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1

Test Series 2. 3 detailed test plan  

SciTech Connect

Test Series 2.3 is chronologically the second of the five sub-series of tests which comprise Test Series 2, the second major Test Series as part of the combustion research phase to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion Facility. Test Series 2.3 will consist of 700 data gathering hours which is expected to require some 1035 coal burning hours. The tests will be performed using US supplied coal and dolomite. This will be the first major series of tests on the Facility with other than the UK datum coal and dolomite. The document summarises the background to the facility and the experimental program. Described are modifications which have been made to the facility following Test Series 2.1 and a series of Screening Tests. Detailed test objectives are specified as are the test conditions for the experiments which comprise the test series. The test results will provide information on the effects of the bed temperature, excess air level, Ca/S ratio, number of coal feed lines, and combustion efficiency and sulphur retention. A significant aspect of the test series will be part load tests which will investigate the performance of the facility under conditions of turn down which simulate load following concepts specified for two combined cycle concepts, i.e., their CFCC combined cycle and a turbo charged combined cycle. The material test plan is also presented. The principal feature of the materials programme is the planned exposure of a set of static turbine blade specimens in a cascade test loop to the high temperature, high pressure flue gas. A schedule for the programme is presented as are contingency plans.

Not Available

1983-12-01

2

Test Series 2. 1 detailed test plan  

SciTech Connect

Test Series 2.1 is the first of the sub-series of Test Series 2, the second stage of the combustion research programme to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion Facility. Test Series 1 formed the first stage and was completed in December 1981. Test Series 2.1 is to consist of 350 data gathering hours to be obtained from 700 coal burning hours. The report provides a brief description of the Facility and modifications carried out since Test Series 1 and sets out the test plan and objectives for Test Series 2.1. Also discussed are the part-load conditions and frequency response tests that are to be included within Test Series 2.1.

Not Available

1983-03-10

3

Test Series 2. 4: detailed test plan  

SciTech Connect

Test Series 2.4 comprises the fourth sub-series of tests to be scheduled as a part of Test Series 2, the second stage of the combustion research program to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Facility. Test Series 2.1, the first sub-series of tests, was completed in February 1983, and the first part of the second sub-series, Test Series 2.3, in October 1983. Test Series 2.2 was completed in February 1984 after which the second part of Test Series 2.3 commenced. The Plan for Test Series 2.4 consists of 350 data gathering hours to be completed within 520 coal burning hours. This document provides a brief description of the Facility and modifications which have been made following the completion of Test Series 2.1. No further modifications were made following the completion of the first part of Test Series 2.3 or Test Series 2.2. The operating requirements for Test Series 2.4 are specified. The tests will be performed using a UK coal (Lady Windsor), and a UK limestone (Middleton) both nominated by the FRG. Seven objectives are proposed which are to be fulfilled by thirteen test conditions. Six part load tests based on input supplied by Kraftwerk Union AG are included. The cascade is expected to be on line for each test condition and total cascade exposure is expected to be in excess of 450 hours. Details of sampling and special measurements are given. A test plan schedule envisages the full test series being completed within a two month calendar period. Finally, a number of contingency strategies are proposed. 3 figures, 14 tables.

Not Available

1984-09-01

4

Test Series 2. 2: Detailed Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

Test Series 2.2 comprises the third sub-series of tests to be scheduled as a part of Test Series 2, the second stage of the combustion research program to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Facility. Test Series 2.1, the first sub-series of tests, was completed in February 1983, and the first half of the second sub-series, Test Series 2.3, in October 1983. Test Series 2.2 is to consist of 350 data gathering hours, which it is hoped to complete within 560 coal burning hours. This document provides a brief description of the Facility and modifications which have been made following the completion of Test Series 2.1. No further modifications were made following the completion of the first half of Test Series 2.3. The operating requirements are specified. The tests will be performed using a UK coal (Kiveton Park), and a UK limestone (Middleton) both nominated by the FRG. Nine objectives are proposed which are to be fulfilled by thirteen test conditions. Six part load tests are included, as defined by Kraftwerk Union AG. The cascade is expected to be on line for each test condition and total cascade exposure is expected to be in excess of 450 hours. Details of sampling and special measurements are given. A test plan schedule envisages the test series being completed within a two month calendar period. Finally, a number of contingency strategies are proposed.

Not Available

1983-11-01

5

Results of Weathervane Test Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During June of 1973 four ionospheric barium releases were made at the Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR). This test series, code-name Weathervane, is part of a larger research program code-named HAPREX (High-Altitude Propagation Experiment) that is investigati...

D. R. McDaniel

1973-01-01

6

Test plan: Small scale seal performance tests. Test Series B  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this appendix to ``Test Plan: Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT)`` is to provide details regarding the installation and testing of Test Series B. The original test plan provides the technical motivation and test design in general terms for Test Series A through E and the details of the installation and testing of Test Series A. As specified in the test plans operations plans for the remaining test series are to be prepared when the details become available. This is now the case for Test Series B. It is emphasized that the original test plan remains valid and is the general reference for the conduct of all of the test series of the SSSPT. Test Series B will evaluate the performance of horizontally emplaced concrete seals and as such will be a small scale evaluation of the concrete component of the planned panel seal. The objectives of Test Series B are: (1) To develop and evaluate a technique for the horizontal emplacement of a concrete seal; (2) To obtain data on the fluid flow performance of horizontally emplace concrete seal systems; (3) To obtain data on the structural performance of horizontally emplaced concrete seal systems; and (4) To provide data for the development and validation of predictive numerical codes and models.

Stormont, J.C.

1985-11-18

7

Effective Strategies for Dealing with Test Anxiety. Teacher to Teacher Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Test anxiety is exceedingly common among learners in adult basic education. Any one or more of the following can cause individuals to experience test anxiety: learned behavior resulting from the expectations of parents, teachers, or significant others; associations that students have built between grades or test performance and personal worth;…

Collins, Lisa

8

Test Series 2.3 Detailed Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Test Series 2.3 is chronologically the second of the five sub-series of tests which comprise Test Series 2, the second major Test Series as part of the combustion research phase to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurised Fluidised Bed C...

1983-01-01

9

Breath Test Refusals and Their Effect on DWI Prosecutions. Traffic Tech Technology Transfer Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are typically about 1.4 million DWI (driving while impaired) arrests each year in the United States. An officers request to a driver for a breath (or blood, or urine) test is an important part of the arrest process. The percentage of drivers refusin...

2012-01-01

10

Power Burst Facility Thermocouple Effects Test Results Report, Test Series TC-1, TC-3, and TC-4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fuel rod cladding surface temperatures have been estimated in Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility and in Power Burst Facility loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests using data obtained with thermocouples welded to the cladding outer surface. These cladding ...

R. W. Garner P. E. MacDonald

1982-01-01

11

Test Series 2.4: Detailed Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Test Series 2.4 comprises the fourth sub-series of tests to be scheduled as a part of Test Series 2, the second stage of the combustion research program to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Facility. Test ...

1984-01-01

12

CIGARETTE IGNITION PROPENSITY TESTING - Third Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous testing series, More Menthol, Merit Ultra Light and Merit Ultima cigarettes had been found to have a lower ignition propensity relative to other cigarette brands tested. The third testing series was conducted to further determine the ignition propensity of the More and the Merit cigarettes as well as selected tobacco sticks (for a total of 7 brands

Joseph Z. Su; Patrice Leroux

13

Understanding Cancer Series: Gene Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... Professionals Cancer Trends Progress Report: 2011/2012 Update Gene Testing Slide Number and Title Genes in the News DNA Chemical Bases in DNA DNA Molecules Gene Subunits DNA->RNA->Protein Different Genes - Different Functions ...

14

Understanding Cancer Series: Gene Testing  

Cancer.gov

Lydia Schindler Donna Kerrigan, M.S. Jeanne Kelly Brian Hollen Illustrates what genes are, explains how mutations occur and are identified within genes, and discusses the benefits and limitations of gene testing for cancer and other disorders. These PowerPoint slides are not locked files. You can mix and match slides from different tutorials as you prepare your own lectures. In the Notes section, you will find explanations of the graphics.

15

Technical Manual: 2002 Series GED Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was written to provide technical information regarding the 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests. Throughout this manual, documentation is provided regarding the development of the GED Tests, data collection activities, as well as reliability and validity evidence. The purpose of this manual is to provide evidence…

Ezzelle, Carol; Setzer, J. Carl

2009-01-01

16

Mark III small scale chugging tests: Test Series 5013. [BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of flow visualization tests was performed in order to qualitatively investigate chugging phenomena for the Mark III pressure suppression containment system. The tests were conducted in a small scale test apparatus consisting of a steam generator, steam conditioning valve, vent system, and condensation tank serving as a suppression pool. The two vent systems used represented ¹\\/ââ linear scale

Varzaly

1977-01-01

17

Mark III confirmatory test program: one-third scale pool swell impact tests, Test Series 5805  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 51 blowdown tests was performed in support of the Mark III ; pressure suppression concept with particular emphasis on the effect of pool swell ; impact on structures located above the suppression pool. The integrated steam ; generator and drywell of the Pressure Suppression Test Facility was used to ; accelerate the water mass in the one-third

T. R. McIntyre; W. J. Bilanin; M. A. Ross; J. E. Torbeck

1975-01-01

18

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A SERIES CYCLONE TEST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cyclones are commonly used in the processing industry as primary particulate emissions abatement devices. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of one, two, three, or four 1D3D cyclones, in series, on airstreams heavily loaded (236 g/m3) with fine particulate (mass median diameter <10...

19

On Nonparametric Tests for Trend Detection in Seasonal Time Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate nonparametric tests for identifying monotone trends in time series as they need weaker assumptions than parametric\\u000a tests and are more flexible concerning the structure of the trend function. As seasonal effects can falsify the test results,\\u000a modifications have been suggested which can handle also seasonal data. Diersen and Trenkler [5] propose a test procedure based\\u000a on records and

Oliver Morell; Roland Fried

20

Test plan for Series 2 spent fuel cladding containment credit tests  

SciTech Connect

This test plan describes a second series of tests to be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to evaluate the effectiveness of breached cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release in the NNWSI-proposed geologic repository. These tests will be conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). A first series of tests, initiated at HEDL during FY 1983, demonstrated specimen preparation and feasibility of the testing concept. The second series tests will be similar to the Series 1 tests with the following exceptions: NNWSI reference groundwater obtained from well J-13 will be used as the leachant instead of deionized water; fuel from a second source will be used; and certain refinements will be made in specimen preparation, sampling, and analytical procedures. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Wilson, C.N.

1984-10-01

21

Operation TEAPOT, 1955 continental nuclear weapons test series. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of an estimated 11,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Operation TEAPOT, the fifth atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series conducted in Nevada from 18 February to 15 May 1955. Activities engaging DOD personnel included Exercise Desert Rock VI observer programs, troop tests, and technical service programs; AEC scientific and diagnostic experiments to evaluate the effects of the nuclear device; DOD operational programs; and air support.

Ponton, J.; Maag, C.; Wilkinson, M.; Shepanek, R.F.

1981-11-23

22

Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge wire testing  

SciTech Connect

An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on tank 241-S-106 during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge`s stainless steel measuring wire broke. After examination and laboratory analysis, it was determined that the wire broke due to severe chloride ion corrosion. It is suspected that the chloride ion contamination came from the radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liner. It is well documented that the breakdown of PVC due to radiation produces chloride containing compounds. This document provides a qualification test plan to remove and have analyzed the wire in all of the Enraf Series 854 that have been installed to date. These tests will confirm the presence or absence of chloride ions in the PVC liners and/or on the Enraf measuring wires installed in the tanks. This test will involve removing the 316 stainless steel wire drums from all of the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauges that have been installed. New 316 stainless steel wire drums shall be installed into the gauges and the gauges will be placed back into service. The wire that is removed from the gauges shall be sent to the 222-S Lab or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. Additional wire replacements will occur at intervals as determined necessary by the results of the laboratory analyses.

Barnes, G.A.

1994-09-15

23

HARD PAN I Test Series Test and Instrumentation Plans. Volume 1. Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives, test configurations, and instrumentation implementation of the HARD PAN I test series are presented in three voluumes. Volume I describes the high-explosive test events (5 major and 13 calibration events) performed to obtain experimental m...

J. Doran

1975-01-01

24

Permutation test for periodicity in short time series data  

PubMed Central

Background Periodic processes, such as the circadian rhythm, are important factors modulating and coordinating transcription of genes governing key metabolic pathways. Theoretically, even small fluctuations in the orchestration of circadian gene expression patterns among different tissues may result in functional asynchrony at the organism level and may contribute to a wide range of pathologic disorders. Identification of circadian expression pattern in time series data is important, but equally challenging. Microarray technology allows estimation of relative expression of thousands of genes at each time point. However, this estimation often lacks precision and microarray experiments are prohibitively expensive, limiting the number of data points in a time series expression profile. The data produced in these experiments carries a high degree of stochastic variation, obscuring the periodic pattern and a limited number of replicates, typically covering not more than two complete periods of oscillation. Results To address this issue, we have developed a simple, but effective, computational technique for the identification of a periodic pattern in relatively short time series, typical for microarray studies of circadian expression. This test is based on a random permutation of time points in order to estimate non-randomness of a periodogram. The Permutated time, or Pt-test, is able to detect oscillations within a given period in expression profiles dominated by a high degree of stochastic fluctuations or oscillations of different irrelevant frequencies. We have conducted a comprehensive study of circadian expression on a large data set produced at PBRC, representing three different peripheral murine tissues. We have also re-analyzed a number of similar time series data sets produced and published independently by other research groups over the past few years. Conclusion The Permutated time test (Pt-test) is demonstrated to be effective for detection of periodicity in short time series typical for high-density microarray experiments. The software is a set of C++ programs available from the authors on the open source basis.

Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Zvonic, Sanjin; Gimble, Jeffrey M

2006-01-01

25

Effects of series authority control for acquisitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of eliminating series authority control on the receipt of unintended duplicates, specifically in the context of approval plans. Random samples were drawn from two large plans at the Ohio State University Libraries (OSUL). Data were gathered from the approval plan vendors’ records, bibliographic records, Library of Congress series authority records (for items with series), and

Tschera Harkness Connell

1998-01-01

26

77 FR 38282 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OPPT-2009-0154; FRL-9333-1] Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability...is announcing the availability of the final test guidelines for Series 850--Ecological Effects Test Guidelines, consisting of Groups B, C,...

2012-06-27

27

Enraf Series 854 advanced technology gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the Enraf Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies that the gauge is functional.

Huber, J.H.

1996-09-11

28

CIGARETTE IGNITION PROPENSITY TESTING - Second Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ignition strength for a total of 54 brands of cigarettes was determined in accordance with the ASTM E2187-02b standard test method. Fifty-two (52) brands of cigarettes sold in Canada and 2 brands of Philip Morris's Merit cigarettes sold in the U.S. were tested. On the 15-layer filter paper assembly, 51 brands of the cigarettes sold in Canada produced 90

Joseph Z. Su; Patrice Leroux; John C. Latour

29

CIGARETTE IGNITION PROPENSITY TESTING - First Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ignition strength of 10 brands of Canadian cigarettes was determined in accordance with the ASTM E2187-02b standard test method. Full-length burning of these 10 brands of cigarettes was observed in 95 to 100% of the determinations on 15 layers of filter paper. These high percentages of full-length burns suggest that these cigarettes have a relatively high propensity to ignite

Joseph Z. Su; Patrice Leroux; John C. Latour

30

Success with Test-Taking. Parents and Children Together Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book, one of a series, shares ideas on how parents can help children cope with and learn from tests. The message of the series urges parents and children to spend time together, talk about stories, and learn together. The first part of each book presents stories appropriate for varying grade levels, both younger children and those in grades…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication, Bloomington, IN.

31

Subsynchronous resonance performance tests of the Slatt thyristor-controlled series capacitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) has been designed, installed, and field tested on the BPA 500 kV transmission system. The Slatt TCSC is a variable series capacitor with high control bandwidth. Field test results demonstrate that this TCSC does not participate in or contribute to subsynchronous resonance (SSR). It is SSR neutral in itself, and it can reduce SSR effects

R. J. Piwko; C. A. Wegner; S. J. Kinney; J. D. Eden

1996-01-01

32

TESTS OF GENERAL ABILITY AND READING, INTER-AMERICAN SERIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TESTING MATERIALS IN BOTH SPANISH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDITIONS WERE REVISED AND NEW MATERIALS CREATED IN THIS PROJECT. THE NEW SERIES OF TESTS INCLUDED ADMINISTRATION, AND ITEM ANALYSIS OF THE COOPERATIVE INTER-AMERICAN TESTS. DATA FOR THE ENGLISH EDITIONS WERE GATHERED FROM SUBJECTS DRAWN FROM AMERICAN SCHOOLS, AND DATA FOR THE SPANISH EDITIONS…

MANUEL, HERSCHEL T.

33

Appendix SET-TMP-PT of the Experiment Operating Specification for the Savannah River One-Fourth Linear Scale, One-Sixth Sector, Tank\\/Muff\\/Pump (TMP) Separate Effects Tests (SET) experiment series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River One-Fourth Linear Scale, One-Sixth Sector, Tank-Muff-Pump (TMP) Separate Effects Tests (SET) are being conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor tank, muff, pump suction, and pump hydraulic response phenomena for large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) scenarios. The test series consists of experiments representing a range of hydraulic conditions and

T. J. Boucher; J. L. Anderson; J. S. Bollinger; J. D. Sterrett

1993-01-01

34

Freight Car Truck Design Optimization. Detailed Test Plan Series 4 Tests. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the detailed test plans for Series 4 Tests of Phase I of the Truck Design Optimization Project. It is a continuation of a previous report presenting the introduction and the detailed test plans for Series 1, 2, and 3 Tests, for Phase...

1975-01-01

35

Shot GALILEO, a test of the Plumbbob series, 2 september 1957. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot GALILEO, the 16th nuclear test in the PLUMBBOB atmospheric weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 2 September 1957 and involved participants from Exercise Desert Rock VIII, AFSWP, AFSWC, and AEC test groups. This volume also describes the radiological safety criteria and procedures in effect at Shot GALILEO.

Ponton, J.; Wilkinson, M.; Striegel, J.; Collins, B.

1981-02-27

36

Testing time series irreversibility using complex network methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absence of time-reversal symmetry is a fundamental property of many nonlinear time series. Here, we propose a new set of statistical tests for time series irreversibility based on standard and horizontal visibility graphs. Specifically, we statistically compare the distributions of time-directed variants of the common complex network measures degree and local clustering coefficient. Our approach does not involve surrogate data and is applicable to relatively short time series. We demonstrate its performance for paradigmatic model systems with known time-reversal properties as well as for picking up signatures of nonlinearity in neuro-physiological data.

Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.; Kurths, Jürgen

2013-04-01

37

Appendix SET-TMP-PT of the Experiment Operating Specification for the Savannah River One-Fourth Linear Scale, One-Sixth Sector, Tank/Muff/Pump (TMP) Separate Effects Tests (SET) experiment series  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River One-Fourth Linear Scale, One-Sixth Sector, Tank-Muff-Pump (TMP) Separate Effects Tests (SET) are being conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor tank, muff, pump suction, and pump hydraulic response phenomena for large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) scenarios. The test series consists of experiments representing a range of hydraulic conditions and geometries which bound those anticipated for LBLOCAs in SRS reactors. Data from these experiments will be examined to identify important hydraulic phenomena with the objective of providing data for benchmarking code calculations. Information obtained from the SET series will also expand the SRS data base on reactor LBLOCA events. Due to inherent scaling distortions and facility limitations, the results of experiments in the SET series will not be precise replications of full-scale Savannah River Site production reactor (SRSPR) response, but will provide hydraulic behavior sufficiently representative of full-scale SRSPR behavior to preserve important hydraulic phenomena and satisfy test objectives. This document is Appendix SET-TMP-PT of the Experiment Operating Specification for the third set of experiments in the SET series. It contains information on experiment operation and facility configuration necessary to meet the key objectives stated in the bingham pump formal test matrix definition letter. In addition, general guidance is included to meet expanded objectives of providing complete characterization of the pump for all modes of operation (partially defined in a letter defining pump suction and maximum flow rate characterization tests). Finally, information necessary to complete testing initiated as part of Phase II testing is also included.

Boucher, T.J.; Anderson, J.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bollinger, J.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sterrett, J.D. [Reece Engineering Associates, Boonville, NC (United States)

1993-05-01

38

Pin Failure Modeling of the A Series CABRI Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EXPAND pin fialure model, a research tool designed to model pin failure under prompt burst conditions, has been used to predict failure conditions for several of the A series CABRI tests as part of the United States participation in the CABRI Joint Pr...

M. F. Young J. L. Portugal

1978-01-01

39

Testing for Unit Roots in Seasonal Time Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression estimators of coefficients in seasonal autoregressive models are described. The percentiles of the distributions for time series that have unit roots at the seasonal lag are computed by Monte Carlo integration for finite samples and by analytic techniques and Monte Carlo integration for the limit case. The tabled distributions may be used to test the hypothesis that a time

D. A. Dickey; D. P. Hasza; W. A. Fuller

1984-01-01

40

Testing time symmetry in time series using data compression dictionaries.  

PubMed

Time symmetry, often called statistical time reversibility, in a dynamical process means that any segment of time-series output has the same probability of occurrence in the process as its time reversal. A technique, based on symbolic dynamics, is proposed to distinguish such symmetrical processes from asymmetrical ones, given a time-series observation of the otherwise unknown process. Because linear stochastic Gaussian processes, and static nonlinear transformations of them, are statistically reversible, but nonlinear dynamics such as dissipative chaos are usually statistically irreversible, a test will separate large classes of hypotheses for the data. A general-purpose and robust statistical test procedure requires adapting to arbitrary dynamics which may have significant time correlation of undetermined form. Given a symbolization of the observed time series, the technology behind adaptive dictionary data compression algorithms offers a suitable estimate of reversibility, as well as a statistical likelihood test. The data compression methods create approximately independent segments permitting a simple and direct null test without resampling or surrogate data. We demonstrate the results on various time-series-reversible and irreversible systems. PMID:15244905

Kennel, Matthew B

2004-05-14

41

Using Textbooks Effectively. TESOL Classroom Practice Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series asks one fundamental question, "How can teachers teach the students, not the book?" The response, given within "Using Textbooks Effectively", is to move beyond the textbook as a separate entity and view it instead as part of the ESOL curriculum process and as a tool for student learning. The…

Savova, Lilia, Ed.

2009-01-01

42

Experiment Data Report for Test RIA 1-2 (Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recorded test data are presented for the second of six planned tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series 1, Test RIA 1-2. This test, conducted at the Power Burst Facility, had the following objectives: (1) Characterize the response of p...

C. L. Zimmermann C. E. White R. P. Evans

1979-01-01

43

Testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures in a controlled environment: The SERI CMFERT (Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Training) Project  

SciTech Connect

For several years the Solar Energy Research Institute has been testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures, with the support of the US DOE Office of State and Local Assistance Programs Weatherization Assistance Program, the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems, the seven states within the federal Weatherization Region 7, the Colorado Division of Housing, and the DOE Denver Support Office. During the winter of 1988--89, several weatherization measures were thermally tested on three mobile homes under controlled conditions inside a large environmental enclosure. The effects of each weatherization measure on conduction losses, infiltration losses, and combined furnace and duct-delivered heat efficiency were monitored. The retrofit options included air sealing, duct repair, furnace tune-up, interior storm panels, floor insulation, and roof insulation. The study demonstrated that cost-effective heating energy savings of about 20% to 50% are possible if weatherization techniques adapted to the special construction details in mobile homes are applied. 24 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

Judkoff, R.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Franconi, E.

1990-03-01

44

Operation WIGWAM, series volume, oceanic test. 1st edition  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of DoD participants in the atmospheric nuclear test series, Operation WIGWAM, which involved only one deep underwater shot in the Pacific, approximately 500 miles southwest of San Diego, CA. WIGWAM was essentially a single service operation with minimal AEC and contractor participation. The various levels at which Dod personnel participated within the Joint Task Group 7 are identified.

Weary, S.E.; Ozeroff, W.J.; Sperling, J.L.; Collins, B.

1980-05-30

45

Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twelve. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 4.] Tests M39-M50.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 39 through 50 include: (39) using a code; (40) naming the parts of a microscope; (41) calculating density and predicting flotation; (42) estimating metric length; (43) using SI symbols; (44) using s=vt; (45) applying a novel theory; (46)…

New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

46

Science Library of Test Items. Volume Thirteen. Mastery Testing Program. [Mastery Tests Series 5.] Tests M51-M65.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 51 through 65 include: (51) interpreting atomic and mass numbers; (52) extrapolating from a geological map; (53) matching geological sections and maps; (54) identifying parts of the human eye; (55) identifying the functions of parts of a…

New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

47

Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series, Test RIA 1-1. Quick Look Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Reactivity Initiated Accident Test RIA 1-1 was successfully completed October 7, 1978. Test RIA 1-1 was the first of five planned tests of RIA Series 1. The primary objectives of Test RIA 1-1 were to: (a) characterize the response of unirradiated and ...

Z. R. Martinson R. S. Semken T. Inabe R. H. Smith C. E. White

1978-01-01

48

The NASA B-757 HIRF test series: Low power on-the-ground tests  

SciTech Connect

The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical and experimental for the assessment of electromagnetic effects i n transports, for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs, and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. A series of fly-by experiments were conducted in early 1995 in which the NASA B-757 was flown in the vicinity of a Voice of America station ({approximately}25 MHz), a fixed transmitter driving an LP array (172 MHz), and an ASRF radar at Wallops Island (430 MHz). In this paper, the overall test program is defined with particular attention to the on-the-ground portion. It is described in detail with presentation of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation will also be presented.

Poggio, A.J.; Zacharias, R.A.; Pennock, S.T.; Avalle, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Carney, H. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

1995-07-01

49

Reactivity initiated accident test series, test RIA 1-1. Quick look report. [BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reactivity Initiated Accident Test RIA 1-1 was successfully completed October 7, 1978. Test RIA 1-1 was the first of five planned tests of RIA Series 1. The primary objectives of Test RIA 1-1 were to: (a) characterize the response of unirradiated and preirradiated fuel rods during an RIA event conducted at BWR hot-startup coolant conditions and (b) evaluate test

Z. R. Martinson; R. S. Semken; T. Inabe; R. H. Smith; C. E. White; D. J. Osetek; A. S. Mehner

1978-01-01

50

Operational Transient Test Series OPTRAN 1-2: Experiment Specification Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several test series are being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to determine the behavior of light water reactor fuel rods during transient reactor conditions. The PBF Operational Transient (OPTRAN) test series has the overall objective of evalu...

R. S. Semken

1979-01-01

51

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focuses on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report presents results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. This report was originally published in March 2001. In January 2004, a transcription error was discovered in the value reported for the uranium metal content of KE North Loadout Pit sample FE-3. This revision of the report corrects the U metal content of FE-3 from 0.0013 wt% to 0.013 wt%.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2004-04-26

52

Test plan for Series 2 thermogravimetric analyses of spent fuel oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary studies indicated the need for more spent fuel oxidation data in order to determine the behavior of spent fuel as a waste form for a tuff repository. Short-term thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests were recommended in a comprhensive technical approach as the method for providing scoping data that could be used to: (1) evaluate the effects of variables such as moisture and burnup on the oxidation rate; (2) determine operative mechanisms; and (3) guide long-term, low-temperature oxidation testing. This document reviews the preliminary TGA results and presents the Series 2 test plan to study the effect of moisture and temperature on oxidation rate and phase formation.

Einziger, R.E.; Woodley, R.E.

1986-02-01

53

Curriculum-Referenced Test Development Workshop Series: Workshops One through Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This set of materials represents the first three workshops in a series of five designed to assist school districts and educators to develop their own curriculum-referenced tests. The series has been assembled to provide school districts with a relatively inexpensive test development method. The series is designed to reduce costs by pooling…

Arter, Judith A.

54

Relay test program. Series 2 tests: Integral testing of relays and circuit breakers  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing.

Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-02-01

55

Air-water tests in support of LLTR series II Test A-4. [Large Leak Test Rig  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests injecting air into a tank of stagnant water was conducted in June 1980 utilizing the GE Plenum Mixing Test Facility in San Jose, California. The test was concerned with investigating the behavior of air jets at a submerged orifice in water over a wide range of flow rates. The main objective was to improve the basic understanding of gas-liquid phenomena (e.g., leak dynamics, gas bubble agglomeration, etc.) in a simulated tube bundle through visualization. The experimental results from these air-water tests will be used as a guide to help select the leak size for LLTR Series II Test A-4 because air-water system is a good simulation of water-sodium mixture.

Chen, K.

1980-07-01

56

Testing the testing effect in the classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies show that taking a test on studied material promotes subsequent learning and retention of that material on a final test (termed the testing effect). Educational research has virtually ignored testing as a technique to improve classroom learning. We investigated the testing effect in a college course. Students took weekly quizzes followed by multiple choice criterial tests (unit tests

Mark A. McDaniel; Janis L. Anderson; Mary H. Derbish; Nova Morrisette

2007-01-01

57

PLATO-Based Test Item Bank for Army Vehicle Mechanics (MOS63B-Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report introduces the overall objectives of Phases 1 and 2, presents a series of Test Domain Specifications for identifying test items from MOS tasks, presents the prototype structures of the Test Item Bank and provides recommendations for further wor...

S. R. Patton

1984-01-01

58

Pediatric Autonomic Testing: Retrospective Review of a Large Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the reasons for referral, autonomic diagnoses, test results, and patient management in a large pediatric population referred for testing for an autonomic disorder. Design. The authors reviewed autonomic testing data and medical records for patients aged 18 years and younger who underwent testing between 1993 and 2007 and who had adequate clinical data. Relevance of test results

Devraj Sukul; Thomas C. Chelimsky; Gisela Chelimsky

2012-01-01

59

Connectionist approach to time series prediction: an empirical test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the various potential applications of neural networks, forecasting is considered to be a major application. Several researchers have reported their experiences with the use of neural networks in forecasting, and the evidence is inconclusive. This paper presents the results of a forecasting competition between a neural network model and a Box-Jenkins automatic forecasting expert system. Seventy-five series, a subset

Ramesh Sharda; Rajendra B. Patil

1992-01-01

60

General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

1986-09-01

61

Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells  

SciTech Connect

This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells.

Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

1985-03-01

62

General-Purpose Heat Source development: Extended series test program large fragment tests  

SciTech Connect

General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electric power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electric power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory was modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents, and an extended series safety test program was initiated. The program included a series of large fragment tests that simulated the collision of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragments, generated in an SRB motor case rupture or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action, with the GPHS-RTG. The tests indicated that fueled clads, inside a converter, will not breach or release fuel after a square (142 cm on a side) SRB fragment impacts flat-on at velocities up to 212 m/s, and that only the leading fueled capsules breach and release fuel after the square SRB fragment impacts the modules, inside the converter, edge-on at 95 m/s. 8 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

Cull, T.A.

1989-08-01

63

General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests  

SciTech Connect

General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40%) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Cull, T.A.

1989-06-01

64

General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four Pu-238O2-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40 percent) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions.

Cull, Theresa A.

1989-06-01

65

Testing for Nonstationary Parameter Specifications in Seasonal Time Series Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $Y_t$ be an autoregressive process satisfying $Y_t = \\\\alpha_1 Y_{t - 1} + \\\\alpha_2 Y_{t - d} + \\\\alpha_3 Y_{t - d - 1} + e_t$, where $\\\\{e_t\\\\}^\\\\infty_{t = 0}$ is a sequence of $\\\\operatorname{iid}(0, \\\\sigma^2)$ random variables and $d \\\\geq 2$. Such processes have been used as parametric models for seasonal time series. Typical values of $d$ are

David P. Hasza; Wayne A. Fuller

1982-01-01

66

Current Developments in Language Testing. Anthology Series 25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The selection of papers on language testing includes: "Language Testing in the 1990s: How Far Have We Come? How Much Further Have We To Go?" (J. Charles Alderson); "Current Research/Development in Language Testing" (John W. Oller, Jr.); "The Difficulties of Difficulty: Prompts in Writing Assessment" (Liz Hamp-Lyons, Sheila Prochnow); "The…

Anivan, Sarinee, Ed.

67

Shot HOOD: a test of the PLUMBBOB series, revised. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of DoD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot HOOD, the sixth nuclear test in the PLUMBBOB atmospheric weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 5 July 1957 and involved participants from Exercise Desert Rock VII, AFSWP, AFSWC, and AEC test groups. This volume also describes the radiological safety criteria and procedures in effect at Shot HOOD. At the time of the first edition of SHOT HOOD, the after-action report describing the Marine brigade exercise (Provisional Atomic Exercise Brigade, Report of Exercise Desert Rock VII, Marine Corps) had not been located. For this edition, the after-action report has been used to corroborate, to correct, and to supplement accounts of the troop exercise drawn from planning documents and interviews. This has resulted in substantial revision of section 2.2.

Maag, C.; Wilkinson, M.; Striegel, J.; Collins, B.

1983-05-13

68

Modulation and SSR tests performed on the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor unit at Slatt substation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA's Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE's Boardman steam generator are well understood and are effectively avoided by normal TCSC valve firing logic. Modulation tests, performed with the Boardman plant offline, show that the TCSC can be a

J. F. Hauer; W. A. Mittelstadt; R. J. Piwko; B. L. Damsky; J. D. Eden

1996-01-01

69

Pediatric autonomic testing: retrospective review of a large series.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To describe the reasons for referral, autonomic diagnoses, test results, and patient management in a large pediatric population referred for testing for an autonomic disorder. DESIGN. The authors reviewed autonomic testing data and medical records for patients aged 18 years and younger who underwent testing between 1993 and 2007 and who had adequate clinical data. Relevance of test results to clinical symptoms was ranked on a 3-point scale. Treatments were noted and their benefit ranked on a 5-point scale. RESULTS. Among 142 pediatric patients identified, postural tachycardia syndrome was most common (71%) while orthostatic hypotension was rare (5%). Testing provided relevant information regarding the patient's symptoms in 88% of the cases. Beta-blockers were the most commonly prescribed medication (59%); 73% improved. CONCLUSIONS. Postural tachycardia syndrome was common in this large pediatric population, whereas orthostatic hypotension was infrequent. The symptomatic improvement in the majority bears an unclear relationship to treatment. Prospective studies are needed. PMID:21868597

Sukul, Devraj; Chelimsky, Thomas C; Chelimsky, Gisela

2011-08-25

70

Misuse Study of Latch Attachment: A Series of Frontal Sled Tests  

PubMed Central

This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G’s when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G’s, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values.

Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

2007-01-01

71

Misuse study of latch attachment: a series of frontal sled tests.  

PubMed

This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G's when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G's, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values. PMID:18184489

Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

2007-01-01

72

Robust testing of level changes in interrupted time-series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramsey and Ramsey [Ramsey, P.P. and Ramsey, P.H., 2003, Comparing lease-squares lines for testing level changes in interrupted time-series analysis. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 73, 31–44.] have shown that a composite procedure (CP) can provide accurate tests of level changes in interrupted time-series analysis. A CP combines the Mann–Wald procedure [Gottman, J.M., 1981, Time-Series Analysis (New York: Cambridge

Patricia P. Ramsey; Philip H. Ramsey

2006-01-01

73

A series of lower bounds to the reliability of a test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two well-known lower bounds to the reliability in classical test theory, Guttman's 2 and Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are shown to be terms of an infinite series of lower bounds. All terms of this series are equal to the reliability if and only if the test is composed of items which are essentially tau-equivalent. Some practical examples, comparing the first 7

J. M. F. ten Berge; Frits E. Zegers

1978-01-01

74

Uniaxial and Triaxial Compression Test Series on Calico Hills Tuff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty-four uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on samples of the Tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills obtained from drill hole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Water saturated and room dry test specimens were deformed ...

R. H. Price A. K. Jones

1982-01-01

75

Uniaxial and Triaxial Compression Test Series on Topopah Spring Tuff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifteen uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on samples of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff obtained from drill hole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated test specimens were deformed...

R. H. Price K. G. Nimick J. A. Zirzow

1982-01-01

76

A system-based component test plan for a series system, with type-II censoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptance testing is analyzed for a series system of n components, each having an unknown, different, constant failure rate. Components are tested individually, and tests are terminated when a preassigned number of failures is observed for each component. The total time-on-test for each component is noted, and a statistic is constructed using observed test times and the number of failures

Jayant Rajgopal; Mainak Mazumdar

1996-01-01

77

SERIES \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumococcal vaccination: current and future issues. A ?.Ortqvist. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major global health burden meaning the development of effective vaccines is urgently needed. The current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine has been shown to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia in immunocompetent young adults, but not in elderly persons. However, in prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease,

78

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on Calico Hills tuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on samples of the Tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills obtained from drill hole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Water saturated and room dry test specimens were deformed at nominal strain rates of 0.001,0.00001, 10 to the minus 7th power, s(1), confining pressures of 0.1, 10 and 20 MPa;

R. H. Price; A. K. Jones

1982-01-01

79

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on Topopah Spring tuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on samples of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff obtained from drill hole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated test specimens were deformed at nominal strain rates of 10⁻², 10⁻⁴, 10⁻⁵ and 10⁻⁶ s⁻¹; confining pressures of 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa; and room

R. H. Price; K. G. Nimick; J. A. Zirzow

1982-01-01

80

Penalized Maximal F Test for Detecting Change Points of Temperature and Wind Speed Data Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The homogeneity of the climate record continues to receive considerable attention. Time series are commonly contaminated by non-climatic discontinuities that result from station relocations, observation time changes, and station specific trends related to environmental changes in the proximity of the observation sites. Several statistical methods have been proposed for detecting undocumented shifts. Wang Xiaolan et al. proposed the penalized maximal F test (PMFT) for detecting undocumented mean shifts that are not accompanied by any sudden change in the linear trend of time series. This method is based on the penalized maximal F test, which are embedded in a recursive testing algorithm, with the lag-1 autocorrelation (if any) of the time series being empirically accounted for. In this research the PMFT method is used for detecting the shifts of long time series of temperature and wind speed data series over China. The monthly average temperature data of about tens of meteorological observing stations and the annual average wind speed data of 753 meteorological observing stations have been detected. The results show that this homogeneity detection method works well for these two meteorological data series over China. 1. Results of monthly average temperature data series To create a reference time series is sometimes very useful for homogeneity detection, while it is difficult to get a good reference time series especially for the hundred-year long temperature data with a lot of year data lost over China. The PMFT method are used without building a references series to detecting the change points of the monthly average maximum temperature of twelve meteorological stations and the monthly average minimum temperature of twenty-nine stations. The results show that this method is fit for the homogeneous detection and we needn't interpolating the data and building a reference time series before the detection. Although discontinuities in temperature time series can be caused by any number of changes in, for example, sensor type, and even the observation schedule, station relocations are the likely cause of the majority of abrupt shifts identified in the temperature series evaluated here. 2. Results of annual average wind speed data series 52 of the data series are too short to be detected among 753 meteorological observing stations. A total of 356 change points over 271 stations are detected of the annual average wind speed time series, which accounts for 38.7% of the evaluated stations. The homogeneous data series are of 231 stations and another 199 stations are not significant that can be considered as homogeneous, which accounts for 61.3% of the evaluated stations. It is found that the data of 61.3% stations are homogeneity among the detected 701 stations, which shows that the homogeneity of the annual average wind speed is good. The change points of the annual average wind speed range from 1 to 2. The changes of instrument and location are the main reason for the non-homogeneity, while the change of the type of the observation instrument for the wind speed is the most important reason for the non-homogeneity of the annual average wind speed over China. The environment change seems not so remarkable, because the relocation and the instrument change may take place at the same time to conceal the effect of the environment change. All of the works we have done are the preliminary experiments of using this method. Although we get some results, there are still a lot of works need to do because the wind speed data are so special and the probability distribution are not the exact Gaussian distribution. At the same time the data of the wind speed are affected mostly by the topography and the barriers aside of the observation fields. The use of reference series can help to diminish departure from Gaussian distribution. We will do more experiments on detecting of the wind speed data. What the important thing is that rely on most detail metadata information to help the work of homogeneity detection.

Cao, L.; Liu, X.; Li, Q.

2009-04-01

81

Volume Sensor Development Test. Series 5 - Multi-Compartment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Volume Sensor Prototype (VSP) system has been designed to detect, flame, smoldering fires, water releases (e.g., pipe ruptures), gas leaks, and hot objects and to discriminate nuisance sources, such as hot work. The tests presented in this report were...

C. P. Minor D. A. Steinhurst D. T. Gottuk J. A. Lynch J. C. Owrutsky

2005-01-01

82

Uniaxial-Compression-Test Series on Tram Tuff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-five uniaxial compression experiments were performed on samples of the Tram Member of the Center Flat Tuff obtained from drill hole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated samples were deformed at nominal strain rates ...

R. H. Price K. G. Nimick

1982-01-01

83

General-purpose heat source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Titanium bullet/fragment test series  

SciTech Connect

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of launch-pad or postlaunch explosion exists and because any explosion would generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must be able to survive fragment impact. In this test series we investigated the response of bare, simulant-fueled (UO/sub 2/) clads to the impact of high-energy titanium alloy fragments. We determined that 425m/s is the threshold impact velocity of a 3.25-g titanium bullet that will cause direct mechanical failure of a bare fueled clad. 40 figs.

George, T.G.

1986-06-01

84

Test reliability and effective test length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of effective test length are developed for speeded and power tests, which are independent of the number of items in the test or of the time required for administration. These measures are used in determining reliability for (1) speeded and power tests, where a separately timed short parallel form is administered in addition to the full-length test; (2) power

William H. Angoff

1953-01-01

85

General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series  

SciTech Connect

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

1985-05-01

86

General-purpose heat source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power or space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four (238)PuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W sub (t). Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact needs to be determined. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to eestablish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported.

George, T. G.; Tate, R. E.; Axler, K. M.

1985-05-01

87

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on Calico Hills tuff  

SciTech Connect

Forty-four uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on samples of the Tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills obtained from drill hole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Water saturated and room dry test specimens were deformed at nominal strain rates of 10{sup -3}, 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -7} s{sup -1}; confining pressures of 0.1, 10 and 20 MPa; and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young`s moduli and Poisson`s ratios ranged from 14.2 to 42.0 MPa, 0.0037 to 0.0087, 2.52 to 9.72 GPA and 0.17 to 0.37, respectively.

Price, R.H.; Jones, A.K.

1982-10-01

88

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on Topopah Spring tuff  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on samples of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff obtained from drill hole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated test specimens were deformed at nominal strain rates of 10{sup -2}, 10{sup -4}, 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -6} s{sup -1}; confining pressures of 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa; and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young`s moduli and Poisson`s ratios ranged from 44.9 to 176.6 MPa, .0034 to .0057, 22.9 to 40.8 GPa and .15 to .33, respectively.

Price, R.H.; Nimick, K.G.; Zirzow, J.A.

1982-10-01

89

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series I Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor and canister sludge. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. The overall goals for this testing were to collect detailed gas generation rate and composition data to ascertain the quantity and reactivity of the metallic uranium (and other reactive species) present in the K Basin sludge. The gas generation evaluation included four large-scale vessels (850 ml) and eight small-scale vessels (30 ml) in an all-metal, leak tight system. The tests were conducted for several thousand hours at ambient and elevated temperatures (32 C, 40 C, 60 C, 80 C, and 95 C) to accelerated the reactions and provide conclusive gas generation data within a reasonable testing period. The sludge used for these tests was collected from the KE Basin floor and canister barrels (containing damaged spent fuel elements) using a consolidated sampling technique (i.e., material from several locations was combined to form ''consolidated samples''). Portions of these samples were sieved to separate particles greater than 250 m (P250) from particle less than 250 m (M250). This separation was performed to mimic the separation operations that are planned during the retrieval of certain K Basin sludge types and to gain a better understanding of how uranium metal is distributed in the sludge. The corrosion rate of the uranium metal particles in the sludge was found to agree reasonably well with corrosion rates reported in the literature.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Bredt, Paul R.; King, Christopher M.; Sell, Rachel L.; Burger, Leland L.; Silvers, Kurt L.

2000-09-12

90

Trend tests in time series with missing values: A case study with imputation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testing for trend is an important problem, especially when one is dealing with environmental time series. The tests considered here are the usual t-test and the Mann-Kendall test, a nonparametric version widely used because it requires fewer assumptions. The aim is to assess the performance of two trend tests in time series with autocorrelation after an imputation method is applied to estimate the missing observations. The performance of the trend tests will be illustrated for some well-known data sets existing in R software.

Ramos, M. Rosário; Cordeiro, Clara

2013-10-01

91

Material Evaluation Test Series 07, 08A, and 09A  

SciTech Connect

This research effort examines the post-detonation environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of experimental explosive tests with mercury. Specific experimental information is necessary for the evaluation of post-detonation by-products in comparison with those potentially resulting from mercury-bearing material accumulation in biomass accumulation areas, such as landfills, from batteries, electrical switches, thermometers, and fluorescent lights (Lindberg et al 2001). This will assist in determining appropriate abatement techniques for cleaning the work environment and environmental mitigation to determine waste stream components and risk assessment protocol. Determination of the by-products for personal protection equipment and personal exposure monitoring parameters are also part of this experimental work.

Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Koester, C; Lyle, J

2006-04-11

92

Blast Mitigation Using Water Mist: Test Series II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects water mist has on the overpressures produced by the detonation of 50 lb equivalent of high explosives (HE) TNT, Destex, and PBXN- 109 in a chamber is reported. The overpressures for each charge density were measured with and without mist preem...

F. W. Williams G. G. Back H. D. Willauer J. P. Farley R. Ananth

2009-01-01

93

Test plan for long-term, low-temperature oxidation of spent fuel, Series 1  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary studies indicated the need for more spent fuel oxidation data in order to determine the probable behavior of spent fuel in a tuff repository. Long-term, low-temperature testing was recommended in a comprehensive technical approach to: (1) confirm the findings of the short-term thermogravimetric analyses scoping experiments; (2) evaluate the effects of variables such as burnup, atmospheric moisture and fuel type on the oxidation rate; and (3) extend the oxidation data base ot representative repository temperatures and better define the temperature dependence of the operative oxidation mechanisms. This document presents the Series 1 test plan to study, on a large number of samples, the effects of atmospheric moisture and temperature on oxidation rate and phase formation. Tests will run for up to two years, use characterized fragmented, and pulverized fuel samples, cover a temperature range of 110{sup 0}C to 175{sup 0}C and be conducted with an atmospheric moisture content rangeing from <-55{sup 0}C to {similar_to}80{sup 0}C dew point. After testing, the samples will be examined and made available for leaching testing.

Einziger, R.E.

1986-06-01

94

Thermal\\/structural modeling of Test Series A of the small scale seal performance tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure effective long-term sealing of nuclear waste repositories, adequate predictive capabilities of seal system thermal\\/structural behavior is required. Such modeling must consider the properties of the seal material as well as the host rock. In this report, various modeling efforts are described and discussed. Some results are compared to an in situ test on concrete seals in host rock

L. L. Van Sambeek; J. C. Stormont

1987-01-01

95

Shot BEE, A Test of the TEAPOT Series, 22 March 1955.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the activities of more than 3,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot BEE, the sixth nuclear test in the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 22 March 1955 and involved participa...

C. Maag M. Wilkinson S. Rohrer

1981-01-01

96

Shot Bee, a test of the TEAPOT series, 22 March 1955. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of more than 3,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot BEE, the sixth nuclear test in the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 22 March 1955 and involved participants from Exercise Desert Rock VI, AFSWP, AFSWC, and the AEC Test Groups. The Marine Brigade Exercise troop test involved 2,271 Marines and was the largest single project conducted during Operation TEAPOT.

Maag, C.; Wilkinson, M.; Rohrer, S.

1981-11-24

97

Time Series Analysis of Alternative Media Effects Theories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…

Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.

98

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71).

P. C. Ferrell; D. A. Moody

1995-01-01

99

Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

2009-01-01

100

An improved portmanteau test for autocorrelated errors in interrupted time-series regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new portmanteau test for autocorrelation among the errors of interrupted time-series regression models is proposed. Simulation\\u000a results demonstrate that the inferential properties of the proposedQ\\u000a H-M test statistic are considerably more satisfactory than those of the well known Ljung-Box test and moderately better than\\u000a those of the Box-Pierce test. These conclusions generally hold for a wide variety of autoregressive

Bradley E. Huitema; Joseph W. McKean

2007-01-01

101

Real-time tracking and targeting computations and rocket-vehicle aeroballistics for the PLACES ionospheric-plasma test series  

SciTech Connect

The PLACES (Position Location and Communication Effects Simulations) test program, conducted in December 1980 at Eglin Gulf Test Range, involved a series of ionospheric releases of barium/barium-nitrate vapor. The Defense Nuclear Agency sponsored program investigated effects of a structured ionospheric plasma (similar to that produced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion) on satellite navigation systems and provided in situ measurement of plasma structure. Terrier-Tomahawk rocket systems boosted the barium payloads, beacon payloads (plasma occultation experiment), and probe payloads (plasma in situ measurement). Drifting plasma tracking procedures, beacon-and probe-vehicle targeting procedures, and vehicle flight test results are presented.

Rollstin, L.R.

1982-01-01

102

General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.

George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1986-05-01

103

General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1985-09-01

104

Reliability Test Plans for Series Systems in the Presence of Covariates  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the motivation of developing more realistic test plans, an attempt is made in this paper to construct reliability test plans for the components of series systems under the assumptions that • the component lifetimes are independent, identically distributed exponential random variables, • the failure rates of these exponential random variables depend on covariates, such as room temperature, humidity etc.

S. V. Sabnis; G. Agnihothram

2007-01-01

105

Testing for homogeneity of variance in time series: Long memory, wavelets, and the Nile River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of testing for homogeneity of variance in a time series with long memory structure. We demonstrate that a test whose null hypothesis is designed to be white noise can, in fact, be applied, on a scale by scale basis, to the discrete wavelet transform of long memory processes. In particular, we show that evaluating a normalized

B. Whitcher; S. D. Byers; P. Guttorp; D. B. Percival

2002-01-01

106

Testing for Homogeneity of Variance in Time Series: Long Memory, Wavelets and the Nile River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of testing for homogeneity of variance in a time series withlong memory structure. We demonstrate that a test whose null hypothesis is designedto be white noise can in fact be applied, on a scale by scale basis, to the discretewavelet transform of long memory processes. In particular, we show that evaluatinga normalized cumulative sum of squares

Brandon Whitcher; Simon D. Byers

1998-01-01

107

50,000-Mile Engine-Lubricant Field Test of XM809 Series 5-Ton Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An accelerated, 50,000 miles, durability test of XM809 Series, 5-ton trucks was conducted at Red River Army Depot from April 1970 through February 1971. In conjunction with the vehicle test, the field performance of four Military engine oils was investiga...

B. R. Wright S. J. Lestz T. C. Bowen

1971-01-01

108

Analysis of Complex Intervention Effects in Time-Series Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An iterative least squares procedure for analyzing the effect of various kinds of intervention in time-series data is described. There are numerous applications of this design in economics, education, and psychology, although until recently, no appropriate analysis techniques had been developed to deal with the model adequately. This paper…

Bower, Cathleen

109

Effective Second Language Writing. TESOL Classroom Practice Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The classroom practices discussed in "Effective Second Language Writing" reflect various trends and methodologies; however, the underlying theme in this volume of the Classroom Practice Series is the need for clear and meaningful communication between ESL writers and their readers. While approaches differ, two core beliefs are constant: ESL…

Kasten, Susan, Ed.

2010-01-01

110

Application of Kolmogorov complexity and universal codes to identity testing and nonparametric testing of serial independence for time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that Kolmogorov complexity and such its estimators as uni- versal codes (or data compression methods) can be applied for hypothesis testing in a framework of classical mathematical statistics. The methods for identity testing and nonparametric testing of serial independence for time series are described. AMS subject classification: 60G10, 62M07, 68Q30, 68W01, 94A29. Keywords. algorithmic complexity, algorithmic information theory,

Boris Ryabko; Jaakko Astola; Alexander Gammerman

2006-01-01

111

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges and Irradiated Metallic Uranium Fuel Particles Series III Testing  

SciTech Connect

The path forward for managing of Hanford K Basin sludge calls for it to be packaged, shipped, and stored at T Plant until final processing at a future date. An important consideration for the design and cost of retrieval, transportation, and storage systems is the potential for heat and gas generation through oxidation reactions between uranium metal and water. This report, the third in a series (Series III), describes work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess corrosion and gas generation from irradiated metallic uranium particles (fuel particles) with and without K Basin sludge addition. The testing described in this report consisted of 12 tests. In 10 of the tests, 4.3 to 26.4 g of fuel particles of selected size distribution were placed into 60- or 800-ml reaction vessels with 0 to 100 g settled sludge. In another test, a single 3.72-g fuel fragment (i.e., 7150-mm particle) was placed in a 60 ml reaction vessel with no added sludge. The twelfth test contained only sludge. The fuel particles were prepared by crushing archived coupons (samples) from an irradiated metallic uranium fuel element. After loading the sludge materials (whether fuel particles, mixtures of fuel particles and sludge, or sludge-only) into reaction vessels, the solids were covered with an excess of K Basin water, the vessels closed and connected to a gas measurement manifold, and the vessels back-flushed with inert neon cover gas. The vessels were then heated to a constant temperature. The gas pressures and temperatures were monitored continuously from the times the vessels were purged. Gas samples were collected at various times during the tests, and the samples analyzed by mass spectrometry. Data on the reaction rates of uranium metal fuel particles with water as a function of temperature and particle size were generated. The data were compared with published studies on metallic uranium corrosion kinetics. The effects of an intimate overlying sludge layer (''blanket'') on the uranium metal corrosion rates were also evaluated.

Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Elmore, Monte R.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2003-08-01

112

A Comparison of Several Component-Testing Plans for a Series System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a series (1-out-of-n:F) system of n components with constant failure rates and consider three different classes of component-testing procedures all of which guarantee that the given consumer and producer risks are not exceeded. The three classes of component test procedures use decision rules based on: A) the total number of component failures during the testing periods, B) the

Jia-Her Yan; Mainak Mazumdar

1986-01-01

113

Patch test results with the metalworking fluid series of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG).  

PubMed

Based on the information of the interdisciplinary task force on allergy diagnostics in the metal branch, in 2001, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) compiled two metalworking fluid (MWF) test series with currently and previously used components, respectively. After 2 years of patch testing, we present results obtained with these series, based on data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). 251 metalworkers who were patch tested because of suspected MWF dermatitis in 2002 and 2003 were included in this retrospective data analysis. Of these, 206 were tested with the current MWF series and 155 with the historical MWF series. Among the current MWF allergens, monoethanolamine ranked 1st with 11.6% positive reactions. Diethanolamine (3.0%), triethanolamine (1.1%), and diglycolamine (1.9%) elicited positive reactions far less frequently. Allergic reactions to p-aminoazobenzene were frequently observed (6.0%), but the relevance of these reactions is still obscure. Positive reactions to biocides ranged from 4.5% for Bioban CS 1135 to 0.5% for iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and 2-phenoxyethanol. Concomitant reactions to formaldehyde, which caused positive reactions in 3.3%, and formaldehyde releasers occurred to varying extents without conclusive pattern. No positive reactions were seen to dibutyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, tricresyl phosphate, isopropyl myristate or benzotriazole. With the historical MWF test series, positive reactions to methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) were observed most frequently. However, sensitization via allergen sources other than MWF seems likely, as MDBGN, during the study period, has been one of the most frequent preservative allergens in cosmetics and body care products. Other historical MWF allergens comprised morpholinyl mercaptobenzothiazole (3.3%), benzisothiazolinone (BIT; 2.0%) and Bioban P 1487(1.3%). BIT is currently used in MWF again, so it was shifted to the current MWF test series. As decreasing reaction frequencies to former MWF allergens that are no longer used can be expected, the historical series should be re-evaluated after some years. The test series with current MWF allergens has to be kept up-to-date based on information from industry and to be kept concise by eliminating test substances which never cause positive reactions. PMID:15479200

Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Dickel, Heinrich; Frosch, Peter J; Koch, Patrick; Becker, Detlef; Jappe, Uta; Aberer, Werner; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

2004-09-01

114

Long GPS coordinate time series: multipath and geometry effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within analyses of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, unmodelled sub-daily signals are known to propagate into long-period signals via a number of different mechanisms. In this paper, we investigate the effects of time-variable satellite geometry and the propagation of an unmodelled multipath signal that is analogous to a change in the elevation dependant phase centre of the receiving antenna. Multipath reflectors at H=0.1 m, 0.2 m and 1.5 m below the antenna are modeled and their effects on GPS coordinate time series are examined. Simulated time series at 20 global IGS sites for 2000-2008 were derived using the satellite geometry as defined by daily broadcast orbits, in addition to that defined using a perfectly repeating synthetic orbit. For the simulations generated using the broadcast orbits with a perfectly clear horizon, we observe the introduction of a time variable bias in the time series of up to several centimeters. Considerable site to site variability of the frequency and magnitude of the signal is observed, in addition to variation as a function of multipath source. When adopting realistic GPS observation geometries obtained from real data (e.g., those that include the effects of tracking outages, local obstructions, etc.), we observe concerning levels of temporal coordinate variation in the presence of the multipath signals. In these cases, we observe spurious signals across the frequency domain, in addition to what appears as offsets and secular trends. Velocity biases of more than 1mm/yr are evident at some few sites. The propagated signal in the vertical component is consistent with a noise model with a spectral index marginally above flicker noise (mean index -1.4), with some sites exhibiting power law magnitudes at comparable levels to actual height time series generated in GIPSY. The propagated signal also shows clear spectral peaks across all coordinate components at harmonics of the draconitic year for a GPS satellite (351.4 days). When a perfectly repeating synthetic GPS constellation is used, the simulations show near-negligible power law variability highlighting that subtle variations in the GPS constellation can propagate multipath signals differently over time, producing significant temporal variations in time series. We conclude that the time variable nature of GPS observation geometry and satellite orbits combined with a multipath signal that is manifested as an elevation dependant bias can introduce a spurious signal that is a potential significant contributor to flicker noise present in GPS time series. Further, the spurious signal also makes a potential significant contribution to the energy present at frequencies related to the draconitic year and harmonic thereof observed in GPS analyses.

King, M. A.; Watson, C. S.

2009-04-01

115

Long GPS coordinate time series: multipath and geometry effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within analyses of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, unmodelled sub-daily signals are known to propagate into long-period signals via a number of different mechanisms. We report on the effects of time-variable satellite geometry and the propagation of an unmodelled multipath signal. Multipath reflectors at H=0.1 m, 0.2 m and 1.5 m below the antenna are modeled and their effects on GPS coordinate time series are examined. Simulated time series at 20 global IGS sites for 2000-2008 were derived using the satellite geometry as defined by daily broadcast orbits, in addition to that defined using a perfectly repeating synthetic orbit. For the simulations generated using the broadcast orbits with a perfectly clear horizon, we observe the introduction of a time variable bias in the time series of up to several centimeters. Considerable site to site variability of the frequency and magnitude of the signal is observed, in addition to variation as a function of multipath source. When adopting realistic GPS observation geometries obtained from real data (e.g., those that include the effects of tracking outages, local obstructions, etc.), we observe concerning levels of temporal coordinate variation in the presence of the multipath signals. In these cases, we observe spurious signals across the frequency domain, in addition to what appears as offsets and secular trends. Velocity biases of more than 1mm/yr are evident at some few sites. The propagated signal in the vertical component is consistent with a noise model with a spectral index marginally above flicker noise (mean index -1.4), with some sites exhibiting power law magnitudes at comparable levels to actual height time series generated in GIPSY. The propagated signal also shows clear spectral peaks across all coordinate components at harmonics of the draconitic year for a GPS satellite (351.2 days). When a perfectly repeating synthetic GPS constellation is used, the simulations show near-negligible power law variability highlighting that subtle variations in the GPS constellation can propagate multipath signals differently over time, producing significant temporal variations in time series. We conclude that the time variable nature of GPS observation geometry and satellite orbits combined with a multipath signal that is manifested as an elevation dependant bias can introduce a spurious signal that is a potential significant contributor to time-correlated noise present in GPS time series. Further, the spurious signal also makes a potential significant contribution to the energy present at frequencies related to the draconitic year and harmonic thereof observed in GPS analyses.

King, M.; Watson, C. S.

2009-12-01

116

Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series RIA Scoping Tests Fuel Behavior Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the results from the Reactivity Initiated Accident Scoping Test conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Four unirradiated test fuel rods were subjected, one during each of the four te...

R. S. Semken S. Shiozawa Z. R. Martinson R. K. McCardell P. E. MacDonald

1980-01-01

117

Case Series of Misdiagnosis with rK39 Strip Test in Indian Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

This report presents three cases where the rK39 strip test failed to diagnose two cases of post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and one case of visceral leishmaniasis. However, a strong clinical suspicion prompted further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which established the etiology. The present case series highlights the usefulness of PCR in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

Singh, Sunny K.; Ghosh, Susmita; Sarkar, Avijit; Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Roy, Susmita; Ganguly, Dwijendra Nath; Barbhuiya, Joyashree Nath; Saha, Bibhuti; Chatterjee, Mitali

2011-01-01

118

The motor performance test series in Parkinson's disease is influenced by depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Motor Performance Test Series (MPTS) is widely used for treatment control in Parkinson's disease (PD). To elucidate the possible influence of depression on the fine motor skills in PD, 54 patients with idiopathic PD were investigated with the MPTS. 27 patients with major intensity of depression were compared to 27 age and motor disability matched patients with minor

W. Kuhn; N. Heye; Th. Müller; P. Kraus; P. Klotz; B. Friedrich; F. L. Welter; H. Przuntek

1996-01-01

119

A reliability test-plan for series systems with components having stochastic failure rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a reliability test plan for a series system, by considering the parameter ?j of the exponential distribution to be a random variable having uniform distribution over [0, ?j], j = 1, 2,..., n. Explicit expressions are obtained for the optimal values of the tj, when the number of components in the system is 2. The general solution,

J. Hariharan Nair; Sanjeev V. Sabnis

2002-01-01

120

Results of the UTSI MHD Generator Test Series TP40B, Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator test series TP40B was initiated at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) for the purpose of obtaining durability data on a number of stainless steel and nickel-base alloys as generator anode claddings under...

M. K. White M. C. Altstatt W. E. Baucum R. J. Schulz

1982-01-01

121

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

1995-10-01

122

Common trends in time series of exercise testing (WAnT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze time series related to pediatric exercise tests. A group of young athletes with two years of training practice were assessed in exercise laboratories in order to measure their anaerobic power output. The 30-s all-out Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) was applied to assess performance of peak muscle power and local muscle endurance for both upper and

Paula Marta; Fernando Duarte; Renato Fernandes

123

Reversal of the hofmeister series: specific ion effects on peptides.  

PubMed

Ion-specific effects on salting-in and salting-out of proteins, protein denaturation, as well as enzymatic activity are typically rationalized in terms of the Hofmeister series. Here, we demonstrate by means of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations that the traditional explanation of the Hofmeister ordering of ions in terms of their bulk hydration properties is inadequate. Using triglycine as a model system, we show that the Hofmeister series for anions changes from a direct to a reversed series upon uncapping the N-terminus. Weakly hydrated anions, such as iodide and thiocyanate, interact with the peptide bond, while strongly hydrated anions like sulfate are repelled from it. In contrast, reversed order in interactions of anions is observed at the positively charged, uncapped N-terminus, and by analogy, this should also be the case at side chains of positively charged amino acids. These results demonstrate that the specific chemical and physical properties of peptides and proteins play a fundamental role in ion-specific effects. The present study thus provides a molecular rationalization of Hofmeister ordering for the anions. It also provides a route for tuning these interactions by titration or mutation of basic amino acid residues on the protein surface. PMID:23768138

Paterová, Jana; Rembert, Kelvin B; Heyda, Jan; Kurra, Yadagiri; Okur, Halil I; Liu, Wenshe R; Hilty, Christian; Cremer, Paul S; Jungwirth, Pavel

2013-07-01

124

Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series  

SciTech Connect

The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Phenomenology

1994-08-01

125

Testing a series of causal propositions relating time in child care to children's externalizing behavior.  

PubMed

Prior research has documented associations between hours in child care and children's externalizing behavior. A series of longitudinal analyses were conducted to address 5 propositions, each testing the hypothesis that child care hours causes externalizing behavior. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were used in this investigation because they include repeated measures of child care experiences, externalizing behavior, and family characteristics. There were 3 main findings. First, the evidence linking child care hours with externalizing behavior was equivocal in that results varied across model specifications. Second, the association between child care hours and externalizing behavior was not due to a child effect. Third, child care quality and proportion of time spent with a large group of peers moderated the effects of child care hours on externalizing behavior. The number of hours spent in child care was more strongly related to externalizing behavior when children were in low-quality child care and when children spent a greater proportion of time with a large group of peers. The magnitude of associations between child care hours and externalizing behavior was modest. Implications are that parents and policymakers must take into account that externalizing behavior is predicted from a constellation of variables in multiple contexts. PMID:20053002

McCartney, Kathleen; Burchinal, Margaret; Clarke-Stewart, Alison; Clarke-Stewart, Aliso; Bub, Kristen L; Owen, Margaret T; Belsky, Jay

2010-01-01

126

Distance Measures for Effective Clustering of ARIMA Time-Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many environmental and socioeconomic time-series data can be adequately modeled using Auto-Regressive In- tegrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models. We call such time-series ARIMA time-series. We consider the problem of clustering ARIMA time-series. We propose the use of the Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) cepstrum of time-series for clustering ARIMA time-series, by using the Euclidean dis- tance between the LPC cepstra of

Konstantinos Kalpakis; Dhiral Gada; Vasundhara Puttagunta

2001-01-01

127

The Effects of Data Set Size on Nonlinear Time Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of our study in which we investigated the effects small data sets have on nonlinear time series analysis tools, namely average mutual information, false nearest-neighbors tests and the dominant Lyapunov exponent. We also looked at the subsequent effects on attractor reconstruction. We drew our data from four well-known systems: Henon map, Rossler (3D), Lorenz (3D), and

John James; Charles Tolle

2000-01-01

128

Meteorological conditions during the summer 1986 Chemical Instrumentation Testing and Evaluation (CITE) 2 flight series  

SciTech Connect

An overview of meteorological conditions during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Testing and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 2) summer 1986 flight series is presented. Computer-generated isentropic trajectories are used to trace the history of air masses encountered along each aircraft flight path. The synoptic-scale wind fields are depicted based upon Montgomery stream function analysis. Time series of aircraft-measured temperature, dew point, ozone, and altitude are shown to depict air mass variability. Observed differences between maritime tropical and maritime polar air masses are discussed.

Shipham, M.C.; Cahoon, D.R. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA)); Bachmeier, A.S. (PRC Kentron, Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-06-20

129

IMPROVED LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a program to evaluate an Improved Laboratory Dispersant Effectiveness Test (ILDET) which was developed to replace EPA's Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test (RSDET). The report summarizes the development of the IL...

130

Multiple testing strategy for the detection of temporal irreversibility in stationary time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a strategy for the detection of temporal irreversibility in stationary time series based on multiple bidimensional tests. The test is helpful to evaluate the displacement of irreversibility toward high dimensions. The test can be used independently of the theoretical functionals actually utilized to check irreversibility. The method was applied to simulated nonlinear signals generated by the delayed Henon map and a two-loop negative feedback model to show how the presence of a delay could produce the displacement of irreversibility toward higher dimensions. The method was applied also to series of a biological variable (i.e., heart period) that is known to be regulated by multiple feedback loops. Simulations and real data support the need of exploring progressively increasing embedding dimensions when assessing temporal irreversibility.

Casali, Karina R.; Casali, Adenauer G.; Montano, Nicola; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Macagnan, Fabricio; Guzzetti, Stefano; Porta, Alberto

2008-06-01

131

KACHINA Test Series: Dynamic Arch Test Three (DAT-3) Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the posttest efforts for the Dynamic Arch Test 3 (DAT-3). Pretest predictions and structural design details are presented in AFWL-TR-83-56. This test was designed to simulate a one-quarter scale 100-kt nuclear surface burst (airblast...

J. L. Smith J. F. Betz G. T. Baird

1986-01-01

132

ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 7. Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test series 3. 07. 9 - steady-state film boiling in upflow  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test series 3.07.9 was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water Reactor (ORNL-PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on September 11, September 18, and October 1, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test series 3.07.9 was designed to provide steady-state film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. This report presents the reduced instrument responses for THTF test series 3.07.9. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.

1982-05-01

133

Testing for nonlinearity in time series: The method of surrogate data  

SciTech Connect

We describe a statistical approach for identifying nonlinearity in time series; in particular, we want to avoid claims of chaos when simpler models (such as linearly correlated noise) can explain the data. The method requires a careful statement of the null hypothesis which characterizes a candidate linear process, the generation of an ensemble of surrogate'' data sets which are similar to the original time series but consistent with the null hypothesis, and the computation of a discriminating statistic for the original and for each of the surrogate data sets. The idea is to test the original time series against the null hypothesis by checking whether the discriminating statistic computed for the original time series differs significantly from the statistics computed for each of the surrogate sets. We present algorithms for generating surrogate data under various null hypotheses, and we show the results of numerical experiments on artificial data using correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and forecasting error as discriminating statistics. Finally, we consider a number of experimental time series -- including sunspots, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, and fluid convection -- and evaluate the statistical significance of the evidence for nonlinear structure in each case. 56 refs., 8 figs.

Theiler, J.; Galdrikian, B.; Longtin, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Eubank, S.; Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States) Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States))

1991-01-01

134

AGARD Flight Test Series. Volume 10. Weapon Delivery Analysis and Ballistic Flight Testing (L'Analyse du Largage d'Armes et les en Vol Balistique).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume in the AGARD Flight Test Techniques series treats stores ballistic modeling/testing from the overall system standpoint. All aspects of the ballistic testing design, data collection techniques, data reduction, analysis techniques, and finally t...

1992-01-01

135

AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 10. Weapon Delivery Analysis and Ballistic Flight Testing (L'Analyse du Largage d'Armes et les Essais en Vol Balistique).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume in the AGARD Flight Test Techniques series treats stores ballistic modeling/testing from the overall system standpoint. All aspects of the ballistic testing design, data collection techniques, data reduction, analysis techniques, and finally t...

R. J. Arnold J. B. Knight

1992-01-01

136

PFB coal-fired combined-cycle development program. Test evaluation report: CURL test series  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the United States Department of Energy, the General Electric Company participated in the NCB/CURL 10 x 100 hour test at Leatherhead, England, in order to investigate corrosion and erosion of candidate gas turbine blade alloys for service in a Pressurized Fluidized Bed (PFB) combined-cycle power plant. The tests also permitted an evaluation of hot gas cleanup equipment. The results are encouraging, indicating that it is possible to provide materials which can withstand the erosive/corrosive PFB environment. Further, it was found that the reduction of particulate efflux via cyclones was sufficient to eliminate excessive erosion of gas turbine components in the stationary cascades tested. The tests also demonstrated the great care required to obtain accurate and consistent data measurement in certain areas. In particular, effluent characterization techniques require significant sophistication. Particle size distribution data indicated a high consistency of operation. On the other hand, difficulties were encountered in obtaining accurate and reliable indication of the alkali content of the exhaust gas. This was disappointing, since this is an important factor related to the tolerance levels of conventional gas turbine materials. Future testing efforts are recommended and defined.

Not Available

1980-01-01

137

Experiment data report for Semiscale MOD2A Natural-Circulation Test Series (tests S-NC-8B and S-NC-9)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents test data recorded for Tests S-NC-8B and S-NC-9 of the Semiscale Mod-2A Natural Circulation Test Series. These tests are part of a series of Semiscale tests that investigate the thermal-hydraulic phenomena resulting from operational transients involving loss of mechanical primary coolant circulation in a pressurized water reactor. Both tests also simulated a loss-of-coolant accident resulting from a

K. E. Sackett; L. B. Clegg

1982-01-01

138

Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series: Test RIA 1-2. Quick Look Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objectives of Test RIA 1-2 were to (a) characterize the response of preirradiated fuel rods during an RIA event conducted at boiling water reactor (BWR) hot-startup conditions for an axial peak pellet surface energy of 200 cal/g UO sub 2 , and...

Z. R. Martinson R. S. Semken R. H. Smith D. J. Osetek

1978-01-01

139

Accuracy testing using thick source alpha-particle spectroscopy for the U and Th series estimations.  

PubMed

The new technique for the calculation of U and Th based on the alpha particle spectrum taken from a thick sample by using a silicon detector (PIPS) is tested and some technical problems are encountered and also some notifications for better accuracy are addressed. This technique which is mainly developed to be used for dose rate determination in TL, OSL and ESR dating applications, gives also the possibility for detecting and estimating possible disequilibrium in U and Th series. PMID:19900816

Michael, C T; Zacharias, N; Hein, A

2009-10-24

140

Validity and reliability of the Newtest Powertimer 300-series® testing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Newtest Powertimer 300-series® portable contact mat and photocells (Newtest Oy, Finland). The participants were 20 male soccer players aged 19.1±3.5 years. The validity and reliability of the Powertimer (contact mat and photocells) were assessed in a comparison of a laboratory testing method (force platform and

Eystein Enoksen; Espen Tønnessen; Shaher Shalfawi

2009-01-01

141

Beta/gamma test problems for ITS. [Integrated Tiger Series (ITS)  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method.

Mei, G.T.

1993-01-01

142

Effective Probability Forecasting for Time Series Data Using Standard Machine Learning Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study investigates the effectiveness of probability forecasts output by standard machine learning techniques (Neural\\u000a Network, C4.5, K-Nearest Neighbours, Naive Bayes, SVM and HMM) when tested on time series datasets from various problem domains. Raw data\\u000a was converted into a pattern classification problem using a sliding window approach, and the respective target prediction\\u000a was set as some discretised future value

David G. Lindsay; Siân Cox

2005-01-01

143

Test results and initial operating experience for the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor-modulation, SSR and performance monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA's Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE's Boardman steam generator are well understood and are effectively avoided by normal TCSC valve firing logic. Modulation tests, performed with the Boardman plant offline, show that the TCSC can be a

J. F. Hauer; W. A. Mittelstadt; R. J. Piwko; B. L. Damsky; J. D. Eden

1995-01-01

144

REACTIVITY INITIATED ACCIDENT TEST SERIES TEST RIA 1-4 EXPERIMENT PREDICTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The results of the pretest analyses for Test RIA 1-4 are presented. Test RIA 1-4 consists of a 3x3 array of previously irradiated MAP! fuel rods. The rods have 5.7% enriched UO{sub 2} fuel in zircaloy-4 cladding with an average burnup of 5300 MWd/t. The objective for Test RIA 1-4 is to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following RIA event for a radial-average peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g UO{sub 2}). Radial averaged peak fuel enthalpies of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g) 1077 J/g {257 cal/g), and 978 J/g (234 cal/g) for the corner, side, and center fuel rods, respectively, are planned to be achieved during a 2.7 ms reactor period power burst. The results of the FRAP-T5 analyses indicate that all nine rods will fail within 26 ms from the start of the power burst due to pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. All of the rods will undergo partial fuel melting. All rods will operate under extended film boiling (>30 sec) conditions and about 70% of the cladding length is expected to be molten. Approximately 15% of the cladding thickness will be oxided. Fuel swelling due to fission gas release and melting combined with fuel and cladding fragmentation, will probably produce a complete coolant flow blockage within the flow shroud.

Fukuda, S. K.; Martinson, Z. R.

1980-02-01

145

ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU II card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality.

SMITH, S.G.

1999-10-21

146

Effects of weather and climate on the dynamics of animal population time series.  

PubMed

Weather is one of the most basic factors impacting animal populations, but the typical strength of such impacts on population dynamics is unknown. We incorporate weather and climate index data into analysis of 492 time series of mammals, birds and insects from the global population dynamics database. A conundrum is that a multitude of weather data may a priori be considered potentially important and hence present a risk of statistical over-fitting. We find that model selection or averaging alone could spuriously indicate that weather provides strong improvements to short-term population prediction accuracy. However, a block randomization test reveals that most improvements result from over-fitting. Weather and climate variables do, in general, improve predictions, but improvements were barely detectable despite the large number of datasets considered. Climate indices such as North Atlantic Oscillation are not better predictors of population change than local weather variables. Insect time series are typically less predictable than bird or mammal time series, although all taxonomic classes display low predictability. Our results are in line with the view that population dynamics is often too complex to allow resolving mechanisms from time series, but we argue that time series analysis can still be useful for estimating net environmental effects. PMID:20880886

Knape, Jonas; de Valpine, Perry

2010-09-29

147

VISAR Validation Test Series at the Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility.  

SciTech Connect

A velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was recently deployed at the light initiated high explosive facility (LIHE) to measure the velocity of an explosively accelerated flyer plate. The velocity data from the flyer plate experiments, using the vendor's fringe constant of 100m/s/fringe, were consistently lower than model predictions. The goal of the VISAR validation test series was to confirm the VISAR system fringe constant. A low velocity gas gun was utilized to impact and accelerate a target at the LIHE facility. VISAR velocity data from the accelerated target was compared against an independent velocity measurement. The data from this test series did in fact reveal the fringe constant was significantly higher than the vendor's specification. The correct fringe constant for the LIHE VISAR system has been determined to be 123 m/s/fringe. The Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility recently completed a Phase I test series to develop an explosively accelerated flyer plate (X-Flyer). The X-Flyer impulse technique consists of first spraying a thin layer of silver acetylide silver nitrate explosive onto a thin flyer plate. The explosive is then initiated using an intense flash of light. The explosive detonation accelerates the flyer across a small air gap towards the test item. The impact of the flyer with the test item creates a shock pulse and an impulsive load in the test unit. The goal of Phase I of the X-Flyer development series was to validate the technique theory and design process. One of the key parameters that control the shock pulse and impulsive load is the velocity of the flyer at impact. To measure this key parameter, a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was deployed at the LIHE facility. The VISAR system was assembled by Sandia personnel from the Explosive Projects and Diagnostics department. The VISAR was a three leg, push-pull system using a fixed delay cavity. The primary optical components consisted of a delay bar and stand off that holds the air-reference mirror. When this component was ordered 2 years ago, a fringe constant of 100 m/s/fringe for a 532nm laser was specified. The fabrication/assembly vendor went out of business shortly after delivering the component and did not deliver the certification papers with the component. The vendor documentation to verify the fringe constant was not made available to Sandia. VISAR systems were generally not calibrated because the fringe constant could be determined from a known glass index of refraction and length. The VISAR system was deployed at the LIHE facility using the specified 100m/s/fringe. The Phase I X-Flyer development series was completed successfully measuring flyer velocities using the VISAR system. However flyer velocity measurements were on average 18% lower than analytical model predictions. In an effort to resolve the consistently slow velocity data, the VISAR data was under scrutiny. The purpose of the LIHE VISAR validation test series is to verify the velocity data taken with the VISAR system.

Covert, Timothy Todd

2007-02-01

148

Modulation and SSR tests performed on the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor unit at Slatt substation  

SciTech Connect

Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA`s Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE`s Boardman steam generator are well understood and are effectively avoided by normal TCSC valve firing logic. Modulation tests, performed with the Boardman plant off line, show that the TCSC can be a powerful and responsive actuator for swing damping. Security considerations did not permit lightly damped operation of the controlled plant. Close analysis indicates that the TCSC damping contribution, though small, was measurable. The best estimate is that damping for the McNary mode is 7.33% and 8.55%, for the TCSC damper loop open and closed respectively. TCSC testing and monitoring is facilitated by an advanced interactive measurement network representing BPA`s approach to the information requirements of major control systems.

Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mittelstadt, W.A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Piwko, R.J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States); Damsky, B.L. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Eden, J.D. [Portland General Electric, OR (United States)

1996-05-01

149

Lyral has been included in the patch test standard series in Germany.  

PubMed

Lyral 5% pet. was tested in 3245 consecutive patch test patients in 20 departments of dermatology in order (i) to check the diagnostic quality of this patch test preparation, (ii) to examine concomitant reactions to Lyral and fragrance mix (FM), and (iii) to assess the frequency of contact allergy to Lyral in an unselected patch test population of German dermatological clinics. 62 patients reacted to Lyral, i.e. 1.9%. One third of the positive reactions were + + and + + +. The reaction index was 0.27. Thus, the test preparation can be regarded a good diagnostic tool. Lyral and fragrance mix (FM) were tested in parallel in 3185 patients. Of these, 300 (9.4%) reacted to FM, and 59 (1.9%) to Lyral. In 40 patients, positive reactions to both occurred, which is 13.3% of those reacting to FM, and 67.8% of those reacting to Lyral. So the concordance of positive test reactions to Lyral and FM was only slight. Based on these results, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) decided to add Lyral 5% pet. to the standard series. PMID:12084084

Geier, Johannes; Brasch, Jochen; Schnuch, Axel; Lessmann, Holger; Pirker, Claudia; Frosch, Peter J

2002-05-01

150

Dynamic performance of packed-bed dehumidifiers: experimental results from the SERI desiccant test loop  

SciTech Connect

Discussed are the design and construction of a desiccant test loop and results of tests with a silica-gel-packed bed. The test loop consists of two centrifugal fans, two duct heaters, a steam humidifier, 24.4m (80 ft) of 30-cm (12-in.) circular duct, instrumentation, and a test section. The loop is capable of testing adsorption and desorption modes at flow rates up to 0.340 kg/s (600 scfm) and at regeneration temperatures up to 120/sup 0/C (248/sup 0/F). Tests of a 74-cm(29-in.)-diameter, 3.2-cm(1.25-in.)-thick silica gel bed indicated that mass transfer occurs more readily in the adsorption direction than in the desorption direction. Pressure drop data indicated that the resistance of each of the two screens that hold the silica gel in place was equivalent to 2.5-cm(1-in.) of silica gel due to plugging. Results of the tests were also used to validate a SERI desiccant computer model, DESSIM.

Kutscher, C F; Barlow, R S

1982-08-01

151

General-Purpose Heat Source: Research and development program: Cold-Process Verification Test Series  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs and individual GPHS capsules fueled with {sup 238}UO{sub 2} ({sup 235}U-depleted) to a variety of explosive overpressure and impact events. In the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resumed fabrication of {sup 238}UO{sub 2} GPHS pellets. The Cold-Process Verification (CPV) Test Series was designed to compare the response of GPHS heat sources loaded with recently fabricated hot- and cold-pressed {sup 238}UO{sub 2} pellets to the response of urania pellets used in the Galileo and Ulysses performance tests. This report documents eleven bare-capsule impacts and one impact of a fully loaded GPHS module. All of the failures observed in the bare-clad impact tests were similar to failures observed in previous safety tests. No failures occurred in the module impact test.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1996-06-01

152

Comparative evaluation of statistical tests for time series analysis: application to hydrological time series \\/ Evaluation comparative de tests statistiques pour l'analyse de séries temporelles: application à des séries temporelles hydrologiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical analyses of hydrological time series play a vital role in water resources studies. Twenty-nine statistical tests for detecting time series characteristics were evaluated by applying them to analyse 46 years of annual rainfall, 47 years of 1-day maximum rainfall and consecutive 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-day maximum rainfalls at Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. The performance of all the

DEEPESH MACHIWAL; MADAN K. JHA

2008-01-01

153

Accountability and Testing. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, Number 5. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What is meant by "accountability" varies a great deal. It is not, however, the tools such as merit salary plans, voucher plans, and management techniques that are used to achieve accountability. Accountability has from its earliest days been tied to testing. In discussing testing, it is necessary to discuss the pros and cons of standardized, or…

Mazzarella, Jo Ann

154

Estimating damping effectiveness of BPA's thyristor controlled series capacitor by applying time and frequency domain methods to measured response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) was installed in the Bonneville Power Administration system in the Northwestern United States. Extensive field testing has included modulation experiments to determine the effect of the TCSC on low-frequency oscillations. This paper discusses modulation procedures, analysis methods, and results for estimating the damping effectiveness of the TCSC. Modulation methods include driving

D. J. Trudnowski; M. K. Donnelly; J. F. Hauer

1996-01-01

155

Fabrication and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole Models of TQC Series  

SciTech Connect

In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9 K to 4.5 K.

Bossert, Rodger C.; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Andreev, Nilolai; Barzi, Emanuela; Chlachidze, Guram; Feher, Sandor; Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Orris, Darryl; Tartaglia, Michael; Zlobin, Alexander V.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ferracin, Paolo; Hafalia, A. R.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Ghosh, Arup; Wanderer, Peter

2008-08-17

156

Fabrication and test of LARP technological quadrupole models of TQC series  

SciTech Connect

In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9K to 4.5K.

Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley /Brookhaven

2008-08-01

157

PKL-Tests, Test Series IIB (End of Blowdown). Vol. 1. Description of Test Facility. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the scope R+D-task 1500 287/AO , the 1300 MWe PWR systems behaviour has been investigated in the PKL test facility under LOCA conditions (large breaks) during end-of-blowdown (EOB), as well as during refill- and reflood phases. In order to combine ...

H. Kremin H. Schmidt R. Gueneysu

1986-01-01

158

Testing for density dependence allowing for weather effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test for density dependence in time-series data allowing for weather effects is presented. The test is based on a discrete\\u000a time autoregressive model for changes in population density with a covariate for the effects of weather. The distribution\\u000a of the test statistic on the null hypothesis of density independence is obtained by parametric bootstrapping. A computer simulation\\u000a exercise is

Peter Rothery; Ian Newton; Lois Dale; Tomasz Wesolowski

1997-01-01

159

Effect of Agnes Floods on Annual Series in Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maximum flood discharges for Hurricane Agnes, 1972, on 44 Pennsylvania watersheds were compared with historic flood records. Mathematical frequency curves were fitted to each series according to the Gumbel, log-Gumbel, and log-Pearson Type III methods. Th...

B. M. Reich

1973-01-01

160

Primin in the European standard patch test series for 20 years.  

PubMed

Primin was included in the European standard series (ESS) in 1984. In 2000, a primin-free variant of Primula obconica, the main source of contact allergy to primin, was introduced in the market. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends of primin allergy in 13 986 consecutively patch-tested eczema patients over a 20-year period from 1985 to 2004. 151 patients gave a positive patch test to primin. The majority were women, in two-third of patients the patch test was relevant and most presented with hand eczema. Only few of the cases (4.7%) were occupational. A significant decline of contact allergy to primin was seen (P < 0.001) over the years affecting all age groups. The frequency was 0.5% during 2000-2004. Contact allergy has been rare since 2000. The low frequency of positive patch test to primin does not support inclusion in the ESS in our region. PMID:17577376

Zachariae, Claus; Engkilde, Kåre; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

2007-06-01

161

Real-Time Probabilistic Neural Network Performance and Optimization for Fire Detection and Nuisance Alarm Rejection: Test Series 2 Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A second series of tests was conducted to evaluate and improve the multivariate data analysis notebooks and candidate sensor suites used for the Early Warning Fire Detection (EWFD) system under development. The EWFD system is to provide reliable warning o...

S. Rose-Pehrsson S. J. Hart M. H. Hammond D. T. Gottuk M. T. Wright

2000-01-01

162

Real-Time Probabilistic Neural Network Performance and Optimization for Fire Detection and Nuisance Alarm Rejection: Test Series 1 Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of tests were conducted to evaluate and improve the multivariate data analysis methods and candidate sensor suites used for the Early Warning Fire Detection (EWFD) system under development. The EWFD system is to provide reliable warning of actual...

S. J. Hart M. H. Hammond S. L. Rose-Pehrsson R. E. Shaffer D. T. Gottuk

2000-01-01

163

Modulation and SSR tests performed on the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor unit at Slatt substation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA's Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE's Boardman steam generator are well unde...

J. F. Hauer W. A. Mittelstadt R. J. Piwko B. L. Damsky J. D. Eden

1995-01-01

164

U.S. EPA Culturing and Toxicity Test Methods for Marine and Estuarine Effluents--A Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This series includes the following titles: Red Algal Reproduction Test - Demonstrates the Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Marine and Estuarine Effluents and Receiving Waters on the Sexual Reproduction of the Marine Macroalgo, Champia Parvul...

1994-01-01

165

Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series: Test RIA 1-2. Quick look report. [BWR hot start-up conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of Test RIA 1-2 were to (a) characterize the response of preirradiated fuel rods during an RIA event conducted at boiling water reactor (BWR) hot-startup conditions for an axial peak pellet surface energy of 200 cal\\/g UOâ, and (b) evaluate the effect of internal rod pressure on preirradiated fuel rod response during an RIA event. The test

Z. R. Martinson; R. S. Semken; R. H. Smith; D. J. Osetek

1978-01-01

166

Results of the UTSI MHD generator test series TP40B, Phase I  

SciTech Connect

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator test series TP40B was initiated at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) for the purpose of obtaining durability data on a number of stainless steel and nickel-base alloys as generator anode claddings under slagging coal-fired conditions. Combustor and generator performance was studied with oil injection along with the coal to yield a sulfur level of about 0.5% by weight corresponding to projected conditions of a power plant burning Eastern coal with enriched preheated air (34% O/sub 2/ by volume). Plasma temperature diagnostic studies were performed to obtain both relative temperature profiles from plasma luminosities and absolute temperatures from line reversal measurements. Results of slag and gas analyses are also given. This report gives the results of eight test runs in the first of three planned electrode metal configurations. The channel was subsequently reassembled with a second set of electrode caps (Configuration 2) on which tests were conducted and the results of which will be reported later.

White, M.K.; Altstatt, M.C.; Baucum, W.E.; Schulz, R.J.

1982-01-01

167

Statistical algorithm to test the presence of correlation between time series with age/dating uncertainties.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the Earth's climate, we must understand the inter-relations between its specific geographical areas which, in the case of paleoclimatology, can be profitably undertaken from an empirical perspective. However, assessment of the inter-relation between separate paleoclimate records is inevitably hindered by uncertainties in the absolute and relative age/dating of these climate records, because the correlation between two paleoclimate data with age uncertainty can change dramatically when variations of the age are allowed within the uncertainty limit. Through rigorous statistical analysis of the available proxy data, we can hope to gain better insight into the nature and scope of the mechanisms governing their variability. We propose a statistical algorithm to test for the presence of correlation between two paleoclimate time series with age/dating uncertainties. Previous works in this area have focused on searching for the maximum similarity out of all possible realizations of the series, either heuristically (visual wiggle matching) or through more quantitative methods (eg. cross-correlation maximizer, dynamic programming). In contrast, this algorithm seeks to determine the statistical significance of the maximum covariance. The probability of obtaining a certain maximum covariance from purely random events can provide us with an objective standard for real correlation and it is assessed using the theory of extreme order statistics, as a multivariate normal integral. Since there is no known closed form solution for a multivariate normal integral, a numerical method is used. We apply this algorithm to test for the correlation of the Dansgaard-Oeschger variability observed during MIS3 in the GISPII ice core and millennial variability recorded at cites including Botuvera Cave in Brazil, Hulu Cave in China, Eastern Indonesia, the Arabian Sea, Villa Cave in Europe, New Zealand and the Santa Barbara basin. Results of the analysis are presented as a map of the statistical significance of the covariance between GISP II and each of these sites.

Haam, E. K.; Huybers, P.

2008-12-01

168

Theoretical approach for plasma series resonance effect in geometrically symmetric dual radio frequency plasma  

SciTech Connect

Plasma series resonance (PSR) effect is well known in geometrically asymmetric capacitively couple radio frequency plasma. However, plasma series resonance effect in geometrically symmetric plasma has not been properly investigated. In this work, a theoretical approach is made to investigate the plasma series resonance effect and its influence on Ohmic and stochastic heating in geometrically symmetric discharge. Electrical asymmetry effect by means of dual frequency voltage waveform is applied to excite the plasma series resonance. The results show considerable variation in heating with phase difference between the voltage waveforms, which may be applicable in controlling the plasma parameters in such plasma.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2012-02-27

169

Note---Analysis of Time Series with Calendar Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most national economic data and many marketing series are compiled monthly according to the Gregorian Calendar, but some of the ancient festivals or holidays, such as Easter, Jewish Passover, and Chinese New Year, are set by lunar calendar. Therefore the date of a holiday may vary between two adjacent months from year to year. Some product marketing and consumer behavior

Lon-Mu Liu

1980-01-01

170

Preliminary characterization of the pressure suppression experiment load response and source analysis: air test series. [BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from air tests conducted on the 1\\/5-Scale Model Mark I Pressure Suppression Facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory were analyzed for the purpose of determining the various sources of load signature characteristics. It was determined that hydrodynamic vertical loading function embodies effects from: (a) momentum flux associated with flow from the downcomers; (b) momentum rate associated with bulk pool motion;

1977-01-01

171

Used for Dispersant Effectiveness Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 28 October 2005; accepted in revised form 1 February 2006 Abstract. The evaluation of dispersant effectiveness used for oil spills is commonly done using tests conducted in laboratory flasks. We used a Hot Wire Anemometer (HWA) to characterize mixing dynamics in the Swirling Flask (SF) and the Baffled Flask (BF), the latter is being considered by the EPA to

VIKRAM J. KAKU; MICHEL C. BOUFADEL; ALBERT D. VENOSA; JAMES WEAVER

172

Estimates of sensitivity and specificity can be biased when reporting the results of the second test in a screening trial conducted in series  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer screening reduces cancer mortality when early detection allows successful treatment of otherwise fatal disease. There are a variety of trial designs used to find the best screening test. In a series screening trial design, the decision to conduct the second test is based on the results of the first test. Thus, the estimates of diagnostic accuracy for the second test are conditional, and may differ from unconditional estimates. The problem is further complicated when some cases are misclassified as non-cases due to incomplete disease status ascertainment. Methods For a series design, we assume that the second screening test is conducted only if the first test had negative results. We derive formulae for the conditional sensitivity and specificity of the second test in the presence of differential verification bias. For comparison, we also derive formulae for the sensitivity and specificity for a single test design, both with and without differential verification bias. Results Both the series design and differential verification bias have strong effects on estimates of sensitivity and specificity. In both the single test and series designs, differential verification bias inflates estimates of sensitivity and specificity. In general, for the series design, the inflation is smaller than that observed for a single test design. The degree of bias depends on disease prevalence, the proportion of misclassified cases, and on the correlation between the test results for cases. As disease prevalence increases, the observed conditional sensitivity is unaffected. However, there is an increasing upward bias in observed conditional specificity. As the proportion of correctly classified cases increases, the upward bias in observed conditional sensitivity and specificity decreases. As the agreement between the two screening tests becomes stronger, the upward bias in observed conditional sensitivity decreases, while the specificity bias increases. Conclusions In a series design, estimates of sensitivity and specificity for the second test are conditional estimates. These estimates must always be described in context of the design of the trial, and the study population, to prevent misleading comparisons. In addition, these estimates may be biased by incomplete disease status ascertainment.

2010-01-01

173

Effect of captopril on infantile haemangiomas: a retrospective case series.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of beta adrenergic blockers in the involution of infantile haemangioma (IH) remains unclear. It has been proposed that the renin-angiotensin pathway may play a role. We present a retrospective case series of 17 patients with IH who were treated with oral corticosteroid therapy and developed hypertension requiring treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril. All patients, with written documentation, demonstrated an improvement in their lesion at the start of oral corticosteroid therapy (n?=?14). Captopril alone did not sustain the corticosteroid-induced involution with a documented worsening of infantile haemangioma in seven out of 12 patients (58%). PMID:22671578

Christou, Elizabeth M; Wargon, Orli

2012-06-04

174

Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.  

PubMed

Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water. PMID:22621913

Garrec, D A; Norton, I T

2012-05-02

175

Time Series Analysis of the Clinical Laboratory Test Result on Chemotherapy for Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Time series analysis may be helpful to estimate hematological data on gastric cancer patients who receive S-1, but untreated raw clinical data are not suitable for this approach. Hematological monitoring data interpolated by spline were analyzed by an attractor plot, which is a form of time series analysis. Methods. Hematological data of three gastric cancer patients were interpolated by

Noboru Sotoishi; Takao Katsube; Kenji Ogawab; Shigeru Yakoua; Kozo Takayama

176

Testing for a Unit Root Nonstationarity in Multivariate Autoregressive Time Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic equation of a multiple autoregressive time series involves the eigenvalues of a matrix equation which determine if the series is stationary. Suppose one eigenvalue is 1 and the rest are less than 1 in magnitude. We show that ordinary least squares may be used to estimate the matrices involved and that the largest estimated eigenvalue has distributional properties

Nicolaos G. Fountis; David A. Dickey

1989-01-01

177

Testing and Development Progress for the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) Testing Series in the High Power Propulsion Thermal Simulator (HPPTS) at Marshall Space Flight Center  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series, whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 400 kW flight configuration system, has demonstrated that realistic testing can be performed using non-nuclear methods. This test series, carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities, successfully completed a testing program with a 30 kWt core, Stirling engine, and ion engine configuration. Additionally, a 100 kWt core is in fabrication and appropriate test facilities are being reconfigured. This paper describes the current SAFE non-nuclear tests, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. (authors)

Van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Poston, David; Kapernick, Rick; Reid, Bob [Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of California, US Department of Energy, PO Box 1663, MS J576, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Salvail, Pat [ITT Research Institute, Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Ring, Peter [Advanced Methods and Materials, 510 Lawrence Expressway, Suite 203, Sunnyvale, California, 94086 (United States)

2002-07-01

178

Effects of partial melting on the uranium decay series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distinction between possible partial melting processes using stable incompatible trace elements depends largely on the mass fraction of liquid produced. At low degrees of melting (less than 5%), both incompatible element concentrations and interelement fractionations are greater for batch, fractional and accumulated fractional melting than for dynamic or continuous melting. At higher degrees of melting, uncertainty in initial source composition and small fractionations between incompatible elements make it unlikely that the most realistic melting models, batch and dynamic, could be discriminated. However, it is possible for these melting processes to be distinguished by the magnitude of radioactive disequilibria that is produced within the 238 U decay series. Even for durations of partial melting much longer than the half-lives of 230 Th and 226 Ra, both 230 Th- 238 U and 226 Ra- 230 Th disequilibria can occur because of differences in the bulk solid/liquid partition coefficients for these elements. The magnitude of these disequilibria depends on melting process. The ( 230 Th )/( 232 Th ) of a dynamic melt can differ significantly from that of a batch melt, and will not necessarily indicate the original ( 238 U )/( 232 Th ) of the source. If MORB is formed by a dynamic melting process, then the Th/U of the upper mantle near ridge axes may be higher than that calculated from the ( 230 Th )/( 232 Th ) of the basalts.

Williams, Ross W.; Gill, James B.

1989-07-01

179

Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

Pribyl, Paul F.

180

77 FR 38280 - Final Test Guidelines; 810 Series 2000 Product Performance; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Recommendations. These final test guidelines address efficacy testing...water. B. How were these final test guidelines developed? The product...and Coordination and Policy's Web site: http://www.epa...scipoly/sap/index.htm. The test guidelines described in...

2012-06-27

181

Testing backreaction effects with observations  

SciTech Connect

In order to quantitatively test the ability of averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies to correctly describe observations of the large-scale properties of the Universe, we introduce a smoothed template metric corresponding to a constant spatial curvature model at any time, but with an evolving curvature parameter. This metric is used to compute quantities along an approximate effective light cone of the averaged model of the Universe. As opposed to the standard Friedmann model, we parametrize this template metric by exact scaling properties of an averaged inhomogeneous cosmology, and we also motivate this form of the metric by results on a geometrical smoothing of inhomogeneous cosmological hypersurfaces. The purpose of the paper is not to demonstrate that the backreaction effect is actually responsible for the dark energy phenomenon by explicitly calculating the effect from a local model of the geometry and the distribution of matter, but rather to propose a way to deal with observations in the backreaction context, and to understand what kind of generic properties have to hold in order for a backreaction model to explain the observed features of the Universe on large scales. We test our hypothesis for the template metric against supernova data and the position of the cosmic microwave background peaks, and infer the goodness of fit and parameter uncertainties. We find that averaged inhomogeneous models can reproduce the observations without requiring an additional dark energy component (though a volume acceleration is still needed), and that current data do not disfavor our main assumption on the effective light cone structure. We also show that the experimental uncertainties on the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter from baryon acoustic oscillations measurements--forseen in future surveys like the proposed EUCLID satellite project--are sufficiently small to distinguish between a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker template geometry and the template geometry with consistently evolving curvature.

Larena, Julien [Cosmology and Gravity Group, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Cape Town (South Africa); CNRS, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH), CNRS UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano [CNRS, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH), CNRS UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Buchert, Thomas [Universite Lyon 1, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL), CNRS UMR 5574, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH), CNRS UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Kunz, Martin [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2009-04-15

182

The effect of pranayama on test anxiety and test performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In an educational setting, anxiety is often experienced by students when taking a test; which is called ‘test anxiety’. This study intends to investigate the effect of doing pranayama on test anxiety and test performance. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 107 MA students who were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. The students of the experimental group practiced pranayama for one full semester. Sarason's (1980) test anxiety scale was given to both the control and experimental groups in the final session, before taking the examination. Results: After practicing pranayama, only 33% of the participants of the experimental group experienced high test anxiety, while this percentage was nearly twice in the control group (66.7%). Furthermore, the result of the t-test for test anxiety and test performance showed that the students of the experimental group had significantly lower mean test anxiety scores (M = 16.00) as compared to the students of the control group (M = 19.31). Also, the test performance scores of the experimental group were higher when compared with the control group. There was a negative correlation between the final test performance and test anxiety (r = ?.204, P < .05). Conclusions: Pranayama seems to have a significant positive effect on test anxiety and test performance. It could be used as an important technique by students prior to their examinations, to reduce their test anxiety and increase their test performance.

Nemati, Azadeh

2013-01-01

183

Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme

2012-01-01

184

Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme

2012-01-01

185

Polsar RADARSAT-2 Satellite Image Time Series mining over the Chamonix Mont-Blanc test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a data mining approach for describing Satellite Image Time Series (SITS) spatially and temporally. It relies on pixel-based evolution and sub-evolution extraction. These evolutions, namely the {frequent grouped sequential patterns}, are required to cover a minimum surface and to affect pixels that are sufficiently connected. These spatial constraints are actively used to face large data volumes and

A. Julea; F. Ledo; N. Meger; E. Trouve; Ph. Bolon; C. Rigotti; R. Fallourd; J.-M. Nicolas; G. Vasile; M. Gay; O. Harant; L. Ferro-Famil; F. Lodge

2011-01-01

186

Effects of Drugs on Human Performance: Effects of Scopolamine on Representative Human Performance Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical report describes one of a series of studies on the effects of drugs on human performance. The study investigated the effects of scopolamine (12 gamma/kg.) on the ability of volunteer subjects to perform a variety of tests which represented a...

E. A. Fleishman E. H. Elkin H. P. Van Cott R. O. Freedle

1965-01-01

187

Measurement of effectiveness of software testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to detect the errors in the software as much as possible and produce the software products with high quality, it is particularly important to do the quality evaluation of software testing work. In this paper the author did research of measurement of effectiveness of software testing from three aspects of testing method, testing process and testing result. Summarized the present technology condition of measurement of effectiveness of software testing at home and abroad, improved model of measurement of process of effectiveness of software testing, did the experiment of white box testing coverage rate and got the rough measurement value. The use of the proposed measure the effectiveness of software testing methods, analysis of data collected metrics, and then proposed to improve software testing techniques and software testing methods, so that make software testing effectively exert its positive function.

Zhang, Bo; Shen, Xiangheng; Wang, Junjie; Chen, Yuan

2013-03-01

188

The Use of Confidence Intervals When Interpreting Test Scores. EREAPA Publication Series No. 93-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A person's obtained score on a test provides an estimate of the individual's "true" score on that test. The obtained score is considered to have two parts, the true component and the error component. Classical test theory assumes that obtained scores for an individual over multiple administrations of the same test will lie symmetrically around the…

Wheeler, Patricia H.

189

Near Term Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite Weapon System (KE-ASAT WS) Program. 1991 electric gun tests, test and analysis report: M1 test series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the electric gun tests was to investigate the effect of the impact of a thin membrane on materials of interest in 6--10 km/s, simulating the impact of a membrane the velocity range kill device on a satellite target. The impulse delivered to...

H. Chau J. Osher M. Gerassimenko R. Lee S. Pomykal

1992-01-01

190

Changes in runoff time series in Thuringia, Germany - Mann-Kendall trend test and extreme value analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qualified knowledge about the impacts of climate change on hydrology is needed for the derivation of adaptation measures in the water sector. As temperature and precipitation time series in Thuringia, Germany of the last 50 years reveal that the climate is becoming warmer and drier in summer and wetter in winter, the question of changes in runoff time series arises. In the presented study, simple robust analysis approaches to detect changes in runoff characteristics are applied. A selection of 19 anthropogenically undisturbed Thuringian catchments with daily runoff time series of up to 78 years without gaps, covering different landscapes and climatic conditions in Thuringia, is made. Indicators of mean, high, and low runoff in the hydrological year, winter and summer are derived and tested for trends, using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall trend test. To analyze the impact of significant lag-1 autocorrelation (AR) in the series, a prior removal of AR from the series before testing for trend (trend-free-pre-whitening) is performed. Results show that removal of AR has only minor influence on test results and is therefore considered as not necessary. Mean flow and high flow indicators in annual and winter time frame show increasing trends, escpecially in catchments in the higher regions of Thuringia like the Thuringian forest. In summer, all indicators show decreasing trends, especially in the drier central and northern Thuringian basin area. In order to assess changes in floods, 8 gauges, covering the 50-year time period 1949-1999, are selected. Annual maximum flow series are derived for the hydrological year, winter and summer. After fitting of 8 theoretical distributions to the samples by the method of L-moments, 3 goodness-of-fit tests are applied. Flood quantiles for the return periods 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years are calculated from means of well fitted distributions for all gauges. To analyze change in flood values, the relative difference of flood quantiles in 2 time periods, 1949-1979 (TP 1) and 1969-1999 (TP 2), with respect to the whole time period 1949-1999 are calculated. Results show that flood values have increased in the later time period in annual and winter time frame and have decreased in summer.

Danneberg, J.

2012-07-01

191

Results of the Semiscale Mod2B steam generator tube rupture test series  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted in a scaled model of a pressurized water reactor (Semiscale Mod-2B) to investigate steam generator tube rupture system signature response and recovery techniques. The tube rupture was assumed to occur during normal full power operation (15.6 MPA (2262 psia) system pressure; 37 K (67°F) core differential temperature). From the experimental results, the characteristic system

1985-01-01

192

Tests of Reading Readiness and Achievement: A Review and Evaluation. Reading Aids Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is intended primarily for classroom teachers and other personnel who work directly with teachers in selecting reading readiness tests or achievement tests. The first chapter lists and briefly explains the criteria used by the authors in reviewing the tests included. These criteria are concerned with norms, standardization, objectivity,…

Farr, Roger; Anastasiow, Nicholas

193

Language Testing Symposium: A Psycholinguistic Approach. Language and Language Learning [Series], No. 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven papers on language testing deal with various psycholinguistic aspects ranging from the particular application of language aptitude tests to statistical methods of measurement and evaluation. Several chapters treat the difficulties involved in testing spoken language aptitude and attainment. Contributors to this volume include K. Brown, A.…

Davies, Alan, Ed.

194

77 FR 15750 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 810 Series; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...recommendations described in the test guidelines may be proposed...case-by-case basis. IV. How were these test guidelines developed? The product...and Coordination and Policy's Web site at http://www.epa...scipoly/sap/index.htm. The test guidelines were also...

2012-03-16

195

Analysis of the U. S. large leak test program Series I sodium--water reaction test results. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code for modeling Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Steam Generator (SG) leaks has been partially validated. This was accomplished by comparing code results with data from large leak Sodium\\/Water Reaction (SWR) tests conducted at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). In each of six tests, a Double-Ended Guillotine (DEG) rupture of an SG tube was produced in

J. O. Sane; J. J. Regimbal; J. A. Fairbairn; R. A. Meyer

1979-01-01

196

Comparing the effects of mass media and telecommunications on economic development: A pooled time series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to test the causal relationship between communication and economic development and compare the magnitude of the economic contributions of mass media and telecommunications. 17 year's data from 23 countries were collected and subjected to pooled time series analysis. It is found that while both mass media and telecommuni cations contribute to economic development, telecommunications tends to contribute

Jianguo Zhu

1996-01-01

197

Selection of transition leak size for LLTR series II test A-4. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report is to provide the basis for the selection of this transition leak size for testing in the LLTR. This test, designated as Test A-4, is of particular interest because, of all the larger nonflame-jet-type-leaks, it has the longest dwell time in the vessel before the rupture disc blows, thus terminating the IHTS pressure rise. Its

J. M. Roberts; L. M. Quintana

2010-01-01

198

General-Purpose Heat Source safety verification test series: SVT-1 through SVT-6  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular heat source that will supply energy for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) in space missions. The Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) are performed to assess the plutonia containment capability of heat source modules subjected to certain accident environments. This interim report described the GPHS module configuration, the test environment, and the response of the module components following simulated reentry and solid Earth impact. The specific test environment of these initial six tests results from failure of the booster rocket to place the spacecraft in a proper trajectory and subsequent reentry of the GPHS modules from Earth orbit. 36 figs.

Pavone, D.; George, T.G.; Frantz, C.E.

1985-06-01

199

The Effect of Recent Consumption of Caffeine-Containing Foodstuffs on Neuropsychological Tests in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of recent intake of caffeine-containing foodstuffs (CCFS) on a group of elderly participants (age range 67–95 years) on a series of neuropsychological tests. There was no significant effect of CCFS intake on performance in any of the tests in the battery used. However, a significant interaction effect was found between age and CCFS consumption on scores

Valerie E. Lesk; Thurza E. M. Honey; Celeste A. de Jager

2009-01-01

200

The foliage effect on the height time series from permanent GPS stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of deciduous trees growing above antenna height on data collected by permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) stations was investigated. Signal blockage due to foliage and branches was found to have the same effect as an increased elevation cutoff angle, i.e., there was a change in the computed position. Height estimates were affected the most, showing a decrease with tree growth. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis on the height-time series from five test sites and two stations surrounded by trees showed a similar EOF mode of signal. Signal availability, computed as the ratio of the complete to possible set of observations, decreased with increasing tree growth and showed seasonal variation, with the observation ratios being higher during the winter months when the leaves had fallen. A similar seasonal variation was observed in multipath error and signal attenuation due to foliage. The multipath error index MP2 was computed using the TEQC program and found to increase at a significant rate at sites with growing trees. Signal attenuation was analyzed using 1-? uncertainties from the estimation process of daily GPS data processing. While 1-? uncertainties did not show any seasonal variations at sites without trees, they were highly dependent on conditions related to the seasonal change of foliage when deciduous trees were near the antenna.

Park, K.-D.; Won, J.

2010-11-01

201

Shock-Sensitive Testing of Analogous Series of Thin Films of Explosive Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small-scale test was developed to evaluate the relative sensitivity of thin films of high-explosive liquids to a range of shock inputs. This test demonstrated that bis(1-fluoro-1,1-dinitroethyl) formal (FEFO) is much more sensitive than the correspondin...

K. J. Scribner A. L. Frahm

1978-01-01

202

Selecting and Using Tests of Career Skills. Information Series No. 177.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The increased attention to measuring career skills has resulted in more instrument development, more testing of students, and more test administrators. There are three key areas of concern. The first area is that of identifying purposes to be served by assessing career skills. Purposes include permitting descriptions of the current status of…

Kroll, Arthur M.; Pfister, Linda A.

203

Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications. Evaluation in Education and Human Services Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 chapters of this book focus on the technical advances, advances in applied settings, and emerging topics in the testing field. Part 1 discusses methodological advances, Part 2 considers developments in applied settings, and Part 3 reviews emerging topics in the field of testing. Part 1 papers include: (1) "Advances in Criterion-Referenced…

Hambleton, Ronald K., Ed.; Zaal, Jac N., Ed.

204

Interpreting the Macroeconomic Time Series Facts: The Effects of Monetary Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing theory and evidence on the effects of monetary policy are reviewed. Substantial room for disagreement among economists remains. New evidence, based on multivariate time series studies of several countries, is presented. While certain patterns in the data consistent with effective monetary policy are strikingly similar across countries, others, particularly the tendency of interest rate increases to predict high inflation,

Christopher A. Sims

1992-01-01

205

Patch testing with a textile dye mix in a baseline series in two countries.  

PubMed

Disperse dyes are the most common contact sensitizers among textile dyes. The main aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of patch testing with a textile dye mix 6.6%. A total of 2,049 patients from Sweden and 497 from Belgium were tested with the mix, consisting of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, 1.0% each, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, 0.3% each. Of the total number, 65 patients, 2.6%, tested positively to the mix, 4.2% of the Belgian patients and 2.1% of the Swedish patients. Patch testing with the mix 6.6% revealed significantly more patients with contact allergy compared with testing with a previous mix 3.2% (p < 0.01). Contact allergy to the mix was significantly more common in the Belgian than in the Swedish patients. PMID:21547346

Ryberg, Kristina; Goossens, An; Isaksson, Marléne; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

2011-06-01

206

Analysis of the U.S. Large Leak Test Program Series I Sodium--Water Reaction Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer code for modeling Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Steam Generator (SG) leaks has been partially validated. This was accomplished by comparing code results with data from large leak Sodium/Water Reaction (SWR) tests conducted at the En...

J. O. Sane J. J. Regimbal J. A. Fairbairn R. A. Meyer

1979-01-01

207

Investigations of the software testing coupling effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault-based testing strategies test software by focusing on specific, common types of faults. The coupling effect hypothesizes that test data sets that detect simple types of faults are sensitive enough to detect more complex types of faults. This paper describes empirical investigations into the coupling effect over a specific class of software faults. All of the results from this investigation

A. Jefferson Offutt

1992-01-01

208

Difficulty and Discrimination Parameters of Boston Naming Test Items in a Consecutive Clinical Series  

PubMed Central

The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability.

Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Rush, Beth K.; Lucas, John A.

2011-01-01

209

Testing the heterospecific attraction hypothesis with time-series data on species co-occurrence  

PubMed Central

The distributional patterns of actively moving animals are influenced by the cues that the individuals use for choosing sites into which they settle. Individuals may gather information about habitat quality using two types of strategies, either directly assessing the relevant environmental factors, or using the presence of conspecifics or heterospecifics as an indirect measure of habitat quality. We examined patterns of heterospecific attraction with observational time-series data on a community of seven waterbird species breeding in artificial irrigation ponds. We fitted to the data a multivariate logistic regression model, which attributes the presence–absence of each species to a set of environmental and spatial covariates, to the presence of con- and heterospecifics in the previous year and to the presence of heterospecifics in the same year. All species showed a clear tendency to continue breeding in the same sites where they were observed in the previous year. Additionally, the presence of heterospecifics, both in the previous year and in the same year, generally increased the probability that the focal species was found breeding on a given pond. Our data thus give support for the heterospecific attraction hypothesis, though causal inference should be confirmed with manipulative experiments.

Sebastian-Gonzalez, Esther; Sanchez-Zapata, Jose Antonio; Botella, Francisco; Ovaskainen, Otso

2010-01-01

210

Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

211

State Initiatives in Minimum Competency Testing for Students. Policy Issue Series, No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Minimum competency testing (MCT) programs for students are growing in popularity and being adopted by many states. In order to determine the extent of the MCT movement, researchers at North Carolina State University surveyed state departments of education in all 50 states. In updating these data for 1986-1987, it was found that 64 percent of the…

Marshall, Jon C.; And Others

212

Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

213

Using acceptance tests as a support for clarifying requirements: A series of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main reasons for the failure of many software projects is the late discovery of a mismatch between the customers' expectations and the pieces of functionality implemented in the delivered system. At the root of such a mismatch is often a set of poorly defined, incomplete, under-specified, and inconsistent requirements. Test driven development has recently been proposed as

Filippo Ricca; Marco Torchiano; Massimiliano Di Penta; Mariano Ceccato; Paolo Tonella

2009-01-01

214

Special Education Teacher Responses to the 1997 Basic Standards Testing. State Assessment Series: Minnesota Report 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study surveyed special education teachers teaching eighth and ninth grade students in 27 Minnesota school districts to determine how decisions were made on the inclusion of children with disabilities in the 1997 administration of Minnesota's Basic Standards Test and what accommodations were provided and desired. Analysis of the 259 responses…

Spicuzza, Richard; Thurlow, Martha; Erickson, Ron; Ruhland, Aaron

215

Uniaxial and Triaxial Compression Test Series on Two Types of Foundry Stone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on ten cylindrical samples of foundry stone. All of the test samples were nominally 50.8 mm in diameter, with a 2:1 length to diameter ratio. The experiments were run on room dry samples in comp...

R. H. Price

1985-01-01

216

10 years of patch testing with the (meth)acrylate series.  

PubMed

Statistics on 10 years of patch testing with 30 (meth)acrylates were compiled. Altogether 275 patients were patch tested and 48 patients (17.5%) had an allergic reaction to at least 1 (meth)acrylate. The (meth)acrylates most often provoking an allergic patch test reaction were 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA; 12.1%), 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA; 12.0%) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA; 11.4%). No allergic reactions were caused by 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]propane (BIS-MA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), oligotriacrylate 480 (OTA 480), N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA), or ethyl cyanoacrylate (ECA). The frequency of allergic patch test reactions presented cannot be considered as a "ranking" list of the most sensitizing (meth)acrylate compounds. In order to be able to judge the sensitization capacity of various (meth)acrylate compounds in humans, it would be necessary to have detailed information on the exposure history of the patients studied, including the purity of the (meth)acrylate compounds. Currently, this is not possible because (meth)acrylate-containing products regularly contain undeclared (meth)acrylate compounds. PMID:9455626

Kanerva, L; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T

1997-12-01

217

Extension of conjugation leading to bathochromic or hypsochromic effects in OPV series.  

PubMed

Four OPV series 1-4 (a-d) with a terminal dialkylamino group as electron donor were prepared by Wittig-Horner reactions. To study the influence of the push-pull effect on the long-wavelength absorption, three of the four series contained terminal acceptor groups (CN, CHO, NO(2)). The length of the chromophores strongly affects the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT)-an effect which superimposes upon the extension of the conjugation. Increasing numbers n of repeat units cause an overall bathochromic shift for the purely donor-substituted series 1 a-4 a and the series 1 b-4 b with CN as weak acceptor. The two effects annihilate each other in the series 1 c-4 c with terminal CHO groups, so that the absorption maxima are almost independent of the length of the chromophore. A hypsochromic shift is observed for the series 1 d-4 d, which contains the strong acceptor group NO(2). This anomaly disappears on protonation of the dialkylamino group because the push-pull effect disappears in the ammonium salts. The results can be explained by semiempirical quantum mechanics (AM1, INDO/S). The HOMO-LUMO transition, which is mainly responsible for the ICT, becomes less important in the electron transitions S(0)-->S(1) when the distance between donor and acceptor is increased. The commonly used VB model, which contains an electroneutral and a zwitterionic resonance structure, is contrasted with a MO model with dipole segments at both ends of the OPV chains. The latter model turned out to be more appropriate-at least for donor-acceptor-substituted OPVs with n >/= 2. PMID:14735504

Meier, Herbert; Gerold, Jürgen; Kolshorn, Heinz; Mühling, Bastian

2004-01-23

218

An effective wavelet strategy for the trend prediction of physiological time series with application to pHealth systems.  

PubMed

This work proposes a wavelet decomposition based scheme to estimate the evolution trend of physiological time series. The scheme does not involve the explicit development of a model and is essentially supported on the hypothesis that future evolution of a biosignal can be estimated from similar historic patterns. The strategy considers an a-trous wavelet decomposition, where the most representative trends are extracted from the historic similar patterns. Then, a set of distance-based measures able to assess the prediction likelihood of each representative trend, is introduced. From these measures and through an optimization process, a subset of these trends is selected and aggregated to derive the required time series evolution trend. The effectiveness of the methodology is validated in the prediction of blood pressure signals collected in two telemonitoring studies: TEN-HMS and MyHeart. Additionally, Friedman and Nemenyi statistics tests are implemented to rank several methods, confirming the value of the proposed strategy. PMID:24111302

Rocha, T; Paredes, S; de Carvalho, P; Henriques, J

2013-07-01

219

Testing the utility of a geographical profiling approach in three rape series of a single offender: a case study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to test the potential utility of a geographical profiling approach for three separate series of rapes committed by a single offender. Two different mathematical distance-decay functions using either a normal distribution with a mean distance and standard deviation based on previous research or a truncated negative exponential function based on distances between crime sites in the series under investigation were applied to each of the series giving prioritised search areas the accuracy of which was then assessed. The prioritised area that had to be searched before the home base of the offender could be located varied from 7.60 km(2) or 2.15% of the total search area at its best to 15 1.10 km(2) or 42.66% at its worst for the normal distribution based on previous research and from 42.06 km(2) or 11.88% to no improvement when the truncated negative exponential function was used. The functions used showed less predictive ability when the offender was a commuter. Explanations for the variations in the findings as well as suggestions for improvements were outlined in the discussion. PMID:12505470

Santtila, Pekka; Zappalà, Angelo; Laukkanen, Manne; Picozzi, Massimo

2003-01-01

220

Effect of encouragement on walking test performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walking tests, frequently used to document effects of treatment on exercise capacity, have never been standardised. We studied the effects of encouragement on walking test performance in a randomised study that controlled for the nature of the underlying disease, time of day, and order effects. We randomised 43 patients with chronic airflow limitation or chronic heart failure or both to

G H Guyatt; S O Pugsley; M J Sullivan; P J Thompson; L Berman; N L Jones; E L Fallen; D W Taylor

1984-01-01

221

Results from NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] Series 2 bare fuel dissolution tests  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Two bare spent fuel specimens plus the empty cladding hulls were tested in NNWSI J-13 well water in unsealed fused silica vessels under ambient hot cell air conditions (25{degree}C) in the currently reported tests. One of the specimens was prepared from a rod irradiated in the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 reactor and the other from a rod irradiated in the Turkey Point Unit 3 reactor. Results indicate that most radionuclides of interest fall into three groups for release modeling. The first group principally includes the actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm), all of which reached solubility-limited concentrations that were orders of magnitude below those necessary to meet the NRC 10 CFR 60.113 release limits for any realistic water flux predicted for the Yucca Mountain repository site. The second group is nuclides of soluble elements such as Cs, Tc, and I, for which release rates do not appear to be solubility-limited and may depend on the dissolution rate of fuel. In later test cycles, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 129}I were continuously released at rates between about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of inventory per year. The third group is radionuclides that may be transported in the vapor phase, of which {sup 14}C is of primary concern. Detailed test results are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 15 figs., 21 tabs.

Wilson, C.N.

1990-09-01

222

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on two types of foundry stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on ten cylindrical samples of foundry stone. All of the test samples were nominally 50.8 mm in diameter, with a 2:1 length to diameter ratio. The experiments were run on room dry samples in compression, at room temperature, four confining pressures, and a nominal axial displacement rate of 10⁻⁴ mm\\/s. 3 refs., 8

1985-01-01

223

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on two types of foundry stone  

SciTech Connect

Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on ten cylindrical samples of foundry stone. All of the test samples were nominally 50.8 mm in diameter, with a 2:1 length to diameter ratio. The experiments were run on room dry samples in compression, at room temperature, four confining pressures, and a nominal axial displacement rate of 10/sup -4/ mm/s. 3 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Price, R.H.

1985-12-01

224

Analisis de la serie de pruebas 'L' del proyecto ACE con el codigo corcon UW modificado. (Analysis of L test series of ACE project with modified corcon UW code).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of experimental tests (so call L, Large scale) have been performance under sponsored of many research institutions around the world and management by Electric Power Research Institute at U.S.A. The goal of these tests is to analyze the phenomena ...

H. Laguna Velasco

1994-01-01

225

The Effect of Processing Technique and Reference Frame Definition on Noise in CGPS Position Time Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this presentation we investigate the effects of GPS processing techniques and strategies, and the related reference frame realization on the stochastic properties of continuous GPS (CGPS) position time series. It was of particular interest to establish whether and how different GPS processing strategies, e.g. double differencing (DD) and precise point positioning (PPP), the use of different orbit and clock

F. N. Teferle; S. D. Williams; H. P. Kierulf; R. M. Bingley; H. Plag

2005-01-01

226

How Good Is Our School? Ensuring Effective Transitions. Self-Evaluation Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of guides to self-evaluation building on the advice given in the publications "How good is our school?" and "The Child at the Centre." It also shows how the relevant National Care Standards can be applied alongside performance indicators and quality indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of cross-sector partnerships. The…

Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

227

Effects of Series Elasticity on the Human Knee Extension Torque-Angle Relationship in Vivo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of series elasticity on the torque-angle relationship of the knee extensors in vivo. Forty-two men volunteered to take part in the present study. The participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions at eight knee-joint angles (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110[degree]). The…

Kubo, Keitaro; Ohgo, Kazuya; Takeishi, Ryuichi; Yoshinaga, Kazunari; Tsunoda, Naoya; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

2006-01-01

228

Odd-even effects and dipole-dipole correlations in the PCH homologous series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static electric permittivities of the homologous series of p-cyano-p'- alkylphenylcyclohexanes (PCH) have been measured as a function of temperature in isotropic and nematic phases. The mean square effective dipole moment components along the principal directions of a liquid crystal have been determined. The Kirkwood correlation factors g(i), obtained from Maier and Meier equations, exhibit the odd-even alteration within the studied series. The g-factors values have been interpreted in terms of an anti-parallel association.

Kedziora, Przemyslaw; Jadzyn, Jan

1993-10-01

229

Are short training sessions on hand hygiene effective in preventing hospital-acquired MRSA? A time-series analysis.  

PubMed

We tested the impact of short hand hygiene training sessions and bed occupancy rates on the spread of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a multivariate time-series analysis. According to our model, bed occupancy rates within general ward and intensive care unit settings correlated positively with the incidence of hospital-acquired MRSA, whereas alcohol-based hand rub use and MRSA showed a negative correlation. Furthermore, our model shows that 2 hand hygiene campaigns based on short training sessions effected a long-run reduction in the incidence of hospital-acquired MRSA. PMID:20227792

Conrad, Andreas; Kaier, Klaus; Frank, Uwe; Dettenkofer, Markus

2010-03-15

230

Materials related activities during Test Series 2. 2 and 2. 3. Volume I. Main report  

SciTech Connect

The materials program is a part of the overall experimental program of the IEA Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion Facility at Grimethorpe, South Yorkshire, UK. It comprises component monitoring, component failure analysis and inspection, as well as material tests and evaluation. This report describes the materials studies for the period of operation of the Facility with Tube Bank 'C2'; earlier reports cover the periods with 'A' and 'C'. An overall assessment of materials performance during the entire operational period has also been provided. 40 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01

231

Generalized Euler transformation for summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation series: the Zeeman effect  

SciTech Connect

A generalized Euler transformation (GET) is introduced which provides a powerful alternative method of accurately summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schroedinger (RS) perturbation series when other summability methods fail or are difficult to apply. The GET is simple to implement and, unlike a number of other summation procedures, requires no a priori knowledge of the analytic properties of the function underlying the RS series. Application of the GET to the difficult problem of the RS weak-field ground-state eigenvalue series of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field (quadratic Zeeman effect) yields sums of good accuracy over a very wide range of field strengths up to the most intense fields of 10/sup 14/ G. The GET results are compared with those obtained by other summing methods.

Silverman, J.N.

1983-07-01

232

Experimental uncertainties in vacuum tests of PX-series AMTEC cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum tests of the Pluto-Express (PX), multitubes, vapor anode AMTEC cells are being performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) in Albuquerque, NM. Uncertainties associated with the different measurements performed in these tests are calculated. The uncertainty was the larger of +/-1% or +/-1.7 K in temperature measurements; +/-1.2% in the electric power output, +/-0.7% in the heat input, and +/-6.5% in heat rejection. Another uncertainty associated with the measurements of the BASE tube and evaporator temperatures was due to the placement of the thermocouples (TCs) in the respective cavities. In order to quantify this uncertainty, a heat transfer model was developed, which coupled heat conduction in the TC guide tube to forced convection, due to the flow of sodium vapor, and thermal radiation to the walls of the evaporator and the BASE tube cavities. The model predictions were in good agreement with the TC readings in PX-cells, which were about 15-18 K and 4-47 K, higher, respectively, than they should be for the BASE tube and evaporator, respectively.

Huang, Lianmin; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

1998-01-01

233

The negative testing effect and multifactor account.  

PubMed

Across 3 experiments, we investigated the factors that dictate when taking a test improves subsequent memory performance (the testing effect). In Experiment 1, participants retrieving a set of targets during a retrieval practice phase ultimately recalled fewer of those targets compared with a group of participants who studied the targets twice, a negative testing effect. In Experiments 2 and 3, theoretically motivated modifications to the basic design of Experiment 1 reversed this pattern, demonstrating the more typical positive testing effect. The results from all 3 experiments were predicted by the multifactor account, an explanatory account applied to the generation effect (improved memory for self-generated material), which details why generation typically improves memory, as well as those conditions under which generation can impair memory performance. These results suggest the testing effect and the generation effect may be understood within a common framework. PMID:23421505

Peterson, Daniel J; Mulligan, Neil W

2013-02-18

234

Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958  

SciTech Connect

In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

1985-12-01

235

Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958  

SciTech Connect

In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of infinite exposure, estimated exposure, and 1-yr effective biological exposure are explained.

Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

1986-07-01

236

Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958.  

PubMed

In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of "infinite exposure," "estimated exposure," and "1-yr effective biological exposure" are explained. PMID:3332000

Anspaugh, L R; Church, B W

1986-07-01

237

[Duodenal tube test and hepatic ultrasound in extrahepatic biliary atresia diagnosis: A four-case series].  

PubMed

Liver and biliary tree scintigraphy and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) have taken the place of the duodenal tube test (DTT) in the study of cholestatic jaundice due to extrahepatic biliary atresia (EBA). The usefulness of DTT associated with abdominal ultrasound (AUS) in the diagnosis of EBA was demonstrated in 4 patients presenting with cholestatic jaundice that underwent DTT and AUS; one of them also had MRC. DTT was negative for bile in the 4 patients; AUS did not identify the gallbladder or showed it as small and irregular, or detected a fibrous cord; MRC identified a choledochal cyst but no associated EBA; surgery and pathology study documented EBA in all 4 patients. DTT associated with AUS demonstrated the absence of bile in the duodenum and gallbladder abnormality, respectively, leading to surgical exploration within 24 to 48 hours. PMID:23499013

Elizondo-Vázquez, J B; Alvarez-Hernández, G; González-Armendáriz, A; Castillo-Aldaco, J; Martínez-Estrada, T; Pérez-Moya, G

2013-03-14

238

Testing versus review: Effects on retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

97 high school seniors studied a brief history text, then either took a test on the passage, spent equivalent time reviewing the passage, or went on to an unrelated task. A retention test given 2 wks later indicated that the test condition resulted in better retention than either the review or the control conditions. The effect was further shown to

Ronald J. Nungester; Philippe C. Duchastel

1982-01-01

239

Effects of Aging on Four Behavioral Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of aging on cognitive function were investigated. Cognitive tests were given to subjects in various age groups to define changes in cognitive functioning due to age. The Stroop color word test, the Sternburg memory scanning test, the digit spa...

J. M. Schumacher

1981-01-01

240

Operation distant plain. United States participation with Canada, Australia, and Great Britain in a non-nuclear experimental test series. Program and project description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation DISTANT PLAIN is the nickname given for the U. S. participation in a series of non-nuclear experiments to be conducted in Alberta, Canada during CY 1966-67 in connection with the Tripartite Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP). This test series is designed to provide experimental data utilizing explosives and detonable gas filled balloons for application to the solution of nuclear weapon

J. R. Kelso; C. N. Kingery; J. Choromokos

1966-01-01

241

[Psychoacoustic tests: effects of atropine].  

PubMed

The efferent pathways exert a control action on the function of the cochlear nucleus and hair cells. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter of the centrifugal system and its action can be blocked by atropine. In order to give a contribution to the knowledge of the function of the efferent bundle and of the cochlea efficiency we examined 10 young normal subjects before and after infusion of 1 mg of atropine i.v. a battery of three psychoacoustical tests (Remote Masking, Critical Ratio and Brief Tone Audiometry). After infusion of atropine we have shown an increase of 0.25 Hz hearing threshold, an increase of RC values and a decrease of RM values. It can be concluded that the pharmacological block of the olivo-cochlear bundle determines a stiffness of outer hair cells and basilar membrane; this finding means that the atropine can inhibit the facilitating activity of the efferent system on the cochlear performance. PMID:1295519

Salonna, I; Bartoli, R; Berardi, P; Quaranta, A

1992-10-01

242

PANEL COINTEGRATION: ASYMPTOTIC AND FINITE SAMPLE PROPERTIES OF POOLED TIME SERIES TESTS WITH AN APPLICATION TO THE PPP HYPOTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine properties of residual-based tests for the null of no cointegration for dynamic panels in which both the short-run dynamics and the long-run slope coefficients are permitted to be heterogeneous across individual members of the panel. The tests also allow for individual heterogeneous fixed effects and trend terms, and we consider both pooled within dimension tests and group mean

Peter Pedroni

2004-01-01

243

A PERFORMANCE TEST OF TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE INITIAL VALIDATION OF PERFORMANCE TESTS OF TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS--USING PUPIL GAINS AS THE CRITERION OF EFFECTIVENESS--AND THE STEPS TAKEN IN RECOGNITION OF THE PROPRIETY OF SUCH MEASURES ONLY IF ALL TEACHERS ARE TEACHING FOR THE SAME OBJECTIVES. AS A FIRST STEP, IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT A VALID PERFORMANCE TEST OF…

BAKER, EVA L.; POPHAM, V. JAMES

244

Mass balance and separation factor of actinides through series process test on pyro-process  

SciTech Connect

An electrolysis test in a sequential condition was performed using U-Pu alloy and liquid Cd as an anode and a cathode material, respectively, in which the anode and cathode was changed three times. Mass balance of U and Pu after three-time electrolysis was determined from both the chemical analysis of salt and anode residue, and the weight increase in the cathode. Approximately 95% of U and 100% of Pu was detected even after three times electrolysis. The loss of U is more significant than that of Pu. The mass balance was also evaluated for the intermediate steps of the sequence. More than 90% of U and Pu with respect to the initial amount were constantly caught up with in each step. The separation factor of U/Pu in three cathodes were varied 1.62-2.06. The chemical form of the anode residue was UO, PuOCl and PuO{sub 2}, which can be converted to the chloride by a reaction with ZrCl{sub 4}. (authors)

Kitawaki, Shinichi; Fukushima, Mineo [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Tokai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan); Yahagi, Noboru; Kurata, Masaki [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI, 2-11-1 Iwadokita Komae-shi, Tokyo, 201-8511 (Japan)

2007-07-01

245

Power series representations for complex bosonic effective actions. I. A small field renormalization group step  

SciTech Connect

We develop a power series representation and estimates for an effective action of the form: ln[{integral}e{sup f({alpha}{sub 1},...,{alpha}{sub s};z*,z)}d{mu}(z*,z)/{integral}e{sup f(0,...,0;z*,z)}d{mu}(z*,z)]. Here, f({alpha}{sub 1},...,{alpha}{sub s};z{sub *},z) is an analytic function of the complex fields {alpha}{sub 1}(x),...,{alpha}{sub s}(x), z{sub *}(x), z(x) indexed by x in a finite set X, and d{mu}(z*,z) is a compactly supported product measure. Such effective actions occur in the small field region for a renormalization group analysis. Using methods similar to a polymer expansion, we estimate the power series of the effective action.

Balaban, Tadeusz [Department of Mathematics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 110 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Feldman, Joel [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2 (Canada); Knoerrer, Horst; Trubowitz, Eugene [Mathematik, ETH-Zentrum, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2010-05-15

246

AHRQ series paper 1: comparing medical interventions: AHRQ and the effective health-care program.  

PubMed

In 2005, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality established the Effective Health Care (EHC) Program. The EHC Program aims to provide understandable and actionable information for patients, clinicians, and policy makers. The Evidence-based Practice Centers are one of the cornerstones of the EHC Program. Three key elements guide the EHC Program and thus, the conduct of Comparative Effectiveness Reviews by the EPC Program. Comparative Effectiveness Reviews introduce several specific challenges in addition to the familiar issues raised in a systematic review or meta-analysis of a single intervention. The articles in this series together form the current Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews of the EHC Program. PMID:18834715

Slutsky, Jean; Atkins, David; Chang, Stephanie; Sharp, Beth A Collins

2008-10-01

247

Effect of the Increased Number of Diodes on the Performance of Oscillators with Series- Connected Tunnel Diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connecting several tunneling devices in series was proven to be an effective method to increase the oscillator output power. However, there are several difficulties associated with the series connection. The phase shift between the devices and the length of the series connection may be quite considerable. Therefore, connecting diode in series is not strictly the device level power combining, but the circuit level power combining as well. The design procedure, as well as the experimental results for the oscillators with two three, and four series connected tunnel diodes at 2 GHz will be presented here. A multimode operation, characteristic for the circuit level power combining, was observed for the four diode oscillator.

Boric-Lubecke, O.; Pan, D.-S.; Itoh, T.

1995-03-01

248

Comparison of Acute Aquatic Effects of the Oil Dispersant Corexit 9500 with Those of Other Corexit Series Dispersants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute aquatic toxicity of a new Corexit series dispersant, Corexit 9500, was evaluated and compared with that of others in the series using the early life stages of two common nearshore marine organisms: the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and a kelp forest mysid (Holmesimysis costata). Spiked-concentration testing was performed under closed, flowthrough conditions, with dispersant concentrations measured in real

Michael M. Singer; Saji George; Susan Jacobson; Ina Lee; Lisa L. Weetman; Ronald S. Tjeerdema; Michael L. Sowby

1996-01-01

249

There's alcohol in my soap: portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series.  

PubMed

Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents' alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character, drinking situations and drinking times. Inter-coder reliability was satisfactory. The results showed that alcohol portrayal was prominent and that many instances of alcohol use reflected undesirable behaviours. To assess the influence of such alcohol cues on adolescents, a 2x2 experiment was conducted focusing on the separate and combined effects of alcohol portrayal in the soap series and surrounding alcohol commercials. Whereas the alcohol commercials had the expected effects on adolescents' attitudes, the alcohol-related soap content only appeared to have unexpected effects. Adolescents who were exposed to the alcohol portrayal in the soap series had a less positive attitude towards alcohol and lower drinking intentions. Implications of these findings for health policy and future research are discussed. PMID:18640968

van Hoof, Joris J; de Jong, Menno D T; Fennis, Bob M; Gosselt, Jordy F

2008-07-17

250

Uniting Mandelbrot’s Noah and Joseph Effects in Toy Models of Natural Hazard Time Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forecasting of extreme events is a highly topical, cross-disciplinary problem. One aspect which is potentially tractable even when the events themselves are stochastic is the probability of a “burst” of a given size and duration, defined as the area between a time series and a constant threshold. Many natural time series depart from the simplest, Brownian, case and in the 1960s Mandelbrot developed the use of fractals to describe these departures. In particular he proposed two kinds of fractal model to capture the way in which natural data is often persistent in time (his “Joseph effect”, common in hydrology and exemplified by fractional Brownian motion) and/or prone to heavy tailed jumps (the “Noah effect”, typical of economic index time series, for which he gave Levy flights as an examplar). Much of the earlier modelling, however, has emphasised one of the Noah and Joseph parameters (the tail exponent mu and one derived from the temporal behaviour such as power spectral beta) at the other one's expense. I will describe work [1] in which we applied a simple self-affine stable model-linear fractional stable motion (LFSM)-which unifies both effects to better describe natural data, in this case from space physics. I will show how we have resolved some contradictions seen in earlier work, where purely Joseph or Noah descriptions had been sought. I will also show recent work [2] using numerical simulations of LFSM and simple analytic scaling arguments to study the problem of the area between a fractional Levy model time series and a threshold. [1] Watkins et al, Space Science Reviews [2005] [2] Watkins et al, Physical Review E [2009

Credgington, D.; Watkins, N. W.; Chapman, S. C.; Rosenberg, S. J.; Sanchez, R.

2009-12-01

251

Form 90: A Structured Assessment Interview for Drinking and Related Behaviors. Test Manual. Project MATCH Monograph Series. Volume 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume of the NIAAA Project MATCH Monograph Series introduces Form 90, a series of well-constructed instruments to assess alcohol consumption. The strategy employed by Form 90 offers unique advantages to other measures for assessing alcohol consumpti...

W. R. Miller M. E. Mattson

1996-01-01

252

Effectiveness of coaching for aptitude tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted a meta-analytic approach to determine the effects of coaching on aptitude test scores in 38 studies. In 14 studies on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, coaching raised scores by an average of 0.15 standard deviations; in 24 studies on other aptitude and intelligence tests, coaching raised scores by an average of 0.43 standard deviations. Studies that used pretests reported stronger

James A. Kulik; Robert L. Bangert-Drowns; Chen-lin C. Kulik

1984-01-01

253

Presentation Order Effects in Product Taste Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presentation order in paired-comparison testing was varied to measure the impact of primacy versus recency effects on consumer product evaluations. Overall preference and product rating scores were gathered for 1196 male and female Ss aged 13-49 years in two consumer research studies covering 11 taste tests. First position preference bias characterized the findings, lending support to the attention decrement hypothesis

Michael L. Dean

1980-01-01

254

The Obama effect: An experimental test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on stereotype threat and role model effects, as well as a recent quasi-experiment (Marx, Ho, & Freidman, this issue) suggested the possibility of an “Obama effect” on African American’s standardized test performance, whereby the salience of Barack Obama’s stereotype defying success could positively impact performance. We tested this reasoning in a randomized experiment with a broad sample of

Joshua Aronson; Sheana Jannone; Matthew McGlone; Tanisha Johnson-Campbell

2009-01-01

255

Exploring the effects of Hofmeister series ions on structural dynamics of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is known as the lubricant of life. Most proteins lose their biological function upon dehydration. We found that in a variety of high concentration salt solutions, photoactive yellow protein, a blue light bacterial photoreceptor protein, loses its functionally important structural motions for receptor activation. We hypothesize that this effect is caused by reduced structural dynamics of water due to strong water-ion interactions. Here we report our experimental studies on the effects of salts on changes in structural dynamics of water at different time scales. The results are expected to provide deep insight regarding how Hofmeister series ions alter the structural dynamics of proteins.

Xu, Ningning; Wright, Thomas; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Xie, Aihua

2011-03-01

256

Comparison of acute aquatic effects of the oil dispersant Corexit 9500 with those of other Corexit series dispersants.  

PubMed

The acute aquatic toxicity of a new Corexit series dispersant, Corexit 9500, was evaluated and compared with that of others in the series using early life stages of two common nearshore marine organisms: the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and a kelp forest mysid (Holmesimysis costata). Spiked-concentration testing was performed under closed, flowthrough conditions, with dispersant concentrations measured in real time using UV spectrophotometry. Median-effect concentrations ranged from 12.8 to 19.7 initial ppm for Haliotis and from 158.0 to 245.4 initial ppm for Holmesimysis. The difference in sensitivity of the two types of tests was consistent with patterns seen with other oil dispersants. Also, these data indicate Corexit 9500 to be of similar toxicity to Corexit 9527 and 9554. Corexit 9500 represents a reformulation of a long-time industry "standard," Corexit 9527, to allow use on higher viscosity oils and emulsions. The present data suggest that acute aquatic toxicity concerns surrounding the use of this newer dispersant should not be significantly different from those associated with the use of Corexit 9527. PMID:8950541

Singer, M M; George, S; Jacobson, S; Lee, I; Weetman, L L; Tjeerdema, R S; Sowby, M L

1996-11-01

257

Time-series regression models to study the short-term effects of environmental factors on health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time series regression models are especially suitable in epidemiology for evaluating short-term effects of time-varying exposures on health. The problem is that potential for confounding in time series regression is very high. Thus, it is important that trend and seasonality are properly accounted for. Our paper reviews the statistical models commonly used in time-series regression methods, specially allowing for serial

Aurelio Tobías; Marc Saez

2004-01-01

258

Presentation Order Effects in Product Taste Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presentation order in paired-comparison testing was varied to measure the impact of primacy v recency effects on consumer product evaluation. First position preference bias characterized the findings, lending support to the attention decrement hypothesis or a suggested palate desensitization effect on subsequent taste trial behavior. (Author)|

Dean, Michael L.

1980-01-01

259

On Granger causality and the effect of interventions in time series.  

PubMed

We combine two approaches to causal reasoning. Granger causality, on the one hand, is popular in fields like econometrics, where randomised experiments are not very common. Instead information about the dynamic development of a system is explicitly modelled and used to define potentially causal relations. On the other hand, the notion of causality as effect of interventions is predominant in fields like medical statistics or computer science. In this paper, we consider the effect of external, possibly multiple and sequential, interventions in a system of multivariate time series, the Granger causal structure of which is taken to be known. We address the following questions: under what assumptions about the system and the interventions does Granger causality inform us about the effectiveness of interventions, and when does the possibly smaller system of observable times series allow us to estimate this effect? For the latter we derive criteria that can be checked graphically and are in the same spirit as Pearl's back-door and front-door criteria (Pearl 1995). PMID:19941069

Eichler, Michael; Didelez, Vanessa

2009-11-26

260

Nontidal ocean loading: amplitudes and potential effects in GPS height time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) changes are caused by a redistribution of the ocean's internal mass that are driven by atmospheric circulation, a change in the mass entering or leaving the ocean, and/or a change in the integrated atmospheric mass over the ocean areas. The only previous global analysis investigating the magnitude of OBP surface displacements used older OBP data sets (van Dam et al. in J Geophys Res 129:507-517, 1997). Since then significant improvements in meteorological forcing models used to predict OBP have been made, augmented by observations from satellite altimetry and expendable bathythermograph profiles. Using more recent OBP estimates from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) project, we reassess the amplitude of the predicted effect of OBP on the height coordinate time series from a global distribution of GPS stations. OBP-predicted loading effects display an RMS scatter in the height of between 0.2 and 3.7 mm, larger than previously reported but still much smaller (by a factor of 2) than the scatter observed due to atmospheric pressure loading. Given the improvement in GPS hardware and data analysis techniques, the OBP signal is similar to the precision of weekly GPS height coordinates. We estimate the effect of OBP on GPS height coordinate time series using the MIT reprocessed solution, mi1. When we compare the predicted OBP height time series with mi1, we find that the scatter is reduced over all stations by 0.1 mm on average with reductions as high as 0.7 mm at some stations. More importantly we are able to reduce the scatter on 65 % of the stations investigated. The annual component of the OBP signal is responsible for 80 % of the reduction in scatter on average. We find that stations located close to semi-enclosed bays or seas are affected by OBP loading to a greater extent than other stations.

van Dam, T.; Collilieux, X.; Wuite, J.; Altamimi, Z.; Ray, J.

2012-11-01

261

The effect of assimilation and fractional crystallization on U-series disequilibria in arc lavas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U-series disequilibria in young arc lavas provide critical temporal constraint on magmatism in arc settings. Most young arc lavas have (231Pa/235U) and (226Ra/230Th) greater than unity. Although the majority of young arc lavas have 238U excess over 230Th, a significant amount of samples have (238U/230Th) < 1. Models involving recent addition of U-Ra rich fluids to the mantle wedge can explain the 238U and 226Ra excesses over 230Th, but it cannot explain 231Pa excess or 230Th excess. In-growth melting models can produce 231Pa excess and 230Th excess, but it cannot account for the overall positive correlation between 226Ra excess and Ba/Th or Sr/Th, which is interpreted as a typical feature of fluid addition. There are still heated debates on generation of U-series disequilibria in arc lavas and time-scale of magmatisms in convergent margins. Most arc lavas have experienced significant assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) during magma evolution. Although AFC processes can fundamentally change trace element and isotopic features of magma, its effect on U-series disequilibria has not been rigorously investigated despite its importance. It is not quite clear yet whether the correlations of U-series data with major-trace element compositions of arc lavas (e.g., (226Ra/230Th) vs. Sr/Th or Ba/Th) reflect the geochemical features of the fluid-metasomatised mantle wedge or result from magma differentiation processes. In this study, we use a numerical model to show that time-dependent AFC processes can significantly change U-series data and other geochemical features of arc lavas via fractional crystallization, decay of short-lived nuclides, and dilution by old crustal assimilant. The positive correlation between 226Ra excess and Ba/Th or Sr/Th can be produced by fractionation of plagioclase and amphibole with contemporaneous decay of 226Ra. Assimilation of old crustal materials may dilute the primary U-series disequilibria originating from melting of the metasomatised mantle. Our model can also reconcile the discrepancy of the time scales of arc magmatism indicated by U-Th-Pa-Ra and 10Be/Be systematics. Because correlations between parameters sensitive to fluid addition and U-series data could simply be produced by the AFC processes in a magma chamber within several thousands years, recent fluid addition and ultra-fast upwelling rates of magma may not be required for generation and preservation of 226Ra excess in young arc lavas. U-series disequilibria observed in arc settings might reflect in-growth melting in the mantle wedge plus magma differentiation processes in magma chamber at crustal depths.

Huang, F.; Gao, L.; Lundstrom, C. C.

2007-12-01

262

Positive patch test reactions to allergens of the dental series and the relation to the clinical presentations.  

PubMed

The clinical manifestations of contact allergic dermatitis to dental materials are not uniform. This study was performed to detect the frequent allergens in the dental series associated with contact dermatitis and to define the causal relationship between the different allergens and the relevant clinical presentations. Between the years 2000 and 2004, 134 patients, aged 20-80 years, were patch tested. 121 patients were included in the study. The most frequent oral manifestations were cheilitis and perioral dermatitis (25.6%), burning mouth (15.7%), lichenoid reaction (14.0%), and orofacial granulomatosis (10.7%). 18 (14.9%) patients were dental personnel, all of whom suffered from hand dermatitis. The common allergens detected included goldsodiumthiosulphate (14.0%), nickel sulfate (13.2%), mercury (9.9%), palladium chloride (7.4%), cobalt chloride (5.0%), and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (5.8%). Positive reactions to metals were frequent in all the different clinical variants, and no specific association between a specific clinical presentation and a particular allergen was found. Allergy to mercury was not a significant factor contributing to the pathogenesis of oral lichenoid reactions. However, a strong association with contact allergy to mercury in dental fillings was found in 2 patients with orofacial granulomatosis. PMID:16958919

Khamaysi, Ziad; Bergman, Reuven; Weltfriend, Sara

2006-10-01

263

Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression DesignsA Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error models and sample sizes. Although the B-P and L-B tests

Bradley E. Huitema; Joseph W. McKean

2007-01-01

264

Examination of the "specimen-size-effect" in stress-corrosion-cracking (SCC) tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the specimen's size on the determination of susceptibility to SCC is investigated by a series of SCC-tests. Parameter variations considered were in particular two types of material grades, two stress levels (75% and 50% of the 0.2% proof stress) and, most important, two specimens sizes, i.e. standard turned stress-corrosion test specimens (according to ECSS) and miniature size test specimens (according to ASTM).

Semerad, E.; Dunn, B. D.

2003-09-01

265

Transitions in effective scaling behavior of accelerometric time series across sleep and wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effective scaling behavior of high-resolution accelerometric time series recorded at the wrists and hips of 100 subjects during sleep and wake. Using spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis we find long-term correlated fluctuations with a spectral exponent \\beta \\approx 1.0 (1/f noise). On short time scales, ? is larger during wake (\\approx 1.4 ) and smaller during sleep (\\approx 0.6 ). In addition, characteristic peaks at 0.2-0.3 Hz (due to respiration) and 4-10 Hz (probably due to physiological tremor) are observed in periods of weak activity. Because of these peaks, spectral analysis is superior in characterizing effective scaling during sleep, while detrending analysis performs well during wake. Our findings can be exploited to detect sleep-wake transitions.

Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Zinkhan, Melanie; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Penzel, Thomas; Fietze, Ingo; Pillmann, Frank; Stang, Andreas

2013-09-01

266

Cutaneous photosensitizing and immunosuppressive effects of a series of tumor localizing porphyrins.  

PubMed

A series of tumor localizing porphyrins was evaluated with respect to their ability to elicit cutaneous photosensitivity and systemic immunosuppression, two of the most common side effects associated with photodynamic therapy. Using the murine ear swelling response as an indicator, it was found that all the non-metalloporphyrins caused cutaneous photosensitization. Immunosuppressive effects were noted using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine if sensitization occurred immediately after photoirradiation, but none were evident using Photofrin II (PII) or meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine (TCPP). Subsequent studies indicated that PII and TCPP manifested a delayed type immunosuppression similar to that found following UVB photoirradiation. Manganese (III) meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine, a prototype magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent, was also evaluated because of its reported demetallation in vivo. It was found to cause neither cutaneous photosensitivity nor immunosuppression. PMID:2027901

Musser, D A; Fiel, R J

1991-01-01

267

Power series representations for complex bosonic effective actions. II. A small field renormalization group flow  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper, we developed a power series representation and estimates for an effective action of the form ln[{integral}e{sup f({alpha}{sub 1},...,{alpha}{sub s};z*,z)}d{mu}(z*,z)/{integral}e{sup f(0,...,0;z*,z)}d{mu}(z*,z)]. Here, f({alpha}{sub 1},...,{alpha}{sub s};z{sub *},z) is an analytic function of the complex fields {alpha}{sub 1}(x),...,{alpha}{sub s}(x),z{sub *}(x),z(x) indexed by x in a finite set X and d{mu}(z*,z) is a compactly supported product measure. Such effective actions occur in the small field region for a renormalization group analysis. We illustrate the technique by a model renormalization group flow motivated by the ultraviolet regime in many boson systems.

Balaban, Tadeusz [Department of Mathematics Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, 110 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Feldman, Joel [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2 (Canada); Knoerrer, Horst; Trubowitz, Eugene [Mathematik, ETH-Zentrum, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

2010-05-15

268

Advanced model and analysis for series resistance in sub-100 nm CMOS including poly depletion and overlap doping gradient effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced series resistance model is developed for characterizing a heavily doped shallower source\\/drain extension (SDE), polysilicon gate depletion effects, doping gradient effect in SDE to gate overlap region, relatively enlarged sidewall length, a silicide-diffusion contact system, and a high-? dielectric sidewall. The proposed model predicts that silicide-diffusion contact resistance and overlap resistance will be major components in total series

Seong Dong Kim; Cheol-Min Park; J. C. S. Woo

2000-01-01

269

Effect of nitrogen and fluorine on mechanical properties and bioactivity in two series of bioactive glasses.  

PubMed

Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in body fluids, and fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for both orthopaedic and, in particular, dental applications for caries inhibition. However, because of their poor strength their use is restricted to non-load-bearing applications. In order to increase their mechanical properties, doping with nitrogen has been performed on two series of bioactive glasses: series (I) was a "bioglass" composition (without P2O5) within the quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-Si3N4 and series (II) was a simple substitution of CaF2 for CaO in series (I) glasses keeping the Na:Ca ratio constant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the variation in nitrogen and fluorine content on the properties of these glasses. The density, glass transition temperature, hardness and elastic modulus all increased linearly with nitrogen content which indicates that the incorporation of nitrogen stiffens the glass network because N is mainly in 3-fold coordination with Si atoms. Fluorine addition significantly decreases the thermal property values but the mechanical properties of these glasses remain unchanged with fluorine. The combination of both nitrogen and fluorine in oxyfluoronitride glasses gives better mechanical properties at much lower melting temperatures since fluorine reduces the melting point, allows higher solubility of nitrogen and does not affect the higher mechanical properties arising from incorporation of nitrogen. The characterization of these N and F substituted bioactive glasses using (29)Si MAS NMR has shown that the increase in rigidity of the glass network can be explained by the formation of SiO3N, SiO2N2 tetrahedra and Q(4) units with extra bridging anions at the expense of Q(3) units. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations similar to those in human blood plasma. Formation of a bioactive apatite layer on the samples treated in SBF was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The crystallinity of this layer decreases with increasing N content suggesting that N may decrease bioactivity slightly. PMID:23676624

Bachar, Ahmed; Mercier, Cyrille; Tricoteaux, Arnaud; Hampshire, Stuart; Leriche, Anne; Follet, Claudine

2013-04-10

270

Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression Designs: A Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error…

Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.

2007-01-01

271

Nonisothermal effects during injection and falloff tests  

SciTech Connect

The results show that to correctly analyze pressure transients governed by a moving thermal front, the values used for the fluid properties must correspond to the temperature of the injected fluid. On the other hand, for pressure falloff tests and for injection tests conducted in a well cooled by previous injection or drilling, the physical properties of the in situ reservoir fluids must be used. It is also shown that the application of conventional isothermal methods for calculating skin values from injection and falloff data will give erroneous results. A new method is presented for calculating skin values from injection and falloff data that accurately corrects for nonisothermal effects. A number of detailed examples are given that illustrate the suggested method of analysis. The technique is applied to the analysis of injection test data from a well located in the East Mesa geothermal field in southern California.

Benson, S.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1982-09-01

272

Time series analysis of air pollution and mortality: effects by cause, age and socioeconomic status  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between outdoor air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.?DESIGN—Time series study?METHODS—All causes, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality were analysed and the role of age and socioeconomic status in modifying associations between mortality and air pollution were investigated. Models used Poisson regression and included terms for temporal patterns, meteorology, and autocorrelation.?MAIN RESULTS—All causes all ages mortality showed much smaller associations with air pollution than mortality for specific causes and age groups. In the elderly, a 3-4% increase in daily deaths for all causes and for cardiovascular diseases was associated with an increase in fine particulate matter and in sulphur dioxide from the 10th to the 90th percentile. For respiratory deaths the increase in mortality was higher (6%). Cardiovascular deaths were additionally associated with levels of carbon monoxide (4% increase in daily deaths). The associations between air pollutants and mortality in children under 5 years of age were not statistically significant. There was a significant trend of increasing risk of death according to age with effects most evident for subjects over 65 years old. The effect of air pollution was also larger in areas of higher socioeconomic level.?CONCLUSIONS—These results show further evidence of an association between air pollution and mortality but of smaller magnitude than found in other similar studies. In addition, it seems that older age groups are at a higher risk of mortality associated with air pollution. Such complexity should be taken into account in health risk assessment based on time series studies.???Keywords: air pollution; mortality; socioeconomic status

Gouveia, N.; Fletcher, T.

2000-01-01

273

Effect of missing values in estimation of mean of auto-correlated measurement series.  

PubMed

Sampling and uncertainty of sampling are important tasks, when industrial processes are monitored. Missing values and unequal sources can cause problems in almost all industrial fields. One major problem is that during weekends samples may not be collected. On the other hand a composite sample may be collected during weekend. These systematically occurring missing values (gaps) will have an effect on the uncertainties of the measurements. Another type of missing values is random missing values. These random gaps are caused, for example, by instrument failures. Pierre Gy's sampling theory includes tools to evaluate all error components that are involved in sampling of heterogeneous materials. Variograms, introduced by Gy's sampling theory, have been developed to estimate the uncertainty of auto-correlated process measurements. Variographic experiments are utilized for estimating the variance for different sample selection strategies. The different sample selection strategies are random sampling, stratified random sampling and systematic sampling. In this paper both systematic and random gaps were estimated by using simulations and real process data. These process data were taken from bark boilers of pulp and paper mills (combustion processes). When systematic gaps were examined a linear interpolation was utilized. Also cases introducing composite sampling were studied. Aims of this paper are: (1) how reliable the variogram is to estimate the process variogram calculated from data with systematic gaps, (2) how the uncertainty of missing gap can be estimated in reporting time-averages of auto-correlated time series measurements. The results show that when systematic gaps were filled by linear interpolation only minor changes in the values of variogram were observed. The differences between the variograms were constantly smallest with composite samples. While estimating the effect of random gaps, the results show that for the non-periodic processes the stratified random sampling strategy gives more reliable results than systematic sampling strategy. Therefore stratified random sampling should be used while estimating the uncertainty of random gaps in reporting time-averages of auto-correlated time series measurements. PMID:17606002

Paakkunainen, Maaret; Kilpeläinen, Jarmo; Reinikainen, Satu-Pia; Minkkinen, Pentti

2007-01-16

274

EFFECTS OF A SERIES OF TRIORGANOTINS ON ATP LEVELS IN HUMAN NATURAL KILLER CELLS  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells are our initial immune defense against viral infections and cancer development. Thus, agents that are able to interfere with their function increase the risk of cancer and/or infection. A series of triorganotins, (trimethyltin (TMT), dimethylphenyltin (DMPT), methyldiphenyltin (MDPT), and triphenyltin (TPT)) have been shown to decrease the lytic function of human NK cells. TPT and MDPT were much more effective than DMPT or TMT at reducing lytic function. This study investigates the role that decreased ATP levels may play in decreases in the lytic function of NK cells induced by these OTs. A 24 h exposure to as high as 10 ?M TMT caused no decrease in ATP levels even though this level of TMT caused a greater than 75% loss of lytic function. TPT at 200 nM caused a decrease in ATP levels of about 20% while decreasing lytic function by greater than 85%. There was no association between ATP levels and lytic function for any of the compounds when NK cells were exposed for 1h or 24 h. However, after a 48 h exposure to both DMPT and TPT decreased lytic function was associated with decreased ATP levels. There was an association between decreased lytic function and decreased ATP levels after a 6 day exposure to each of the four compounds. These studies indicate that the loss of lytic function seen after 1 h and 24 h exposures to this series of organotins cannot be accounted for by decreases in ATP. However, after longer exposures loss of lytic function may be in part be attributable to inadequate ATP levels.

Holloway, Laurin N.; Pannell, Keith H.; Whalen, Margaret M.

2008-01-01

275

EFFECTS OF FOREFOOT RUNNING ON CHRONIC EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: A CASE SERIES  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition that occurs almost exclusively with running whereby exercise increases intramuscular pressure compromising circulation, prohibiting muscular function, and causing pain in the lower leg. Currently, a lack of evidence exists for the effective conservative management of CECS. Altering running mechanics by adopting forefoot running as opposed to heel striking may assist in the treatment of CECS, specifically with anterior compartment symptoms. Case Description: The purpose of this case series is to describe the outcomes for subjects with CECS through a systematic conservative treatment model focused on forefoot running. Subject one was a 21 y/o female with a 4 year history of CECS and subject two was a 21 y/o male, 7 months status-post two-compartment right leg fasciotomy with a return of symptoms and a new onset of symptoms on the contralateral side. Outcome: Both subjects modified their running technique over a period of six weeks. Kinematic and kinetic analysis revealed increased step rate while step length, impulse, and peak vertical ground reaction forces decreased. In addition, leg intracompartmental pressures decreased from pre-training to post-training. Within 6 weeks of intervention subjects increased their running distance and speed absent of symptoms of CECS. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by the subjects at 7 months following intervention; subject one reported running distances up to 12.87 km pain-free and subject two reported running 6.44 km pain-free consistently 3 times a week. Discussion: This case series describes a potentially beneficial conservative management approach to CECS in the form of forefoot running instruction. Further research in this area is warranted to further explore the benefits of adopting a forefoot running technique for CECS as well as other musculoskeletal overuse complaints.

Gregory, Robert; Alitz, Curtis; Gerber, J. Parry

2011-01-01

276

Television viewers' motivations to follow the 2005 Ashes Test series: implications for the rebranding of English cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to examine the factors that induced people to follow the 2005 Ashes cricket series on television and to explore the implications of these factors for the marketing of English cricket as a brand. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 427 members of the public who reported that they had watched at least part

Roger Bennett; Rehnuma Ali-Choudhury; Wendy Mousley

2007-01-01

277

Effect of transannular interaction on the redox-potentials in a series of bicyclic quinones  

PubMed Central

Background Better understanding of the transannular influence of a substituent on the redox-potentials of bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-derived quinones will help in the design of new compounds with controlled biological activity. However, attempts to directly relate the reduction potentials of substituted triptycene-quinones to the electronic effects of substituents are often unsuccessful. Results First and second redox-potentials of a series of bicyclic quinones are compared to computed energies of their LUMO, LUMO+1, and energies of reduction. Transannular influence of substituent on the redox-potentials is rationalized in terms of MO theory. Acetoxy-substituents in the 5,8-positions of the triptycene-quinone system selectively destabilize the product of the two-electron reduction. Conclusion We have shown that first redox-potentials of substituted bicyclic quinones correlate with their calculated LUMO energies and the energies of reduction. The second redox-potentials correlate with calculated LUMO+1 energies. As opposed to the LUMO orbitals, the LUMO+1 orbital coefficients are weighted significantly on the non-quinone part of the bicyclic system. This accounts for: (1) significantly larger substituent effect on the second redox-potentials, than on the first redox-potentials; (2) lack of stability of the product of two electron reduction of 5,8-diacetoxy-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4-dione 5.

Sereda, Grigoriy; Van Heukelom, Jesse; Koppang, Miles; Ramreddy, Sudha; Collins, Nicole

2006-01-01

278

Effects of temperature on mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand: a time series study  

PubMed Central

Background The association between temperature and mortality has been examined mainly in North America and Europe. However, less evidence is available in developing countries, especially in Thailand. In this study, we examined the relationship between temperature and mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand, during 1999–2008. Method A time series model was used to examine the effects of temperature on cause-specific mortality (non-external, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and respiratory) and age-specific non-external mortality (<=64, 65–74, 75–84, and?>?=85?years), while controlling for relative humidity, air pollution, day of the week, season and long-term trend. We used a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the delayed effects of temperature on mortality up to 21?days. Results We found non-linear effects of temperature on all mortality types and age groups. Both hot and cold temperatures resulted in immediate increase in all mortality types and age groups. Generally, the hot effects on all mortality types and age groups were short-term, while the cold effects lasted longer. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with cold temperature (19.35°C, 1st percentile of temperature) relative to 24.7°C (25th percentile of temperature) was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.44) for lags 0–21. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with high temperature (31.7°C, 99th percentile of temperature) relative to 28°C (75th percentile of temperature) was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24) for lags 0–21. Conclusion This study indicates that exposure to both hot and cold temperatures were related to increased mortality. Both cold and hot effects occurred immediately but cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. This study provides useful data for policy makers to better prepare local responses to manage the impact of hot and cold temperatures on population health.

2012-01-01

279

Estimating damping effectiveness of BPA`s thyristor controlled series capacitor by applying time and frequency domain methods to measured response  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a 500-kV thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) was installed in the Bonneville Power Administration system in the northwestern US. Extensive field testing has included modulation experiments to determine the effect of the TCSC on low-frequency oscillations. This paper discusses modulation procedures, analysis methods, and results for estimating the damping effectiveness of the TCSC. Modulation methods include driving the TCSC with step and random noise, and analysis techniques include time (Prony analysis) and frequency-domain identification. Results indicate that: (1) the TCSC can have significant impact on system dynamics; and (2) under a very small feedback gain, the TCSC provides measurable added damping.

Trudnowski, D.J.; Donnelly, M.K.; Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-05-01

280

Methadone replacement therapy: tried, tested, effective?  

PubMed

Methadone prescription is a controversial topic. While many believe that it is an effective treatment for opiate dependency, others argue that it is not successful in reducing either the addiction or even injecting behaviour. In this debate, Dr Robertson makes the case that methadone has been well tested, is cheap and acceptable to the patient and results in visible improvement. Dr Daniels argues that methadone treatment is philosophically ill-conceived, ethically dubious, and costly. He also highlights evidence that the treatment is potentially harmful to both patients and those in contact with them. PMID:22693699

Robertson, J R; Daniels, A M

2012-06-01

281

Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

Sensenig, Amanda E.

2010-01-01

282

The effects of test preparation methods employed by medical students on standardized admission tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the study. The primary focus of this study was to identify effective test preparation methods and components used by medical students to enhance their test score performance on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). Standardized tests such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and American College Test (ACT) for college entrance and the MCAT for admission to most

Edna E Jackson-Gray

2000-01-01

283

Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

Sensenig, Amanda E.

2010-01-01

284

Spectral analysis of time series of events: effect of respiration on heart rate in neonates.  

PubMed

Certain types of biomedical processes such as the heart rate generator can be considered as signals that are sampled by the occurring events, i.e. QRS complexes. This sampling property generates problems for the evaluation of spectral parameters of such signals. First, the irregular occurrence of heart beats creates an unevenly sampled data set which must either be pre-processed (e.g. by using trace binning or interpolation) prior to spectral analysis, or analyzed with specialized methods (e.g. Lomb's algorithm). Second, the average occurrence of events determines the Nyquist limit for the sampled time series. Here we evaluate different types of spectral analysis of recordings of neonatal heart rate. Coupling between respiration and heart rate and the detection of heart rate itself are emphasized. We examine both standard and data adaptive frequency bands of heart rate signals generated by models of coupled oscillators and recorded data sets from neonates. We find that an important spectral artifact occurs due to a mirror effect around the Nyquist limit of half the average heart rate. Further we conclude that the presence of respiratory coupling can only be detected under low noise conditions and if a data-adaptive respiratory band is used. PMID:19075368

van Drongelen, Wim; Williams, Amber L; Lasky, Robert E

2008-12-15

285

Potential effects of alpha-recoil on uranium-series dating of calcrete  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of paleosol ages in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, at the time the site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository, is important for fault-displacement hazard assessment. Uranium-series isotope data were obtained for surface and subsurface calcrete samples from trenches and boreholes in Midway Valley, Nevada, adjacent to Yucca Mountain. 230Th/U ages of 33 surface samples range from 1.3 to 423 thousand years (ka) and the back-calculated 234U/238U initial activity ratios (AR) are relatively constant with a mean value of 1.54 ± 0.15 (1?), which is consistent with the closed-system behavior. Subsurface calcrete samples are too old to be dated by the 230Th/U method. U-Pb data for post-pedogenic botryoidal opal from a subsurface calcrete sample show that these subsurface calcrete samples are older than ~ 1.65 million years (Ma), old enough to have attained secular equilibrium had their U-Th systems remained closed. However, subsurface calcrete samples show U-series disequilibrium indicating open-system behavior of 238U daughter isotopes, in contrast with the surface calcrete, where open-system behavior is not evident. Data for 21 subsurface calcrete samples yielded calculable 234U/238U model ages ranging from 130 to 1875 ka (assuming an initial AR of 1.54 ± 0.15, the mean value calculated for the surface calcrete samples). A simple model describing continuous ?-recoil loss predicts that the 234U/238U and 230Th/238U ARs reach steady-state values ~ 2 Ma after calcrete formation. Potential effects of open-system behavior on 230Th/U ages and initial 234U/238U ARs for younger surface calcrete were estimated using data for old subsurface calcrete samples with the 234U loss and assuming that the total time of water-rock interaction is the only difference between these soils. The difference between the conventional closed-system and open-system ages may exceed errors of the calculated conventional ages for samples older than ~ 250 ka, but is negligible for younger soils.

Neymark, L. A.

2011-01-01

286

Time-Series Analysis: Assessing the Effects of Multiple Educational Interventions in a Small-Enrollment Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-series designs are an alternative to pretest-posttest methods that are able to identify and measure the impacts of multiple educational interventions, even for small student populations. Here, we use an instrument employing standard multiple-choice conceptual questions to collect data from students at regular intervals. The questions are modified by asking students to distribute 100 Confidence Points among the options in order to indicate the perceived likelihood of each answer option being the correct one. Tracking the class-averaged ratings for each option produces a set of time-series. ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) analysis is then used to test for, and measure, changes in each series. In particular, it is possible to discern which educational interventions produce significant changes in class performance. Cluster analysis can also identify groups of students whose ratings evolve in similar ways. A brief overview of our methods and an example are presented.

Warren, Aaron R.

2009-11-01

287

Time-Series Analysis: Assessing the Effects of Multiple Educational Interventions in a Small-Enrollment Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time-series designs are an alternative to pretest-posttest methods that are able to identify and measure the impacts of multiple educational interventions, even for small student populations. Here, we use an instrument employing standard multiple-choice conceptual questions to collect data from students at regular intervals. The questions are modified by asking students to distribute 100 Confidence Points among the options in order to indicate the perceived likelihood of each answer option being the correct one. Tracking the class-averaged ratings for each option produces a set of time-series. ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) analysis is then used to test for, and measure, changes in each series. In particular, it is possible to discern which educational interventions produce significant changes in class performance. Cluster analysis can also identify groups of students whose ratings evolve in similar ways. A brief overview of our methods and an example are presented.

Warren, Aaron R.

2010-01-18

288

The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

Wesson, Kenneth A.

2001-01-01

289

The Effects of Race on Test Taking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A test was constructed which would evoke racial preferences, and 72 black and 55 white 10th-graders were individually tested by two black and two white test givers. There was a distinct black as opposed to a distinct white response to the test items; however, the races of the test givers did not influence the way the subjects responded to any of…

Reichert, Conrad A.

290

Evaluation of Sulfate Reduction Using a Series of Modified Push-Pull Tests in an Aquifer-Wetland System Impacted by Landfill Leachate, Norman, OK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of modified in situ push-pull tests were used to quantify rates of SO42- reduction at the mixing interface between wetland porewater and groundwater from the underlying anaerobic aquifer at the Norman Landfill research site, Norman, OK. At small (cm) scale mixing interfaces, steep geochemical gradients and enhanced biogeochemical cycling have been observed. Quantifying the role of these interfaces on system level biogeochemical cycling, including the rates of sulfate reduction is poorly studied due to the small transient nature of mixing interfaces. In this study, the kinetic controls on sulfate reduction were evaluated using a series of modified ``mini'' push-pull tests to introduce electron-acceptor (SO42-) limited wetland porewater to anaerobic groundwater containing abundant electron acceptor (SO42-), thus simulating the aquifer-wetland interface. A relatively well-sorted, fine-grained sand lens within the reducing wetland sediments was targeted using small-diameter (2.54 cm, O.D.) ``drive-point'' wells with a discrete, internally packed 4.5 cm well screen. A series of push-pull tests were then performed using these wells by injecting the sulfate-rich aquifer water into the targeted zone. Results indicated that 1) SO42- reduction was the dominant terminal electron accepting process (TEAP) initiated by the mixing event 2) in all tests in which sulfate reduction was observed, a lag period was present until mixing of water began and 3) tests indicate that the lag period is neither a function of electron donor (acetate) concentration nor directly related to time in situ. These results indicate that, data retrieved from push-pull tests should be interpreted with caution to ensure that the ``rate'' is actually a function of time and not another parameter such as degree of mixing.

Kneeshaw, T. A.; McGuire, J. T.; Smith, E. W.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

2005-12-01

291

Technical Note: Comparing the effectiveness of recent algorithms to fill and smooth incomplete and noisy time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical time series often feature missing data or data acquired at irregular times. Procedures are needed to either resample these series at systematic time intervals or to generate reasonable estimates at specified times in order to meet specific user requirements or to facilitate subsequent analyses. Interpolation methods have long been used to address this problem, taking into account the fact that available measurements also include errors of measurement or uncertainties. This paper inspects some of the currently used approaches to fill gaps and smooth time series (smoothing splines, Singular Spectrum Analysis and Lomb-Scargle) by comparing their performance in either reconstructing the original record or in minimizing the Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Bias Error (MBE), chi-squared test statistics and autocorrelation of residuals between the underlying model and the available data, using both artificially-generated series or well-known publicly available records. Some methods make no assumption on the type of variability in the data while others hypothesize the presence of at least some dominant frequencies. It will be seen that each method exhibits advantages and drawbacks, and that the choice of an approach largely depends on the properties of the underlying time series and the objective of the research.

Musial, J. P.; Verstraete, M. M.; Gobron, N.

2011-08-01

292

Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm[sup 2] that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW[sub t]. The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m [times] 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm[sup 2] over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW[sub t]. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm[sup 2] over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW[sub t]. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm[sup 2] over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW[sub t]. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

Ralph, M.E.; Cameron, C.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ghanbari, C.M. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-01-01

293

Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm{sup 2} that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW{sub t}. The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m {times} 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm{sup 2} over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW{sub t}. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW{sub t}. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm{sup 2} over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW{sub t}. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

Ralph, M.E.; Cameron, C.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ghanbari, C.M. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31

294

Ambient temperature and driving cycle effects on CNG motor vehicle emission. Technical paper series (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes an emissions study of two vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). One van was relatively new, while the other had been driven more than 120,000 mi. The purpose of the study was to obtain emissions information which could be used to predict the impact of CNG use on ambient air quality and air toxic concentrations, and to develop a better understanding of the effect of ambient temperature variations on CNG emissions. Using four different driving cycles, emission tests were carried out at 20 deg F, 75 deg F, and 105 deg F.

Gabele, P.; Knapp, K.T.; Ray, W.D.; Snow, R.; Crews, W.

1993-01-01

295

A Test for the Presence of Covariance Between Time-uncertain Series of Data with application to a Collection of Proxy Records Showing Millennial Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical measures of the relationships between time series are generally altered by the presence of errors in timing, i.e. when applied to time-uncertain series. We use a statistical test, MCTEST (Maximum Covariance of Time-uncErtain Series Test), to compute the significance of covariance between time-uncertain series wherein the probability of obtaining a maximum covariance from randomly realized time-uncertain series is assessed using the theory of extreme order statistics. The results of this analytical method provide insight into the influence of timing errors upon covariance and are shown to be consistent with results derived from a Monte Carlo procedure. An earlier versions of the MCTEST is augmented to account for non-uniformly distributed constraints on timing from radiometric estimates and to obtain results much more rapidly through the use of dynamic programming. We apply this methodology to test the significance of the covariance between the following time-uncertain series: (1) delta-18O from GISP2, (2) % Reflectance at Cariaco Basin, (3) delta-18O at Hulu Cave China, (4) Total Organic Carbon at Arabian Sea(136KL), (5) delta-D at EPICA Dronning Maud Land, (6) Bioturbation record at Santa Barbara (893A), (7) CaCO3 at Bermuda Rise (GPC5), (8) delta-180 (MD95-2042), (9) delta-18O from Botuvera Cave at Brazil, (10) delta 13C record from core RC11-83, AND (11) delta-18O from MC97-2120. The results support the global nature of the millennial scale variability. Interestingly, tropical record generally show high covariance with the other records and the Arabian Sea record (136 KL) is most strongly correlated with the others records in the collection, more so even than the GISP2 record. Of course, correlation is not alone indicative of causation, but these results do suggest that the locus of millennial scale variability may be centered more in the tropics than in the Northern North Atlantic.

Haam, E.; Huybers, P.

2009-12-01

296

SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

Schultz, K.J.

1986-04-01

297

Application of structure preserving energy margin sensitivity to determine the effectiveness of shunt and series FACTS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a structure preserving energy margin sensitivity based analysis to determine the effectiveness of FACTS devices to improve transient stability of a power system. A structure preserving energy model, which retains the topology of the network is used to derive simple analytical expressions for improvement in energy margin due to series or shunt compensation. The expressions are in

K. N. Shubhanga; Anil M. Kulkarni

2002-01-01

298

The Effect of Regionalization On Infant and Early Neonatal MortalityAn Interrupted Time-Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regionalization ofperinatal care is widely assumed to be an effective means of improving pregnancy outcomes. However, due to limitations of the research designs employed in previous studies aimed at empirically confirming this conventional wisdom, strong evidence concerning the impact of regionalization on pregnancy outcomes is still lacking. In this article an interrupted time-series design is used to assess the impact

Marvin B. Mandell

1986-01-01

299

The Effect on Non-Normal Distributions on the Integrated Moving Average Model of Time-Series Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Integrated Moving Average (IMA) model of time series, and the analysis of intervention effects based on it, assume random shocks which are normally distributed. To determine the robustness of the analysis to violations of this assumption, empirical sampling methods were employed. Samples were generated from three populations; normal,…

Doerann-George, Judith

300

The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment in the Five Most Active Execution States: A Time Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of the death penalty on the murder rate. A 50-year time series is employed for the period 1930-1980 for the five states with the largest number of executions during this period: Georgia, New York, Texas, California, and North Carolina. Taken together, these five states accounted for 40 percent of all the executions performed during this

Scott H. Decker; Carol W. Kohfeld

1990-01-01

301

Assessment of the dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period series during atrial fibrillation: effects of isoproterenol administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in the genesis and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF), but quantification of its electrophysiologic effects is extremely complex and difficult. Aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of linear and non-linear indexes to capture the fine changing dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period (LAP) series during

Luca T Mainardi; Valentina DA Corino; Leonida Lombardi; Claudio Tondo; Massimo Mantica; Federico Lombardi; Sergio Cerutti

2004-01-01

302

A Bayesian model of time activity data to investigate health effect of air pollution in time series studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution studies such as time series use measures of ambient concentration to approximate aggregate personal exposures. The resulting difference in health effects can be evaluated using survey data on the time people spend in different environments, with differing concentrations of pollutants. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model that incorporates time activity data to obtain an adjusted distribution of air

Marta Blangiardo; Anna Hansell; Sylvia Richardson

2011-01-01

303

A New Model for Investigating the Mortality Effects of Multiple Air Pollutants in Air Pollution Mortality Time-Series Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the sometimes high correlation between air pollutants, the results from studies that focus on a single air pollutant can be difficult to interpret. In addition,

Steven Roberts

2006-01-01

304

Dosage Effect and the Efficacy of a Video-Based Teamwork-Building Series with Urban Elementary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the role of implementation dosage in the effectiveness of a school-based social and emotional skills building curriculum, The Talking with TJ video series, among urban, predominantly minority elementary school children. It was hypothesized that children in higher dosage schools will exhibit greater improvements in their social…

Mokrue, Kathariya; Elias, Maurice J.; Bry, Brenna H.

2005-01-01

305

Effect on road traffic injuries of criminalizing road traffic offences: a time-series study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the effect of criminalizing some traffic behaviours, after the reform of the Spanish penal code in 2007, on the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain. Methods This study followed an interrupted times–series design in which the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain before and after the criminalization of offences were compared. The data on road traffic injuries in 2000–2009 were obtained from the road traffic collision database of the General Traffic Directorate. The dependent variables were stratified by sex, age, injury severity, type of road user, road type and time of collision. Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted with adjustments for time trend, seasonality, previous interventions and national fuel consumption. Findings The overall number of male drivers involved in injury collisions dropped (relative risk, RR:?0.93; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.89–0.97) after the reform of the penal code, but among women no change was observed (RR:?0.99; 95% CI: 0.95–1.03). In addition, 13?891 men (P?

Perez, Katherine; Santamarina-Rubio, Elena; Borrell, Carme

2011-01-01

306

Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues" (e.g., group differences in…

Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

307

Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study: 2000/01 Follow-Up Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:2000/01). The B&B:2000/01 field test included important changes from previous B&B surveys (conducted in 1994 and 1997) in its sample design and collection of data. The introductory chapter describes the…

Biber, Melissa R.; Link, Michael W.; Riccobono, John A.; Siegel, Peter H.

308

Correlation between small- and full-scale tests in a series of fluorochemical fire fighting foam trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire extinction tests using fluorochemical foaming agents were conducted on pool fires of gasoline and kerosine ranging in surface area from 0.25 m2 to 40 m2. A useful degree of correlation was demonstrated and hence the validity of the current United Kingdom Defence Standard test.

A. A. Briggs

1979-01-01

309

Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues" (e.g., group differences in…

Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

310

Representing Response-Time Information in Item Banks. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of item response times made possible by computerized testing represents an entirely new type of information about test items. This study explores the issue of how to represent response-time information in item banks. Empirical response-time distribution functions can be fit with statistical distribution functions with known…

Schnipke, Deborah L.; Scrams, David J.

311

Kamyr PD Series Full-Borne Ball Valve METC SOA Test Valve No. A-17 state-of-the-art lockhopper valve-testing and development project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kamyr Ball Valve, METC SOA Test Valve No. A-17, accumulated 640 valve cycles in the Valve Static Test Unit and over 16,900 valve cycles in the Valve Dynamic Test Unit. During dynamic testing (with minus 8 mesh and 5\\/16'' x 1\\/8'' limestone), the stem packing was replaced twice and the valve was disassembled once to remove compacted fines from

J. F. Gardner; R. C. Hall; R. G. Hornbeck; R. A. Griffith; T. M. Nutter; T. M. Yost; T. Vandergrift; T. R. Gayheart; D. L. Armstrong

1981-01-01

312

Strain-rate effects on the mechanical behavior of the AISI 300 series of austenitic stainless steel under cryogenic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of uni-axial tensile tests were carried out under various low temperatures and strain-rate ranges for AISI 300 austenitic stainless steel. The strain-rate dependencies of the materials under investigation were evaluated at temperatures ranging from ambient to cryogenic. Non-linear mechanical behavior such as phase transformation, discontinuous yielding and micro-damage of four kinds of commercial stainless steel-based material were quantitatively

Woong Sup Park; Seong Won Yoo; Myung Hyun Kim; Jae Myung Lee

2010-01-01

313

Examining the testing effect with open- and closed-book tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two experiments examined the testing effect with open-book tests, in which students view notes and textbooks while taking the test, and closed-book tests, in which students take the test without viewing notes or textbooks. Subjects studied prose passages and then restudied or took an open- or closed-book test. Taking either kind of test, with feedback, enhanced long-term retention relative

Pooja K. Agarwal; Jeffrey D. Karpicke; Sean H. K. Kang; Henry L. Roediger; Kathleen B. McDermott

2008-01-01

314

Comparing the effectiveness of recent algorithms to fill and smooth incomplete and noisy time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical time series often feature missing data or data acquired at irregular times. Procedures are needed to either resample these series at systematic time intervals or to generate reasonable estimates at specified times in order to meet specific user requirements or to facilitate subsequent analyses. Interpolation methods have long been used to address this problem, taking into account the fact that available measurements also include errors of measurement or uncertainties. This paper inspects some of the currently used approaches to fill gaps and smooth time series (smoothing splines, Singular Spectrum Analysis and Lomb-Scargle) by comparing their performance in either reconstructing the original record or in minimizing the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) between the underlying model and the available data, using both artificially-generated series or well-known publicly available records. Some methods make no assumption on the type of variability in the data while others hypothesize the presence of at least some dominant frequencies. It will be seen that each method exhibits advantages and drawbacks, and that the choice of an approach largely depends on the properties of the underlying time series and the objective of the research.

Musial, J. P.; Verstraete, M. M.; Gobron, N.

2011-05-01

315

Examination of historical landslide time series: a test case from the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining when, or how frequently, landslides can occur in an area is of primary importance for erosion and landscape evolution studies, and for landslide hazard and risk assessments. Studies of the temporal occurrence of landslides over extended periods are rare due to paucity and reliability of information. In this work, we exploit a catalogue of historical landslides in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, in the 52-year period 1951-2002. The catalogue consists of 2,255 reported landslides, and is based on historical archives and chronicles. In our analyses, we use two measures for the intensity of landsliding over time: (i) the number of reported landslides in a day (DL), and (ii) the number of reported landslides in an event (Sevent), where an event is one or more consecutive days with landsliding. From 1951 to 2002 in the study area there were 1057 days with 1 ? DL ? 45 landslides per day, and 596 events with 1 ? Sevent ? 129 landslides per event. We perform the following analyses with associated conclusions: (i) We examine temporal correlations of landslide intensities, measured by DL and Sevent, using power-spectral analysis and surrogate data analysis, and conclude that the landslide intensity series DL has strong temporal correlations, and Sevent has likely temporal correlations. (ii) We study temporal clustering in DL and Sevent, considering extremes over different landslide intensity thresholds, and we determine that DL and Sevent each have temporal correlations, but Sevent to a lesser degree. (iii) Using autocorrelation analysis, we examine correlations between successive inter-extreme occurrence times (?), and find for DL linear correlations in ?. For Sevent results are inconclusive; however, using Kendall’s rank correlation analysis, we find that the time series of ? are strongly correlated, for both DL and Sevent. (iv) We apply Fano Factor analysis, finding for both DL and Sevent the timings of extremes over a given threshold exhibit a fractal structure, and therefore clustered in time. (v) We find that the probability density of landslide intensities in the time series of DL and Sevent are power-law distributed, over at least two-orders of magnitude, strong evidence that the frequency-size of triggered landslide events over time scale as a power-law. If confirmed, this could have important implications for risk assessment and erosion modeling. (vi) Finally, we compare our time series of landslides with the daily rainfall record for a representative station in the study area. We find that for short antecedent rainfall periods, the minimum amount of rainfall necessary to trigger landslides varies considerably with the intensity of the landsliding (DL and Sevent); whereas for long antecedent periods the magnitude is largely independent of the cumulative amount of rainfall, and the largest values of landslide intensity are always preceded by abundant rainfall. Further, the analysis of the rainfall trend suggests that the trigger of landslides in the study area is related to seasonal rainfall.

Rossi, M.; Witt, A.; Malamud, B. D.; Guzzetti, F.; Peruccacci, S.

2010-12-01

316

The effects of nonlinear series resonance on Ohmic and stochastic heating in capacitive discharges  

SciTech Connect

The flow of electron and ion conduction currents across a nonlinear capacitive sheath to the electrode surface self-consistently sets the dc bias voltage across the sheath. We incorporate these currents into a model of a homogeneous capacitive sheath in order to determine the enhancement of the Ohmic and stochastic heating due to self-excitation of the nonlinear series resonance in an asymmetric capacitive discharge. At lower pressures, the series resonance can enhance both the Ohmic and stochastic heating by factors of 2-4, with the Ohmic heating tending to zero as the pressure decreases. The model was checked, for a particular set of parameters, by a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation using the homogeneous sheath approximation, giving good agreement. With a self-consistent Child-law sheath, the PIC simulation showed increased heating, as expected, whether the series resonance is important or not.

Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Kawamura, E. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science-1770, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D44801 Bochum (Germany)

2008-06-15

317

Immediate detailed feedback to test-enhanced learning: An effective online educational tool.  

PubMed

Background: Test-enhanced learning has gained popularity because it is an effective way to increase retention of knowledge; provided the student receives the correct answer soon after the test is taken. Aim: To determine whether detailed feedback provided to test-enhanced learning questions is an effective online educational tool for improving performance on complex biomedical information exams. Methods: A series of online multiple choice tests were developed to test knowledge of biomedical information that students were expected to know after each patient-case. Following submission of the student answers, one cohort (n?=?52) received answers only while the following year, a second cohort (n?=?51) received the answers with detailed feedback explaining why each answer was correct or incorrect. Results: Students in both groups progressed through the series of online tests with little assessor intervention. Students receiving the answers along with the explanations within their feedback performed significantly better in the final biomedical information exam than those students receiving correct answers only. Conclusions: This pilot study found that the detailed feedback to test-enhanced learning questions is an important online learning tool. The increase in student performance in the complex biomedical information exam in this study suggests that detailed feedback should be investigated not only for increasing knowledge, but also be investigated for its effect on retention and application of knowledge. PMID:24003913

Wojcikowski, Ken; Kirk, Leslie

2013-09-04

318

Evaluation of process control effectiveness and diagnosis of variation in paper basis weight via multivariate time-series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate time-series techniques are used to analyze the effectiveness of basis-weight control on a paper machine. Basis weight and four other process variables were collected from a production paper machine under three control conditions, ranging from no computer control to the normal operating basis-weight control strategy. Process control effectiveness is measured by comparing the observed output variation with an estimate

W. R. DEVRIES; S. M. WU

1978-01-01

319

Validation of an Academic Listening Test: Effects of "Breakdown" Tests and Test Takers' Cognitive Awareness of Listening Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a…

Chi, Youngshin

2011-01-01

320

10 CFR 455.63 - Cost-effectiveness testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Cost-effectiveness testing. 455.63... GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED...Assistance Programs for Schools, Hospitals, Units...455.63 Cost-effectiveness testing....

2009-01-01

321

10 CFR 455.63 - Cost-effectiveness testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Cost-effectiveness testing. 455.63... GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED...Assistance Programs for Schools, Hospitals, Units...455.63 Cost-effectiveness testing....

2010-01-01

322

The effect of practice on test intercorrelations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data used in this study were obtained from two groups of college students who practiced 7 and 4 tests for 39 and 66 10-minute periods, respectively, and from two supplementary groups of students who practiced some tests for only 10 sittings. The tests used were: anagrams, digit-letter substitution, spot pattern, horizontal adding, cancellation (under 3 different instructions), making gates,

H. Woodrow

1938-01-01

323

Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing with Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792): Survival and Behavioral Responses to a Dilution Series of a Mining Effluent in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Survival, behavioral early warning responses to, and behavioral effects of a complex effluent from Richards Bay Minerals\\u000a in Natal, South Africa, were studied using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792) as a biosensor. Three replicates of eight juvenile fish were exposed to a dilution series of the effluent\\u000a (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100%) and the behavioral pattern

A. Gerhardt

1998-01-01

324

Effect of Long-Term Climbing Training on Cerebellar Ataxia: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background. Efficient therapy for both limb and gait ataxia is required. Climbing, a complex task for the whole motor system involving balance, body stabilization, and the simultaneous coordination of all 4 limbs, may have therapeutic potential. Objective. To investigate whether long-term climbing training improves motor function in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Methods. Four patients suffering from limb and gait ataxia underwent a 6-week climbing training. Its effect on ataxia was evaluated with validated clinical balance and manual dexterity tests and with a kinematic analysis of multijoint arm and leg pointing movements. Results. The patients increased their movement velocity and achieved a more symmetric movement speed profile in both arm and leg pointing movements. Furthermore, the 2 patients who suffered the most from gait ataxia improved their balance and 2 of the 4 patients improved manual dexterity. Conclusion. Climbing training has the potential to serve as a new rehabilitation method for patients with upper and lower limb ataxia.

Marianne Anke, Stephan; Sylvie, Krattinger; Jerome, Pasquier; Shahid, Bashir; Thomas, Fournier; Dieter Georg, Ruegg; Karin, Diserens

2011-01-01

325

Effects of benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonists in the elevated plus maze test of anxiety in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present series of experiments examined the effects of five benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial inverse agonists on the behaviour of rats on an elevated plus maze. The drugs were tested in a standard plus maze with 3-cm walls added to the open arms, as this has been shown to increase the sensitivity of the plus maze to anxiogenic-like drug effects

Belinda J. Cole; Margrit Hillmann; Dieter Seidelmann; Mario Klewer; Graham H. Jones

1995-01-01

326

Testing the effects of temperature cycling on tantalum capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the reliability testing of tantalum capacitors. The objective was to develop efficient tests to examine the effects of temperature cycling on capacitor maximum voltage. A test according to the standard JESD22-A104D overlooks the fact that temperature changes often occur while the voltage is on. Capacitors were first tested according to the standard without voltage; the test

J. Virkki; S. Tuukkanen

2010-01-01

327

Effects of meteorological factors on the onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage: a time-series analysis.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested a possible association between meteorological factors and the onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We aimed to investigate the relationship between the onset of SAH and meteorological factors based on an hourly time-series analysis. We collected hourly data on transportation of patients with SAH using the ambulance records of the Tokyo Fire Department from January 1 to December 31, 2005. We also collected hourly meteorological data for Tokyo from the Japan Meteorological Agency during the same period. We performed a time-series analysis using the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to control for autocorrelations in the time-series data. There were 1729 patients with SAH (mean age 63.3 years; 60.2% women). We identified two circadian patterns in the onset of SAH: a daily peak at 10 am (p<0.001) and a seasonal peak in February (p<0.001). Based on the ARIMA time-series analysis, significant risk factors associated with the onset of SAH included: low temperature on the previous day (lag time 17h; p=0.005) and on the onset day (lag time 0h; p<0.001); high barometric pressure on the onset day (lag time 0h; p=0.001). Humidity was not associated with the onset of SAH. Among meteorological factors, low temperature and high barometric pressure may be risk factors for the onset of SAH. PMID:18617401

Abe, Toshikazu; Ohde, Sachiko; Ishimatsu, Shinichi; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

2008-07-09

328

MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL MODELS FOR EFFECTS OF PM AND COPOLLUTANTS IN A DAILY TIME SERIES EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Most analyses of daily time series epidemiology data relate mortality or morbidity counts to PM and other air pollutants by means of single-outcome regression models using multiple predictors, without taking into account the complex statistical structure of the predictor variable...

329

The effect of the price of gold on its production: a time-series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of gold in Australia has grown strongly in recent years. Australia is ranked the world's third largest gold producer, only South Africa and the US produce more than Australia. Most of the Australian gold production comes from one of its states, Western Australia. In this paper, we use recent developments in econometric time series analysis to present an analysis

Saroja Selvanathan; E. A. Selvanathan

1999-01-01

330

Effects of Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Case Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This is a case series reporting safety and degree of response to 1 dose level of sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture (SBVP) or melittin as a symptom-control therapy for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Setting. All treatments were conducted at the East West Cancer Center (EWCC), Dunsan Oriental Hospital, Daejeon University, Republic of Korea, an institution that uses complementary therapies for

Jae-Woo Park; Ju-Hyun Jeon; Jeungwon Yoon; Tae-Young Jung; Ki-Rok Kwon; Chong-Kwan Cho; Yeon-Weol Lee; Stephen Sagar; Raimond Wong; Hwa-Seung Yoo

2012-01-01

331

The Effect of Divorce on Suicide in Finland: A Time Series Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated divorce-suicide relationship in Finland. Cochrane-Orcutt time series analysis confirms divorce-suicide linkage for Finland. A 1 percent increase in divorce was associated with 0.24 percent increase in male suicide and 0.12 percent increase in female suicide. Given that divorce and religiosity trends were highly correlated, concluded…

Stack, Steve

1992-01-01

332

BIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL IONIZING RADIATION: DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This represents the first in a series of lectures sponsored by the Agency to present a range of perspectives on controversial environmental and health issues from the vantage points of distinguished scientists. The views expressed are, therefore, not necessarily the views of the ...

333

A series expansion of the solid Earth tide effect on geopotential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop analytical series representing the main part of corrections to the geopotential coefficients caused by the solid Earth tides, where Love numbers are assumed to be frequency-independent. The series are compact, precise and valid over 1800 A.D.-2200 A.D. The maximum difference between the corrections given by the analytical series and their numerical values, obtained with use of the DE/LE-423 planetary/lunar ephemerides, does not exceed 0.7× 10^{-12}. A new algorithm is proposed for calculating amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients for frequency dependence of Love numbers. It uses the representation of the Earth tide-generating potential in the standard HW95 format and takes into account the phase of tidal waves. Corrections of up to 2× 10^{-12} to the published by the IERS Conventions (2010) amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients are suggested. Examples of use of the obtained series in analytical theories of motion of low-altitude STARLETTE and high-altitude ETALON-1 satellites are given.

Kudryavtsev, Sergey M.

2013-04-01

334

Effects of testing on learning of functions.  

PubMed

Is learning of a complex functional relationship enhanced by trying to predict what output will go with a given input, as compared to studying an input-output pair? We examined learning of a bilinear function and transfer to new items outside the trained range. Subjects either saw the input-output pairs (study-only condition) or attempted to guess the output and then saw the pair (test/study condition). The total study times were equated, and motivation was enhanced with a monetary bonus. Performance was markedly better for the test/study condition, both within the trained range and in the transfer test. This benefit of testing during training was observed on a criterial test administered shortly after training. Testing has long been shown to enhance the explicit learning and retention of verbal material; our present findings reveal a novel domain for which testing can also be advantageous-that is, function learning. PMID:21630113

Kang, Sean H K; McDaniel, Mark A; Pashler, Harold

2011-10-01

335

An on-road shock and vibration response test series utilizing worst case and statistical analysis techniques  

SciTech Connect

Defining the maximum expected shock and vibration responses for an on-road truck transportation environment is strongly dependent on the amount of response data that can be obtained. One common test scheme consists of measuring response data over a relatively short prescribed road course and then reviewing that data to obtain the maximum response levels. The more mathematically rigorous alternative is to collect an unbiased ensemble of response data during a long road trip. This paper compares data gathered both ways during a recent on-road certification test for a tractor trailer van being designed by Sandia.

Cap, J.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US). Mechanical and Thermal Environments Dept.

1997-11-01

336

Focus Group Input on Students with Limited English Proficiency and Minnesota's Basic Standards Tests. State Assessment Series: Minnesota, Report 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes findings of two half-day focus group meetings that discussed experiences and concerns about the participation of students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in Minnesota's Basic Standards Exams. The focus groups included test coordinators, general classroom teachers, and English as a Second Language teachers. The report…

Liu, Kristin; Spicuzza, Richard; Erickson, Ron

337

Educators' Responses to LEP Students' Participation in the 1997 Basic Standards Testing. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Minnesota has developed a statewide assessment in response to the national movement toward state accountability and high standards for all students. The Minnesota Basic Standards Tests currently assess whether a student has achieved a minimum level of competency in reading, math, and writing. Limited English speaking (LEP) students in Minnesota…

Liu, Kristin; Spicuzza, Richard; Erickson, Ron; Thurlow, Martha; Ruhland, Aaron

338

Uniaxial and Triaxial Compression Test Series on the Topopah Spring Member from USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-six uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on cylindrical samples taken from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff from core hole USW G-2 at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. Test results are consistent with those ...

F. B. Nimick R. G. Van Buskirk A. F. McFarland

1987-01-01

339

School Policies and the Black-White Test Score Gap. Working Paper Series. SAN08-03  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines school-related policies and strategies that have been proposed or justified, at least in part, on the basis of their potential for reducing black-white test score gaps. These include strategies, one of which is greater integration, to reduce differences in the quality of teachers faced by black and white students; school and…

Ladd, Helen F.

2008-01-01

340

Wing vortex refraction effects from BAC 1-11 flight tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of noise measurements made in 1976 using a BAC 1-11 aircraft are analyzed in order to elucidate the sideline noise characteristics of aircraft with rear-fuselage engine installations. In these tests, aimed at measuring the effects of wing vortices on the engine noise radiation, the aircraft was flown in a large flat circular arc at 0.25 M and at

W. D. Bryce

1992-01-01

341

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on the Topopah Spring member from USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on cylindrical samples taken from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff from core hole USW G-2 at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. Test results are consistent with those for samples of the Topopah Spring Member from other core holes. Decreased strain rate resulted in lower strengths and Young`s moduli, and

F. B. Nimick; R. G. Van Buskirk; A. F. McFarland

1987-01-01

342

Test and evaluation of the Argonne BPAC10 Series air chamber calorimeter designed for 20 minute measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the final report on DOE-OSS Task ANLE88002 Fast Air Chamber Calorimetry.'' The task objective was to design, construct, and test an isothermal air chamber calorimeter for plutonium assay of bulk samples that would meet the following requirements for sample power measurement: average sample measurement time less than 20 minutes. Measurement of samples with power output up to 10 W. Precision of better than 1% RSD for sample power greater than 1 W. Precision better than 0.010 watt SD, for sample power less than 1 W. This report gives a description of the calorimeter hardware and software and discusses the test results. The instrument operating procedure, included as an appendix, gives examples of typical input/output and explains the menu driven software. Sample measurement time of less than 20 minutes was attained by pre-equilibration of the samples in low cost precision preheaters and by prediction of equilibrium measurements. Tests at the TA55 Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, on typical samples, indicates that the instrument meets all the measurement requirements.

Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.; Jung, E.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Cremers, T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-10-01

343

Testing the effects of reflow on tantalum capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on testing the effects of one and several reflow processes on surface mount tantalum capacitor characteristics, especially in a humid environment. Effects on maximum voltage, moisture absorption, and durability in the standard 85\\/85 test were examined. Research was done by using a 0–90V voltage test, a 100% RH moisture absorption test, and the standard 85\\/85 test. Results

J. Virkki; T. Seppälä; P. Raumonen

2010-01-01

344

Effectively prioritizing tests in development environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software testing helps ensure not only that the software under development has been implemented correctly, but also that further development does not break it. If developers introduce new defects into the software, these should be detected as early and inexpensively as possible in the development cycle. To help optimize which tests are run at what points in the design cycle,

Amitabh Srivastava; Jay Thiagarajan

2002-01-01

345

Effective Teaching Practices during Physical Fitness Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in fitness tests is among the most common memories many adults hold of physical education class. If students have a negative attitude towards fitness testing, they may be less likely to assess their own progress once they graduate. These negative attitudes often promote lifestyle choices that support participation in at-risk…

Stewart, Amanda; Elliot, Steven; Boyce, B. Ann; Block, Martin E.

2005-01-01

346

Stereoisomeric effect on antimicrobial activity of a series of quaternary ammonium salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two homologous series of diastereoisomeric racemic ±cis and ±traps-N,N-dimethyl-N-alkyl-2-benzoyloxycyclohexylmethylammonium bromides with the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain from six to twenty (m=6,8...20) were synthesised. Their structures have been elucidated by IR, UV and in some cases also with 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry. The title compounds were assayed for their antimicrobial activity on microorganisms S. aureus, E.

Fridrich Gregan; Jarmila Oremusová; Milan Remko; Juraj Gregan; Dušan Mlynar?ík

1998-01-01

347

Modeling canopy transpiration using time series analysis: A case study illustrating the effect of soil moisture deficit on Pinus taeda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk sap flow measurements are widely used to assess and model the hydrological process of canopy transpiration (Ec); however, common analysis techniques of these data do not identify and\\/or incorporate time lag effects, multiple variables affecting canopy transpiration at different temporal scales or thresholds, and interactions of environmental variables. Here, we describe how autoregressive-integrated-moving average (ARIMA) time series models can

Chelcy R. Ford; Carol E. Goranson; Robert J. Mitchell; Rodney E. Will; Robert O. Teskey

2005-01-01

348

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on the Topopah Spring member from USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on cylindrical samples taken from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff from core hole USW G-2 at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. Test results are consistent with those for samples of the Topopah Spring Member from other core holes. Decreased strain rate resulted in lower strengths and Young`s moduli, and larger samples were weaker and had higher Young`s moduli. Samples containing preexisting fractures demonstrated little or no linear stress-strain behavior. 9 refs., 107 figs.

Nimick, F.B.; Van Buskirk, R.G.; McFarland, A.F.

1987-05-01

349

Effect of passive stretching and jogging on the series elastic muscle stiffness and range of motion of the ankle joint  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effect of stretching and jogging on the series elastic muscle stiffness of the plantar flexors and on the range of dorsiflexion at the ankle joint. Methods 24 healthy subjects participated in this study. Each subject undertook all of the following protocols, in random order: (1) stretching protocol: five 30 s static stretches with 30 s rest between stretches; (2) aerobic jogging protocol: subjects ran on a treadmill for 10 min at 60% of their maximum age predicted heart rate; (3) combined protocol: subjects ran first and then stretched. A damped oscillation technique was used to measure the series elastic stiffness of the plantar flexors. Dorsiflexion of the ankle was assessed with a weights and pulley system that moved the ankle joint from a neutral position into dorsiflexion passively. Electromyography was used to monitor the activity of the plantar and dorsiflexors during these procedures. The statistical analysis of these data involved an analysis of covariance Results For decreasing series elastic muscle stiffness running was more effective than stretching (P<0.05). In contrast, the results for range of motion showed that the combination protocol and the stretching only protocol were more effective than the running only protocol (P < 0.05) for increasing dorsiflexion range of motion at the ankle. Conclusions Both jogging and static stretching exercises appear to be beneficial to individuals participating in sporting activities. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6

McNair, Peter J; Stanley, Stephen N

1996-01-01

350

Investigation of Effect of Pressure Control System on BWR LOCA Phenomena Using ROSA-III Test Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure control system failure test series was conducted at the Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA)-III test facility to evaluate the effect of the pressure control system on thermal-hydraulic phenomena during a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of a boiling water reactor (BWR). The break was assumed at the recirculation pump suction line. The pressure control system had no effect

Hiroshige KUMAMARU; Yasuo KOIZUMI; Yutaka KUKITA; Kanji TASAKA

1987-01-01

351

Labeling and Effectiveness Testing: Sunscreen Drug Products ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... For sunscreen drug products that provide 40 or 80 minutes of water resistance according to the test in 21 CFR 201.327(i)(7): “Water Resistant ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

352

Use of Radioisotopes in Development of Test Methods and Formulations for Traffic Paints. Part I. Highway Cross-Stripe Tests of Traffic Paints, Series I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory abrasion wear test was developed but it could not be used as a reliable measure of road performance because of the complicated interplay of chipping and erosion which actually govern paint failure in service. Various paint formulations were d...

W. R. Tooke W. H. Burrows

1965-01-01

353

Effect of copper content on corrosion behavior and chromate conversion coating protection of 7xxx series aluminum alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of Cu in Al-Zn-Mg alloys increases the mechanical strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking of 7xxx series aluminum alloys (AA7xxx). The peak aged T6 temper provides the maximum mechanical strength by precipitation hardening. However, the presence of noble Cu makes AA7xxx-T6 more susceptible to localized corrosion, such as pitting, crevice and intergranular corrosion (IGC). In order to protect AA7xxx-T6 from localized corrosion, protective chromate conversion coatings (CCCs) must be used. Cu has been reported to affect the CCC protection performance. The exact roles of Cu content in corrosion behavior and CCC protection of AA7xxx-T6 are the focus of this study. Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) approaches were used in combination with materials characterization techniques, such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB), SEM, TEM, High Resolution TEM (HRTEM), Scanning TEM (STEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS). Electrochemical tests on AA7xxx-T6 with various Cu content in deaerated chloride solution found that all alloys except for essentially Cu-free AA7004-T6 had two breakdown potentials, which increased logarithmically with increasing Cu content. Transient dissolution of the fine hardening precipitates and the surrounding solid solution in a thin surface layer was found in the Cu-containing alloys polarized at potentials between the two breakdown potentials. Stable dissolution associated with combined IGC and selective grain attack was found above the second breakdown potential. EIS tests revealed that the overall influence of Cu on the corrosion behavior was detrimental due to Cu enrichment in aerated chloride solution. TEM and STEM analysis revealed that CCC was heterogeneous on the heterogeneous microstructure of AA7075-T6. The coatings formed on coarse intermetallic particles were much thinner than CCC formed on the matrix. It was found that the CCC formed on the matrix mainly consisted of a CrIIIOOH backbone and chemisorbed HCrVIO4-. A sol-gel model for CCC formation was supported by the observations in this study. Finally the Cu content can have different effects on CCC protection: Cu is beneficial to CCC protection for coatings formed on polished AA7xxx-T6, but Cu is detrimental if it is enriched on the surface prior to CCC formation.

Meng, Qingjiang

354

The Prevalence and Effects of Test Anxiety in School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on the prevalence and effects of test anxiety on children in compulsory education. Tests are identified as a major source of concern to many children, and the overall prevalence of test anxiety appears to be increasing, possibly due to increased testing in schools and pressures associated with this. Studies of children are generally in accordance

Angus S. McDonald

2001-01-01

355

Effects of Coaching on GRE Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After adjusting for different background characteristics of students, effects on test scores were related to the length and type of test coaching programs offered. The data suggest that the test item types in the Graduate Record Examination General Test appear to show little susceptibility to formal coaching experiences. (Author/DWH)

Powers, Donald E.

1985-01-01

356

The Effect of Test Speededness on Subgroup Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to gauge the disadvantage, if any, of reaching difficult items that appear earlier in a test, at the expense of not reaching easier items that appear later in a test. The study focused on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) data and examined the effect for females, Asian…

Lawrence, Ida M.

357

Evaluation of three oil spill laboratory dispersant effectiveness tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPA evaluated three laboratory methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and currently required by regulation) in the United States, the Swirling Flask Test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-Dilution Test (used in France and other European countries). Six test oils and three dispersants were evaluated; dispersants were applied to the oil at an average 1:10 ratio

D. Sullivan; J. Farlow; K. A. Sahatjian

1993-01-01

358

Effect of Extraction and Precipitation Conditions During Soybean Protein Isolate Production on the Genistein Series Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the conditions for isolation of soy protein on the content of genistein and its conjugated forms was studied.\\u000a The major components of the genistein series isolated from soybean flour were malonyl genistin (54.3%), genistin (36.9%),\\u000a and equal amounts (4.4%) of genistein and acetyl genistin. A modification in the conjugation profile of genistein between\\u000a pH 4.5 and 8.0 and

F. J. Speroni Aguirre; V. Milesi; M. C. Añón

2007-01-01

359

Measuring effects of refractive surgery on corneas using Taylor series polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corneal topographers have made it possible to accurately map corneal shape. We applied this technology to model the post- refractive surgery cornea using Taylor series polynomials. Topography data was taken from 58 patient eyes with photorefractive keratectomy or astigmatic photorefractive keratectomy. We looked at the changes the cornea underwent surgically, as well as the healing process. We compared the post-ablation cornea to the pre-ablation cornea and to the intended correction using novel topography maps. From the refractive map, we quantified the spherical aberration as areas of defocus on the cornea.

Corbin, Jacob A.; Klein, Stanley A.; van de Pol, Corina

1999-06-01

360

Effect of series elasticity on isokinetic torque–angle relationship in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The influence of muscle series elasticity on the relationship between torque and joint angle during dynamic contractions\\u000a was studied. The torque–angle relationship during the maximal isokinetic knee extension was determined for six male subjects\\u000a (25–45 years) at 0.52, 1.05, 1.57, 2.09, 2.62, 3.49 rad\\/s. The knee joint angle at which peak torque was observed showed a\\u000a systematic shift to more extended

Y. Kawakami; K. Kubo; H. Kanehisa; T. Fukunaga

2002-01-01

361

Magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 4}(Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} alloy series  

SciTech Connect

Alloys from the Gd{sub 4}(Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} series were prepared by melting a stoichiometric amounts of pure metals in an induction furnace. The crystal structure is of the anti-Th{sub 3}P{sub 4} type (space group I{bar 4}3d) for all the compounds tested. The linear increase of the lattice parameters with Bi concentration is attributed to the larger atomic radius of Bi than that of Sb. Magnetic measurements show that the alloys order ferromagnetically from 266K to 330K, with the ordering temperature increasing with decreasing Bi concentration. The alloys are soft ferromagnets below their Curie temperatures, and follow the Curie-Weiss law above their ordering temperatures. The paramagnetic effective magnetic moments are low compared to the theoretical value for a free Gd{sup 3+}, while the ordered magnetic moments are close to the theoretical value for Gd. The alloys exhibit a moderate magnetocaloric effect (MCE) whose maxima are located between 270K and 338K and have relatively wide peaks. The peak MCE temperature decreases with decreasing Bi concentration while the peak height increases with decreasing Bi concentration. The Curie temperatures determined from inflection points of heat capacity are in good agreement with those obtained from the magnetocaloric effect. The MCE results obtained from the two different methods (magnetization and heat capacity) agree quite well with each other for all of the alloys in the series.

Niu, Xuejun

1999-12-01

362

Current single event effect test results for candidate spacecraft electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present both proton and heavy ion single event effect (SEE) ground test results for candidate spacecraft electronics. A variety of digital and analog devices were tested, including EEPROMs, DRAMs, and DC-DC converters

Kenneth A. LaBel; Amy K. Moran; Donald K. Hawkins; Anthony B. Sanders; Christina M. Seidleck; Hak S. Kim; James E. Forney; E. G. Stassinopoulos; Paul Marshall; Cheryl Dale; J. Kinnison; B. Carkhuff

1996-01-01

363

Single event effect test results for candidate spacecraft electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present both heavy ion and proton single event effect (SEE) ground test results for candidate spacecraft electronics. A variety of digital, analog, and fiber optic devices were tested, including DRAMs, FPGAs and fiber links

Kenneth A. Label; Amy K. Moran; Christina M. Seidleck; E. G. Stassinopoulos; J. M. Barth; P. Marshall; M. Carts; C. Marshall; J. Kinnison; B. Carkhuff

1997-01-01

364

Effect of ITRF2000 on TOPEX/POSEIDON Orbit Determination and Mean Sea Level Time Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precision orbits produced by NASA for the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter satellite are based on a set of SLR and DORIS station coordinates determined in 1995 (CSR95L01 and CSR95D02). However, it is clear that this terrestrial reference system needs to be updated. In particular, the DORIS station velocities in CSR95D02 are not sufficiently well determined to accurately propagate the positions into the current years, much less into the Jason-1 follow-on mission. The ITRF2000 reference frame is a new solution for the SLR, DORIS and GPS tracking stations which is a significant improvement over previous solutions. The concern is that artificial trends can be introduced into the sea level observations from changes or errors in the reference system used for orbit determination. ITRF97 has a significant offset (2 cm) and drift (2 mm/yr) relative to the CSR system, so it was not adopted for the NASA orbit production. ITRF2000 has adopted the SLR determination of the terrestrial origin, which has substantially removed this offset and drift. By adopting ITRF2000, NASA and CNES should be able to adopt the same terrestrial reference frame for the transition from TOPEX/POSEIDON to Jason-1. The level of backward compatibility with the CSR95L01/D02 system is examined to determine if any significant artifacts in the sea level time series are introduced in the sea level time series based on the NASA orbits.

Ries, J. C.; Chambers, D. P.; Choi, K.; Eanes, R. J.

2001-12-01

365

Ion pair stabilization effects on a series of procaine structural analogs.  

PubMed

In this work, a series of 10 structural procaine analogs have been synthesized in order to investigate the structural features affecting the stability of ion pair formation and its influence on the lipophilicity of ionizable compounds. The structural variation within this series was focused on the terminal nitrogen substituents and on the intermediate chain linkage nature. The hydrophobic parameters logP(n) and logP(i) (partition coefficient of the neutral and ionic species, respectively), as well as the ionization constants pK(a) and pK(a)(oct), were obtained from logD-pH profiles measured at pH values ranging from 2 to 12. The difference between logP(i) and logP(n) values (i.e. difflogP) of each prepared compound was considered a measure of the stability of ion pair formation. In this set, the difflogP values varied nearly over one log unit, ranging from -2.40 to -3.37. It has been observed that the presence of hydrogen bonding groups (especially donor) and low steric hindrance around the terminal amine ionizable group increases the relative lipophilicity of the ionic species as compared to the corresponding neutral species. These results were interpreted as due to the increased stability of ion pairs of the compounds bearing these structural features. PMID:20854904

Malvezzi, Alberto; do Amaral, Antonia T

2010-09-17

366

Short term effect of rainfall on suspected malaria episodes at Magaria, Niger: a time series study.  

PubMed

Epidemiological patterns of malaria are influenced by different kinds of climate. In Sahelian countries, the link between climatic factors and malaria is still insufficiently quantified. The aim of this work was to conduct a time-series study of rainfall to estimate the increased risk of malaria morbidity. Daily suspected malaria episodes among subjects of all ages were collected retrospectively in three health care facilities between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2003 at Magaria, Niger. These daily numbers were analysed with time-series methods, using generalized additive models with a negative binomial family. The impact of rainfall 40 days before occurrence of suspected malaria episodes was studied using a distributed lag model. More than 13 000 suspected malaria episodes were registered corresponding to an annual cumulative incidence rate of 7.4%. The overall excess risk of suspected malaria episodes for an increase of 1mm of rainfall after 40 days of exposure was estimated at 7.2%. This study allowed to specify the excess risk of rainfall on the occurrence of suspected malaria episodes in an intermediate rainfall area located in the Sahelian region in Niger. It was a first step to a health impact assessment. PMID:21925691

Jusot, Jean-François; Alto, Oumarou

2011-09-16

367

Further observations on the specific red cell adherence test: effects of radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

To assess the effects of radiation therapy on the specific red cell adherence test we have evaluated 33 patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer and in whom radiotherapy had been used. With this test negative tumors were found in 32 of the 33 cases. In a second series of 10 patients histologic examinations were done by biopsy before radiotherapy and by subsequent microscopic examination of the cystectomy specimen. The specific red cell adherence test results remained constant in all of these cases. These findings strongly suggest that 1) the specific red cell adherence test does remain negative after radiotherapy and 2) this test is a valuable prognosticator of the future likelihood of invasion in all patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

Richie, J.P.; Yap, W.T.

1981-04-01

368

Further observations on the specific red cell adherence test: effects of radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

To assess the effects of radiation therapy on the specific red cell adherence test we have evaluated 33 patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer and in whom radiotherapy had been used. With this test negative tumors were found in 32 of the 33 cases. In a second series of 10 patients histologic examinations were done by biopsy before radiotherapy and by subsequent microscopic examination of the cystectomy specimen. The specific red cell adherence test results remained constant in all of these cases. These findings strongly suggest that 1) the specific red cell adherence test does remain negative after radiotherapy and 2) this test is a valuable prognosticator of the future likelihood of invasion in all patients with transitional cell cacinoma of the bladder.

Richie, J.P.; Yap, W.T.

1981-04-01

369

Comparison of Compendial Antimicrobial Effectiveness Tests: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effectiveness or preservative effectiveness test is described in the tripartite compendia for sterile parenteral\\u000a multi-dose formulated products. The execution of the test is essentially harmonized with respect to inoculum preparation and\\u000a test execution but not the acceptance criteria. This article describes how a single test can be performed that procedurally\\u000a satisfies all of the compendia and their acceptance

Cheryl L. Moser; Brian K. Meyer

2011-01-01

370

Comparison of compendial antimicrobial effectiveness tests: a review.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial effectiveness or preservative effectiveness test is described in the tripartite compendia for sterile parenteral multi-dose formulated products. The execution of the test is essentially harmonized with respect to inoculum preparation and test execution but not the acceptance criteria. This article describes how a single test can be performed that procedurally satisfies all of the compendia and their acceptance criteria. PMID:21221871

Moser, Cheryl L; Meyer, Brian K

2011-01-08

371

Effectiveness of an online curriculum for medical students on genetics, genetic testing and counseling  

PubMed Central

Background It is increasingly important that physicians have a thorough understanding of the basic science of human genetics and the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) associated with genetic testing and counseling. Methods The authors developed a series of web-based courses for medical students on these topics. The course modules are interactive, emphasize clinical case studies, and can easily be incorporated into existing medical school curricula. Results Results of a ‘real world’ effectiveness trial indicate that the courses have a statistically significant effect on knowledge, attitude, intended behavior and self-efficacy related to genetic testing (p<0.001; N varies between 163 and 596 for each course). Conclusions The results indicate that this curriculum is an effective tool for educating medical students on the ELSI associated with genetic testing and for promoting positive changes in students' confidence, counseling attitudes and behaviors.

Metcalf, Mary P.; Tanner, T. Bradley; Buchanan, Amanda

2010-01-01

372

Size Effect in Simple Shear Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simple shear testing is considered to be one of the most appropriate ways of reproducing in the laboratory the stresses that would be experienced by an element of soil subjected to earthquake loading. The main drawback concerns the sample size, in that fo...

M. I. Amer M. S. Aggour W. D. Kovacs

1984-01-01

373

Situational effects on a projective test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study was administered to 154 engineers and accountants. The test booklets of a comparable sample of 60 engineers and accountants who had taken the Rosenzweig as part of an appraisal procedure in a psychological consulting organization were scored in an equivalent manner to those of the survey sample.\\

Bernard Mausner

1961-01-01

374

Effects of Incorporating Humor in Test Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two matched forms of a 50 item grammar test were developed. Twenty items designed to be humorous were included in one form. Inclusion of humorous items did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items, nor on commmon post-treatment items. Inclusion did not affect results of anxiety measures. (Author/DWH)

McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

1985-01-01

375

Testing the Role Effect in Terrorist Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effects of role on terrorists' use of power and affiliative strategies in negotiation as a function of terrorist ideology, incident type, and the outcome that is achieved. Data were scores on eight behavioral scales designed to reflect the dynamics of 186 terrorist negotiations, as reported in detailed chronological accounts. Results supported the hypothesized one-down effect with

William A. Donohue; Paul J. Taylor

2003-01-01

376

Fear Appeals in the Primary Classroom: Effects on Test Anxiety and Test Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated whether fear appeals used prior to a test increased self-reported test anxiety and had a detrimental effect on test scores. Forty primary school pupils were instructed for one week under a low threat condition under which no fear appeals were made and another week under a high threat condition in which fear appeals…

Putwain, David William; Best, Natalie

2011-01-01

377

An Experimental Comparison of the Effectiveness of Branch Testing and Data Flow Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment comparing the effectiveness of the all-uses and all-edges test data adequacy criteria was performed. The experiment was designed so as to overcome some of the deE- eieneies of previous software testing experiments. A large number of test sets was randomly generated for each of nine subject programs with subtle errors. For each test set, the percentages of executable

Phyllis G. Frankl; Stewart N. Weiss

1993-01-01

378

Estimation of Effect Size From a Series of Experiments Involving Paired Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the distribution theory for a Glass-type (1976) estimator of effect size from studies involving paired comparisons. We derive an unbiased estimator of effect size followingHedges's (1981) work on combining effect sizes from independent samples. It is shown that studies involving mixtures of paired and independent samples can also be combined in this way. Approximate confidence limits for

Robert D. Gibbons; Donald R. Hedeker; John M. Davis

1993-01-01

379

Effect-based interpretation of toxicity test data using probability and comparison with alternative methods of analysis  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is described that incorporates the intra- and intertest variability and the biological effect of bioassay data in evaluating the toxicity of single and multiple tests for regulatory decision-making purposes. The single- and multiple-test regulatory decision probabilities were determined from t values (n {minus} 1, one-tailed) derived from the estimated biological effect and the associated standard error at the critical sample concentration. Single-test regulatory decision probabilities below the selected minimum regulatory decision probability identify individual tests as noncompliant. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability below the multiple-test regulatory decision minimum identifies groups of tests in which the magnitude and persistence of the toxicity is sufficient to be considered noncompliant or to require enforcement action. Regulatory decision probabilities derived from the t distribution were compared with results based on standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests using single- and multiple-concentration toxicity test data from an actual national pollutant discharge incorporated the precision of the effect estimate into regulatory decisions at a fixed level of effect. Also, probability-based interpretation of toxicity tests provides incentive to laboratories to produce, and permit holders to use, high-quality, precise data, particularly when multiple tests are used in regulatory decisions. These results are contrasted with standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests in which the intratest precision is a determining factor in setting the biological effect used for regulatory decisions.

Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Markle, P.J.; Bottomley, J.P.

2000-01-01

380

Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing with Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792): Survival and Behavioral Responses to a Dilution Series of a Mining Effluent in South Africa  

PubMed

Survival, behavioral early warning responses to, and behavioral effects of a complex effluent from Richards Bay Minerals in Natal, South Africa, were studied using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792) as a biosensor. Three replicates of eight juvenile fish were exposed to a dilution series of the effluent (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100%) and the behavioral pattern (ventilation, locomotion) was measured online with quadropole impedance conversion. Survival decreased with increasing effluent concentration. Before death, O. mykiss coloration darkened, demonstrating skewed bodies subsequently after death. Decreased activity and increased ventilation combined with increased ventilation frequency were found within the first 2 h of exposure at >/=96-h LC50 value of 10% effluent concentration indicating early warning responses. During 4 days of exposure, activity decreased and ventilation increased further at concentrations around the 96-h LC50 value indicating toxic effects. PMID:9680523

Gerhardt

1998-08-01

381

The Testing Effect on Skills Learning Might Last 6 Months  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research question was: does testing as a final activity in a…

Kromann, C. B.; Bohnstedt, C.; Jensen, M. L.; Ringsted, C.

2010-01-01

382

Learned Helplessness: The Effect of Failure on Test-Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined learned helplessness and its effect on test taking. Students were given one of two tests; the first began with extremely difficult questions and the other started with easy questions. The researchers hypothesized that those who took the test beginning with difficult questions would become easily frustrated and possibly doubt…

Firmin, Michael; Hwang, Chi-En; Copella, Margaret; Clark, Sarah

2004-01-01

383

Effect of adult mallard age on avian reproductive tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the effect of using two different ages of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) adults within the first breeding season on reproductive tests under standard Toxic Substances Control Act avian reproductive guide-lines. The adult age groups were 7 and 11 months at test initiation. The test chemical was an organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos. The parameters evaluated included food

Jay D. Gile; S. Mark Meyers

1986-01-01

384

A Test of the Abstinence Violation Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the abstinence violation effect, highly controlled drinkers tend to overindulge following an initial slip. To investigate this relapse model, 47 male college students, ranging in age from 21 to 46, were assigned either to an unrestrained or a restrained drinker group according to their scores on the Restrained Drinking Scale. Subjects…

Ruderman, Audrey J.

385

Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge: Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to explain students' ability to transfer their knowledge about mathematical series to the problems that they encounter. The data of the study were obtained by using two different tests, namely "Problem Solving Test (PST)" and "Series Character Identification Test (SCT)" which were developed by the researchers. The study…

Akgun, Levent; Isik, Cemalettin; Tatar, Enver; Isleyen, Tevfik; Soylu, Yasin

2012-01-01

386

Acute and subacute effects of urban air pollution on cardiopulmonary emergencies and mortality: time series studies in austrian cities.  

PubMed

Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years) were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover) on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death). Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic) and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards. PMID:24157504

Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Rabczenko, Daniel

2013-10-02

387

Shallow Habitat Air Dive Series (SHAD I and II): The Effects on Visual Performance and Physiology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to determine the safe depths at which divers can live while breathing air, a battery of medical, physiological, and performance tests were administered to subjects who lived for a month in the NavSubMedRschLab pressure chamber at 50 ft and at 60 ...

J. A. S. Kinney S. M. Luria M. S. Strauss C. L. McKay H. M. Paulson

1974-01-01

388

Response Mode Effects on Computer Based Problem Solving. Report Series 1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This response mode study attempts to determine whether different response modes are helpful or not in facilitating the thought process in a given problem solving situation. The Luchins Water Jar Test (WJT) used in this study illustrates the phenomena "Einstelling" (mechanization of response) because it does not require any specialized content…

Brown, Bobby R.; Sustik, Joan M.

389

Effects of Salts of the Hofmeister Series on the Hydrogen Bond Network of Water  

PubMed Central

The effect of salts on water behavior has been a topic of interest for many years; however, some recent reports have suggested that ions do not influence the hydrogen bonding behavior of water. Using an effective two-state hydrogen bonding model to interpret the temperature excursion infrared response of the O-H stretch of aqueous salt solutions, we show a strong correlation between salt effects on water hydrogen bonding and the Hofmeister order. These data clearly show that salts do have a measurable impact on the equilibrium hydrogen bonding behavior of water and support models which explain Hofmeister effects on the basis of solute charge density.

Vanderkooi, Jane M.

2009-01-01

390

Effects of Reference Performance Testing During Aging Using Commercial Cells  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Technology Development Program, under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, is investigating lithium-ion batteries for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells are aged under various test conditions, including temperatures and states-of-charge. Life testing is interrupted at regular intervals to conduct reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to measure changes in the electrical performance of the cells and then to determine cell degradation as a function of test time. Although designed to be unobtrusive, data from the Advanced Technology Development Gen 2 cells indicated that RPTs actually contributed to cell degradation and failure. A study was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using commercially available lithium-ion cells to determine the impact of RPTs on life. A series of partial RPTs were performed at regular intervals during life testing and compared to a control group that was life tested without RPT interruption. It was determined that certain components of the RPT were detrimental, while others appeared to improve cell performance. Consequently, a new "mini" RPT was designed as an unobtrusive alternative. Initial testing with commercial cells indicates that the impact of the mini RPT is significantly less than the Gen 2 cell RPT.

Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; David Howell

2005-07-01

391

An Evaluation of the Testing Effect with Third Grade Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research shows that being tested after studying a set of material will improve recall of that material on a later test. While this effect has been shown to be robust in adults using both simple material, such as word lists, and complex texts, little research has been done looking at this effect in children. In the current study, third-grade

Chandra L. Brojde

392

Kamyr P-D Series Full-Borne Ball Valve METC SOA Test Valve No. A-17 state-of-the-art lockhopper valve-testing and development project  

SciTech Connect

The Kamyr Ball Valve, METC SOA Test Valve No. A-17, accumulated 640 valve cycles in the Valve Static Test Unit and over 16,900 valve cycles in the Valve Dynamic Test Unit. During dynamic testing (with minus 8 mesh and 5/16'' x 1/8'' limestone), the stem packing was replaced twice and the valve was disassembled once to remove compacted fines from the body cavity. The seat leakage after testing was less than one-half of the rate allowed in the state-of-the-art project for a 6-inch valve. The inspection after testing showed sight abrasion and galling on the stem. With a suitable purge system to minimize the entry of fines into the stem packing and body cavity, this valve would be expected to have outstanding performance in lockhopper service with dry solids. Pilot-plant experience with a large valve (10-inch) from the same design series has shown that this design has the capability for a service life in excess of 10,000 cycles.

Gardner, J.F.; Hall, R.C.; Hornbeck, R.G.; Griffith, R.A.; Nutter, T.M.; Yost, T.M.; Vandergrift, T.; Gayheart, T.R.; Armstrong, D.L.

1981-02-01

393

A 1-D analytical method for estimating surface water-groundwater interactions and effective thermal diffusivity using temperature time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to manage surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) as a single resource, it is necessary that the interactions between them are understood and quantified. Heat, as a natural tracer of water movement, is increasingly being used for this purpose. However, analytical methods that are commonly used are limited by uncertainties in the effective thermal diffusivity of the sediments at the SW-GW interface. We present a novel 1-D analytical method. It utilizes both the amplitude ratio and phase shift of pairs of temperature time series at the SW-GW interface to estimate the Darcy velocity. This eliminates both the need to specify a value for effective thermal diffusivity and the need for iteration. The method also allows for an estimation of effective thermal diffusivity, which can indicate periods where assumptions to the analytical solution are violated. Riverbed temperature data from the Murray Darling Basin (Australia) are used to illustrate the method.

McCallum, A. M.; Andersen, M. S.; Rau, G. C.; Acworth, R. I.

2012-11-01

394

Predictive assessment of a non-linear random effects model for multivariate time series of infectious disease counts.  

PubMed

Infectious disease counts from surveillance systems are typically observed in several administrative geographical areas. In this paper, a non-linear model for the analysis of such multiple time series of counts is discussed. To account for heterogeneous incidence levels or varying transmission of a pathogen across regions, region-specific and possibly spatially correlated random effects are introduced. Inference is based on penalized likelihood methodology for mixed models. Since the use of classical model choice criteria such as AIC or BIC can be problematic in the presence of random effects, models are compared by means of one-step-ahead predictions and proper scoring rules. In a case study, the model is applied to monthly counts of meningococcal disease cases in 94 departments of France (excluding Corsica) and weekly counts of influenza cases in 140 administrative districts of Southern Germany. The predictive performance improves if existing heterogeneity is accounted for by random effects. PMID:21484849

Paul, M; Held, L

2011-01-17

395

Anti-diabetic effects of a series of vanadium dipicolinate complexes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes  

PubMed Central

The effects of oral treatment of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes with a range of vanadium dipicolinate complexes (Vdipic) and derivatives are reviewed. Structure-reactivity relationships are explored aiming to correlate properties such as stability, to their insulin-enhancing effects. Three types of modifications are investigated; first, substitutions on the aromatic ring, second, coordination of a hydroxylamido group to the vanadium, and third, changes in the oxidation state of the vanadium ion. These studies allowed us to address the importance of coordination chemistry, and redox chemistry, as modes of action. Dipicolinate was originally chosen as a ligand because the dipicolinatooxovanadium(V) complex (V5dipic), is a potent inhibitor of phosphatases. The effect of vanadium oxidation state (3, 4 or 5), on the insulin-enhancing properties was studied in both the Vdipic and VdipicCl series. Effects on blood glucose, body weight, serum lipids, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase were selectively monitored. Statistically distinct differences in activity were found, however, the trends observed were not the same in the Vdipic and VdipicCl series. Interperitoneal administration of the Vdipic series was used to compare the effect of administration mode. Correlations were observed for blood vanadium and plasma glucose levels after V5dipic treatment, but not after treatment with corresponding V4dipic and V3dipic complexes. Modifications of the aromatic ring structure with chloride, amine or hydroxyl groups had limited effects. Global gene expression was measured using Affymetrix oligonucleotide chips. All diabetic animals treated with hydroxyl substituted V5dipic (V5dipicOH) and some diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulfate had normalized hyperlipidemia yet uncontrolled hyperglycemia and showed abnormal gene expression patterns. In contrast to the normal gene expression profiles previously reported for some diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulfate, where both hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia were normalized. Modification of the metal, changing the coordination chemistry to form a hydroxylamine ternary complex, had the most influence on the anti-diabetic action. Vanadium absorption into serum was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy for selected vanadium complexes. Only diabetic rats treated with the ternary V5dipicOH hydroxylamine complex showed statistically significant increases in accumulation of vanadium into serum compared to diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulfate. The chemistry and physical properties of the Vdipic complexes correlated with their anti-diabetic properties. Here, we propose that compound stability and ability to interact with cellular redox reactions are key components for the insulin-enhancing activity of vanadium compounds. Specifically, we found that the most overall effective anti-diabetic Vdipic compounds were obtained when the compound administered had an increased coordination number in the vanadium complex.

Willsky, Gail R.; Chi, Lai-Har; Godzala, Michael; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Smee, Jason J.; Trujillo, Alejandro M.; Alfano, Josephine A.; Ding, Wenjin; Hu, Zihua; Crans, Debbie C.

2011-01-01

396

Anti-diabetic effects of a series of vanadium dipicolinate complexes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  

PubMed

The effects of oral treatment of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes with a range of vanadium dipicolinate complexes (Vdipic) and derivatives are reviewed. Structure-reactivity relationships are explored aiming to correlate properties such as stability, to their insulin-enhancing effects. Three types of modifications are investigated; first, substitutions on the aromatic ring, second, coordination of a hydroxylamido group to the vanadium, and third, changes in the oxidation state of the vanadium ion. These studies allowed us to address the importance of coordination chemistry, and redox chemistry, as modes of action. Dipicolinate was originally chosen as a ligand because the dipicolinatooxovanadium(V) complex (V5dipic), is a potent inhibitor of phosphatases. The effect of vanadium oxidation state (3, 4 or 5), on the insulin-enhancing properties was studied in both the Vdipic and VdipicCl series. Effects on blood glucose, body weight, serum lipids, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase were selectively monitored. Statistically distinct differences in activity were found, however, the trends observed were not the same in the Vdipic and VdipicCl series. Interperitoneal administration of the Vdipic series was used to compare the effect of administration mode. Correlations were observed for blood vanadium and plasma glucose levels after V5dipic treatment, but not after treatment with corresponding V4dipic and V3dipic complexes. Modifications of the aromatic ring structure with chloride, amine or hydroxyl groups had limited effects. Global gene expression was measured using Affymetrix oligonucleotide chips. All diabetic animals treated with hydroxyl substituted V5dipic (V5dipicOH) and some diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulfate had normalized hyperlipidemia yet uncontrolled hyperglycemia and showed abnormal gene expression patterns. In contrast to the normal gene expression profiles previously reported for some diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulfate, where both hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia were normalized. Modification of the metal, changing the coordination chemistry to form a hydroxylamine ternary complex, had the most influence on the anti-diabetic action. Vanadium absorption into serum was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy for selected vanadium complexes. Only diabetic rats treated with the ternary V5dipicOH hydroxylamine complex showed statistically significant increases in accumulation of vanadium into serum compared to diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulfate. The chemistry and physical properties of the Vdipic complexes correlated with their anti-diabetic properties. Here, we propose that compound stability and ability to interact with cellular redox reactions are key components for the insulin-enhancing activity of vanadium compounds. Specifically, we found that the most overall effective anti-diabetic Vdipic compounds were obtained when the compound administered had an increased coordination number in the vanadium complex. PMID:23049138

Willsky, Gail R; Chi, Lai-Har; Godzala, Michael; Kostyniak, Paul J; Smee, Jason J; Trujillo, Alejandro M; Alfano, Josephine A; Ding, Wenjin; Hu, Zihua; Crans, Debbie C

2011-10-01

397

Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

Beatriz U Ramirez (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

2010-09-01

398

The effects of vasopressin on hemodynamics and renal function in severe septic shock: a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review all cases of septic shock treated with vasopressin to determine the effects on hemodynamic and renal function and to document any adverse effects. Setting: A 14-bed mixed medical-surgical ICU of St. Paul's Hospital, a 450-bed tertiary referral hospital affiliated with the University of British Columbia. Patients: All ICU patients who received vasopressin for treatment of severe septic

Cheryl L. Holmes; Keith R. Walley; Dean R. Chittock; Tara Lehman; James A. Russell

2001-01-01

399

PERC Handbook (Program Effectiveness and Related Costs). Empire State College Research Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook is a "how to do it" set of definitions, instruments, and procedures based on program effectiveness and related costs (PERC) evaluation at Empire State College (Saratoga Springs, New York) and four other cooperating institutions. The handbook focuses first on program effectiveness and then considers program costs. It utilizes a…

Palola, Ernest G.; And Others

400

Effects of Alcohol Tax Increases on Alcohol-Related Disease Mortality in Alaska: Time-Series Analyses From 1976 to 2004  

PubMed Central

Objective. We evaluated the effects of tax increases on alcoholic beverages in 1983 and 2002 on alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska. Methods. We used a quasi-experimental design with quarterly measures of mortality from 1976 though 2004, and we included other states for comparison. Our statistical approach combined an autoregressive integrated moving average model with structural parameters in interrupted time-series models. Results. We observed statistically significant reductions in the numbers and rates of deaths caused by alcohol-related disease beginning immediately after the 1983 and 2002 alcohol tax increases in Alaska. In terms of effect size, the reductions were –29% (Cohen's d = –0.57) and –11% (Cohen's d = –0.52) for the 2 tax increases. Statistical tests of temporary-effect models versus long-term-effect models showed little dissipation of the effect over time. Conclusions. Increases in alcohol excise tax rates were associated with immediate and sustained reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska. Reductions in mortality occurred after 2 tax increases almost 20 years apart. Taxing alcoholic beverages is an effective public health strategy for reducing the burden of alcohol-related disease.

Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Bradley H.

2009-01-01

401

Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

Shrum, L. J.

1996-01-01

402

Effects of topical bevacizumab application on early bleb failure after trabeculectomy: observational case series  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of topical bevacizumab on the formation and function of filtering blebs in eyes with early bleb failure after antiglaucoma surgery. Methods Of all patients who underwent mitomycin-augmented trabeculectomy for glaucoma in the Department of Ophthalmology at the Medical University in Lublin, Poland, between March 2009 and March 2010, a total of 21 eyes from 20 patients with injected filtration bleb 9.8 ± 4.7 days after surgery were included in this observational case series. All patients were treated with standard steroid therapy and topical bevacizumab 5 mg/mL five times a day for 20.9 ± 9.8 days. Patients were followed up every other day, and a full eye examination was performed 14, 30, 60, and 180 days after initiation of treatment. Blebs were evaluated for vascularity by slit-lamp examination with concomitant photographic documentation and intraocular pressure measurement. Results Elevated functional bleb with significantly reduced vascularity was present in 16 eyes, and was flat and nonfunctional in five eyes. Intraocular pressure in all eyes decreased from a mean of 26.6 ± 9.6 mmHg before surgery to 14.6 ± 7.7 mmHg and 15.8 ± 8.3 mmHg at 2 and 6 months after surgery, respectively. Filtration bleb leak was noted in three eyes while on treatment with bevacizumab. Conclusion Topical application of bevacizumab might favor functional bleb formation after trabeculectomy in eyes with a high risk of failure.

Klos-Rola, Justyna; Tulidowicz-Bielak, Maria; Zarnowski, Tomasz

2013-01-01

403

Modelling the Sterling Effective Exchange Rate Using Expectations and Learning. Technical Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper builds on earlier work which models the Sterling Effective exchange rate as a structural equation making explicit allowance for the forward looking nature of the Foreign Exchange Markets. The earlier work was based on the assumption of rationali...

S. G. Hall

1990-01-01

404

Effecting Change: Syllabus for IST 640. Education and Curriculum Series: Report Number 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The product of a graduate-level introductory course on the principles, approaches and techniques of effecting change, this syllabus provides instructors with a semi-organized collection of readings, exercises, lecture topics, films, student projects, and ...

J. Katzer

1977-01-01

405

Reactor Irradiation Effect on Electrical Properties of a Series of Insulating Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studied was the reactor irradiation effect on electrical properties of insulating materials widely used in modern nuclear power plants. The loop investigations on the RPT and WWR-2 reactors are described. The channels were decladded in 'hot'' chambers aft...

E. S. Aitkhozhin Y. G. Degal'tsev S. S. Ibragimov A. M. Kovalev M. S. Satarov

1979-01-01

406

Antidiabetic effects of a series of vanadium dipicolinate complexes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oral treatment of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes with a range of vanadium dipicolinate complexes (Vdipic) and derivatives are reviewed. Structure–reactivity relationships are explored aiming to correlate properties such as stability, to their insulin-enhancing effects. Three types of modifications are investigated; first, substitutions on the aromatic ring, second, coordination of a hydroxylamido group to the vanadium, and third,

Gail R. Willsky; Lai-Har Chi; Michael Godzala; Paul J. Kostyniak; Jason J. Smee; Alejandro M. Trujillo; Josephine A. Alfano; Wenjin Ding; Zihua Hu; Debbie C. Crans

2011-01-01

407

Test of “Light” cigarette counter-advertising using a standard test of advertising effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo evaluate systematically the effectiveness of six advertising strategies (two message strategies presented in three different contexts) designed to promote smoking cessation by addressing smokers' misperceptions about Light cigarettes.DESIGNSmokers viewed one of six, 30 second test television concept advertisements, which varied by message (one emphasising how the sensory effects of Lights can be deceptive, the other describing the effects of

Saul Shiffman; Steven L Burton; Janine L Pillitteri; Joe G Gitchell; Michael E Di Marino; Christine T Sweeney; Paul A Wardle; Gary L Koehler

2001-01-01

408

A Meta-Analysis of Testing Mode Effects in Grade K-12 Mathematics Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study conducted a meta-analysis of computer-based and paper-and-pencil administration mode effects on K-12 student mathematics tests. Both initial and final results based on fixed- and random-effects models are presented. The results based on the final selected studies with homogeneous effect sizes show that the administration mode had no…

Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; Young, Michael J.; Brooks, Thomas; Olson, John

2007-01-01

409

A test of the testing effect: acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples.  

PubMed

The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills, which is important to establish given the key role problem solving plays in, for instance, math and science education. Worked examples are an effective and efficient way of acquiring problem-solving skills. Forty students either only studied worked examples (SSSS) or engaged in testing after studying an example by solving an isomorphic problem (STST). Surprisingly, results showed equal performance in both conditions on an immediate retention test after 5 min, but the SSSS condition outperformed the STST condition on a delayed retention test after 1 week. These findings suggest the testing effect might not apply to acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples. PMID:23121446

van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth

410

The 5-series F2-isoprostanes possess no vasomotor effects in the rat thoracic aorta, the human internal mammary artery and the human saphenous vein  

PubMed Central

Among the F2-isoprostanes, the 15- and the 5-series are currently used as markers of lipid peroxidation in vascular diseases. 15-F2t-IsoP (also named iPF2?-III) exerts a vasoconstriction in most vessels, whereas no data is available concerning 5-F2t-IsoP (also named iPF2?-VI), which is more abundant in plasma. The aim of this study was to determine whether 5-F2t-IsoP possess any vascular effects on various vessels including the isolated rat thoracic aorta, the human internal mammary artery and the saphenous vein. In organ baths, 5-F2t-IsoP and its 5-epimer did not affect the basal tone of any vessel, unlike 15-F2t-IsoP. These compounds possessed no antagonist effects on 15-F2t-IsoP-induced contractions, No dilator effect was observed in comparison with sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine on the rat aorta. In conclusion, we show that unlike 15-F2t-IsoP, 5-F2t-IsoP and its 5-epimer possess no vasomotor effects and as such are unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Further studies are required to test whether these mediators may have effects on systems not being measured in the current study.

Marliere, Stephanie; Cracowski, Jean-Luc; Durand, Thierry; Chavanon, Olivier; Bessard, Janine; Guy, Alexandre; Stanke-Labesque, Francoise; Rossi, Jean-Claude; Bessard, Germain

2002-01-01

411

A study of the effect of nonrandom sampling on the estimation of exposure variability using exposure-time series from the OSHA IMIS health inspection database  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nonrandom sampling over time may have on the estimation of variability, namely the geometric standard deviation, using time series of personal exposure data.

Martinez, L.T.

1997-05-01

412

Assiniboine Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of illustrated booklets presents 13 Indian stories in a bilingual format of English and Assiniboine, an Indian tribal language. Written on the first grade level, the stories have the following titles: (1) "Orange Tree in Lodgepole"; (2) "Pretty Flower"; (3) Inktomi and the Rock"; (4) "Inktomi and the Ducks"; (5) "Inktomi and the…

Allen, Minerva

413

Effects of testing conditions on conceptual survey results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a pre-test is often administered either at or near the beginning of a course, while a post-test can be given either at or near the end of a course. Also, in conducting such tests there often is no norm as to whether incentives should be offered to students. Because these variations can significantly affect test results, it is important to study and document their impact. We analyzed five years of data that were collected at The Ohio State University from over 2100 students, who took both the pre-test and post-test of the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism under various timings and incentives. We observed that the actual time frame for giving a test has a marked effect on the test results and that incentive granting also has a significant influence on test outcomes. These results suggest that one should carefully monitor and document the conditions under which tests are administered.

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2008-09-22

414

The Effect of Test System Misalignment in the Dynamic Tension Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of test system misalignment are analyzed for dynamic tension tests using sheet type rectangular 1100-0 aluminum specimens. The strain rate is assumed constant only on the natural axis of the specimen even though the specimen is subjected to a ...

H. C. Wu M. C. Yip T. P. Wang

1980-01-01

415

Exploring regions of interest with cluster analysis (EROICA) using a spectral peak statistic for selecting and testing the significance of fMRI activation time-series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much relevant information about activations and artifacts in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset can be obtained from an exploratory cluster analysis. In contrast to testing the significance of the measured experimental effect for a given model, unsupervised pattern recognition techniques, such as fuzzy clustering, often find unexpected behavior in addition to expected activations, allowing the exploitation of this

Mario Jarmasz; Ray L. Somorjai

2002-01-01

416

QTL Fine Mapping by Measuring and Testing for Hardy-Weinberg and Linkage Disequilibrium at a Series of Linked Marker Loci in Extreme Samples of Populations  

PubMed Central

It has recently been demonstrated that fine-scale mapping of a susceptibility locus for a complex disease can be accomplished on the basis of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium at closely linked marker loci among affected individuals. We extend this theory to fine-scale localization of a quantitative-trait locus (QTL) from extreme individuals in populations, by means of HW and linkage-disequilibrium (LD) analyses. QTL mapping and/or linkage analyses can establish a large genomic region (?30 cM) that contains a QTL. The QTL can be fine mapped by examination of the degree of deviation from HW and LD at a series of closely linked marker loci. The tests can be performed for samples of individuals belonging to either high or low percentiles of the phenotype distribution or for combined samples of these extreme individuals. The statistical properties (the power and the size) of the tests of this fine-mapping approach are investigated and are compared extensively, under various genetic models and parameters for the QTL and marker loci. On the basis of the results, a two-stage procedure that uses extreme samples and different tests (for HW and LD) is suggested for QTL fine mapping. This two-step procedure is economic and powerful and can accurately narrow a genomic region containing a QTL from ?30–1 cM, a range that renders physical mapping feasible for identification of the QTL. In addition, the relationship between parameterizations of complex diseases, by means of penetrance, and those of complex quantitative traits, by means of genotypic values, is outlined. This means that many statistical genetic methods developed for searching for susceptibility loci of complex diseases can be directly adopted and/or extended to QTL mapping for quantitative traits.

Deng, Hong-Wen; Chen, Wei-Min; Recker, Robert R.

2000-01-01

417

The Greenhouse Effect: A Selected Bibliography. Bibliography Series Twenty-two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide listings of articles, books, and documents which are available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library, California Polytechnic State University, and other libraries on the problem of the greenhouse effect published since 1980. Listings are organized as: (1) "Subject Headings"; (2) "Carbon Dioxide…

O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

418

Effects of air pollution on neonatal prematurity in guangzhou of china: a time-series study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, a few studies have investigated the possible adverse effects of ambient air pollution on preterm birth. However, the correlation between them still remains unclear, due to insufficient evidences. METHODS: The correlation between air pollution and preterm birth in Guangzhou city was examined by using the Generalized Additive Model (GAM) extended Poisson regression model in which

Qingguo Zhao; Zhijiang Liang; Shijuan Tao; Juan Zhu; Yukai Du

2011-01-01

419

The Effects of Instruction on College Nonmajors' Conceptions of Respiration and Photosynthesis. Research Series No. 164.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The processes of photosynthesis and respiration are basic to the understanding of many other aspects and functions of biological systems. Because of their curricular significance, these processes served as the focal point in an investigation of student conceptions and instructional effectiveness. In this study, students in a college nonscience…

Anderson, Charles W.; And Others

420

Effect of missing values in estimation of mean of auto-correlated measurement series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling and uncertainty of sampling are important tasks, when industrial processes are monitored. Missing values and unequal sources can cause problems in almost all industrial fields. One major problem is that during weekends samples may not be collected. On the other hand a composite sample may be collected during weekend. These systematically occurring missing values (gaps) will have an effect

Maaret Paakkunainen; Jarmo Kilpeläinen; Satu-Pia Reinikainen; Pentti Minkkinen

2007-01-01

421

The Hofmeister series effect in adsorption of cationic surfactants—theoretical description and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfacial properties of cationic surfactants show strong dependence on the type of surfactant counterion or on the type of anion of a salt added to the surfactant solution. In the paper, the models of ionic surfactant adsorption that can take into account ionic specific effects are reviewed. Model of ionic surfactant adsorption based on the assumption that the surfactant ions

G. Para; E. Jarek; P. Warszynski

2006-01-01

422

The Greenhouse Effect: A Selected Bibliography. Bibliography Series Twenty-two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this bibliography is to provide listings of articles, books, and documents which are available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library, California Polytechnic State University, and other libraries on the problem of the greenhouse effect published since 1980. Listings are organized as: (1) "Subject Headings"; (2) "Carbon Dioxide…

O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

423

EFFECT OF ELECTRICAL PULSING ON VARIOUS HEAT TREATMENTS OF 5XXX SERIES ALUMINUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that the presence of a pulsed electrical current, applied during the deformation process of an aluminum specimen, can significantly improve the formability of the aluminum without heating the metal above its maximum operating temperature range. The research herein extends these findings by examining the effect of electrical pulsing on 5052 and 5083 Aluminum Alloys. Two different

Wesley A. Salandro; Joshua J. Jones; Timothy A. McNeal; John T. Roth; Mark T. Smith

424

Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

425

Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics : An experiment with time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to develop a new user-friendly in-house tracking methodology for academics to analyse the effectiveness of visits (return visit behaviour and length of sessions) depending on their traffic source: direct visits, referring site entries and search engine visits. In other words, how deep do visitors navigate into the web site? Which is their

Beatriz Plaza

2009-01-01

426

Effectiveness of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) in anorexia nervosa: A case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is effective in improving cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa (AN). Twenty AN outpatients were consecutively recruited at the Eating Disorders Center of the Turin University. All participants completed 10 sessions of CRT. Neuropsychological performances improved with CRT. Data showed also a significant improvement of impulse regulation and interoceptive awareness (subscales of the Eating

Giovanni Abbate-Daga; Sara Buzzichelli; Enrica Marzola; Federico Amianto; Secondo Fassino

2012-01-01

427

Outline Test Plan for Test Series I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall technical objectives for the Phase 1 programme of the Grimethorpe Experimental Facility were presented in a draft document ''Phase 1 Research Programme: Baseline and Modified Option Cases'', produced in May 1979 and discussed at subsequent Tec...

1981-01-01

428

[Effect of several inhibitors of atmospheric metal corrosion (amines of the polymethylene series) on embryogenesis].  

PubMed

The influence of some polymethylene amines (inhibitors protecting metals from atmospheric corrosion) on the generative function in general and on the embryogenesis in particular was studied. Such inhibitors as MCDA-II (dicyclohexylamine salt dissolving in oil), HDA (dicyclohexylamine nitrate) and M-I (cyclohexylamine salt dissolving in oil) were investigated by intraorganic injection during the whole course of gestation (21 days), 2 and 4 months. The compounds in question were stated to possess a pronounced gonado- and embryotoxic effect depending on the dose and chemical composition of the substance. The least active was M-I inhibitor. Doses not affecting rat gonades were: for HDA--0.825 mg/kg, MCDA-II--4.7 mg/kg, M-I--34.9 mg/kg; their embryonic effects were 0.54, 2.35 and 349 mg/kg respectively. PMID:646657

Bariliak, I R; Paustovskaia, V V; Torbin, V F

1978-01-01

429

Substrate Bias Effect Linked to Parasitic Series Resistance in Multiple-Gate SOI MOSFETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally recognized that very narrow silicon-on-insulator (SOI) fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs) are insensitive to substrate bias due to the strong electrostatic gate control. In this letter, we demonstrate, for the first time, that, in short-channel narrow FinFETs, substrate bias can dramatically change the on-current without change in the threshold voltage, subthreshold slope, and drain-induced barrier lowering, due to

Tamara Rudenko; Valeria Kilchytska; Nadine Collaert; Malgorzata Jurczak; Alexey Nazarov; Denis Flandre

2007-01-01

430

Ring-testing and field-validation of a terrestrial model ecosystem (TME)--an instrument for testing potentially harmful substances: effects of carbendazim on nutrient cycling.  

PubMed

The effect of the fungicide carbendazim (applied in the formulation Derosal) on nutrient cycling in soil was determined in Terrestrial Model Ecosystem (TME) tests and corresponding field-validation studies, which were performed in four different countries (United Kingdom, Germany, Portugal, and The Netherlands). The tests used different soil types, and lasted for 16 weeks. On three of the four sites, grassland soils were used while the fourth site had an arable soil. TMEs consisted of intact soil columns (diameter 17.5 cm; length 40 cm) and were taken from the site where the field study was performed. In the first series of TME tests, carbendazim applied at dosages unto 77.8 kg a.i./ha did not affect sulfate and phosphate concentrations in the top 15 cm soil layers. These nutrients were therefore no longer included in the second series of TME tests and the field-validation studies. Ammonium concentrations in the top soil layers of TMEs and field plots, and in the leachates of the TME columns did not show any effect of carbendazim treatment. Nitrate concentrations in soils and leachates did show some reduction at the highest treatment levels (77.8 kg a.i./ha in the first TME tests, 87.5 kg a.i/ha in the second TME tests and the field-validation studies). Since nitrate concentrations in both soils and leachates were correlated with soil moisture content, these effects could however, mainly be attributed to variations in soil moisture contents, and in some cases also indirectly to effects on earthworm activity. It is concluded that carbendazim, even at dosages as high as 87.5 kg a.i./ha, does not have a significant impact on soil nutrient cycling processes. Nutrient levels in TME tests and the field-validation studies generally showed similar patterns, thus confirming the predictive value of the TME test system. PMID:14992475

Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Koolhaas, Josée E; Schallnass, Hans-Joachim; Rodrigues, José M L; Jones, Susan E

431

Correlation and relaxation effects near threshold in photoabsorption of the Ar isoelectronic series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoabsorption cross sections of the the 3s subshell of isoelectronic Cl^-, Ar and K^+ have been calculated at various levels of approximation to understand how correlation and relaxation effects behave with increasing nuclear charge using the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) [1] and its modification, the RRPA-with- Relaxation (RRPA-R) [2]. To study the correlation in the form of interchannel coupling, RRPA was employed with and without coupling between the 3d and 3p photoabsorption channels. Interchannel coupling is found to dominate the 3s cross section for Cl^-, and become less and less important with increasing Z as discovered earlier for the Ne sequence [3]. Core-relaxation effects, of great importance for Cl^-, diminish with increasing Z. Thus, both interchannel coupling and core-relaxation must be included for even qualitative accuracy for negative ions, but these effects diminish with increasing Z. [1]. W. R. Johnson, C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 20 964 (1979). [2]. V. Radojevic', M. Kutzner and H. P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 40, 727 (1989). [3]. H. S. Chakraborthy, P. C. Deshmukh and S. T. Manson, Ap. J. 595, 1312 (2003)

Jose, Jobin; Pradhan, Gagan B.; Radojevic', Vojislav; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Manson, Steven T.

2010-03-01

432

Effects of Cannabis and Alcohol on Psychological Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE report here psychological data from a combined study on the effect of cannabis and alcohol on simulated car-driving and on psychological tests. The car simulator data showed an effect of cannabis and alcohol on brake time and start time, and a much more pronounced effect of cannabis than of alcohol on time and distance estimation after simulated driving. We

Lise Rafaelsen; Henriette Christrup; Per Bech; Ole J. Rafaelsen

1973-01-01

433

The Effect of Testing on Student Achievement, 1910-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article summarizes research on the effect of testing on student achievement as found in English-language sources, comprising several hundred studies conducted between 1910 and 2010. Among quantitative studies, mean effect sizes range from a moderate d [image omitted] 0.55 to a fairly large d [image omitted] 0.88, depending on the way effects…

Phelps, Richard P.

2012-01-01

434

Acute effects and postactivation potentiation in the Special Judo Fitness Test.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the acute short-term effects of (1) plyometric exercise, (2) combined strength and plyometric exercise (contrast), and (3) maximum strength performance in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT). Eight male judo athletes (mean ± SD, age, 19 ± 1 years; body mass, 60.4 ± 5 kg; height, 168.3 ± 5.4 cm) took part in this study. Four different sessions were completed; each session had 1 type of intervention: (a) SJFT control, (b) plyometric exercises + SJFT, (c) maximum strength + SJFT, and (d) contrast + SJFT. The following variables were quantified: throws performed during series A, B, and C; total number of throws; heart rate immediately and 1 minute after the test; and test index. Significant differences were found in the number of throws during series A: the plyometric exercise (6.4 ± 0.5 throws) was superior (p < 0.05) to the control condition (5.6 ± 0.5 throws). Heart rate 1 minute after the SJFT was higher (p < 0.01) during the plyometric exercise (192 ± 8 bpm) than during the contrast exercise (184 ± 9 bpm). The contrast exercise (13.58 ± 0.72) resulted in better index values than the control (14.67 ± 1.30) and plyometric exercises (14.51 ± 0.54). Thus, this study suggests that contrast and plyometric exercises performed before the SJFT can result in improvements in the test index and anaerobic power of judo athletes, respectively. PMID:20375739

Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B; Franchini, Emerson

2011-02-01

435

Effects of extracochlear gacyclidine perfusion on tinnitus in humans: a case series.  

PubMed

Gacyclidine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, is a phencyclidine derivative with neuroprotective properties. It has been previously safely administered intravenously to acute traumatic brain-injured patients. Experiments in guinea pigs have shown that local administration of gacyclidine to the cochlea can suppress salicylate-induced tinnitus. Thus, we thought that patients with therapy-resistant sensorineural tinnitus might benefit from a local therapy with gacyclidine. As a compassionate treatment, we administered aqueous gacyclidine solution via a Durect RWmuCath(TM) into the round window niche in six patients with unilateral deafness associated with tinnitus. The response of each patient to the drug treatment was given a numerical value by the use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) on a scale of 0-10 for tinnitus intensity, where 0 represented no tinnitus and 10 represented unbearable tinnitus-intensity or -annoyance (subjective). After constant perfusion of gacyclidine for 40-63 h, four out of six patients experienced a temporary relief from their tinnitus. No serious side effects were recorded in any of the cases. Gacyclidine might present a potent drug for the suppression of sensorineural tinnitus in humans and therefore should be considered for future double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trials. For lasting effective treatment, controlled intracochlear and long-term delivery of the drug seems to be necessary. Further studies investigating the toxicological effects of gacyclidine intracochlear perfusion as well as different dosages and therapy durations are under way to ensure the safety of the drug for long-term human use and warrant clinical trials. PMID:19847455

Wenzel, Gentiana Ioana; Warnecke, Athanasia; Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas

2009-10-22

436

Effect of phthalic acid esters on mouse testes.  

PubMed

Effects of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs) on mouse testes are described and discussed. Zinc concentrations in the testes of mice fed a diet containing 2% dibutyl (DBP), di-iso-butyl (DIBP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were less than those of control animals. Testosterone concentrations in the testes were decreased in DEHP-treated mice, and the relative testis weight of DBP-, DIBP- and DEHP-treated mice was increased. PMID:7394838

Oishi, S; Hiraga, K

1980-05-01

437

USING POTATOES IN PROPAGATION TESTS FOR NONTARGET PLANT EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Current tests required for pesticide registration under the FIFRA only investigate seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research with sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant reproduction with little or no visible effect on vege...

438

Effect of Backwall Reflections in a Compact Antenna Test Range.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure for calculation of the effect of backwall reflections in a compact antenna test range (CATR) is shown. In the calculation, the magnitude of the backwall reflections known from previous work and the angular spectrum of the reflections measured ...

J. Tuovinen A. Lehto A. Raeisaenen

1991-01-01

439

Test and Evaluation Plan for Measuring Checkpoint Effectiveness and Efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This test and evaluation plan describes the method to obtain baseline measurements of the operational effectiveness and efficiency of checkpoints at Detroit Wayne Metropolitan Airport. The project consists of carefully structure observations of checkpoint...

B. A. Klock J. L. Fobes

1999-01-01

440

Effect of supply voltage frequency on testing of insulation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the effect of supply frequency on partial discharge phenomena. Results of measurements performed on artificial and practical test objects are compared with computer simulations based on physical models. This comparative analysis points out and explains the differences in partial discharge phenomena observed in tests performed at different frequencies (from 0.1 to 300 Hz). The consequences associated

Andrea Cavallini; Gian Carlo Montanari

2006-01-01

441

Effectiveness of Dance\\/Movement Therapy on Reducing Test Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test anxiety is a multidimensional problem which can lead to undue distress for the individual. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if dance\\/movement therapy (DMT) might be an effective intervention for reducing symptoms of test anxiety. Twenty-one participants, all of whom were students at an urban university, voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were both graduate and

Tracy Erwin-Grabner; Sherry W. Goodill; Ellen Schelly Hill; Kristen Von Neida

1999-01-01

442

Effects of Prose Complexity on Achievement Test Item Difficulty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To help increase the understanding of sources of difficulty in test items, a study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of various aspects of prose complexity on the difficulty of achievement test items. The items of interest were those that presented a verbal stimulus followed by a question about the stimulus and a standard set of…

Scheuneman, Janice; And Others

443

Analysis of groundwater contamination using concentration-time series recorded during an integral pumping test: bias introduced by strong concentration gradients within the plume.  

PubMed

When only few monitoring wells are available to assess the extent and level of groundwater contamination, inversion of concentration breakthrough curves acquired during an integral pumping test can be used as an alternative quantification method. The idea is to use concentration-time series recorded during integral pumping tests through an inversion technique to estimate contaminant mass fluxes crossing a control plane. In this paper, we examine how a longitudinal concentration gradient along a contaminant plume length scale affects the estimated inversed-concentration distribution and its associated mass flux. The analytically inversed-concentration distribution at the imaginary control plane (ICP) is compared to a numerically generated concentration distribution, treating the latter one as a "real contaminant plume" characterized by the presence of a longitudinal concentration gradient. It is found that the analytically inversed-concentration can lead to overestimation or underestimation of concentration distribution values depending on the transport time period and dispersivity values. At lower dispersivity values, with shorter transport time periods, the analytically inversed-concentration distribution overestimates the "real" concentration distribution. A better fit of the estimated concentration distribution to the "real" one is observed when the transport time period increases, i.e. when the advective front has already crossed the ICP. However, for higher dispersivity values, underestimation of the real concentration distribution is observed. Deviation of the inversed-concentration distribution from the "real" one is assessed for a site-specific concentration gradient term. A concentration gradient adjusted contaminant mass flux is thus formulated to evaluate groundwater contamination levels at a given time period through an ICP. This concentration gradient ratio can indicate whether the ICP is well positioned to evaluate accurately contaminant mass fluxes which are representative of groundwater contamination levels. PMID:16216382

Zeru, Allelign; Schäfer, Gerhard

2005-10-10

444

Stark effect of atomic helium second triplet series in electric fields up to 1600 kV cm-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental and theoretical investigations of the spectral series 2 3P-n 3Q (n=3-10, Q=S, P, D, ..., n-1) in electric fields up to 1600 kV cm-1. Such fields cause—for n>6—shifts of the upper levels of the observed transitions which are larger than the separation between levels with different principal quantum numbers. The patterns belonging to a certain principal quantum number become similar to hydrogen patterns; they are nearly symmetric and show a nearly linear Stark shift in higher electric fields. The applied fields were high enough that patterns belonging to neighboring principal quantum numbers begin to overlap, which leads to interesting level-anticrossing effects. The experimental results are compared with numerical calculations taking into account mixing between states of different principal quantum numbers and also between singlet and triplet states. The agreement between experimental and theoretical line shifts is quite good.

Windholz, L.; Winklhofer, E.; Drozdowski, R.; Kwela, J.; Wa?owicz, T. J.; Heldt, J.

2008-12-01

445

Assessment of urbanization effects in time series of surface air temperature over land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RECORDS of hemispheric average temperatures from land regions for the past 100 years provide crucial input to the debate over global warming1-4. Despite careful use of the basic station data in some of these compilations of hemispheric temperature1,2,4-6, there have been suggestions7,8 that a proportion of the 0.5 °C warming seen on a century timescale may be related to urbanization influences-local warming caused by the effects of urban development. We examine here an extensive set of rural-station temperature data for three regions of the world: European parts of the Soviet Union, eastern Australia and eastern China. When combined with similar analyses for the contiguous United States9,10, the results are representative of 20% of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere and 10% of the Southern Hemisphere. The results show that the urbanization influence in two of the most widely used hemispheric data sets1,2,4 is, at most, an order of magnitude less than the warming seen on a century timescale.

Jones, P. D.; Groisman, P. Ya.; Coughlan, M.; Plummer, N.; Wang, W.-C.; Karl, T. R.

1990-09-01

446

Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality in Florida: Time-series analyses from 1969-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Over a hundred studies have established the effects of beverage alcohol taxes and prices on sales and drinking behaviors. Yet, relatively few studies have examined effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality. We evaluated effects of multiple changes in alcohol tax rates in the State of Florida from 1969–2004 on disease (not injury) mortality. Methods A time-series quasi-experimental research design was used, including non-alcohol deaths within Florida and other states’ rates of alcohol-related mortality for comparison. A total of 432 monthly observations of mortality in Florida were examined over the 36-year period. Analyses included ARIMA, fixed-effects, and random effects models, including a noise model, tax independent variables, and structural covariates. Results We found significant reductions in mortality related to chronic heavy alcohol consumption following legislatively induced increases in alcohol taxes in Florida. The frequency of deaths (t=?2.73, p=.007) and the rate per population (t=?2.06, p=.04) declined significantly. The elasticity effect estimate is ?0.22 (t=?1.88, p=.06), indicating a 10% increase in tax is associated with a 2.2% decline in deaths. Conclusions Increased alcohol taxes are associated with significant and sizable reductions in alcohol-attributable mortality in Florida. Results indicate that 600–800 lives per year could be saved if real tax rates were returned to 1983 levels (when the last tax increase occurred). Findings highlight the role of tax policy as an effective means for reducing deaths associated with chronic heavy alcohol use.

Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

2010-01-01

447

Effects of intraplantar morphine in the mouse formalin test.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of intraplantar morphine in the formalin test in mice. Intraplantarly administered morphine (30 - 300 microg) induced analgesic effects at lower doses than intraperitoneally administered morphine. Following the administration of [3H]morphine, the % of radioactivity present in brain was the same by either route. In contrast, higher radioactivity values appeared in the injected paw in those mice intraplantarly injected. Since local morphine induces analgesia at doses lower than the intraperitoneally administered drug, especially in the second phase of the test, and the access to brain is undistinguishable, we propose that local morphine enhances central opiate analgesia in the formalin test in mice. PMID:10928329

Baamonde, A; Alvarez-Vega, M; Hidalgo, A; Menéndez, L

2000-06-01

448

Optimal tests for rare variant effects in sequencing association studies.  

PubMed

With development of massively parallel sequencing technologies, there is a substantial need for developing powerful rare variant association tests. Common approaches include burden and non-burden tests. Burden tests assume all rare variants in the target region have effects on the phenotype in the same direction and of similar magnitude. The recently proposed sequence kernel association test (SKAT) (Wu, M. C., and others, 2011. Rare-variant association testing for sequencing data with the SKAT. The American Journal of Human Genetics 89, 82-93], an extension of the C-alpha test (Neale, B. M., and others, 2011. Testing for an unusual distribution of rare variants. PLoS Genetics 7, 161-165], provides a robust test that is particularly powerful in the presence of protective and deleterious variants and null variants, but is less powerful than burden tests when a large number of variants in a region are causal and in the same direction. As the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown in practice and vary from one gene to another across the genome, it is of substantial practical interest to develop a test that is optimal for both scenarios. In this paper, we propose a class of tests that include burden tests and SKAT as special cases, and derive an optimal test within this class that maximizes power. We show that this optimal test outperforms burden tests and SKAT in a wide range of scenarios. The results are illustrated using simulation studies and triglyceride data from the Dallas Heart Study. In addition, we have derived sample size/power calculation formula for SKAT with a new family of kernels to facilitate designing new sequence association studies. PMID:22699862

Lee, Seunggeun; Wu, Michael C; Lin, Xihong

2012-06-14

449

Optimal tests for rare variant effects in sequencing association studies  

PubMed Central

With development of massively parallel sequencing technologies, there is a substantial need for developing powerful rare variant association tests. Common approaches include burden and non-burden tests. Burden tests assume all rare variants in the target region have effects on the phenotype in the same direction and of similar magnitude. The recently proposed sequence kernel association test (SKAT) (Wu, M. C., and others, 2011. Rare-variant association testing for sequencing data with the SKAT. The American Journal of Human Genetics 89, 82–93], an extension of the C-alpha test (Neale, B. M., and others, 2011. Testing for an unusual distribution of rare variants. PLoS Genetics 7, 161–165], provides a robust test that is particularly powerful in the presence of protective and deleterious variants and null variants, but is less powerful than burden tests when a large number of variants in a region are causal and in the same direction. As the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown in practice and vary from one gene to another across the genome, it is of substantial practical interest to develop a test that is optimal for both scenarios. In this paper, we propose a class of tests that include burden tests and SKAT as special cases, and derive an optimal test within this class that maximizes power. We show that this optimal test outperforms burden tests and SKAT in a wide range of scenarios. The results are illustrated using simulation studies and triglyceride data from the Dallas Heart Study. In addition, we have derived sample size/power calculation formula for SKAT with a new family of kernels to facilitate designing new sequence association studies.

Lee, Seunggeun; Wu, Michael C.; Lin, Xihong

2012-01-01

450

Analysis of astronomical time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents basic concepts of time series analysis (TSA), emphasizes statistical aspects of TSA, and reviews available TSA tools, particularly those with applications in astronomy. The importance of statistical principles in evaluation of time series in astronomical practice is discussed. The author draws attention to the distortions in the analysis of time series, their causes, effects and possible cures.

A. Schwarzenberg-Czerny

1993-01-01

451

Measuring propaganda effects with direct and indirect attitude tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made to study propaganda effectiveness through the use of disguised attitude measures. The relative effectiveness of two typical radio styles used in informational programs is studied  The traditional pretest design is abandoned in favor of matched groups given a post-test only.

Jack A. Parrish; Donald T. Campbell

1953-01-01

452

Effects of physostigmine on memory test performance in normal volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an intraveneous infusion of physostigmine (0.94 mg infused over 60 min) on performance in memory tests were studied in 12 young subjects. Drug effects were modest and are discussed in relation to results of physostigmine studies in Alzheimer patients.

C. M. Smith; J. S. Coogan; S. Hart

1986-01-01

453

Random Effects Structure for Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing: Keep It Maximal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how random effects structures affect the generalizability of an analysis. Here, we argue that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the…

Barr, Dale J.; Levy, Roger; Scheepers, Christoph; Tily, Harry J.

2013-01-01

454

Frictional effects of interface bonding energy in blister testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blister tests are used to investigate the size effect on the critical energy release rate for the onset of debonding of interfaces between commercial tape and plain steel. The measured data display a size effect if the interfacial friction is not taken into account. A proportional displacement model is thus proposed to simultaneously evaluate the critical energy release rate and

M Zheng; Y. J Su; L. Q Chen; T. Y Zhang

1999-01-01

455

Test of the gravitational redshift effect at Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a test of the gravitational redshift effect at Saturn are reported. Measurements of the redshift were obtained with the Voyager 1 spacecraft during its encounter with Saturn in 1980. Because the spacecraft was equipped with an ultrastable crystal oscillator (USO), it is possible to test the redshift effect at an interesting level of accuracy. Assuming that radiation in the Saturn magnetosphere has had a negligible effect on the USO, the prediction of general relativity to an accuracy of 1 percent is verified. This limit could be of interest for constraining possible alternative theories of gravity.

Krisher, T. P.; Anderson, J. D.; Campbell, J. K.

1990-03-01

456

The effectiveness of switching antidepressants during remission: a case series of depressed patients who experienced intolerable side effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is unknown whether depressed patients who have experienced intolerable side effects to one antidepressant can safely and effectively be switched to a second antidepressant while the depressive disorder is in remission. The present study sought to determine the viability of such a strategy. Methods: All subjects were psychiatric outpatients who were treated in an open-label manner according to

Michael A. Posternak; Mark Zimmerman

2002-01-01

457

Effects of automatic item eliminations based on item test analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Item test analysis is an aid to identify items that need to be eliminated from an assessment. An automatic elimination procedure based on item statistics, therefore, could help to increase the quality of a test in an objective manner. This was investigated by studying the effect of a standardized elimination procedure on the test results of a second-year course over a period of 6 successive years in 1,624 candidates. Cohort effects on the item elimination were examined by determining the number of additional items that had to be eliminated from three different tests in 3 successive academic years in two cohorts. The items that were part of more than one test and had to be eliminated according to the procedure in at least one of the tests appeared to have to be retained according to the same procedure in most of the other tests. The procedure harmed the high scoring students relatively more often than the other students, and the number of eliminated items appeared to be cohort dependent. As a consequence, automatic elimination procedures obscure the transparency of the grading process unacceptably and transform valid tests into inadequate samples of the course content.

Jaap HJ Muntinga (University of Groningen Medical Physiology); Henk A Schuil (University of Groningen Medical Physiology)

2007-09-08

458

Effect of structurally constrained oxime–ether linker on PPAR subtype selectivity: Discovery of a novel and potent series of PPAR-pan agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel series of thaizole and oxazole containing phenoxy acetic acid derivatives is reported as PPAR-pan agonists. Incorporation of structurally constrained oxime–ether based linker in the chemotype of a potent PPAR? selective agonist GW-501516 was adapted as designing strategy. In vitro, selected test compounds 12a, 12c, 17a and 18a showed PPAR-pan agonists activities and among these four compounds tested, 12a

Pankaj Makadia; Shailesh R. Shah; Harikishore Pingali; Pandurang Zaware; Darshit Patel; Suresh Pola; Baban Thube; Priyanka Priyadarshini; Dinesh Suthar; Maanan Shah; Suresh Giri; Chitrang Trivedi; Mukul Jain; Pankaj Patel; Rajesh Bahekar

2011-01-01

459

The cage and metal effect: spectroscopy and electrochemical survey of a series of Sm-containing high metallofullerenes.  

PubMed

A series of Sm-containing high metallofullerenes, namely, Sm@C82 (I, II, III, IV), Sm@C84 (I, II, III), Sm@C86, Sm@C88 (I, II, III), Sm@C90 (I, II, III), Sm@C92 (I, II), Sm@C94 (I, II, III), and Sm@C96, is successfully synthesized and characterized by UV/Vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. Sm-containing high metallofullerenes have a relatively larger number of isomers compared with other divalent ones. The highest boiling point of Sm among Group II metals may be responsible for this phenomenon. Comparing the spectroscopic and electrochemical behaviors of Sm-containing metallofullerenes with those of other divalent ones, it is seen that when the size of the carbon cage enlarges, different structures form stable molecules with different metals. Furthermore, there are also some important differences in the electrochemistry properties. The cage effect on the electronic structures of high metallofullerenes is also estimated from the differences in reduction potentials between metallofullerenes and their corresponding fullerenes. It is believed that the influence of transferred electrons from the metal to the carbon cage becomes much weaker for high fullerenes. The redox property of high metallofullerene is more dependent on the carbon-cage structure than the effect of electron transfer. PMID:19746391

Liu, Jia; Shi, Zujin; Gu, Zhennan

2009-11-01

460

The effectiveness of outreach testing for hepatitis C in an immigrant Pakistani population.  

PubMed

In Scotland, an estimated 1% of the population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). There is ethnic diversity in Scotland, with a large Pakistani sub-population. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of HCV in an immigrant Pakistani population and effectiveness of an outreach testing intervention. We arranged a series of HCV awareness meetings at the mosques and Pakistani Women's centre in the city of Dundee. Thereafter short-term outreach HCV testing clinics were set up in the same venues. Venous blood samples were obtained and tested for HCV IgG and HbsAg. A short questionnaire was also completed. In total, 177 individuals volunteered for testing, out of an estimated 250 who attended meetings and a total Pakistani population in Dundee of 1723. Of those tested 170 were Scottish Pakistanis (159 first generation, 11 second generation). There were 145 (85.2%) men. The mean age was 45.11 (± S.D. 16.7) years. Seven (4.1%) individuals in the cohort were anti-HCV positive. Five (2.9%) were found to have HCV RNA by PCR. Only one patient had chronic hepatitis B infection. All patients with positive results were seen in the liver clinic for consideration of treatment. We have demonstrated that immigrant Pakistanis retain a higher prevalence of HCV compared to the population of their adopted country. Outreach targeted testing in this group can be achieved using religious and cultural gatherings, with only modest investment in staff time. PMID:21854668

Jafferbhoy, H; Miller, M H; McIntyre, P; Dillon, J F

2011-08-19

461

The picture-superiority effect in category-association tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments we examined the picture-superiority effect in the framework of the transfer-appropriate processing approach recently advocated by Roediger, Weldon, and Challis (1989). For the first time conceptual implicit-memory task is used, i.e., category association. In Experiment 1, subjects study a mixed list of pictures and words and then receive either a category-association test or a category-cued recall test,

Serge Nicolas

1995-01-01

462

The Effect of Background Music on Reading Comprehension Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of background music on reading comprehension. Would the playing of background music positively affect the scores on a reading comprehension test?\\u000aA statistical analysis of pretest scores from the Degree of Reading Power test revealed that both classes were of equal reading ability at the onset of the study.\\u000aThe

Ann S. DeMers

1996-01-01

463

Homogenising time series: Beliefs, dogmas and facts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For obtaining reliable information about climate change and climate variability the use of high quality data series is essentially important, and one basic tool of quality improvements is the statistical homogenisation of observed time series. In the recent decades large number of homogenisation methods has been developed, but the real effects of their application on time series are still not known entirely. The ongoing COST HOME project (COST ES0601) is devoted to reveal the real impacts of homogenisation methods more detailed and with higher confidence than earlier. As part of the COST activity, a benchmark dataset was built whose characteristics approach well the characteristics of real networks of observed time series. This dataset offers much better opportunity than ever to test the wide variety of homogenisation methods, and analyse the real effects of selected theoretical recommendations. The author believes that several old theoretical rules have to be re-evaluated. Some examples of the hot questions, a) Statistically detected change-points can be accepted only with the confirmation of metadata information? b) Do semi-hierarchic algorithms for detecting multiple change-points in time series function effectively in practise? c) Is it good to limit the spatial comparison of candidate series with up to five other series in the neighbourhood? Empirical results - those from the COST benchmark, and other experiments too - show that real observed time series usually include several inhomogeneities of different sizes. Small inhomogeneities seem like part of the climatic variability, thus the pure application of classic theory that change-points of observed time series can be found and corrected one-by-one is impossible. However, after homogenisation the linear trends, seasonal changes and long-term fluctuations of time series are usually much closer to the reality, than in raw time series. The developers and users of homogenisation methods have to bear in mind that the eventual purpose of homogenisation is not to find change-points, but to have the observed time series with statistical properties those characterise well the climate change and climate variability.

Domonkos, P.

2010-09-01

464

The effect of series elasticity on actuator power and work output: Implications for robotic and prosthetic joint design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from biomechanics research suggests that tendon series elasticity allows muscle to act in an optimal range of its force-length and force-velocity curves to achieve work and power amplification. In this investigation we put forth a simple model to quantify the capacity of series elasticity to increase work and power output from an actuator. We show that an appropriate spring