restimulation. Furthermore, Tregs suppressive function to the antitumor effect was reversed by OX40 costimulation in vivo. Our data indicate that, in addition to controlling effector T cell function, OX40 costimulation directly controls Treg-mediated suppression in tumor immunity. PMID:19455675

  1. CENP-C functions as a scaffold for effectors with essential kinetochore functions in mitosis and meiosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Koichi; Chang, Hui Li; Kagami, Ayano; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2009-09-01

    The conserved kinetochore protein CENP-C plays a fundamental role in chromosome segregation, but its specific functions remain elusive. We have gained insights into the role of CENP-C through identification of interacting effector proteins required for kinetochore function in fission yeast. Fta1/CENP-L is a primary effector that associates directly with Cnp3/CENP-C, and ectopic localization of Fta1 largely suppresses the mitotic kinetochore defects of cnp3Delta cells. Pcs1 functions downstream of Cnp3 to prevent merotelic attachment. In meiosis, Cnp3 further associates with and recruits Moa1, a meiosis-specific protein exclusively required for the mono-orientation of kinetochores. Genetic and biochemical analyses identified Cnp3 mutants that preserve intact mitotic kinetochore function but abolish the association with Moa1 and meiotic mono-orientation. Overall, therefore, our studies identify effectors of CENP-C in mitosis and meiosis and establish the concept that CENP-C serves as a scaffold for the specific recruitment of essential kinetochore proteins. PMID:19758558

  2. Planar cell polarity effector gene Intu regulates cell fate-specific differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia

    PubMed Central

    Dai, D; Li, L; Huebner, A; Zeng, H; Guevara, E; Claypool, D J; Liu, A; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway are essential for a number of developmental processes in mammals, such as convergent extension and ciliogenesis. Tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway are believed to mediate PCP signals in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner. However, how PCP signaling controls the morphogenesis of mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of inturned (Intu), a tissue-specific PCP effector gene, during hair follicle formation in mice. Tissue-specific disruption of Intu in embryonic epidermis resulted in hair follicle morphogenesis arrest because of the failure of follicular keratinocyte to differentiate. Targeting Intu in the epidermis resulted in almost complete loss of primary cilia in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, and a suppressed hedgehog signaling pathway. Surprisingly, the epidermal stratification and differentiation programs and barrier function were not affected. These results demonstrate that tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway control the differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia in a cell fate- and context-dependent manner, which may be critical in orchestrating the propagation and interpretation of polarity signals established by the core PCP components. PMID:22935613

  3. Planar cell polarity effector gene Intu regulates cell fate-specific differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Dai, D; Li, L; Huebner, A; Zeng, H; Guevara, E; Claypool, D J; Liu, A; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway are essential for a number of developmental processes in mammals, such as convergent extension and ciliogenesis. Tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway are believed to mediate PCP signals in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner. However, how PCP signaling controls the morphogenesis of mammalian tissues remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of inturned (Intu), a tissue-specific PCP effector gene, during hair follicle formation in mice. Tissue-specific disruption of Intu in embryonic epidermis resulted in hair follicle morphogenesis arrest because of the failure of follicular keratinocyte to differentiate. Targeting Intu in the epidermis resulted in almost complete loss of primary cilia in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, and a suppressed hedgehog signaling pathway. Surprisingly, the epidermal stratification and differentiation programs and barrier function were not affected. These results demonstrate that tissue-specific PCP effector genes of the PCP signaling pathway control the differentiation of keratinocytes through the primary cilia in a cell fate- and context-dependent manner, which may be critical in orchestrating the propagation and interpretation of polarity signals established by the core PCP components. PMID:22935613

  4. Salmonella Effectors: Important players modulating host cell function during infection

    PubMed Central

    Agbor, Terence A.; McCormick, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative facultative foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans. This bacterium has evolved a sophisticated machinery to alter host cell function critical to its virulence capabilities. Central to S. Typhimurium pathogenesis are two Type three secretion systems (T3SS) encoded within pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2 that are responsible for the secretion and translocation of a set of bacterial proteins termed effectors into host cells with the intention of altering host cell physiology for bacterial entry and survival. Thus, once delivered by the T3SS, the secreted effectors play critical roles in manipulating the host cell to allow for bacteria invasion, induction of inflammatory responses, and the assembly of an intracellular protective niche created for bacterial survival and replication. Emerging evidence indicates that these effectors are modular proteins consisting of distinct functional domains/motifs that are utilized by the bacteria to activate intracellular signaling pathways modifying host cell function. Also, recently reported are the dual functionality of secreted effectors and the concept of “terminal reassortment”. Herein, we highlight some of the nascent concepts regarding Salmonella effectors in the context infection. PMID:21902796

  5. Characterization of a chemoattractant for endothelium induced by angiogenesis effectors.

    PubMed

    Raju, K S; Alessandri, G; Gullino, P M

    1984-04-01

    The mechanism of neovascularization was further explored by the use of chemically defined angiogenesis effectors. The vascularization of the rabbit cornea was selected as an experimental approach that permits comparison of one cornea treated by the angiogenesis effector with the contralateral cornea of the same subject treated by the same molecule deprived of angiogenic capacity. Under these conditions, we observed that neovascularization was initiated by the appearance of a chemoattractant for the bovine capillary endothelium only in the cornea treated by the angiogenesis effector. The chemoattractant was purified about 150-fold by a single-step procedure, using gelatin:Sepharose affinity chromatography. Chemoattraction resulted from the combined effect of a chemotactic factor(s) and an activating factor(s). The association of the two enhanced 5- to 8-fold the motility of the capillary endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner with optimum at 0.2 mg/ml. The activating factor(s) does not have chemotactic capacity, but without it, chemotaxis is reduced to about one half. The chemotactic complex was present in the cornea regardless of the nature of the angiogenesis effector used as the triggering device. Heat and proteases eliminated chemotaxis and destroyed the chemotactic complex. Thus, neovascularization may be triggered by effectors able to induce in the cornea proteins, normally not present, that influence angiogenesis via mobilization of capillary endothelium. PMID:6200213

  6. Tools for TAL effector design and target prediction.

    PubMed

    Booher, Nicholas J; Bogdanove, Adam J

    2014-09-01

    TAL effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria during infection. They find their specific DNA targets via a string of contiguous, structural repeats that individually recognize single nucleotides (with some degeneracy) by virtue of polymorphisms at residue 13. The number of repeats and sequence of the amino acids at position 13 determine the nucleotide sequence of the DNA target. Due to this modularity, TAL effectors are readily engineered and have been used alone or as molecular fusions for targeted gene activation, gene repression, chromatin modification, chromatin tagging, and most broadly, for genome editing as TAL effector nucleases (TALENs). Several moderate and high-throughput cloning methods are in place for assembling TAL effector-based genetic constructs. Targeting is complicated to an extent by a general requirement for thymine to precede the DNA target, a requirement of TALENs to bind paired opposing sites separated by a defined range of distances, differential contributions of different repeat types to overall affinity, and a polarity to mismatch tolerance. Several computational tools are available online to aid in design and the identification of candidate off-target binding sites, as well as assembly and implementation. These tools vary in their approaches, capabilities, and relative utility for different types of TAL effector applications. Accuracy of off-target prediction is not well characterized yet for any of the tools and will require a better understanding of the qualitative and quantitative variation in the nucleotide preferences of individual repeats. PMID:24981075

  7. Ralstonia solanacearum Requires PopS, an Ancient AvrE-Family Effector, for Virulence and To Overcome Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defenses during Tomato Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Milling, Annett; Mitra, Raka M.; Hogan, Clifford S.; Ailloud, Florent; Prior, Philippe; Allen, Caitilyn

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT During bacterial wilt of tomato, the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum upregulates expression of popS, which encodes a type III-secreted effector in the AvrE family. PopS is a core effector present in all sequenced strains in the R. solanacearum species complex. The phylogeny of popS mirrors that of the species complex as a whole, suggesting that this is an ancient, vertically inherited effector needed for association with plants. A popS mutant of R. solanacearum UW551 had reduced virulence on agriculturally important Solanum spp., including potato and tomato plants. However, the popS mutant had wild-type virulence on a weed host, Solanum dulcamara, suggesting that some species can avoid the effects of PopS. The popS mutant was also significantly delayed in colonization of tomato stems compared to the wild type. Some AvrE-type effectors from gammaproteobacteria suppress salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defenses, suggesting that PopS, a betaproteobacterial ortholog, has a similar function. Indeed, the popS mutant induced significantly higher expression of tomato SA-triggered pathogenesis-related (PR) genes than the wild type. Further, pretreatment of roots with SA exacerbated the popS mutant virulence defect. Finally, the popS mutant had no colonization defect on SA-deficient NahG transgenic tomato plants. Together, these results indicate that this conserved effector suppresses SA-mediated defenses in tomato roots and stems, which are R. solanacearum’s natural infection sites. Interestingly, PopS did not trigger necrosis when heterologously expressed in Nicotiana leaf tissue, unlike the AvrE homolog DspEPcc from the necrotroph Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is consistent with the differing pathogenesis modes of necrosis-causing gammaproteobacteria and biotrophic R. solanacearum. PMID:24281716

  8. Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Henrik U; Mitrousia, Georgia K; de Wit, Pierre J G M; Fitt, Bruce D L

    2014-08-01

    R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed 'effector-triggered defence' (ETD). Unlike PTI and ETI, ETD is mediated by R genes encoding cell surface-localised receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that engage the receptor-like kinase SOBIR1. In contrast to this extracellular recognition, ETI is initiated by intracellular detection of pathogen effectors. ETI is usually associated with fast, hypersensitive host cell death, whereas ETD often triggers host cell death only after an elapsed period of endophytic pathogen growth. In this opinion, we focus on ETD responses against foliar fungal pathogens of crops. PMID:24856287

  9. Effector and suppressor T cells in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a T-cell mediated immune disease in which gliadin-derived peptides activate lamina propria effector CD4+ T cells. This activation leads to the release of cytokines, compatible with a Th1-like pattern, which play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CD, controlling many aspects of the inflammatory immune response. Recent studies have shown that a novel subset of effector T cells, characterized by expression of high levels of IL-17A, termed Th17 cells, plays a pathogenic role in CD. While these effector T cell subsets produce proinflammatory cytokines, which cause substantial tissue injury in vivo in CD, recent studies have suggested the existence of additional CD4+ T cell subsets with suppressor functions. These subsets include type 1 regulatory T cells and CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells, expressing the master transcription factor Foxp3, which have important implications for disease progression.

  10. Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Henrik U.; Mitrousia, Georgia K.; de Wit, Pierre J.G.M.; Fitt, Bruce D.L.

    2014-01-01

    R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed ‘effector-triggered defence’ (ETD). Unlike PTI and ETI, ETD is mediated by R genes encoding cell surface-localised receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that engage the receptor-like kinase SOBIR1. In contrast to this extracellular recognition, ETI is initiated by intracellular detection of pathogen effectors. ETI is usually associated with fast, hypersensitive host cell death, whereas ETD often triggers host cell death only after an elapsed period of endophytic pathogen growth. In this opinion, we focus on ETD responses against foliar fungal pathogens of crops. PMID:24856287

  11. Intestinal Effector T Cells in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Craig L.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the human intestines collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though a complex set of autoinflammatory disorders that can be precipitated by diverse genetic and environmental factors, a feature that appears common to IBD pathogenesis is a dysregulated effector T cell response to the commensal microbiota. Due to the heightened effector T cell activity in IBD, developmental and functional pathways that give rise to these cells are potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of effector T cell biology in the context of intestinal immune regulation and speculate on their potential clinical significance. PMID:19766082

  12. Identification of Anaplasma marginale Type IV Secretion System Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, Kelly A.; Beare, Paul A.; Brown, Wendy C.; Heinzen, Robert A.; Broschat, Shira L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. Results By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141) of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. Conclusions The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work. PMID:22140462

  13. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

    1997-09-30

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD{ampersand}E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design.

  14. Unequal Death in T Helper Cell (Th)1 and Th2 Effectors: Th1, but not Th2, Effectors Undergo Rapid Fas/FasL-mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Brunner, Thomas; Carter, Laura; Dutton, Richard W.; Rogers, Paul; Bradley, Linda; Sato, Takaaki; Reed, John C.; Green, Douglas; Swain, Susan L.

    1997-01-01

    T helper cell (Th) 1, but not Th2, effectors undergo rapid Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated, activation-induced cell death upon restimulation with antigen. Unequal apoptosis is also observed without restimulation, after a longer lag period. Both effectors undergo delayed apoptosis induced by a non–Fas-mediated pathway. When Th1 and Th2 effectors are co-cultured, Th2 effectors survive preferentially, suggesting the responsible factor(s) is intrinsic to each population. Both Th1 and Th2 effectors express Fas and FasL, but only Th2 effectors express high levels of FAP-1, a Fas-associated phosphatase that may act to inhibit Fas signaling. The rapid death of Th1 effectors leading to selective Th2 survival provides a novel mechanism for differential regulation of the two subsets. PMID:9151709

  15. N-Glycosylation of Effector Proteins by an ?-1,3-Mannosyltransferase Is Required for the Rice Blast Fungus to Evade Host Innate Immunity[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Lin; Shi, Tao; Yang, Jun; Shi, Wei; Gao, Xusheng; Chen, Deng; Xu, Xiaowen; Xu, Jin-Rong; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Peng, You-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi deploy secreted effectors to suppress plant immunity responses. These effectors operate either in the apoplast or within host cells, so they are putatively glycosylated, but the posttranslational regulation of their activities has not been explored. In this study, the ASPARAGINE-LINKED GLYCOSYLATION3 (ALG3)-mediated N-glycosylation of the effector, Secreted LysM Protein1 (Slp1), was found to be essential for its activity in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. ALG3 encodes an ?-1,3-mannosyltransferase for protein N-glycosylation. Deletion of ALG3 resulted in the arrest of secondary infection hyphae and a significant reduction in virulence. We observed that ?alg3 mutants induced massive production of reactive oxygen species in host cells, in a similar manner to ?slp1 mutants, which is a key factor responsible for arresting infection hyphae of the mutants. Slp1 sequesters chitin oligosaccharides to avoid their recognition by the rice (Oryza sativa) chitin elicitor binding protein CEBiP and the induction of innate immune responses, including reactive oxygen species production. We demonstrate that Slp1 has three N-glycosylation sites and that simultaneous Alg3-mediated N-glycosylation of each site is required to maintain protein stability and the chitin binding activity of Slp1, which are essential for its effector function. These results indicate that Alg3-mediated N-glycosylation of Slp1 is required to evade host innate immunity. PMID:24642938

  16. Plasmodium cellular effector mechanisms and the hepatic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Frevert, Ute; Krzych, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally. Immunization with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms capable of eliminating Plasmodium liver stages. However, malaria liver stage (LS) immunity is complex and the mechanisms effector T cells use to locate the few infected hepatocytes in the large liver in order to kill the intracellular LS parasites remain a mystery to date. Here, we review our current knowledge on the behavior of CD8 effector T cells in the hepatic microvasculature, in malaria and other hepatic infections. Taking into account the unique immunological and lymphogenic properties of the liver, we discuss whether classical granule-mediated cytotoxicity might eliminate infected hepatocytes via direct cell contact or whether cytokines might operate without cell–cell contact and kill Plasmodium LSs at a distance. A thorough understanding of the cellular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite death hence sterile protection is a prerequisite for the development of a successful malaria vaccine to protect the 40% of the world’s population currently at risk of Plasmodium infection. PMID:26074888

  17. Electroporation of Functional Bacterial Effectors into Mammalian Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Mihai, Cosmin; Orr, Galya; Savchenko, Alexei; Skarina, Tatiana; Cui, Hong; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Brown, Roslyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation was used to insert purified bacterial virulence effector proteins directly into living eukaryotic cells. Protein localization was monitored by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. This method allows for studies on trafficking, function, and protein-protein interactions using active exogenous proteins, avoiding the need for heterologous expression in eukaryotic cells.

  18. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Burry; Paul M. Williams

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring\\/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of

  19. Engineering Transcriptional Regulator Effector Specificity Through Rational Design and Rapid

    E-print Network

    Murray, Richard M.

    a combination of computational protein design (CPD) and rapid prototyping using an in vitro transcription-translation an in vitro transcription-translation (TX-TL) system. Leads from the in vitro screen were characterizedEngineering Transcriptional Regulator Effector Specificity Through Rational Design and Rapid

  20. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

  1. RMS end effector waiting for command and SPAS-01 nearby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The end effector of the remote manipulator system (RMS) appears to be waiting for its next command at the top of this frame and the Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01), in its free flying mode, appears nearby. The three letters legible on the SPAS stand for Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm Gmbit, a West German firm.

  2. Plasmodium cellular effector mechanisms and the hepatic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Frevert, Ute; Krzych, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally. Immunization with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms capable of eliminating Plasmodium liver stages. However, malaria liver stage (LS) immunity is complex and the mechanisms effector T cells use to locate the few infected hepatocytes in the large liver in order to kill the intracellular LS parasites remain a mystery to date. Here, we review our current knowledge on the behavior of CD8 effector T cells in the hepatic microvasculature, in malaria and other hepatic infections. Taking into account the unique immunological and lymphogenic properties of the liver, we discuss whether classical granule-mediated cytotoxicity might eliminate infected hepatocytes via direct cell contact or whether cytokines might operate without cell-cell contact and kill Plasmodium LSs at a distance. A thorough understanding of the cellular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite death hence sterile protection is a prerequisite for the development of a successful malaria vaccine to protect the 40% of the world's population currently at risk of Plasmodium infection. PMID:26074888

  3. Ras-effector interactions, the problem of specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wittinghofer; C. Herrmann

    1995-01-01

    Ras plays the role of a molecular switch in many cellular signalling pathways. The Raf-kinase has been identified as the direct target molecule of Ras in mammalian cells. However, in recent reports other proteins have been characterised as putative Ras effectors which have neither a functional nor a structural relationship to each other. In addition it has been shown that

  4. Opening the Ralstonia solanacearum type III effector tool box: insights into host cell subversion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Laurent; Genin, Stephane

    2014-08-01

    Effectors delivered to host cells by the Type III secretion system are essential to Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenicity, as in several other plant pathogenic bacteria. The establishment of exhaustive effector repertoires in multiple R. solanacearum strains drew a first picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the pathogen effector suites. Effector repertoires are diversified, with a core of 20-30 effectors present in most of the strains and the obtention of mutants lacking one or more effector genes revealed the functional overlap among this effector network. Recent functional studies have provided insights into the ability of single effectors to manipulate the host proteasome, elicit cell death, trigger the expression of plant genes, and/or display biochemical activities on plant protein targets. PMID:24880553

  5. Diverse type VI secretion phospholipases are functionally plastic antibacterial effectors

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Alistair B.; LeRoux, Michele; Hathazi, Kristina; Agnello, Danielle M.; Ishikawa, Takahiko; Wiggins, Paul A.; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Membranes allow the compartmentalization of biochemical processes and are therefore fundamental to life. The conservation of the cellular membrane, combined with its accessibility to secreted proteins, has made it a common target of factors mediating antagonistic interactions between diverse organisms. Here we report the discovery of a diverse superfamily of bacterial phospholipase enzymes. Within this superfamily, we defined enzymes with phospholipase A1 (PLA1) and A2 (PLA2) activity, which are common in host cell-targeting bacterial toxins and the venoms of certain insects and reptiles1,2. However, we find that the fundamental role of the superfamily is to mediate antagonistic bacterial interactions as effectors of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) translocation apparatus; accordingly, we name these proteins type VI lipase effectors (Tle). Our analyses indicate that PldA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a eukaryotic-like phospholipase D (PLD)3, is a member of the Tle superfamily and the founding substrate of the haemolysin co-regulated protein secretion island II T6SS (H2-T6SS). While prior studies have specifically implicated PldA and the H2-T6SS in pathogenesis3–5, we uncovered a specific role for the effector and its secretory machinery in intra- and inter-species bacterial interactions. Furthermore we find that this effector achieves its antibacterial activity by degrading phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the major component of bacterial membranes. The surprising finding that virulence-associated phospholipases can serve as specific antibacterial effectors suggests that interbacterial interactions are a relevant factor driving the ongoing evolution of pathogenesis. PMID:23552891

  6. Structural analysis of Pseudomonas syringae AvrPtoB bound to host BAK1 reveals two similar kinase-interacting domains in a type III Effector.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Munkvold, Kathy R; Gao, Haishan; Mathieu, Johannes; Schwizer, Simon; Wang, Sha; Yan, Yong-bin; Wang, Jinjing; Martin, Gregory B; Chai, Jijie

    2011-12-15

    To infect plants, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato delivers ~30 type III effector proteins into host cells, many of which interfere with PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). One effector, AvrPtoB, suppresses PTI using a central domain to bind host BAK1, a kinase that acts with several pattern recognition receptors to activate defense signaling. A second AvrPtoB domain binds and suppresses the PTI-associated kinase Bti9 but is conversely recognized by the protein kinase Pto to activate effector-triggered immunity. We report the crystal structure of the AvrPtoB-BAK1 complex, which revealed structural similarity between these two AvrPtoB domains, suggesting that they arose by intragenic duplication. The BAK1 kinase domain is structurally similar to Pto, and a conserved region within both BAK1 and Pto interacts with AvrPtoB. BAK1 kinase activity is inhibited by AvrPtoB, and mutations at the interaction interface disrupt AvrPtoB virulence activity. These results shed light on a structural mechanism underlying host-pathogen coevolution. PMID:22169508

  7. Structural Analysis of Pseudomonas syringae AvrPtoB Bound to Host BAK1 Reveals Two Similar Kinase-Interacting Domains in a Type III Effector

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Munkvold, Kathy R.; Gao, Haishan; Mathieu, Johannes; Schwizer, Simon; Wang, Sha; Yan, Yong-bin; Wang, Jinjing; Martin, Gregory B.; Chai, Jijie

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY To infect plants, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato delivers ~30 type III effector proteins into host cells, many of which interfere with PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). One effector, AvrPtoB, suppresses PTI using a central domain to bind host BAK1, a kinase that acts with several pattern recognition receptors to activate defense signaling. A second AvrPtoB domain binds and suppresses the PTI-associated kinase Bti9 but is conversely recognized by the protein kinase Pto to activate effector-triggered immunity. We report the crystal structure of the AvrPtoB-BAK1 complex, which revealed structural similarity between these two AvrPtoB domains, suggesting that they arose by intragenic duplication. The BAK1 kinase domain is structurally similar to Pto, and a conserved region within both BAK1 and Pto interacts with AvrPtoB. BAK1 kinase activity is inhibited by AvrPtoB, and mutations at the interaction interface disrupt AvrPtoB virulence activity. These results shed light on a structural mechanism underlying host-pathogen coevolution. PMID:22169508

  8. From bacterial avirulence genes to effector functions via the hrp delivery system: an overview of 25 years of progress in our understanding of plant innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, John W

    2009-11-01

    Cloning the first avirulence (avr) gene has led not only to a deeper understanding of gene-for-gene interactions in plant disease, but also to fundamental insights into the suppression of basal defences against microbial attack. This article (focusing on Pseudomonas syringae) charts the development of ideas and research progress over the 25 years following the breakthrough achieved by Staskawicz and coworkers. Advances in gene cloning technology underpinned the identification of both avr and hrp genes, the latter being required for the activation of the defensive hypersensitive reaction (HR) and pathogenicity. The delivery of Avr proteins through the type III secretion machinery encoded by hrp gene clusters was demonstrated, and the activity of the proteins inside plant cells as elicitors of the HR was confirmed. Key roles for avr genes in pathogenic fitness have now been established. The rebranding of Avr proteins as effectors, proteins that suppress the HR and cell wall-based defences, has led to the ongoing search for their targets, and is generating new insights into the co-ordination of plant resistance against diverse microbes. Bioinformatics-led analysis of effector gene distribution in genomes has provided a remarkable view of the interchange of effectors and also their functional domains, as the arms race of attack and defence drives the evolution of microbial pathogenicity. The application of our accrued knowledge for the development of disease control strategies is considered. PMID:19849780

  9. Identification of divergent type VI secretion effectors using a conserved chaperone domain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoye; Moore, Richard; Wilton, Mike; Wong, Megan J Q; Lam, Linh; Dong, Tao G

    2015-07-21

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon used by many bacteria to kill eukaryotic predators or prokaryotic competitors. Killing by the T6SS results from repetitive delivery of toxic effectors. Despite their importance in dictating bacterial fitness, systematic prediction of T6SS effectors remains challenging due to high effector diversity and the absence of a conserved signature sequence. Here, we report a class of T6SS effector chaperone (TEC) proteins that are required for effector delivery through binding to VgrG and effector proteins. The TEC proteins share a highly conserved domain (DUF4123) and are genetically encoded upstream of their cognate effector genes. Using the conserved TEC domain sequence, we identified a large family of TEC genes coupled to putative T6SS effectors in Gram-negative bacteria. We validated this approach by verifying a predicted effector TseC in Aeromonas hydrophila. We show that TseC is a T6SS-secreted antibacterial effector and that the downstream gene tsiC encodes the cognate immunity protein. Further, we demonstrate that TseC secretion requires its cognate TEC protein and an associated VgrG protein. Distinct from previous effector-dependent bioinformatic analyses, our approach using the conserved TEC domain will facilitate the discovery and functional characterization of new T6SS effectors in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26150500

  10. Micro-Review Roadmap for future research on plant pathogen effectors

    E-print Network

    Micro-Review Roadmap for future research on plant pathogen effectors JAMES R. ALFANO* The Center 68588-0660, USA SUMMARY Bacterial and eukaryotic plant pathogens deliver effector pro- teins into plant are known to inject many of these effectors into plant cells. More recently, oomycete pathogens have been

  11. Evolution of RXLR-Class Effectors in the Oomycete Plant Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    Evolution of RXLR-Class Effectors in the Oomycete Plant Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum Erica M. Goss pathogens contain many hundreds of effectors potentially involved in infection of host plants. Comparative death pathogen, P. ramorum. We found that P. ramorum RXLR effectors have taken multiple evolutionary

  12. Some epistemological implications of devices which construct their own sensors and effectors

    E-print Network

    Cariani, Peter

    Some epistemological implications of devices which construct their own sensors and effectors Peter of physical devices having adaptive sensors, coordinative parts, and/or effectors are considered with respect, and controls in a manner analogous to the structural evolution of sensory, coordinative, and effector organs

  13. The Changing Effector Pattern of Tardive Dyskinesia During the Course of Neuroleptic Withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl M. Newell; Barbara Wszola; Robert L. Sprague; Steve L. Mahorney; James W. Bodfish

    2001-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that can be expressed at various body effector points, including the face, neck, arms, fingers, legs, and torso. In this prospective longitudinal study researchers examined whether the effector pattern of TD changed during the course of neuroleptic medication withdrawal in adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that the effector pattern of TD changed

  14. Planning Keypress and Reaching Responses: Effects of Response Location and Number of Potential Effectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Jos J.; Taminiau, Bettine; van Veen, Natasja; Ament, Bart; Rijcken, Jons M.; Meijer, Kenneth; Pratt, Jay

    2008-01-01

    In previous work the authors argued that the potential number of effectors in the response set is crucial in discriminating (multiple-effector) keypress from (single-effector) reaching responses. It is not clear, however, what influence the locus of responding (on vs. off the stimulus location for reaching and keypressing, respectively) has on…

  15. A novel therapeutic strategy to rescue the immune effector function of proteolytically inactivated cancer therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuejun; Brezski, Randall J; Deng, Hui; Dhupkar, Pooja M; Shi, Yun; Gonzalez, Anneliese; Zhang, Songlin; Rycyzyn, Michael; Strohl, William R; Jordan, Robert E; Zhang, Ningyan; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-03-01

    Primary and acquired resistance to anticancer antibody immunotherapies presents significant clinical challenges. Here, we demonstrate that proteolytic inactivation of cancer-targeting antibodies is an unappreciated contributor to cancer immune evasion, and the finding presents novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. A single peptide bond cleavage in the IgG1 hinge impairs cancer cell killing due to structural derangement of the Fc region. Hinge-cleaved trastuzumab gradually accumulated on the surfaces of HER2-expressing cancer cell lines in vitro, and was greatly accelerated when the cells were engineered to express the potent bacterial IgG-degrading proteinase (IdeS). Similar to cancer-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), IdeS exposes a hinge neoepitope that we have developed an antibody, mAb2095-2, to specifically target the epitope. In in vitro studies, mAb2095-2 restored the lost antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity functionality of cell-bound single-cleaved trastuzumab (scIgG-T). In vivo, mAb2095-2 rescued the impaired Fc-dependent tumor-suppressive activity of scIgG-T in a xenograft tumor model and restored the recruitment of immune effector cells into the tumor microenvironment. More importantly, an Fc-engineered proteinase-resistant version of mAb2095-2 rescued trastuzumab antitumor efficacy in a mouse tumor model with human cancer cells secreting IdeS, whereas trastuzumab alone showed significantly reduced antitumor activity in the same model. Consistently, an Fc-engineered proteinase-resistant version of trastuzumab also greatly improved antitumor efficacy in the xenograft tumor model. Taken together, these findings point to a novel cancer therapeutic strategy to rescue proteolytic damage of antibody effector function by an Fc-engineered mAb against the hinge neoepitope and to overcome cancer evasion of antibody immunity. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(3); 681-91. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25552368

  16. A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Li, Kai; Hu, Yingxia; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R.; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted ?B binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner. PMID:25662101

  17. Secretome Analysis of Vibrio cholerae Type VI Secretion System Reveals a New Effector-Immunity Pair

    PubMed Central

    Altindis, Emrah; Dong, Tao; Catalano, Christy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a dynamic macromolecular organelle that many Gram-negative bacteria use to inhibit or kill other prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. The toxic effectors of T6SS are delivered to the prey cells in a contact-dependent manner. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, T6SS is active during intestinal infection. Here, we describe the use of comparative proteomics coupled with bioinformatics to identify a new T6SS effector-immunity pair. This analysis was able to identify all previously identified secreted substrates of T6SS except PAAR (proline, alanine, alanine, arginine) motif-containing proteins. Additionally, this approach led to the identification of a new secreted protein encoded by VCA0285 (TseH) that carries a predicted hydrolase domain. We confirmed that TseH is toxic when expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and V. cholerae cells. The toxicity observed in V. cholerae was suppressed by coexpression of the protein encoded by VCA0286 (TsiH), indicating that this protein is the cognate immunity protein of TseH. Furthermore, exogenous addition of purified recombinant TseH to permeabilized E. coli cells caused cell lysis. Bioinformatics analysis of the TseH protein sequence suggest that it is a member of a new family of cell wall-degrading enzymes that include proteins belonging to the YD repeat and Rhs superfamilies and that orthologs of TseH are likely expressed by species belonging to phyla as diverse as Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. PMID:25759499

  18. A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Li, Kai; Hu, Yingxia; Chen, Yun-Ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted ?B binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner. PMID:25662101

  19. Early effector cells survive the contraction phase in malaria infection and generate both central and effector memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Opata, Michael M; Carpio, Victor H; Ibitokou, Samad A; Dillon, Brian E; Obiero, Joshua M; Stephens, Robin

    2015-06-01

    CD4 T cells orchestrate immunity against blood-stage malaria. However, a major challenge in designing vaccines to the disease is poor understanding of the requirements for the generation of protective memory T cells (Tmem) from responding effector T cells (Teff) in chronic parasite infection. In this study, we use a transgenic mouse model with T cells specific for the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 of Plasmodium chabaudi to show that activated T cells generate three distinct Teff subsets with progressive activation phenotypes. The earliest observed Teff subsets (CD127(-)CD62L(hi)CD27(+)) are less divided than CD62L(lo) Teff and express memory genes. Intermediate (CD62L(lo)CD27(+)) effector subsets include the most multicytokine-producing T cells, whereas fully activated (CD62L(lo)CD27(-)) late effector cells have a terminal Teff phenotype (PD-1(+), Fas(hi), AnnexinV(+)). We show that although IL-2 promotes expansion, it actually slows terminal effector differentiation. Using adoptive transfer, we show that only early Teff survive the contraction phase and generate the terminal late Teff subsets, whereas in uninfected recipients, they become both central and effector Tmem. Furthermore, we show that progression toward full Teff activation is promoted by increased duration of infection, which in the long-term promotes Tem differentiation. Therefore, we have defined markers of progressive activation of CD4 Teff at the peak of malaria infection, including a subset that survives the contraction phase to make Tmem, and show that Ag and cytokine levels during CD4 T cell expansion influence the proportion of activated cells that can survive contraction and generate memory in malaria infection. PMID:25911759

  20. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePLUS

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  1. End-Effector Development for the PIP Puck Handling Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M.D.

    2001-01-03

    It has been decided that excess, weapons-grade plutonium shall be immobilized to prevent nuclear proliferation. The method of immobilization is to encapsulate the plutonium in a ceramic puck, roughly the size of a hockey puck, using a sintering process. This method has been officially identified as the Plutonium Immobilization Process (PIP). A Can-in-Canister storage method will be used to further immobilize the plutonium. The Can-in-Canister method uses the existing design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister to house the plutonium pucks. the process begins with several pucks being stacked in a stainless steel can. Several of the stainless steel cans are stacked in a cage-like magazine. Several of the magazines are then placed in a DWPF canister. The DWPF canister is then filled with molten glass containing high-level, radioactive waste from the DWPF vitrification process. The Can-in-Canister method makes reclamation of plutonium from the pucks technically difficult and highly undesirable. The mechanical requirements of the Can-in-Canister process, in conjunction with the amount of time required to immobilize the vast quantities of weapons-grade plutonium, will expose personnel to unnecessarily high levels of radiation if the processes were completed manually, in glove boxes. Therefore, automated equipment is designed into the process to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure. Robots are used whenever the automated handling operations become complicated. There are two such operations in the initial stages of the Can-in-Canister process, which required a six-axis robot. The first operation is a press unloading process. The second operation is a tray transfer process. To successfully accomplish the operational tasks described in the two operations, the end-effector of the robot must be versatile, lightweight, and rugged. As a result of these demands, an extensive development process was undertaken to design the optimum end-effector for these puck-handling operations. As an overall requirement, it was desired to keep the design of the robot end-effector as simple as possible. There were pros and cons for either type of actuation method (pneumatic or electric). But, pneumatic actuation was chosen for its simplicity and durability in a radioactive environment. It was determined early in the design process that at least two different types of end-effectors would be required for each of the operations. Therefore, a tool changer was incorporated into the end-effector design. The tool changer would also provide for simple end-effector maintenance when used in the PIP process.

  2. End-Effector Development for the PIP Puck Handling Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M.D.

    2001-01-31

    It has been decided that excess, weapons-grade plutonium shall be immobilized to prevent nuclear proliferation. The method of immobilization is to encapsulate the plutonium in a ceramic puck, roughly the size of a hockey puck, using a sintering process. This method has been officially identified as the Plutonium Immobilization Process (PIP). A Can-in-Canister storage method will be used to further immobilize the plutonium. The Can-in-Canister method uses the existing design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister to house the plutonium pucks. the process begins with several pucks being stacked in a stainless steel can. Several of the stainless steel cans are stacked in a cage-like magazine. Several of the magazines are then placed in a DWPF canister. The DWPF canister is then filled with molten glass containing high-level, radioactive waste from the DWPF vitrification process. The Can-in-Canister method makes reclamation of plutonium from the pucks technically difficult and highly undesirable. The mechanical requirements of the Can-in-Canister process, in conjunction with the amount of time required to immobilize the vast quantities of weapons-grade plutonium, will expose personnel to unnecessarily high levels of radiation if the processes were completed manually, in glove boxes. Therefore, automated equipment is designed into the process to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure. Robots are used whenever the automated handling operations become complicated. There are two such operations in the initial stages of the Can-in-Canister process, which required a six-axis robot. The first operation is a press unloading process. The second operation is a tray transfer process. To successfully accomplish the operational tasks described in the two operations, the end-effector of the robot must be versatile, lightweight, and rugged. As a result of these demands, an extensive development process was undertaken to design the optimum end-effector for these puck-handling operations. As an overall requirement, it was desired to keep the design of the robot end-effector as simple as possible. There were pros and cons for either type of actuation method (pneumatic or electric). But, pneumatic actuation was chosen for its simplicity and durability in a radioactive environment. It was determined early in the design process that at least two different types of end-effectors would be required for each of the operations. Therefore, a tool changer was incorporated into the end-effector design. The tool changer would also provide for simple end-effector maintenance when used in the PIP process.

  3. CD5 plays an inhibitory role in the suppressive function of murine CD4 + CD25 + T reg cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trivikram Dasu; Joseph E. Qualls; Halide Tuna; Chander Raman; Donald A. Cohen; Subbarao Bondada

    2008-01-01

    A subset of CD4+ T cells, the CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lymphoid organs and peripheral blood are known to possess suppressive function. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that T cell receptor (TCR) signal is required for development of such ‘natural regulatory (Treg) cells’ and for activation of the effector function of CD4+

  4. Against friend and foe: type 6 effectors in plant-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial secretion systems play critical roles in communication with neighboring bacteria and in the modulation of host immune responses via the secretion of small proteins called effectors. Several secretion systems have been identified and these are denoted types I-VII. Of these, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) and its effectors were only recently elucidated. Most studies on the role and significance of the T6SS and its effectors have focused on human pathogens. In this review, type 6 effectors from plant-associated beneficial and pathogenic bacteria are discussed, including effectors from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Dickeya dadanti, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Pectobacterium atroseptium, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas protegens. Type 6 effectors act in symbiosis, biofilm formation, virulence, and interbacterial competition. Understanding the impact of type 6 effectors on pathogenesis will contribute to the management of bacterial pathogens in crop plants by allowing the manipulation of intra and inter-specific interactions. PMID:25732741

  5. Engineered antibody Fc variants with enhanced effector function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Greg A.; Dang, Wei; Karki, Sher; Vafa, Omid; Peng, Judy S.; Hyun, Linus; Chan, Cheryl; Chung, Helen S.; Eivazi, Araz; Yoder, Sean C.; Vielmetter, Jost; Carmichael, David F.; Hayes, Robert J.; Dahiyat, Bassil I.

    2006-03-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, a key effector function for the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies, is mediated primarily through a set of closely related Fc receptors with both activating and inhibitory activities. By using computational design algorithms and high-throughput screening, we have engineered a series of Fc variants with optimized Fc receptor affinity and specificity. The designed variants display >2 orders of magnitude enhancement of in vitro effector function, enable efficacy against cells expressing low levels of target antigen, and result in increased cytotoxicity in an in vivo preclinical model. Our engineered Fc regions offer a means for improving the next generation of therapeutic antibodies and have the potential to broaden the diversity of antigens that can be targeted for antibody-based tumor therapy. antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity | FcR | protein engineering | cancer

  6. Interferon-inducible effector mechanisms in cell-autonomous immunity

    PubMed Central

    MacMicking, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of hundreds of genes as part of an elaborate antimicrobial programme designed to combat infection in all nucleated cells — a process termed cell-autonomous immunity. As described in this Review, recent genomic and subgenomic analyses have begun to assign functional properties to novel IFN-inducible effector proteins that restrict bacteria, protozoa and viruses in different subcellular compartments and at different stages of the pathogen life cycle. Several newly described host defence factors also participate in canonical oxidative and autophagic pathways by spatially coordinating their activities to enhance microbial killing. Together, these IFN-induced effector networks help to confer vertebrate host resistance to a vast and complex microbial world. PMID:22531325

  7. TAL effectors are remote controls for gene activation.

    PubMed

    Scholze, Heidi; Boch, Jens

    2011-02-01

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors constitute a novel class of DNA-binding proteins with predictable specificity. They are employed by Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas which translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins via a type III secretion system (T3SS) into plant cells where they serve as virulence determinants. Inside the plant cell, TALs localize to the nucleus, bind to target promoters, and induce expression of plant genes. DNA-binding specificity of TALs is determined by a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat confers recognition of one base pair (bp) in the DNA. Rearrangement of repeat modules allows design of proteins with desired DNA-binding specificities. Here, we summarize how TAL specificity is encoded, first structural data and first data on site-specific TAL nucleases. PMID:21215685

  8. Metabolic mechanisms of tumor resistance to T cell effector function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace M. Cham; Thomas F. Gajewski

    2005-01-01

    Established tumors develop ways to elude destruction by the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that tumors can take\\u000a advantage of the generation of metabolic dysregulation to inhibit immune responses. Effector T-cell functions are particularly\\u000a sensitive to nutrient availability in the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we highlight experimental data supporting\\u000a the importance of glucose, oxygen, tryptophan, and arginine

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell effects on T-cell effector pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle M Duffy; Thomas Ritter; Rhodri Ceredig; Matthew D Griffin

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) are rare, multipotent progenitor cells that can be isolated and expanded from bone\\u000a marrow and other tissues. Strikingly, MSCs modulate the functions of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, natural killer\\u000a cells, monocyte\\/macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. T cells, activated to perform a range of different effector\\u000a functions, are the primary mediators of many

  10. Autonomous dexterous end-effectors for space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, George A.; Iberall, Thea; Liu, Huan

    1989-01-01

    The development of a knowledge-based controller is summarized for the Belgrade/USC robot hand, a five-fingered end effector, designed for maximum autonomy. The biological principles of the hand and its architecture are presented. The conceptual and software aspects of the grasp selection system are discussed, including both the effects of the geometry of the target object and the task to be performed. Some current research issues are presented.

  11. Regulation of effectors by G-protein ?- and ??-Subunits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Morris; Suzanne Scarlata

    1997-01-01

    Both the ?- and ??-subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-dependent regulatory proteins (G-proteins) couple members of the heptahelical class of cell-surface receptors to a diverse range of signal-generating effectors including retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, ion channels, adenylylcyclases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and members of the ?-class of inositol lipid-specific phospholipases C. Although the molecular details of the G-protein-regulated phospholipase C system were elucidated

  12. RMS end effector waiting for command and SPAS-01 nearby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The end effector of the remote manipulator system (RMS) appears to be waiting for its next command at the top of this frame and the Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01), in its free flying mode, appears nearby. The three letters legible on the SPAS stand for Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm Gmbit, a West German firm. The earth's horizon is visible at the bottom of the frame.

  13. Inactivation of the apoptosis effector Apaf1 in malignant melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose L Pablos; P Capodieci; D Polsky; J Mora; M Esteller; X Opitz-Araya; R McCombie; JG Herman; WL Gerald; YA Lazebnik; C Cordon-Cardo; SW Lowe

    2001-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a deadly cancer that fails to respond to conventional chemotherapy and is poorly understood at the molecular level. p53 mutations often occur in aggressive and chemoresistant cancers but are rarely observed in melanoma. Here we show that metastatic melanomas often lose Apaf-1, a cell-death effector that acts with cytochrome c and caspase-9 to mediate p53-dependent apoptosis. Loss

  14. Inhibition of Ras-Effector Interaction by Cyclic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianghong; Upadhyaya, Punit; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Briesewitz, Roger; Pei, Dehua

    2013-01-01

    A combinatorial library of 6 × 106 cyclic peptides was synthesized in the one bead-two compound format, with each bead displaying a unique cyclic peptide on its surface and a linear peptide encoding tag in its interior. Screening of the library against K-Ras identified compounds that bound K-Ras with submicromolar affinity and disrupted its interaction with effector proteins. PMID:23585920

  15. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  16. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  17. Compact effector optics for processing in limited physical access situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Andreas; Fox, Mahlen D. T.; French, Paul W.; Hettrick, Simon; Hand, Duncan P.; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Watkins, Kenneth G.; Ireland, Clive L. M.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    2003-09-01

    A major advantage of fiber-optic beam delivery in laser materials processing is the ability to guide the laser power to the location where it is needed, leaving the laser itself remote and protected from the process. This is of special importance if the processing is to be performed in a hazardous environment. Particular problems are faced by the nuclear industry where weld repair and surface treatment work are required inside radioactive installations. By use of fiber beam delivery, only part of the delivery system and effector optics become contaminated, but the expensive laser system does not. However, in many cases the region where repair is required is not only radioactive but has only limited physical access, e.g., inside tubes or into corners, which prevents use of standard effector optics. We present a new design to deal with such constraints of a 2-mm outer diameter employing a hollow waveguide and gas shielding. This design is optically characterized and its performance assessed in welding and surface treatment applications. The potential of this compact effector optics in limited physical access situations is clearly demonstrated.

  18. Compact effector optics for processing in limited physical access situations.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Andreas; Fox, Mahlen D T; French, Paul W; Hettrick, Simon; Hand, Duncan P; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Watkins, Kenneth G; Ireland, Clive L M; Jones, Julian D C

    2003-09-01

    A major advantage of fiber-optic beam delivery in laser materials processing is the ability to guide the laser power to the location where it is needed, leaving the laser itself remote and protected from the process. This is of special importance if the processing is to be performed in a hazardous environment. Particular problems are faced by the nuclear industry where weld repair and surface treatment work are required inside radioactive installations. By use of fiber beam delivery, only part of the delivery system and effector optics become contaminated, but the expensive laser system does not. However, in many cases the region where repair is required is not only radioactive but has only limited physical access, e.g., inside tubes or into corners, which prevents use of standard effector optics. We present a new design to deal with such constraints of a 2-mm outer diameter employing a hollow waveguide and gas shielding. This design is optically characterized and its performance assessed in welding and surface treatment applications. The potential of this compact effector optics in limited physical access situations is clearly demonstrated. PMID:12962387

  19. Observed effector-independent motor learning by observing.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alexandra; Gribble, Paul L

    2012-03-01

    A compelling idea in cognitive neuroscience links motor control and action observation. Recent work supports the idea that a link exists not just between action observation and action planning, but between observation and motor learning. Several studies support the idea that cortical regions that underlie active motor learning also play a role in motor learning by observing. The goal of the present study was to test whether motor learning by observing is effector dependent (as in active motor learning) or effector independent (as in studies of action observation and mirror neurons). Right-handed human subjects observed a video depicting another individual learning to reach to visual targets in a force field (FF). The video showed reaching in a clockwise FF (CWFF) or a counter-clockwise FF (CCWFF), and depicted an individual reaching with the right or left arm. After observation, all subjects were asked to reach in a CWFF, using their right arm. As in our prior studies, subjects who observed a CWFF prior to the CWFF test performed better than subjects who observed a CCWFF. We show here that this effect was seen both when observers watched others reach using their right arm, and when observers watched others learning to reach using the left arm. These results suggest that information about novel forces learned through observation is represented in an effector-independent coordinate frame, and are consistent with the idea that the brain links not only observation and movement, but motor learning as well, through abstract representations of actions. PMID:22190621

  20. Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Dai, Huaien; Zhang, Yi; Chandrasekar, Raman; Luo, Lan; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Sheng, Changzhong; Peng, Gongxin; Chen, Shaoliang; Tomich, John M; Reese, John; Edwards, Owain; Kang, Le; Reeck, Gerald; Cui, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Aphid saliva is predicted to contain proteins that modulate plant defenses and facilitate feeding. Armet is a well-characterized bifunctional protein in mammalian systems. Here we report a new role of Armet, namely as an effector protein in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Pea aphid Armet's physical and chemical properties and its intracellular role are comparable to those reported for mammalian Armets. Uniquely, we detected Armet in aphid watery saliva and in the phloem sap of fava beans fed on by aphids. Armet's transcript level is several times higher in the salivary gland when aphids feed on bean plants than when they feed on an artificial diet. Knockdown of the Armet transcript by RNA interference disturbs aphid feeding behavior on fava beans measured by the electrical penetration graph technique and leads to a shortened life span. Inoculation of pea aphid Armet protein into tobacco leaves induced a transcriptional response that included pathogen-responsive genes. The data suggest that Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions.-Wang, W., Dai, H., Zhang, Y., Chandrasekar, R., Luo, L., Hiromasa, Y., Sheng, C., Peng, G., Chen, S., Tomich, J. M., Reese, J., Edwards, O., Kang, L., Reeck, G., Cui, F. Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions. PMID:25678626

  1. A survey of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion system effector repertoire reveals several effectors that are deleterious when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The injection of nearly 30 effector proteins by the type III secretion system underlies the ability of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 to cause disease in tomato and other host plants. The search for effector functions is complicated by redundancy within the repertoire and by plant R-g...

  2. Deletions in the repertoire of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion effector genes reveal functional overlap among effectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals disarm and remodel host cells by injecting large repertoires of effectors via the type III secretion system (T3SS). The repertoires of individual strains appear to function as robust systems that can tolerate loss of individual effectors with little or ...

  3. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.

  4. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Type III Secretion Effector Polymutants Reveal an Interplay between HopAD1 and AvrPtoB.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Lei; Chakravarthy, Suma; Mathieu, Johannes; Helmann, Tyler C; Stodghill, Paul; Swingle, Bryan; Martin, Gregory B; Collmer, Alan

    2015-06-10

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered plant innate immune system by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E) proteins. Beyond redundancy and interplay, individual T3Es may interact with multiple immunity-associated proteins, rendering their analysis challenging. We constructed a Pst DC3000 polymutant lacking all 36 T3Es and restored individual T3Es or their mutants to explore the interplay among T3Es. The weakly expressed T3E HopAD1 was sufficient to elicit immunity-associated cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. HopAD1-induced cell death was suppressed partially by native AvrPtoB and completely by AvrPtoBM3, which has mutations disrupting its E3 ubiquitin ligase domain and two known domains for interacting with immunity-associated kinases. AvrPtoBM3 also gained the ability to interact with the immunity-kinase MKK2, which is required for HopAD1-dependent cell death. Thus, AvrPtoB has alternative, competing mechanisms for suppressing effector-triggered plant immunity. This approach allows the deconvolution of individual T3E activities. PMID:26067603

  5. Transgenic Plants That Express the Phytoplasma Effector SAP11 Show Altered Phosphate Starvation and Defense Responses1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yen-Ting; Li, Meng-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Tan, Choon Meng; Su, Li-Wen; Lin, Wei-Yi; Shih, Hsien-Tzung; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen; Yang, Jun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular phosphate (Pi) and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and microRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24464367

  6. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB.

    PubMed

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B; Gorski, Sharon M

    2014-05-26

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro-Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo. PMID:24862573

  7. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB

    PubMed Central

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro–Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo. PMID:24862573

  8. Effectors of animal and plant pathogens use a common domain to bind host phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Dor; Guo, Yirui; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Gardner, Kevin H; Orth, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems deliver effectors into host cells to manipulate cellular processes to the advantage of the pathogen. Many host targets of these effectors are found on membranes. Therefore, to identify their targets, effectors often use specialized membrane-localization domains to localize to appropriate host membranes. However, the molecular mechanisms used by many domains are unknown. Here we identify a conserved bacterial phosphoinositide-binding domain (BPD) that is found in functionally diverse Type III effectors of both plant and animal pathogens. We show that members of the BPD family functionally bind phosphoinositides and mediate localization to host membranes. Moreover, NMR studies reveal that the BPD of the newly identified Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III effector VopR is unfolded in solution, but folds into a specific structure upon binding its ligand phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate. Thus, our findings suggest a possible mechanism for promoting refolding of Type III effectors after delivery into host cells. PMID:24346350

  9. Perturbation of Maize Phenylpropanoid Metabolism by an AvrE Family Type III Effector from Pantoea stewartii1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Jo Ann E.; Lin, Jinshan; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Gentzel, Irene; Majerczak, Doris; Opiyo, Stephen O.; Zhao, Wanying; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Coplin, David L.; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Mackey, David

    2015-01-01

    AvrE family type III effector proteins share the ability to suppress host defenses, induce disease-associated cell death, and promote bacterial growth. However, despite widespread contributions to numerous bacterial diseases in agriculturally important plants, the mode of action of these effectors remains largely unknown. WtsE is an AvrE family member required for the ability of Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii (Pnss) to proliferate efficiently and cause wilt and leaf blight symptoms in maize (Zea mays) plants. Notably, when WtsE is delivered by a heterologous system into the leaf cells of susceptible maize seedlings, it alone produces water-soaked disease symptoms reminiscent of those produced by Pnss. Thus, WtsE is a pathogenicity and virulence factor in maize, and an Escherichia coli heterologous delivery system can be used to study the activity of WtsE in isolation from other factors produced by Pnss. Transcriptional profiling of maize revealed the effects of WtsE, including induction of genes involved in secondary metabolism and suppression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Targeted metabolite quantification revealed that WtsE perturbs maize metabolism, including the induction of coumaroyl tyramine. The ability of mutant WtsE derivatives to elicit transcriptional and metabolic changes in susceptible maize seedlings correlated with their ability to promote disease. Furthermore, chemical inhibitors that block metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathways targeted by WtsE also disrupted the pathogenicity and virulence activity of WtsE. While numerous metabolites produced downstream of the shikimate pathway are known to promote plant defense, our results indicate that misregulated induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism also can be used to promote pathogen virulence. PMID:25635112

  10. Thermal bottomonium suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Michael

    2013-03-01

    I discuss recent calculations of the thermal suppression of bottomonium states in relativistic heavy ion collisions. I present results for the inclusive ?(1s) and ?(2s) suppression as a function of centrality. I compare with the most recent CMS preliminary data available at central rapidities and make predictions at forward rapidities which are within the acceptance of the ALICE dimuon spectrometer.

  11. Regulation of Cell Wall-Bound Invertase in Pepper Leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type Three Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Priller, Johannes P. R.; Schuster, Julia; Glickmann, Eric; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Siebig, Stefan; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ?xopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ?xopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar-enhanced defense responses during Xcv infection. PMID:23272161

  12. Flight Control Using Distributed Shape-Change Effector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Montgomery, Raymond C.; Green, Lawrence I.; Park, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent discoveries in material science and fluidics have been used to create a variety of novel effector devices that offer great potential to enable new approaches to aerospace vehicle flight control. Examples include small inflatable blisters, shape-memory alloy diaphragms, and piezoelectric patches that may be used to produce distortions or bumps on the surface of an airfoil to generate control moments. Small jets have also been used to produce a virtual shape-change through fluidic means by creating a recirculation bubble on the surface of an airfoil. An advanced aerospace vehicle might use distributed arrays of hundreds of such devices to generate moments for stabilization and maneuver control, either augmenting or replacing conventional ailerons, flaps or rudders. This research demonstrates the design and use of shape-change device arrays for a tailless aircraft in a low-rate maneuvering application. A methodology for assessing the control authority of the device arrays is described, and a suite of arrays is used in a dynamic simulation to illustrate allocation and deployment methodologies. Although the authority of the preliminary shape-change array designs studied in this paper appeared quite low, the simulation results indicate that the effector suite possessed sufficient authority to stabilize and maneuver the vehicle in mild turbulence.

  13. Crystal structure of the death effector domains of caspase-8.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Yue, Hong; Pei, Jianwen; Guo, Xiaomin; Wang, Tao; Quan, Jun-Min

    2015-07-31

    Caspase-8 is a key mediator in various biological processes such as apoptosis, necroptosis, inflammation, T/B cells activation, and cell motility. Caspase-8 is characterized by the N-terminal tandem death effector domains (DEDs) and the C-terminal catalytic protease domain. The DEDs mediate diverse functions of caspase-8 through homotypic interactions of the DEDs between caspase-8 and its partner proteins. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the DEDs of caspase-8. The overall structure of the DEDs of caspase-8 is similar to that of the DEDs of vFLIP MC159, which is composed of two tandem death effector domains that closely associate with each other in a head-to-tail manner. Structural analysis reveals distinct differences in the region connecting helices ?2b and ?4b in the second DED of the DEDs between caspase-8 and MC159, in which the helix ?3b in MC159 is replaced by a loop in caspase-8. Moreover, the different amino acids in this region might confer the distinct features of solubility and aggregation for the DEDs of caspase-8 and MC159. PMID:26003730

  14. Two Fis Regulators Directly Repress the Expression of Numerous Effector-Encoding Genes in Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, Tal; Speiser, Yariv

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular human pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate a large repertoire of effectors into host cells. For most of these effectors, there is no information regarding their regulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the three L. pneumophila Fis homologs in the regulation of effector-encoding genes. Deletion mutants constructed in the genes encoding the three Fis regulators revealed that Fis1 (lpg0542 gene) and Fis3 (lpg1743) but not Fis2 (lpg1370) are partially required for intracellular growth of L. pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. To identify pathogenesis-related genes directly regulated by Fis, we established a novel in vivo system which resulted in the discovery of numerous effector-encoding genes directly regulated by Fis. Further examination of these genes revealed that Fis1 and Fis3 repress the level of expression of effector-encoding genes during exponential phase. Three groups of effector-encoding genes were identified: (i) effectors regulated mainly by Fis1, (ii) effectors regulated mainly by Fis3, and (iii) effectors regulated by both Fis1 and Fis3. Examination of the upstream regulatory region of all of these effector-encoding genes revealed multiple putative Fis regulatory elements, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that a few of these sites constitute part of a repressor binding element. Furthermore, gel mobility shift assays demonstrated the direct relation between the Fis1 and Fis3 regulators and these regulatory elements. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that two of the three L. pneumophila Fis regulators directly repress the expression of Icm/Dot effector-encoding genes. PMID:25225276

  15. Hail suppression and society.

    PubMed

    Changnon, S A; Farhar, B C; Swanson, E R

    1978-04-28

    An interdisciplinary assessment of hail suppression in the past, present, and future has shown it to be currently scientifically uncertain but a potentially beneficial future technology. An established suppression technology would be widely adopted in the Great Plains, providing benefits to agriculture and secondarily to the American consumer. Development of a reliable technology will require a sizable longterm federal commitment to atmospheric and social research. Subcritical funding would be a mistake. Orderly future usage of hail suppression, with its scientific complexities and regional character, will necessitate development of governmental regulations, evaluation procedures, interstate arrangements, and means for compensating those who lose from modification. PMID:17757286

  16. A survey of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion system effector repertoire reveals several effectors that are deleterious when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, Kathy R; Martin, Michael E; Bronstein, Philip A; Collmer, Alan

    2008-04-01

    The injection of nearly 30 effector proteins by the type III secretion system underlies the ability of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 to cause disease in tomato and other host plants. The search for effector functions is complicated by redundancy within the repertoire and by plant resistance (R)-gene sentinels, which may convert effector virulence activities into a monolithic defense response. On the premise that some effectors target universal eukaryotic processes and that yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lacks R genes, the DC3000 effector repertoire was expressed in yeast. Of 27 effectors tested, HopAD1, HopAO1, HopD1, HopN1, and HopU1 were found to inhibit growth when expressed from a galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter, and HopAA1-1 and HopAM1 were found to cause cell death. Catalytic site mutations affecting the tyrosine phosphatase activity of HopAO1 and the cysteine protease activity of HopN1 prevented these effectors from inhibiting yeast growth. Expression of HopAA1-1, HopAM1, HopAD1, and HopAO1 impaired respiration in yeast, as indicated by tests with ethanol glycerol selective media. HopAA1-1 colocalized with porin to yeast mitochondria and was shown to cause cell death in yeast and plants in a domain-dependent manner. These results support the use of yeast for the study of plant-pathogen effector repertoires. PMID:18321194

  17. A widespread bacterial type VI secretion effector superfamily identified using a heuristic approach

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Alistair B.; Singh, Pragya; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Bui, Nhat Khai; Hood, Rachel D.; Carl, Mike A.; Agnello, Danielle M.; Schwarz, Sandra; Goodlett, David R.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Sophisticated mechanisms are employed to facilitate information exchange between interfacing bacteria. A type VI secretion system (T6SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to deliver cell wall-targeting effectors to neighboring cells. However, the generality of bacteriolytic effectors, and moreover, of antibacterial T6S, remained unknown. Using parameters derived from experimentally validated bacterial T6SS effectors and informatics, we identified a phylogenetically disperse superfamily of T6SS-associated peptidoglycan-degrading effectors. The effectors separate into four families composed of peptidoglycan amidase enzymes of differing specificities. Effectors strictly co-occur with cognate immunity proteins, indicating that self-intoxication is a general property of antibacterial T6SSs and effector delivery by the system exerts a strong selective pressure in nature. The presence of antibacterial effectors in a plethora of organisms, including many that inhabit or infect polymicrobial niches in the human body, suggests that the system could mediate interbacterial interactions of both environmental and clinical significance. PMID:22607806

  18. Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation

    E-print Network

    Jenny, Andreas

    Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation Jeremy K. Fagan1 effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh. Citation: Fagan JK September 10, 2014 Copyright: ß 2014 Fagan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms

  19. A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during

    E-print Network

    Mudgettt, Mary Beth

    A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during Xanthomonas these fusions translocated the AvrBs2 reporter in a TTSS-dependent manner into resistant BS2 pepper cells during repeat and is required for full Xcv pathogenicity in pepper and tomato. The translocated effectors

  20. PD1 Inhibits Antiviral Immunity at the Effector Phase in the Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiko Iwai; Seigo Terawaki; Masaya Ikegawa; Taku Okazaki; Tasuku Honjo

    2003-01-01

    Unlike naive T cells, effector T cells can be activated by either T cell receptor signal or costim- ulatory signal alone and therefore the absence of costimulatory molecules on tissue cells cannot explain the tolerance mechanism at the effector phase. Here we report that PD-L1, the ligand for the immunoinhibitory receptor PD-1, was expressed on vascular endothelium in peripheral tissues.

  1. Type III Effector Diversification via Both Pathoadaptation and Horizontal Transfer in

    E-print Network

    Guttman, David S.

    . We show how the evolution and function of the HopZ family of type III secreted effector proteins secreted through the type III secretion system (T3SS) and the host defense proteins that respond to them Gram-negative bacteria to directly deliver bacterial type III secreted effectors (T3SEs

  2. E2~Ub conjugates regulate the kinase activity of Shigella effector OspG during pathogenesis

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    pathogens like Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., and pathogenic Escherichia coli utilize a Type III secretion of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells. Keywords

  3. Implementation of the velocities of the end-effector with the distributed arithmetic architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Grigoriadis; Basil G. Mertzios

    1996-01-01

    The fast implementation of the linear and of the angular velocities of the end-effector of robotic manipulators, using the distributed arithmetic technique is described. The linear and angular velocities of the end-effector as well as the positional and the orientational jacobian matrices is calculated by a cascade configuration of two pipelined arrays. The building blocks of the arrays are the

  4. System design description for the LDUA common video end effector system (CVEE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pardini

    1998-01-01

    The Common Video End Effector System (CVEE), system 62-60, was designed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to provide the control interface of the various video end effectors used on the LDUA. The CVEE system consists of a Support Chassis which contains the input and output Opto-22 modules, relays, and power supplies and the Power Chassis which contains the

  5. Spatial and effector processing in the human parietofrontal network for reaches and saccades.

    PubMed

    Beurze, S M; de Lange, F P; Toni, I; Medendorp, W P

    2009-06-01

    It is generally accepted that interactions between parietal and frontal cortices subserve the visuomotor processing for eye and hand movements. Here, we used a sequential-instruction paradigm in 3-T functional MRI to test the processing of effector and spatial signals, as well as their interaction, as a movement is composed and executed in different stages. Subjects prepared either a saccade or a reach following two successive visual instruction cues, presented in either order. One cue instructed which effector to use (eyes, right hand); the other signaled the spatial goal (leftward vs. rightward target location) of the movement. During the first phase of the prepared movement, after cueing of either goal or effector information, we found significant spatial goal selectivity but no effector specificity along the parietofrontal network. During the second phase of the prepared movement, when both goal and effector information were available, we found a large overlap in the neural circuitry involved in the planning of eye and hand movements. Gradually distributed along this network, we observed clear spatial goal selectivity and limited, but significant, effector specificity. Regions in the intraparietal sulcus and the dorsal premotor cortex were selective to both goal location and motor effector. Taken together, our results suggest that the relative weight of spatial goal and effector selectivity changes along the parietofrontal network, depending on the status of the movement plan. PMID:19321636

  6. The novel GrCEP12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated PTI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiyan; Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-09-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. In addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development, (1) nematode secreted effectors are becoming recognized as suppressors of plant immunity. (2)(-) (4) Recently we reported that the effector ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (GrUBCEP12) from G. rostochiensis is processed into free ubiquitin and a 12-amino acid GrCEP12 peptide in planta. Transgenic potato lines overexpressing the derived GrCEP12 peptide showed increased susceptibility to G. rostochiensis and to an unrelated bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies, suggesting that GrCEP12 has a role in suppressing host basal defense or possibly pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) during the parasitic interaction. (3) To determine if GrCEP12 functions as a PTI suppressor we evaluated whether GrCEP12 suppresses flg22-induced PTI responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, we found that transient expression of GrCEP12 in N. benthamiana leaves suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the induction of two PTI marker genes triggered by the bacterial PAMP flg22, providing direct evidence that GrCEP12 indeed has an activity in PTI suppression. PMID:23803745

  7. Copy number loss or silencing of apoptosis-effector genes in cancer.

    PubMed

    Mauro, James A; Butler, Shanitra N; Ramsamooj, Michael; Blanck, George

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo a variety of DNA copy number gains and losses (CNV), raising two important questions related to cancer development: (i) Which genes are affected? (ii) And how do CNVs, that do not represent complete deletions but do represent gene-dosage alterations, impact cancer cell functions? Recent studies have indicated that CNVs in cancer can impact genes for regulatory proteins long known to be associated with cancer development, but less is understood about CNVs affecting effector genes. Also, we have recently indicated the likely importance of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) copies in effector genes, in regulating the transition from a proliferative to an apoptotic state. Here we report data-mining analyses that indicate that copies of apoptosis-effector genes are commonly lost in cancer development, in comparison to proliferation-effector genes, and when not, apoptosis effector genes have silenced chromatin structures. PMID:25307873

  8. Cutting edge: CTLA-4 on effector T cells inhibits in trans.

    PubMed

    Corse, Emily; Allison, James P

    2012-08-01

    CTLA-4 is thought to inhibit effector T cells both intrinsically, by competing with CD28 for B7 ligands, and extrinsically, through the action of regulatory T cells (Tregs). We studied in vivo responses of normal and CTLA-4-deficient Ag-specific murine effector CD4(+) T cells. We directly demonstrate that effector T cell-restricted CTLA-4 inhibits T cell responses in a cell-extrinsic manner. Cotransfer experiments show that CTLA-4 on normal effector CD4(+) T cells completely abrogates the dramatically increased expansion normally experienced by their CTLA-4-deficient counterparts. Neither the wild-type nor the CTLA-4-deficient T cells express the Treg transcription factor Foxp3 when transferred alone or together. Thus, cell-extrinsic inhibition of T cell responses by CTLA-4 is not limited to Tregs but is also a function of effector T cells. PMID:22753941

  9. The changing effector pattern of tardive dyskinesia during the course of neuroleptic withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Newell, K M; Wszola, B; Sprague, R L; Mahorney, S L; Bodfish, J W

    2001-08-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that can be expressed at various body effector points, including the face, neck, arms, fingers, legs, and torso. In this prospective longitudinal study researchers examined whether the effector pattern of TD changed during the course of neuroleptic medication withdrawal in adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that the effector pattern of TD changed over the course of neuroleptic withdrawal. Peak dyskinesia was associated with the involvement of more body areas relative to baseline. Although dyskinesia decreased at follow-up and fewer body areas showed signs of dyskinesia, there were still differences in the effector pattern of dyskinesia relative to baseline at periods of 1 to 2 years following neuroleptic withdrawal. These findings suggest that TD is a dynamic disorder associated with changes in both severity and effector pattern over time. PMID:11534536

  10. Immune Effector Mechanisms Implicated in Atherosclerosis: From Mice to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Libby, Peter; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Hansson, Göran K.

    2013-01-01

    According to the traditional view, atherosclerosis results from a passive buildup of cholesterol in the artery wall. Yet, burgeoning evidence implicates inflammation and immune effector mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this disease. Both innate and adaptive immunity operate during atherogenesis and link many traditional risk factors to altered arterial functions. Inflammatory pathways have become targets in the quest for novel preventive and therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease, a growing contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here we review current experimental and clinical knowledge of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through an immunological lens and how host defense mechanisms essential for survival of the species actually contribute to this chronic disease but also present new opportunities for its mitigation. PMID:23809160

  11. Modulation of innate immunity by Toxoplasma gondii virulence effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Christopher A.; Sibley, L. David

    2013-01-01

    Preface Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of animals and humans that can cause serious opportunistic infections. However, the majority of infections are asymptomatic possibly because the organism has co-evolved with its many vertebrate hosts and has developed multiple strategies to persist asymptomatically for the lifetime of the host. Over the past two decades, infection studies in the mouse, combined with forward genetic approaches aimed at unraveling the molecular basis of infection, have revealed that T. gondii virulence is mediated, in part, by secretion of effector proteins into the host cell during invasion. Here, we review recent advances that illustrate how these virulence factors disarm innate immunity and promote survival of the parasite. PMID:23070557

  12. Cell-autonomous effector mechanisms against mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    MacMicking, John D

    2014-10-01

    Few pathogens run the gauntlet of sterilizing immunity like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This organism infects mononuclear phagocytes and is also ingested by neutrophils, both of which possess an arsenal of cell-intrinsic effector mechanisms capable of eliminating it. Here Mtb encounters acid, oxidants, nitrosylating agents, and redox congeners, often exuberantly delivered under low oxygen tension. Further pressure is applied by withholding divalent Fe²?, Mn²?, Cu²?, and Zn²?, as well as by metabolic privation in the form of carbon needed for anaplerosis and aromatic amino acids for growth. Finally, host E3 ligases ubiquinate, cationic peptides disrupt, and lysosomal enzymes digest Mtb as part of the autophagic response to this particular pathogen. It is a testament to the evolutionary fitness of Mtb that sterilization is rarely complete, although sufficient to ensure most people infected with this airborne bacterium remain disease-free. PMID:25081628

  13. [Peripheral effector mechanism hypothesis on cardiovascular dysfunction after spaceflight].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L F; Yu, Z B; Ma, J; Mao, Q W

    2001-01-01

    In the years of 1990's, we systematically studied the adaptational changes in structure and function of both the heart and the vessels during simulated weightlessness. In our serial work, the tail-suspension rat model was used to simulate the microgravity-induced cephalad shift and redistribution of blood. On the basis of the facts we observed and the more recent advances in space and ground-based studies in 1990's, we put forward a hypothesis to offer a possible explanation for the frequent occurrence of postflight cardiovascular dysfunction. It states that, in addition to the factor of hypovolemia, the microgravity-induced adaptational changes in the structure and function of the two main effectors of the cardiovascular system, i.e., the arterial smooth muscle and the cardiac muscle might be one of the most important mechanisms accounting for postflight cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:12545770

  14. Type VI secretion effectors: poisons with a purpose

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Alistair B.; Peterson, S. Brook; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates interactions between a diverse range of Gram-negative bacterial species. Recent studies have led to a drastic increase in the number of characterized T6SS effector proteins and produced a more complete and nuanced view of the adaptive significance of the system. While the system is most often implicated in antagonism, in this review we consider the case for its involvement in both antagonistic and non-antagonistic behaviors. Clarifying the roles that T6S plays in microbial communities will contribute to broader efforts to understand the importance of microbial interactions in maintaining human and environmental health, and will inform efforts to manipulate these interactions for therapeutic or environmental benefit. PMID:24384601

  15. Thrombin A-Chain: Activation Remnant or Allosteric Effector?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Isis S. R.; Vanden Hoek, Amanda L.; Pryzdial, Edward L. G.; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Although prothrombin is one of the most widely studied enzymes in biology, the role of the thrombin A-chain has been neglected in comparison to the other domains. This paper summarizes the current data on the prothrombin catalytic domain A-chain region and the subsequent thrombin A-chain. Attention is given to biochemical characterization of naturally occurring prothrombin A-chain mutations and alanine scanning mutants in this region. While originally considered to be simply an activation remnant with little physiologic function, the thrombin A-chain is now thought to play a role as an allosteric effector in enzymatic reactions and may also be a structural scaffold to stabilize the protease domain. PMID:22084659

  16. Molecular regulation of effector and memory T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, John T; Wherry, E John; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a cardinal feature of adaptive immunity and an important goal of vaccination strategies. Here we highlight advances in the understanding of the diverse T lymphocyte subsets that provide acute and long-term protection from infection. These include new insights into the transcription factors, and the upstream ‘pioneering’ factors that regulate their accessibility to key sites of gene regulation, as well as metabolic regulators that contribute to the differentiation of effector and memory subsets; ontogeny and defining characteristics of tissue-resident memory lymphocytes; and origins of the remarkable heterogeneity exhibited by activated T cells. Collectively, these findings underscore progress in delineating the underlying pathways that control diversification in T cell responses but also reveal gaps in the knowledge, as well as the challenges that arise in the application of this knowledge to rationally elicit desired T cell responses through vaccination and immunotherapy. PMID:25396352

  17. Cell-Autonomous Effector Mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    MacMicking, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Few pathogens run the gauntlet of sterilizing immunity like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This organism infects mononuclear phagocytes and is also ingested by neutrophils, both of which possess an arsenal of cell-intrinsic effector mechanisms capable of eliminating it. Here Mtb encounters acid, oxidants, nitrosylating agents, and redox congeners, often exuberantly delivered under low oxygen tension. Further pressure is applied by withholding divalent Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+, as well as by metabolic privation in the form of carbon needed for anaplerosis and aromatic amino acids for growth. Finally, host E3 ligases ubiquinate, cationic peptides disrupt, and lysosomal enzymes digest Mtb as part of the autophagic response to this particular pathogen. It is a testament to the evolutionary fitness of Mtb that sterilization is rarely complete, although sufficient to ensure most people infected with this airborne bacterium remain disease-free. PMID:25081628

  18. Electroporation of Functional Bacterial Effectors into Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Mihai, Cosmin; Orr, Galya; Savchenko, Alexei; Skarina, Tatiana; Cui, Hong; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Brown, Roslyn N.

    2015-01-01

    The study of protein interactions in the context of living cells can generate critical information about localization, dynamics, and interacting partners. This information is particularly valuable in the context of host-pathogen interactions. Many pathogen proteins function within host cells in a variety of way such as, enabling evasion of the host immune system and survival within the intracellular environment. To study these pathogen-protein host-cell interactions, several approaches are commonly used, including: in vivo infection with a strain expressing a tagged or mutant protein, or introduction of pathogen genes via transfection or transduction. Each of these approaches has advantages and disadvantages. We sought a means to directly introduce exogenous proteins into cells. Electroporation is commonly used to introduce nucleic acids into cells, but has been more rarely applied to proteins although the biophysical basis is exactly the same. A standard electroporator was used to introduce affinity-tagged bacterial effectors into mammalian cells. Human epithelial and mouse macrophage cells were cultured by traditional methods, detached, and placed in 0.4 cm gap electroporation cuvettes with an exogenous bacterial pathogen protein of interest (e.g. Salmonella Typhimurium GtgE). After electroporation (0.3 kV) and a short (4 hr) recovery period, intracellular protein was verified by fluorescently labeling the protein via its affinity tag and examining spatial and temporal distribution by confocal microscopy. The electroporated protein was also shown to be functional inside the cell and capable of correct subcellular trafficking and protein-protein interaction. While the exogenous proteins tended to accumulate on the surface of the cells, the electroporated samples had large increases in intracellular effector concentration relative to incubation alone. The protocol is simple and fast enough to be done in a parallel fashion, allowing for high-throughput characterization of pathogen proteins in host cells including subcellular targeting and function of virulence proteins. PMID:25650771

  19. Innate pro–B-cell progenitors protect against type 1 diabetes by regulating autoimmune effector T cells

    PubMed Central

    Montandon, Ruddy; Korniotis, Sarantis; Layseca-Espinosa, Esther; Gras, Christophe; Mégret, Jérôme; Ezine, Sophie; Dy, Michel; Zavala, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Diverse hematopoietic progenitors, including myeloid populations arising in inflammatory and tumoral conditions and multipotent cells, mobilized by hematopoietic growth factors or emerging during parasitic infections, display tolerogenic properties. Innate immune stimuli confer regulatory functions to various mature B-cell subsets but immature B-cell progenitors endowed with suppressive properties per se or after differentiating into more mature regulatory B cells remain to be characterized. Herein we provide evidence for innate pro-B cells (CpG-proBs) that emerged within the bone marrow both in vitro and in vivo upon Toll-like receptor-9 activation and whose adoptive transfer protected nonobese diabetic mice against type 1 diabetes (T1D). These cells responded to IFN-? released by activated effector T cells (Teffs), by up-regulating their Fas ligand (FasL) expression, which enabled them to kill Teffs through apoptosis. In turn, IFN-? derived from CpG-proBs enhanced IFN-? while dramatically reducing IL-21 production by Teffs. In keeping with the crucial pathogenic role played by IL-21 in T1D, adoptively transferred IFN-?–deficient CpG-proBs did not prevent T1D development. Additionally, CpG-proBs matured in vivo into diverse pancreatic and splenic suppressive FasLhigh B-cell subsets. CpG-proBs may become instrumental in cell therapy of autoimmune diseases either on their own or as graft complement in autologous stem cell transplantation. PMID:23716674

  20. A Rapid One-Generation Genetic Screen in a Drosophila Model to Capture Rhabdomyosarcoma Effectors and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Kathleen A.; Endicott, Tiana R.; Avirneni-Vadlamudi, Usha; Galindo, Rene L.

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive childhood malignancy of neoplastic muscle-lineage precursors that fail to terminally differentiate into syncytial muscle. The most aggressive form of RMS, alveolar-RMS, is driven by misexpression of the PAX-FOXO1 oncoprotein, which is generated by recurrent chromosomal translocations that fuse either the PAX3 or PAX7 gene to FOXO1. The molecular underpinnings of PAX-FOXO1?mediated RMS pathogenesis remain unclear, however, and clinical outcomes poor. Here, we report a new approach to dissect RMS, exploiting a highly efficient Drosophila PAX7-FOXO1 model uniquely configured to uncover PAX-FOXO1 RMS genetic effectors in only one generation. With this system, we have performed a comprehensive deletion screen against the Drosophila autosomes and demonstrate that mutation of Mef2, a myogenesis lynchpin in both flies and mammals, dominantly suppresses PAX7-FOXO1 pathogenicity and acts as a PAX7-FOXO1 gene target. Additionally, we reveal that mutation of mastermind, a gene encoding a MEF2 transcriptional coactivator, similarly suppresses PAX7-FOXO1, further pointing toward MEF2 transcriptional activity as a PAX-FOXO1 underpinning. These studies show the utility of the PAX-FOXO1 Drosophila system as a robust one-generation (F1) RMS gene discovery platform and demonstrate how Drosophila transgenic conditional expression models can be configured for the rapid dissection of human disease. PMID:25491943

  1. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    PubMed Central

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Jones, David A.; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their hosts. PMID:24715894

  2. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    PubMed

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their hosts. PMID:24715894

  3. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-08-12

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  4. Type I Interferon Signaling Enhances CD8+ T Cell Effector Function and Differentiation during Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Ryan N.; Grayson, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD8+ T cell responses are critical to the control of replication and reactivation associated with gammaherpesvirus infection. Type I interferons (IFNs) have been shown to have direct and indirect roles in supporting CD8+ T cell development and function during viral infection; however, the role of type I interferons during latent viral infection has not been examined. Mice deficient in type I IFN signaling (IFNAR1?/? mice) have high levels of reactivation during infection with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), a murine gammaherpesvirus model for Epstein-Barr virus. We hypothesized that type I IFNs function to enhance the anti-gammaherpesvirus CD8+ T cell response. To test this, IFNAR1?/? mice were infected with MHV68 and the CD8+ T cell response was analyzed. In the absence of type I IFN signaling, there was a marked increase in short-lived effector CD8+ T cells, and MHV68-specific CD8+ T cells had upregulated expression of PD-1 and reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), gamma IFN (IFN-?), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Suppressing MHV68 replication early in infection using the antiviral cidofovir rescued CD8+ T cell cytokine production and reduced PD-1 expression. However, suppressing high levels of reactivation in IFNAR1?/? mice failed to improve CD8+ T cell cytokine production during latency. T cell-specific abrogation of type I IFN signaling showed that the effects of type I IFNs on the CD8+ T cell response during MHV68 infection are independent of direct type I IFN signaling on T cells. Our findings support a model in which type I IFNs likely suppress MHV68 replication, thus limiting viral antigen and facilitating an effective gammaherpesvirus-directed CD8+ T cell response. IMPORTANCE The murine gammaherpesvirus MHV68 has both genetic and biologic homology to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which infects over 90% of humans. Latent EBV infection and reactivation are associated with various life-threatening diseases and malignancies. Host suppression of gammaherpesvirus latency and reactivation requires both CD8+ T cells as well as type I interferon signaling. Type I IFNs have been shown to critically support the antiviral CD8+ T cell response in other virus models. Here, we identify an indirect role for type I IFN signaling in enhancing gammaherpesvirus-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine production. Further, this function of type I IFN signaling can be partially rescued by suppressing viral replication during early MHV68 infection. Our data suggest that type I IFN signaling on non-T cells can enhance CD8+ T cell function during gammaherpesvirus infection, potentially through suppression of MHV68 replication. PMID:25253356

  5. Comparative analysis of the XopD T3S effector family in plant pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Gun; Taylor, Kyle W.; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY XopD is a type III effector protein that is required for Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria (Xcv) growth in tomato. It is a modular protein consisting of an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, two EAR transcriptional repressor motifs, and a C-terminal SUMO protease. In tomato, XopD functions as a transcriptional repressor, resulting in the suppression of defense responses at late stages of infection. A survey of available genome sequences for phytopathogenic bacteria revealed that XopD homologs are limited to species within three Genera of Proteobacteria – Xanthomonas, Acidovorax, and Pseudomonas. While the EAR motif(s) and SUMO protease domain are conserved in all the XopD-like proteins, variation exists in the length and sequence identity of the N-terminal domains. Comparative analysis of the DNA sequences surrounding xopD and xopD-like genes led to revised annotation of the xopD gene. Edman degradation sequence analysis and functional complementation studies confirmed that the xopD gene from Xcv encodes a 760 amino acid protein with a longer N-terminal domain than previously predicted. None of the XopD-like proteins studied complemented Xcv ?xopD mutant phenotypes in tomato leaves suggesting that the N-terminus of XopD defines functional specificity. Xcv ?xopD strains expressing chimeric fusion proteins containing the N-terminus of XopD fused to the EAR motif(s) and SUMO protease domain of the XopD-like protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris strain B100 were fully virulent in tomato demonstrating that the N-terminus of XopD controls specificity in tomato. PMID:21726373

  6. T cells are key effectors of the adaptive immune response, with a number of important roles in the elimination

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    T cells are key effectors of the adaptive immune response, with a number of important roles in the elimination of pathogens. They are also major effectors in auto immune diseases and, therefore, and its subsequent effect on prolifera tion and differentiation, to generate effector and memory immune

  7. Development of a Mild Viral Expression System for Gain-Of-Function Study of Phytoplasma Effector In Planta.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sin-Fen; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Chan-Pin; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Hong, Syuan-Fei; Yang, Chiao-Yin; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Tseng, Ting-Yu; Chen, Wei-Yao; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-01-01

    PHYL1 and SAP54 are orthologs of pathogenic effectors of Aster yellow witches'-broom (AYWB) phytoplasma and Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma, respectively. These effectors cause virescence and phyllody symptoms (hereafter leafy flower) in phytoplasma-infected plants. T0 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the PHYL1 or SAP54 genes (PHYL1 or SAP54 plants) show a leafy flower phenotype and result in seedless, suggesting that PHYL1 and SAP54 interfere with reproduction stage that restrict gain-of-function studies in the next generation of transgenic plants. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) mild strain (TuGK) has an Arg182Lys mutation in the helper-component proteinase (HC-ProR182K) that blocks suppression of the miRNA pathway and prevents symptom development in TuGK-infected plants. We exploited TuGK as a viral vector for gain-of-function studies of PHYL1 and SAP54 in Arabidopsis plants. TuGK-PHYL1- and TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants produced identical leafy flower phenotypes and similar gene expression profiles as PHYL1 and SAP54 plants. In addition, the leafy flower formation rate was enhanced in TuGK-PHYL1- or TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants that compared with the T0 lines of PHYL1 plants. These results provide more evidence and novel directions for further studying the mechanism of PHYL1/SAP54-mediated leafy flower development. In addition, the TuGK vector is a good alternative in transgenic plant approaches for rapid gene expression in gain-of-function studies. PMID:26076458

  8. Development of a Mild Viral Expression System for Gain-Of-Function Study of Phytoplasma Effector In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Hong, Syuan-Fei; Yang, Chiao-Yin; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Tseng, Ting-Yu; Chen, Wei-Yao; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-01-01

    PHYL1 and SAP54 are orthologs of pathogenic effectors of Aster yellow witches’-broom (AYWB) phytoplasma and Peanut witches’-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma, respectively. These effectors cause virescence and phyllody symptoms (hereafter leafy flower) in phytoplasma-infected plants. T0 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the PHYL1 or SAP54 genes (PHYL1 or SAP54 plants) show a leafy flower phenotype and result in seedless, suggesting that PHYL1 and SAP54 interfere with reproduction stage that restrict gain-of-function studies in the next generation of transgenic plants. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) mild strain (TuGK) has an Arg182Lys mutation in the helper-component proteinase (HC-ProR182K) that blocks suppression of the miRNA pathway and prevents symptom development in TuGK-infected plants. We exploited TuGK as a viral vector for gain-of-function studies of PHYL1 and SAP54 in Arabidopsis plants. TuGK-PHYL1- and TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants produced identical leafy flower phenotypes and similar gene expression profiles as PHYL1 and SAP54 plants. In addition, the leafy flower formation rate was enhanced in TuGK-PHYL1- or TuGK-SAP54-infected Arabidopsis plants that compared with the T0 lines of PHYL1 plants. These results provide more evidence and novel directions for further studying the mechanism of PHYL1/SAP54-mediated leafy flower development. In addition, the TuGK vector is a good alternative in transgenic plant approaches for rapid gene expression in gain-of-function studies. PMID:26076458

  9. Tumor infiltrating PD-1+ dendritic cells mediate immune suppression in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Krempski, James; Karyampudi, Lavakumar; Behrens, Marshall D.; Erskine, Courtney L.; Hartmann, Lynn; Dong, Haidong; Goode, Ellen L.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Knutson, Keith L.

    2011-01-01

    Within the ovarian cancer microenvironment there are several mechanisms that suppress the actions of anti-tumor immune effectors. Delineating the complex immune microenvironment is an important goal towards developing effective immune-based therapies. A dominant pathway of immune suppression in ovarian cancer involves tumor-associated and dendritic cell-associated, B7-H1. The interaction of B7-H1 with PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating T cells is a widely cited theory of immune suppression involving B7-H1 in ovarian cancer. Recent studies suggest that the B7-H1 ligand, PD-1, is also expressed on myeloid cells complicating interpretations of how B7-H1 regulates dendritic cell (DC) function in the tumor. In this study we found that ovarian cancer-infiltrating DCs progressively expressed increased levels of PD-1 over time in addition to B7-H1. These dual-positive PD-1+B7-H1+ DCs have a classical DC phenotype (i.e. CD11c+CD11b+CD8?) but are immature, suppressive and respond poorly to danger signals. Accumulation of PD-1+B7-H1+ DC in the tumor was associated with suppression of T cell activity and decreased infiltrating T cells in advancing tumors. T cell suppressor function of these DCs appeared to be mediated by T cell associated PD-1. In contrast, ligation of PD-1 expressed on the tumor-associated DC suppressed NF?B activation, release of immune regulatory cytokines, and upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules. PD-1 blockade in mice bearing ovarian cancer substantially reduced tumor burden and increased effector antigen-specific T cell responses. Our results reveal a novel role of tumor infiltrating PD-1+B7-H1+ DCs in mediating immune suppression in ovarian cancer. PMID:21551365

  10. The potential of effector-target genes in breeding for plant innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gawehns, Fleur; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Takken, Frank L W

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of infectious crop diseases that are caused by fungi and oomycetes urge the need to develop alternative strategies for resistance breeding. As an alternative for the use of resistance (R) genes, the application of mutant susceptibility (S) genes has been proposed as a potentially more durable type of resistance. Identification of S genes is hampered by their recessive nature. Here we explore the use of pathogen-derived effectors as molecular probes to identify S genes. Effectors manipulate specific host processes thereby contributing to disease. Effector targets might therefore represent S genes. Indeed, the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ2 was found to target MLO2, an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of the barley S gene Mlo. Unfortunately, most effector targets identified so far are not applicable as S genes due to detrimental effects they have on other traits. However, some effector targets such as Mlo are successfully used, and with the increase in numbers of effector targets being identified, the numbers of S genes that can be used in resistance breeding will rise as well. PMID:23279965

  11. Regulation of Yersinia Yop-effector delivery by translocated YopE.

    PubMed

    Aili, Margareta; Isaksson, Elin L; Carlsson, Sara E; Wolf-Watz, Hans; Rosqvist, Roland; Francis, Matthew S

    2008-04-01

    The bacterial pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses a type III secretion (T3S) system to translocate Yop effectors into eukaryotic cells. Effectors are thought to gain access to the cytosol via pores formed in the host cell plasma membrane. Translocated YopE can modulate this pore formation through its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. In this study, we analysed the role of translocated YopE and all the other known Yop effectors in the regulation of effector translocation. Elevated levels of Yop effector translocation into HeLa cells occurred by YopE-defective strains, but not those defective for other Yop effectors. Only Yersinia devoid of YopK exhibits a similar hyper-translocation phenotype. Since both yopK and yopE mutants also failed to down-regulate Yop synthesis in the presence of eukaryotic cells, these data imply that translocated YopE specifically regulates subsequent effector translocation by Yersinia through at least one mechanism that involves YopK. We suggest that the GAP activity of YopE might be working as an intra-cellular probe measuring the amount of protein translocated by Yersinia during infection. This may be a general feature of T3S-associated GAP proteins, since two homologues from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exoenzyme S (ExoS) and exoenzyme T (ExoT), can complement the hyper-translocation phenotypes of the yopE GAP mutant. PMID:17597003

  12. A simple yeast-based strategy to identify host cellular processes targeted by bacterial effector proteins.

    PubMed

    Bosis, Eran; Salomon, Dor; Sessa, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins. PMID:22110728

  13. Interleukin-10 signaling in regulatory T cells is required for suppression of Th17 cell-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Ashutosh; Samstein, Robert M.; Treuting, Piper; Liang, Yuqiong; Pils, Marina C.; Heinrich, Jan-Michael; Jack, Robert S.; Wunderlich, F. Thomas; Brüning, Jens C.; Müller, Werner; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2011-01-01

    Effector CD4+ T cell subsets, whose differentiation is facilitated by distinct cytokine cues, amplify the corresponding type of inflammatory response. Regulatory T (Treg) cells integrate environmental cues to suppress particular types of inflammation. In this regard, STAT3, a transcription factor essential for T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation, is necessary for Treg cell-mediated control of Th17 cell responses. Here, we showed that anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10), and not pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-23 cytokine signaling, endowed Treg cells with the ability to suppress pathogenic Th17 cell responses. Ablation of the IL-10 receptor in Treg cells resulted in selective dysregulation of Th17 cell responses and colitis similar to that observed in mice harboring STAT3-deficient Treg cells. Thus, Treg cells limit Th17 cell inflammation by serving as principal amplifiers of negative regulatory circuits operating in immune effector cells. PMID:21511185

  14. Regulatory T Cells Negatively Affect IL-2 Production of Effector T Cells through CD39/Adenosine Pathway in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Seddiki, Nabila; Yatim, Ahmad; Carriere, Matthieu; Hulin, Anne; Younas, Mehwish; Ghadimi, Elnaz; Kök, Ayrin; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Alain; Sévigny, Jean; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Levy, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Regulatory T cells suppress IL-2 production of effector CD4+ T cells in pathological conditions are unclear. A subpopulation of human Treg expresses the ectoenzyme CD39, which in association with CD73 converts ATP/ADP/AMP to adenosine. We show here that Treg/CD39+ suppress IL-2 expression of activated CD4+ T-cells more efficiently than Treg/CD39?. This inhibition is due to the demethylation of an essential CpG site of the il-2 gene promoter, which was reversed by an anti-CD39 mAb. By recapitulating the events downstream CD39/adenosine receptor (A2AR) axis, we show that A2AR agonist and soluble cAMP inhibit CpG site demethylation of the il-2 gene promoter. A high frequency of Treg/CD39+ is associated with a low clinical outcome in HIV infection. We show here that CD4+ T-cells from HIV-1 infected individuals express high levels of A2AR and intracellular cAMP. Following in vitro stimulation, these cells exhibit a lower degree of demethylation of il-2 gene promoter associated with a lower expression of IL-2, compared to healthy individuals. These results extend previous data on the role of Treg in HIV infection by filling the gap between expansion of Treg/CD39+ in HIV infection and the suppression of CD4+ T-cell function through inhibition of IL-2 production. PMID:23658513

  15. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested manipulator systems in time for space stations operations in the early 1990s.

  16. Mining novel effector proteins from the esophageal gland cells of Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, William B.; Hewezi, Tarek; Abubucker, Sahar; Maier, Tom R.; Huang, Guozhong; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hussey, Richard S.; Baum, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most economically damaging plant pathogens in agriculture and horticulture. Identifying and characterizing the effector proteins, which M. incognita secretes into its host plants during infection, is an important step towards finding new ways to manage this pest. In this study we have identified the cDNAs for 18 putative effectors, i.e., proteins that have the potential to facilitate M. incognita parasitism of host plants. These putative effectors are secretory proteins that do not contain transmembrane domains and whose genes are specifically expressed in the secretory gland cells of the nematode, indicating that they are likely secreted from the nematode through its stylet. We have determined that in the plant cells, these putative effectors are likely to localize to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the transcripts of many of these novel effectors are specifically up-regulated during different stages of the nematode’s life cycle, indicating that they function at specific stages during M. incognita parasitism. The predicted proteins showed little to no homology to known proteins from free-living nematode species, suggesting that they evolved recently to support the parasitic lifestyle. On the other hand, several of the effectors are part of gene families within the M. incognita genome as well as that of Meloidogyne hapla, which points to an important role that these putative effectors are playing in both parasites. With the discovery of these putative effectors we have increased our knowledge of the effector repertoire utilized by root-knot nematodes to infect, feed, and reproduce on their host plants. Future studies investigating the roles these proteins play in planta will help mitigate the effects of this damaging pest. PMID:24875667

  17. Pseudomonas syringae CC1557: a highly virulent strain with an unusually small type III effector repertoire that includes a novel effector.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Kevin L; Nishimura, Marc T; Karlsrud, Erick; Dougherty, Kevin; Baltrus, David A

    2014-09-01

    Both type III effector proteins and nonribosomal peptide toxins play important roles for Pseudomonas syringae pathogenicity in host plants, but whether and how these pathways interact to promote infection remains unclear. Genomic evidence from one clade of P. syringae suggests a tradeoff between the total number of type III effector proteins and presence of syringomycin, syringopeptin, and syringolin A toxins. Here, we report the complete genome sequence from P. syringae CC1557, which contains the lowest number of known type III effectors to date and has also acquired genes similar to sequences encoding syringomycin pathways from other strains. We demonstrate that this strain is pathogenic on Nicotiana benthamiana and that both the type III secretion system and a new type III effector, hopBJ1, contribute to pathogenicity. We further demonstrate that activity of HopBJ1 is dependent on residues structurally similar to the catalytic site of Escherichia coli CNF1 toxin. Taken together, our results provide additional support for a negative correlation between type III effector repertoires and the potential to produce syringomycin-like toxins while also highlighting how genomic synteny and bioinformatics can be used to identify and characterize novel virulence proteins. PMID:24835253

  18. Subversion of trafficking, apoptosis, and innate immunity by type III secretion system effectors.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Benoit; Young, Joanna C; Pallett, Mitchell; Endres, Robert G; Clements, Abigail; Frankel, Gad

    2013-08-01

    Injection of effector proteins by a type III secretion system (T3SS) is a common infection strategy employed by many important human pathogens, including enteric Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Shigella, to subvert cell signaling and host responses. In recent years, great advances have been made in understanding how the T3SS effectors function and execute the diverse infection strategies employed by these pathogens. In this review, we focus on effectors that subvert signaling pathways that impact on endosomal trafficking, cell survival, and innate immunity, particularly phagocytosis, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways and the inflammasome. PMID:23870533

  19. Deregulation of Rab and Rab Effector Genes in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Joel R.; Chapeaublanc, Elodie; Kirkwood, Lisa; Nicolle, Remy; Benhamou, Simone; Lebret, Thierry; Allory, Yves; Southgate, Jennifer; Radvanyi, François; Goud, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that Rab GTPases, key regulators of intracellular transport in eukaryotic cells, play an important role in cancer. We analysed the deregulation at the transcriptional level of the genes encoding Rab proteins and Rab-interacting proteins in bladder cancer pathogenesis, distinguishing between the two main progression pathways so far identified in bladder cancer: the Ta pathway characterized by a high frequency of FGFR3 mutation and the carcinoma in situ pathway where no or infrequent FGFR3 mutations have been identified. A systematic literature search identified 61 genes encoding Rab proteins and 223 genes encoding Rab-interacting proteins. Transcriptomic data were obtained for normal urothelium samples and for two independent bladder cancer data sets corresponding to 152 and 75 tumors. Gene deregulation was analysed with the SAM (significant analysis of microarray) test or the binomial test. Overall, 30 genes were down-regulated, and 13 were up-regulated in the tumor samples. Five of these deregulated genes (LEPRE1, MICAL2, RAB23, STXBP1, SYTL1) were specifically deregulated in FGFR3-non-mutated muscle-invasive tumors. No gene encoding a Rab or Rab-interacting protein was found to be specifically deregulated in FGFR3-mutated tumors. Cluster analysis showed that the RAB27 gene cluster (comprising the genes encoding RAB27 and its interacting partners) was deregulated and that this deregulation was associated with both pathways of bladder cancer pathogenesis. Finally, we found that the expression of KIF20A and ZWINT was associated with that of proliferation markers and that the expression of MLPH, MYO5B, RAB11A, RAB11FIP1, RAB20 and SYTL2 was associated with that of urothelial cell differentiation markers. This systematic analysis of Rab and Rab effector gene deregulation in bladder cancer, taking relevant tumor subgroups into account, provides insight into the possible roles of Rab proteins and their effectors in bladder cancer pathogenesis. This approach is applicable to other group of genes and types of cancer. PMID:22724020

  20. Ex vivo T cell–based HIV suppression assay to evaluate HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Youn Shin; Pierre Versmisse; Françoise Barré-Sinoussi; Gianfranco Pancino; Asier Sáez-Cirión

    2010-01-01

    To advance T cell–based HIV vaccine development, it is necessary to evaluate the immune correlates of a protective CD8+ T-cell response. We have developed an assay that assesses the capacity ex vivo of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells to suppress HIV-1 infection of autologous CD4+ T cells. This assay directly reflects the ultimate effector function of CD8+ T cells, the elimination

  1. Turbulence Suppression by Shear

    E-print Network

    suppression when , the ¦§© shearing rate, is on the order of the linear growth rate or a turbulent §© flow only intro- duces a doppler shift, and is not included here. By introducing the variable with the #12;equilibrium flow, the %'p)21 365 term is introduced, consistent with smooth statistically

  2. Peripheral effector mechanism hypothesis of postflight cardiovascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L F; Yu, Z B; Ma, J; Mao, Q W

    2001-06-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of cardiovascular dysfunction after space-flight are important to illustrate the cardiovascular effect of microgravity and develop appropriate multi-system countermeasures for future long-duration spaceflights. Over the past 10 yr, we have systematically studied the adaptational changes in structure and function of both the heart and vessels, using the tail-suspension rat model to simulate microgravity effects. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity induced atrophic changes and reduced contractility of the heart muscle, and upward- and downward-regulation in structure, function, and innervation state of vessels in the brain and hind body of the rat. In addition, more recent advances in relevant ground-based and space-flight studies from different laboratories have also been reviewed. Based on these studies, it has been speculated that, in addition to hypovolemia, the microgravity-induced adaptational changes in the structure and function of the two main effectors of the cardiovascular system, i.e., the arterial smooth muscle and the cardiac muscle, might be among the most important mechanisms responsible for postflight cardiovascular dysfunction and orthostatic intolerance. In this paper we will review the available evidence with comments. PMID:11396563

  3. Assembly of Designer TAL Effectors by Golden Gate Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ernst; Gruetzner, Ramona; Werner, Stefan; Engler, Carola; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2011-01-01

    Generation of customized DNA binding domains targeting unique sequences in complex genomes is crucial for many biotechnological applications. The recently described DNA binding domain of the transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas consists of a series of repeats arranged in tandem, each repeat binding a nucleotide of the target sequence. We present here a strategy for engineering of TALE proteins with novel DNA binding specificities based on the 17.5 repeat-containing AvrBs3 TALE as a scaffold. For each of the 17 full repeats, four module types were generated, each with a distinct base preference. Using this set of 68 repeat modules, recognition domains for any 17 nucleotide DNA target sequence of choice can be constructed by assembling selected modules in a defined linear order. Assembly is performed in two successive one-pot cloning steps using the Golden Gate cloning method that allows seamless fusion of multiple DNA fragments. Applying this strategy, we assembled designer TALEs with new target specificities and tested their function in vivo. PMID:21625552

  4. TAL effectors--pathogen strategies and plant resistance engineering.

    PubMed

    Boch, Jens; Bonas, Ulla; Lahaye, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas spp. and the related RipTALs from Ralstonia solanacearum are DNA-binding proteins with a modular DNA-binding domain. This domain is both predictable and programmable, which simplifies elucidation of TALE function in planta and facilitates generation of DNA-binding modules with desired specificity for biotechnological approaches. Recently identified TALE host target genes that either promote or stop bacterial disease provide new insights into how expression of TALE genes affects the plant–pathogen interaction. Since its elucidation the TALE code has been continuously refined and now provides a mature tool that, in combination with transcriptome profiling, allows rapid isolation of novel TALE target genes. The TALE code is also the basis for synthetic promoter-traps that mediate recognition of TALE or RipTAL proteins in engineered plants. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in plant-focused TALE research. In addition, we will provide an outline of the newly established gene isolation approach for TALE or RipTAL host target genes with an emphasis on potential pitfalls. PMID:25539004

  5. Autoimmune effector memory T cells: the bad and the good.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin

    2013-12-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity, a defense mechanism endowed to vertebrates during evolution. However, an autoimmune pathogenic role of memory lymphocytes is also emerging with accumulating evidence, despite reasonable skepticism on their existence in a chronic setting of autoimmune damage. It is conceivable that autoimmune memory would be particularly harmful since memory cells would constantly "remember" and attack the body's healthy tissues. It is even more detrimental given the resistance of memory T cells to immunomodulatory therapies. In this review, we focus on self-antigen-reactive CD(+) effector memory T (TEM) cells, surveying the evidence for the role of the T(EM) compartment in autoimmune pathogenesis. We will also discuss the role of T(EM) cells in chronic and acute infectious disease settings and how they compare to their counterparts in autoimmune diseases. With their long-lasting potency, the autoimmune T(EM) cells could also play a critical role in anti-tumor immunity, which may be largely based on their reactivity to self-antigens. Therefore, although autoimmune T(EM) cells are "bad" due to their role in relentless perpetration of tissue damage in autoimmune disease settings, they are unlikely a by-product of industrial development along the modern surge of autoimmune disease prevalence. Rather, they may be a product of evolution for their "good" in clearing damaged host cells in chronic infections and malignant cells in cancer settings. PMID:24203440

  6. Cytokines are systemic effectors of lymphatic function in acute inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Melissa B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    The response of the lymphatic system to inflammatory insult and infection is not completely understood. Using a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging system to noninvasively document propulsive function, we noted the short-term cessation of murine lymphatic propulsion as early as four hours following LPS injection. Notably, the effects were systemic, displaying bilateral lymphatic pumping cessation after a unilateral insult. Furthermore, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6, cytokines that were found to be elevated in serum during lymphatic pumping cessation, were shown separately to acutely and systemically decrease lymphatic pulsing frequency and velocity following intradermal administration. Surprisingly, marked lymphatic vessel dilation and leakiness were noted in limbs contralateral to IL-1? intradermal administration, but not in ipsilateral limbs. The effects of IL-1? on lymphatic pumping were abated by pretreatment with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, L-NIL (N-iminoethyl-L-lysine). The results suggest that lymphatic propulsion is systemically impaired within four hours of acute inflammatory insult, and that some cytokines are major effectors of lymphatic pumping cessation through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms. These findings may help in understanding the actions of cytokines as mediators of lymphatic function in inflammatory and infectious states. PMID:23764549

  7. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  8. Programmable Sequence-Specific Transcriptional Regulation of Mammalian Genome Using Designer TAL Effectors

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Feng

    The ability to direct functional proteins to specific DNA sequences is a long-sought goal in the study and engineering of biological processes. Transcription activator–like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. are ...

  9. Intrathymic programming of effector fates in three molecularly distinct ?? T cell subtypes

    E-print Network

    Narayan, Kavitha

    Innate ?? T cells function in the early phase of immune responses. Although innate ?? T cells have often been studied as one homogenous population, they can be functionally classified into effector subsets on the basis of ...

  10. Hitting the sweet spot-glycans as targets of fungal defense effector proteins.

    PubMed

    Künzler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Organisms which rely solely on innate defense systems must combat a large number of antagonists with a comparably low number of defense effector molecules. As one solution of this problem, these organisms have evolved effector molecules targeting epitopes that are conserved between different antagonists of a specific taxon or, if possible, even of different taxa. In order to restrict the activity of the defense effector molecules to physiologically relevant taxa, these target epitopes should, on the other hand, be taxon-specific and easily accessible. Glycans fulfill all these requirements and are therefore a preferred target of defense effector molecules, in particular defense proteins. Here, we review this defense strategy using the example of the defense system of multicellular (filamentous) fungi against microbial competitors and animal predators. PMID:25955890

  11. Structural and biochemical analysis of Ras-effector signaling via RalGDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. Vetter; T. Linnemann; S. Wohlgemuth; M. Geyer; H. R. Kalbitzer; C. Herrmann; A. Wittinghofer

    1999-01-01

    The structure of the complex of Ras with the Ras-binding domain of its effector RalGDS (RGS-RBD), the first genuine Ras-effector complex, has been solved by X-ray crystallography. As with the Rap-RafRBD complex (Nasser et al., 1995), the interaction is via an inter-protein ?-sheet between the switch I region of Ras and the second strand of the RGS-RBD sheet, but the

  12. Yersinia Controls Type III Effector Delivery into Host Cells by Modulating Rho Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edison Mejía; James B Bliska; Gloria I Viboud

    2008-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis binds to ?1 integrin receptors, and uses the type III secretion proteins YopB and YopD to introduce pores and to translocate Yop effectors directly into host cells. Y. pseudotuberculosis lacking effectors that inhibit Rho GTPases, YopE and YopT, have high pore forming activity. Here, we present evidence that Y. pseudotuberculosis selectively modulates Rho activity to induce cellular changes

  13. Effectors and memories: Bcl6 and Blimp1 in T and B lymphocyte differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J Johnston; Stephen P Schoenberger; Shane Crotty

    2010-01-01

    Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 have recently been identified as key transcriptional regulators of effector and memory differentiation in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 were previously known to be critical regulators of effector and memory differentiation of B lymphocytes. The new findings unexpectedly point to the Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 regulatory axis as a ubiquitous mechanism for controlling

  14. Leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 mediates early effector T cell recruitment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M Tager; Shannon K Bromley; Benjamin D Medoff; Sabina A Islam; Scott D Bercury; Erik B Friedrich; Andrew D Carafone; Robert E Gerszten; Andrew D Luster

    2003-01-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was originally described as a potent lipid myeloid cell chemoattractant, rapidly generated from innate immune cells, that activates leukocytes through the G protein–coupled receptor BLT1. We report here that BLT1 is expressed on effector CD4+ T cells generated in vitro as well as in vivo when effector T cells migrate out of the lymphoid compartment and are

  15. Evolution of RXLR-Class Effectors in the Oomycete Plant Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Erica M.; Press, Caroline M.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora plant pathogens contain many hundreds of effectors potentially involved in infection of host plants. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that these effectors evolve rapidly and have been subject to recent expansions. We examined the recent sequence evolution of RXLR-class effector gene families in the sudden oak death pathogen, P. ramorum. We found that P. ramorum RXLR effectors have taken multiple evolutionary paths, including loss or gain of repeated domains, recombination or gene conversion among paralogs, and selection on point mutations. Sequencing of homologs from two subfamilies in P. ramorum’s closest known relatives revealed repeated gene duplication and divergence since speciation with P. lateralis. One family showed strong signatures of recombination while the other family has evolved primarily by point mutation. Comparison of a small number of the hundreds of RXLR-class effectors across three clonal lineages of P. ramorum shows striking divergence in alleles among lineages, suggesting the potential for functional differences between lineages. Our results suggest future avenues for examination of rapidly evolving effectors in P. ramorum, including investigation of the functional and coevolutionary significance of the patterns of sequence evolution that we observed. PMID:24244484

  16. A Salmonella type three secretion effector/chaperone complex adopts a hexameric ring-like structure.

    PubMed

    Roblin, Pierre; Dewitte, Frédérique; Villeret, Vincent; Biondi, Emanuele G; Bompard, Coralie

    2015-02-15

    Many bacterial pathogens use type three secretion systems (T3SS) to inject virulence factors, named effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Most of the T3SS components are conserved among plant and animal pathogens, suggesting a common mechanism of recognition and secretion of effectors. However, no common motif has yet been identified for effectors allowing T3SS recognition. In this work, we performed a biochemical and structural characterization of the Salmonella SopB/SigE chaperone/effector complex by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our results showed that the SopB/SigE complex is assembled in dynamic homohexameric-ring-shaped structures with an internal tunnel. In this ring, the chaperone maintains a disordered N-terminal end of SopB molecules, in a good position to be reached and processed by the T3SS. This ring dimensionally fits the ring-organized molecules of the injectisome, including ATPase hexameric rings; this organization suggests that this structural feature is important for ATPase recognition by T3SS. Our work constitutes the first evidence of the oligomerization of an effector, analogous to the organization of the secretion machinery, obtained in solution. As effectors share neither sequence nor structural identity, the quaternary oligomeric structure could constitute a strategy evolved to promote the specificity and efficiency of T3SS recognition. PMID:25404693

  17. Computational prediction of type III and IV secreted effectors in Gram-negative bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Corrigan, Abigail L.; Peterson, Elena S.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Niemann, George; Cambronne, Eric; Sharp, Danna; Adkins, Joshua N.; Samudrala, Ram; Heffron, Fred

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the methods employed by four recent papers that described novel methods for computational prediction of secreted effectors from type III and IV secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria. The results of the studies in terms of performance at accurately predicting secreted effectors and similarities found between secretion signals that may reflect biologically relevant features for recognition. We discuss the web-based tools for secreted effector prediction described in these studies and announce the availability of our tool, the SIEVEserver (http://www.biopilot.org). Finally, we assess the accuracy of the three type III effector prediction methods on a small set of proteins not known prior to the development of these tools that we have recently discovered and validated using both experimental and computational approaches. Our comparison shows that all methods use similar approaches and, in general arrive at similar conclusions. We discuss the possibility of an order-dependent motif in the secretion signal, which was a point of disagreement in the studies. Our results show that there may be classes of effectors in which the signal has a loosely defined motif, and others in which secretion is dependent only on compositional biases. Computational prediction of secreted effectors from protein sequences represents an important step toward better understanding the interaction between pathogens and hosts.

  18. IL-12 is required for differentiation of pathogenic CD8+ T cell effectors that cause myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Grabie, Nir; Delfs, Michael W.; Westrich, Jason R.; Love, Victoria A.; Stavrakis, George; Ahmad, Ferhaan; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Lichtman, Andrew H.

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac antigen–specific CD8+ T cells are involved in the autoimmune component of human myocarditis. Here, we studied the differentiation and migration of pathogenic CD8+ T cell effector cells in a new mouse model of autoimmune myocarditis. A transgenic mouse line was derived that expresses cardiac myocyte restricted membrane-bound ovalbumin (CMy-mOva). The endogenous adaptive immune system of CMy-mOva mice displays tolerance to ovalbumin. Adoptive transfer of naive CD8+ T cells from the ovalbumin-specific T cell receptor–transgenic (TCR-transgenic) OT-I strain induces myocarditis in CMy-mOva mice only after subsequent inoculation with ovalbumin-expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-Ova). OT-I effector T cells derived in vitro in the presence or absence of IL-12 were adoptively transferred into CMy-mOva mice, and the consequences were compared. Although IL-12 was not required for the generation of cytolytic and IFN-?–producing effector T cells, only effectors primed in the presence of IL-12 infiltrated CMy-mOva hearts in significant numbers, causing lethal myocarditis. Furthermore, analysis of OT-I effectors collected from a mediastinal draining lymph node indicated that only effectors primed in vitro in the presence of IL-12 proliferated in vivo. These data demonstrate the importance of IL-12 in the differentiation of pathogenic CD8+ T cells that can cause myocarditis. PMID:12618521

  19. New clues in the nucleus: transcriptional reprogramming in effector-triggered immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Garner, Christopher M.; Gassmann, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The robustness of plant effector-triggered immunity is correlated with massive alterations of the host transcriptome. Yet the molecular mechanisms that cause and underlie this reprogramming remain obscure. Here we will review recent advances in deciphering nuclear functions of plant immune receptors and of associated proteins. Important open questions remain, such as the identities of the primary transcription factors involved in control of effector-triggered immune responses, and indeed whether this can be generalized or whether particular effector-resistance protein interactions impinge on distinct sectors in the transcriptional response web. Multiple lines of evidence have implicated WRKY transcription factors at the core of responses to microbe-associated molecular patterns and in intersections with effector-triggered immunity. Recent findings from yeast two-hybrid studies suggest that members of the TCP transcription factor family are targets of several effectors from diverse pathogens. Additional transcription factor families that are directly or indirectly involved in effector-triggered immunity are likely to be identified. PMID:24062762

  20. In-flight adaptive performance optimization (APO) control using redundant control effectors of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.

  1. Glucose Deprivation Inhibits Multiple Key Gene Expression Events and Effector Functions in CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cham, Candace M.; Driessens, Gregory; O'Keefe, James P.; Gajewski, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We recently reported that differentiation of CD8+ T cells from the naïve to the effector state involves the upregulation of glucose-dependent metabolism. Glucose deprivation or inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) selectively inhibited production of IFN-? but not of IL-2. To determine a more global role of glucose metabolism on effector T cell function, we performed gene array analysis on CD8+ effector T cells stimulated in the presence or absence of 2-DG. We observed that expression of only 10% of genes induced by TCR/CD28 signaling was inhibited by 2-DG. Among these were genes for key cytokines, cell cycle molecules, and cytotoxic granule proteins. Consistent with these results, production of IFN-? and GM-CSF, cell cycle progression, upregulation of cyclin D2 protein, cytolytic activity, and upregulation of granzyme B protein but also conjugate formation were exquisitely glucose-dependent. In contrast to glucose, oxygen was little utilized by CD8+ effector T cells, and relative oxygen deprivation did not inhibit these CTL functional properties. Our results indicate a particularly critical role for glucose in regulating specific effector functions of CD8+ T cells, and have implications for the maintenance of the effector phase of cellular immune responses in target tissue microenvironments such as a solid tumor. PMID:18792400

  2. In vivo Modulation of Avidity in Highly Sensitive CD8+ Effector T Cells Following Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Beth C.; Yammani, Rama D.; Blevins, Lance K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated a critical role for T cell avidity in predicting in vivo efficacy. Even though the measurement of avidity is now a routine assessment for the analysis of effector and memory T cell populations, our understanding of how this property is controlled in vivo at both the population and individual cell levels is limited. Our previous studies have identified high avidity as a property of the initial effector population generated in mice following respiratory virus infection. As the response progresses, lower avidity cells appear in the effector pool. The studies described here investigate the mechanistic basis of this in vivo regulation of avidity. We present data supporting in vivo avidity modulation within the early high avidity responders that results in a population of lower avidity effector cells. Changes in avidity were correlated with decreased lck expression and increased sensitivity to lck inhibitors in effector cells present at late versus early times postinfection. The possibility of tuning within select individual effectors is a previously unappreciated mechanism for the control of avidity in vivo. PMID:23971914

  3. Cbl-b regulates antigen-induced TCR down-regulation and IFN-gamma production by effector CD8 T cells without affecting functional avidity.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Mohammed; Nanjappa, Som G; Singh, Anju; Plisch, Erin Hemmila; LeBlanc, Scott E; Walent, Jane; Svaren, John; Seroogy, Christine; Suresh, M

    2007-12-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b is a negative regulator of TCR signaling that: 1) sets the activation threshold for T cells; 2) is induced in anergic T cells; and 3) protects against autoimmunity. However, the role of Cbl-b in regulating CD8 T cell activation and functions during physiological T cell responses has not been systematically examined. Using the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection model, we show that Cbl-b deficiency did not significantly affect the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8 T cells. However, Cbl-b deficiency not only increased the steady-state cell surface expression levels of TCR and CD8 but also reduced Ag-induced down-modulation of cell surface TCR expression by effector CD8 T cells. Diminished Ag-stimulated TCR down-modulation and sustained Ag receptor signaling induced by Cbl-b deficiency markedly augmented IFN-gamma production, which is known to require substantial TCR occupancy. By contrast, Cbl-b deficiency minimally affected cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which requires limited engagement of TCRs. Surprisingly, despite elevated expression of CD8 and reduced Ag-induced TCR down-modulation, the functional avidity of Cbl-b-deficient effector CD8 T cells was comparable to that of wild-type effectors. Collectively, these data not only show that Cbl-b-imposed constraint on TCR signaling has differential effects on various facets of CD8 T cell response but also suggest that Cbl-b might mitigate tissue injury induced by the overproduction of IFN-gamma by CD8 T cells. These findings have implications in the development of therapies to bolster CD8 T cell function during viral infections or suppress T cell-mediated immunopathology. PMID:18025165

  4. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  5. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  6. Menstrual suppression: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hillard, Paula Adams

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual suppression to provide relief of menstrual-related symptoms or to manage medical conditions associated with menstrual morbidity or menstrual exacerbation has been used clinically since the development of steroid hormonal therapies. Options range from the extended or continuous use of combined hormonal oral contraceptives, to the use of combined hormonal patches and rings, progestins given in a variety of formulations from intramuscular injection to oral therapies to intrauterine devices, and other agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. The agents used for menstrual suppression have variable rates of success in inducing amenorrhea, but typically have increasing rates of amenorrhea over time. Therapy may be limited by side effects, most commonly irregular, unscheduled bleeding. These therapies can benefit women’s quality of life, and by stabilizing the hormonal milieu, potentially improve the course of underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or a seizure disorder. This review addresses situations in which menstrual suppression may be of benefit, and lists options which have been successful in inducing medical amenorrhea. PMID:25018654

  7. A streptococcal effector protein that inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Aaron B; Arndt, Annette; Cugini, Carla; Davey, Mary E

    2010-11-01

    Dental plaque formation is a developmental process involving cooperation and competition within a diverse microbial community, approximately 70?% of which is composed of an array of streptococci during the early stages of supragingival plaque formation. In this study, 79 cell-free culture supernatants from a variety of oral streptococci were screened to identify extracellular compounds that inhibit biofilm formation by the oral anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis strain 381. The majority of the streptococcal supernatants (61 isolates) resulted in lysis of P. gingivalis cells, and some (17 isolates) had no effect on cell viability, growth or biofilm formation. One strain, however, produced a supernatant that abolished biofilm formation without affecting growth rate. Analysis of this activity led to the discovery that a 48 kDa protein was responsible for the inhibition. Protein sequence identification and enzyme activity assays identified the effector protein as an arginine deiminase. To identify the mechanism(s) by which this protein inhibits biofilm formation, we began by examining the expression levels of genes encoding fimbrial subunits; surface structures known to be involved in biofilm development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that exposure of P. gingivalis cells to this protein for 1 h resulted in the downregulation of genes encoding proteins that are the major subunits of two distinct types of thin, single-stranded fimbriae (fimA and mfa1). Furthermore, this downregulation occurred in the absence of arginine deiminase enzymic activity. Hence, our data indicate that P. gingivalis can sense this extracellular protein, produced by an oral streptococcus (Streptococcus intermedius), and respond by downregulating expression of cell-surface appendages required for attachment and biofilm development. PMID:20705665

  8. Altered effector function of peripheral cytotoxic cells in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Urbanowicz, Richard A; Lamb, Jonathan R; Todd, Ian; Corne, Jonathan M; Fairclough, Lucy C

    2009-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that perforin and granzymes are important mediators in the lung destruction seen in COPD. We investigated the characteristics of the three main perforin and granzyme containing peripheral cells, namely CD8+ T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK; CD56+CD3-) cells and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cell numbers and intracellular granzyme B and perforin were analysed by flow cytometry. Immunomagnetically selected CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK (CD56+CD3-) and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells were used in an LDH release assay to determine cytotoxicity and cytotoxic mechanisms were investigated by blocking perforin and granzyme B with relevant antibodies. Results The proportion of peripheral blood NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells in smokers with COPD (COPD subjects) was significantly lower (0.6%) than in healthy smokers (smokers) (2.8%, p < 0.001) and non-smoking healthy participants (HNS) (3.3%, p < 0.001). NK (CD56+CD3-) cells from COPD subjects were significantly less cytotoxic than in smokers (16.8% vs 51.9% specific lysis, p < 0.001) as were NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells (16.7% vs 52.4% specific lysis, p < 0.001). Both cell types had lower proportions expressing both perforin and granzyme B. Blocking the action of perforin and granzyme B reduced the cytotoxic activity of NK (CD56+CD3-) and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells from smokers and HNS. Conclusion In this study, we show that the relative numbers of peripheral blood NK (CD56+CD3-) and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+) cells in COPD subjects are reduced and that their cytotoxic effector function is defective. PMID:19545425

  9. Design of endoscopic micro-robotic end effectors: safety and performance evaluation based on physical intestinal tissue damage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Dae-Eun; Yang, Sungwook; Yoon, Eui-Sung

    2014-06-01

    During the last several years, legged locomotive mechanism has been considered as one of the main self-propelling mechanisms for future endoscopic microrobots due to its superior propulsion efficiency of an endoscopic microrobot inside the intestinal track. Nevertheless, its clinical application has been largely limited since the legged locomotive mechanism utilizes an end effector which has a sharp tip to generate sufficient traction by physically penetrating and interlocking with the intestinal tissue. This can cause excessive physical tissue damage or even complete perforation of the intestinal wall that can lead to abdominal inflammation. Hence, in this work two types of new end effectors, penetration-limited end effector (PLEE) and bi-material structured end effector (BMEE) were specially designed to acquire high medical safety as well as effective traction generation performance. The microscopic end effector specimens were fabricated with micro-wire electric discharge machining process. Traction generation performance of the end effectors was evaluated by direct measurement of resistance forces during contact-sliding tests using a custom-built contact-sliding tester. The safety of the end effector design was evaluated by examination of microscopic intestinal tissue damage using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Physical damage characteristics of the intestinal tissue and related contact physics of the end effectors were discussed. From the results, the end effectors were evaluated with respect to their prospects in future medical applications as safe end effectors as well as micro-surgical tools. PMID:24634056

  10. Glioma-Derived ADAM10 Induces Regulatory B Cells to Suppress CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-sheng; Luo, Lun; Huang, Zhen-chao; Guo, Ying

    2014-01-01

    CD8+ T cells play an important role in the anti-tumor activities of the body. The dysfunction of CD8+ T cells in glioma is unclear. This study aims to elucidate the glioma cell-derived ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) in the suppression of CD8+ effector T cells by the induction of regulatory B cells. In this study, glioma cells were isolated from surgically removed glioma tissue and stimulated by Phorbol myristate acetage (PMA) in the culture. The levels of ADAM10 in the culture were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immune cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The results showed that the isolated glioma cells express ADAM10, which was markedly up regulated after stimulated with PMA. The glioma-derived ADAM10 induced activated B cells to differentiate into regulatory B cells, the later suppressed CD8+ T cell proliferation as well as the induced regulatory T cells, which also showed the immune suppressor effect on CD8+ effector T cell proliferation. In conclusion, glioma cells produce ADAM10 to induce Bregs; the latter suppresses CD8+ T cells and induces Tregs. PMID:25127032

  11. Non-replicating adenovirus vectors expressing avian influenza virus hemagglutinin and nucleocapsid proteins induce chicken specific effector, memory and effector memory CD8+ T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailbala; Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-Chu; Briles, Worthie E.; Yates, Linda M.; Kopulos, Renee T.; Collisson, Ellen W.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses stimulated by intramuscular administration of an adenovirus (Ad) vector expressing either HA or NP were evaluated in chickens following ex vivo stimulation by non-professional antigen presenting cells. The CD8+ T lymphocyte responses were AIV specific, MHC-I restricted, and cross-reacted with heterologousH7N2 AIV strain. Specific effector responses, at 10 days post-inoculation (p.i.), were undetectable at 2 weeks p.i., and memory responses were detected from 3 to 8 weeks p.i. Effector memory responses, detected 1 week following a booster inoculation, were significantly greater than the primary responses and, within 7 days, declined to undetectable levels. Inoculation of an Ad-vector expressing human NP resulted in significantly greater MHC restricted, activation of CD8+ T cell responses specific for AIV. Decreases in all responses with time were most dramatic with maximum activation of T cells as observed following effector and effector memory responses. PMID:20557918

  12. Early Effector CD8 T Cells Display Plasticity in Populating the Short-Lived Effector and Memory-Precursor Pools Following Bacterial or Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Plumlee, Courtney R.; Obar, Joshua J.; Colpitts, Sara L.; Jellison, Evan R.; Haining, W. Nicholas; Lefrancois, Leo; Khanna, Kamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Naïve antigen-specific CD8 T cells expand in response to infection and can be phenotypically separated into distinct effector populations, which include memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) and short-lived effector cells (SLECs). In the days before the peak of the T cell response, a third population called early effector cells (EECs) predominate the antigen-specific response. However, the contribution of the EEC population to the CD8 T cell differentiation program during an antimicrobial immune response is not well understood. To test if EEC populations were pre-committed to either an MPEC or SLEC fate, we purified EECs from mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes (LM) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), where the relative frequency of each population is known to be different at the peak of the response. Sorted EECs transferred into uninfected hosts revealed that EECs were pre-programmed to differentiate based on early signals received from the distinct infectious environments. Surprisingly, when these same EECs were transferred early into mismatched infected hosts, the transferred EECs could be diverted from their original fate. These results delineate a model of differentiation where EECs are programmed to form MPECs or SLECs, but remain susceptible to additional inflammatory stimuli that can alter their fate. PMID:26191658

  13. Suppression of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Response by TCDD Is Independent of the CTLA-4-IFN-?-IDO pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kerkvliet, Nancy I.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by its prototypic ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), induces potent suppression of an acute graft-versus-host (GVH) response and prevents GVH disease (GVHD). Suppression is associated with development of a regulatory population of donor CD4+ CD25+T-cells that express high levels of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). However, a direct link between these AhR-induced Tregs (AhR-Tregs) and suppression of GVHD remains to be shown. CTLA-4 is a negative regulator of T-cell responses and is associated with the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) that produce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We hypothesized that AhR-Tregs mediate suppression via their enhanced expression of CTLA-4, which, in turn, induces IFN-? and IDO in host DCs. Subsequent depletion of tryptophan by IDO leads to termination of the donor T-cell response prior to development of effector CTL. Here, we show that despite increased expression of Ifng, Irf3, Irf7, Ido1, and Ido2 in the lymph nodes of TCDD-treated host mice, inhibition of IDO enzyme activity by 1-methyl-tryptophan was unable to relieve TCDD-mediated suppression of the GVH response. Furthermore, treatment with an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that blocks CTLA-4 signaling was also unable to alleviate TCDD-mediated suppression. Alternatively, we investigated the possibility that donor-derived AhR-Tregs produce IFN-? to suppress effector CTL development. However, suppression of GVHD by TCDD was not affected by the use of Ifng-deficient donor cells. Together, these results indicate that neither overexpression of CTLA-4 nor production of IFN-? by AhR-Tregs plays a major role in the manifestation of their immunosuppressive function in vivo. PMID:23798565

  14. Structures of the flax-rust effector AvrM reveal insights into the molecular basis of plant-cell entry and effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Rafiqi, Maryam; Rahman, Motiur; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Hardham, Adrienne R; Jones, David A; Anderson, Peter A; Dodds, Peter N; Kobe, Bostjan

    2013-10-22

    Fungal and oomycete pathogens cause some of the most devastating diseases in crop plants, and facilitate infection by delivering a large number of effector molecules into the plant cell. AvrM is a secreted effector protein from flax rust (Melampsora lini) that can internalize into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen, binds to phosphoinositides (PIPs), and is recognized directly by the resistance protein M in flax (Linum usitatissimum), resulting in effector-triggered immunity. We determined the crystal structures of two naturally occurring variants of AvrM, AvrM-A and avrM, and both reveal an L-shaped fold consisting of a tandem duplicated four-helix motif, which displays similarity to the WY domain core in oomycete effectors. In the crystals, both AvrM variants form a dimer with an unusual nonglobular shape. Our functional analysis of AvrM reveals that a hydrophobic surface patch conserved between both variants is required for internalization into plant cells, whereas the C-terminal coiled-coil domain mediates interaction with M. AvrM binding to PIPs is dependent on positive surface charges, and mutations that abrogate PIP binding have no significant effect on internalization, suggesting that AvrM binding to PIPs is not essential for transport of AvrM across the plant membrane. The structure of AvrM and the identification of functionally important surface regions advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying how effectors enter plant cells and how they are detected by the plant immune system. PMID:24101475

  15. Protein Kinase Activity and Identification of a Toxic Effector Domain of the Target of Rapamycin TOR Proteins in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Clara M.; Heitman, Joseph; Cardenas, Maria E.

    1999-01-01

    In complex with FKBP12, the immunosuppressant rapamycin binds to and inhibits the yeast TOR1 and TOR2 proteins and the mammalian homologue mTOR/FRAP/RAFT1. The TOR proteins promote cell cycle progression in yeast and human cells by regulating translation and polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. A C-terminal domain of the TOR proteins shares identity with protein and lipid kinases, but only one substrate (PHAS-I), and no regulators of the TOR-signaling cascade have been identified. We report here that yeast TOR1 has an intrinsic protein kinase activity capable of phosphorylating PHAS-1, and this activity is abolished by an active site mutation and inhibited by FKBP12-rapamycin or wortmannin. We find that an intact TOR1 kinase domain is essential for TOR1 functions in yeast. Overexpression of a TOR1 kinase-inactive mutant, or of a central region of the TOR proteins distinct from the FRB and kinase domains, was toxic in yeast, and overexpression of wild-type TOR1 suppressed this toxic effect. Expression of the TOR-toxic domain leads to a G1 cell cycle arrest, consistent with an inhibition of TOR function in translation. Overexpression of the PLC1 gene, which encodes the yeast phospholipase C homologue, suppressed growth inhibition by the TOR-toxic domains. In conclusion, our findings identify a toxic effector domain of the TOR proteins that may interact with substrates or regulators of the TOR kinase cascade and that shares sequence identity with other PIK family members, including ATR, Rad3, Mei-41, and ATM. PMID:10436010

  16. Sequential Induction of Effector Function, Tissue Migration and Cell Death during Polyclonal Activation of Mouse Regulatory T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Langenhorst, Daniela; Gogishvili, Tea; Ribechini, Eliana; Kneitz, Susanne; McPherson, Kirsty; Lutz, Manfred B.; Hünig, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The ability of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) to produce interleukin (IL)-10 is important for the limitation of inflammation at environmental interfaces like colon or lung. Under steady state conditions, however, few Tregs produce IL-10 ex vivo. To investigate the origin and fate of IL-10 producing Tregs we used a superagonistic mouse anti-mouse CD28 mAb (CD28SA) for polyclonal in vivo stimulation of Tregs, which not only led to their numeric expansion but also to a dramatic increase in IL-10 production. IL-10 secreting Tregs strongly upregulated surface receptors associated with suppressive function as compared to non-producing Tregs. Furthermore, polyclonally expanding Tregs shifted their migration receptor pattern after activation from a CCR7+CCR5? lymph node-seeking to a CCR7?CCR5+ inflammation-seeking phenotype, explaining the preferential recruitment of IL-10 producers to sites of ongoing immune responses. Finally, we observed that IL-10 producing Tregs from CD28SA stimulated mice were more apoptosis-prone in vitro than their IL-10 negative counterparts. These findings support a model where prolonged activation of Tregs results in terminal differentiation towards an IL-10 producing effector phenotype associated with a limited lifespan, implicating built-in termination of immunosuppression. PMID:23226238

  17. How the TP53 family proteins TP63 and TP73 contribute to tumorigenesis: regulators and effectors.

    PubMed

    Candi, Eleonora; Agostini, Massimiliano; Melino, Gerry; Bernassola, Francesca

    2014-06-01

    In mammals, the p53 family comprises two additional members, p63 and p73 (hereafter referred to as TP53, TP63, and TP73, respectively). The usage of two alternative promoters produces protein variants either with (transactivating [TA] isoforms) or without (?N isoforms) the N-terminal transactivation domain (TAD). In general, the TA proteins exert TP53-like tumor-suppressive activities through their ability to activate a common set of target genes. The ?N proteins can act as dominant-negative inhibitors of the transcriptionally active family members. Additionally, they possess intrinsic-specific biological activities due to the presence of alternative TADs, and as a result of engaging a different set of regulators. This review summarizes the current understanding of upstream regulators and downstream effectors of the TP53 family proteins, with particular emphasis on those that are relevant for their role in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we highlight the existence of networks and cross-talks among the TP53 family members, their modulators, as well as the transcriptional targets. PMID:24488880

  18. Aphid protein effectors promote aphid colonization in a plant species-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Pitino, Marco; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pathogens and pests produce effectors to modulate host processes. Aphids are phloem-feeding insects, which introduce effectors via saliva into plant cells. However, it is not known if aphid effectors have adapted to modulate processes in specific plant species. Myzus persicae is a polyphagous insect that colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, while the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum specializes on colonizing plant species of the family Fabaceae. We found that M. persicae reproduction increased on transgenic Arabidopsis, producing the M. persicae effectors C002, PIntO1 (Mp1), and PIntO2 (Mp2), whereas reproduction of M. persicae did not increase on Arabidopsis producing the A. pisum orthologs of these three proteins. Plant-mediated RNA interference experiments showed that c002- and PIntO2-silenced M. persicae produce less progeny on Arabidopsis and N. benthamiana than nonsilenced aphids. Orthologs of c002, PIntO1, and PIntO2 were identified in multiple aphid species with dissimilar plant host ranges. We revealed high nonsynonymous versus synonymous nucleotide substitution rates within the effector orthologs, indicating that the effectors are fast evolving. Application of maximum likelihood methods identified specific sites with high probabilities of being under positive selection in PIntO1, whereas those of C002 and PIntO2 may be located in alignment gaps. In support of the latter, a M. persicae c002 mutant without the NDNQGEE repeat region, which overlaps with an alignment gap in C002, does not promote M. persicae colonization on Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results provide evidence that aphid effectors are under positive selection to promote aphid colonization on specific plant species. PMID:23035913

  19. Secreted Fungal Effector Lipase Releases Free Fatty Acids to Inhibit Innate Immunity-Related Callose Formation during Wheat Head Infection[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blümke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Björn; Bode, Rainer; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The deposition of the (1,3)-?-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant’s innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant ?fgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the ?fgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and ?-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with ?fgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the ?fgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and ?-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection. PMID:24686113

  20. Analysis of the Expression, Secretion and Translocation of the Salmonella enterica Type III Secretion System Effector SteA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Cardenal-Muñoz; Francisco Ramos-Morales

    2011-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens possess virulence-related type III secretion systems. Salmonella enterica uses two of these systems, encoded on the pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2, respectively, to translocate more than 30 effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. SteA is one of the few effectors that can be translocated by both systems. We investigated the conditions affecting the synthesis of this effector,

  1. Unihemispheric Burst Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Villemarette-Pittman, Nicole R.; Rogers, Cornel T.; Torres-Delgado, Frank; Olejniczak, Piotr W.; England, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Burst suppression (BS) consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG). When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS. PMID:25309713

  2. The EspF Effector, a Bacterial Pathogen's Swiss Army Knife?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Ashleigh; Mühlen, Sabrina; Roe, Andrew J.; Dean, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Central to the pathogenesis of many bacterial pathogens is the ability to deliver effector proteins directly into the cells of their eukaryotic host. EspF is one of many effector proteins exclusive to the attaching and effacing pathogen family that includes enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli. Work in recent years has revealed EspF to be one of the most multifunctional effector proteins known, with defined roles in several host cellular processes, including disruption of the epithelial barrier, antiphagocytosis, microvillus effacement, host membrane remodelling, modulation of the cytoskeleton, targeting and disruption of the nucleolus, intermediate filament disruption, cell invasion, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and inhibition of several important epithelial transporters. Surprisingly, despite this high number of functions, EspF is a relatively small effector protein, and recent work has begun to decipher the molecular events that underlie its multifunctionality. This review focuses on the activities of EspF within the host cell and discusses recent findings and molecular insights relating to the virulence functions of this fascinating bacterial effector. PMID:20679436

  3. Secreted Effector Proteins of Salmonella dublin Act in Concert To Induce Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael A.; Wood, Michael W.; Mullan, Paul B.; Watson, Patricia R.; Wallis, Tim S.; Galyov, Edouard E.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of enteropathogenic salmonellae to recruit inflammatory cells and induce secretory responses in the infected ileum is considered to be a main feature in Salmonella-induced enteritis. Interactions between the pathogen and intestinal epithelial cells result in a variety of cellular responses mediating inflammation and fluid secretion. It is becoming apparent that proteins secreted by the Inv-Spa type III secretion system of Salmonella spp. play a key role in the induction of these responses. We have recently demonstrated that the SopB effector protein is translocated into eukaryotic cells via a Sip-dependent pathway and mediates inflammation and fluid secretion in infected ileal mucosa. However, SopB did not appear to be the only effector involved, as inactivation of the sopB gene only partially impaired enteropathogenicity. We suggested that at least some of such protein effectors are likely to be proteins of the same class as SopB, i.e., secreted effector proteins translocated into eukaroyotic cells via a Sip-dependent pathway. In this work, we identify SopD, another secreted protein belonging to the family of Sop effectors of Salmonella dublin. Using the cya reporter system we showed that SopD is translocated into eukaroyotic cells. We assessed the potential involvement of SopD in enteropathogenicity and found that inactivation of sopD has an additive effect in relation to the sopB mutation. PMID:9826357

  4. Perturbation of host ubiquitin systems by plant pathogen/pest effector proteins

    PubMed Central

    Banfield, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pathogens and pests of animals and plants secrete effector proteins into host cells, altering cellular physiology to the benefit of the invading parasite. Research in the past decade has delivered significant new insights into the molecular mechanisms of how these effector proteins function, with a particular focus on modulation of host immunity-related pathways. One host system that has emerged as a common target of effectors is the ubiquitination system in which substrate proteins are post-translationally modified by covalent conjugation with the small protein ubiquitin. This modification, typically via isopeptide bond formation through a lysine side chain of ubiquitin, can result in target degradation, relocalization, altered activity or affect protein–protein interactions. In this review, I focus primarily on how effector proteins from bacterial and filamentous pathogens of plants and pests perturb host ubiquitination pathways that ultimately include the 26S proteasome. The activities of these effectors, in how they affect ubiquitin pathways in plants, reveal how pathogens have evolved to identify and exploit weaknesses in this system that deliver increased pathogen fitness. PMID:25339602

  5. An Unbiased Method for Clustering Bacterial Effectors Using Host Cellular Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel method implementing unbiased high-content morphometric cell analysis to classify bacterial effector phenotypes. This clustering methodology represents a significant advance over more qualitative visual approaches and can also be used to classify, and therefore predict the likely function of, unknown effector genes from any microbial genome. As a proof of concept, we use this approach to investigate 23 genetic regions predicted to encode antimacrophage effectors located across the genome of the insect and human pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Statistical cluster analysis using multiple cellular measures categorized treated macrophage phenotypes into three major groups relating to their putative functionality: (i) adhesins, (ii) cytolethal toxins, and (iii) cytomodulating toxins. Further investigation into their effects on phagocytosis revealed that several effectors also modulate this function and that the nature of this modulation (increased or decreased phagocytosis) is linked to the phenotype cluster group. Categorizing potential functionalities in this way allows rapid functional follow-up of key candidates for more-directed cell biological or biochemical investigation. Such an unbiased approach to the classification of candidate effectors will be useful for describing virulence-related regions in a wide range of genomes and will be useful in assigning putative functions to the growing number of microbial genes whose function remains unclear from homology searching. PMID:24296505

  6. Wind Tunnel Test of an RPV with Shape-Change Control Effector and Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Sloan, Adam R.; Barnwell, William G.; Lion, S. Todd; Hautamaki, Bret A.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of novel control effector concepts have recently emerged that may enable new approaches to flight control. In particular, the potential exists to shift the composition of the typical aircraft control effector suite from a small number of high authority, specialized devices (rudder, aileron, elevator, flaps), toward larger numbers of smaller, less specialized, distributed device arrays. The concept envisions effector and sensor networks composed of relatively small high-bandwidth devices able to simultaneously perform a variety of control functions using feedback from disparate data sources. To investigate this concept, a remotely piloted flight vehicle has been equipped with an array of 24 trailing edge shape-change effectors and associated pressure measurements. The vehicle, called the Multifunctional Effector and Sensor Array (MESA) testbed, was recently tested in NASA Langley's 12-ft Low Speed wind tunnel to characterize its stability properties, control authorities, and distributed pressure sensitivities for use in a dynamic simulation prior to flight testing. Another objective was to implement and evaluate a scheme for actively controlling the spanwise pressure distribution using the shape-change array. This report describes the MESA testbed, design of the pressure distribution controller, and results of the wind tunnel test.

  7. Molecular decipherment of Rho effector pathways regulating tight-junction permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, H; Katoh, H; Hasegawa, H; Yasui, H; Aoki, J; Yamaguchi, Y; Negishi, M

    2000-01-01

    We reported recently that the activation of RhoA induced an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). To clarify effectors of Rho for this RhoA-induced regulation of tight-junction permeability, we introduced two effector-loop mutants of constitutively active RhoA(V14), RhoA(V14/L40) and RhoA(V14/C42), into Mardin-Darby canine kidney cells in an isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside-inducible expression system. RhoA(V14) and the two effector-loop mutants interacted in vitro with the Rho-binding domain of Rho-associated kinase, ROKalpha. Next we examined two parameters of Rho functions, stress-fibre formation and TER elevation, induced by RhoA(V14). Stress-fibre formation was induced by RhoA(V14/C42) but not by RhoA(V14/L40). On the other hand, TER elevation was induced by neither RhoA(V14/L40) nor RhoA(V14/C42). RhoA-associated kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, inhibited both stress-fibre formation and TER elevation induced by RhoA(V14). These results demonstrated that RhoA-induced regulation of tight-junction permeability is mediated by Rho-associated kinase and at least one other unidentified effector, the coupling to RhoA being disrupted by mutation at position 40 or 42 in the effector loop. PMID:10698687

  8. Manipulator inverse kinematics for untimed end-effector trajectories with ordinary singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, J. (Univ. of Hull (United Kingdom))

    1992-06-01

    This article addresses the following inverse kinematics problem: given an untimed spatial end-effector trajectory, determine joint trajectories that are consistent with its execution. An algorithm for the continuous iterative solution of this problem for six-degree-of-freedom manipulators of arbitrary structure is presented. The main idea of this algorithm is that it converges with equal ease at both regular configurations and certain ordinary singularities. Ordinary singularities (herein defined) depend on the given end-effector trajectory, as well as the manipulator configuration, and represent dead points where the end effector (but not the manipulator) must pause during trajectory execution. The algorithm is based on the predictor-corrector method of path following using (1) a newly developed second-order predictor, (2) a first-order Newton method corrector, and (3) the idea of including the end effector's position (along its trajectory) as a dependent (rather than independent) variable in the formulation. Both the predictor and the corrector are derived from Taylor series expansion of the 4 [times] 4 matrix equation of closure and require only the solution of linear systems of equations. Examples are given that demonstrate the algorithm's ability to pass through ordinary singularities to determine alternate joint trajectories for the same end-effector trajectory. These examples also show how ordinary singularities can be included in manipulator motions that are similar to a boxer's jab or a runner's kick.

  9. GTP- and GDP-Dependent Rab27a Effectors in Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) participate in a wide variety of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and intracellular transport. Conventionally, only the guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-bound small GTPase interacts with effector proteins, and the resulting downstream signals control specific cellular functions. Therefore, the GTP-bound form is regarded as active, and the focus has been on searching for proteins that bind the GTP form to look for their effectors. The Rab family small GTPase Rab27a is highly expressed in some secretory cells and is involved in the control of membrane traffic. The present study reviews recent progress in our understanding of the roles of Rab27a and its effectors in pancreatic beta-cells. In the basal state, GTP-bound Rab27a controls insulin secretion at pre-exocytic stages via its GTP-dependent effectors. We previously identified novel guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound Rab27-interacting proteins. Interestingly, GDP-bound Rab27a controls endocytosis of the secretory membrane via its interaction with these proteins. We also demonstrated that the insulin secretagogue glucose converts Rab27a from its GTP- to GDP-bound forms. Thus, GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate pre-exocytic and endocytic stages in membrane traffic, respectively. Since the physiological importance of GDP-bound GTPases has been largely overlooked, we consider that the investigation of GDP-dependent effectors for other GTPases is necessary for further understanding of cellular function. PMID:25947911

  10. A Phytophthora sojae cytoplasmic effector mediates disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meixiang; Ahmed Rajput, Nasir; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Peng; Zeng, Wentao; Liu, Tingli; Juma Mafurah, Joseph; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Each oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of effectors. Some effectors can be used in crop disease resistance breeding, such as to accelerate R gene cloning and utilisation. Since cytoplasmic effectors may cause acute physiological changes in host cells at very low concentrations, we assume that some of these effectors can serve as functional genes for transgenic plants. Here, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that express a Phytophthora sojae CRN (crinkling and necrosis) effector, PsCRN115. We showed that its expression did not significantly affect the growth and development of N. benthamiana, but significantly improved disease resistance and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Furthermore, we found that expression of heat-shock-protein and cytochrome-P450 encoding genes were unregulated in PsCRN115-transgenic N. benthamiana based on digital gene expression profiling analyses, suggesting the increased plant defence may be achieved by upregulation of these stress-related genes in transgenic plants. Thus, PsCRN115 may be used to improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26039925

  11. A Phytophthora sojae cytoplasmic effector mediates disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixiang; Ahmed Rajput, Nasir; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Peng; Zeng, Wentao; Liu, Tingli; Juma Mafurah, Joseph; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Each oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of effectors. Some effectors can be used in crop disease resistance breeding, such as to accelerate R gene cloning and utilisation. Since cytoplasmic effectors may cause acute physiological changes in host cells at very low concentrations, we assume that some of these effectors can serve as functional genes for transgenic plants. Here, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that express a Phytophthora sojae CRN (crinkling and necrosis) effector, PsCRN115. We showed that its expression did not significantly affect the growth and development of N. benthamiana, but significantly improved disease resistance and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Furthermore, we found that expression of heat-shock-protein and cytochrome-P450 encoding genes were unregulated in PsCRN115-transgenic N. benthamiana based on digital gene expression profiling analyses, suggesting the increased plant defence may be achieved by upregulation of these stress-related genes in transgenic plants. Thus, PsCRN115 may be used to improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26039925

  12. Intravital imaging reveals limited antigen presentation and T cell effector function in mycobacterial granulomas.

    PubMed

    Egen, Jackson G; Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti; Feng, Carl G; Horwitz, Marcus A; Sher, Alan; Germain, Ronald N

    2011-05-27

    Cell-mediated adaptive immunity is critical for host defense, but little is known about T cell behavior during delivery of effector function. Here we investigate relationships among antigen presentation, T cell motility, and local production of effector cytokines by CD4+ T cells within hepatic granulomas triggered by Bacille Calmette-Guérin or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. At steady-state, only small fractions of mycobacteria-specific T cells showed antigen-induced migration arrest within granulomas, resulting in low-level, polarized secretion of cytokines. However, exogenous antigen elicited rapid arrest and robust cytokine production by the vast majority of effector T cells. These findings suggest that limited antigen presentation and/or recognition within granulomas evoke a muted T cell response drawing on only a fraction of the host's potential effector capacity. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of host-protective functions, especially how antigen availability influences T cell dynamics and, in turn, effector T cell function during chronic infection. PMID:21596592

  13. Antigen-Free Adjuvant Assists Late Effector CD4 T Cells to Transit to Memory in Lymphopenic Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Guloglu, F. Betul; Ellis, Jason S.; Wan, Xiaoxiao; Dhakal, Mermagya; Hoeman, Christine M.; Cascio, Jason A.; Zaghouani, Habib

    2013-01-01

    The events controlling the transition of T cells from effector to memory remain largely undefined. Many models have been put forth to account for the origin of memory precursors, but for CD4 T cells initial studies reported that memory T cells derive from IFN? non-producing effectors while others suggested that memory emanates from highly activated IFN?-producing effectors. Herein, using cell proliferation, expression of activation markers, and production of IFN? as a measure of activation, we defined two types of effector CD4 T cells and investigated memory generation. The moderately activated early effectors readily transit to memory while the highly activated late effectors, regardless of their IFN?-production, develop minimal memory. Boosting with antigen free adjuvant, however, rescues late effectors from cell death and sustains both survival and IFN? cytokine responses in lymphopenic hosts. The adjuvant-mediated memory transition of late effectors involves the function of toll-like receptors (TLRs) most notably TLR9. These findings uncover the mechanism by which late effector CD4 T cells are driven to transit to memory and suggest that timely boosts with adjuvant may enhance vaccine efficacy. PMID:23817422

  14. Crosstalk and differential response to abiotic and biotic stressors reflected at the transcriptional level of effector genes from secondary metabolismw

    E-print Network

    Mauch, Felix - Department of Biology

    of these effector gene families defined distinct responses and crosstalk. Methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments were separated from a group combining reactions towards two sulfonylurea herbicides, salicylate

  15. Autophagy is essential for effector CD8 T cell survival and memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojin; Araki, Koichi; Li, Shuzhao; Han, Jin-Hwan; Ye, Lilin; Tan, Wendy G.; Konieczny, Bogumila T.; Bruinsma, Monique W.; Martinez, Jennifer; Pearce, Erika L; Green, Douglas R.; Jones, Dean P.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Ahmed, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    The importance of autophagy in memory CD8 T cell differentiation in vivo is not well defined. We show here that autophagy is dynamically regulated in virus-specific CD8 T cells during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Autophagy decreased in activated proliferating T cells, and was then upregulated at the peak of the effector T cell response. Consistent with this model, deletion of the key autophagy genes Atg7 or Atg5 in virus-specific CD8 T cells had minimal effect on generating effector cells but greatly enhanced their death during the contraction phase resulting in compromised memory formation. These findings provide insight into when autophagy is needed during effector and memory T cell differentiation in vivo and also warrant a re-examination of our current concepts about the relationship between T cell activation and autophagy. PMID:25362489

  16. Boosting ADCC and CDC activity by Fc engineering and evaluation of antibody effector functions.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Christian; Derer, Stefanie; Valerius, Thomas; Peipp, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, therapy with monoclonal antibodies has become standard of care in various clinical applications. Despite obvious clinical activity, not all patients respond and benefit from this generally well tolerated treatment option. Therefore, rational optimization of antibody therapy represents a major area of interest in translational research. Animal models and clinical data suggested important roles of Fc-mediated effector mechanisms such as antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) in antibody therapy. These novel insights into the mechanisms of action mediated by monoclonal antibodies inspired the development of different engineering approaches to enhance/optimize antibodies' effector functions. Fc-engineering approaches by altering the Fc-bound glycosylation profile or by exchanging amino acids in the protein backbone have been intensively studied. Here, advanced and emerging technologies in Fc-engineering resulting in altered ADCC and CDC activity are summarized and experimental strategies to evaluate antibodies' effector functions are discussed. PMID:23851282

  17. Uncoupling T-cell expansion from effector differentiation in cell-based immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with advanced cancer. Eradication of tumor in mouse models and humans correlates with both a high dose of adoptively transferred cells and cells with a minimally differentiated phenotype that maintain replicative capacity and multipotency. We speculate that response to ACT not only requires transfer of cells with immediate cytolytic effector function to kill the bulk of fast-growing tumor, but also transfer of tumor-specific cells that maintain an ability for self-renewal and the capacity to produce a continual supply of cytolytic effector progeny until all malignant cells are eliminated. Current in vitro methods to expand cells to sufficient numbers and still maintain a minimally differentiated phenotype are hindered by the biological coupling of clonal expansion and effector differentiation. Therefore, a better understanding of the physiologic mechanism that couples cell expansion and differentiation in CD8+ T cells may improve the efficacy of ACT. PMID:24329803

  18. Toluene 4-Monooxygenase and its Complex with Effector Protein T4moD

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Lucas J.; Fox, Brian G. (UW)

    2012-10-16

    Toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) is a multiprotein diiron enzyme complex that catalyzes the regiospecific oxidation of toluene to p-cresol. Catalytic function requires the presence of a small protein, called the effector protein. Effector protein exerts substantial control on the diiron hydroxylase catalytic cycle through protein-protein interactions. High-resolution crystal structures of the stoichometric hydroxylase and effector protein complex described here reveal how protein-protein interactions and reduction of the diiron center produce an active site configuration poised for reaction with O{sub 2}. Further information from crystal structures of mutated isoforms of the hydroxylase and a peroxo adduct is combined with catalytic results to give a fuller picture of the geometry of the enzyme-substrate complex used for the high fidelity oxidation of hydrocarbon substrates.

  19. Learning-based position control of a closed-kinematic chain robot end-effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei

    1990-01-01

    A trajectory control scheme whose design is based on learning theory, for a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot end-effector built to study robotic assembly of NASA hardwares in space is presented. The control scheme consists of two control systems: the feedback control system and the learning control system. The feedback control system is designed using the concept of linearization about a selected operating point, and the method of pole placement so that the closed-loop linearized system is stabilized. The learning control scheme consisting of PD-type learning controllers, provides additional inputs to improve the end-effector performance after each trial. Experimental studies performed on a 2 DOF end-effector built at CUA, for three tracking cases show that actual trajectories approach desired trajectories as the number of trials increases. The tracking errors are substantially reduced after only five trials.

  20. Bacterial effectors target the plant cell nucleus to subvert host transcription

    PubMed Central

    Canonne, Joanne; Rivas, Susana

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote virulence, Gram-negative bacteria have evolved the ability to inject so-called type III effector proteins into host cells. The plant cell nucleus appears to be a subcellular compartment repeatedly targeted by bacterial effectors. In agreement with this observation, mounting evidence suggests that manipulation of host transcription is a major strategy developed by bacteria to counteract plant defense responses. It has been suggested that bacterial effectors may adopt at least three alternative, although not mutually exclusive, strategies to subvert host transcription. T3Es may (1) act as transcription factors that directly activate transcription in host cells, (2) affect histone packing and chromatin configuration, and/or (3) directly target host transcription factor activity. Here, we provide an overview on how all these strategies may lead to host transcriptional re-programming and, as a result, to improved bacterial multiplication inside plant cells. PMID:22353865

  1. Transcription factor networks directing the development, function, and evolution of innate lymphoid effectors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  2. Regulatory role of suppressive motifs from commensal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Bouladoux, N.; Hall, J.A.; Grainger, J. R.; dos Santos, L. M.; Kann, M.G.; Nagarajan, V.; Verthelyi, D.; Belkaid, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The microbiota contributes to the induction of both effector and regulatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the mechanisms controlling these distinct properties remain poorly understood. We previously showed that commensal DNA promotes intestinal immunity. Here, we find that the capacity of bacterial DNA to stimulate immune responses is species specific and correlated with the frequency of motifs known to exert immunosuppressive function. In particular, we show that the DNA of Lactobacillus species, including various probiotics, are enriched in suppressive motifs able to inhibit lamina propria DC activation. In addition, immunosuppressive oligonucleotides sustain Treg cell conversion during inflammation and limit pathogen-induced immunopathology and colitis. Altogether, our findings identify DNA suppressive motifs as a molecular ligand expressed by commensals and support the idea that a balance between stimulatory and regulatory DNA motifs contributes to the induction of controlled immune responses in the GI tract and gut immune homeostasis. Further, our findings suggest that the endogenous regulatory capacity of DNA motifs enriched in some commensal bacteria could be exploited for therapeutic purposes. PMID:22617839

  3. Interference suppression of SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, V P [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-24

    The theory of three-wave SRS is developed, which takes into account nonlinear dispersion of a medium for arbitrary phases of the pump waves at the input to the medium. The effect of interference suppression of SRS is predicted for values of the total phase of the three-wave pump (2n+1){pi} (n=0, {+-}1, {+-}2...), the effect being caused by the destructive interference of polarisations of the nonresonant dipole-allowed transitions. The relation between the contributions of the linear and nonlinear dispersions to the SRS is found. It is shown that at a sufficiently large wave detuning, the anti-Stokes wave amplitude experiences spatial oscillations. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)

  4. Ultrasonic Frost Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kazunari; Saiki, Kazushi; Sato, Hiroki; Ito, Takahiro

    2003-02-01

    The authors have observed the accumulation of frost on the surface of a rectangular aluminum alloy (duralumin) plate flexurally vibrating at approximately 37 kHz in an atmosphere of almost 100% relative humidity at 2°C. The plate surface, which had been prepolished with abrasive slurry for maintaining its average surface roughness of about 100 nm, was refrigerated at a temperature of -20°C with cold carbon-dioxide gas as coolant. Experiments have been conducted with and without fine silver oxide powder spread on the plate surface so as to examine the effect of artificial ice crystal nuclei. Ultrasonic vibrations with an amplitude of 3.4 ?m (rms) are found to suppress frost accumulation by approximately 60%. The phenomenon cannot be ascribed directly to the heat generation caused by high-amplitude vibration, but may have a complex mechanical and/or acoustical effect on small ice crystals.

  5. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  6. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  7. Coxiella burnetii effector proteins that localize to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane promote intracellular replication.

    PubMed

    Larson, Charles L; Beare, Paul A; Voth, Daniel E; Howe, Dale; Cockrell, Diane C; Bastidas, Robert J; Valdivia, Raphael H; Heinzen, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    The intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii directs biogenesis of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that acquires host endolysosomal components. Formation of a PV that supports C. burnetii replication requires a Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4BSS) that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytosol. Thus, a subset of T4BSS effectors are presumed to direct PV biogenesis. Recently, the PV-localized effector protein CvpA was found to promote C. burnetii intracellular growth and PV expansion. We predict additional C. burnetii effectors localize to the PV membrane and regulate eukaryotic vesicle trafficking events that promote pathogen growth. To identify these vacuolar effector proteins, a list of predicted C. burnetii T4BSS substrates was compiled using bioinformatic criteria, such as the presence of eukaryote-like coiled-coil domains. Adenylate cyclase translocation assays revealed 13 proteins were secreted in a Dot/Icm-dependent fashion by C. burnetii during infection of human THP-1 macrophages. Four of the Dot/Icm substrates, termed Coxiella vacuolar protein B (CvpB), CvpC, CvpD, and CvpE, labeled the PV membrane and LAMP1-positive vesicles when ectopically expressed as fluorescently tagged fusion proteins. C. burnetii ?cvpB, ?cvpC, ?cvpD, and ?cvpE mutants exhibited significant defects in intracellular replication and PV formation. Genetic complementation of the ?cvpD and ?cvpE mutants rescued intracellular growth and PV generation, whereas the growth of C. burnetii ?cvpB and ?cvpC was rescued upon cohabitation with wild-type bacteria in a common PV. Collectively, these data indicate C. burnetii encodes multiple effector proteins that target the PV membrane and benefit pathogen replication in human macrophages. PMID:25422265

  8. Genetically distinct pathways guide effector export through the type VI secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, John C.; Beck, Christina M.; Goo, Young Ah; Russell, Alistair B.; Harding, Brittany; De Leon, Justin A.; Cunningham, David A.; Tran, Bao Q.; Low, David A.; Goodlett, David R.; Hayes, Christopher S.; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial secretion systems often employ molecular chaperones to recognize and facilitate export of their substrates. Recent work demonstrated that a secreted component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp), binds directly to effectors, enhancing their stability in the bacterial cytoplasm. Herein, we describe a quantitative cellular proteomics screen for T6S substrates that exploits this chaperone-like quality of Hcp. Application of this approach to the Hcp secretion island I-encoded T6SS (H1-T6SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa led to the identification of a novel effector protein, termed Tse4 (type VI secretion exported 4), subsequently shown to act as a potent intra-specific H1-T6SS-delivered antibacterial toxin. Interestingly, our screen failed to identify two predicted H1-T6SS effectors, Tse5 and Tse6, which differ from Hcp-stabilized substrates by the presence of toxin-associated PAAR-repeat motifs and genetic linkage to members of the valine-glycine repeat protein G (vgrG) genes. Genetic studies further distinguished these two groups of effectors: Hcp-stabilized effectors were found to display redundancy in interbacterial competition with respect to the requirement for the two H1-T6SS-exported VgrG proteins, whereas Tse5 and Tse6 delivery strictly required a cognate VgrG. Together, we propose that interaction with either VgrG or Hcp defines distinct pathways for T6S effector export. PMID:24589350

  9. Effector-independent motor sequence representations exist in extrinsic and intrinsic reference frames.

    PubMed

    Wiestler, Tobias; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2014-04-01

    Many daily activities rely on the ability to produce meaningful sequences of movements. Motor sequences can be learned in an effector-specific fashion (such that benefits of training are restricted to the trained hand) or an effector-independent manner (meaning that learning also facilitates performance with the untrained hand). Effector-independent knowledge can be represented in extrinsic/world-centered or in intrinsic/body-centered coordinates. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern analysis to determine the distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic finger sequence representations across the human neocortex. Participants practiced four sequences with one hand for 4 d, and then performed these sequences during fMRI with both left and right hand. Between hands, these sequences were equivalent in extrinsic or intrinsic space, or were unrelated. In dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), we found that sequence-specific activity patterns correlated higher for extrinsic than for unrelated pairs, providing evidence for an extrinsic sequence representation. In contrast, primary sensory and motor cortices showed effector-independent representations in intrinsic space, with considerable overlap of the two reference frames in caudal PMd. These results suggest that effector-independent representations exist not only in world-centered, but also in body-centered coordinates, and that PMd may be involved in transforming sequential knowledge between the two. Moreover, although effector-independent sequence representations were found bilaterally, they were stronger in the hemisphere contralateral to the trained hand. This indicates that intermanual transfer relies on motor memories that are laid down during training in both hemispheres, but preferentially draws upon sequential knowledge represented in the trained hemisphere. PMID:24695723

  10. Non-replicating adenovirus vectors expressing avian influenza virus hemagglutinin and nucleocapsid proteins induce chicken specific effector, memory and effector memory CD8 + T lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailbala Singh; Haroldo Toro; De-Chu Tang; Worthie E. Briles; Linda M. Yates; Renee T. Kopulos; Ellen W. Collisson

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses stimulated by intramuscular administration of an adenovirus (Ad) vector expressing either HA or NP were evaluated in chickens following ex vivo stimulation by non-professional antigen presenting cells. The CD8+ T lymphocyte responses were AIV specific, MHC-I restricted, and cross-reacted with heterologous H7N2 AIV strain. Specific effector responses, at 10days post-inoculation (p.i.),

  11. Terrific Protein Traffic: The Mystery of Effector Protein Delivery by Filamentous Plant Pathogens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ralph Panstruga (Max-Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research; Department of Plant-Microbe Interactions)

    2009-05-08

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Many biotrophic fungal and oomycete plant pathogens deliver effector proteins directly into host cells during infection. Recent advances are revealing the extensive effector repertoires of these pathogens and are beginning to shed light on how they manipulate host cells to establish a parasitic relationship. The current explosion of information is opening new research avenues in molecular plant pathology and is providing new opportunities to limit the impact of plant disease on food production.

  12. Insect antiviral innate immunity: pathways, effectors, and connections.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Megan B; Huang, Zhijing; Hardy, Richard W

    2013-12-13

    Insects are infected by a wide array of viruses some of which are insect restricted and pathogenic, and some of which are transmitted by biting insects to vertebrates. The medical and economic importance of these viruses heightens the need to understand the interaction between the infecting pathogen and the insect immune system in order to develop transmission interventions. The interaction of the virus with the insect host innate immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of infection. The major mechanism of antiviral defense is the small, interfering RNA pathway that responds through the detection of virus-derived double-stranded RNA to suppress virus replication. However, other innate antimicrobial pathways such as Imd, Toll, and Jak-STAT and the autophagy pathway have also been shown to play important roles in antiviral immunity. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the main insect antiviral pathways and examine recent findings that further our understanding of the roles of these pathways in facilitating a systemic and specific response to infecting viruses. PMID:24120681

  13. Insect antiviral innate immunity: pathways, effectors, and connections

    PubMed Central

    Kingsolver, Megan B.; Huang, Zhijing; Hardy, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Insects are infected by a wide array of viruses some of which are insect-restricted and pathogenic, and some of which are transmitted by biting insects to vertebrates. The medical and economic importance of these viruses heightens the need to understand the interaction between the infecting pathogen and the insect immune system in order to develop transmission interventions. The interaction of the virus with the insect host innate immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of infection. The major mechanism of antiviral defense is the siRNA pathway that responds through the detection of virus-derived dsRNA to suppress virus replication. However, other innate antimicrobial pathways such as Imd, Toll, Jak-STAT, and the autophagy pathway have also been shown to play important roles in antiviral immunity. In this review we provide an overview of the current understanding of the main insect antiviral pathways and examine recent findings that further our understanding of the roles of these pathways in facilitating a systemic and specific response to infecting viruses. PMID:24120681

  14. Global Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of Magnaporthe oryzae Epidemic Isolate 98-06 Uncover Novel Effectors and Pathogenicity-Related Genes, Revealing Gene Gain and Lose Dynamics in Genome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanhan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Miaomiao; Jing, Maofeng; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Muxing; Guo, Xianxian; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Yue; Liu, Yongfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Ye, Wenwu; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Yuanchao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2015-01-01

    Genome dynamics of pathogenic organisms are driven by pathogen and host co-evolution, in which pathogen genomes are shaped to overcome stresses imposed by hosts with various genetic backgrounds through generation of a variety of isolates. This same principle applies to the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the rice host; however, genetic variations among different isolates of M. oryzae remain largely unknown, particularly at genome and transcriptome levels. Here, we applied genomic and transcriptomic analytical tools to investigate M. oryzae isolate 98-06 that is the most aggressive in infection of susceptible rice cultivars. A unique 1.4 Mb of genomic sequences was found in isolate 98-06 in comparison to reference strain 70-15. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed the presence of two critical expression patterns of M. oryzae based on 64 known pathogenicity-related (PaR) genes. In addition, 134 candidate effectors with various segregation patterns were identified. Five tested proteins could suppress BAX-mediated programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Characterization of isolate-specific effector candidates Iug6 and Iug9 and PaR candidate Iug18 revealed that they have a role in fungal propagation and pathogenicity. Moreover, Iug6 and Iug9 are located exclusively in the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC) and their overexpression leads to suppression of defense-related gene expression in rice, suggesting that they might participate in biotrophy by inhibiting the SA and ET pathways within the host. Thus, our studies identify novel effector and PaR proteins involved in pathogenicity of the highly aggressive M. oryzae field isolate 98-06, and reveal molecular and genomic dynamics in the evolution of M. oryzae and rice host interactions. PMID:25837042

  15. Identification and Characterisation of a Hyper-Variable Apoplastic Effector Gene Family of the Potato Cyst Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J.; Jones, John T.; Urwin, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism. PMID:25255291

  16. Gene targeting by the TAL effector PthXo2 reveals cryptic resistance gene for bacterial blight of rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zhou; Z. Peng; J. Long; D. Sosso; B. Liu; J. S. Eom; S. Huang; S. Liu; C. Vera Cruz; W. B. Frommer; F. F. White; B. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial blight of rice is caused by the gamma-proteobacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, which utilizes a group of type III TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors to induce host gene expression and condition host susceptibility. Five SWEET genes are functionally redundant to support bacterial disease, but only two were experimentally proven targets of natural TAL effectors. Here, we report the identification of

  17. Identification and characterisation of a hyper-variable apoplastic effector gene family of the potato cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J; Jones, John T; Urwin, Peter E

    2014-09-01

    Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism. PMID:25255291

  18. Salmonella Phage ST64B Encodes a Member of the SseK/NleB Effector Family

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nat F.; Coombes, Brian K.; Bishop, Jenna L.; Wickham, Mark E.; Lowden, Michael J.; Gal-Mor, Ohad; Goode, David L.; Boyle, Erin C.; Sanderson, Kristy L.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a species of bacteria that is a major cause of enteritis across the globe, while certain serovars cause typhoid, a more serious disease associated with a significant mortality rate. Type III secreted effectors are major contributors to the pathogenesis of Salmonella infections. Genes encoding effectors are acquired via horizontal gene transfer, and a subset are encoded within active phage lysogens. Because the acquisition of effectors is in flux, the complement of effectors possessed by various Salmonella strains frequently differs. By comparing the genome sequences of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 with LT2, we identified a gene with significant similarity to SseK/NleB type III secreted effector proteins within a phage ST64B lysogen that is absent from LT2. We have named this gene sseK3. SseK3 was co-regulated with the SPI-2 type III secretion system in vitro and inside host cells, and was also injected into infected host cells. While no role for SseK3 in virulence could be identified, a role for the other family members in murine typhoid was found. SseK3 and other phage-encoded effectors were found to have a significant but sparse distribution in the available Salmonella genome sequences, indicating the potential for more uncharacterised effectors to be present in less studied serovars. These phage-encoded effectors may be principle subjects of contemporary selective processes shaping Salmonella-host interactions. PMID:21445262

  19. Genomic mining type III secretion system effectors in Pseudomonas syringae yields new picks for all TTSS prospectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Collmer; Magdalen Lindeberg; Tanja Petnicki-Ocwieja; David J. Schneider; James R. Alfano

    2002-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals use a type III secretion system (TTSS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells. Because effectors are heterogeneous in sequence and function, there has not been a systematic way to identify the genes encoding them in pathogen genomes, and our current inventories are probably incomplete. A pre-closure draft sequence of Pseudomonas syringae

  20. Secretion of type III effectors into host cells in Jost Enninga, Joelle Mounier, Philippe Sansonetti & Guy Tran Van Nhieu

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Secretion of type III effectors into host cells in real time Jost Enninga, Joe¨lle Mounier, Philippe Sansonetti & Guy Tran Van Nhieu Type III secretion (T3S) systems are key features of many gram orchestrated secretion of various effectors has been difficult without disrupting their functions. Here we

  1. Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, while plants in turn utilize immune receptors to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. alb...

  2. MicroRNA-155 Is Required for Effector CD8+ T Cell Responses to Virus Infection and Cancer

    E-print Network

    Immunity Article MicroRNA-155 Is Required for Effector CD8+ T Cell Responses to Virus Infection report that miRNA-155 is required for CD8+ T cell responses to both virus and cancer. In the absence of miRNA- 155, accumulation of effector CD8+ T cells was severely reduced during acute and chronic viral

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2014 125 Locating End-Effector Tips in Robotic Micromanipulation

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yu

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2014 125 Locating End-Effector Tips in Robotic Micromanipulation Jun Liu, Zheng Gong, Kathryn Tang, Zhe Lu, Changhai Ru, Jun Luo, Shaorong Xie, and Yu Sun Abstract--In robotic micromanipulation, end-effector tips must be first located under

  4. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  5. -uncertainty Anonymization by Partial Suppression

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Kenny Q.

    -uncertainty Anonymization by Partial Suppression Xiao Jia1 , Chao Pan1 , Xinhui Xu1 , Kenny Q. Zhu Results (a) Original Dataset TID Transaction 1 bread, milk, condom 2 bread, milk 3 milk, condom 4 flour, fruits 5 flour, condom 6 bread, fruits 7 fruits, condom (b) Global Suppression TID Transaction 1 bread

  6. Transduction of SIV-Specific TCR Genes into Rhesus Macaque CD8+ T Cells Conveys the Ability to Suppress SIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Barsov, Eugene V.; Trivett, Matthew T.; Minang, Jacob T.; Sun, Haosi; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Background The SIV/rhesus macaque model for HIV/AIDS is a powerful system for examining the contribution of T cells in the control of AIDS viruses. To better our understanding of CD8+ T-cell control of SIV replication in CD4+ T cells, we asked whether TCRs isolated from rhesus macaque CD8+ T-cell clones that exhibited varying abilities to suppress SIV replication could convey their suppressive properties to CD8+ T cells obtained from an uninfected/unvaccinated animal. Principal Findings We transferred SIV-specific TCR genes isolated from rhesus macaque CD8+ T-cell clones with varying abilities to suppress SIV replication in vitro into CD8+ T cells obtained from an uninfected animal by retroviral transduction. After sorting and expansion, transduced CD8+ T-cell lines were obtained that specifically bound their cognate SIV tetramer. These cell lines displayed appropriate effector function and specificity, expressing intracellular IFN? upon peptide stimulation. Importantly, the SIV suppression properties of the transduced cell lines mirrored those of the original TCR donor clones: cell lines expressing TCRs transferred from highly suppressive clones effectively reduced wild-type SIV replication, while expression of a non-suppressing TCR failed to reduce the spread of virus. However, all TCRs were able to suppress the replication of an SIV mutant that did not downregulate MHC-I, recapitulating the properties of their donor clones. Conclusions Our results show that antigen-specific SIV suppression can be transferred between allogenic T cells simply by TCR gene transfer. This advance provides a platform for examining the contributions of TCRs versus the intrinsic effector characteristics of T-cell clones in virus suppression. Additionally, this approach can be applied to develop non-human primate models to evaluate adoptive T-cell transfer therapy for AIDS and other diseases. PMID:21886812

  7. Sound can suppress visual perception.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Souta; Ide, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    In a single modality, the percept of an input (e.g., voices of neighbors) is often suppressed by another (e.g., the sound of a car horn nearby) due to close interactions of neural responses to these inputs. Recent studies have also suggested that close interactions of neural responses could occur even across sensory modalities, especially for audio-visual interactions. However, direct behavioral evidence regarding the audio-visual perceptual suppression effect has not been reported in a study with humans. Here, we investigated whether sound could have a suppressive effect on visual perception. We found that white noise bursts presented through headphones degraded visual orientation discrimination performance. This auditory suppression effect on visual perception frequently occurred when these inputs were presented in a spatially and temporally consistent manner. These results indicate that the perceptual suppression effect could occur across auditory and visual modalities based on close and direct neural interactions among those sensory inputs. PMID:26023877

  8. Sound can suppress visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Souta; Ide, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    In a single modality, the percept of an input (e.g., voices of neighbors) is often suppressed by another (e.g., the sound of a car horn nearby) due to close interactions of neural responses to these inputs. Recent studies have also suggested that close interactions of neural responses could occur even across sensory modalities, especially for audio-visual interactions. However, direct behavioral evidence regarding the audio-visual perceptual suppression effect has not been reported in a study with humans. Here, we investigated whether sound could have a suppressive effect on visual perception. We found that white noise bursts presented through headphones degraded visual orientation discrimination performance. This auditory suppression effect on visual perception frequently occurred when these inputs were presented in a spatially and temporally consistent manner. These results indicate that the perceptual suppression effect could occur across auditory and visual modalities based on close and direct neural interactions among those sensory inputs. PMID:26023877

  9. Interleukin-21 suppresses the differentiation and functions of T helper 2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pin-Yi; Jen, Hsiao-Yu; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Sheu, Fuu; Chuang, Ya-Hui

    2015-04-01

    T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, which produce interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, control immunity to all forms of allergic inflammatory responses. Interleukin-21 (IL-21) reduces allergic symptoms in murine models and inhibits IL-4-induced IgE secretion by B cells. However, whether or not IL-21 directly affects Th2 cells, which leads to reduced allergic symptoms, is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-21 on the differentiation and effector functions of Th2 cells. We found that IL-21 reduced the number of differentiated Th2 cells and these Th2 cells showed a diminished Th2 cytokine production. Interleukin-21 suppressed Th2 cytokine production of already polarized Th2 cells by down-regulation of transcription factor GATA-3. It also induced apoptosis of Th2 cells with decreased anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. Intranasal administration of IL-21 at the beginning of ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization or before OVA challenge decreased Th2 cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of OVA/alum-immunized allergic mice. In addition, the inhibitory effects of IL-21 on Th2 effector functions can also be found in allergic patients. Our results demonstrate that IL-21 suppresses the development of Th2 cells and functions of polarized Th2 cells. Hence, the administration of IL-21 may be considered for use as a preventive and therapeutic approach when dealing with Th2-mediated allergic diseases. PMID:25351608

  10. Neutrophils but not eosinophils are involved in growth suppression of IL-4-secreting tumors.

    PubMed

    Noffz, G; Qin, Z; Kopf, M; Blankenstein, T

    1998-01-01

    Local expression of IL-4 by gene-modified tumor cells increases their immunogenicity by inducing an inflammatory response that is dominated by eosinophils. Eosinophils have been implicated as antitumor effector cells because the application of a granulocyte-depleting Ab inhibited rejection of IL-4 transfected tumors. This Ab did not discriminate between eosinophils and neutrophils and, therefore, this experiment could not exclude neutrophils as primary effector cells, whereas eosinophils were innocent bystander cells in IL-4 transfected tumors. We analyzed tumor growth suppression and granulocyte infiltration in IL-5-deficient (IL-5(-/-)) mice that had a deficiency of eosinophils, using two tumor lines (B16-F10 and MCA205) transfected to secrete IL-4. IL-4-expressing tumors were at least as efficiently rejected in IL-5(-/-) mice as in wild-type mice, despite an almost complete absence of tumor-infiltrating eosinophils. However, neutrophils were present in undiminished amounts and their depletion partially restored tumor growth. Furthermore, the growth of IL-5-secreting tumors was not impaired in either wild-type or IL-5(-/-) mice, even though it induced eosinophilia in both mouse strains. These findings demonstrate that eosinophils can be induced in IL-5(-/-) mice by exogenous IL-5 and argue against a compensatory effect of neutrophils in the absence of eosinophils. We conclude that 1) infiltration of IL-4 transfected tumors by eosinophils is completely IL-5 dependent, 2) eosinophils have no tumoricidal activity, and 3) neutrophils are responsible, at least in part, for tumor suppression. PMID:9551990

  11. The Notch Signaling Pathway Controls Short-Lived Effector CD8+ T Cell Differentiation but Is Dispensable for Memory Generation.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Mélissa; Duval, Frédéric; Daudelin, Jean-François; Labrecque, Nathalie

    2015-06-15

    Following an infection, naive CD8(+) T cells expand and differentiate into two main populations of effectors: short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and memory precursor effector cells (MPECs). There is limited understanding of the molecular mechanism and cellular processes governing this cell fate. Notch is a key regulator of cell fate decision relevant in many immunological pathways. In this study, we add to the role of Notch in cell fate decision and demonstrate that the Notch signaling pathway controls the MPEC/SLEC differentiation choice following both Listeria infection and dendritic cell immunization of mice. Although fewer SLECs were generated, Notch deficiency did not alter the rate of memory CD8(+) T cell generation. Moreover, we reveal that the Notch signaling pathway plays a context-dependent role for optimal cytokine production by effector CD8(+) T cells. Together, our results unravel critical functions for the Notch signaling pathway during effector CD8(+) T cell differentiation. PMID:25972473

  12. Preclinical and clinical data with bispecific antibodies recruiting myeloid effector cells for tumor therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H van Ojik; T Valerius

    2001-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies constitute a novel approach to improve antibody efficacy. In vitro, constructs to recruit myeloid effector cells have been extensively investigated, and first animal data in human Fc receptor transgenic mice confirmed their promising therapeutic potential. Clinical experience with these constructs demonstrated acceptable toxicity, and support therapeutic efficacy in subgroups of patients. However, limited availability, unacceptable immunogenicity, and unfavorable

  13. Mechanism of IRSp53 inhibition and combinatorial activation by Cdc42 and downstream effectors

    PubMed Central

    Kast, David J; Yang, Changsong; Disanza, Andrea; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Madasu, Yadaiah; Scita, Giorgio; Svitkina, Tatyana; Dominguez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The Rho family GTPase effector IRSp53 has essential roles in filopodia formation and neuronal development, but its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. IRSp53 contains a membrane-binding BAR domain followed by an unconventional CRIB motif that overlaps with a proline-rich region (CRIB–PR) and an SH3 domain that recruits actin cytoskeleton effectors. Using a fluorescence reporter assay, we show that human IRSp53 adopts a closed inactive conformation that opens synergistically with the binding of human Cdc42 to the CRIB–PR and effector proteins, such as the tumor-promoting factor Eps8, to the SH3 domain. The crystal structure of Cdc42 bound to the CRIB–PR reveals a new mode of effector binding to Rho family GTPases. Structure-inspired mutations disrupt autoinhibition and Cdc42 binding in vitro and decouple Cdc42- and IRSp53-dependent filopodia formation in cells. The data support a combinatorial mechanism of IRSp53 activation. PMID:24584464

  14. Structure of GlnK1 with bound effectors indicates regulatory mechanism for ammonia uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Özkan; Kalthoff, Christoph; Raunser, Stefan; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2007-01-01

    A binary complex of the ammonia channel Amt1 from Methanococcus jannaschii and its cognate PII signalling protein GlnK1 has been produced and characterized. Complex formation is prevented specifically by the effector molecules Mg-ATP and 2-ketoglutarate. Single-particle electron microscopy of the complex shows that GlnK1 binds on the cytoplasmic side of Amt1. Three high-resolution X-ray structures of GlnK1 indicate that the functionally important T-loop has an extended, flexible conformation in the absence of Mg-ATP, but assumes a compact, tightly folded conformation upon Mg-ATP binding, which in turn creates a 2-ketoglutarate-binding site. We propose a regulatory mechanism by which nitrogen uptake is controlled by the binding of both effector molecules to GlnK1. At normal effector levels, a 2-ketoglutarate molecule binding at the apex of the compact T-loop would prevent complex formation, ensuring uninhibited ammonia uptake. At low levels of Mg-ATP, the extended loops would seal the ammonia channels in the complex. Binding of both effector molecules to PII signalling proteins may thus represent an effective feedback mechanism for regulating ammonium uptake through the membrane. PMID:17203075

  15. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200600552 Surface Change of Ras Enabling Effector

    E-print Network

    Gerwert, Klaus

    growth signals induce a GDP-to- GTP exchange. This modifies the Ras surface (RasonGTP) and ena- blesDOI: 10.1002/cbic.200600552 Surface Change of Ras Enabling Effector Binding Monitored in Real Time methods, including X-ray crystallography,[5­7] NMR,[8,9] theo- retical methods[10­14] and FTIR.[15

  16. 2009NatureAmerica,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Effector T cells control lung inflammation during

    E-print Network

    infections. Here we analyzed the production, cellular source and function of IL-10 during acute respiratory-inflammatory property of antiviral CD8+ and CD4+ effector T cells (Teff cells) in the infected periphery during acute virus infection. We find that, during acute influenza infection, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is produced

  17. Course Objective 1 1a Describe the cells, products, and effector responses of the immune system

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    , and effector responses of the immune system 2 1a Describe an immune response from are recognized, presented to the immune system, and how this influences vaccine design 7 1a drugs alter the function of the immune system 11 1a, 1b Explain the consequences

  18. G?q Binds Two Effectors Separately in Cells: Evidence for Predetermined Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Golebiewska, Urszula; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    G-proteins transduce signals along diverse pathways, but the factors involved in pathway selection are largely unknown. Here, we have studied the ability of G?q to select between two effectors—mammalian inositide-specific phospholipase C? (PLC?) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)—in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. These studies were carried out by measuring interactions between eCFP- and eYFP-tagged proteins using Forster resonance energy transfer in the basal state and during stimulation. Instead of association of G?q with effectors through diffusion and exchange, we found separate and stable pools of G?q-PLC? and G?q-PI3K complexes existing throughout the stimulation cycle. These separate complexes existed despite the ability of G?q to simultaneously bind both effectors as determined by in vitro measurements using purified proteins. Preformed G-protein/effector complexes will limit the number of pathways that a given signal will take, which may simplify predictive models. PMID:18515384

  19. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Serapio-Palacios, Antonio; Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology. PMID:23509714

  20. Optimal effector functions in human natural killer cells rely upon autocrine bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mc Alpine, Tristan; Wei, Heng; Martínez, Víctor G.; Entrena, Ana; Melen, Gustavo J; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Phythian-Adams, Alexander; Sacedón, Rosa; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Cebon, Jonathan; Ramírez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are critical for innate tumor immunity due to their specialized ability to recognize and kill neoplastically transformed cells. However, NK cells require a specific set of cytokine-mediated signals to achieve optimal effector function. Th1-associated cytokines promote effector functions which are inhibited by the prototypic Th-2 cytokine IL-4 and the TGF-? superfamily members TGF-?1 and activin-A. Interestingly, the largest subgroup of the TGF-? superfamily are the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), but the effects of BMP signaling to NK cell effector functions have not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that blood-circulating NK cells express type I and II BMP receptors, BMP-2 and BMP-6 ligands, and phosphorylated isoforms of Smad-1/-5/-8 which mediate BMP family member signaling. In opposition to the inhibitory effects of TGF-?1 or activin-A, autocrine BMP signaling was supportive to NK cell function. Mechanistic investigations in cytokine and TLR-L activated NK cells revealed that BMP signaling optimized IFN-? and global cytokine and chemokine production; phenotypic activation and proliferation; autologous DC activation and target cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings identify a novel auto-activatory pathway that is essential for optimal NK cell effector function, one which might be therapeutically manipulated to help eradicate tumors. PMID:25038228

  1. High Efficiency Ex Vivo Cloning of Antigen-Specific Human Effector T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neller, Michelle A.; Lai, Michael H.-L.; Lanagan, Catherine M.; O?Connor, Linda E.; Pritchard, Antonia L.; Martinez, Nathan R.; Schmidt, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    While cloned T cells are valuable tools for the exploration of immune responses against viruses and tumours, current cloning methods do not allow inferences to be made about the function and phenotype of a clone's in vivo precursor, nor can precise cloning efficiencies be calculated. Additionally, there is currently no general method for cloning antigen-specific effector T cells directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, without the need for prior expansion in vitro. Here we describe an efficient method for cloning effector T cells ex vivo. Functional T cells are detected using optimised interferon gamma capture following stimulation with viral or tumour cell-derived antigen. In combination with multiple phenotypic markers, single effector T cells are sorted using a flow cytometer directly into multi-well plates, and cloned using standard, non antigen-specific expansion methods. We provide examples of this novel technology to generate antigen-reactive clones from healthy donors using Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus as representative viral antigen sources, and from two melanoma patients using autologous melanoma cells. Cloning efficiency, clonality, and retention/loss of function are described. Ex vivo effector cell cloning provides a rapid and effective method of deriving antigen-specific T cells clones with traceable in vivo precursor function and phenotype. PMID:25368986

  2. Early CD8 T-cell memory precursors and terminal effectors exhibit equipotent in vivo degranulation.

    PubMed

    Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Baumann, Florian M; Kalia, Vandana; Sarkar, Surojit

    2015-07-01

    Early after priming, effector CD8 T cells are distinguished into memory precursor and short-lived effector cell subsets (MPECs and SLECs). Here, we delineated a distinct in vivo heterogeneity in killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG-1) expression, which was strongly associated with diverse MPEC and SLEC fates. These in vivo MPECs and SLECs expressed equivalent levels of cytotoxic molecules and effector cytokines. Using a unique in vivo degranulation assay, we found that the MPECs and SLECs similarly encountered infected target cells and elaborated equivalent levels of cytotoxicity in vivo. These data provide direct in vivo evidence that memory-fated cells pass through a robust effector phase. Additionally, the preferential localization of the MPECs in the lymph nodes, where a lesser degree of cytotoxicity was elaborated, suggests that the MPECs may be protected from excessive stimulation and terminal differentiation by virtue of their differential tissue localization. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into the linear decreasing potential model of memory differentiation.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 28 July 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.48. PMID:25066419

  3. Activation-induced cell death limits effector function of CD4 tumor-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Saff, Rebecca R; Spanjaard, Elena S; Hohlbaum, Andreas M; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann

    2004-06-01

    A number of studies have documented a critical role for tumor-specific CD4(+) cells in the augmentation of immunotherapeutic effector mechanisms. However, in the context of an extensive tumor burden, chronic stimulation of such CD4(+) T cells often leads to the up-regulation of both Fas and Fas ligand, and coexpression of these molecules can potentially result in activation-induced cell death and the subsequent loss of effector activity. To evaluate the importance of T cell persistence in an experimental model of immunotherapy, we used DO11 Th1 cells from wild-type, Fas-deficient, and Fas ligand-deficient mice as effector populations specific for a model tumor Ag consisting of an OVA-derived transmembrane fusion protein. We found that the prolonged survival of Fas-deficient DO11 Th1 cells led to a more sustained tumor-specific response both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, both Fas- and Fas ligand-deficient Th1 cells delayed tumor growth and cause regression of established tumors more effectively than wild-type Th1 cells, indicating that resistance to activation-induced cell death significantly enhances T cell effector activity. PMID:15153474

  4. A high-throughput, near-saturating screen for type III effector genes from Pseudomonas syringae

    E-print Network

    Dangl, Jeff

    disease resistance protein. 79AvrRpt2 is thus a marker for type III secretion system proteins via a type III secretion system (TTSS) (hrp hrc genes in P. syringae; ref. 1) from the bacteriumA high-throughput, near-saturating screen for type III effector genes from Pseudomonas syringae

  5. Regulation of Type III Secretion Hierarchy of Translocators and Effectors in Attaching and Effacing Bacterial Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanyin Deng; Yuling Li; Philip R. Hardwidge; Elizabeth A. Frey; Richard A. Pfuetzner; Sansan Lee; Samantha Gruenheid; Natalie C. J. Strynakda; Jose L. Puente; B. B. Finlay

    2005-01-01

    Human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR) belong to the family of attaching and effacing (A\\/E) bacterial pathogens. They possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system. These pathogens secrete a number of proteins into culture media, including type III effector proteins and

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Defect in recruiting effector memory CD8+

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Defect in recruiting effector memory CD8+ T-cells in malignant pleural T cell populations evaluated by flow cytometry from blood and pleural effusion of untreated patients normal values for T cell populations. Results: Blood CD4+ or CD8+ T cells percentages were similar in all

  7. Critical requirement for the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein in Th2 effector function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) regulates actin polymerization via activation of Arp2/3 and plays a role in the dynamics of the immunological synapse. How these events influence subsequent gene expression and effector function is unclear. We studied the role of WASp in CD4+ T cell effe...

  8. Using effectors of Phytophthora infestans to teach pathogenesis: Our attempt to provide a more comprehensive education

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of pathogenesis mechanisms (R/avirulence genes, effectors, and hypersensitive response) has proved challenging for students in our introductory plant pathology course. An apparent gap exists in the curriculum between this introductory course and higher level plant-microbe interaction cours...

  9. Crystal structure of the effector protein HopA1 from Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Park, Yangshin; Shin, Inchul; Rhee, Sangkee

    2015-03-01

    Plants have evolved to protect themselves against pathogen attack; in these competitions, many Gram-negative bacteria translocate pathogen-originated proteins known as effectors directly into plant cells to interfere with cellular processes. Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is a plant defense mechanism in which plant resistance proteins recognize the presence of effectors and initiate immune responses. Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) in Arabidopsis thaliana serves as a central node protein for basal immune resistance and ETI by interacting dynamically with other immune regulatory or resistance proteins. Recently, the effector HopA1 from Pseudomonas syringae was shown to affect these EDS1 complexes by binding EDS1 directly and activating the immune response signaling pathway. Here, we report the crystal structure of the effector HopA1 from P. syringae pv. syringae strain 61 and tomato strain DC3000. HopA1, a sequence-unrelated protein to EDS1, has an ?+? fold in which the central antiparallel ?-sheet is flanked by helices. A similar structural domain, an ?/? fold, is one of the two domains in both EDS1 and the EDS1-interacting protein SAG101, and plays a crucial role in forming the EDS1 complex. Further analyses suggest structural similarity and differences between HopA1 and the ?/? fold of SAG101, as well as between two HopA1s from different pathovars. Our structural analysis provides a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of the effect of HopA1 on plant immunity. PMID:25681297

  10. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Exploits Host SUMOylation Pathways To Mediate Effector-Host Interactions and Promote Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Paige Selvy; Luo, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that selectively infects mononuclear phagocytes. We recently reported that E. chaffeensis utilizes a type 1 secretion (T1S) system to export tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors and demonstrated that these effectors interact with a functionally diverse array of host proteins. By way of these interactions, TRP effectors modulate host cell functions; however, the molecular basis of these interactions and their roles in ehrlichial pathobiology are not well defined. In this study, we describe the first bacterial protein posttranslational modification (PTM) by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). The E. chaffeensis T1S effector TRP120 is conjugated to SUMO at a carboxy-terminal canonical consensus SUMO conjugation motif in vitro and in human cells. In human cells, TRP120 was selectively conjugated with SUMO2/3 isoforms. Disruption of TRP120 SUMOylation perturbed interactions with known host proteins, through predicted SUMO interaction motif-dependent and -independent mechanisms. E. chaffeensis infection did not result in dramatic changes in the global host SUMOylated protein profile, but a robust colocalization of predominately SUMO1 with ehrlichial inclusions was observed. Inhibiting the SUMO pathway with a small-molecule inhibitor had a significant impact on E. chaffeensis replication and recruitment of the TRP120-interacting protein polycomb group ring finger protein 5 (PCGF5) to the inclusion, indicating that the SUMO pathway is critical for intracellular survival. This study reveals the novel exploitation of the SUMO pathway by Ehrlichia, which facilitates effector-eukaryote interactions necessary to usurp the host and create a permissive intracellular niche. PMID:25047847

  11. Rab27a Targeting to Melanosomes Requires Nucleotide Exchange but Not Effector Binding

    PubMed Central

    Tarafder, Abul K; Wasmeier, Christina; Figueiredo, Ana C; Booth, Antonia E G; Orihara, Asumi; Ramalho, Jose S; Hume, Alistair N; Seabra, Miguel C

    2011-01-01

    Rab GTPases are important determinants of organelle identity and regulators of vesicular transport pathways. Consequently, each Rab occupies a highly specific subcellular localization. However, the precise mechanisms governing Rab targeting remain unclear. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), putative membrane-resident targeting factors and effector binding have all been implicated as critical regulators of Rab targeting. Here, we address these issues using Rab27a targeting to melanosomes as a model system. Rab27a regulates motility of lysosome-related organelles and secretory granules. Its effectors have been characterized extensively, and we have identified Rab3GEP as the non-redundant Rab27a GEF in melanocytes (Figueiredo AC et al. Rab3GEP is the non-redundant guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab27a in melanocytes. J Biol Chem 2008;283:23209–23216). Using Rab27a mutants that show impaired binding to representatives of all four Rab27a effector subgroups, we present evidence that effector binding is not essential for targeting of Rab27a to melanosomes. In contrast, we observed that knockdown of Rab3GEP resulted in mis-targeting of Rab27a, suggesting that Rab3GEP activity is required for correct targeting of Rab27a. However, the identification of Rab27a mutants that undergo efficient GDP/GTP exchange in the presence of Rab3GEP in vitro but are mis-targeted in a cellular context indicates that nucleotide loading is not the sole determinant of subcellular targeting of Rab27a. Our data support a model in which exchange activity, but not effector binding, represents one essential factor that contributes to membrane targeting of Rab proteins. PMID:21554507

  12. Resequencing and Comparative Genomics of Stagonospora nodorum: Sectional Gene Absence and Effector Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Syme, Robert Andrew; Hane, James K.; Friesen, Timothy L.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Stagonospora nodorum is an important wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen in many parts of the world, causing major yield losses. It was the first species in the large fungal Dothideomycete class to be genome sequenced. The reference genome sequence (SN15) has been instrumental in the discovery of genes encoding necrotrophic effectors that induce disease symptoms in specific host genotypes. Here we present the genome sequence of two further S. nodorum strains (Sn4 and Sn79) that differ in their effector repertoire from the reference. Sn79 is avirulent on wheat and produces no apparent effectors when infiltrated onto many cultivars and mapping population parents. Sn4 is pathogenic on wheat and has virulences not found in SN15. The new strains, sequenced with short-read Illumina chemistry, are compared with SN15 by a combination of mapping and de novo assembly approaches. Each of the genomes contains a large number of strain-specific genes, many of which have no meaningful similarity to any known gene. Large contiguous sections of the reference genome are absent in the two newly sequenced strains. We refer to these differences as “sectional gene absences.” The presence of genes in pathogenic strains and absence in Sn79 is added to computationally predicted properties of known proteins to produce a list of likely effector candidates. Transposon insertion was observed in the mitochondrial genomes of virulent strains where the avirulent strain retained the likely ancestral sequence. The study suggests that short-read enabled comparative genomics is an effective way to both identify new S. nodorum effector candidates and to illuminate evolutionary processes in this species. PMID:23589517

  13. Meta-analytic approach to the accurate prediction of secreted virulence effectors in gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many pathogens use a type III secretion system to translocate virulence proteins (called effectors) in order to adapt to the host environment. To date, many prediction tools for effector identification have been developed. However, these tools are insufficiently accurate for producing a list of putative effectors that can be applied directly for labor-intensive experimental verification. This also suggests that important features of effectors have yet to be fully characterized. Results In this study, we have constructed an accurate approach to predicting secreted virulence effectors from Gram-negative bacteria. This consists of a support vector machine-based discriminant analysis followed by a simple criteria-based filtering. The accuracy was assessed by estimating the average number of true positives in the top-20 ranking in the genome-wide screening. In the validation, 10 sets of 20 training and 20 testing examples were randomly selected from 40 known effectors of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. On average, the SVM portion of our system predicted 9.7 true positives from 20 testing examples in the top-20 of the prediction. Removal of the N-terminal instability, codon adaptation index and ProtParam indices decreased the score to 7.6, 8.9 and 7.9, respectively. These discrimination features suggested that the following characteristics of effectors had been uncovered: unstable N-terminus, non-optimal codon usage, hydrophilic, and less aliphathic. The secondary filtering process represented by coexpression analysis and domain distribution analysis further refined the average true positive counts to 12.3. We further confirmed that our system can correctly predict known effectors of P. syringae DC3000, strongly indicating its feasibility. Conclusions We have successfully developed an accurate prediction system for screening effectors on a genome-wide scale. We confirmed the accuracy of our system by external validation using known effectors of Salmonella and obtained the accurate list of putative effectors of the organism. The level of accuracy was sufficient to yield candidates for gene-directed experimental verification. Furthermore, new features of effectors were revealed: non-optimal codon usage and instability of the N-terminal region. From these findings, a new working hypothesis is proposed regarding mechanisms controlling the translocation of virulence effectors and determining the substrate specificity encoded in the secretion system. PMID:22078363

  14. Characterization of the Conditioned Medium from Amniotic Membrane Cells: Prostaglandins as Key Effectors of Its Immunomodulatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Daniele; Pianta, Stefano; Magatti, Marta; Sedlmayr, Peter; Parolini, Ornella

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cells isolated from the mesenchymal region of the human amniotic membrane (human amniotic mesenchymal tissue cells, hAMTC) possess immunoregulatory roles, such as inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and suppression of generation and maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, as reported for MSC from other sources. The precise factors and mechanisms responsible for the immunoregulatory roles of hAMTC remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify the soluble factors released by hAMTC and responsible for the anti-proliferative effect on lymphocytes, and the mechanisms underlying their actions, in vitro. Conditioned medium (CM) was prepared under routine culture conditions from hAMTC (CM-hAMTC) and also from fragments of the whole human amniotic membrane (CM-hAM). We analyzed the thermostability, chemical nature, and the molecular weight of the factors likely responsible for the anti-proliferative effects. We also evaluated the participation of cytokines known to be involved in the immunomodulatory actions of MSC from other sources, and attempted to block different synthetic pathways. We demonstrate that the inhibitory factors are temperature-stable, have a small molecular weight, and are likely of a non-proteinaceous nature. Only inhibition of cyclooxygenase pathway partially reverted the anti-proliferative effect, suggesting prostaglandins as key effector molecules. Factors previously documented to take part in the inhibitory effects of MSCs from other sources (HGF, TGF-?, NO and IDO) were not involved. Furthermore, we prove for the first time that the anti-proliferative effect is intrinsic to the amniotic membrane and cells derived thereof, since it is manifested in the absence of stimulating culture conditions, as opposed to MSC derived from the bone marrow, which possess an anti-proliferative ability only when cultured in the presence of activating stimuli. Finally, we show that the amniotic membrane could be an interesting source of soluble factors, without referring to extensive cell preparation. PMID:23071674

  15. The Arabidopsis ZED1 pseudokinase is required for ZAR1-mediated immunity induced by the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopZ1a

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer D.; Lee, Amy Huei-Yi; Hassan, Jana A.; Wan, Janet; Hurley, Brenden; Jhingree, Jacquelyn R.; Wang, Pauline W.; Lo, Timothy; Youn, Ji-Young; Guttman, David S.; Desveaux, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Plant and animal pathogenic bacteria can suppress host immunity by injecting type III secreted effector (T3SE) proteins into host cells. However, T3SEs can also elicit host immunity if the host has evolved a means to recognize the presence or activity of specific T3SEs. The diverse YopJ/HopZ/AvrRxv T3SE superfamily, which is found in both animal and plant pathogens, provides examples of T3SEs playing this dual role. The T3SE HopZ1a is an acetyltransferase carried by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae that elicits effector-triggered immunity (ETI) when recognized in Arabidopsis thaliana by the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) protein ZAR1. However, recognition of HopZ1a does not require any known ETI-related genes. Using a forward genetics approach, we identify a unique ETI-associated gene that is essential for ZAR1-mediated immunity. The hopZ-ETI-deficient1 (zed1) mutant is specifically impaired in the recognition of HopZ1a, but not the recognition of other unrelated T3SEs or in pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-triggered immunity. ZED1 directly interacts with both HopZ1a and ZAR1 and is acetylated on threonines 125 and 177 by HopZ1a. ZED1 is a nonfunctional kinase that forms part of small genomic cluster of kinases in Arabidopsis. We hypothesize that ZED1 acts as a decoy to lure HopZ1a to the ZAR1–resistance complex, resulting in ETI activation. PMID:24170858

  16. Combined targeting of costimulatory (OX40) and coinhibitory (CTLA-4) pathways elicits potent effector T cells capable of driving robust antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Redmond, William L; Linch, Stefanie N; Kasiewicz, Melissa J

    2014-02-01

    Ligation of the TNF receptor family costimulatory molecule OX40 (CD134) with an agonist anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) enhances antitumor immunity by augmenting T-cell differentiation as well as turning off the suppressive activity of the FoxP3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). In addition, antibody-mediated blockade of the checkpoint inhibitor CTLA-4 releases the "brakes" on T cells to augment tumor immunotherapy. However, monotherapy with these agents has limited therapeutic benefit particularly against poorly immunogenic murine tumors. Therefore, we examined whether the administration of agonist anti-OX40 therapy in the presence of CTLA-4 blockade would enhance tumor immunotherapy. Combined anti-OX40/anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy significantly enhanced tumor regression and the survival of tumor-bearing hosts in a CD4 and CD8 T cell-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies revealed that the combination immunotherapy directed the expansion of effector T-bet(high)/Eomes(high) granzyme B(+) CD8 T cells. Dual immunotherapy also induced distinct populations of Th1 [interleukin (IL)-2, IFN-?], and, surprisingly, Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) CD4 T cells exhibiting increased T-bet and Gata-3 expression. Furthermore, IL-4 blockade inhibited the Th2 response, while maintaining the Th1 CD4 and effector CD8 T cells that enhanced tumor-free survival. These data demonstrate that refining the global T-cell response during combination immunotherapy can further enhance the therapeutic efficacy of these agents. PMID:24778278

  17. Sustained suppression in congruency tasks.

    PubMed

    Notebaert, Wim; Soetens, Eric

    2006-01-01

    In a list version of the Stroop task, Thomas observed that Stroop interference was smaller when the irrelevant word was repeated through parts of the list. MacLeod formulated the sustained-suppression hypothesis for this effect. It is assumed that the automatic response activation on the basis of the irrelevant word is selectively suppressed. In this paper this hypothesis is further investigated. In a serial Stroop task with short response-stimulus interval (RSI) we demonstrate that the Stroop effect disappears when the irrelevant word is repeated, whereas the Stroop effect is evident when the word changes. With a long RSI, there is no influence of the sequence of the irrelevant word. The same pattern of results is observed in a flanker task. The results are discussed in terms of the activation-suppression model (Ridderinkhof) and the sustained-suppression hypothesis. PMID:16556566

  18. Augmented Followed by Suppressed Levels of Natural Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyama, Tsuneo; Hagiwara, Toshikatsu

    1982-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of effector cells from mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii was tested in a 4- to 5-hr 51Cr release assay, using RL 0001000 0011100 0101010 0001000 0001000 0011100 0100010 1000001 1000001 1000001 0100010 0011100 1 and YAC-1 target cells. They showed enhanced cytotoxicity with a peak on the 3rd day postinfection followed by suppression with a peak on the 12th day. The cytotoxicity seemed to be exhibited by natural killer (NK) cells because: (i) pretreatment of the effector cells with antiasialo GM1 or antiasialo GM2 plus complement abolished the cytotoxic activity; (ii) the altered cytotoxicity levels were also induced in nude mice; and (iii) the activity was elicited by nonadherent-nonphagocytic cells. The alteration occurred simultaneously in various lymphoid organs with a similar profile. Neither spleen nor bone marrow cells of 12-day-postinfected mice inhibited NK activity of uninfected mice. Culture fluids of the infected mouse spleen and bone marrow cells did not affect the normal mouse NK activity. The proportion of effector cells capable of binding to target cells was constant during the infection. There was no positive correlation between NK activity and serum interferon level; i.e., interferon was detected in the serum of 12-day-postinfected mice but not in that of 3-day-postinfected or uninfected mice. Passively administered interferon or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid could not restore the suppressed NK activity of 12-day-postinfected mice. Moreover, in vitro treatment of spleen cells from 12-day-postinfected mice with interferon failed to restore the suppressed NK activity. These results suggested that after toxoplasma infection, defective sensitivity to interferon was induced in NK precursor cells, and differentiation to functionally active NK cells might be blocked. PMID:6177634

  19. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described. PMID:21287333

  20. Peptide immunotherapy in allergic asthma generates IL-10–dependent immunological tolerance associated with linked epitope suppression

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John D.; Buckland, Karen F.; McMillan, Sarah J.; Kearley, Jennifer; Oldfield, William L.G.; Stern, Lawrence J.; Grönlund, Hans; van Hage, Marianne; Reynolds, Catherine J.; Boyton, Rosemary J.; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Kay, A. Barry; Altmann, Daniel M.; Larché, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of patients with allergic asthma using low doses of peptides containing T cell epitopes from Fel d 1, the major cat allergen, reduces allergic sensitization and improves surrogate markers of disease. Here, we demonstrate a key immunological mechanism, linked epitope suppression, associated with this therapeutic effect. Treatment with selected epitopes from a single allergen resulted in suppression of responses to other (“linked”) epitopes within the same molecule. This phenomenon was induced after peptide immunotherapy in human asthmatic subjects and in a novel HLA-DR1 transgenic mouse model of asthma. Tracking of allergen-specific T cells using DR1 tetramers determined that suppression was associated with the induction of interleukin (IL)-10+ T cells that were more abundant than T cells specific for the single-treatment peptide and was reversed by anti–IL-10 receptor administration. Resolution of airway pathophysiology in this model was associated with reduced recruitment, proliferation, and effector function of allergen-specific Th2 cells. Our results provide, for the first time, in vivo evidence of linked epitope suppression and IL-10 induction in both human allergic disease and a mouse model designed to closely mimic peptide therapy in humans. PMID:19528258

  1. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, Hella Leonie; /Vrije U., Amsterdam

    2011-11-28

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decays and the non-resonant B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} {eta}{pi}{sup +} decays in approximately 230 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10{sup -6}. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle {gamma}, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle {gamma} can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decay is sensitive to the angle {gamma} and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly enhance the measurement of this angle. However, the low expected branching fraction for the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decay channels could severely impact the measurement. A prerequisite of the measurement of the CKM angle is the observation of the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decay on which this thesis reports. The BABAR experiment consists of the BABAR detector and the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The design of the experiment has been optimized for the study of CP violation in the decays of neutral B mesons but is also highly suitable for the search for rare B decays such as the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decay. The PEP-II collider operates at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance and is a clean source of B{bar B} meson pairs.

  2. Unbiased Proteomic Profiling Strategy for Discovery of Bacterial Effector Proteins Reveals that Salmonella Protein PheA Is a Host Cell Cycle Regulator.

    PubMed

    Na, Ha-Na; Yoo, Young-Hwa; Yoon, Chang No; Lee, Jun-Seok

    2015-04-23

    Salmonella utilizes a type III secretion system to inject bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytosol. Once in the cytosol, these effectors hijack various biochemical pathways to regulate virulence. Despite the importance of effector proteins, especially for understanding host-pathogen interactions, a potentially large number of effectors are yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that unbiased chemical proteomic profiling using off-the-shelf fluorescent probes leads to the discovery of a host cell cycle regulator encoded in the Salmonella genome. Our profiling combined with bioinformatic analysis implicates 29 Salmonella as potential effectors. We follow up on the top candidate, chorismate mutase-P/prehenate dehydratase, PheA, and present evidence that PheA is an effector that mimics E2F7 transcription factor of the host cell and promotes G1/S cell cycle arrest. This validates our strategy and opens opportunities for effector identification in the future. PMID:25865312

  3. Task-level testing of the JPL-OMV smart end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannaford, B.

    1987-01-01

    An intelligent end effector previously developed at JPL has been tested in over 21 hours of experimental teleoperation. The end effector provides local control of gripper clamping force and a 6-degree-of-freedom, wrist mounted force torque sensor. Resolved forces and torques were displayed to the test subjects, and the effect of this information on their performance of simulated satellite servicing tasks was assessed. The experienced subjects accomplished the tasks with lower levels of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) forces than intermediate and naive subjects, but the force levels were apparently uncorrelated with the presence or absence of the display. This negative finding was attributed to the lack of a suitable control mode in the manipulator control system.

  4. CD4+ T helper 2 cells – microbial triggers, differentiation requirements and effector functions

    PubMed Central

    Okoye, Isobel S; Wilson, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years we have made great strides in our understanding of T helper cell differentiation, expansion and effector functions. Within the context of T helper type 2 (Th2) cell development, novel innate-like cells with the capacity to secrete large amounts of interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 and IL-9 as well as IL-4-producing and antigen-processing basophils have (re)-emerged onto the type 2 scene. To what extent these new players influence ??+ CD4+ Th2 cell differentiation is discussed throughout this appraisal of the current literature. We highlight the unique features of Th2 cell development, highlighting the three necessary signals, T-cell receptor ligation, co-stimulation and cytokine receptor ligation. Finally, putting these into context, microbial and allergenic properties that trigger Th2 cell differentiation and how these influence Th2 effector function are discussed and questioned. PMID:22043920

  5. Determination of Rab5 activity in the cell by effector pull-down assay.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yaoyao; Liang, Zhimin; Wang, Zonghua; Lu, Guodong; Li, Guangpu

    2015-01-01

    Rab5 targets to early endosomes and is a master regulator of early endosome fusion and endocytosis in all eukaryotic cells. Like other GTPases, Rab5 functions as a molecular switch by alternating between GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms, with the former being biologically active via interactions with multiple effector proteins. Thus the Rab5-GTP level in the cell reflects Rab5 activity in promoting endosome fusion and endocytosis and is indicative of cellular endocytic activity. In this chapter, we describe a Rab5 activity assay by using GST fusion proteins with the Rab5 effectors such as Rabaptin-5, Rabenosyn-5, and EEA1 that specifically bind to GTP-bound Rab5. We compare the efficiencies of the three GST fusion proteins in the pull-down of mammalian and fungal Rab5 proteins. PMID:25800849

  6. Inflammation-induced effector CD4+ T cell interstitial migration is alpha-v integrin dependent

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Michael G.; Gaylo, Alison; Angermann, Bastian; Hughson, Angela; Hyun, Young-min; Lambert, Kris; Acharya, Mridu; Billroth-Maclurg, Alison C.; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Topham, David J.; Yagita, Hideo; Kim, Minsoo; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Fowell, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes must traverse inflamed tissues to effectively control local infection. Although motility in dense tissues appears to be integrin-independent actin-myosin based, during inflammation changes to the extracellular matrix (ECM) may necessitate distinct motility requirements. Indeed, we found that T cell interstitial motility was critically dependent on RGD-binding integrins in the inflamed dermis. Inflammation-induced deposition of fibronectin was functionally linked to increased ?v integrin expression on effector CD4+ T cells. Using intravital multi-photon imaging, we found that CD4+ T cell motility was dependent on ?v expression. Selective ?v blockade or knockdown arrested TH1 motility in the inflamed tissue and attenuated local effector function. These data show a context-dependent specificity of lymphocyte movement in inflamed tissues that is essential for protective immunity. PMID:23933892

  7. Platelet activation attracts a subpopulation of effector monocytes to sites of Leishmania major infection.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Ricardo; Zhang, Xia; Cohen, Heather; Debrabant, Alain; Mosser, David M

    2011-06-01

    Leishmania species trigger a brisk inflammatory response and efficiently induce cell-mediated immunity. We examined the mechanisms whereby leukocytes were recruited into lesions after Leishmania major infection of mice. We found that a subpopulation of effector monocytes expressing the granulocyte marker GR1 (Ly6C) is rapidly recruited into lesions, and these monocytes efficiently kill L. major parasites. The recruitment of this subpopulation of monocytes depends on the chemokine receptor CCR2 and the activation of platelets. Activated platelets secrete platelet-derived growth factor, which induces the rapid release of CCL2 from leukocytes and mesenchymal cells. This work points to a new role for platelets in host defense involving the selective recruitment of a subpopulation of effector monocytes from the blood to efficiently kill this intracellular parasite. PMID:21606505

  8. BAK1 is not a target of the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrPto.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tingting; Zong, Na; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jinfeng; Chen, Mingsheng; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell surface-localized receptor kinases such as FLS2, EFR, and CERK1 play a crucial role in detecting invading pathogenic bacteria. Upon stimulation by bacterium-derived ligands, FLS2 and EFR interact with BAK1, a receptor-like kinase, to activate immune responses. A number of Pseudomonas syringae effector proteins are known to block immune responses mediated by these receptors. Previous reports suggested that both FLS2 and BAK1 could be targeted by the P. syringae effector AvrPto to inhibit plant defenses. Here, we provide new evidence further supporting that FLS2 but not BAK1 is targeted by AvrPto in plants. The AvrPto-FLS2 interaction prevented the phosphorylation of BIK1, a downstream component of the FLS2 pathway. PMID:20923364

  9. Regulation of hematopoietic cell function by inhibitory immunoglobulin G receptors and their inositol lipid phosphatase effectors

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Carol T.; Rice, Jeffrey S.; Ott, Vanessa L.; Cambier, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Numerous autoimmune and inflammatory disorders stem from the dysregulation of hematopoietic cell activation. The activity of inositol lipid and protein tyrosine phosphatases, and the receptors that recruit them, is critical for prevention of these disorders. Balanced signaling by inhibitory and activating receptors is now recognized to be an important factor in tuning cell function and inflammatory potential. In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge of membrane proximal events in signaling by inhibitory/regulatory receptors focusing on structural and functional characteristics of receptors and their effectors Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 and SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase-1. We review use of new strategies to identify novel regulatory receptors and effectors. Finally, we discuss complementary actions of paired inhibitory and activating receptors, using Fc?RIIA and Fc?RIIB regulation human basophil activation as a prototype. PMID:18759919

  10. Regulation of Chaperone/Effector Complex Synthesis in a Bacterial Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Button, Julie E.; Galán, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Type III protein secretion systems (T3SS), which have evolved to deliver bacterial proteins into nucleated cells, are found in many species of Gram-negative bacteria that live in close association with eukaryotic hosts. Proteins destined to travel this secretion pathway are targeted to the secretion machine by customized chaperones, with which they form highly ordered complexes. Here, we have identified a mechanism that coordinates the expression of the Salmonella Typhimurium T3SS chaperone SicP and its cognate effector SptP. Translation of the effector is coupled to that of its chaperone, and in the absence of translational coupling, an inhibitory RNA structure prevents translation of sptP. Furthermore, we have found that translational coupling is essential for secretion-competent SicP/SptP complex assembly. The data presented here show how the genomic organization of functionally related proteins can have a significant impact on protein function. PMID:21801239

  11. Ubiquitylome analysis identifies dysregulation of effector substrates in SPOP-mutant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Svinkina, Tanya; Baca, Sylvan C.; Pop, Marius; Wild, Peter J.; Blattner, Mirjam; Groner, Anna C.; Rubin, Mark A.; Moch, Holger; Prive, Gilbert G.; Carr, Steven A.; Garraway, Levi A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer genome characterization has revealed driver mutations in genes that govern ubiquitylation; however, the mechanisms by which these alterations promote tumorigenesis remain incompletely characterized. Here, we analyzed changes in the ubiquitin landscape induced by prostate cancer-associated mutations of SPOP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate binding protein. SPOP mutants impaired ubiquitylation of a subset of proteins in a dominant-negative fashion. Of these, DEK and TRIM24 emerged as effector substrates consistently up-regulated by SPOP mutants. We highlight DEK as a SPOP substrate that exhibited decreases in ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation resulting from heteromeric complexes of wild-type and mutant SPOP protein. DEK stabilization promoted prostate epithelial cell invasion, implicating DEK as an oncogenic effector. More generally, these results provide a framework to decipher tumorigenic mechanisms linked to dysregulated ubiquitylation. PMID:25278611

  12. A bacterial effector acts as a plant transcription factor and induces a cell size regulator.

    PubMed

    Kay, Sabine; Hahn, Simone; Marois, Eric; Hause, Gerd; Bonas, Ulla

    2007-10-26

    Pathogenicity of many Gram-negative bacteria relies on the injection of effector proteins by type III secretion into eukaryotic cells, where they modulate host signaling pathways to the pathogen's benefit. One such effector protein injected by Xanthomonas into plants is AvrBs3, which localizes to the plant cell nucleus and causes hypertrophy of plant mesophyll cells. We show that AvrBs3 induces the expression of a master regulator of cell size, upa20, which encodes a transcription factor containing a basic helix-loop-helix domain. AvrBs3 binds to a conserved element in the upa20 promoter via its central repeat region and induces gene expression through its activation domain. Thus, AvrBs3 and likely other members of this family provoke developmental reprogramming of host cells by mimicking eukaryotic transcription factors. PMID:17962565

  13. Stabilization and characterization of antigen-specific T suppressor inducer and T suppressor effector molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Malley; Michelle Zeleny-Pooley; Geraldine Murray

    1995-01-01

    H-2 specific T suppressor inducer (Tsfi) and T suppressor effector (Tsfe) factors show a dose-dependent inhibition of one-way mixed lymphocyte responses (MLR) between CBAJ responder spleen cells and C57BL6 mitomycin C-treated stimulator spleen cells. The hydrophobic proteins Tsfi and Tsfe purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity methods were stabilized by the addition of Tris-saline pH 8 buffered octylglucopyranoside solution.

  14. Linear Scarifying End-Effector Developed For Wall Cleaning In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, C.L.F.

    2001-02-04

    This paper describes the development and performance of a Linear Scarifying End-Effector (LSEE) designed and fabricated for deployment by a remotely operated vehicle. The end-effector was designed to blast or scarify in-grained residual contamination from gunite tank walls using high-pressure water jets after the bulk sludge had been removed from the tanks using an integrated suite of remotely operated tools. Two generations of the LSEE were fabricated, tested, and deployed in the gunite tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with varying levels of success. Because the LSEE was designed near the end of a four-year project to clean up the gunite tanks at Oak Ridge, a number of design constraints existed. The end-effector had to utilize pneumatic, hydraulic and electrical interfaces already available at the site; and to be deployable through one of the containment structures already in place for the other remote systems. Another primary design consideration was that the tool had to effectively extend the reach of an existing remotely operated vehicle from six ft. to at least ten ft. to allow cleaning the tank walls from floor to ceiling. In addition, the combined weight and thrust of the LSEE had to be manageable by the manipulator mounted on the vehicle. Finally, the end-effector had to follow an autonomous scarifying path such that the vehicle was only required to reposition the unit at the end of each pass after the mist had cleared from the tank. The prototypes successfully met each of these challenges, but did encounter other difficulties during actual tank operations.

  15. Overcoming Transcription Activator-like Effector (TALE) DNA Binding Domain Sensitivity to Cytosine Methylation*?

    PubMed Central

    Valton, Julien; Dupuy, Aurélie; Daboussi, Fayza; Thomas, Séverine; Maréchal, Alan; Macmaster, Rachel; Melliand, Kevin; Juillerat, Alexandre; Duchateau, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Within the past 2 years, transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA binding domains have emerged as the new generation of engineerable platform for production of custom DNA binding domains. However, their recently described sensitivity to cytosine methylation represents a major bottleneck for genome engineering applications. Using a combination of biochemical, structural, and cellular approaches, we were able to identify the molecular basis of such sensitivity and propose a simple, drug-free, and universal method to overcome it. PMID:23019344

  16. Characterization of cell death inducing Phytophthora capsici CRN effectors suggests diverse activities in the host nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Remco; Howden, Andrew J. M.; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; M. M. Amaro, Tiago M.; Motion, Graham B.; Pham, Jasmine; Huitema, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Plant-Microbe interactions are complex associations that feature recognition of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns by the plant immune system and dampening of subsequent responses by pathogen encoded secreted effectors. With large effector repertoires now identified in a range of sequenced microbial genomes, much attention centers on understanding their roles in immunity or disease. These studies not only allow identification of pathogen virulence factors and strategies, they also provide an important molecular toolset suited for studying immunity in plants. The Phytophthora intracellular effector repertoire encodes a large class of proteins that translocate into host cells and exclusively target the host nucleus. Recent functional studies have implicated the CRN protein family as an important class of diverse effectors that target distinct subnuclear compartments and modify host cell signaling. Here, we characterized three necrosis inducing CRNs and show that there are differences in the levels of cell death. We show that only expression of CRN20_624 has an additive effect on PAMP induced cell death but not AVR3a induced ETI. Given their distinctive phenotypes, we assessed localization of each CRN with a set of nuclear markers and found clear differences in CRN subnuclear distribution patterns. These assays also revealed that expression of CRN83_152 leads to a distinct change in nuclear chromatin organization, suggesting a distinct series of events that leads to cell death upon over-expression. Taken together, our results suggest diverse functions carried by CRN C-termini, which can be exploited to identify novel processes that take place in the host nucleus and are required for immunity or susceptibility. PMID:24155749

  17. Determination of the Affinities between Heterotrimeric G Protein Subunits and Their Phospholipase C-? Effectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loren W. Runnels; Suzanne F. Scarlata

    1999-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositide-specific phospholipase C-‚s play a key role in Ca2+ signaling and are specifically activated by the Rq family of heterotrimeric G proteins and as well as ‚Á subunits. We have determined the affinity between G‚Á subunits and GTPÁS and GDP-liganded GRq subunits on membrane surfaces, and their respective affinities to PLC- ‚1 ,- ‚2 and -‚3 effectors by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  18. Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estelle Bettelli; Yijun Carrier; Wenda Gao; Thomas Korn; Terry B. Strom; Mohamed Oukka; Howard L. Weiner; Vijay K. Kuchroo

    2006-01-01

    On activation, T cells undergo distinct developmental pathways, attaining specialized properties and effector functions. T-helper (TH) cells are traditionally thought to differentiate into TH1 and TH2 cell subsets. TH1 cells are necessary to clear intracellular pathogens and TH2 cells are important for clearing extracellular organisms. Recently, a subset of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T (TH17) cells distinct from TH1 or TH2 cells

  19. Oral Probiotic Control Skin Inflammation by Acting on Both Effector and Regulatory T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feriel Hacini-Rachinel; Hanane Gheit; Jean-Benoit Le Luduec; Fariel Dif; Stéphane Nancey; Dominique Kaiserlian; Derya Unutmaz

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are believed to alleviate allergic and inflammatory skin disorders, but their impact on pathogenic effector T cells remains poorly documented. Here we show that oral treatment with the probiotic bacteria L. casei (DN-114 001) alone alleviates antigen-specific skin inflammation mediated by either protein-specific CD4+ T cells or hapten-specific CD8+ T cells. In the model of CD8+ T cell-mediated skin

  20. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis?YopD mutants that genetically separate effector protein translocation from host membrane disruption.

    PubMed

    Adams, Walter; Morgan, Jessica; Kwuan, Laura; Auerbuch, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    The Yersinia type III secretion system (T3SS) translocates Yop effector proteins into host cells to manipulate immune defenses such as phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The T3SS translocator proteins YopB and YopD form pores in host membranes, facilitating Yop translocation. While the YopD amino and carboxy termini participate in pore formation, the role of the YopD central region between amino acids 150-227 remains unknown. We assessed the contribution of this region by generating Y.?pseudotuberculosis?yopD(?150-170) and yopD(?207-227) mutants and analyzing their T3SS functions. These strains exhibited wild-type levels of Yop secretion in vitro and enabled robust pore formation in macrophages. However, the yopD?150-170 and yopD(?207-227) mutants were defective in Yop translocation into CHO cells and splenocyte-derived neutrophils and macrophages. These data suggest that YopD-mediated host membrane disruption and effector Yop translocation are genetically separable activities requiring distinct protein domains. Importantly, the yopD(?150-170) and yopD(?207-227) mutants were defective in Yop-mediated inhibition of macrophage cell death and ROS production in neutrophil-like cells, and were attenuated in disseminated Yersinia infection. Therefore, the ability of the YopD central region to facilitate optimal effector protein delivery into phagocytes, and therefore robust effector Yop function, is important for Yersinia virulence. PMID:25684661

  1. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induction of antiviral effector molecules in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Nichani; Radhey S. Kaushik; Angelo Mena; Yurij Popowych; Donna Dent; Hugh G. G. Townsend; George Mutwiri; Rolf Hecker; Lorne A. Babiuk; Philip J. Griebel

    2004-01-01

    Immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) can protect mice against infection by many pathogens but the mechanisms mediating disease protection are not well defined. Furthermore, the mechanisms of CpG ODN induced disease protection in vivo have not been investigated in other species. We investigated the induction of antiviral effector molecules in sheep treated with a class B CpG ODN (2007). Subcutaneous injection

  2. Persistent expansion of CD4+ effector memory T cells in Wegener's granulomatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W H Abdulahad; Y M van der Geld; C A Stegeman; C G M Kallenberg; CGM Kallenberg

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is associated with an ongoing immune effector response, even in remission, we examined the distribution of peripheral naive and memory T-lymphocytes in this disease, and analyzed the function-related phenotypes of the memory T-cell population. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were freshly isolated from WG-patients in remission (R-WG, n=40), active WG-patients

  3. Coevolution between a Family of Parasite Virulence Effectors and a Class of LINE1 Retrotransposons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soledad Sacristán; Marielle Vigouroux; Carsten Pedersen; Pari Skamnioti; Hans Thordal-Christensen; Cristina Micali; James K. M. Brown; Christopher J. Ridout

    2009-01-01

    Parasites are able to evolve rapidly and overcome host defense mechanisms, but the molecular basis of this adaptation is poorly understood. Powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales, Ascomycota) are obligate biotrophic parasites infecting nearly 10,000 plant genera. They obtain their nutrients from host plants through specialized feeding structures known as haustoria. We previously identified the AVRk1 powdery mildew-specific gene family encoding effectors

  4. Coordination of microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton by the Rho effector mDia1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshimasa Ishizaki; Yosuke Morishima; Muneo Okamoto; Tomoyuki Furuyashiki; Takayuki Kato; Shuh Narumiya

    2000-01-01

    Coordination of microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton is important in several types of cell movement. mDia1 is a member of the formin-homology family of proteins and an effector of the small GTPase Rho. It contains the Rho-binding domain in its amino terminus and two distinct regions of formin homology, FH1 in the middle and FH2 in the carboxy terminus. Here

  5. Identification and functional characterization of the novel Edwardsiella tarda effector EseJ.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hai-Xia; Lu, Jin-Fang; Zhou, Ying; Yi, Jia; Yu, Xiu-Jun; Leung, Ka Yin; Nie, Pin

    2015-04-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative enteric pathogen that causes hemorrhagic septicemia in fish and gastro- and extraintestinal infections in humans. The type III secretion system (T3SS) of E. tarda has been identified as a key virulence factor that contributes to pathogenesis in fish. However, little is known about the associated effectors translocated by this T3SS. In this study, by comparing the profile of secreted proteins of the wild-type PPD130/91 and its T3SS ATPase ?esaN mutant, we identified a new effector by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. This effector consists of 1,359 amino acids, sharing high sequence similarity with Orf29/30 of E. tarda strain EIB202, and is renamed EseJ. The secretion and translocation of EseJ depend on the T3SS. A ?eseJ mutant strain adheres to epithelioma papillosum of carp (EPC) cells 3 to 5 times more extensively than the wild-type strain does. EseJ inhibits bacterial adhesion to EPC cells from within bacterial cells. Importantly, the ?eseJ mutant strain does not replicate efficiently in EPC cells and fails to replicate in J774A.1 macrophages. In infected J774A.1 macrophages, the ?eseJ mutant elicits higher production of reactive oxygen species than wild-type E. tarda. The replication defect is consistent with the attenuation of the ?eseJ mutant in the blue gourami fish model: the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the ?eseJ mutant is 2.34 times greater than that of the wild type, and the ?eseJ mutant is less competitive than the wild type in mixed infection. Thus, EseJ represents a novel effector that contributes to virulence by reducing bacterial adhesion to EPC cells and facilitating intracellular bacterial replication. PMID:25667268

  6. Effector and memory CD8+ T cell fate coupled by T-bet and eomesodermin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M Intlekofer; Naofumi Takemoto; E John Wherry; Sarah A Longworth; John T Northrup; Vikram R Palanivel; Alan C Mullen; Christopher R Gasink; Susan M Kaech; Joseph D Miller; Laurent Gapin; Kenneth Ryan; Andreas P Russ; Tullia Lindsten; Jordan S Orange; Ananda W Goldrath; Rafi Ahmed; Steven L Reiner

    2005-01-01

    Two seemingly unrelated hallmarks of memory CD8+ T cells are cytokine-driven proliferative renewal after pathogen clearance and a latent effector program in anticipation of rechallenge. Memory CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells share cytotoxic potential and dependence on the growth factor interleukin 15. We now show that mice with compound mutations of the genes encoding the transcription factors T-bet

  7. Complex interplay between ?-catenin signalling and Notch effectors in intestinal tumorigenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grégory Peignon; Aurélie Durand; Wulfran Cacheux; Olivier Ayrault; Benoît Terris; Pierre Laurent-Puig; Noah F Shroyer; Isabelle Van Seuningen; Tasuku Honjo; Christine Perret; Béatrice Romagnolo

    2011-01-01

    AimsThe activation of ?-catenin signalling is a key step in intestinal tumorigenesis. Interplay between the ?-catenin and Notch pathways during tumorigenesis has been reported, but the mechanisms involved and the role of Notch remain unclear.MethodsNotch status was analysed by studying expression of the Notch effector Hes1 and Notch ligands\\/receptors in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and mouse models of Apc mutation.

  8. Complex structure of type VI peptidoglycan muramidase effector and a cognate immunity protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tianyu [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People’s Republic of (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People’s Republic of (China); Ding, Jinjing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Da-Cheng, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People’s Republic of (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, People’s Republic of (China); Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People’s Republic of (China)

    2013-10-01

    The structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1–Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. The results reveal that Tse3 contains a C-terminal catalytic domain that adopts a soluble lytic transglycosylase (SLT) fold in which three calcium-binding sites were surprisingly observed close to the catalytic Glu residue. The electrostatic properties of the substrate-binding groove are also distinctive from those of known structures with a similar fold. All of these features imply that a unique catalytic mechanism is utilized by Tse3 in cleaving glycosidic bonds. Tsi3 comprises a single domain showing a ?-sandwich architecture that is reminiscent of the immunoglobulin fold. Three loops of Tsi3 insert deeply into the groove of Tse3 and completely occlude its active site, which forms the structural basis of Tse3 inactivation. This work is the first crystallographic report describing the three-dimensional structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 effector–immunity pair.

  9. Human Effector and Memory CD8 + T Cell Responses to Smallpox and Yellow Fever Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Miller; Robbert G. van der Most; Rama S. Akondy; John T. Glidewell; Sophia Albott; David Masopust; Kaja Murali-Krishna; Patryce L. Mahar; Srilatha Edupuganti; Susan Lalor; Stephanie Germon; Carlos Del Rio; Silvija I. Staprans; John D. Altman; Mark B. Feinberg; Rafi Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY ToexplorethehumanTcellresponsetoacuteviralin- fection, we performed a longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells responding to the live yellow fever virus and smallpox vaccines—two highly successful human vaccines. Our results show that both vaccines gener- ated a brisk primary effector CD8+ T cell response of substantial magnitude that could be readily quanti- tated with a simple set of four phenotypic markers. Secondly,

  10. Generation of effector CD8+ T cells and their conversion to memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Weiguo; Kaech, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Immunological memory is a cardinal feature of adaptive immunity. We are now beginning to elucidate the mechanisms that govern the formation of memory T cells and their ability to acquire longevity, survive the effector-to-memory transition, and mature into multipotent, functional memory T cells that self-renew. Here, we discuss the recent findings in this area and highlight extrinsic and intrinsic factors that regulate the cellular fate of activated CD8+ T cells. PMID:20636815

  11. Cytokine Production and Antigen Recognition by Human Mucosal Homing Conjunctival Effector Memory CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geraint P.; Pachnio, Annette; Long, Heather M.; Rauz, Saaeha; Curnow, S. John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Conjunctival epithelial T cells are dominated by CD3+CD56-TCR??+CD8??+ lymphocytes. In this study we explored the antigen experience status, mucosal homing phenotype, cytokine expression, and viral antigen recognition of conjunctival epithelial CD8+ T cells from healthy individuals. Methods. Following ocular surface impression cytology, conjunctival cells were recovered by gentle agitation and analyzed by flow cytometry for cell surface markers, cytokine production (stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA]/ionomycin), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunodominant epitope recognition using major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide tetramers. Results. In contrast to peripheral blood, conjunctival epithelial CD8+ T cells were dominantly CD45RA?CCR7? effector memory cells, and the vast majority expressed the mucosal homing integrin ?E?7. Conjunctival memory CD8+ T cells maintained effector functions with the ability to secrete IFN-? and expression of Granzyme B, although they expressed significantly reduced amounts per cell compared to peripheral blood T cells. Interestingly, herpetic virus-specific CD8+ T cells recognizing epitopes derived from EBV and CMV could be detected in the conjunctival cells of healthy virus carriers, although they were generally at lower frequencies than in the peripheral blood of the same donor. Virus-specific conjunctival CD8+ T cells were dominated by CD45RA?CCR7? effector memory cells that expressed ?E?7. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that the majority of conjunctival epithelial CD8+ T cells are mucosal homing ?E?7+ effector memory T cells, which can recognize viral epitopes and are capable of secreting Granzyme B and IFN-?. PMID:25395484

  12. NLRC4 inflammasomes in dendritic cells regulate noncognate effector function by memory CD8+ T cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Kupz; Greta Guarda; Thomas Gebhardt; Leif E Sander; Kirsty R Short; Dimitri A Diavatopoulos; Odilia L C Wijburg; Hanwei Cao; Jason C Waithman; Weisan Chen; Daniel Fernandez-Ruiz; Paul G Whitney; William R Heath; Roy Curtiss; Jürg Tschopp; Richard A Strugnell; Sammy Bedoui

    2012-01-01

    Memory T cells exert antigen-independent effector functions, but how these responses are regulated is unclear. We discovered an in vivo link between flagellin-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation in splenic dendritic cells (DCs) and host protective interferon-? (IFN-?) secretion by noncognate memory CD8+ T cells, which could be activated by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that

  13. Selective targeting of human alloresponsive CD8+ effector memory T cells based on CD2 expression.

    PubMed

    Lo, D J; Weaver, T A; Stempora, L; Mehta, A K; Ford, M L; Larsen, C P; Kirk, A D

    2011-01-01

    Costimulation blockade (CoB), specifically CD28/B7 inhibition with belatacept, is an emerging clinical replacement for calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression in allotransplantation. However, there is accumulating evidence that belatacept incompletely controls alloreactive T cells that lose CD28 expression during terminal differentiation. We have recently shown that the CD2-specific fusion protein alefacept controls costimulation blockade-resistant allograft rejection in nonhuman primates. Here, we have investigated the relationship between human alloreactive T cells, costimulation blockade sensitivity and CD2 expression to determine whether these findings warrant potential clinical translation. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we found that CD8(+) effector memory T cells are distinctly high CD2 and low CD28 expressors. Alloresponsive CD8(+) CD2(hi) CD28(-) T cells contained the highest proportion of cells with polyfunctional cytokine (IFN?, TNF and IL-2) and cytotoxic effector molecule (CD107a and granzyme B) expression capability. Treatment with belatacept in vitro incompletely attenuated allospecific proliferation, but alefacept inhibited belatacept-resistant proliferation. These results suggest that highly alloreactive effector T cells exert their late stage functions without reliance on ongoing CD28/B7 costimulation. Their high CD2 expression increases their susceptibility to alefacept. These studies combined with in vivo nonhuman primate data provide a rationale for translation of an immunosuppression regimen pairing alefacept and belatacept to human renal transplantation. PMID:21070604

  14. Duplications and losses in gene families of rust pathogens highlight putative effectors.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Amanda L; Smith, Katherine E; Feau, Nicolas; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hamelin, Richard; Nelson, C Dana; Burleigh, J Gordon; Davis, John M

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi are a group of fungal pathogens that cause some of the world's most destructive diseases of trees and crops. A shared characteristic among rust fungi is obligate biotrophy, the inability to complete a lifecycle without a host. This dependence on a host species likely affects patterns of gene expansion, contraction, and innovation within rust pathogen genomes. The establishment of disease by biotrophic pathogens is reliant upon effector proteins that are encoded in the fungal genome and secreted from the pathogen into the host's cell apoplast or within the cells. This study uses a comparative genomic approach to elucidate putative effectors and determine their evolutionary histories. We used OrthoMCL to identify nearly 20,000 gene families in proteomes of 16 diverse fungal species, which include 15 basidiomycetes and one ascomycete. We inferred patterns of duplication and loss for each gene family and identified families with distinctive patterns of expansion/contraction associated with the evolution of rust fungal genomes. To recognize potential contributors for the unique features of rust pathogens, we identified families harboring secreted proteins that: (i) arose or expanded in rust pathogens relative to other fungi, or (ii) contracted or were lost in rust fungal genomes. While the origin of rust fungi appears to be associated with considerable gene loss, there are many gene duplications associated with each sampled rust fungal genome. We also highlight two putative effector gene families that have expanded in Cqf that we hypothesize have roles in pathogenicity. PMID:25018762

  15. Langerhans cells regulate cutaneous injury by licensing CD8 effector cells recruited to the skin.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Clare L; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz; Conlan, Thomas; Trouillet, Celine; Goold, Hugh; Chorro, Laurent; Flutter, Barry; Means, Terry K; Geissmann, Frédéric; Chakraverty, Ronjon

    2011-06-30

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are a distinct population of dendritic cells that form a contiguous network in the epidermis of the skin. Although LCs possess many of the properties of highly proficient dendritic cells, recent studies have indicated that they are not necessary to initiate cutaneous immunity. In this study, we used a tractable model of cutaneous GVHD, induced by topical application of a Toll-like receptor agonist, to explore the role of LCs in the development of tissue injury. By adapting this model to permit inducible and selective depletion of host LCs, we found that GVHD was significantly reduced when LCs were absent. However, LCs were not required either for CD8 T-cell activation within the draining lymph node or subsequent homing of effector cells to the epidermis. Instead, we found that LCs were necessary for inducing transcription of IFN-? and other key effector molecules by donor CD8 cells in the epidermis, indicating that they license CD8 cells to induce epithelial injury. These data demonstrate a novel regulatory role for epidermal LCs during the effector phase of an inflammatory immune response in the skin. PMID:21566096

  16. Activation of effector immune cells promotes tumor stochastic extinction: A homotopy analysis approach

    E-print Network

    Josep Sardanyés; Carla Rodrigues; Cristina Januário; Nuno Martins; Gabriel Gil-Gómez; Jorge Duarte

    2014-11-28

    In this article we provide homotopy solutions of a cancer nonlinear model describing the dynamics of tumor cells in interaction with healthy and effector immune cells. We apply a semi-analytic technique for solving strongly nonlinear systems - the Step Homotopy Analysis Method (SHAM). This algorithm, based on a modification of the standard homotopy analysis method (HAM), allows to obtain a one-parameter family of explicit series solutions. By using the homotopy solutions, we first investigate the dynamical effect of the activation of the effector immune cells in the deterministic dynamics, showing that an increased activation makes the system to enter into chaotic dynamics via a period-doubling bifurcation scenario. Then, by adding demographic stochasticity into the homotopy solutions, we show, as a difference from the deterministic dynamics, that an increased activation of the immune cells facilitates cancer clearance involving tumor cells extinction and healthy cells persistence. Our results highlight the importance of therapies activating the effector immune cells at early stages of cancer progression.

  17. CYK4 inhibits Rac1-dependent PAK1 and ARHGEF7 effector pathways during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Ricardo Nunes; Penate, Xenia; Bates, Michelle; Hammond, Dean

    2012-01-01

    In mitosis, animal cells lose their adhesion to the surrounding surfaces and become rounded. During mitotic exit, they reestablish these adhesions and at the same time physically contract and divide. How these competing processes are spatially segregated at the cell cortex remains mysterious. To address this question, we define the specific effector pathways used by RhoA and Rac1 in mitotic cells. We demonstrate that the MKlp1–CYK4 centralspindlin complex is a guanosine triphosphatase–activating protein (GAP) for Rac1 and not RhoA and that CYK4 negatively regulated Rac1 activity at the cell equator in anaphase. Cells expressing a CYK4 GAP mutant had defects in cytokinesis and showed elevated staining for the cell adhesion marker vinculin. These defects could be rescued by depletion of ARHGEF7 and p21-activated kinase, Rac1-specific effector proteins required for cell adhesion. Based on these findings, we propose that CYK4 GAP activity is required during anaphase to inhibit Rac1-dependent effector pathways associated with control of cell spreading and adhesion. PMID:22945935

  18. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.

    PubMed

    Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Chiara; Romagnani, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has tailored its effector functions to optimally respond to distinct species of microbes. Based on emerging knowledge on the different effector T-cell and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages, it is clear that the innate and adaptive immune systems converge into 3 major kinds of cell-mediated effector immunity, which we propose to categorize as type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 immunity consists of T-bet(+) IFN-?-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1 and natural killer cells), CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (TC1), and CD4(+) TH1 cells, which protect against intracellular microbes through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms. Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor ?t(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, type 1 and 3 immunity mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas type 2 responses can cause allergic diseases. PMID:25528359

  19. Afferents from Vocal Motor and Respiratory Effectors are Recruited during Vocal Production in Juvenile Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Bottjer, Sarah W.; To, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Learned behaviors require coordination of diverse sensory inputs with motivational and motor systems. Although mechanisms underlying vocal learning in songbirds have focused primarily on auditory inputs, it is likely that sensory inputs from vocal effectors also provide essential feedback. We investigated the role of somatosensory and respiratory inputs from vocal effectors of juvenile zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during the stage of sensorimotor integration when they are learning to imitate a previously memorized tutor song. We report that song production induced expression of the immediate early gene product Fos in trigeminal regions that receive hypoglossal afferents from the tongue and syrinx (the main vocal organ). Furthermore, unilateral lesion of hypoglossal afferents greatly diminished singing-induced Fos expression on the side ipsilateral to the lesion, but not on the intact control side. In addition, unilateral lesion of the vagus reduced Fos expression in the ipsilateral nucleus of the solitary tract in singing birds. Lesion of the hypoglossal nerve to the syrinx greatly disrupted vocal behavior, whereas lesion of the hypoglossal nerve to the tongue exerted no obvious disruption and lesions of the vagus caused some alterations to song behavior. These results provide the first functional evidence that somatosensory and respiratory feedback from peripheral effectors is activated during vocal production and conveyed to brainstem regions. Such feedback is likely to play an important role in vocal learning during sensorimotor integration in juvenile birds and in maintaining stereotyped vocal behavior in adults. PMID:22875924

  20. Integrin ??1, ?v?, ?6? effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Sansing, Hope A; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R; Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J Silvio; Yamada, Kenneth M; Berrier, Allison L

    2011-01-01

    Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin ??1, ?v? or ?6? receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin. PMID:21291860

  1. Integrin ??1, ?v?, ?6? effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Sansing, Hope A; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R; Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J Silvio; Yamada, Kenneth M; Berrier, Allison L

    2011-03-11

    Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin ??1, ?(v)? or ?(6)? receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin. PMID:21291860

  2. An Effector Peptide Family Required for Drosophila Toll-Mediated Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, recognition of an invading pathogen activates the Toll or Imd signaling pathway, triggering robust upregulation of innate immune effectors. Although the mechanisms of pathogen recognition and signaling are now well understood, the functions of the immune-induced transcriptome and proteome remain much less well characterized. Through bioinformatic analysis of effector gene sequences, we have defined a family of twelve genes – the Bomanins (Boms) – that are specifically induced by Toll and that encode small, secreted peptides of unknown biochemical activity. Using targeted genome engineering, we have deleted ten of the twelve Bom genes. Remarkably, inactivating these ten genes decreases survival upon microbial infection to the same extent, and with the same specificity, as does eliminating Toll pathway function. Toll signaling, however, appears unaffected. Assaying bacterial load post-infection in wild-type and mutant flies, we provide evidence that the Boms are required for resistance to, rather than tolerance of, infection. In addition, by generating and assaying a deletion of a smaller subset of the Bom genes, we find that there is overlap in Bom activity toward particular pathogens. Together, these studies deepen our understanding of Toll-mediated immunity and provide a new in vivo model for exploration of the innate immune effector repertoire. PMID:25915418

  3. Differential expression of candidate salivary effector proteins in field collections of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A J; Shukle, R H; Chen, M-S; Srivastava, S; Subramanyam, S; Schemerhorn, B J; Weintraub, P G; Abdel Moniem, H E M; Flanders, K L; Buntin, G D; Williams, C E

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that some proteins secreted by gall-forming parasites of plants act as effectors responsible for systemic changes in the host plant, such as galling and nutrient tissue formation. A large number of secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that are the putative effectors responsible for the physiological changes elicited in susceptible seedling wheat by Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), larvae have been documented. However, how the genes encoding these candidate effectors might respond under field conditions is unknown. The goal of this study was to use microarray analysis to investigate variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst field collections from different geographical regions (southeastern USA, central USA, and the Middle East). Results revealed significant variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst the field collections studied. The field collections separated into three distinct groups that corresponded to the wheat classes grown in the different geographical regions as well as to recently described Hessian fly populations. These data support previous reports correlating Hessian fly population structure with micropopulation differences owing to agro-ecosystem parameters such as cultivation of regionally adapted wheat varieties, deployment of resistance genes and variation in climatic conditions. PMID:25528896

  4. Engineering development of waste retrieval end effectors for the Oak Ridge gunite waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O.D.

    1997-05-01

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory selected the waterjet scarifying end effector, the jet pump conveyance system, and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm and Houdini Remotely Operated Vehicle deployment and manipulator systems for evaluation. The waterjet-based retrieval end effector had been developed through several generations of test articles targeted at deployment in Hanford underground storage tanks with a large robotic arm. The basic technology had demonstrated effectiveness at retrieval of simulants bounding the foreseen range of waste properties and indicated compatibility with the planned deployment systems. The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements team was tasked with developing a version of the retrieval end effector tailored to the Oak Ridge tanks, waste and deployment platforms. The finished prototype was delivered to PNNL and subjected to a brief round of characterization and performance testing at the Hydraulic Testbed prior to shipment to Oak Ridge. It has undergone extensive operational testing in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility and performed well, as expected. A second unit has been delivered outfitted with the high pressure manifold.

  5. Interferon regulatory factor 4 sustains CD8(+) T cell expansion and effector differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuyu; Buzo, Bruno Fernando; Pham, Duy; Jiang, Li; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J; Kaplan, Mark H; Sun, Jie

    2013-11-14

    Upon infection, CD8(+) T cells undergo a stepwise process of early activation, expansion, and differentiation into effector cells. How these phases are transcriptionally regulated is incompletely defined. Here, we report that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), dispensable for early CD8(+) T cell activation, was vital for sustaining the expansion and effector differentiation of CD8(+) T cells. Mechanistically, IRF4 promoted the expression and function of Blimp1 and T-bet, two transcription factors required for CD8(+) T cell effector differentiation, and simultaneously repressed genes that mediate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Selective ablation of Irf4 in peripheral CD8(+) T cells impaired antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses, viral clearance, and CD8(+) T cell-mediated host recovery from influenza infection. IRF4 expression was regulated by T cell receptor (TCR) signaling strength via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Our data reveal that IRF4 translates differential strength of TCR signaling into different quantitative and qualitative CD8(+) T cell responses. PMID:24211184

  6. Duplications and losses in gene families of rust pathogens highlight putative effectors

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, Amanda L.; Smith, Katherine E.; Feau, Nicolas; Martin, Francis M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hamelin, Richard; Nelson, C. Dana; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Davis, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi are a group of fungal pathogens that cause some of the world's most destructive diseases of trees and crops. A shared characteristic among rust fungi is obligate biotrophy, the inability to complete a lifecycle without a host. This dependence on a host species likely affects patterns of gene expansion, contraction, and innovation within rust pathogen genomes. The establishment of disease by biotrophic pathogens is reliant upon effector proteins that are encoded in the fungal genome and secreted from the pathogen into the host's cell apoplast or within the cells. This study uses a comparative genomic approach to elucidate putative effectors and determine their evolutionary histories. We used OrthoMCL to identify nearly 20,000 gene families in proteomes of 16 diverse fungal species, which include 15 basidiomycetes and one ascomycete. We inferred patterns of duplication and loss for each gene family and identified families with distinctive patterns of expansion/contraction associated with the evolution of rust fungal genomes. To recognize potential contributors for the unique features of rust pathogens, we identified families harboring secreted proteins that: (i) arose or expanded in rust pathogens relative to other fungi, or (ii) contracted or were lost in rust fungal genomes. While the origin of rust fungi appears to be associated with considerable gene loss, there are many gene duplications associated with each sampled rust fungal genome. We also highlight two putative effector gene families that have expanded in Cqf that we hypothesize have roles in pathogenicity. PMID:25018762

  7. Regulators and effectors of bone morphogenetic protein signalling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiang-Yun; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Huang, Yu

    2015-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play key roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in various tissues and organs, including the cardiovascular system. BMPs signal through both Smad-dependent and -independent cascades to exert a wide spectrum of biological activities. Cardiovascular disorders such as abnormal angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy have been linked to aberrant BMP signalling. To correct the dysregulated BMP signalling in cardiovascular pathogenesis, it is essential to get a better understanding of how the regulators and effectors of BMP signalling control cardiovascular function and how the dysregulated BMP signalling contributes to cardiovascular dysfunction. We hence highlight several key regulators of BMP signalling such as extracellular regulators of ligands, mechanical forces, microRNAs and small molecule drugs as well as typical BMP effectors like direct downstream target genes, mitogen-activated protein kinases, reactive oxygen species and microRNAs. The insights into these molecular processes will help target both the regulators and important effectors to reverse BMP-associated cardiovascular pathogenesis. PMID:25952563

  8. Joint-space adaptive control of a 6 DOF end-effector with closed-kinematic chain mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei

    1989-01-01

    The development is presented for a joint-space adaptive scheme that controls the joint position of a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot end-effector performing fine and precise motion within a very limited workspace. The end-effector was built to study autonomous assembly of NASA hardware in space. The design of the adaptive controller is based on the concept of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and Lyapunov direct method. In the development, it is assumed that the end-effector performs slowly varying motion. Computer simulation is performed to investigate the performance of the developed control scheme on position control of the end-effector. Simulation results manifest that the adaptive control scheme provides excellent tracking of several test paths.

  9. Osteopontin is a downstream effector of the PI3-kinase pathway in melanomas that is inversely correlated with functional PTEN

    E-print Network

    Ringnér, Markus

    Osteopontin is a downstream effector of the PI3-kinase pathway in melanomas that is inversely in the original 53 cell lines and an independent set of 18 melanoma lines with known PTEN status. Osteopontin (OPN

  10. Specificity in Toll-like receptor signalling through distinct effector functions of TRAF3 and TRAF6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Häcker; Vanessa Redecke; Blagoy Blagoev; Irina Kratchmarova; Li-Chung Hsu; Gang G. Wang; Mark P. Kamps; Eyal Raz; Hermann Wagner; Georg Häcker; Matthias Mann; Michael Karin

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns to induce innate immune responses and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferons and anti-inflammatory cytokines. TLRs activate downstream effectors through adaptors that contain Toll\\/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, but the mechanisms accounting for diversification of TLR effector functions are unclear. To dissect biochemically TLR signalling, we established a system for isolating signalling complexes

  11. A Legionella pneumophila Effector Protein Encoded in a Region of Genomic Plasticity Binds to Dot/Icm-Modified Vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    Ninio, Shira; Celli, Jean; Roy, Craig R.

    2009-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. In the environment, L. pneumophila is found in fresh water reservoirs in a large spectrum of environmental conditions, where the bacteria are able to replicate within a variety of protozoan hosts. To survive within eukaryotic cells, L. pneumophila require a type IV secretion system, designated Dot/Icm, that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. In recent years, a number of Dot/Icm substrate proteins have been identified; however, the function of most of these proteins remains unknown, and it is unclear why the bacterium maintains such a large repertoire of effectors to promote its survival. Here we investigate a region of the L. pneumophila chromosome that displays a high degree of plasticity among four sequenced L. pneumophila strains. Analysis of GC content suggests that several genes encoded in this region were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Protein translocation studies establish that this region of genomic plasticity encodes for multiple Dot/Icm effectors. Ectopic expression studies in mammalian cells indicate that one of these substrates, a protein called PieA, has unique effector activities. PieA is an effector that can alter lysosome morphology and associates specifically with vacuoles that support L. pneumophila replication. It was determined that the association of PieA with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila requires modifications to the vacuole mediated by other Dot/Icm effectors. Thus, the localization properties of PieA reveal that the Dot/Icm system has the ability to spatially and temporally control the association of an effector with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila through activities mediated by other effector proteins. PMID:19165328

  12. Comparative Analysis of Type III Secreted Effector Genes Reflects Divergence of Acidovorax citrulli Strains into Three Distinct Lineages.

    PubMed

    Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Munitz, Tamar; Zivanovi?, Marija; Traore, Sy M; Spröer, Cathrin; Zhao, Bingyu; Welbaum, Gregory; Walcott, Ron; Sikorski, Johannes; Burdman, Saul

    2014-11-01

    ABSTRACT Acidovorax citrulli causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits, a serious economic threat to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and melon (Cucumis melo) production worldwide. Based on genetic and biochemical traits, A. citrulli strains have been divided into two distinct groups: group I strains have been mainly isolated from various non-watermelon hosts, while group II strains have been generally isolated from and are highly virulent on watermelon. The pathogen depends on a functional type III secretion system for pathogenicity. Annotation of the genome of the group II strain AAC00-1 revealed 11 genes encoding putative type III secreted (T3S) effectors. Due to the crucial role of type III secretion for A. citrulli pathogenicity, we hypothesized that group I and II strains differ in their T3S effector repertoire. Comparative analysis of the 11 effector genes from a collection of 22 A. citrulli strains confirmed this hypothesis. Moreover, this analysis led to the identification of a third A. citrulli group, which was supported by DNA:DNA hybridization, DNA fingerprinting, multilocus sequence analysis of conserved genes, and virulence assays. The effector genes assessed in this study are homologous to effectors from other plant-pathogenic bacteria, mainly belonging to Xanthomonas spp. and Ralstonia solanacearum. Analyses of the effective number of codons and gas chromatography content of effector genes relative to a representative set of housekeeping genes support the idea that these effector genes were acquired by lateral gene transfer. Further investigation is required to identify new T3S effectors of A. citrulli and to determine their contribution to virulence and host preferential association. PMID:24848275

  13. Protecting and rescuing the effectors: roles of differentiation and survival in the control of memory T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Kurtulus, Sema; Tripathi, Pulak; Hildeman, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines, arguably the single most important intervention in improving human health, have exploited the phenomenon of immunological memory. The elicitation of memory T cells is often an essential part of successful long-lived protective immunity. Our understanding of T cell memory has been greatly aided by the development of TCR Tg mice and MHC tetrameric staining reagents that have allowed the precise tracking of antigen-specific T cell responses. Indeed, following acute infection or immunization, naïve T cells undergo a massive expansion culminating in the generation of a robust effector T cell population. This peak effector response is relatively short-lived and, while most effector T cells die by apoptosis, some remain and develop into memory cells. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this cell fate decision remain incompletely defined, substantial progress has been made, particularly with regards to CD8+ T cells. For example, the effector CD8+ T cells generated during a response are heterogeneous, consisting of cells with more or less potential to develop into full-fledged memory cells. Development of CD8+ T cell memory is regulated by the transcriptional programs that control the differentiation and survival of effector T cells. While the type of antigenic stimulation and level of inflammation control effector CD8+ T cell differentiation, availability of cytokines and their ability to control expression and function of Bcl-2 family members governs their survival. These distinct differentiation and survival programs may allow for finer therapeutic intervention to control both the quality and quantity of CD8+ T cell memory. Effector to memory transition of CD4+ T cells is less well characterized than CD8+ T cells, emerging details will be discussed. This review will focus on the recent progress made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of T cell memory with an emphasis on factors controlling survival of effector T cells. PMID:23346085

  14. Caspase1 Activation in Macrophages Infected with Yersinia pestis KIM Requires the Type III Secretion System Effector YopJ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarit Lilo; Ying Zheng; James B. Bliska

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effectors called Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into infected host cells. Previous studies demonstrated a role for effector Yops in the inhibition of caspase-1-mediated cell death and secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in naive macrophages infected with Yersinia enterocolitica. Naive murine macrophages were infected with a panel of different Yersinia

  15. The RalGEF-Ral Effector Signaling Network: The Road Less Traveled for Anti-Ras Drug Discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole F. Neel; Timothy D. Martin; Jeran K. Stratford; Tanya P. Zand; David J. Reiner; Channing J. Der

    2011-01-01

    The high frequency of RAS mutations in human cancers (33%) has stimulated intense interest in the development of anti-Ras inhibitors for cancer therapy. Currently, the major focus of these efforts is centered on inhibitors of components involved in Ras downstream effector signaling. In particular, more than 40 inhibitors of the Raf-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT-mTOR effector signaling

  16. Twin-jet screech suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, L. L.

    1989-04-01

    Results are reported from an experimental investigation of screech noise in twin jet-engine configurations and of methods for suppressing this noise. The acoustic mechanisms of screech generation and amplification are reviewed; the experimental setup (in which acoustic and phase-averaged schlieren data are obtained on a 4.7-percent scale model of an F-15 aircraft equipped with axisymmetric nozzles) is described; and the results are presented in extensive graphs and flow visualizations. Screech tones with amplitudes up to 163 dB are measured, with amplification by up to 20 dB due to interplume coupling. Suppression by active noise cancellation and by shifting the nozzle exit planes is found to be ineffective; small tabs mounted in the exit plane are very effective in suppressing screech from both single and twin jets, while a small secondary jet is effective for single-jet screech.

  17. Vestibular suppression during space flight.

    PubMed

    Watt, Douglas; Lefebvre, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Normal movements performed while voluntarily fixing the head to the torso can lead to motion sickness in susceptible individuals. The underlying mechanism may involve excessive suppression of vestibular responses. A similar motor strategy is often adopted in the early days of a space flight and might contribute to the development of space motion sickness. In a recent experiment, we monitored the eye, head and upper torso rotations of four Life and Microgravity Spacelab crew members. For the purposes of this study, all data were excluded except for periods during which the subject was performing pure yaw-axis head movements. All subjects showed a significant increase in gaze slip on the first day of their mission, suggesting that increased vestibular suppression was occurring. Furthermore, this amount of increased suppression would have been more than adequate to produce motion sickness in susceptible individuals on the ground. The results support the theory of two, independent mechanisms for space motion sickness. PMID:15096678

  18. Vibration suppression using smart structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim; Inman, Daniel J.; Dosch, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The control of structures for vibration suppression is discussed in the context of using smart materials and structures. Here the use of smart structures refers to using embedded piezoelectric devices as both control actuators and sensors. Using embedded sensors and actuators allows great improvements in performance over traditional structures (both passive and active) for vibration suppression. The application of smart structures to three experimental flexible structures is presented. The first is a flexible beam, the second is a flexible beam undergoing slewing motion, the third is a ribbed antenna. A simple model of a piezoelectric actuator/sensor is presented. The equations of motion for each structure is presented. The control issues considered as those associated with multi-input, multi-output control, PID control and LQR control implementation. A modern control analysis illustrates the usefulness of smart structures for vibration suppression.

  19. RXLR effector reservoir in two Phytophthora species is dominated by a single rapidly evolving superfamily with more than 700 members

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Tripathy, Sucheta; Govers, Francine; Tyler, Brett M.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogens secrete effector molecules that facilitate the infection of their hosts. A number of effectors identified in plant pathogenic Phytophthora species possess N-terminal motifs (RXLR-dEER) required for targeting these effectors into host cells. Here, we bioinformatically identify >370 candidate effector genes in each of the genomes of P. sojae and P. ramorum. A single superfamily, termed avirulence homolog (Avh) genes, accounts for most of the effectors. The Avh proteins show extensive sequence divergence but are all related and likely evolved from a common ancestor by rapid duplication and divergence. More than half of the Avh proteins contain conserved C-terminal motifs (termed W, Y, and L) that are usually arranged as a module that can be repeated up to eight times. The Avh genes belong to the most rapidly evolving part of the genome, and they are nearly always located at synteny breakpoints. The superfamily includes all experimentally identified oomycete effector and avirulence genes, and its rapid pace of evolution is consistent with a role for Avh proteins in interaction with plant hosts. PMID:18344324

  20. OX40 controls effector CD4+ T-cell expansion, not follicular T helper cell generation in acute Listeria infection

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Clare L; Mackley, Emma C; Ferreira, Cristina; Veldhoen, Marc; Yagita, Hideo; Withers, David R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the importance of OX40 signals for physiological CD4+ T-cell responses, an endogenous antigen-specific population of CD4+ T cells that recognise the 2W1S peptide was assessed and temporal control of OX40 signals was achieved using blocking or agonistic antibodies (Abs) in vivo. Following infection with Listeria monocytogenes expressing 2W1S peptide, OX40 was briefly expressed by the responding 2W1S-specific CD4+ T cells, but only on a subset that co-expressed effector cell markers. This population was specifically expanded by Ab-ligation of OX40 during priming, which also caused skewing of the memory response towards effector memory cells. Strikingly, this greatly enhanced effector response was accompanied by the loss of T follicular helper (TFH) cells and germinal centres. Mice deficient in OX40 and CD30 showed normal generation of TFH cells but impaired numbers of 2W1S-specific effector cells. OX40 was not expressed by 2W1S-specific memory cells, although it was rapidly up-regulated upon challenge whereupon Ab-ligation of OX40 specifically affected the effector subset. In summary, these data indicate that for CD4+ T cells, OX40 signals are important for generation of effector T cells rather than TFH cells in this response to acute bacterial infection. PMID:24771127

  1. The RalGEF-Ral Effector Signaling Network: The Road Less Traveled for Anti-Ras Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Neel, Nicole F; Martin, Timothy D; Stratford, Jeran K; Zand, Tanya P; Reiner, David J; Der, Channing J

    2011-03-01

    The high frequency of RAS mutations in human cancers (33%) has stimulated intense interest in the development of anti-Ras inhibitors for cancer therapy. Currently, the major focus of these efforts is centered on inhibitors of components involved in Ras downstream effector signaling. In particular, more than 40 inhibitors of the Raf-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT-mTOR effector signaling networks are currently under clinical evaluation. However, these efforts are complicated by the fact that Ras can utilize at least 9 additional functionally distinct effectors, with at least 3 additional effectors with validated roles in Ras-mediated oncogenesis. Of these, the guanine nucleotide exchange factors of the Ras-like (Ral) small GTPases (RalGEFs) have emerged as important effectors of mutant Ras in pancreatic, colon, and other cancers. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the importance of this effector pathway in cancer and discuss possible directions for therapeutic inhibition of aberrant Ral activation and signaling. PMID:21779498

  2. The Type III Effectors NleE and NleB from Enteropathogenic E. coli and OspZ from Shigella Block Nuclear Translocation of NF-?B p65

    PubMed Central

    Badea, Luminita; Kelly, Michelle; Lucas, Mark; Holloway, Gavan; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Sloan, Joan; Whisstock, James C.; Kaper, James B.; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Jans, David A.; Frankel, Gad; Phillips, Alan D.; Coulson, Barbara S.; Hartland, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens utilize a type III secretion system to deliver multiple effector proteins into host cells. Here we found that the type III effectors, NleE from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and OspZ from Shigella, blocked translocation of the p65 subunit of the transcription factor, NF-?B, to the host cell nucleus. NF-?B inhibition by NleE was associated with decreased IL-8 expression in EPEC-infected intestinal epithelial cells. Ectopically expressed NleE also blocked nuclear translocation of p65 and c-Rel, but not p50 or STAT1/2. NleE homologues from other attaching and effacing pathogens as well OspZ from Shigella flexneri 6 and Shigella boydii, also inhibited NF-?B activation and p65 nuclear import; however, a truncated form of OspZ from S. flexneri 2a that carries a 36 amino acid deletion at the C-terminus had no inhibitory activity. We determined that the C-termini of NleE and full length OspZ were functionally interchangeable and identified a six amino acid motif, IDSY(M/I)K, that was important for both NleE- and OspZ-mediated inhibition of NF-?B activity. We also established that NleB, encoded directly upstream from NleE, suppressed NF-?B activation. Whereas NleE inhibited both TNF? and IL-1? stimulated p65 nuclear translocation and I?B degradation, NleB inhibited the TNF? pathway only. Neither NleE nor NleB inhibited AP-1 activation, suggesting that the modulatory activity of the effectors was specific for NF-?B signaling. Overall our data show that EPEC and Shigella have evolved similar T3SS-dependent means to manipulate host inflammatory pathways by interfering with the activation of selected host transcriptional regulators. PMID:20485572

  3. Epigenetic control of effector gene expression in the plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Jessica L; El Ghalid, Mennat; Glaser, Nicolas; Ollivier, Bénédicte; Linglin, Juliette; Grandaubert, Jonathan; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène; Connolly, Lanelle R; Freitag, Michael; Rouxel, Thierry; Fudal, Isabelle

    2014-03-01

    Plant pathogens secrete an arsenal of small secreted proteins (SSPs) acting as effectors that modulate host immunity to facilitate infection. SSP-encoding genes are often located in particular genomic environments and show waves of concerted expression at diverse stages of plant infection. To date, little is known about the regulation of their expression. The genome of the Ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans comprises alternating gene-rich GC-isochores and gene-poor AT-isochores. The AT-isochores harbor mosaics of transposable elements, encompassing one-third of the genome, and are enriched in putative effector genes that present similar expression patterns, namely no expression or low-level expression during axenic cultures compared to strong induction of expression during primary infection of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Here, we investigated the involvement of one specific histone modification, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me3), in epigenetic regulation of concerted effector gene expression in L. maculans. For this purpose, we silenced the expression of two key players in heterochromatin assembly and maintenance, HP1 and DIM-5 by RNAi. By using HP1-GFP as a heterochromatin marker, we observed that almost no chromatin condensation is visible in strains in which LmDIM5 was silenced by RNAi. By whole genome oligoarrays we observed overexpression of 369 or 390 genes, respectively, in the silenced-LmHP1 and -LmDIM5 transformants during growth in axenic culture, clearly favouring expression of SSP-encoding genes within AT-isochores. The ectopic integration of four effector genes in GC-isochores led to their overexpression during growth in axenic culture. These data strongly suggest that epigenetic control, mediated by HP1 and DIM-5, represses the expression of at least part of the effector genes located in AT-isochores during growth in axenic culture. Our hypothesis is that changes of lifestyle and a switch toward pathogenesis lift chromatin-mediated repression, allowing a rapid response to new environmental conditions. PMID:24603691

  4. Epigenetic Control of Effector Gene Expression in the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans

    PubMed Central

    Soyer, Jessica L.; El Ghalid, Mennat; Glaser, Nicolas; Ollivier, Bénédicte; Linglin, Juliette; Grandaubert, Jonathan; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Freitag, Michael; Rouxel, Thierry; Fudal, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete an arsenal of small secreted proteins (SSPs) acting as effectors that modulate host immunity to facilitate infection. SSP-encoding genes are often located in particular genomic environments and show waves of concerted expression at diverse stages of plant infection. To date, little is known about the regulation of their expression. The genome of the Ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans comprises alternating gene-rich GC-isochores and gene-poor AT-isochores. The AT-isochores harbor mosaics of transposable elements, encompassing one-third of the genome, and are enriched in putative effector genes that present similar expression patterns, namely no expression or low-level expression during axenic cultures compared to strong induction of expression during primary infection of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Here, we investigated the involvement of one specific histone modification, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me3), in epigenetic regulation of concerted effector gene expression in L. maculans. For this purpose, we silenced the expression of two key players in heterochromatin assembly and maintenance, HP1 and DIM-5 by RNAi. By using HP1-GFP as a heterochromatin marker, we observed that almost no chromatin condensation is visible in strains in which LmDIM5 was silenced by RNAi. By whole genome oligoarrays we observed overexpression of 369 or 390 genes, respectively, in the silenced-LmHP1 and -LmDIM5 transformants during growth in axenic culture, clearly favouring expression of SSP-encoding genes within AT-isochores. The ectopic integration of four effector genes in GC-isochores led to their overexpression during growth in axenic culture. These data strongly suggest that epigenetic control, mediated by HP1 and DIM-5, represses the expression of at least part of the effector genes located in AT-isochores during growth in axenic culture. Our hypothesis is that changes of lifestyle and a switch toward pathogenesis lift chromatin-mediated repression, allowing a rapid response to new environmental conditions. PMID:24603691

  5. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Xue, Yongjun (Norwich, NY)

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans.

  6. A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G.; Dehio, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ?bepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ?bepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ?bepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ?bepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that infected dermal dendritic cells may be involved in disseminating Bartonella towards the blood stream in a BepE-dependent manner. PMID:24945914

  7. Fermionic suppression of dipolar relaxation.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Nathaniel Q; Baumann, Kristian; Tang, Yijun; Lu, Mingwu; Lev, Benjamin L

    2015-01-16

    We observe the suppression of inelastic dipolar scattering in ultracold Fermi gases of the highly magnetic atom dysprosium: the more energy that is released, the less frequently these exothermic reactions take place, and only quantum spin statistics can explain this counterintuitive effect. Inelastic dipolar scattering in nonzero magnetic fields leads to heating or to loss of the trapped population, both detrimental to experiments intended to study quantum many-body physics with strongly dipolar gases. Fermi statistics, however, is predicted to lead to a kinematic suppression of these harmful reactions. Indeed, we observe a 120-fold suppression of dipolar relaxation in fermionic versus bosonic Dy, as expected from theory describing universal inelastic dipolar scattering, though never before experimentally confirmed. Similarly, low inelastic cross sections are observed in spin mixtures, also with striking correspondence to predictions. The suppression of relaxation opens the possibility of employing fermionic dipolar species in studies of quantum many-body physics involving, e.g., synthetic gauge fields and pairing. PMID:25635544

  8. Basic suppression techniques are evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawirs, H. N.

    1966-01-01

    Investigation of standard suppression methods facilitates switching of inductively loaded circuits which causes interference in adjacent electronic equipment. The data are reduced to tabular form and rapid selection of components by the designer can be made without lengthy calculations or trial and error manipulations.

  9. Solid particulate aerosol fire suppressants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Kibert; Douglas Dierdorf

    1994-01-01

    A variety of private and public sector programs are developing a new class of fire suppressants, known generically as solid particulate aerosols. These have superior volumetric efficiency, low initial and life-cycle costs, low toxicity, no known global atmospheric environmental impacts (ODP\\/GWP), and the potential for a wide variety of applications. Researchers are developing solid compound formulations that, when pyrotechnically initiated,

  10. Interleukin-27 acts on dendritic cells to suppress the T-cell response and autoimmunity by inducing the expression of ENTPD1 (CD39)

    PubMed Central

    Mascanfroni, Ivan D.; Yeste, Ada; Vieira, Silvio M.; Burns, Evan J.; Patel, Bonny; Sloma, Ido; Wu, Yan; Mayo, Lior; Ben-Hamo, Rotem; Efroni, Sol; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Robson, Simon C.; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) control the balance between effector and regulatory T cells in vivo. Hence, the study of DCs might identify mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and guide new therapeutic approaches for immune-mediated disorders. We found that IL-27 signaling in murine DCs limits the generation of effector TH1 and TH17 cells and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of IL-27 were mediated, at least partially, through the induction of the immunoregulatory molecule ENTPD1 (CD39) in DCs. IL-27-induced ENTPD1 decreased extracellular ATP levels, down-regulating nucleotide-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Finally, therapeutic vaccination with IL-27-conditioned DCs suppressed established relapsing-remitting EAE. Thus, IL-27 signaling in DCs limits pathogenic T cell responses and the development of autoimmunity. PMID:23995234

  11. Identification and functional characterization of effectors in expressed sequence tags from various life cycle stages of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    PubMed

    Jones, John T; Kumar, Amar; Pylypenko, Liliya A; Thirugnanasambandam, Amarnath; Castelli, Lydia; Chapman, Sean; Cock, Peter J A; Grenier, Eric; Lilley, Catherine J; Phillips, Mark S; Blok, Vivian C

    2009-11-01

    In this article, we describe the analysis of over 9000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cDNA libraries obtained from various life cycle stages of Globodera pallida. We have identified over 50 G. pallida effectors from this dataset using bioinformatics analysis, by screening clones in order to identify secreted proteins up-regulated after the onset of parasitism and using in situ hybridization to confirm the expression in pharyngeal gland cells. A substantial gene family encoding G. pallida SPRYSEC proteins has been identified. The expression of these genes is restricted to the dorsal pharyngeal gland cell. Different members of the SPRYSEC family of proteins from G. pallida show different subcellular localization patterns in plants, with some localized to the cytoplasm and others to the nucleus and nucleolus. Differences in subcellular localization may reflect diverse functional roles for each individual protein or, more likely, variety in the compartmentalization of plant proteins targeted by the nematode. Our data are therefore consistent with the suggestion that the SPRYSEC proteins suppress host defences, as suggested previously, and that they achieve this through interaction with a range of host targets. PMID:19849787

  12. Control of pathogenic effector T-cell activities in situ by PD-L1 expression on respiratory inflammatory dendritic cells during respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yao, S; Jiang, L; Moser, E K; Jewett, L B; Wright, J; Du, J; Zhou, B; Davis, S D; Krupp, N L; Braciale, T J; Sun, J

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract illness in young infants, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. We demonstrate here that the co-inhibitory molecule programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is selectively upregulated on T cells within the respiratory tract during both murine and human RSV infection. Importantly, the interaction of PD-1 with its ligand PD-L1 is vital to restrict the pro-inflammatory activities of lung effector T cells in situ, thereby inhibiting the development of excessive pulmonary inflammation and injury during RSV infection. We further identify that PD-L1 expression on lung inflammatory dendritic cells is critical to suppress inflammatory T-cell activities, and an interferon-STAT1-IRF1 axis is responsible for increased PD-L1 expression on lung inflammatory dendritic cells. Our findings suggest a potentially critical role of PD-L1 and PD-1 interactions in the lung for controlling host inflammatory responses and disease progression in clinical RSV infection. PMID:25465101

  13. The Tomato Cell Death Suppressor Adi3 Is Restricted to the Endosomal System in Response to the Pseudomonas syringae Effector Protein AvrPto

    PubMed Central

    Ek-Ramos, María J.; Avila, Julian; Nelson Dittrich, Anna C.; Su, Dongyin; Gray, Joel W.; Devarenne, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) AGC protein kinase Adi3 functions as a suppressor of cell death and was first identified as an interactor with the tomato resistance protein Pto and the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrPto. Models predict that loss of Adi3 cell death suppression (CDS) activity during Pto/AvrPto interaction leads to the cell death associated with the resistance response initiated from this interaction. Nuclear localization is required for Adi3 CDS. Prevention of nuclear accumulation eliminates Adi3 CDS and induces cell death by localizing Adi3 to intracellular punctate membrane structures. Here we use several markers of the endomembrane system to show that the punctate membrane structures to which non-nuclear Adi3 is localized are endosomal in nature. Wild-type Adi3 also localizes in these punctate endosomal structures. This was confirmed by the use of endosomal trafficking inhibitors, which were capable of trapping wild-type Adi3 in endosomal-like structures similar to the non-nuclear Adi3. This suggests Adi3 may traffic through the cell using the endomembrane system. Additionally, Adi3 was no longer found in the nucleus but was visualized in these punctate endosomal-like membranes during the cell death induced by the Pto/AvrPto interaction. Therefore we propose that inhibiting nuclear import and constraining Adi3 to the endosomal system in response to AvrPto is a mechanism to initiate the cell death associated with resistance. PMID:25350368

  14. Tremelimumab (anti-CTLA4) mediates immune responses mainly by direct activation of T effector cells rather than by affecting T regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sameena; Burt, Deborah J; Ralph, Christy; Thistlethwaite, Fiona C; Hawkins, Robert E; Elkord, Eyad

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) blockade has shown antitumor activity against common cancers. However, the exact mechanism of immune mediation by anti-CTLA4 remains to be elucidated. Further understanding of how CTLA4 blockade with tremelimumab mediates immune responses may allow a more effective selection of responsive patients. Our results show that tremelimumab enhanced the proliferative response of T effector cells (Teff) upon TCR stimulation, and abrogated Treg suppressive ability. In the presence of tremelimumab, frequencies of IL-2-secreting CD4(+) T cells and IFN-?-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were increased in response to polyclonal activation and tumor antigens. Importantly, Treg frequency was not reduced in the presence of tremelimumab, and expanded Tregs in cancer patients treated with tremelimumab expressed FoxP3 with no IL-2 release, confirming them as bona fide Tregs. Taken together, this data indicates that tremelimumab induces immune responses mainly by direct activation of Teff rather than by affecting Tregs. PMID:21056008

  15. The PDZ domain protein Mcc is a novel effector of non-canonical Wnt signaling during convergence and extension in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Young, Teddy; Poobalan, Yogavalli; Tan, Ee Kim; Tao, Shijie; Ong, Sheena; Wehner, Peter; Schwenty-Lara, Janina; Lim, Chin Yan; Sadasivam, Akila; Lovatt, Matthew; Wang, Siew Tein; Ali, Yusuf; Borchers, Annette; Sampath, Karuna; Dunn, N Ray

    2014-09-01

    During vertebrate gastrulation, a complex set of mass cellular rearrangements shapes the embryonic body plan and appropriately positions the organ primordia. In zebrafish and Xenopus, convergence and extension (CE) movements simultaneously narrow the body axis mediolaterally and elongate it from head to tail. This process is governed by polarized cell behaviors that are coordinated by components of the non-canonical, ?-catenin-independent Wnt signaling pathway, including Wnt5b and the transmembrane planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Vangl2. However, the intracellular events downstream of Wnt/PCP signals are not fully understood. Here, we show that zebrafish mutated in colorectal cancer (mcc), which encodes an evolutionarily conserved PDZ domain-containing putative tumor suppressor, is required for Wnt5b/Vangl2 signaling during gastrulation. Knockdown of mcc results in CE phenotypes similar to loss of vangl2 and wnt5b, whereas overexpression of mcc robustly rescues the depletion of wnt5b, vangl2 and the Wnt5b tyrosine kinase receptor ror2. Biochemical experiments establish a direct physical interaction between Mcc and the Vangl2 cytoplasmic tail. Lastly, CE defects in mcc morphants are suppressed by downstream activation of RhoA and JNK. Taken together, our results identify Mcc as a novel intracellular effector of non-canonical Wnt5b/Vangl2/Ror2 signaling during vertebrate gastrulation. PMID:25183869

  16. Suppression, subversion and escape: the role of regulatory T cells in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Oleinika, K; Nibbs, R J; Graham, G J; Fraser, A R

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial in mediating immune homeostasis and promoting the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. However, in the context of cancer their role is more complex, and they are thought to contribute to the progress of many tumours. As cancer cells express both self- and tumour-associated antigens, Tregs are key to dampening effector cell responses, and therefore represent one of the main obstacles to effective anti-tumour responses. Suppression mechanisms employed by Tregs are thought to contribute significantly to the failure of current therapies that rely on induction or potentiation of anti-tumour responses. This review will focus on the current evidence supporting the central role of Tregs in establishing tumour-specific tolerance and promoting cancer escape. We outline the mechanisms underlying their suppressive function and discuss the potential routes of Tregs accumulation within the tumour, including enhanced recruitment, in-situ or local proliferation, and de-novo differentiation. In addition, we review some of the cancer treatment strategies that act, at least in part, to eliminate or interfere with the function of Tregs. The role of Tregs is being recognized increasingly in cancer, and controlling the function of these suppressive cells in the tumour microenvironment without compromising peripheral tolerance represents a significant challenge for cancer therapies. PMID:23199321

  17. Suppression of experimental lupus nephritis by aberrant expression of the soluble E-selectin gene.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoru; Araki, Kimi; Araki, Masatake; Ito, Mitsuko R; Nakatani, Kimihiko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Izui, Shozo; Vassalli, Pierre; Nose, Masato

    2002-03-01

    Circulating leukocytes, particularly neutrophils and monocytes, are important effector cells in the induction of many forms of glomerulonephritis. Adhesion molecules, especially selectins, are also thought to be critical for the development of this disease. We examined the possible suppressive effect of soluble E-selectin on the development of experimental lupus nephritis induced by the injection of a hybridoma clone (2B11.3) derived from an MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr lupus mouse. This clone produces IgG3 antibodies that induce severe proliferative glomerulonephritis resembling lupus nephritis when injected into normal mice. Transgenic mice with a soluble E-selectin gene were injected intraperitoneally with the hybridoma cells and histopathologically examined on day 15. As a result, the development of glomerulonephritis was significantly suppressed. This suppression was characterized by fewer inflammatory cell infiltrates, compared with non-transgenic litter mates, despite the fact that there were no remarkable differences in immunoglobulin deposits or expression of E-selectin between the two groups. These findings suggest that by controlling inflammatory cell infiltration, soluble E-selectin plays a preventative role in the development of a particular type of lupus nephritis. PMID:11972860

  18. Plant responses against invasive nucleic acids: RNA silencing and its suppression by plant viral pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Veria; Scholthof, Herman B.

    2010-01-01

    RNA silencing is a common strategy shared by eukaryotic organisms to regulate gene expression, and also operates as a defense mechanism against invasive nucleic acids such as viral transcripts. The silencing pathway is quite sophisticated in higher eukaryotes but the distinct steps and nature of effector complexes vary between and even within species. To counteract this defense mechanism viruses have evolved the ability to encode proteins that suppress silencing to protect their genomes from degradation. This review focuses on our current understanding of how individual components of the plant RNA silencing mechanism are directed against viruses, and how in turn virus-encoded suppressors target one or more key events in the silencing cascade. PMID:19524057

  19. Three CRISPR-Cas immune effector complexes coexist in Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sonali; Zhao, Peng; Pfister, Neil T; Compton, Mark; Olson, Sara; Glover, Claiborne V C; Wells, Lance; Graveley, Brenton R; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas immune systems function to defend prokaryotes against potentially harmful mobile genetic elements including viruses and plasmids. The multiple CRISPR-Cas systems (Types I, II, and III) each target destruction of foreign nucleic acids via structurally and functionally diverse effector complexes (crRNPs). CRISPR-Cas effector complexes are comprised of CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that contain sequences homologous to the invading nucleic acids and Cas proteins specific to each immune system type. We have previously characterized a crRNP in Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) that contains Cmr (Type III-B) Cas proteins associated with one of two size classes of crRNAs and cleaves complementary target RNAs. Here, we have isolated and characterized two additional native Pfu crRNPs containing either Csa (Type I-A) or Cst (Type I-G) Cas proteins and distinct profiles of associated crRNAs. For each complex, the Cas proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and immunoblotting and the crRNAs by RNA sequencing and Northern blot analysis. The crRNAs associated with both the Csa and Cst complexes originate from all seven Pfu CRISPR loci and contain identical 5' ends (8-nt repeat-derived 5' tag sequences) but heterogeneous 3' ends (containing variable amounts of downstream repeat sequences). These crRNA forms are distinct from Cmr-associated crRNAs, indicating different 3' end processing pathways following primary cleavage of common pre-crRNAs. Like other previously characterized Type I CRISPR-Cas effector complexes, we predict that the newly identified Pfu Csa and Cst crRNPs each function to target invading DNA, adding an additional layer of protection beyond that afforded by the previously characterized RNA targeting Cmr complex. PMID:25904135

  20. Novel cyclic di-GMP effectors of the YajQ protein family control bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    An, Shi-qi; Caly, Delphine L; McCarthy, Yvonne; Murdoch, Sarah L; Ward, Joseph; Febrer, Melanie; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P

    2014-10-01

    Bis-(3',5') cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP) is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (K(d)?2 µM). Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence. PMID:25329577

  1. Lipopolysaccharide potentiates effector T cell accumulation into nonlymphoid tissues through TRIF.

    PubMed

    McAleer, Jeremy P; Rossi, Robert J; Vella, Anthony T

    2009-05-01

    LPS is a natural adjuvant that potentiates Ag-specific T cell survival and Th1 differentiation by stimulating MyD88 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) signaling pathways. In this study, we reveal the TRIF pathway is critical for amplifying murine effector T cell accumulation into nonlymphoid tissues following immunization with Ag plus LPS. Although LPS increased the accumulation of splenic T cells in TRIF-deficient mice, markedly fewer T cells were recovered from liver and lung in comparison to wild type. Most of the T cells primed in TRIF-deficient mice failed to up-regulate CXCR3 and had an overall reduced capacity to produce IFN-gamma, demonstrating effector T cell differentiation was linked to their migration. To investigate the role of TRIF-dependent cytokines, neutralization studies were performed in wild type mice. Although TNF neutralization reduced T cell numbers, its coneutralization with IL-10 unexpectedly restored the T cells, suggesting the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines influences T cell survival rather than their magnitude. To investigate a role for costimulatory molecules, we tested whether the T cell defect in TRIF-deficient mice could be corrected with enforced costimulation. Boosting with a CD40 agonist in addition to LPS restored the effector CD8 T cell response in livers of TRIF-deficient mice while only partially restoring CD4 T cells, suggesting that LPS primes CD8 and CD4 T cell immunity through different mechanisms. Overall, our data support targeting TRIF for vaccines aimed to direct immune responses to nonlymphoid tissues. PMID:19380779

  2. Tumor-infiltrating effector cells of ?-galactosylceramide-induced antitumor immunity in metastatic liver tumor

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Takuya; Nagawa, Hirokazu; Shibata, Yoichi

    2004-01-01

    Background ?-Galactosylceramide (?-GalCer) can be presented by CD1d molecules of antigen-presenting cells, and is known to induce a potent NKT cell-dependent cytotoxic response against tumor cells. However, the main effector cells in ?-GalCer-induced antitumor immunity are still controversial. Methods In order to elucidate the cell phenotype that plays the most important role in ?-GalCer-induced antitumor immunity, we purified and analyzed tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILs) from liver metastatic nodules of a colon cancer cell line (Colon26), comparing ?-GalCer- and control vehicle-treated mice. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell phenotype in TILs and IFN-? ELISA was performed to detect antigen-specific immune response. Results Flow cytometry analysis showed a significantly higher infiltration of NK cells (DX5+, T cell receptor ?? (TCR)-) into tumors in ?-GalCer-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. The DX5+TCR+ cell population was not significantly different between these two groups, indicating that these cells were not the main effector cells. Interestingly, the CD8+ T cell population was increased in TILs of ?-GalCer-treated mice, and the activation level of these cells based on CD69 expression was higher than that in vehicle-treated mice. Moreover, the number of tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) was increased in ?-GalCer-treated mice. IFN-? ELISA showed stronger antigen-specific response in TILs from ?-GalCer-treated mice compared to those from vehicle-treated mice, although the difference between these two groups was not significant. Conclusions In ?-GalCer-induced antitumor immunity, NK cells seem to be some of the main effector cells and both CD8+ T cells and DCs, which are related to acquired immunity, might also play important roles in this antitumor immune response. These results suggest that ?-GalCer has a multifunctional role in modulation of the immune response. PMID:15251043

  3. Complex structure of type VI peptidoglycan muramidase effector and a cognate immunity protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyu; Ding, Jinjing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Da-Cheng; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1–Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9?Å resolution. The results reveal that Tse3 contains a C-terminal catalytic domain that adopts a soluble lytic transglycosylase (SLT) fold in which three calcium-binding sites were surprisingly observed close to the catalytic Glu residue. The electrostatic properties of the substrate-binding groove are also distinctive from those of known structures with a similar fold. All of these features imply that a unique catalytic mechanism is utilized by Tse3 in cleaving glycosidic bonds. Tsi3 comprises a single domain showing a ?-sandwich architecture that is reminiscent of the immunoglobulin fold. Three loops of Tsi3 insert deeply into the groove of Tse3 and completely occlude its active site, which forms the structural basis of Tse3 inactivation. This work is the first crystallographic report describing the three-dimensional structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 effector–immunity pair. PMID:24100309

  4. Avirulence Effector Discovery in a Plant Galling and Plant Parasitic Arthropod, the Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor)

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rajat; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Zhao, Chaoyang; Chen, Ming-Shun; Harris, Marion O.; Stuart, Jeff J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly specialized obligate plant-parasites exist within several groups of arthropods (insects and mites). Many of these are important pests, but the molecular basis of their parasitism and its evolution are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that plant parasitic arthropods use effector proteins to defeat basal plant immunity and modulate plant growth. Because avirulence (Avr) gene discovery is a reliable method of effector identification, we tested this hypothesis using high-resolution molecular genetic mapping of an Avr gene (vH13) in the Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), an important gall midge pest of wheat (Triticum spp.). Chromosome walking resolved the position of vH13, and revealed alleles that determine whether HF larvae are virulent (survive) or avirulent (die) on wheat seedlings carrying the wheat H13 resistance gene. Association mapping found three independent insertions in vH13 that appear to be responsible for H13-virulence in field populations. We observed vH13 transcription in H13-avirulent larvae and the salivary glands of H13-avirulent larvae, but not in H13-virulent larvae. RNA-interference-knockdown of vH13 transcripts allowed some H13-avirulent larvae to escape H13-directed resistance. vH13 is the first Avr gene identified in an arthropod. It encodes a small modular protein with no sequence similarities to other proteins in GenBank. These data clearly support the hypothesis that an effector-based strategy has evolved in multiple lineages of plant parasites, including arthropods. PMID:24964065

  5. Protective Effector Cells of the Recombinant Asp f3 Anti-Aspergillosis Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Arevalo, Diana; Ito, James I; Kalkum, Markus

    2012-01-01

    An Aspergillus fumigatus vaccine based on recombinant Asp f3-protein has the potential to prevent aspergillosis in humans, a devastating fungal disease that is the prime obstacle to the success of hematopoietic cell transplantation. This vaccine protects cortisone acetate (CA)-immunosuppressed mice from invasive pulmonary aspergillosis via CD4(+) T cell mediators. Aside from these mediators, the nature of downstream fungicidal effectors is not well understood. Neutrophils and macrophages protect immunocompetent individuals from invasive fungal infections, and selective neutrophil depletion rendered mice susceptible to aspergillosis whereas macrophage depletion failed to increase fungal susceptibility. We investigated the effect of neutrophil depletion on rAsp f3-vaccine protection, and explored differences in pathophysiology and susceptibility between CA-immunosuppression and neutrophil depletion. In addition to being protective under CA-immunosuppression, the vaccine also had a protective effect in neutrophil-depleted mice. However, in non-immunized mice, a 10-fold higher conidial dose was required to induce similar susceptibility to infection with neutrophil depletion than with CA-immunosuppression. The lungs of non-immunized neutrophil-depleted mice became invaded by a patchy dense mycelium with highly branched hyphae, and the peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate consisted mainly of CD3(+) T cells and largely lacked macrophages. In contrast, lungs of non-immunized CA-immunosuppressed mice were more evenly scattered with short hyphal elements. With rAsp f3-vaccination, the lungs were largely clear of fungal burden under either immunosuppressive condition. We conclude that neutrophils, although important for innate antifungal protection of immunocompetent hosts, are not the relevant effectors for rAsp f3-vaccine derived protection of immunosuppressed hosts. It is therefore more likely that macrophages represent the crucial effectors of the rAsp f3-based vaccine. PMID:23024640

  6. End-effector for robotic assembly of welded truss structures in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, William V.

    1991-01-01

    In June 1987, work was initiated at LaRC on end-effectors and preloaded joints for robotic truss assembly. This is part of an on-going research effort centered on a test facility that assembles 1 inch x 2 m identical struts into an 8 m diameter x 1.5 m deep platform truss. A detailed description of the test facility was published. The end-effector being used for the LaRC assembly demonstration is quite suitable for the Precision Segmented Reflector or other precision applications. These require high stiffness provided by mechanical joint preloads. Stiffness obtained in this manner is only required and provided over a load range far less than the ultimate strength of the strut tubes. Beyond this useful range, truss behavior is somewhat unpredictable. Mechanically preloaded joints of this type are less suitable for applications such as the Aero Brake where predictable strength and stiffness are required over a greater fraction of the load bearing capacity of component parts. Preliminary studies of the Aerobrake support truss indicate that struts of at least 3 different diameters and various lengths would improve performance. The double-ended end-effector currently in service is designed for only one diameter and length. Anticipated single-ended versions can accommodate varying lengths but not multiple diameters. Tradeoff considerations for welded joints relative to their mechanically preloaded counterparts are presented. Conclusions from this research are as follows: (1) repair by cut and re-weld on the original weld site should be research; (2) welded joints, though repairable, should not be used where high repair frequencies are anticipated; and (3) welded joints should be considered for an Aero Brake truss.

  7. Requirement for Fc effector mechanisms in the APOBEC3/Rfv3-dependent neutralizing antibody response.

    PubMed

    Halemano, Kalani; Barrett, Bradley S; Heilman, Karl J; Morrison, Thomas E; Santiago, Mario L

    2015-04-01

    Antiretroviral neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses are often evaluated in the absence of Fc-dependent immune effectors. In murine Friend retrovirus infection, Apobec3/Rfv3 promotes a potent polyclonal NAb response. Here, we show that the Apobec3/Rfv3-dependent NAb response correlated with virus-specific IgG2 titers and that the in vivo neutralization potency of Apobec3/Rfv3-resistant antisera was dependent on activating Fc? receptors but not complement. The data strengthen retroviral vaccine strategies aimed at eliciting NAbs that activate specific Fc? receptors. PMID:25589647

  8. Dynamics of Peripheral Regulatory and Effector T Cells Competing for Antigen Presenting Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuno Sepúlveda; Jorge Carneiro

    \\u000a A healthy immune system requires a balance between effector T (T\\u000a E\\u000a ) cells that mount immune responses, and regulatory T (T\\u000a R\\u000a ) cells that prevent them. Understanding this balance requires knowing how the repertoires of T\\u000a E\\u000a and T\\u000a R\\u000a cells in the periphery are patterned and related to each other. The present work addresses this issue in

  9. Metabolic Effectors Secreted by Bacterial Pathogens: Essential Facilitators of Plastid Endosymbiosis?[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Steven G.; Subtil, Agathe; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Moustafa, Ahmed; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Gehre, Lena; Colleoni, Christophe; Arias, Maria-Cecilia; Cenci, Ugo; Dauvillée, David

    2013-01-01

    Under the endosymbiont hypothesis, over a billion years ago a heterotrophic eukaryote entered into a symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium (the cyanobiont). This partnership culminated in the plastid that has spread to forms as diverse as plants and diatoms. However, why primary plastid acquisition has not been repeated multiple times remains unclear. Here, we report a possible answer to this question by showing that primary plastid endosymbiosis was likely to have been primed by the secretion in the host cytosol of effector proteins from intracellular Chlamydiales pathogens. We provide evidence suggesting that the cyanobiont might have rescued its afflicted host by feeding photosynthetic carbon into a chlamydia-controlled assimilation pathway. PMID:23371946

  10. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, A.F.; Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. Actual component design, fabrication, testing, and inspection will be performed by various DOE laboratories, industry, and academia. This document augments WHC-SD-TD-FRD-003, `Functions and Requirements for the Light Duty Utility Arm Integrated System` (F). All requirements dictated in the F shall also be applicable in this document. Whenever conflicts arise between this document and the F, this document shall take precedence.

  11. Development of a Pre-Prototype Power Assisted Glove End Effector for Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to develop an EVA power tool which is capable of performing a variety of functions while at the same time increasing the EVA crewmember's effectiveness by reducing hand fatigue associated with gripping tools through a pressurized EMU glove. The Power Assisted Glove End Effector (PAGE) preprototype hardware met or exceeded all of its technical requirements and has incorporated acoustic feedback to allow the EVA crewmember to monitor motor loading and speed. If this tool is to be developed for flight use, several issues need to be addressed. These issues are listed.

  12. Space Station racks weight and CG measurement using the rack insertion end-effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, William V.

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to design a method to measure weight and center of gravity (C.G.) location for Space Station Modules by adding sensors to the existing Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE). Accomplishments included alternative sensor placement schemes organized into categories. Vendors were queried for suitable sensor equipment recommendations. Inverse mathematical models for each category determine expected maximum sensor loads. Sensors are selected using these computations, yielding cost and accuracy data. Accuracy data for individual sensors are inserted into forward mathematical models to estimate the accuracy of an overall sensor scheme. Cost of the schemes can be estimated. Ease of implementation and operation are discussed.

  13. p53 and the PWWP domain containing effector proteins in chromatin damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Wang, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA damage repair occurs on a template DNA that is organized with histones to form nucleosomes and chromatin structures. As such, chromatin plays an important role in DNA damage repair. In this review, we will use “chromatin damage repair” as a framework and highlight recent progress in understanding the role of chromatin, chromatin modifiers, chromatin binding effectors (e.g., the PWWP domain proteins), and the p53 tumor suppressor. We view chromatin as an active participant during DNA damage repair. PMID:25264544

  14. Identification of putative TAL effector targets of the citrus canker pathogens shows functional convergence underlying disease development and defense response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TAL effectors PthA“s” and PthC“s” of the citrus canker bacteria Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii pathotype C (XaC), respectively, are poorly characterized. Of particular interest, XaC causes canker disease in its host lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), but triggers a defense response in sweet orange. Results Based on, 1) the TAL effector-DNA binding code, 2) gene expression data of Xc and XaC-infiltrated sweet orange leaves, and 3) citrus hypocotyls transformed with PthA2, PthA4 or PthC1, we have identified a collection of Citrus sinensis genes potentially targeted by Xc and XaC TAL effectors. Our results suggest that similar with other strains of Xanthomonas TAL effectors, PthA2 and PthA4, and PthC1 to some extent, functionally converge. In particular, towards induction of genes involved in the auxin and gibberellin synthesis and response, cell division, and defense response. We also present evidence indicating that the TAL effectors act as transcriptional repressors and that the best scoring predicted DNA targets of PthA“s” and PthC“s” in citrus promoters predominantly overlap with or localize near to TATA boxes of core promoters, supporting the idea that TAL effectors interact with the host basal transcriptional machinery to recruit the RNA pol II and start transcription. Conclusions The identification of PthA“s” and PthC“s” targets, such as the LOB (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY) and CCNBS genes that we report here, is key for the understanding of the canker symptoms development during host susceptibility, or the defenses of sweet orange against the canker bacteria. We have narrowed down candidate targets to a few, which pointed out the host metabolic pathways explored by the pathogens. PMID:24564253

  15. Phylogenomics of Xanthomonas field strains infecting pepper and tomato reveals diversity in effector repertoires and identifies determinants of host specificity

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Allison R.; Potnis, Neha; Timilsina, Sujan; Wilson, Mark; Patané, José; Martins, Joaquim; Minsavage, Gerald V.; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Akhunova, Alina; Almeida, Nalvo; Vallad, Gary E.; Barak, Jeri D.; White, Frank F.; Miller, Sally A.; Ritchie, David; Goss, Erica; Bart, Rebecca S.; Setubal, João C.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato is caused by four distinct Xanthomonas species and is a severely limiting factor on fruit yield in these crops. The genetic diversity and the type III effector repertoires of a large sampling of field strains for this disease have yet to be explored on a genomic scale, limiting our understanding of pathogen evolution in an agricultural setting. Genomes of 67 Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe), Xanthomonas perforans (Xp), and Xanthomonas gardneri (Xg) strains isolated from diseased pepper and tomato fields in the southeastern and midwestern United States were sequenced in order to determine the genetic diversity in field strains. Type III effector repertoires were computationally predicted for each strain, and multiple methods of constructing phylogenies were employed to understand better the genetic relationship of strains in the collection. A division in the Xp population was detected based on core genome phylogeny, supporting a model whereby the host-range expansion of Xp field strains on pepper is due, in part, to a loss of the effector AvrBsT. Xp-host compatibility was further studied with the observation that a double deletion of AvrBsT and XopQ allows a host range expansion for Nicotiana benthamiana. Extensive sampling of field strains and an improved understanding of effector content will aid in efforts to design disease resistance strategies targeted against highly conserved core effectors. PMID:26089818

  16. The transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 controls invariant natural killer T cell expansion and Th2-type effector differentiation.

    PubMed

    Carr, Tiffany; Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Yu, Shuyang; Xue, Hai-Hui; Kee, Barbara L; Verykokakis, Mihalis

    2015-05-01

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are innate-like T cells that rapidly produce cytokines that impact antimicrobial immune responses, asthma, and autoimmunity. These cells acquire multiple effector fates during their thymic development that parallel those of CD4(+) T helper cells. The number of Th2-type effector iNKT cells is variable in different strains of mice, and their number impacts CD8 T, dendritic, and B cell function. Here we demonstrate a unique function for the transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) in the postselection expansion of iNKT cells through a direct induction of the CD127 component of the receptor for interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the transcription factor c-myc. LEF1 also directly augments expression of the effector fate-specifying transcription factor GATA3, thus promoting the development of Th2-like effector iNKT cells that produce IL-4, including those that also produce interferon-?. Our data reveal LEF1 as a central regulator of iNKT cell number and Th2-type effector differentiation. PMID:25897173

  17. Identification of T6SS-dependent effector and immunity proteins by Tn-seq in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Tao G.; Ho, Brian T.; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Type VI protein secretion system (T6SS) is important for bacterial competition through contact-dependent killing of competitors. T6SS delivers effectors to neighboring cells and corresponding antagonistic proteins confer immunity against effectors that are delivered by sister cells. Although T6SS has been found in more than 100 gram-negative bacteria including many important human pathogens, few T6SS-dependent effector and immunity proteins have been experimentally determined. Here we report a high-throughput approach using transposon mutagenesis and deep sequencing (Tn-seq) to identify T6SS immunity proteins in Vibrio cholerae. Saturating transposon mutagenesis was performed in wild type and a T6SS null mutant. Genes encoding immunity proteins were predicted to be essential in the wild type but dispensable in the T6SS mutant. By comparing the relative abundance of each transposon mutant in the mutant library using deep sequencing, we identified three immunity proteins that render protection against killing by T6SS predatory cells. We also identified their three cognate T6SS-secreted effectors and show these are important for not only antibacterial and antieukaryotic activities but also assembly of T6SS apparatus. The lipase and muramidase T6SS effectors identified in this study underscore the diversity of T6SS-secreted substrates and the distinctly different mechanisms that target these for secretion by the dynamic T6SS organelle. PMID:23362380

  18. A type III effector protease NleC from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli targets NF-?B for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Riedmaier, Patrice; Marchès, Olivier; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2011-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection. Previously, we found that enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses the type III effector, NleE, to block the inflammatory response by inhibiting I?B degradation and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-?B. Here we screened further effectors with unknown function for their capacity to prevent p65 nuclear translocation. We observed that ectopic expression of GFP–NleC in HeLa cells led to the degradation of p65. Delivery of NleC by the T3SS of EPEC also induced degradation of p65 in infected cells as well as other NF-?B components, c-Rel and p50. Recombinant His6-NleC induced p65 and p50 cleavage in HeLa cell lysates and mutation of a consensus zinc metalloprotease motif, HEIIH, abrogated NleC proteolytic activity. NleC inhibited IL-8 production during prolonged EPEC infection of HeLa cells in a protease activity-dependent manner. A double nleE/nleC mutant was further impaired for its ability to inhibit IL-8 secretion than either a single nleE or a single nleC mutant. We conclude that NleC is a type III effector protease that degrades NF-?B thereby contributing the arsenal of bacterial effectors that inhibit innate immune activation. PMID:21306441

  19. Autocrine Regulation of Pulmonary Inflammation by Effector T-Cell Derived IL-10 during Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie; Cardani, Amber; Sharma, Ashish K.; Laubach, Victor E.; Jack, Robert S.; Müller, Werner; Braciale, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the leading viral cause of severe lower respiratory tract illness in young infants. Clinical studies have documented that certain polymorphisms in the gene encoding the regulatory cytokine IL-10 are associated with the development of severe bronchiolitis in RSV infected infants. Here, we examined the role of IL-10 in a murine model of primary RSV infection and found that high levels of IL-10 are produced in the respiratory tract by anti-viral effector T cells at the onset of the adaptive immune response. We demonstrated that the function of the effector T cell -derived IL-10 in vivo is to limit the excess pulmonary inflammation and thereby to maintain critical lung function. We further identify a novel mechanism by which effector T cell-derived IL-10 controls excess inflammation by feedback inhibition through engagement of the IL-10 receptor on the antiviral effector T cells. Our findings suggest a potentially critical role of effector T cell-derived IL-10 in controlling disease severity in clinical RSV infection. PMID:21829368

  20. Pak6 protein kinase is a novel effector of an atypical Rho family GTPase Chp/RhoV.

    PubMed

    Shepelev, M V; Korobko, I V

    2012-01-01

    Chp/RhoV is an atypical Rho GTPase whose functions are far from being fully understood. To date several effector proteins of Chp have been identified, including p21-activated kinases Pak1, Pak2, and Pak4. Using a yeast two-hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation, here we show that another p21-activated kinase, Pak6, is a novel Chp-binding protein. Interaction between Chp and Pak6 depends on the activation state of the GTPase, suggesting that Pak6 is an effector protein for Chp. Point mutations in the effector domain of Chp or in the CRIB motif of Pak6 significantly impair the interaction between Chp and Pak6 upon co-immunoprecipitation, suggesting that the binding interface involves the effector domain of Chp and the CRIB motif in Pak6. We found that Chp does not affect the phosphorylation status of the S560 residue in the catalytic domain of Pak6 when Chp and Pak6 are co-expressed in HEK293 cells. Therefore, similarly to Cdc42, Chp is not likely to activate Pak6. In NCI-H1299 cells, Chp co-localizes with Pak6 on vesicular structures in activation state-dependent manner. Taking the data together, we report here the identification of p21-activated kinase Pak6 as a novel effector of the atypical Rho GTPase Chp. Our data suggest further directions in elucidating biological functions of these proteins. PMID:22339630

  1. Compartment resolved reference proteome map from highly purified naïve, activated, effector, and memory CD8(+) murine immune cells.

    PubMed

    Zanker, Damien; Otto, Wolfgang; Chen, Weisan; von Bergen, Martin; Tomm, Janina M

    2015-06-01

    Differentiation of CD8(+) T lymphocytes into effector and memory cells is key for an adequate immune response and relies on complex interplay of pathways that convey signals from the cell surface to the nucleus. In this study, we investigated the proteome of four cytotoxic T-cell subtypes; naïve, recently activated effector, effector, and memory cells. Cells were fractionated into membrane, cytosol, soluble nuclear, chromatin-bound, and cytoskeletal compartments. Following LC-MS/MS analysis, identified peptides were analyzed via MaxQuant. Compartment fractionation and gel-LC-MS separation resulted in 2399 proteins identified in total. Comparison between the different subsets resulted in 146 significantly regulated proteins for naïve and effector cells, followed by 116 for activated, and 55 for memory cells. Besides Granzyme B signaling (for activated and/ or effector cells vs. naïve cells), the most prominent changes occurred in the TCA cycle and aspartate degradation. These changes suggest that correct balancing of metabolism is key for differentiation processes. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001065 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001065). PMID:25643623

  2. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters for tomato plants, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Chehade, Lara; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    In organic farming, where nutrient management is constrained and sustainability is claimed, bio-effectors pave their way. Considering selected bio-effectors, this study integrates metabolomics to agronomy in depicting induced relevant phenomena. Extracts of three agro-industrial wastes (Lemon processing residues, Fennel processing residues and Brewer's spent grain) are being investigated as sources of bio-effectors for the third trial consequently. Corresponding individual and mixture aqueous extracts are assessed for their synergistic and/or single agronomic and qualitative performances on soil-grown tomato, compared to both a control and humic acid treatments. A metabolomic profiling of tomato fruits via the Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, as holistic indicator of fruit quality and extract-induced responses, complements crop productivity and organoleptic/nutritional qualitative analyses. Results are expected to show mainly an enhancement of the fruit qualitative traits, and to confirm partly the previous results of better crop productivity and metabolism enhancement. Waste-derived bio-effectors could be, accordingly, demonstrated as potential candidates of plant-enhancing substances. Keywords: bio-effectors, organic farming, agro-industrial wastes, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), tomato.

  3. Brain&oscillations&mediate&memory&suppression&1! Running&Title:&BRAIN&OSCILLATIONS&MEDIATE&MEMORY&SUPPRESSION&

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Brain&oscillations&mediate&memory&suppression&1! & ! Running&Title:&BRAIN&OSCILLATIONS&MEDIATE&MEMORY&SUPPRESSION& & & Brain&oscillations&mediate&successful&suppression&of&unwanted&memories& Gerd&T.&Waldhauser1,&Karl1Heinz.de& Phone:&+49(0)753118815707& Fax:&+49(0)753118814829& #12;Brain&oscillations&mediate&memory&suppression&2

  4. Effector memory CD4+ T cells are associated with cognitive performance in a senior population

    PubMed Central

    Serre-Miranda, Cláudia; Roque, Susana; Santos, Nadine Correia; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Costa, Patrício; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Immunosenescence and cognitive decline are common markers of the aging process. Taking into consideration the heterogeneity observed in aging processes and the recently described link between lymphocytes and cognition, we herein explored the possibility of an association between alterations in lymphocytic populations and cognitive performance. Methods: In a cohort of cognitively healthy adults (n = 114), previously characterized by diverse neurocognitive/psychological performance patterns, detailed peripheral blood immunophenotyping of both the innate and adaptive immune systems was performed by flow cytometry. Results: Better cognitive performance was associated with lower numbers of effector memory CD4+ T cells and higher numbers of naive CD8+ T cells and B cells. Furthermore, effector memory CD4+ T cells were found to be predictors of general and executive function and memory, even when factors known to influence cognitive performance in older individuals (e.g., age, sex, education, and mood) were taken into account. Conclusions: This is the first study in humans associating specific phenotypes of the immune system with distinct cognitive performance in healthy aging. PMID:25566544

  5. Cas9 effector-mediated regulation of transcription and differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Nicola A; Genga, Ryan M J; Enuameh, Metewo S; Garber, Manuel; Wolfe, Scot A; Maehr, René

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the trans-acting factors and cis-regulatory modules that are involved in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) maintenance and differentiation is necessary to dissect the operating regulatory networks in these processes and thereby identify nodes where signal input will direct desired cell fate decisions in vitro or in vivo. To deconvolute these networks, we established a method to influence the differentiation state of hPSCs with a CRISPR-associated catalytically inactive dCas9 fused to an effector domain. In human embryonic stem cells, we find that the dCas9 effectors can exert positive or negative regulation on the expression of developmentally relevant genes, which can influence cell differentiation status when impinging on a key node in the regulatory network that governs the cell state. This system provides a platform for the interrogation of the underlying regulators governing specific differentiation decisions, which can then be employed to direct cellular differentiation down desired pathways. PMID:24346702

  6. The Legionella pneumophila Effector Protein, LegC7, Alters Yeast Endosomal Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kevin M.; Lindsay, Elizabeth L.; Starai, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, relies on numerous secreted effector proteins to manipulate host endomembrane trafficking events during pathogenesis, thereby preventing fusion of the bacteria-laden phagosome with host endolysosomal compartments, and thus escaping degradation. Upon expression in the surrogate eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we find that the L. pneumophila LegC7/YlfA effector protein disrupts the delivery of both biosynthetic and endocytic cargo to the yeast vacuole. We demonstrate that the effects of LegC7 are specific to the endosome:vacuole delivery pathways; LegC7 expression does not disrupt other known vacuole-directed pathways. Deletions of the ESCRT-0 complex member, VPS27, provide resistance to the LegC7 toxicity, providing a possible target for LegC7 function in vivo. Furthermore, a single amino acid substitution in LegC7 abrogates both its toxicity and ability to alter endosomal traffic in vivo, thereby identifying a critical functional domain. LegC7 likely inhibits endosomal trafficking during L. pneumophila pathogenesis to prevent entry of the phagosome into the endosomal maturation pathway and eventual fusion with the lysosome. PMID:25643265

  7. A tetrapod-like repertoire of innate immune receptors and effectors for coelacanths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boudinot, Pierre; Zou, Jun; Ota, Tatsuya; Buonocore, Francesco; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Canapa, Adriana; Cannon, John; Litman, Gary; Hansen, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The recent availability of both robust transcriptome and genome resources for coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) has led to unique discoveries for coelacanth immunity such as the lack of IgM, a central component of adaptive immunity. This study was designed to more precisely address the origins and evolution of gene families involved in the initial recognition and response to microbial pathogens, which effect innate immunity. Several multigene families involved in innate immunity are addressed, including: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-like receptors (RLRs), the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing proteins (NLRs), diverse immunoglobulin domain-containing proteins (DICP) and modular domain immune-type receptors (MDIRs). Our analyses also include the tripartite motif-containing proteins (TRIM), which are involved in pathogen recognition as well as the positive regulation of antiviral immunity. Finally, this study addressed some of the downstream effectors of the antimicrobial response including IL-1 family members, type I and II interferons (IFN) and IFN-stimulated effectors (ISGs). Collectively, the genes and gene families in coelacanth that effect innate immune functions share characteristics both in content, structure and arrangement with those found in tetrapods but not in teleosts. The findings support the sister group relationship of coelacanth fish with tetrapods.

  8. Characterization of the membrane-associated HaRxL17 Hpa effector candidate

    PubMed Central

    Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Piquerez, Sophie J. M.; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined changes to subcellular architecture during the compatible interaction between the biotroph pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) and its host Arabidopsis. Live-cell imaging highlighted rearrangements in plant cell membranes upon infection. In particular, the tonoplast appeared close to the extrahaustorial membrane surrounding the haustorium. We investigated the subcellular localization patterns of Hpa RxLR effector candidates (HaRxLs) in planta. This subcellular localization screening led to the identification of an extrahaustorial membrane-localized effector, HaRxL17 that when stably expressed in Arabidopsis increased plant susceptibility to Hpa during compatible and incompatible interactions. Here, we report that the N-terminal part of HaRxL17 is sufficient to target the plant cell membranes. We showed that both C- or N-terminal fluorescent-tagged HaRxL17 localizes around Hpa haustoria, in early and in late stages of infection. As with Hpa infection, GFP-HaRxL17 also localizes around haustoria during infection with Albugo laibachii. Thus, HaRxL17 that increases plant susceptibility to Hpa during both compatible and incompatible interactions, localizes around oomycete haustoria when stably expressed in Arabidopsis. PMID:22301983

  9. Editing of the heavy chain gene of Bombyx mori using transcription activator like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujun; Nakagaki, Masao

    2014-07-18

    The silk gland of Bombyx mori represents an established in vivo system for producing recombinant proteins. However, low yields of recombinant proteins have limited the system's further development because endogenous silk proteins were present. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) tool which work in pairs to bind and cleave DNA at specific sites, have recently been shown to be effective for genome editing in various organisms, including silkworms. To improve the yield of recombinant proteins synthesized in the silkworm by eliminated competition with endogenous fibroin synthesis, the heavy chain (H-chain) gene was knocked out using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). A pair of TALENs that targets the 1st exon in the H-chain gene was synthesized and microinjected into silkworm embryos; the injected silkworms were screened for H-chain gene knock out (H-KO) based on their sericin cocoon-making characteristics. Sequence analysis revealed that the H-chain of the mutation was successfully edited. The TALENs was very efficient in editing the genome DNA of silkworm. By being eliminated competition with the H-chain, the production of recombinant proteins would be expected to increase markedly if this H-KO system is used. PMID:24878533

  10. Genome comparison of two Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates reveals genome variations and potential virulence effectors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is an important disease in virtually every rice growing region of the world, which leads to significant annual decreases of grain quality and yield. To prevent disease, resistance genes in rice have been cloned and introduced into susceptible cultivars. However, introduced resistance can often be broken within few years of release, often due to mutation of cognate avirulence genes in fungal field populations. Results To better understand the pattern of mutation of M. oryzae field isolates under natural selection forces, we used a next generation sequencing approach to analyze the genomes of two field isolates FJ81278 and HN19311, as well as the transcriptome of FJ81278. By comparing the de novo genome assemblies of the two isolates against the finished reference strain 70–15, we identified extensive polymorphisms including unique genes, SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) and indels, structural variations, copy number variations, and loci under strong positive selection. The 1.75 MB of isolate-specific genome content carrying 118 novel genes from FJ81278, and 0.83 MB from HN19311 were also identified. By analyzing secreted proteins carrying polymorphisms, in total 256 candidate virulence effectors were found and 6 were chosen for functional characterization. Conclusions We provide results from genome comparison analysis showing extensive genome variation, and generated a list of M. oryzae candidate virulence effectors for functional characterization. PMID:24341723

  11. Development of an interchangeable end effector mechanism for the Ranger telerobotic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Robert; Akin, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The Ranger program at the Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) at the University of Maryland is a demonstration of an extremely low cost, space flight experiment. The Ranger vehicle is designed to perform teleoperated spacecraft maintenance. Completing the various tasks included in spacecraft maintenance requires several specific tools. This paper describes the Ranger interchangeable end effector mechanism (IEEM). Its design allows Ranger to change end effectors to utilize the appropriate tool for the various tasks. The Ranger vehicle is designed with four manipulators. A seven degree-of-freedom (DOF) grappling manipulator securely attaches the vehicle to the work site. A 6 DOF camera positioning manipulator allows the operator to position a stereo pair of video cameras for visual feedback. The two remaining manipulators are the 7 DOF dexterous arms. They are the primary means by which Ranger accomplishes its required tasks. At the end of each of these dexterous manipulators is an IEEM. This paper begins with a brief overview of the Space Systems Laboratory and the Ranger program. The constraints leading to the requirements for an IEEM are described. The following section then describes the design strategies and the down selection process resulting in two candidate designs, taper and pneumatic connector type. Next, the leading candidate design is described in detail, followed by a preliminary discussion of failure modes and planned testing. The paper concludes with a brief review and a section discussing future work.

  12. Structural Elucidation and Functional Characterization of the Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Effector Protein ATR13

    PubMed Central

    Leonelli, Lauriebeth; Pelton, Jeffery; Schoeffler, Allyn; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Berger, James; Wemmer, David E.; Staskawicz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is the causal agent of downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and has been adapted as a model system to investigate pathogen virulence strategies and plant disease resistance mechanisms. Recognition of Hpa infection occurs when plant resistance proteins (R-genes) detect the presence or activity of pathogen-derived protein effectors delivered to the plant host. This study examines the Hpa effector ATR13 Emco5 and its recognition by RPP13-Nd, the cognate R-gene that triggers programmed cell death (HR) in the presence of recognized ATR13 variants. Herein, we use NMR to solve the backbone structure of ATR13 Emco5, revealing both a helical domain and a disordered internal loop. Additionally, we use site-directed and random mutagenesis to identify several amino acid residues involved in the recognition response conferred by RPP13-Nd. Using our structure as a scaffold, we map these residues to one of two surface-exposed patches of residues under diversifying selection. Exploring possible roles of the disordered region within the ATR13 structure, we perform domain swapping experiments and identify a peptide sequence involved in nucleolar localization. We conclude that ATR13 is a highly dynamic protein with no clear structural homologues that contains two surface-exposed patches of polymorphism, only one of which is involved in RPP13-Nd recognition specificity. PMID:22194684

  13. Antibody effector functions mediated by Fc?-receptors are compromised during persistent viral infection.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Andreas; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Kamphorst, Alice O; Han, Jin-Hwan; Aubert, Rachael D; Choudhury, Biswa P; Stowell, Sean R; Lee, Junghwa; Punkosdy, George A; Shlomchik, Mark J; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-02-17

    T cell dysfunction is well documented during chronic viral infections but little is known about functional abnormalities in humoral immunity. Here we report that mice persistently infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) exhibit a severe defect in Fc?-receptor (Fc?R)-mediated antibody effector functions. Using transgenic mice expressing human CD20, we found that chronic LCMV infection impaired the depletion of B cells with rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody widely used for the treatment of B cell lymphomas. In addition, Fc?R-dependent activation of dendritic cells by agonistic anti-CD40 antibody was compromised in chronically infected mice. These defects were due to viral antigen-antibody complexes and not the chronic infection per se, because Fc?R-mediated effector functions were normal in persistently infected mice that lacked LCMV-specific antibodies. Our findings have implications for the therapeutic use of antibodies and suggest that high levels of pre-existing immune complexes could limit the effectiveness of antibody therapy in humans. PMID:25680276

  14. GITR ligand-costimulation activates effector and regulatory functions of CD4{sup +} T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Hanna [Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Cao, Yujia; Iwai, Hideyuki; Piao, Jinhua; Kamimura, Yosuke; Hashiguchi, Masaaki [Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Amagasa, Teruo [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Azuma, Miyuki [Department of Molecular Immunology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan)], E-mail: miyuki.mim@tmd.ac.jp

    2008-05-16

    Engagement of glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) enables the costimulation of both CD25{sup -}CD4{sup +} effector (Teff) and CD25{sup +}CD4{sup +} regulatory (Treg) cells; however, the effects of GITR-costimulation on Treg function remain controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of GITR ligand (GITRL) binding on the respective functions of CD4{sup +} T cells. GITRL-P815 transfectants efficiently augmented anti-CD3-induced proliferation and cytokine production by Teff cells. Proliferation and IL-10 production in Treg were also enhanced by GITRL transfectants when exogenous IL-2 and stronger CD3 stimulation was provided. Concomitant GITRL-costimulation of Teff and Treg converted the anergic state of Treg into a proliferating state, maintaining and augmenting their function. Thus, GITRL-costimulation augments both effector and regulatory functions of CD4{sup +} T cells. Our results suggest that highly activated and increased ratios of Treg reverse the immune-enhancing effects of GITRL-costimulation in Teff, which may be problematic for therapeutic applications using strong GITR agonists.

  15. Characterization and DNA-Binding Specificities of Ralstonia TAL-Like Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. have been used as customizable DNA-binding modules for genome-engineering applications. Ralstonia solanacearum TALE-like proteins (RTLs) exhibit similar structural features to TALEs, including a central DNA-binding domain composed of 35 amino acid-long repeats. Here, we characterize the RTLs and show that they localize in the plant cell nucleus, mediate DNA binding, and might function as transcriptional activators. RTLs have a unique DNA-binding architecture and are enriched in repeat variable di-residues (RVDs), which determine repeat DNA-binding specificities. We determined the DNA-binding specificities for the RVD sequences ND, HN, NP, and NT. The RVD ND mediates highly specific interactions with C nucleotide, HN interacts specifically with A and G nucleotides, and NP binds to C, A, and G nucleotides. Moreover, we developed a highly efficient repeat assembly approach for engineering RTL effectors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that RTLs are unique DNA-targeting modules that are excellent alternatives to be tailored to bind to user-selected DNA sequences for targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. These findings will facilitate research concerning RTL molecular biology and RTL roles in the pathogenicity of Ralstonia spp. PMID:23300258

  16. Annexin-A1 identified as the oral epithelial cell anti-Candida effector moiety

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Yano, Junko; Fidel, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Innate and adaptive immunity are considered critical to protection against mucosal candidal infections. Among innate anti-Candida mechanisms, oral and vaginal epithelial cells have antifungal activity. The mechanism is fungistatic, acid-labile, and includes a requirement for cell contact by intact, but not necessarily live, epithelial cells. The purpose of this study was to use the acid-labile property to further characterize the effector moiety. Surface material extracted from PBS-, but not acid-treated epithelial cells, significantly inhibited the growth of Candida blastoconidia in a dose-dependent manner which was abrogated by prior heat and protease treatment. Proteins extracted from PBS-treated cells bound blastoconidia and hyphae more intensely than those from acid-treated cells. Proteins from PBS-treated cells eluted from Candida revealed two unique bands of approximately 33 and 45 kDa compared to acid-treated cells. Mass spectrometry identified these proteins as Annexin-A1 and actin, respectively. Oral epithelial cells stained positive for Annexin-A1, but not actin. Western blots showed reduced Annexin-A1 in proteins from acid-treated epithelial cells compared to those from PBS-treated epithelial cells. Lastly, it was demonstrated that immunoprecipitation of Annexin-A1 from proteins extracted from PBS-treated oral epithelial cells results in abrogation of inhibitory activity. Taken together, these results indicate that Annexin-A1 is a strong candidate for the epithelial cell anti-Candida effector protein. PMID:20618702

  17. Evaluation of human pancreatic RNase as effector molecule in a therapeutic antibody platform.

    PubMed

    Schirrmann, Thomas; Frenzel, André; Linden, Lars; Stelte-Ludwig, Beatrix; Willuda, Jörg; Harrenga, Axel; Dübel, Stefan; Müller-Tiemann, Beate; Trautwein, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Human antibody-ribonuclease (RNase) fusion proteins, referred to as immunoRNases, have been proposed as an alternative to heterologous immunotoxins, without their immunogenicity and unspecific toxicity issues. In this study, we investigated if human pancreatic RNase will be suitable as effector component in a therapeutic antibody development platform. We generated several fusion proteins consisting of tumor-specific human immunoglobulins (IgGs) and human pancreatic RNase. Transient mammalian cell production was efficient and IgG-RNases were purified to homogeneity. Antigen binding was comparable to the parental antibodies and RNase catalytic activity was retained even in the presence of 50-fold molar excess of human cytosolic RNase inhibitor (RI). Serum stability, cell binding and internalization of IgG-RNases were comparable to the parental IgGs. Despite these promising properties, none of the IgG-RNases revealed significant inhibition of tumor cell growth in vitro even when targeting different antigens putatively employing different endocytotic pathways. The introduction of different linkers containing endosomal protease cleavage sites into the IgG-RNase did not enhance cytotoxicity. Similarly, RI evasive human pancreatic RNase variants mediated only small inhibiting effects on tumor cell growth at high concentrations, potentially reflecting inefficient cytosolic translocation. Taken together, human pancreatic RNase and variants did not prove to be generally suitable as effector component for a therapeutic antibody drug development platform. PMID:24492302

  18. A high-throughput mass spectrometric assay for discovery of human lipoxygenase inhibitors and allosteric effectors.

    PubMed

    Jameson, J Brian; Kenyon, Victor; Holman, Theodore R

    2015-05-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) regulate inflammation through the production of a variety of molecules whose specific downstream effects are not entirely understood due to the complexity of the inflammation pathway. The generation of these biomolecules can potentially be inhibited and/or allosterically regulated by small synthetic molecules. The current work describes the first mass spectrometric high-throughput method for identifying small molecule LOX inhibitors and LOX allosteric effectors that change the substrate preference of human lipoxygenase enzymes. Using a volatile buffer and an acid-labile detergent, enzymatic products can be directly detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) without the need for organic extraction. The method also reduces the required enzyme concentration compared with traditional ultraviolet (UV) absorbance methods by approximately 30-fold, allowing accurate binding affinity measurements for inhibitors with nanomolar affinity. The procedure was validated using known LOX inhibitors and the allosteric effector 13(S)-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE). PMID:25712042

  19. Differential Sensitivity of Regulatory and Effector T Cells to Cell Death: A Prerequisite for Transplant Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    You, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress achieved in transplantation, immunosuppressive therapies currently used to prevent graft rejection are still endowed with severe side effects impairing their efficiency over the long term. Thus, the development of graft-specific, non-toxic innovative therapeutic strategies has become a major challenge, the goal being to selectively target alloreactive effector T cells while sparing CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) to promote operational tolerance. Various approaches, notably the one based on monoclonal antibodies or fusion proteins directed against the TCR/CD3 complex, TCR coreceptors, or costimulatory molecules, have been proposed to reduce the alloreactive T cell pool, which is an essential prerequisite to create a therapeutic window allowing Tregs to induce and maintain allograft tolerance. In this mini review, we focus on the differential sensitivity of Tregs and effector T cells to the depleting and inhibitory effect of these immunotherapies, with a particular emphasis on CD3-specific antibodies that beyond their immunosuppressive effect, also express potent tolerogenic capacities.

  20. Role of Blimp-1 in programing Th effector cells into IL-10 producers

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Christian; Heinrich, Frederik; Neumann, Katrin; Junghans, Victoria; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Ahlers, Jonas; Janke, Marko; Rudolph, Christine; Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine; Kühl, Anja A.; Heimesaat, Markus M.; Esser, Charlotte; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Radbruch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL) 10 by effector T cells is an essential mechanism of self-limitation during infection. However, the transcriptional regulation of IL-10 expression in proinflammatory T helper (Th) 1 cells is insufficiently understood. We report a crucial role for the transcriptional regulator Blimp-1, induced by IL-12 in a STAT4-dependent manner, in controlling IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. Blimp-1 deficiency led to excessive inflammation during Toxoplasma gondii infection with increased mortality. IL-10 production from Th1 cells was strictly dependent on Blimp-1 but was further enhanced by the synergistic function of c-Maf, a transcriptional regulator of IL-10 induced by multiple factors, such as the Notch pathway. We found Blimp-1 expression, which was also broadly induced by IL-27 in effector T cells, to be antagonized by transforming growth factor (TGF) ?. While effectively blocking IL-10 production from Th1 cells, TGF-? shifted IL-10 regulation from a Blimp-1–dependent to a Blimp-1–independent pathway in IL-27–induced Tr1 (T regulatory 1) cells. Our findings further illustrate how IL-10 regulation in Th cells relies on several transcriptional programs that integrate various signals from the environment to fine-tune expression of this critical immunosuppressive cytokine. PMID:25073792