Science.gov

Sample records for effects test series

  1. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  2. Testing the effectiveness of family therapeutic assessment: a case study using a time-series design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Wolf, Nicole J; Handler, Leonard; Nash, Michael R

    2009-11-01

    We describe a family Therapeutic Assessment (TA) case study employing 2 assessors, 2 assessment rooms, and a video link. In the study, we employed a daily measures time-series design with a pretreatment baseline and follow-up period to examine the family TA treatment model. In addition to being an illustrative addition to a number of clinical reports suggesting the efficacy of family TA, this study is the first to apply a case-based time-series design to test whether family TA leads to clinical improvement and also illustrates when that improvement occurs. Results support the trajectory of change proposed by Finn (2007), the TA model's creator, who posits that benefits continue beyond the formal treatment itself. PMID:19838902

  3. J series thruster thermal test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Dulgeroff, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test experience with J series ion thrusters have indicated that the present thruster design may result in excessive temperatures in areas which utilize organic materials such as wire insulation, with the resultant outgassing and potential contamination of insulating materials. Further, it appears that thermal data obtained with earlier thruster designs, such as the 700 series thruster, may not be directly applicable to the J series design. Two J series thrusters were fitted with thermocouples and critical temperatures measured for a variety of configurations and operating parameters. Completely enclosing the thruster to reduce facility contamination significantly increased temperatures prompting the selection of a compromise geometry for life testing. The operating parameter having the largest effect on temperatures was discharge power, while beam power affected little else than extraction system temperatures. Several off-normal operating modes were also investigated. Data believed to be sufficient to effectively modify existing thermal models were obtained from the tests.

  4. Outline test plan for test series I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The overall technical objectives for the Phase 1 programme of the Grimethorpe Experimental Facility were presented in a draft document ''Phase 1 Research Programme: Baseline and Modified Option Cases'', produced in May 1979 and discussed at subsequent Technical Committee Meetings. The technical objectives for Test Series 1 presented in this document have developed from those outlined in the May 79 baseline; all the changes from the earlier outline are recorded. The data collection systems expected to be used are also presented. It is planned to carry out experiments to meet the objectives in three sub-series each along a different ''good fluidisation'' line determined at high, medium and low velocities. The high velocity sub-series has four runs including the original design conditions for Tube Bank 'A'. The medium velocity sub-series has seven runs and involves operating Tube Bank 'A' at what are to be its optimum operating conditions. The low velocity sub-series has six runs including the CURL Link Test operating conditions.

  5. Effective Strategies for Dealing with Test Anxiety. Teacher to Teacher Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lisa

    Test anxiety is exceedingly common among learners in adult basic education. Any one or more of the following can cause individuals to experience test anxiety: learned behavior resulting from the expectations of parents, teachers, or significant others; associations that students have built between grades or test performance and personal worth;…

  6. Single-event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: Proton Testing for SEE and TNID Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Previous testing of the Enhanced Power Conversion (EPC) eGaN FETs showed sensitivity to destructive single-event effects (SEE) effects to heavy ions. The presence of tungsten plugs in the gate area raises concerns that the device may be vulnerable to SEE from protons. Irradiation of biased and unbiased devices with heavy ion has results in some damage suspected of being due to total non-ionizing dose (TNID). Proton irradiation is a better radiation type to study this effect. This study presents the results of testing device with protons for SEE and TNID. No SEE in the EPC2012 device, the most sensitive device to SEE, were seen with 53 MeV protons at several angles. The devices continued to function after 1.5 Mrad (Si) of proton dose with only a slight shift in parameters. These results suggest that gross TNID will not be a factor in using these devices nor suffer from SEE due to protons. However, the device should be tested at with 500 MeV protons to guarantee to immunity proton SEE.

  7. The effect of cell design and test criteria on the series/parallel performance of nickel cadmium cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Webb, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Three batteries were operated in parallel from a common bus during charge and discharge. SMM utilized NASA Standard 20AH cells and batteries, and LANDSAT-D NASA 50AH cells and batteries of a similar design. Each battery consisted of 22 series connected cells providing the nominal 28V bus. The three batteries were charged in parallel using the voltage limit/current taper mode wherein the voltage limit was temperature compensated. Discharge occurred on the demand of the spacecraft instruments and electronics. Both flights were planned for three to five year missions. The series/parallel configuration of cells and batteries for the 3-5 yr mission required a well controlled product with built-in reliability and uniformity. Examples of how component, cell and battery selection methods affect the uniformity of the series/parallel operation of the batteries both in testing and in flight are given.

  8. Determinism test for very short time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Igarashi, Ryu; Seymour, William; Takeishi, Candy

    2005-03-01

    A test for determinism suitable for time series shorter than 100 points is presented, and applied to numerical and observed data. The method exploits the linear d(d0) dependence in the expression d(t)˜d0e?t which describes the growth of small separations between trajectories in chaotic systems.

  9. The NASA B-757 HIRF Test Series: Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of aircraft tests aimed at characterizing the electromagnetic environment (EME) in and around a Boeing 757 airliner. Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into the aircraft and the signals induced on select structures as the aircraft was flown past known RF transmitters. These measurements were conducted to provide data for the validation of computational techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transport aircraft. This paper reports on the results of flight tests using RF radiators in the HF, VHF, and UHF ranges and on efforts to use computational and analytical techniques to predict RF field levels inside the airliner at these frequencies.

  10. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A SERIES CYCLONE TEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are commonly used in the processing industry as primary particulate emissions abatement devices. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of one, two, three, or four 1D3D cyclones, in series, on airstreams heavily loaded (236 g/m3) with fine particulate (mass median diameter <10...

  11. Effects of Scale Transformation and Test Termination Rule on the Precision of Ability Estimates in CAT. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Wang, Tianyou; Ban, Jae-Chun

    Error indices (bias, standard error of estimation, and root mean square error) obtained on different scales of measurement under different test termination rules in a computerized adaptive test (CAT) context were examined. Four ability estimation methods were studied: (1) maximum likelihood estimation (MLE); (2) weighted likelihood estimation…

  12. Assessing the Effect of Multidimensionality on LSAT Equating for Subgroups of Test Takers. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Champlain, Andre F.

    This study investigated whether differences in the dimensional structure of the form of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) across selected ethnic subgroups of test takers had any impact on equating results using an item response theory (IRT) true-score procedure. Whether there were any differences in the underlying latent trait composite across…

  13. Supplementary information on Series II Test A-5 test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-16

    Test planning and test preparation for LLTR Series II Test A-5 are continuing at GE and ETEC. The main objective for this test is to obtain data on the type and magnitude of steam tube blowout failures resulting from worst case leak conditions under the superheater hot standby condition (i.e., the plant condition considered most susceptible to steam tube blowout failures from wastage/overheating). A corollary objective is to add large quantities of steam (i.e. approx. 330 lbs) to simulate the amount that could be added in a plant system (such as CRBRP) before pressure would build up in the intermediate Heat Transport System to blow the expansion tank rupture disc. This report recommends the preferred method for operating the LLTR primary/secondary steam systems for Test A-5. i.e., Option 5 - Common Supply Tanks for Primary and Secondary Systems.

  14. Testing the Effectiveness of an Intervention Model Based on Data Use: A Replication Series across Clusters of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stuart; Lai, Mei Kuin; Hsiao, Selena

    2012-01-01

    Intervention models based on data use can be effective in raising student achievement. This article presents 3 studies of one such model which had reported improved reading comprehension levels in 7 poor urban multicultural schools serving indigenous and ethnic minority communities. The intervention (the Learning Schools Model) used a process…

  15. Rocket vehicle targeting for the PLACES ionospheric plasma test series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollstin, L. R.

    1984-02-01

    The PLACES (Position Location And Communication Effects Simulations) test program, conducted in December 1980 at Eglin Gulf Test Range, involved a series of ionospheric releases of barium/barium-nitrate vapor. The Defense Nuclear Agency sponsored program investigated effects of a structured ionospheric plasma (similar to that produced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion) on satellite navigation systems and provided in situ measurement of plasma structure. Terrier-Tomahawk rocket systems boosted the barium payloads, beacon payloads (plasma occultation experiment), and probe payloads (plasma in situ measurement). Drifting plasma tracking procedures, beacon- and probe-vehicle targeting procedures, and vehicle flight test results are presented.

  16. A series of meta-analytic tests of the depletion effect: Self-control does not seem to rely on a limited resource.

    PubMed

    Carter, Evan C; Kofler, Lilly M; Forster, Daniel E; McCullough, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Failures of self-control are thought to underlie various important behaviors (e.g., addiction, violence, obesity, poor academic achievement). The modern conceptualization of self-control failure has been heavily influenced by the idea that self-control functions as if it relied upon a limited physiological or cognitive resource. This view of self-control has inspired hundreds of experiments designed to test the prediction that acts of self-control are more likely to fail when they follow previous acts of self-control (the depletion effect). Here, we evaluated the empirical evidence for this effect with a series of focused, meta-analytic tests that address the limitations in prior appraisals of the evidence. We find very little evidence that the depletion effect is a real phenomenon, at least when assessed with the methods most frequently used in the laboratory. Our results strongly challenge the idea that self-control functions as if it relies on a limited psychological or physical resource. PMID:26076043

  17. Photopatch testing: recommendations for a European photopatch test baseline series.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, Margarida; Ferguson, James; Bonevalle, Annie; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Goossens, An; Kerr, Alastair; Lecha, Mario; Neumann, Norbert; Niklasson, Bo; Pigatto, Paolo; Rhodes, Lesley E; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sarkany, Robert; Thomas, Pierre; Wilkinson, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In order to establish a consensus recommendation for performing photopatch testing, a photopatch test taskforce group was established under the joint umbrella of the European Society for Contact Dermatitis and the European Society for Photodermatology in 2000. After proposing the most adequate methodology in 2004 and completing a European multicentre photopatch test study in 2011, this taskforce is recommending a list of photoallergens that should form part of a baseline series for photopatch testing in Europe. It contains mainly ultraviolet filters and drugs, mostly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The choice of chemicals was based on the results of a recent multicentre study, previous published cases of photoallergy, and use of the substances in the European market. It is suggested that an extended list of photoallergens should be photopatch tested in selected cases, along with patients' own products. Two contact allergens, cinnamyl alcohol and decyl glucoside, should be simultaneously patch tested in order to clarify photopatch and patch test reactions, respectively, to ketoprofen and methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (Tinosorb M™). PMID:23510344

  18. UAS in the NAS Flight Test Series 3 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting a series of flight tests to acheive the following objectives: 1.) Validate results previously collected during project simulations with live data 2.) Evaluate TCAS IISS interoperability 3.) Test fully integrated system in a relevant live test environment 4.) Inform final DAA and C2 MOPS 5.) Reduce risk for Flight Test Series 4.

  19. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  20. Effects of Multidimensionality on IRT Item Characteristics and True Score Estimates: Implications for Computerized Test Assembly. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiang-Bo; Harris, Vincent; Roussos, Louis

    Multidimensionality is known to affect the accuracy of item parameter and ability estimations, which subsequently influences the computation of item characteristic curves (ICCs) and true scores. By judiciously combining sections of a Law School Admission Test (LSAT), 11 sections of varying degrees of uni- and multidimensional structures are used…

  1. Enraf Series 854 advanced technology gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.H.

    1996-09-11

    This Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the Enraf Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies that the gauge is functional.

  2. Uniaxial compression test series on Bullfrog Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R H; Jones, A K; Nimick, K G

    1982-04-01

    Nineteen uniaxial compressive experiments were performed on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, obtained from drillhole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated samples were deformed at a nominal strain rate of 10{sup -5} sec{sup -1}, atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young`s moduli and Poisson`s ratios ranged from 4.63 to 153. MPa, .0028 to .0058, 2.03 to 28.9 GPa and .08 to .16, respectively.

  3. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  4. Mighty Eagle 'Rocks' Flight Testing Series - Duration: 2 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, recently completed a series of test objectives – even going as high as 100 feet for several free flights. The vehicle is a three-legged protot...

  5. Ecotoxicological test systems proceedings of a series of workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, A.S.

    1981-06-01

    A series of six workshops was conducted by the Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to identify laboratory methods and data evaluation techniques for predicting the environmental effects of chemical substances. Methods were evaluated for their potential for standardization and for use in the ecological hazard and risk assessment processes under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The workshops addressed assessment and policy requirements of multispecies toxicology test procedures, mathematical models useful in hazard and risk assessments, and methods for measuring effects of chemicals on terrestrial and aquatic population interactions and ecosystem properties. The workshops were primarily used as a mechanism to gather information about research in progress. This information was part of the data base used to prepare a critical review of laboratory methods for ecological toxicology.

  6. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER, J.H.

    1999-08-17

    This procedure provides acceptance testing for Enraf Series 854 level gauges used to monitor levels in Hanford Waste Storage Tanks. The test will verify that the gauge functions according to the manufacturer's instructions and specifications and is properly setup prior to being delivered to the tank farm area. This ATP does not set up the gauge for any specific tank, but is generalized to permit testing the gauge prior to installation package preparation.

  7. Iranian rainfall series analysis by means of nonparametric tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaee, P. Hosseinzadeh

    2014-05-01

    The study of the trends and fluctuations in rainfall has received a great deal of attention, since changes in rainfall patterns may lead to floods or droughts. The objective of this study was to analyze the annual, seasonal, and monthly rainfall time series at seven rain gauge stations in the west of Iran for a 40-year period (from October 1969 to September 2009). The homogeneity of the rainfall data sets at the rain gauge stations was checked by using the cumulative deviations test. Three nonparametric tests, namely Kendall, Spearman, and Mann-Kendall, at the 95 % confidence level were used for the trend analysis and the Theil-Sen estimator was applied for determining the magnitudes of the trends. According to the homogeneity analysis, all of the rainfall series except the September series at Vasaj station were found to be homogeneous. The obtained results showed an insignificant trend in the annual and seasonal rainfall series at the majority of the considered stations. Moreover, only three significant trends were observed at the February rainfall of Aghajanbolaghi station, the November series of Vasaj station, and the March rainfall series of Khomigan station. The findings of this study on the temporal trends of rainfall can be implemented to improve the water resources strategies in the study region.

  8. Using Textbooks Effectively. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savova, Lilia, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series asks one fundamental question, "How can teachers teach the students, not the book?" The response, given within "Using Textbooks Effectively", is to move beyond the textbook as a separate entity and view it instead as part of the ESOL curriculum process and as a tool for student learning. The…

  9. Testing time symmetry in time series using data compression dictionaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, Matthew B.

    2004-05-01

    Time symmetry, often called statistical time reversibility, in a dynamical process means that any segment of time-series output has the same probability of occurrence in the process as its time reversal. A technique, based on symbolic dynamics, is proposed to distinguish such symmetrical processes from asymmetrical ones, given a time-series observation of the otherwise unknown process. Because linear stochastic Gaussian processes, and static nonlinear transformations of them, are statistically reversible, but nonlinear dynamics such as dissipative chaos are usually statistically irreversible, a test will separate large classes of hypotheses for the data. A general-purpose and robust statistical test procedure requires adapting to arbitrary dynamics which may have significant time correlation of undetermined form. Given a symbolization of the observed time series, the technology behind adaptive dictionary data compression algorithms offers a suitable estimate of reversibility, as well as a statistical likelihood test. The data compression methods create approximately independent segments permitting a simple and direct null test without resampling or surrogate data. We demonstrate the results on various time-series-reversible and irreversible systems.

  10. Testing time symmetry in time series using data compression dictionaries.

    PubMed

    Kennel, Matthew B

    2004-05-01

    Time symmetry, often called statistical time reversibility, in a dynamical process means that any segment of time-series output has the same probability of occurrence in the process as its time reversal. A technique, based on symbolic dynamics, is proposed to distinguish such symmetrical processes from asymmetrical ones, given a time-series observation of the otherwise unknown process. Because linear stochastic Gaussian processes, and static nonlinear transformations of them, are statistically reversible, but nonlinear dynamics such as dissipative chaos are usually statistically irreversible, a test will separate large classes of hypotheses for the data. A general-purpose and robust statistical test procedure requires adapting to arbitrary dynamics which may have significant time correlation of undetermined form. Given a symbolization of the observed time series, the technology behind adaptive dictionary data compression algorithms offers a suitable estimate of reversibility, as well as a statistical likelihood test. The data compression methods create approximately independent segments permitting a simple and direct null test without resampling or surrogate data. We demonstrate the results on various time-series-reversible and irreversible systems. PMID:15244905

  11. Testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures in a controlled environment: The SERI CMFERT (Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Training) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Franconi, E.

    1990-03-01

    For several years the Solar Energy Research Institute has been testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures, with the support of the US DOE Office of State and Local Assistance Programs Weatherization Assistance Program, the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems, the seven states within the federal Weatherization Region 7, the Colorado Division of Housing, and the DOE Denver Support Office. During the winter of 1988--89, several weatherization measures were thermally tested on three mobile homes under controlled conditions inside a large environmental enclosure. The effects of each weatherization measure on conduction losses, infiltration losses, and combined furnace and duct-delivered heat efficiency were monitored. The retrofit options included air sealing, duct repair, furnace tune-up, interior storm panels, floor insulation, and roof insulation. The study demonstrated that cost-effective heating energy savings of about 20% to 50% are possible if weatherization techniques adapted to the special construction details in mobile homes are applied. 24 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twelve. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 4.] Tests M39-M50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 39 through 50 include: (39) using a code; (40) naming the parts of a microscope; (41) calculating density and predicting flotation; (42) estimating metric length; (43) using SI symbols; (44) using s=vt; (45) applying a novel theory; (46)…

  13. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Thirteen. Mastery Testing Program. [Mastery Tests Series 5.] Tests M51-M65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 51 through 65 include: (51) interpreting atomic and mass numbers; (52) extrapolating from a geological map; (53) matching geological sections and maps; (54) identifying parts of the human eye; (55) identifying the functions of parts of a…

  14. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Ten. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 2.] Tests M14-M26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 14 through 26 include: (14) calculating an average; (15) identifying parts of the scientific method; (16) reading a geological map; (17) identifying elements, mixtures and compounds; (18) using Ohm's law in calculation; (19) interpreting…

  15. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eleven. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 3.] Tests M27-M38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 27 through 38 include: (27) reading a grid plan; (28) identifying common invertebrates; (29) characteristics of invertebrates; (30) identifying elements; (31) using scientific notation part I; (32) classifying minerals; (33) predicting the…

  16. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eleven. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 3.] Tests M27-M38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 27 through 38 include: (27) reading a grid plan; (28) identifying common invertebrates; (29) characteristics of invertebrates; (30) identifying elements; (31) using scientific notation part I; (32) classifying minerals; (33) predicting the…

  17. The NASA B-757 HIRF test series: Low power on-the-ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, A.J.; Zacharias, R.A.; Pennock, S.T.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.

    1995-07-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical and experimental for the assessment of electromagnetic effects i n transports, for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs, and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. A series of fly-by experiments were conducted in early 1995 in which the NASA B-757 was flown in the vicinity of a Voice of America station ({approximately}25 MHz), a fixed transmitter driving an LP array (172 MHz), and an ASRF radar at Wallops Island (430 MHz). In this paper, the overall test program is defined with particular attention to the on-the-ground portion. It is described in detail with presentation of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation will also be presented.

  18. Patch Testing with Dental Screening Series in Oral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Il; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Background The oral mucosa is constantly exposed to several irritants and allergens including dental materials, but the role of contact allergy in oral disease is obscure. Objective To analyze positive patch test results in patients with oral diseases and evaluate the clinical relevance of oral diseases with contact allergy to dental materials. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patch test results with dental screening series in 44 patients with oral disease from 2004~2011. Results Oral diseases included oral lichen planus (54.5%), cheilitis (27.3%), burning mouth syndrome (9.1%), and others (9.1%). Thirty-one of 44 patients (70.5%) had positive reactions to one or more allergens. The most commonly detected allergens were gold sodium thiosulfate (25.0%) and nickel sulfate (25.0%), followed by potassium dichromate (22.7%), cobalt (15.9%), palladium (6.8%), mercury (4.5%), copper (4.5%), and methylhydroquinone (4.5%). Six of 24 patients with oral lichen planus had a symptom in areas adjacent to dental materials and positive patch test reactions to allergens contained in the suspected dental materials. Conclusion Patch tests with dental screening series are worth considering for oral diseases, especially for oral lichen planus. PMID:26273153

  19. IEA Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Test Facility outline test plan for Test Series Two

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The experimental programme at Grimethorpe has the broad objectives of : (1) investigating process variables with UK, US and FRG coals to produce data that will assist in the design of large commercial PFBC plant operating at high combustion efficiency and in an environmentally acceptable manner; and assessing the erosion/corrosion/fouling characteristics of the combustion gases (after cleaning in conventional cyclones) by passing them over cascades of stationary blades. The main objectives for the Test Series 2 are to: (1) gather combustor performance and dynamic response rate data for both full-load and part-load conditions with a range of coals and sorbents; (2) operate the cascade for as many hours as possible under cascade inlet conditions that will allow further data to be obtained on the erosive and corrosive propensities of the gas under the conditions of gas, alkali content and dust loadings that would prevail at the entry to a gas turbine; and obtain in-bed corrosion data for each coal and sorbent. Performance data to be obtained will include: (1) combustion and sulphur retention efficiencies; (2) elutriation and particle breakdown characteristics; (3) in-bed heat transfer rates; (4) cyclone collection efficiencies; and (5) NO/sub x/ and alkali emissions. The plan for performing Test Series 2 is presented. (LCL)

  20. Wind tunnel pressure distribution tests on a series of biplane wing models Part II : effects of changes in decalage, dihedral, sweepback and overhang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Noyes, Richard W

    1929-01-01

    This preliminary report furnishes information on the changes in the forces on each wing of a biplane cellule when the decalage, dihedral, sweepback and overhang are separately varied. The data were obtained from pressure distribution tests made in the Atmospheric Wind Tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Since each test was carried up to 90 degree angle of attack, the results may be used in the study of stalled flight and of spinning and in the structural design of biplane wings.

  1. Rapid Levothyroxine Absorption Testing: A Case Series of Nonadherent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Mamtha; Jhingan, Ram M.; Rubin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonadherence to levothyroxine therapy is one cause of persistent hypothyroidism. To distinguish nonadherence from malabsorption, a levothyroxine absorption test is required. Typically, this test measures the serum free thyroxine (FT4) response to 1000 mcg of oral levothyroxine over 4 to 24 hours. Published data indicate that serum levels of FT4 are at or near their peak 2 hours after levothyroxine ingestion. Objectives: We present the successful completion of 2-hour levothyroxine absorption testing in 3 patients as a retrospective case series. Patients and Methods: Serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were drawn at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after 1000 mcg of oral levothyroxine. Results: In all 3 cases, baseline thyroid function indicated the patients had taken their prescribed doses of levothyroxine prior to the absorption test. Despite high baseline levels both FT3 and FT4 increased during each absorption test, providing more evidence of adequate levothyroxine absorption. Subsequently, patients achieved normal TSH levels on lower doses of levothyroxine. Conclusions: Levothyroxine absorption testing over 2 hours may offer a more rapid alternative to the commonly used longer protocols to rule out malabsorption. Scheduling a levothyroxine absorption test may induce some patients to start adhering to levothyroxine therapy. PMID:26633982

  2. Evaluation of LLTR Series II test A-2 results. [Large Leak Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, J C; Shoopak, B F; Chen, K; Fan, C K; Odegaard, T K

    1980-07-01

    Series II Test A-2 employed a double-ended (DEG) tube rupture 122'' above the lower end of the LLTI shroud under typical evaporator startup conditions. The leak site was located 2'' below Spacer No. 4 at the same location as Test A-lb which employed nitrogen as the inert non-reactive injection fluid. The test yielded peak pressures of 375 psig in the leak site region and 485 psig at the upper tubesheet approximately 10 ms and 12 ms, respectively, after tube rupture. Higher peak temperatures (approx. 2200/sup 0/F) were measured in this test than during Series I sodium-water reaction testing (peak temperatures measured during Series were about 1900/sup 0/F maximum). These high peak temperatures occurred in Test A-2 long after the tube rupture (approx. 8 seconds) and did not contribute to the acoustic peak pressures produced in the first few milliseconds.

  3. Adverse events in cancer genetic testing: the third case series.

    PubMed

    Bonadies, Danielle C; Brierley, Karina L; Barnett, Rachel E; Baxter, Melanie D; Donenberg, Talia; Ducaine, Whitney L; Ernst, Michelle E; Ernstx, Michelle E; Homer, Jeanne; Judkins, Megan; Lovick, Niki M; Powers, Jacquelyn M; Stanislaw, Christine; Stark, Elizabeth; Stenner, Rio C; Matloff, Ellen T

    2014-01-01

    After repeated media attention in 2013 due to the Angelina Jolie disclosure and the Supreme Court decision to ban gene patents, the demand for cancer genetic counseling and testing services has never been greater. Debate has arisen regarding who should provide such services and the quality of genetics services being offered. In this ongoing case series, we document 35 new cases from 7 states (California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Utah) and the District of Columbia of adverse outcomes in cancer genetic testing when performed without the involvement of a certified genetic counselor. We identified 3 major themes of errors: wrong genetic tests ordered, genetic test results misinterpreted, and inadequate genetic counseling. Patient morbidity and mortality were an issue in several of these cases. The complexity of cancer genetic testing and counseling has grown exponentially with the advent of multigene panels that include rare genes and the potential for more variants of uncertain significance. We conclude that genetic counseling and testing should be offered by certified genetics providers to minimize the risks, maximize the benefits, and utilize health care dollars most efficiently. PMID:25098283

  4. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-03-14

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

  5. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah

    2015-05-01

    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  6. Performing T-tests to Compare Autocorrelated Time Series Data Collected from Direct-Reading Instruments.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Industrial hygienists now commonly use direct-reading instruments to evaluate hazards in the workplace. The stored values over time from these instruments constitute a time series of measurements that are often autocorrelated. Given the need to statistically compare two occupational scenarios using values from a direct-reading instrument, a t-test must consider measurement autocorrelation or the resulting test will have a largely inflated type-1 error probability (false rejection of the null hypothesis). A method is described for both the one-sample and two-sample cases which properly adjusts for autocorrelation. This method involves the computation of an "equivalent sample size" that effectively decreases the actual sample size when determining the standard error of the mean for the time series. An example is provided for the one-sample case, and an example is given where a two-sample t-test is conducted for two autocorrelated time series comprised of lognormally distributed measurements. PMID:26011524

  7. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Sixteen. Mastery Testing Program. Series 6. Tests M66-M91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, print masters of tests 66 through 91 are provided. Among the areas covered are: carbon compounds; evolution; map reading; genetics; energy; chemical formulae; electricity; graphs; metric measures; solubility; and physical separations. Many tests contain…

  8. The Audit Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staisloff, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  9. The Audit Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staisloff, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  10. The Executive Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legon, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  11. The Investment Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is part of an AGB series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices included in this text support the objectives of board committees:…

  12. The Compensation Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  13. The Investment Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is part of an AGB series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices included in this text support the objectives of board committees:…

  14. The Executive Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legon, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  15. The Facilities Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  16. Progress report on LLTR Series II Test A-2 (Part 1). [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Freede, W.J.; Neely, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains a complete set of valid and final digital and analog data plots for LLTR Series II, Test A-2. Included is an Accuracy Statement regarding this data as required by Revision 0 of the GE Test Request, Specification No. 23A2062. The Series II, Sodium-Water Reaction Test A-2 was performed in the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). This was the third of three planned double-edged guillotine (DEG) rupture tests of a single tube which will be followed by a number of small leak tests. The test article is the LLTI which is a full-size diameter internals, shortened in length and prototypic of the CRBR steam generator. It is installed in the Large Leak Test Vessel (LLTV). The overall test program was formulated by General Electric (GE) as Test Requester to establish steam generator design and to verify analytical models/codes to estimate the effect of large leak accidents in an LMFBR demonstration plant steam generator and system.

  17. PX series AMTEC cell design, testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, C.A.; Sievers, R.K.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    PX (Pluto Express) cell testing and analysis has shown that AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Conversion) cells can reach the power levels required by proposed RPS (Radioisotope Power Supply) system designs. A major PX cell design challenge was to optimize the power and efficiency of the cell while allowing a broad operational power range. These design optimization issues are greatly dependent on the placement of the evaporation zone. Before the PX-2 and PX-4 cells were built, the results from the PX-1, ATC-2 (artery test cell) and design analysis indicated the need for a thermal bridge between the heat input surface of the cell and the structure supporting the evaporation zone. Test and analytic results are presented illustrating the magnitude of the power transfer to the evaporation zone and the effect of this power transfer on the performance of the cell. Comparisons are also made between the cell test data and analytic results of cell performance to validate the analytic models.

  18. Relay test program. Series 2 tests: Integral testing of relays and circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing.

  19. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

  20. Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells.

  1. General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40%) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Extended series test program large fragment tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.

    1989-08-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electric power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electric power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory was modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents, and an extended series safety test program was initiated. The program included a series of large fragment tests that simulated the collision of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragments, generated in an SRB motor case rupture or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action, with the GPHS-RTG. The tests indicated that fueled clads, inside a converter, will not breach or release fuel after a square (142 cm on a side) SRB fragment impacts flat-on at velocities up to 212 m/s, and that only the leading fueled capsules breach and release fuel after the square SRB fragment impacts the modules, inside the converter, edge-on at 95 m/s. 8 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Theresa A.

    1989-06-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four Pu-238O2-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40 percent) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions.

  4. FIELD DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's OHMSETT facility has developed a rapid field test that includes some of the theoretical aspects and conditions of dispersion at sea. This Field Dispersant Effectiveness Test (FDET) has been used to evaluate the dispersibility of various commonly-transported oils and mak...

  5. Teaching English as a Second Language: Perspectives and Practices. A Series of Six Texts. Testing: Fourth of a Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This book is designed to assist those who work with non-English dominant students by providing resource information relevant to second language teaching and learning. The articles in the series encompass both theory and practical learning techniques in six general topics. Five articles concerning testing are presented in the fourth volume of this…

  6. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

  7. Effective Educational Practices. Educational Practices Series--3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Paik, Susan J.

    This booklet focuses on aspects of effective education that appear to be universal in formal schooling. The practices, which are generally for use in elementary and secondary classrooms, show large, positive learning effects for students in widely varying conditions. Information in the booklet is based on research spanning half a century. Each…

  8. Current Developments in Language Testing. Anthology Series 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anivan, Sarinee, Ed.

    The selection of papers on language testing includes: "Language Testing in the 1990s: How Far Have We Come? How Much Further Have We To Go?" (J. Charles Alderson); "Current Research/Development in Language Testing" (John W. Oller, Jr.); "The Difficulties of Difficulty: Prompts in Writing Assessment" (Liz Hamp-Lyons, Sheila Prochnow); "The Validity…

  9. Evaluation of Suspected Cosmetic Induced Facial Dermatoses with the Use of Indian Standard Series and Cosmetic Series Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Madhur Kant; Gupta, Astha; Soodan, Puneet Singh; Gahalaut, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Awareness about skin beauty or cosmetic elegance has received worldwide attention in the present day youth oriented society. Along with careful detailed history and thorough examination patch test is considered cornerstone in diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients suspected clinical diagnosis of contact facial dermatitis due to attended the Department of Dermatology, were included in a hospital based study. The patch test was applied on the upper back of using 32 allergens present in Indian cosmetic series and 20 known allergens in Indian standard battery series procured from Systopic Pharmaceutical Ltd, after applying the patch test, the patient was asked to come after 48h and 72h for reading the results of the patch test. Results: Out of 50 patients there were 32 (64%) females (housewives 36%) patients and 18 (36%) male (farmers 12%). Itching was the most common presenting symptom in 39 patients (78%) least was hypopigmentation and pain in 2%. Forehead was the most common site of involvement in 25 patients (50%) least were cheeks in 15 patients (30%). Erythema was the commonest morphological presentation seen in 36 patients (72%). Hair dye was suspected in maximum number of patients that is 13 (26%). Most common antigen showing patch test positivity was paraphenylenediamine in nine patients (18%). There are significantly more chances of developing positive test reaction with Indian standard series compared to cosmetic series. (p=.0053 using Fischer Exact test). Conclusion: In India there is no legislation regarding labeling ingredients on cosmetics as in the western countries, so labelling of the contents of cosmetic products should be the main challenge in cosmetic dermatitis is to identify. PMID:25954688

  10. Misuse study of latch attachment: a series of frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

    2007-01-01

    This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G's when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G's, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values. PMID:18184489

  11. The Building Blocks of State Testing Programs. Statement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Arnold; Pedulla, Joseph; Clarke, Marguerite

    To ensure that educational tests do the least harm and bring the greatest good to the education of elementary and secondary school students, it is important that parents, teachers, educational administrators, and policy makers be actively involved in test construction and use. The purpose of this Statement is to provide a checklist of some…

  12. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  13. Contamination Effects Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, C. G.; Thornton, M. M.; Mullen, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test facility has been developed for in-situ measurement of the thermo-optical and electrical effects of molecular contamination deposited on sensitive spacecraft surfaces. The Contamination Effects Test Facility (CETF) consists of three separate vacuum chambers interconnected by gate valves through which test sample surfaces may be moved as needed by various vacuum manipulators. Deposition of contamination occurs in one chamber, where surface electrical properties can also be measured. In the second chamber, a wide range of thermo-optical properties can be measured by use of a unique ellipsoidal-mirror reflectometer. The third chamber maintains a vacuum environment around the test sample while the chamber is transported to facilities for solar ultraviolet (UV), electron, and proton irradiation of the sample at orbital intensities. By keeping atmosphere away from the contaminated surface at all times during the effects measurement and irradiation stages, the CETF provides a more realistic space simulation that avoids the possible effects of oxygen and water on the thermo-optical or electrical properties of the contaminant deposits. For testing of the volatile species produced by rocket propulsion systems, which are condensible only at cryogenic temperatures, continual vacuum capability precludes rapid icing due to atmospheric water vapor.

  14. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on. PMID:19686892

  15. NASA Boeing 757 HIRF test series low power on-the-ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, A.J.; Pennock, S.T.; Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.L.

    1996-08-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transports; for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs; and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/ Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants in this project were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. The tests were performed over a five week period during September through November, 1994. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. This report and the associated test plan that is included as an appendix represent a definition of the overall on-the-ground test program. They include descriptions of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. In this report, a detailed description of each executed test is provided, as is the data identification (data id) relating the specific test with its relevant data files. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation are also presented. The test plan which guided the execution of the tests, a test report by UIE Inc., and the report describing the concrete pad characterization are included as appendices.

  16. The effect of trapped charge on series capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mark C.; Solheim, Jonathan R.

    2015-07-01

    If capacitors are initially charged before placing them in series, charge becomes trapped on the electrically isolated internal plates. The effect of this "trapped charge" on the final charge and voltage distributions in series capacitor networks provides instructors with a new class of engaging capacitor problems not currently addressed in introductory physics textbooks. We present formulae for the final charges on two series capacitors connected to a battery in terms of initial charge values. Various special cases are also considered. Results are verified experimentally using dc voltage and RC time constant measurements. Practical considerations for experimental design are discussed.

  17. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  18. X-0557 modified Steven tests : series I and II /.

    SciTech Connect

    Straight, J. W.; Osborn, M. A.; Coulter, W. L.; Mang, J. T.; Anderson, M. C.; Idar, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). These have been investigated using different experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, including, but not limited to the drop weight impact, Taylor anvil impact, Susan,1 and more recently, the Steven and Modified Steven tests.2-8 Ideally, the data will be used to further advance 3-D finite element analysis predictive capability with improved bulk constitutive HE models for the assessment of HE response to mechanical insult. Our overall objectives for these experiments were to (1) evaluate the HE reaction threshold behavior for two different lots of X-0557, and (2) characterize the degree of reaction violence relative to a detonation. This report summarizes our single impact test results on the two different lots of X-0557 in Modified Steven targets.

  19. Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Education Policy for Action Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added measures of teacher effectiveness are the centerpiece of a national movement to evaluate, promote, compensate, and dismiss teachers based in part on their students' test results. Federal, state, and local policy-makers have adopted these methods en masse in recent years in an attempt to objectively quantify teaching effectiveness and…

  20. Testing the homogeneity of short-term surface solar radiation series in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakuba, Maria Z.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Non-climatic factors, such as changes in instruments or the relocation of meteorological stations, can cause sudden shifts or gradual biases in a climate data time series. The use of such inhomogeneous time series in data analysis might lead to false conclusions about climate variability and change. In this work, we test the homogeneity of 172 surface solar radiation (SSR) monthly series over Europe available in the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) during the period 2000-2007. Four absolute homogeneity tests are applied to each series, and a classification of inhomogeneous and homogeneous stations is given. The results show that 20 out of 172 series (11.6% of the total) are inhomogeneous at the 99% significance level. The mean average time series of both data sets, the original and the one with only the homogeneous series, show positive linear trends (0.59 and 0.70 Wm-2yr-1). The omission of the inhomogeneous series increases the original trend by 0.11 Wm-2yr-1 or 1.1 Wm-2decade-1. Our results highlight the importance of testing the homogeneity of SSR time series before any trend analysis is performed.

  1. Test plan for long-term, low-temperature oxidation of spent fuel, Series 1

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.

    1986-06-01

    Preliminary studies indicated the need for more spent fuel oxidation data in order to determine the probable behavior of spent fuel in a tuff repository. Long-term, low-temperature testing was recommended in a comprehensive technical approach to: (1) confirm the findings of the short-term thermogravimetric analyses scoping experiments; (2) evaluate the effects of variables such as burnup, atmospheric moisture and fuel type on the oxidation rate; and (3) extend the oxidation data base ot representative repository temperatures and better define the temperature dependence of the operative oxidation mechanisms. This document presents the Series 1 test plan to study, on a large number of samples, the effects of atmospheric moisture and temperature on oxidation rate and phase formation. Tests will run for up to two years, use characterized fragmented, and pulverized fuel samples, cover a temperature range of 110{sup 0}C to 175{sup 0}C and be conducted with an atmospheric moisture content rangeing from <-55{sup 0}C to {similar_to}80{sup 0}C dew point. After testing, the samples will be examined and made available for leaching testing.

  2. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  3. Automated classification of Permanent Scatterers time-series based on statistical characterization tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The application of space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry has progressed, over the last two decades, from the pioneer use of single interferograms for analyzing changes on the earth's surface to the development of advanced multi-interferogram techniques to analyze any sort of natural phenomena which involves movements of the ground. The success of multi-interferograms techniques in the analysis of natural hazards such as landslides and subsidence is widely documented in the scientific literature and demonstrated by the consensus among the end-users. Despite the great potential of this technique, radar interpretation of slope movements is generally based on the sole analysis of average displacement velocities, while the information embraced in multi interferogram time series is often overlooked if not completely neglected. The underuse of PS time series is probably due to the detrimental effect of residual atmospheric errors, which make the PS time series characterized by erratic, irregular fluctuations often difficult to interpret, and also to the difficulty of performing a visual, supervised analysis of the time series for a large dataset. In this work is we present a procedure for automatic classification of PS time series based on a series of statistical characterization tests. The procedure allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) and retrieve for each trend a series of descriptive parameters which can be efficiently used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. The classification algorithms were developed and tested using an ENVISAT datasets available in the frame of EPRS-E project (Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing) of the Italian Ministry of Environment (track "Modena", Northern Apennines). This dataset was generated using standard processing, then the time series are typically affected by a significant noise to signal ratio. The results of the analysis show that even with such a rough-quality dataset, our automated classification procedure can greatly improve radar interpretation of mass movements. In general, uncorrelated PS (type 0) are concentrated in flat areas such as fluvial terraces and valley bottoms, and along stable watershed divides; linear PS (type 1) are mainly located on slopes (both inside or outside mapped landslides) or near the edge of scarps or steep slopes; non-linear PS (types 2 to 5) typically fall inside landslide deposits or in the surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of classified PS allows to detect deformation phenomena not visible by considering the average velocity alone, and provide important information on the temporal evolution of the phenomena such as acceleration, deceleration, seasonal fluctuations, abrupt or continuous changes of the displacement rate. Based on these encouraging results we integrated all the classification algorithms into a Graphical User Interface (called PSTime) which is freely available as a standalone application.

  4. Time Series Analysis of Alternative Media Effects Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.

    A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…

  5. Time Series Analysis of Alternative Media Effects Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.

    A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…

  6. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the air

  7. Shot Apple 2, a test of the TEAPOT series, 5 May 1955. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, J.; Wilkinson, M.; Rohrer, S.

    1981-11-25

    This report describes the activities of more than 2,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot APPLE 2, the thirteenth nuclear test in the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 5 May 1955 and involved participants from Exercise Desert Rock VI, AFSWP, AFSWC, AEC, Test Groups, and the Air Weather Service. The largest activity was the test of an armored task force, Task Force RAZOR, which involved approximately 1,000 troops.

  8. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  9. Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Executive Summary. Education Policy for Action Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    "Value-added" measures of teacher effectiveness are the centerpiece of a national movement to evaluate, promote, compensate, and dismiss teachers based in part on their students' test results. Federal, state, and local policy-makers have embraced these measures in recent years as a means to objectively quantify teacher quality and to identify,…

  10. Effective Second Language Writing. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasten, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The classroom practices discussed in "Effective Second Language Writing" reflect various trends and methodologies; however, the underlying theme in this volume of the Classroom Practice Series is the need for clear and meaningful communication between ESL writers and their readers. While approaches differ, two core beliefs are constant: ESL…

  11. Effective Second Language Writing. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasten, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The classroom practices discussed in "Effective Second Language Writing" reflect various trends and methodologies; however, the underlying theme in this volume of the Classroom Practice Series is the need for clear and meaningful communication between ESL writers and their readers. While approaches differ, two core beliefs are constant: ESL…

  12. Design and evaluation of a 3 million DN series-hybrid thrust bearing. [stability tests and fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Winn, L. W.; Eusepi, M.

    1976-01-01

    The bearing, consisting of a 150-mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid-film bearing, was fatigue tested. Test conditions were representative of a mainshaft ball bearing in a gas turbine engine operating at maximum thrust load to simulate aircraft takeoff conditions. Tests were conducted up to 16000 rpm and at this speed an axial load of 15568 newtons (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the series-hybrid bearing principle, the effective ball bearing speed was reduced to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. It was concluded that a speed reduction of this magnitude results in a ten-fold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful evaluation of fluid-film bearing lubricant supply failure was performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm. A complete and smooth changeover to full-scale ball bearing operation was effected when the oil supply to the fluid-film bearing was cut off. Reactivation of the fluid-film oil supply system resulted in a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

  13. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraf

  14. Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

  15. Aircraft control surface failure detection and isolation using the OSGLR test. [orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnice, W. F.; Motyka, P.; Wagner, E.; Hall, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio (OSGLR) test in detecting and isolating commercial aircraft control surface and actuator failures is evaluated. A modification to incorporate age-weighting which significantly reduces the sensitivity of the algorithm to modeling errors is presented. The steady-state implementation of the algorithm based on a single linear model valid for a cruise flight condition is tested using a nonlinear aircraft simulation. A number of off-nominal no-failure flight conditions including maneuvers, nonzero flap deflections, different turbulence levels and steady winds were tested. Based on the no-failure decision functions produced by off-nominal flight conditions, the failure detection and isolation performance at the nominal flight condition was determined. The extension of the algorithm to a wider flight envelope by scheduling on dynamic pressure and flap deflection is examined. Based on this testing, the OSGLR algorithm should be capable of detecting control surface failures that would affect the safe operation of a commercial aircraft. Isolation may be difficult if there are several surfaces which produce similar effects on the aircraft. Extending the algorithm over the entire operating envelope of a commercial aircraft appears feasible.

  16. Real-time tracking and targeting computations and rocket vehicle aeroballistics for the PLACES ionospheric plasma test series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollstin, L. R.

    The PLACES (Position Location And Communication Effects Simulations) test program, conducted in December 1980 at Eglin Gulf Test Range, involved a series of ionospheric releases of barium/barium-nitrate vapor. The Defense Nuclear Agency sponsored program investigated effects of a structured ionospheric plasma (similar to that produced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion) on satellite navigation systems and provided in situ measurement of plasma structure. Terrier-Tomahawk rocket systems boosted the barium payloads, beacon payloads (plasma occultation experiment), and probe payloads (plasma in situ measurement). Drifting plasma tracking procedures, beacon- and probe-vehicle targeting procedures, and vehicle flight test results are presented.

  17. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1985-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

  18. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-05-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.

  19. Results of the mission profile life test. [for J-series mercury ion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven J series 30-cm diameter thrusters have been tested in segments of up to 5,070 hr, for 14,541 hr in the Mission Profile Life Test facility. Test results have indicated the basic thruster design to be consistent with the lifetime goal of 15,000 hr at 2-A beam. The only areas of concern identified which appear to require additional verification testing involve contamination of mercury propellant isolators, which may be due to facility constituents, and the ability of specially covered surfaces to contain sputtered material and prevent flake formation. The ability of the SCR, series resonant inverter power processor to operate the J series thruster and autonomous computer control of the thruster/processor system were demonstrated.

  20. Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Marzotto, Marta; Magnani, Paolo; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Olioso, Debora; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1?mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5?mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization. PMID:22548123

  1. Paracetamol effectiveness, safety and blood level monitoring during patent ductus arteriosus closure: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Irena; Waisman, Dan; Lavie-Nevo, Karen; Golzman, Marcelo; Lorber, Avraham; Rotschild, Avi

    2014-11-01

    Paracetamol was reported to be effective for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. We present a case series of PDA closure by paracetamol in seven premature infants. During the treatment, paracetamol blood levels did not exceed the recommended levels for analgesia and hyperthermia in six tested infants. None of the patients demonstrated significant disturbances of liver function. PMID:24460433

  2. Single-Event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: Comparison of EPC1000 and EPC2000 Series Devices for Destructive SEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Recent testing of the EPC1000 series eGaN FETs has shown sensitivity to Single Event Effects (SEE) that are destructive. These effects are most likely the failure of the very thin gate structure in HEMT architecture. EPC has recently changed the doping of the substrate to improve the performance and the SEE response. This testing compares the SEE response of both devices.

  3. SERIES-X test results. [for measuring TOPEX earth satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.; Bletzacker, F. R.; Najarian, R. J.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Statman, J. I.; Thomas, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The SERIES-X project which demonstrates the feasibility of a method involving measurements of the distance from the TOPEX earth satellite and various points on the ground to Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites is described. The features of SERIES-X are compared with three better-known geodetic-quality GPS systems (Geostar, Macrometer, and SERIES). It is shown that the system is capable of measuring the positions of isolated stations, but its accuracy is improved when it measures baselines. Test results of some measurements of baselines ranging in length from 15 to 171,000 m are presented and discussed.

  4. Optical Kerr-effect measurement for a series of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Neil J.; Jennings, Barry R.

    1993-06-01

    Nanosecond optical Kerr-effect (OKE) measurements are reported using a modified apparatus, designed to enable rapid and precise data recording in pure liquids. Careful design of the apparatus enables measurements to be made at several inducing wavelengths without substantial apparatus modifications. The first measurement of the optical Kerr effect for benzene at an inducing wavelength of 532 nm is presented together with novel OKE data for the hitherto unstudied homologous alcohol series from methanol to 1-dodecanol. Analysis of the results indicates for this series the existence of a linear relationship between the carbon chain length and the optically induced Kerr constant somewhat similar to the behavior previously observed in the n-alkanes.

  5. An endurance test of a 900 series 30-cm engineering model ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The 10,000 hour endurance test of the first engineering model 30-cm thruster (S/N 701) identified discharge chamber erosion as a life limiting problem. Modifications to minimize this problem have been implemented in the 900 series thrusters. This paper describes a test conducted to evaluate the success of these modifications. The post-test analysis results of thruster 701 are summarized and the erosion reducing modifications described. Test results for thruster 901 up to 4165 hours, when the test was interrupted by a shorted wire, are described. The conclusions of a post-test examination of thruster 901 are included. Also being evaluated was a thermal vacuum breadboard SCR series inverter power processor which is described.

  6. Preparing Students for Testing: Should We Promote Test Wiseness? EREAPA Publication Series No. 93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Patricia H.; Haertel, Geneva D.

    Test-taking skills and methods used to prepare students for taking an examination are independent of knowledge and skills in the content area being tested. Test-taking skills do not give students the correct answers, but do allow the student to concentrate on answering questions without being confused by the mechanics of the test. Students who…

  7. Unraveling the cause-effect relation between time series.

    PubMed

    Liang, X San

    2014-11-01

    Given two time series, can one faithfully tell, in a rigorous and quantitative way, the cause and effect between them? Based on a recently rigorized physical notion, namely, information flow, we solve an inverse problem and give this important and challenging question, which is of interest in a wide variety of disciplines, a positive answer. Here causality is measured by the time rate of information flowing from one series to the other. The resulting formula is tight in form, involving only commonly used statistics, namely, sample covariances; an immediate corollary is that causation implies correlation, but correlation does not imply causation. It has been validated with touchstone linear and nonlinear series, purportedly generated with one-way causality that evades the traditional approaches. It has also been applied successfully to the investigation of real-world problems; an example presented here is the cause-and-effect relation between the two climate modes, El Niño and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), which have been linked to hazards in far-flung regions of the globe. In general, the two modes are mutually causal, but the causality is asymmetric: El Niño tends to stabilize IOD, while IOD functions to make El Niño more uncertain. To El Niño, the information flowing from IOD manifests itself as a propagation of uncertainty from the Indian Ocean. PMID:25493782

  8. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, Patrick C.; Moody, Donald A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71'' (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G's at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G's was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  9. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  10. Testing a Series of Causal Propositions Relating Time in Child Care to Children's Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Kathleen; Burchinal, Margaret; Clarke-Stewart, Aliso; Bub, Kristen L.; Owen, Margaret T.; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has documented associations between hours in child care and children's externalizing behavior. A series of longitudinal analyses were conducted to address 5 propositions, each testing the hypothesis that child care hours causes externalizing behavior. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child…

  11. Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

  12. Semiautomatic validation of RR time series in an ECG stress test database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijos, Jairo; García, David; Astudillo, Darwin; Palacio-Baus, Kenneth; Medina, Rubén.; Wong, Sara

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports an automatic method for characterizing the quality of the RR-time series in the stress test database known as DICARDIA. The proposed methodology is simple and consists in subdividing the RR time series in a set of windows for estimating the quantity of artifacts based on a threshold value that depends on the standard deviation of RR-time series for each recorded lead. In a first stage, a manual annotation was performed considering four quality classes for the RR-time series (Reference lead, Good Lead, Low Quality Lead and Useless Lead). Automatic annotation was then performed varying the number of windows and threshold value for the standard deviation of the RR-time series. The metric used for evaluating the quality of the annotation was the Matching Ratio. The best results were obtained using a higher number of windows and considering only three classes (Good Lead, Low Quality Lead and Useless). The proposed methodology allows the utilization of the online available DICARDIA Stress Test database for different types of research.

  13. Hospital waste shredder test series at the DONLEE Pilot Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the coal firing and coal and noninfectious hospital waste co-firing testing and emissions rates for the tests conducted at the DONLEE pilot plant facility during mid-December 1991 through early March 1992. The emissions obtained during these tests are in turn used to predict the emission rates for the proof-of-concept facility that is to be built at the Lebanon Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In addition, the reliability and performance of the waste shredding/feeding system were evaluated from this testing.

  14. Hospital waste shredder test series at the DONLEE Pilot Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Robert; Sak, James

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the coal firing and coal and noninfectious hospital waste co-firing testing and emissions rates for the tests conducted at the DONLEE pilot plant facility during mid-December 1991 through early March 1992. The emissions obtained during these tests are in turn used to predict the emission rates for the proof-of-concept facility that is to be built at the Lebanon Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In addition, the reliability and performance of the waste shredding/feeding system were evaluated from this testing.

  15. Michigan Oral Language Productive Test. Conceptual Oral Language Test. Michigan Oral Language Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    Two separate tests which measure children's ability to produce standard grammatical and phonological features when they speak, provide pre-instructional and post-instructional data to help determine instructional emphases. The structured response test, requiring 15 minutes to administer, yields a profile of group performance in the production of…

  16. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 7. Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test series 3. 07. 9 - steady-state film boiling in upflow

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.

    1982-05-01

    Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test series 3.07.9 was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water Reactor (ORNL-PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on September 11, September 18, and October 1, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test series 3.07.9 was designed to provide steady-state film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. This report presents the reduced instrument responses for THTF test series 3.07.9. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

  17. Test Series 2: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Exide FHC-19 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D. A.; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1985-03-01

    The seismic-fragility of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and their thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the ''end-of-life'' of a battery if subjected to a seismic event. This report, the second in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium Exide FHC-19 cells from the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station operated by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of six electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations.

  18. Testing for nonlinearity in time series: The method of surrogate data

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, J.; Galdrikian, B.; Longtin, A. ); Eubank, S.; Farmer, J.D. Santa Fe Inst., NM )

    1991-01-01

    We describe a statistical approach for identifying nonlinearity in time series; in particular, we want to avoid claims of chaos when simpler models (such as linearly correlated noise) can explain the data. The method requires a careful statement of the null hypothesis which characterizes a candidate linear process, the generation of an ensemble of surrogate'' data sets which are similar to the original time series but consistent with the null hypothesis, and the computation of a discriminating statistic for the original and for each of the surrogate data sets. The idea is to test the original time series against the null hypothesis by checking whether the discriminating statistic computed for the original time series differs significantly from the statistics computed for each of the surrogate sets. We present algorithms for generating surrogate data under various null hypotheses, and we show the results of numerical experiments on artificial data using correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and forecasting error as discriminating statistics. Finally, we consider a number of experimental time series -- including sunspots, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, and fluid convection -- and evaluate the statistical significance of the evidence for nonlinear structure in each case. 56 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Overview of the 6 Meter HIAD Inflatable Structure and Flexible TPS Static Load Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Greg; Kazemba, Cole; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony; Hughes, Steve; Cassell, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil

    2014-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). At the beginning of 2014, a 6m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 6m HIAD structure was constructed in a stacked toroid configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber reinforced thin films, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile woven structural straps to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for displacement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The centerbody of the inflatable structure was attached to a pedestal mount as seen in Figure 1. Using an impermeable membrane seal draped over the test article, partial vacuum was pulled beneath the HIAD, resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to provide many data sets including: deformed shape, shoulder deflection, strap loads, cord loads, inflation pressures, and applied static load.In this overview, the 6m HIAD static load test series will be discussed in detail, including the 6m HIAD inflatable structure and flexible TPS design, test setup and execution, and finally initial results and conclusions from the test series.

  20. PFB coal-fired combined-cycle development program. Test evaluation report: CURL test series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Under contract to the United States Department of Energy, the General Electric Company participated in the NCB/CURL 10 x 100 hour test at Leatherhead, England, in order to investigate corrosion and erosion of candidate gas turbine blade alloys for service in a Pressurized Fluidized Bed (PFB) combined-cycle power plant. The tests also permitted an evaluation of hot gas cleanup equipment. The results are encouraging, indicating that it is possible to provide materials which can withstand the erosive/corrosive PFB environment. Further, it was found that the reduction of particulate efflux via cyclones was sufficient to eliminate excessive erosion of gas turbine components in the stationary cascades tested. The tests also demonstrated the great care required to obtain accurate and consistent data measurement in certain areas. In particular, effluent characterization techniques require significant sophistication. Particle size distribution data indicated a high consistency of operation. On the other hand, difficulties were encountered in obtaining accurate and reliable indication of the alkali content of the exhaust gas. This was disappointing, since this is an important factor related to the tolerance levels of conventional gas turbine materials. Future testing efforts are recommended and defined.

  1. Consideration for Sample Size in Reliability Studies for Mastery Tests. Publication Series in Mastery Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Joseph C.; Huynh, Huynh

    In most reliability studies, the precision of a reliability estimate varies inversely with the number of examinees (sample size). Thus, to achieve a given level of accuracy, some minimum sample size is required. An approximation for this minimum size may be made if some reasonable assumptions regarding the mean and standard deviation of the test…

  2. Testing the Perey effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, L. J.; Nunes, F. M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: The effects of nonlocal potentials have historically been approximately included by applying a correction factor to the solution of the corresponding equation for the local equivalent interaction. This is usually referred to as the Perey correction factor. Purpose: In this work we investigate the validity of the Perey correction factor for single-channel bound and scattering states, as well as in transfer (p,d) cross sections. Method: We solve the scattering and bound state equations for nonlocal interactions of the Perey-Buck type, through an iterative method. Using the distorted wave Born approximation, we construct the T matrix for (p,d) on 17O, 41Ca, 49Ca, 127Sn, 133Sn, and 209Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. Results: We found that for bound states, the Perey corrected wave function resulting from the local equation agreed well with that from the nonlocal equation in the interior region, but discrepancies were found in the surface and peripheral regions. Overall, the Perey correction factor was adequate for scattering states, with the exception of a few partial waves corresponding to the grazing impact parameters. These differences proved to be important for transfer reactions. Conclusions: If only local optical potentials are used in the analysis of experimental (p,d) cross sections, without any correction factors, as compared to the analysis with nonlocal potentials, the spectroscopic factors could be affected by approximately 20%. The Perey correction factor does offer an improvement over taking a direct local equivalent solution. However, if the desired accuracy is to be better than 10%, the exact solution of the nonlocal equation should be pursued.

  3. Model tests with a systematic series of 27 wing sections at full Reynolds number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M; Miller, Elton W

    1926-01-01

    A systematic series of 27 wing sections, characterized by a small travel of the center or pressure, have been investigated at 20 atmospheres pressure in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The results are consistent with each other, and indicate that for such "stable" sections a small effective camber, a small effective S-shape and a thickness of 8 to 12 per cent lead to good aerodynamic properties.

  4. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

  5. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS. [Integrated Tiger Series (ITS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method.

  6. Undulator Beam Pipe Magnetic Shielding Effect Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Andrew; Wolf, Zachary; ,

    2010-11-23

    The proposed stainless steel beampipe for the LCLS undulator has a measurable shielding effect on the magnetic field of the LCLS undulators. This note describes the tests used to determine the magnitude of the shielding effect, as well as deviations in the shielding effect caused by placing different phase shims in the undulator gap. The effect of the proposed Steel strongback which will be used to support the beam pipe, was also studied. A hall probe on a 3 axis movement system was set up to measure the main component of the magnetic field in the Prototype Undulator. To account for temperature variations of the magnetic field of the undulator for successive tests, a correction is applied which is described in this technical note. Using this method, we found the shielding effect, the amount which the field inside the gap was reduced due to the placement of the beampipe, to be {approx}10 Gauss. A series of tests was also performed to determine the effect of phase shims and X and Y correction shims on the shielding. The largest effect on shielding was found for the .3 mm phase shims. The effect of the .3 mm phase shims was to increase the shielding effect {approx}4 Gauss. The tolerance for the shielding effect of the phase shims is less than 1 gauss. The effect of the strongback was seen in its permanent magnetic field. It introduced a dipole field across the measured section of the undulator of {approx}3 gauss. This note documents the tests performed to determine these effects, as well as the results of those tests.

  7. REACTIVITY INITIATED ACCIDENT TEST SERIES TEST RIA 1-4 EXPERIMENT PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, S. K.; Martinson, Z. R.

    1980-02-01

    The results of the pretest analyses for Test RIA 1-4 are presented. Test RIA 1-4 consists of a 3x3 array of previously irradiated MAP! fuel rods. The rods have 5.7% enriched UO{sub 2} fuel in zircaloy-4 cladding with an average burnup of 5300 MWd/t. The objective for Test RIA 1-4 is to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following RIA event for a radial-average peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g UO{sub 2}). Radial averaged peak fuel enthalpies of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g) 1077 J/g {257 cal/g), and 978 J/g (234 cal/g) for the corner, side, and center fuel rods, respectively, are planned to be achieved during a 2.7 ms reactor period power burst. The results of the FRAP-T5 analyses indicate that all nine rods will fail within 26 ms from the start of the power burst due to pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. All of the rods will undergo partial fuel melting. All rods will operate under extended film boiling (>30 sec) conditions and about 70% of the cladding length is expected to be molten. Approximately 15% of the cladding thickness will be oxided. Fuel swelling due to fission gas release and melting combined with fuel and cladding fragmentation, will probably produce a complete coolant flow blockage within the flow shroud.

  8. Strategies of symbolization in cardiovascular time series to test individual gestational development in the fetus.

    PubMed

    Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Van Leeuwen, Peter

    2015-02-13

    The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series retrieves dynamical properties of the underlying regulation which are robust against the symbolic transformation. In this study, three different transformations to produce a symbolic series were applied to fetal RR interval series to test whether they reflect individual changes of fetal heart rate variability in the course of pregnancy. Each transformation was applied to 215 heartbeat datasets obtained from 11 fetuses during the second and the third trimester of pregnancy (at least 10 datasets per fetus, median 17). In the symbolic series, the occurrence of symbolic sequences of length 3 was categorized according to the amount of variations in the sequence: no variation of the symbols, one variation, two variations. Linear regression with respect to gestational age showed that the individual course during pregnancy performed best using a binary transformation reflecting whether the RR interval differences are below or above a threshold. The median goodness of fit of the individual regression lines was 0.73 and also the variability among the individual slopes was low. Other transformations to symbolic dynamics performed worse but were still able to reflect the individual progress of fetal cardiovascular regulation. PMID:25548263

  9. Pressure relief tests on varistors for the series compensation banks installed at the Montagnais substation

    SciTech Connect

    Mainville, J. ); Riffon, P.; Rollin, L.P. ); Hinrichsen, V. )

    1994-04-01

    For the series compensation banks currently being installed on the Hydro-Quebec network, it was decided to verify the performance of the pressure relief devices on the varistor units with the capacitor discharge superimposed on the fault current. This paper gives the calculations done to evaluate the expected stresses on a failed varistor unit. It is followed by a description of the tests required and the test circuits developed to reproduce the capacitor discharge current added to the fault current. The last sections give a description of the test units and present the results obtained. This paper is concluded by a discussion of the results and of the useful data obtained from the tests.

  10. Foot eczema: the role of patch test in determining the causative agent using standard series.

    PubMed

    Priya, K S; Kamath, Ganesh; Martis, Jacintha; D, Sukumar; Shetty, Narendra J; Bhat, Ramesh M; Kishore, B Nanda

    2008-01-01

    Foot dermatitis refers to the predominant involvement of feet in the eczematous process. This study is undertaken to determine the clinical pattern and causative agent in foot eczema and to evaluate the role of patch testing in determining the causative agent of foot eczema. Data was collected from 50 patients with foot eczema, who attended the out-patient department. The patch test was performed using Indian standard series. Patch test was positive in 88% of the patients. The most common site affected was the dorsal aspect of the foot (48%) and scaly plaque was the predominant morphological pattern. The highest number of patients (24%) showed positive reactions to mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and the lowest (4%) to neomycin sulfate. Rubber and rubber chemicals have been reported worldwide to be the most common sensitizer causing foot eczema. Thus, patch test has a major role in finding out the cause of foot eczema. PMID:19881990

  11. FOOT ECZEMA: THE ROLE OF PATCH TEST IN DETERMINING THE CAUSATIVE AGENT USING STANDARD SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Priya, K S; Kamath, Ganesh; Martis, Jacintha; D, Sukumar; Shetty, Narendra J; Bhat, Ramesh M; Kishore, B Nanda

    2008-01-01

    Foot dermatitis refers to the predominant involvement of feet in the eczematous process. This study is undertaken to determine the clinical pattern and causative agent in foot eczema and to evaluate the role of patch testing in determining the causative agent of foot eczema. Data was collected from 50 patients with foot eczema, who attended the out-patient department. The patch test was performed using Indian standard series. Patch test was positive in 88% of the patients. The most common site affected was the dorsal aspect of the foot (48%) and scaly plaque was the predominant morphological pattern. The highest number of patients (24%) showed positive reactions to mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and the lowest (4%) to neomycin sulfate. Rubber and rubber chemicals have been reported worldwide to be the most common sensitizer causing foot eczema. Thus, patch test has a major role in finding out the cause of foot eczema. PMID:19881990

  12. Summary of results from velocity profile tests and wastage tests in support of LLTR series II test A-4. [Large Leak Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The following conclusions were drawn from the experimental program conducted in support of LLTR (Large Leak Test Rig) Series II Test A-4: Fabrication technique for making precise slits was developed. Wastage boundary agrees with velocity profile boundary. Circumferential slit angles would have to be 120/sup 0/ to ensure adequate coverage of adjacent tubes. 120/sup 0/ circumferential slit weakens tubes such that maintaining desired slit dimensions for LLTI application is not considered practical. Use of intermittent slit geometry would be required. 120/sup 0/ slits, precisely machined and precisely aligned with target tubes, produced different penetration rates on adjacent tubes. Production of simultaneous failures in LLTI with 120/sup 0/ slit or simulated interrupted slit is not considered credible.

  13. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU II card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-10-21

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality.

  14. Clinical effectiveness of electroacupuncture in meralgia paraesthetica: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Rosemary E

    2013-01-01

    Background Meralgia paraesthetica is a fairly common condition resulting from entrapment of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. I have found that acupuncture produces a rapid improvement, sometimes effecting a cure, after only one or two treatments. I therefore invited referrals in order to collect a case series. Methods A series of 10 patients, which included two who had refused surgery, but excluded those with significant lumbar spine problems, were treated. Visual Analogue Scale pain scores and analgesic intake were recorded weekly, starting before treatment. Four patients were receiving high doses of analgesics and the average period of symptoms was 3–4?years. Acupuncture points used were BL25, GB30, GB34, GB31, GB32, Huatuojiaji and ah shi points of the buttock and thigh, up to a depth of 7.5?cm. Electroacupuncture was normally given from the second treatment. Results Without exception, patients were specifically tender over GB31 before they started treatment. Most were also tender over the upper lumbar spine. An average of four to five sessions of acupuncture was given. The pain scores for all 10 patients improved by at least 50%, including that of a patient with a 20-year history. At follow-up (varying from 3 to 36?months), improvement was nearly 100%. Most patients were able to stop their analgesics. Conclusions Meralgia paraesthetica appears to respond rapidly to electroacupuncture. A significant trigger point at GB31 was universally present, which may aid diagnosis, although the reason for this is unclear. Further controlled studies are justified. PMID:24152611

  15. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges. PMID:26080054

  16. Fabrication and testing of W7-X pre-series target elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscary, J.; Böswirth, B.; Greuner, H.; Grigull, P.; Missirlian, M.; Plankensteiner, A.; Schedler, B.; Friedrich, T.; Schlosser, J.; Streibl, B.; Traxler, H.

    2007-03-01

    The assembly of the highly-loaded target plates of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) divertor requires the fabrication of 890 target elements (TEs). The plasma facing material is made of CFC NB31 flat tiles bonded to a CuCrZr copper alloy water-cooled heat sink. The elements are designed to remove a stationary heat flux and power up to 10 MW m-2 and 100 kW, respectively. Before launching the serial fabrication, pre-series activities aimed at qualifying the design, the manufacturing route and the non-destructive examinations (NDEs). High heat flux (HHF) tests performed on full-scale pre-series TEs resulted in an improvement of the design of the bond between tiles and heat sink to reduce the stresses during operation. The consequence is the fabrication of additional pre-series TEs to be tested in the HHF facility GLADIS. NDEs of this bond based on thermography methods are developed to define the acceptance criteria suitable for serial fabrication.

  17. A case series evaluating the accuracy of manual muscle testing for predicting fetal sex

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Kristopher B.; Peterson, Caroline D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate if manual muscle testing (MMT) could identify fetal sex in women who did not know the sex of their babies. The null hypothesis was that MMT is no more accurate than chance. Methods A prospective case series of 27 sequential pregnant patients who did not know the sex of their fetus were included in this study. The examiner was also blind to the sex of the fetus. Manual muscle testing was evaluated after the mother stated “I am having a boy.” Likelihood ratios, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Results Fourteen girl babies and 13 boy babies were born. Manual muscle testing accurately predicted the sex 13 times. The positive likelihood ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-2.03), sensitivity was 0.40, specificity was 0.54, positive predictive value was 0.46, and negative predictive value was 0.44. Conclusion Manual muscle testing was no better than chance at predicting fetal sex in this case series. PMID:22942835

  18. LLNL/NWC 1980 LNG spill tests. Burro series data report

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R.P.; Baker, J.; Cederwall, R.T.; Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Hogan, W.J.; Kamppinen, L.M.; Kiefer, R.D.; McClure, J.W.; McRae, T.G.; Morgan, D.L.

    1982-12-01

    During the summer of 1980, the Burro series of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill experiments were performed at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California. These experiments involved eight spills of LNG and one of liquid nitrogen, each of approximately 40 m/sup 3/, onto water. A large array of instruments was used to make measurements of gas concentration, temperature, humidity, heat flux from the ground, and turbulence within the dispersing gas cloud. A separate instrument array made measurements of the wind field both upwind of the spill and over the area in which the gas was dispersing. This report contains the data from these tests with an explanation of how and where the data were taken and the reliability of the instruments used to take it. It does not include analysis of the data, other than that which is necessary to understand the reliability of the data. Data analysis will be covered in a series of other reports.

  19. VISAR Validation Test Series at the Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Covert, Timothy Todd

    2007-02-01

    A velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was recently deployed at the light initiated high explosive facility (LIHE) to measure the velocity of an explosively accelerated flyer plate. The velocity data from the flyer plate experiments, using the vendor's fringe constant of 100m/s/fringe, were consistently lower than model predictions. The goal of the VISAR validation test series was to confirm the VISAR system fringe constant. A low velocity gas gun was utilized to impact and accelerate a target at the LIHE facility. VISAR velocity data from the accelerated target was compared against an independent velocity measurement. The data from this test series did in fact reveal the fringe constant was significantly higher than the vendor's specification. The correct fringe constant for the LIHE VISAR system has been determined to be 123 m/s/fringe. The Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility recently completed a Phase I test series to develop an explosively accelerated flyer plate (X-Flyer). The X-Flyer impulse technique consists of first spraying a thin layer of silver acetylide silver nitrate explosive onto a thin flyer plate. The explosive is then initiated using an intense flash of light. The explosive detonation accelerates the flyer across a small air gap towards the test item. The impact of the flyer with the test item creates a shock pulse and an impulsive load in the test unit. The goal of Phase I of the X-Flyer development series was to validate the technique theory and design process. One of the key parameters that control the shock pulse and impulsive load is the velocity of the flyer at impact. To measure this key parameter, a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was deployed at the LIHE facility. The VISAR system was assembled by Sandia personnel from the Explosive Projects and Diagnostics department. The VISAR was a three leg, push-pull system using a fixed delay cavity. The primary optical components consisted of a delay bar and stand off that holds the air-reference mirror. When this component was ordered 2 years ago, a fringe constant of 100 m/s/fringe for a 532nm laser was specified. The fabrication/assembly vendor went out of business shortly after delivering the component and did not deliver the certification papers with the component. The vendor documentation to verify the fringe constant was not made available to Sandia. VISAR systems were generally not calibrated because the fringe constant could be determined from a known glass index of refraction and length. The VISAR system was deployed at the LIHE facility using the specified 100m/s/fringe. The Phase I X-Flyer development series was completed successfully measuring flyer velocities using the VISAR system. However flyer velocity measurements were on average 18% lower than analytical model predictions. In an effort to resolve the consistently slow velocity data, the VISAR data was under scrutiny. The purpose of the LIHE VISAR validation test series is to verify the velocity data taken with the VISAR system.

  20. Effective temperature of self-similar time series: Analytical and numerical developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olemskoi, Alexander; Kokhan, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    Within both slightly non-extensive statistics and a related numerical model, a picture is elaborated to treat self-similar time series as a thermodynamic system. Thermodynamic-type characteristics relevant to temperature, pressure, entropy, internal and free energies are introduced and tested. Predictability conditions of time series analysis are discussed on the basis of Van der Waals model. Maximal magnitude for time interval and minimal resolution scale of the value under consideration are found and analyzed in details. The statistics developed is shown to be governed by effective temperature being an exponential measure of the fractal dimension of the time series. Testing of the analytical consideration is based on numerical scheme of non-extensive random walk. A statistical scheme is introduced to present the numerical model as a grand canonical ensemble for which entropy and internal energy are calculated as functions of particle number. Effective temperature is found numerically to show that its value is reduced to averaged energy per one degree of freedom.

  1. A test on the reliability and performance of the verbex series 4000 voice recognizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntharalingam, P.

    1985-09-01

    Voice recognition systems are becoming increasingly widespread as forms of data entry. One such use of speech input would be as an aid to pilot communication in the cockpit. The Verbex Series 4000 Voice Recognizer (VVR) was chosen as the input channel for a forthcoming flight simulation system. The VVR is a speaker dependent unit with the ability to recognize continuous speech. An additional feature of the VVR is its use of structured grammars in defining the speech format. Tests were run to determine the VVR's reliability, and also to investigate the variations in performance for different grammar structures.

  2. A test of uranium-series dating of fossil tooth enamel: results from Tournal Cave, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Tavoso, A.; de Lumley, Henry

    1988-01-01

    A series of well preserved mammal bones and horse teeth was analyzed from archaeological levels of Tournal Cave (Magdalenian, Aurignacian, and Mousterain) to test the hypothesis that well-crystallized enamel behaves more as a closed system than does whole bone. The isotopic composition of bones and tooth enamels from this deposit meet criteria for confidence, and gave no reasons to suspect contamination or open-system behavior. Two samples for which 231Pa could be analyzed showed internal concordance with the respective 230Th ages. In spite of the favourable isotopic criteria, however, comparison of the U-series ages of the bones and the tooth enamel with stratigraphic position and 14C control indicated the dates were not meaningful. In general, both bones and tooth enamels gave ages too young, although some were clearly too old. Neither group showed any systematic increase of age with stratigraphic depth. Tooth enamel, therefore, shows no advantage over bone for U-series dating for this site. In Tournal cave both bones and enamel are apparently open to U, which is probably cycling as a consequences of post-depositional groundwater movement. ?? 1988.

  3. Time-series intervention analysis of pedestrian countdown timer effects.

    PubMed

    Huitema, Bradley E; Van Houten, Ron; Manal, Hana

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians account for 40-50% of traffic fatalities in large cities. Several previous studies based on relatively small samples have concluded that Pedestrian Countdown Timers (PCT) may reduce pedestrian crashes at signalized intersections, but other studies report no reduction. The purposes of the present article are to (1) describe a new methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of introducing PCT signals and (2) to present results of applying this methodology to pedestrian crash data collected in a large study carried out in Detroit, Michigan. The study design incorporated within-unit as well as between-unit components. The main focus was on dynamic effects that occurred within the PCT unit of 362 treated sites during the 120 months of the study. An interrupted time-series analysis was developed to evaluate whether change in crash frequency depended upon of the degree to which the countdown timers penetrated the treatment unit. The between-unit component involved comparisons between the treatment unit and a control unit. The overall conclusion is that the introduction of PCT signals in Detroit reduced pedestrian crashes to approximately one-third of the preintervention level. The evidence for this reductionis strong and the change over time was shown to be a function of the extent to which the timers were introduced during the intervention period. There was no general drop-off in crash frequency throughout the baseline interval of over five years; only when the PCT signals were introduced in large numbers was consistent and convincing crash reduction observed. Correspondingly, there was little evidence of change in the control unit. PMID:25003967

  4. General-Purpose Heat Source: Research and development program: Cold-Process Verification Test Series

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs and individual GPHS capsules fueled with {sup 238}UO{sub 2} ({sup 235}U-depleted) to a variety of explosive overpressure and impact events. In the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resumed fabrication of {sup 238}UO{sub 2} GPHS pellets. The Cold-Process Verification (CPV) Test Series was designed to compare the response of GPHS heat sources loaded with recently fabricated hot- and cold-pressed {sup 238}UO{sub 2} pellets to the response of urania pellets used in the Galileo and Ulysses performance tests. This report documents eleven bare-capsule impacts and one impact of a fully loaded GPHS module. All of the failures observed in the bare-clad impact tests were similar to failures observed in previous safety tests. No failures occurred in the module impact test.

  5. Effects of aging condition on the fracture toughness of 2XXX and 7XXX series aluminum alloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on the effects of matrix aging condition (i.e., matrix temper) on the fracture toughness of 2XXX and 7XXX Al matrix alloys reinforced with SiC particulates, and the results are compared with the mechanical behavior. Fracture toughness testing was conducted on fatigue precracked bend specimens, and fracture surfaces were examined using SEM. Results revealed dramatic differences in the effect of matrix microstructure on the fracture properties of the two composite series. In the 7XXX material, the toughness values decreased from the underaged (UA) condition to the overaged (OA) condition by approximately 40 percent, while in the 2XXX series composite, the effect of matrix microstructure was marginal. In the 7XXX series composites, a transition in fracture mode from particle cracking (in UA) to matrix and linear-interface failure (in OA) was observed, while the 2XXX series composite failed predominantly by particle cracking.

  6. Wind-Tunnel Tests on a Series of Wing Models Through a Large Angle of Attack Range. Part I : Force Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Wenzinger, Carl J

    1930-01-01

    This investigation covers force tests through a large range of angle of attack on a series of monoplane and biplane wing models. The tests were conducted in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The models were arranged in such a manner as to make possible a determination of the effects of variations in tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweep back, and airfoil profile. The arrangements represented most of the types of wing systems in use on modern airplanes. The effect of each variable is illustrated by means of groups of curves. In addition, there are included approximate autorotational characteristics in the form of calculated ranges of "rotary instability." a correction for blocking in this tunnel which applies to monoplanes at large angles of attack has been developed, and is given in an appendix. (author)

  7. Fabrication and test of LARP technological quadrupole models of TQC series

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley /Brookhaven

    2008-08-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9K to 4.5K.

  8. Fabrication and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole Models of TQC Series

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, Rodger C.; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Andreev, Nilolai; Barzi, Emanuela; Chlachidze, Guram; Feher, Sandor; Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Orris, Darryl; Tartaglia, Michael; Zlobin, Alexander V.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ferracin, Paolo; Hafalia, A. R.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Ghosh, Arup; Wanderer, Peter

    2008-08-17

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9 K to 4.5 K.

  9. Measured versus predicted performance of the SERI test house: a validation study

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; Burch, J.

    1983-05-01

    For the past several years the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Passive and Hybrid Solar Division has sponsored work to improve the reliability of computerized building energy analysis simulations. Under the auspices of what has come to be called the Class A Monitoring and Validation program, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has engaged in several areas of research that includes: (1) developing a validation methodology; (2) developing a performance monitoring methodology designed to meet the specific data needs for validating analysis/design tools; (3) constructing and monitoring a 1000-ft/sup 2/, multizone, skin-load-dominated test building; (4) constructing and monitoring a two-zone test cell; and (5) making sample validation studies using the DOE-2.1, BLAST-3.0, and SERIRES-1.0 computer programs. This paper reports the results obtained in comparing the measured thermal performance of the building to the performance calculated by the building energy analysis simulations. It also describes the validation methodology and the class A data acquisition capabilities at SERI.

  10. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  11. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  12. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  13. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  14. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Registration § 240.12d1-1 Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed pursuant to... of additional shares or amounts. (d) If a class of security is issuable in two or more series...

  15. Tank Tests of NACA Model 40 Series of Hulls for Small Flying Boats and Amphibians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Dawson, John R

    1937-01-01

    The NACA model 40 series of flying-boat hull models consists of 2 forebodies and 3 afterbodies combined to provide several forms suitable for use in small marine aircraft. One forebody is the usual form with hollow bow sections and the other has a bottom surface that is completely developable from bow to step. The afterbodies include a short pointed afterbody with an extension for the tail surfaces, a long afterbody similar to that of a seaplane float but long enough to carry the tail surfaces, and a third obtained by fitting a second step in the latter afterbody. The various combinations were tested in the NACA Tank by the general method over a suitable range of loadings. Fixed-trim tests were made for all speeds likely to be used and free-to-trim tests were made at low speeds to slightly beyond the hump speed. The characteristics of the hulls at best trim angles have been deduced from the data of the tests at fixed trim angles and are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients applicable to any size hull.

  16. Fuel performance improvement program: description and characterization of HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 test rods

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Barner, J.O.; Welty, R.K.

    1980-03-01

    The fabrication process and as-built characteristics of the HBWR Series H-2 and H-3 test rods, as well as the three packed-particle (sphere-pac) rods in HBWR Series H-4 are described. The HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 tests are part of the irradiation test program of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program. Fifteen rods were fabricated for the three test series. Rod designs include: (1) a reference dished pellet design incorporating chamfered edges, (2) a chamfered, annular pellet design combined with graphite-coated cladding, and (3) a sphere-pac design. Both the annular-coated and sphere-pac designs include internal pressurization using helium.

  17. The Governance Committee: Independent Institutions. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. B.; Lanier, James L.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is part of an AGB series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimal committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices outlined in this publication support the objectives of board…

  18. Synchronized stress-PALS test on a series of polyester copolymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Yee, Albert F.

    2001-03-01

    Previous work in our group suggests that, in craze nucleation, only when a nanovoid grows to a critical size can it serve as a nucleus for stable craze growth. However, what factors influence this nanovoid growth process remains unclear. A new technique, synchronized stress-PALS test, has been established to study the change in size and intensity of nanovoids when polymer glasses are under stress. A series of glassy copolymers based on poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly (1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate) (PCT) were investigated by synchronized stress-PALS at different stress levels. The results suggest that both stress level and chain mobility of the polymers influence nanovoid growth. Based on these experimental results, a craze nucleation model has been proposed. This model, based on thermodynamic and kinetic analysis, show that the craze nucleation process is determined by the modulus, surface energy and chain mobility of polymer glasses.

  19. Statistical algorithm to test the presence of correlation between time series with age/dating uncertainties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haam, E. K.; Huybers, P.

    2008-12-01

    To understand the Earth's climate, we must understand the inter-relations between its specific geographical areas which, in the case of paleoclimatology, can be profitably undertaken from an empirical perspective. However, assessment of the inter-relation between separate paleoclimate records is inevitably hindered by uncertainties in the absolute and relative age/dating of these climate records, because the correlation between two paleoclimate data with age uncertainty can change dramatically when variations of the age are allowed within the uncertainty limit. Through rigorous statistical analysis of the available proxy data, we can hope to gain better insight into the nature and scope of the mechanisms governing their variability. We propose a statistical algorithm to test for the presence of correlation between two paleoclimate time series with age/dating uncertainties. Previous works in this area have focused on searching for the maximum similarity out of all possible realizations of the series, either heuristically (visual wiggle matching) or through more quantitative methods (eg. cross-correlation maximizer, dynamic programming). In contrast, this algorithm seeks to determine the statistical significance of the maximum covariance. The probability of obtaining a certain maximum covariance from purely random events can provide us with an objective standard for real correlation and it is assessed using the theory of extreme order statistics, as a multivariate normal integral. Since there is no known closed form solution for a multivariate normal integral, a numerical method is used. We apply this algorithm to test for the correlation of the Dansgaard-Oeschger variability observed during MIS3 in the GISPII ice core and millennial variability recorded at cites including Botuvera Cave in Brazil, Hulu Cave in China, Eastern Indonesia, the Arabian Sea, Villa Cave in Europe, New Zealand and the Santa Barbara basin. Results of the analysis are presented as a map of the statistical significance of the covariance between GISP II and each of these sites.

  20. Design considerations and test facilities for accelerated radiation effects testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Miller, C. G.; Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Test design parameters for accelerated dose rate radiation effects tests for spacecraft parts and subsystems used in long term mission (years) are detailed. A facility for use in long term accelerated and unaccelerated testing is described.

  1. Development of a test series to determine in situ thermomechanical and transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, E.L.; Voegele, M.D.; Board, M.P.; Pratt, H.R.

    1985-12-31

    A small number of heated block tests have been performed, with the objective of determining the usefulness of large-scale field testing in site characterization for an underground nuclear waste repository. These tests have been research oriented, involving independent control of the state of stress and temperature in a specimen of rock having a volume of 8 m/sup 3/. The heated block test is a logical candidate to obtain information on repository design and licensing, particularly for validating predictive repository model performance. A description is given of the preparation, field work, and analysis that comprised the heated block tests at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) experimental mine and G-tunnel on the Nevada test site. These demonstrations of the heated block test showed that additional refinement is possible and especially that the method was effective in gathering meaningful data not obtainable by any other means. Such data included the apparent coupling of the effects of independently controlled stress and temperature on the deformation behavior of jointed rock, and on the conductivity of a single fracture to injected water.

  2. The Effects of Test Anxiety on Listening Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In'nami, Yo.

    2006-01-01

    Although decisions or inferences we make based on test scores depend both on characteristics of test-takers and of testing situations, little research has been undertaken on the effects of these characteristics on test performance (e.g., Alderson and Banerjee, 2002). This study focuses on one of the personal characteristics of test-takers, namely…

  3. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed. PMID:26603048

  4. Hot-flow tests of a series of 10-percent-scale turbofan forced mixing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, V. L.; Povinelli, L. A.; Gerstenmaier, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    An approximately 1/10-scale model of a mixed-flow exhaust system was tested in a static facility with fully simulated hot-flow cruise and takeoff conditions. Nine mixer geometries with 12 to 24 lobes were tested. The areas of the core and fan stream were held constant to maintain a bypass ratio of approximately 5. The research results presented in this report were obtained as part of a program directed toward developing an improved mixer design methodology by using a combined analytical and experimental approach. The effects of lobe spacing, lobe penetration, lobe-to-centerbody gap, lobe contour, and scalloping of the radial side walls were investigated. Test measurements included total pressure and temperature surveys, flow angularity surveys, and wall and centerbody surface static pressure measurements. Contour plots at various stations in the mixing region are presented to show the mixing effectiveness for the various lobe geometries.

  5. Soot properties and species measurements in a two-meter diameter JP-8 pool fire : 2003 test series.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Murphy, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy probe was used to measure in situ soot properties and species concentrations in a two-meter diameter JP-8 pool fire. Thirty-five tests were performed at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site operated by Sandia in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The axial profile of the fire was characterized with a series of tests with the probe located on the centerline at heights ranging from 0.5 m to 2.0 m in 0.25 m increments. The radial profile of the fire was characterized with a series of tests with the probe 1.0 m above the fuel surface at radial positions ranging from 0.0 m to 0.6 m, in 0.1 m increments. Experiments were also performed with variation of the air flow into the facility. Soot concentration was determined using a light extinction measurement based on the transmission of a solid-state red laser (635 nm) through the 3.7 cm long probe volume. Soot temperature and a second estimate of soot concentration were measured using two-color optical pyrometry at 850 nm and 1000 nm. The effective data rate for these measurements was 10 kHz. Finally, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was used to estimate the concentrations of water vapor, acetylene, and methane. The results presented include the statistics, probability density functions, and spectral density functions of soot concentration, soot temperature, and approximate species concentrations at the different measurement locations throughout the fire.

  6. Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.

    PubMed

    Garrec, D A; Norton, I T

    2012-08-01

    Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water. PMID:22621913

  7. Synthesis of a New Series of Substituted Pyrimidines and Its Evaluation for Antibacterial and Antinociceptive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Akhlaq; Alorainy, Mohammad S.; Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Khan, Suroor A.; Raza, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pyrimidines are a well known group of compounds reported to have different biological activities. Prompted from the diversity of its wider use and being an integral part of genetic material, an effort was made to synthesize a novel series of amino-pyrimidine derivatives of pharmaceutical interest by condensing the guanidinyl derivative of nalidixic acid with different chalcones. Methods: The structures of all synthesized compounds were established on the basis of IR and 1HNMR spectral studies. All of the new compounds in this series were screened for antimicrobial activity. Gram +ve and Gram ?ve strains were used to ascertain the spectrum of activity. ED50 values in the tail flick test were determined and recorded. Analgesic potential of compounds by using tail flick test in SWR male mice have also revealed promising results. Results: All of the derivatives were effective in Gram –ve test against E. coli. None of the compounds show any inhibition of Gram +ve strain S. aureus. m-Bromo substitution derivative of amino-pyrimidines showed appreciable activity against E. coli, while 2,4 dichloro and p-chloro substitution derivatives also demonstrated improved activity. Compound 4 was most potent. The order of potency for these derivatives was 4>5?6>1>2>7>3. Parallel to antimicrobial activity, m-bromo substitution derivative showed significant (P<0.01) antinociceptive response in comparison to control, and this effect was comparable to aspirin group. Trimethoxy substitution of benzene ring demonstrated moderate activity, whereas p-bromo substitution essentially had no antinociceptive effects in mice. Conclusion: Comparing meta- and para- bromo substitutions, there had been significant (P<0.01) difference in the antinociceptive response of both the bromo-substituted derivatives. It was observed that bromo-substitution at meta- position demonstrated comparatively higher potential for its antibacterial as well as antinociceptive properties. PMID:21475470

  8. Anomalous transient uplift observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using satellite radar interferometry time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, P.; Buckley, S. M.; Yang, D.; Carle, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    Anomalous uplift is observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using ERS satellite SAR data. Using an InSAR time-series analysis method, we show that an increase in absolute uplift with time is observed between 1997 and 1999. The signal is collocated with past underground nuclear tests. Due to the collocation in space with past underground tests we postulate a nuclear test-related hydrothermal source for the uplift signal. A possible mechanism is presented that can account for the observed transient uplift and is consistent with documented thermal regimes associated with underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site).

  9. Testing backreaction effects with observations

    SciTech Connect

    Larena, Julien; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Buchert, Thomas; Kunz, Martin

    2009-04-15

    In order to quantitatively test the ability of averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies to correctly describe observations of the large-scale properties of the Universe, we introduce a smoothed template metric corresponding to a constant spatial curvature model at any time, but with an evolving curvature parameter. This metric is used to compute quantities along an approximate effective light cone of the averaged model of the Universe. As opposed to the standard Friedmann model, we parametrize this template metric by exact scaling properties of an averaged inhomogeneous cosmology, and we also motivate this form of the metric by results on a geometrical smoothing of inhomogeneous cosmological hypersurfaces. The purpose of the paper is not to demonstrate that the backreaction effect is actually responsible for the dark energy phenomenon by explicitly calculating the effect from a local model of the geometry and the distribution of matter, but rather to propose a way to deal with observations in the backreaction context, and to understand what kind of generic properties have to hold in order for a backreaction model to explain the observed features of the Universe on large scales. We test our hypothesis for the template metric against supernova data and the position of the cosmic microwave background peaks, and infer the goodness of fit and parameter uncertainties. We find that averaged inhomogeneous models can reproduce the observations without requiring an additional dark energy component (though a volume acceleration is still needed), and that current data do not disfavor our main assumption on the effective light cone structure. We also show that the experimental uncertainties on the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter from baryon acoustic oscillations measurements--forseen in future surveys like the proposed EUCLID satellite project--are sufficiently small to distinguish between a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker template geometry and the template geometry with consistently evolving curvature.

  10. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a larger anthropometric portion of the astronaut population, and elements tested only in the unsuited condition need to be evaluated with an EVA suit and appropriate analog environment.

  11. Gaussian process test for high-throughput sequencing time series: application to experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Topa, Hande; Jónás, Ágnes; Kofler, Robert; Kosiol, Carolin; Honkela, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) have made it possible to monitor genomes in great detail. New experiments not only use HTS to measure genomic features at one time point but also monitor them changing over time with the aim of identifying significant changes in their abundance. In population genetics, for example, allele frequencies are monitored over time to detect significant frequency changes that indicate selection pressures. Previous attempts at analyzing data from HTS experiments have been limited as they could not simultaneously include data at intermediate time points, replicate experiments and sources of uncertainty specific to HTS such as sequencing depth. Results: We present the beta-binomial Gaussian process model for ranking features with significant non-random variation in abundance over time. The features are assumed to represent proportions, such as proportion of an alternative allele in a population. We use the beta-binomial model to capture the uncertainty arising from finite sequencing depth and combine it with a Gaussian process model over the time series. In simulations that mimic the features of experimental evolution data, the proposed method clearly outperforms classical testing in average precision of finding selected alleles. We also present simulations exploring different experimental design choices and results on real data from Drosophila experimental evolution experiment in temperature adaptation. Availability and implementation: R software implementing the test is available at https://github.com/handetopa/BBGP. Contact: hande.topa@aalto.fi, agnes.jonas@vetmeduni.ac.at, carolin.kosiol@vetmeduni.ac.at, antti.honkela@hiit.fi Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25614471

  12. A compendium of static and cruise test results from a series of tests on 13 ft diameter low disc loading rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, V. H.; Clark, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of tests conducted on a series of 13 foot rotors with various blade twists during the time period from 1969 to 1972. The tests were accomplished at AFAPL Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio and the ONERA 8-meter tunnel at Modane, France. Both static and cruise performance data are presented.

  13. Thermal Coatings Seminar Series Training Part 2: Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triolo, Jack

    2015-01-01

    This course will present an overview of a variety of thermal coatings-related topics, including: coating types and availability, thermal properties measurements, environmental testing (lab and in-flight), environmental impacts, contamination impacts, contamination liabilities, determination of BOLEOL values, and what does specularity mean to the thermal engineer.

  14. Qualifciation test series of the indium needle FEEP micro-propulsion system for LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharlemann, C.; Buldrini, N.; Killinger, R.; Jentsch, M.; Polli, A.; Ceruti, L.; Serafini, L.; DiCara, D.; Nicolini, D.

    2011-11-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna project (LISA) is a co-operative program between ESA and NASA to detect gravitational waves by measuring distortions in the space-time fabric. LISA Pathfinder is the precursor mission to LISA designed to validate the core technologies intended for LISA. One of the enabling technologies is the micro-propulsion system based on field emission thrusters necessary to achieve the uniquely stringent propulsion requirements. A consortium consisting of Astrium GmbH and the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt (formerly AIT) was commissioned by ESA to develop and qualify the micro-propulsion system based on the Indium Needle FEEP technology. Several successful tests have verified the proper Needle Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) operation and the thermal and mechanical design of subcomponents of the developed system. For all functional tests, the flight representative Power Control Unit developed by SELEX Galileo S.p.A (also responsible for the Micro-Propulsion Subsystem (MPS) development) was used. Measurements have shown the exceptional stability of the thruster. An acceptance test of one Thruster Cluster Assembly (TCA) over 3600 h has shown the stable long term operation of the developed system. During the acceptance test compliance to all the applicable requirements have been shown such as a thrust resolution of 0.1 ?N, thrust range capability between 0 and 100 ?N, thrust overshoot much lower than the required 0.3 ?N+3% and many others. In particular important is the voltage stability of the thruster (±1% over the duration of the testing) and the confirmation of the very low thrust noise. Based on the acceptance test the lifetime of the thruster is expected to exceed 39,000 h generating a total impulse bit of 6300 Ns at an average thrust level of 50 ?N. A flight representative qualification model of the Needle FEEP Cluster Assembly (DM1) equipped with one active TCA has performed a qualification program consisting of acceptance, vibration, shock, and thermal vacuum test. During the last test, the thermal vacuum test (TVT), a performance decrease was observed. According to a preliminary analysis, this performance decrease is not linked to the thermal conditions simulated in the TVT but might be rather linked to secondary effects of the TVT set-up.

  15. Assessing the effects of pharmacological agents on respiratory dynamics using time-series modeling.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kin Foon Kevin; Gong, Jen J; Cotten, Joseph F; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N

    2013-04-01

    Developing quantitative descriptions of how stimulant and depressant drugs affect the respiratory system is an important focus in medical research. Respiratory variables-respiratory rate, tidal volume, and end tidal carbon dioxide-have prominent temporal dynamics that make it inappropriate to use standard hypothesis-testing methods that assume independent observations to assess the effects of these pharmacological agents. We present a polynomial signal plus autoregressive noise model for analysis of continuously recorded respiratory variables. We use a cyclic descent algorithm to maximize the conditional log likelihood of the parameters and the corrected Akaike's information criterion to choose simultaneously the orders of the polynomial and the autoregressive models. In an analysis of respiratory rates recorded from anesthetized rats before and after administration of the respiratory stimulant methylphenidate, we use the model to construct within-animal z-tests of the drug effect that take account of the time-varying nature of the mean respiratory rate and the serial dependence in rate measurements. We correct for the effect of model lack-of-fit on our inferences by also computing bootstrap confidence intervals for the average difference in respiratory rate pre- and postmethylphenidate treatment. Our time-series modeling quantifies within each animal the substantial increase in mean respiratory rate and respiratory dynamics following methylphenidate administration. This paradigm can be readily adapted to analyze the dynamics of other respiratory variables before and after pharmacologic treatments. PMID:23193230

  16. Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

  17. Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

  18. Facing the Risks of the "Mozart Effect." Grand Masters Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bennett

    1999-01-01

    Explores the argument introduced by the "Mozart Effect" research: that music's positive influence on spatial-temporal reasoning should be the purpose for music education. Considers the implications by reshaping the National Standards for Music Education to fulfill the spatial-temporal rationale. Suggests how to reconcile musical and other purposes…

  19. Facing the Risks of the "Mozart Effect." Grand Masters Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bennett

    1999-01-01

    Explores the argument introduced by the "Mozart Effect" research: that music's positive influence on spatial-temporal reasoning should be the purpose for music education. Considers the implications by reshaping the National Standards for Music Education to fulfill the spatial-temporal rationale. Suggests how to reconcile musical and other purposes…

  20. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  1. Just entertainment: effects of TV series about intrigue on young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Lin, Shengdong; Ke, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The potential harmful effects of media violence have been studied systematically and extensively. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intrigue and struggles between people depicted in the mass media. A longitudinal randomized experimental group-control group, pretest–posttest design study was conducted to examine the potential effects of this type of TV series on young adults. A typical and popular TV series was select as a stimulus. By scrutinizing the outline of this TV series and inspired by studies of the effects of media violence, one behavioral observation and five scales were adopted as dependent measures. The study did not find any effect of the intrigue TV series on any of the six dependent variables. Finally, possible interference variables or moderators were discussed. PMID:26029127

  2. Just entertainment: effects of TV series about intrigue on young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Lin, Shengdong; Ke, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The potential harmful effects of media violence have been studied systematically and extensively. However, very little attention has been devoted to the intrigue and struggles between people depicted in the mass media. A longitudinal randomized experimental group-control group, pretest-posttest design study was conducted to examine the potential effects of this type of TV series on young adults. A typical and popular TV series was select as a stimulus. By scrutinizing the outline of this TV series and inspired by studies of the effects of media violence, one behavioral observation and five scales were adopted as dependent measures. The study did not find any effect of the intrigue TV series on any of the six dependent variables. Finally, possible interference variables or moderators were discussed. PMID:26029127

  3. Tertiary Education Entrance Project: Interim Report on the Evaluation of the T.E.E.P. Series A Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, J. E. N., Comp.

    This interim report summarizes ongoing research reported from the Australian Capital Territory, Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia on the relationship between matriculation through the Tertiary Education Entrance Project Series A Test Battery and university performance. In view of the preliminary nature of the findings, the tables are…

  4. The LE-statistic. A quantity useful for nonparametric independence tests and as a complexity measure of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompe, B.

    2013-06-01

    We introduce a quantity called LE-statistic. It is an easily computable functional of ordinal data with versatile applications. We demonstrate its usefulness as a statistic in a nonparametric independence test of paired samples, and as a complexity measure of a scalar time series. For chaotic orbits of one-dimensional dynamical systems it is related to the Lyapunov characteristic exponent.

  5. Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

  6. Irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels (Heavy-Section Steel Technology program series 4 and 5)

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, J.J.; Nanstad, R.K.; Thoms, K.R.; Menke, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents studies on the irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels. The Fourth Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Irradiation Series, almost completed, was aimed at elastic-plastic and fully plastic fracture toughness of low-copper weldments (''current practice welds''). A typical nuclear pressure vessel plate steel was included for statistical purposes. The Fifth HSST Irradiation Series, now in progress, is aimed at determining the shape of the K/sub IR/ curve after significant radiation-induced shift of the transition temperatures. This series includes irradiated test specimens of thicknesses up to 100 mm and weldment compositions typical of early nuclear power reactor pressure vessel welds. 27 refs., 22 figs. (JDB)

  7. Why testing improves memory: mediator effectiveness hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pyc, Mary A; Rawson, Katherine A

    2010-10-15

    A wealth of research has established that practice tests improve memory for the tested material. Although the benefits of practice tests are well documented, the mechanisms underlying testing effects are not well understood. We propose the mediator effectiveness hypothesis, which states that more-effective mediators (that is, information linking cues to targets) are generated during practice involving tests with restudy versus during restudy only. Effective mediators must be retrievable at time of test and must elicit the target response. We evaluated these two components of mediator effectiveness for learning foreign language translations during practice involving either test-restudy or restudy only. Supporting the mediator effectiveness hypothesis, test-restudy practice resulted in mediators that were more likely to be retrieved and more likely to elicit targets on a final test. PMID:20947756

  8. Competency Testing for Teachers: A Status Report. Policy Issue Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the teacher competency testing movement that is sweeping the nation. The first section provides an overview of teacher testing programs nationally, including the rationale for such programs, the types of tests used across the states, concerns about current testing programs, test validity studies, and fiscal and legal issues.…

  9. A Model for Optimal Constrained Adaptive Testing. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Reese, Lynda M.

    A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum information at the current ability estimate fixing…

  10. Tests of N.A.C.A. airfoils in the variable-density wind tunnel Series 43 and 63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Pinkerton, Robert M

    1931-01-01

    This note is one of a series covering an investigation of a family of related airfoils. It gives in preliminary form the results obtained from tests in the N.A.C.A. Variable-Density Wind Tunnel of two groups of six airfoils each. One group, the 43 series, has a maximum mean camber of 4 per cent of the chord at a position 0.3 of the chord from the leading edge; the other group, the 63 series, has a maximum mean camber of 6 per cent of the chord at the same position. The members within each group differ only in maximum thickness, the maximum thickness/chord ratios being:0.06, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, and 0.21. The results are analyzed with a view to indicating the variation of the aerodynamic characteristics with profile thickness for airfoils having a certain mean camber line.

  11. Health maintenance facility system effectiveness testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Gosbee, John; Bueker, Richard; Kupra, Debra; Ruta, Mary

    1993-01-01

    The Medical Simulations Working Group conducted a series of medical simulations to evaluate the proposed Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) Preliminary Design Review (PDR) configuration. The goal of these simulations was to test the system effectiveness of the HMF PDR configurations. The objectives of the medical simulations are to (1) ensure fulfillment of requirements with this HMF design, (2) demonstrate the conformance of the system to human engineering design criteria, and (3) determine whether undesirable design or procedural features were introduced into the design. The simulations consisted of performing 6 different medical scenarios with the HMF mockup in the KRUG laboratory. The scenarios included representative medical procedures and used a broad spectrum of HMF equipment and supplies. Scripts were written and simulations performed by medical simulations working group members under observation from others. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, debriefings, and videotapes. Results were extracted and listed in the individual reports. Specific issues and recommendations from each simulation were compiled into the individual reports. General issues regarding the PDR design of the HMF are outlined in the summary report.

  12. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU ll Card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-08-13

    This procedure checks the Enraf gauge received at Hanford is completely functional and has received no shipping damage. This procedure does not certify the gauge operation. The manufacturer certifies gauge operation. This procedure provides acceptance testing for Enraf Series 854 level gauges used to detect leaks in Hanford Waste Storage Tank annuli. The test will verify that the gauge functions according to the manufacturer's instructions and specifications and is properly setup prior to being delivered to the tank farm area. This ATP does not set up the gauge for any specific tank, but is generalized to permit testing the gauge prior to installation package preparation.

  13. Normal heartbeat series are nonchaotic, nonlinear, and multifractal: new evidence from semiparametric and parametric tests.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Richard T; Cecen, Aydin A; Erkal, Cahit

    2009-06-01

    We present new evidence that normal heartbeat series are nonchaotic, nonlinear, and multifractal. In addition to considering the largest Lyapunov exponent and the correlation dimension, the results of the parametric and semiparametric estimation of the long memory parameter (long-range dependence) unambiguously reveal that the underlying process is nonstationary, multifractal, and has strong nonlinearity. PMID:19566278

  14. Testing the impact of stratigraphic uncertainty on spectral analyses of sedimentary time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Kotov, Sergey; De Vleeschouwer, David; Pas, Damien; Vahlenkamp, Maximilian

    2015-04-01

    Spectral analysis has become a key tool for identifying the imprint of astronomical forcing on sedimentary records. In a next step, the identified cycles often contribute to the construction of a precise Geological Time Scale and to an in-depth understanding of past climate changes. Most of spectral analyses (Fast Fourier Transforms, the Multi-Taper Method…) require a constant sample step. Unfortunately, an equally spaced geological data series is, in practice, nearly impossible to obtain from field sedimentary series. Usually, there is a 10% uncertainty on the field measurements of the stratigraphic thickness within sedimentary series. Hence, important uncertainties exist in the actual position of each sample. Another source of uncertainty are errors in a time-space model. In this study, we explore the impact that the stratigraphic uncertainty on the sample position has on the result of spectral analyses. To simulate this uncertainty, we developed a model based on Monte Carlo randomisation of the distance between each successive point. In this way, the stratigraphic order of the data points is not affected after implementing this model. The application of this model to a theoretical sinusoid series and to several real sedimentary series shows that uncertainties in the actual position of samples can highly reduce the spectral powers of the frequencies ranging from the Nyquist Frequency up to 1/10 of the Nyquist Frequency. We then demonstrate that the precise reconstruction of the Milankovitch cycles in the sedimentary record requires a higher sampling density than previously suggested with, at least, 10 samples per thinnest cycle to be detected, i.e. 10 samples per precession cycle.

  15. The Language Testing Cycle: From Inception to Washback. Series S, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesworth, Gillian, Ed.; Elder, Catherine, Ed.

    A selection of essays on language testing includes: "Perspectives on the Testing Cycle: Setting the Scene" (Catherine Elder, Gillian Wigglesworth); "The Politicisation of English: The Case of the STEP Test and the Chinese Students" (Lesleyanne Hawthorne); "Developing Language Tests for Specific Populations" (Rosemary Baker); "Developing Rating…

  16. The Use of Confidence Intervals When Interpreting Test Scores. EREAPA Publication Series No. 93-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Patricia H.

    A person's obtained score on a test provides an estimate of the individual's "true" score on that test. The obtained score is considered to have two parts, the true component and the error component. Classical test theory assumes that obtained scores for an individual over multiple administrations of the same test will lie symmetrically around the…

  17. Controlling Item Allocation in the Automated Assembly of Multiple Test Forms. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Judith; Lin, Chuan-Ju; Chen, Troy T.

    Automated test assembly is a technology for producing multiple, equivalent test forms from an item pool. An important consideration for test security in automated test assembly is the inclusion of the same items on these multiple forms. Although it is possible to use item selection as a formal constraint in assembling forms, the number of…

  18. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. ); Martorell, S. ); Vesely, W.E. )

    1991-01-01

    To address the concerns about nuclear power plant surveillance tests, i.e., their adverse safety impact due to negative effects and too burdensome requirements, it is necessary to evaluate the safety significance or risk effectiveness of such tests explicitly considering both negative and positive effects. This paper defines the negative effects of surveillance testing from a risk perspective, and then presents a methodology to quantify the negative risk impact, i.e., the risk penalty or risk increase caused by the test. The method focuses on two important kinds of negative effects, namely, test-caused transients and test-caused equipment degradations. The concepts and quantitative methods for the risk evaluation can be used in the decision-making process to establish the safety significance of the tests and to screen the plant-specific surveillance test requirements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effects of acetyl-DL-leucine in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Michael; Teufel, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Feuerecker, Regina; Muth, Carolin; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Klopstock, Thomas; Feil, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    No existing medication has yet been shown to convincingly improve cerebellar ataxia. Therefore, the identification of new drugs for its symptomatic treatment is desirable. The objective of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of cerebellar ataxia with the amino acid acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil). Thirteen patients (eight males, median age 51 years) with degenerative cerebellar ataxia of different etiologies (SCA1/2, ADCA, AOA, SAOA) were treated with acetyl-DL-leucine (5 g/day) without titration for 1 week. Motor function was evaluated by changes in the Scale for the Rating and Assessment of Ataxia (SARA) and in the Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (SCAFI) during treatment compared to a baseline examination. Quality of life (EuroQol-5D-3L) and side effects were also assessed. Mean total SARA decreased remarkably (p = 0.002) from a baseline of 16.1 ± 7.1 to 12.8 ± 6.8 (mean ± SD) on medication. There were also significant improvements in sub-scores for gait (p = 0.022), speech (p = 0.007), finger-chase (p = 0.042), nose-finger-test (p = 0.035), rapid-alternating-movements (p = 0.002) and heel-to-shin (p = 0.018). Furthermore, patients showed better performance in the SCAFI consisting of the 8-m-walking-time (8 MW, p = 0.003), 9-Hole-Peg-Test of the dominant hand (9HPTD, p = 0.011) and the PATA rate (p = 0.005). Quality of life increased during treatment (p = 0.003). No side effects were reported. In conclusion, acetyl-DL-leucine significantly improved ataxic symptoms without side effects and therefore showed a good risk-benefit profile. These findings need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled trials. PMID:23835634

  20. Cumulative areawise testing in wavelet analysis and its application to geophysical time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Justin A.

    2016-03-01

    Statistical significance testing in wavelet analysis was improved through the development of a cumulative areawise test. The test was developed to eliminate the selection of two significance levels that an existing geometric test requires for implementation. The selection of two significance levels was found to make the test sensitive to the chosen pointwise significance level, which may preclude further scientific investigation. A set of experiments determined that the cumulative areawise test has greater statistical power than the geometric test in most cases, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is high. The number of false positives identified by the tests was found to be similar if the respective significance levels were set to 0.05.

  1. J-2X Engine Ready For Second Test Series - Duration: 3 minutes, 55 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse video of the installation of J-2X engine 10001 in the A-2 test-stand at Stennis, complete with clamshell assembly and nozzle extension. With these enhancements test engineers will measur...

  2. Annual CPS Test Trend Review, 2000. Research Data Brief. Academic Productivity Series, 2000 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, John Q.; Rosenkranz, Todd; Bryk, Anthony S.

    This report presents elementary school test trend data for the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), Illinois for 2000 for the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS). In spring 2000, ITBS trend data show that mathematics test scores in the CPS elementary schools continue their long-term improvements for all age levels. Positive trends in ITBS reading scores…

  3. A Classical Test Theory Perspective on LSAT Local Item Dependence. LSAC Research Report Series. Statistical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Lynda M.

    This study extended prior Law School Admission Council (LSAC) research related to the item response theory (IRT) local item independence assumption into the realm of classical test theory. Initially, results from the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and two other tests were investigated to determine the approximate state of local item independence…

  4. A Review of State Test Security Laws in 2013. ACT Research Report Series, 2014 (1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Test security has increased in importance in the last few years given high-profile cases of educator misconduct. This paper provides a review of state test security statutes and regulations related to statewide achievement testing using as a framework recent best practices reports by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education…

  5. Subsonic roll-damping characteristics of a series of wings. [wind tunnel tests of various wing planforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyden, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The aerodynamic damping in roll of a series of wings has been investigated in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel at Mach numbers ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 by use of a forced oscillatory-roll technique. Tests were conducted on wings of aspect ratio 6 with sweep angles of 25, 35, and 45 deg and on 35 deg swept wings of aspect ratios 4 and 5.

  6. Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Series of Metal Propellers on a VE-7 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E

    1929-01-01

    An adjustable blade metal propeller was tested at five different angle settings, forming a series varying in pitch. The propeller was mounted on a VE-7 airplane in the twenty-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The efficiencies were found to be from 4 to 7 per cent higher than those of standard wood propellers operating under the same conditions. The results are given in convenient form for use in selecting propellers for aircraft.

  7. Development, testing, and certification of the Northrup, Inc., ML series concentrating solar collector model NSC-01-0732

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is presented of the additional development work on the existing ML Series concentrating solar collector for use with solar heating and cooling systems. The report discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware, lists deliverable end items, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes certification statements of performance. This report shows that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use.

  8. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Martorell, S.; Kim, I.S. . Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Samanta, P.K. ); Vesely, W.E. )

    1992-07-20

    In nuclear power plants surveillance tests are required to detect failures in standby safety system components as a means of assuring their availability in case of an accident. However, the performance of surveillance tests at power may have adverse impact on safety as evidenced by the operating experience of the plants. The risk associated with a test includes two different aspects: (1) a positive aspect, i.e., risk contribution detected by the test, that results from the detection of failures which occur between tests and are detected by the test, and (2) a negative aspect, i.e., risk contribution caused by the test, that includes failures and degradations which are caused by the test or are related to the performance of the test. In terms of the two different risk contributions, the risk effectiveness of a test can be simply defined as follows: a test is risk effective if the risk contribution detected by the test is greater than the risk contribution caused by the test; otherwise it is risk ineffective. The methodology presentation will focus on two important kinds of negative test risk impacts, that is, the risk impacts of test-caused transients and equipment wear-out. The evaluation results of the risk effectiveness of the test will be presented in the full paper along with the risk assessment methodology and the insights from the sensitivity analysis. These constitute the core of the NUREG/CR-5775.

  9. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. General-Purpose Heat Source safety verification test series: SVT-1 through SVT-6

    SciTech Connect

    Pavone, D.; George, T.G.; Frantz, C.E.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular heat source that will supply energy for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) in space missions. The Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) are performed to assess the plutonia containment capability of heat source modules subjected to certain accident environments. This interim report described the GPHS module configuration, the test environment, and the response of the module components following simulated reentry and solid Earth impact. The specific test environment of these initial six tests results from failure of the booster rocket to place the spacecraft in a proper trajectory and subsequent reentry of the GPHS modules from Earth orbit. 36 figs.

  11. Analysis of effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in Sri Lanka using time series data.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kensuke; Kumarendran, Balachandran; Mettananda, Sachith; Gunasekara, Deepa; Fujii, Yoshito; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions of eastern and South-eastern Asia, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks occur frequently. Previous studies indicate an association between meteorological variables and dengue incidence using time series analyses. The impacts of meteorological changes can affect dengue outbreak. However, difficulties in collecting detailed time series data in developing countries have led to common use of monthly data in most previous studies. In addition, time series analyses are often limited to one area because of the difficulty in collecting meteorological and dengue incidence data in multiple areas. To gain better understanding, we examined the effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in three geographically distinct areas (Ratnapura, Colombo, and Anuradhapura) of Sri Lanka by time series analysis of weekly data. The weekly average maximum temperature and total rainfall and the total number of dengue cases from 2005 to 2011 (7 years) were used as time series data in this study. Subsequently, time series analyses were performed on the basis of ordinary least squares regression analysis followed by the vector autoregressive model (VAR). In conclusion, weekly average maximum temperatures and the weekly total rainfall did not significantly affect dengue incidence in three geographically different areas of Sri Lanka. However, the weekly total rainfall slightly influenced dengue incidence in the cities of Colombo and Anuradhapura. PMID:23671694

  12. Factors in Performance on the Law School Admission Test. Statistical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.; Powers, Donald E.

    This study was undertaken to clarify the internal structure of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and shed light on the ability or abilities measured by the three item types that make up the test (logical reasoning, analytical reasoning, and reading comprehension). The study used data for two forms of the LSAT for general samples of LSAT…

  13. Selecting and Using Tests of Career Skills. Information Series No. 177.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Arthur M.; Pfister, Linda A.

    The increased attention to measuring career skills has resulted in more instrument development, more testing of students, and more test administrators. There are three key areas of concern. The first area is that of identifying purposes to be served by assessing career skills. Purposes include permitting descriptions of the current status of…

  14. Cryogenic infrastructure supplied by Linde Kryotechnik AG for the Series Magnet Test Facility for FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildenbeutel, J.; Fisel, W.; Wilhelm, H. P.; Schroeder, C. H.; Kollmus, H.

    2015-12-01

    In order to test the fast-ramped superconducting magnets for FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), a cryogenic test facility with an equivalent overall capacity of 1.5 kW at 4.4 Kelvin was designed and commissioned at GSI Helmholzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH. For efficient testing of the 108 dipole magnets the cryogenic infrastructure consists of a refrigeration system and four main test benches. Due to the different operating modes and load fluctuations a dedicated process and control concept was developed which allows an independent operation of each test bench and ensures highest efficiency over the whole operating range. The system is designed in a way that one magnet can be cooled down to its operating temperature while simultaneously another magnet is kept at cold state for the measurements. The third and fourth test benches serve for warming up and exchanging the magnets respectively. The high flexibility of the set-up moreover allows the testing of other FAIR magnets like the SIS100 quadrupole modules or the operation of a string configuration. The project was executed in a close collaboration between GSI and Linde Kryotechnik AG. The paper will show the key solutions of the refrigeration system and the test benches and highlight some commissioning results.

  15. Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications. Evaluation in Education and Human Services Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K., Ed.; Zaal, Jac N., Ed.

    The 14 chapters of this book focus on the technical advances, advances in applied settings, and emerging topics in the testing field. Part 1 discusses methodological advances, Part 2 considers developments in applied settings, and Part 3 reviews emerging topics in the field of testing. Part 1 papers include: (1) "Advances in Criterion-Referenced…

  16. Dynamic Testing with Tangible Electronics: Measuring Children's Change in Strategy Use with a Series Completion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Elliott, Julian G.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to explore the use of a novel approach that incorporates dynamic testing and tangible electronics in the assessment of children's learning potential and strategy use. Sample: A total of 77 children with a mean age 8.9 years participated in the study; half of them were dynamically tested using graduate prompt techniques; the…

  17. On Giving Test Takers a Choice among Constructive Response Items. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiang Bo

    The Law School Admission Council (LSAC) is currently investigating the feasibility and advisability of administering a computerized Law School Admission Test (LSAT). In this context, using data from the College Boards 1989 National Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry Examination for 18,462 test takers and a survey of all AP Chemistry teachers in…

  18. Statistical Considerations in Choosing a Test Reliability Coefficient. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (10)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…

  19. Performance Testing: Issues Facing Vocational Education. Research and Development Series No. 190.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirer, Janet E., Ed.

    Addressing issues facing vocational education on the topic of performance testing, this handbook consists of a collection of seventeen commissioned papers and reactions to the papers. Two papers are presented on each of the following types of issues that must be considered before a performance test can be constructed: philosophical, technical,…

  20. Test Anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. The Series in Clinical and Community Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.

    It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be serious. The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and possible treatments and their outcomes. The following chapters are included: (1)…

  1. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    This report asserts that rapid changes in many areas, such as technology and communications, marked the 20th century, the first century of ability testing. Predictions about the second century of testing seem difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, E. Kirkpatrick (1900) in his American Psychological…

  2. [Psychoacoustic tests: effects of atropine].

    PubMed

    Salonna, I; Bartoli, R; Berardi, P; Quaranta, A

    1992-10-01

    The efferent pathways exert a control action on the function of the cochlear nucleus and hair cells. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter of the centrifugal system and its action can be blocked by atropine. In order to give a contribution to the knowledge of the function of the efferent bundle and of the cochlea efficiency we examined 10 young normal subjects before and after infusion of 1 mg of atropine i.v. a battery of three psychoacoustical tests (Remote Masking, Critical Ratio and Brief Tone Audiometry). After infusion of atropine we have shown an increase of 0.25 Hz hearing threshold, an increase of RC values and a decrease of RM values. It can be concluded that the pharmacological block of the olivo-cochlear bundle determines a stiffness of outer hair cells and basilar membrane; this finding means that the atropine can inhibit the facilitating activity of the efferent system on the cochlear performance. PMID:1295519

  3. A Testing Effect with Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cheryl I.; Mayer, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    A testing effect occurs when a learner performs better on a retention test after studying the material and taking a practice-retention test than after studying the material twice. In the present study, 282 participants watched a narrated animation about lightning formation and then watched the presentation again (restudy), took a…

  4. A Testing Effect with Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cheryl I.; Mayer, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    A testing effect occurs when a learner performs better on a retention test after studying the material and taking a practice-retention test than after studying the material twice. In the present study, 282 participants watched a narrated animation about lightning formation and then watched the presentation again (restudy), took a…

  5. LLNL/NWC 1980 LNG spill tests. Burro series data report: the appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R.P.; Baker, J.; Cederwall, R.T.; Goldiwre, H.C. Jr.; Hogan, W.J.; Kamppinen, L.M.; Kiefer, R.D.; McClure, J.W.; McRae, T.G.; Morgan, D.L.

    1982-12-01

    During the summer of 1980, the Burro series of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill experiments were performed at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. These experiments involved 8 spills of LNG and one of liquid nitrogen, each of approximately 40 m/sup 3/, onto water. A large array of instruments was used to make measurements of gas concentration, temperature humidity, heat flux from the ground, and turbulence within the dispersing gas cloud. A separate instrument array made measurements of the wind field both upwind of the spill and over the area in which the gas was dispersing. Volume II contains appendices for: wind field data and flowlines; horizontal gas concentration contours; and vertical gas concentration contours.

  6. 10 years' experience of patch testing with a shoe series in 230 patients: which allergens are important?

    PubMed

    Holden, Catherine R; Gawkrodger, David J

    2005-07-01

    Over a 10-year period, 230 patients with foot dermatitis were patch tested to a shoe series of allergens. About 54 (23%) had relevant allergic positive reactions to one or more allergens. The commonest relevant allergens groups were, in order, chromate, medicaments, rubber chemicals, dyes and cosmetic constituents, with the most frequent individual allergens being chromate (4%), neomycin (3%), rubber chemicals (> 3%), paraphenylenediamine (2%) and tixocortyl pivolate (2%). Some allergens previously thought to be important, e.g. certain plastic and adhesive chemicals, did not show any positives over the period of study. In addition, para-tertiary butyl phenol formaldehyde resin was a relatively unimportant allergen in this series. The main practical points to emerge from this study are that, in patients with foot dermatitis, chromate is still the principal allergen, and that medicament and cosmetic allergens may be prominent. PMID:15982230

  7. Profile of GMAT® Testing: Citizenship Report: Testing Years 2010 through 2014. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes five-year global GMAT testing trends and includes: (1) GMAT exams taken by citizenship; (2) GMAT exams taken by gender; (3) Mean age of GMAT examinees; (4) Mean GMAT Total score; and (5) GMAT score-sending breakdowns by program type (MBA, non-MBA master's, and doctoral/other), TY2014. This data brief can help build candidate…

  8. Profile of GMAT® Testing: North American Report. Testing Years 2010 through 2014. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This Data-to-Go brief summarizes five year GMAT testing trends for US and Canadian residents, and race/ethnicity breakdowns for US citizens. It includes: (1) GMAT exams taken by US region, US state of residence, and race/ethnicity of examinees (US citizens only), (2) GMAT exams taken by Canadian residents, by Canadian province, (3) GMAT exams…

  9. Effects of Series Elasticity on the Human Knee Extension Torque-Angle Relationship in Vivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubo, Keitaro; Ohgo, Kazuya; Takeishi, Ryuichi; Yoshinaga, Kazunari; Tsunoda, Naoya; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of series elasticity on the torque-angle relationship of the knee extensors in vivo. Forty-two men volunteered to take part in the present study. The participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions at eight knee-joint angles (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110[degree]). The…

  10. Autocorrelation Effects on Least-Squares Intervention Analysis of Short Time Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.; McKnight, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Clarifies several issues regarding the effects of autocorrelated errors on Type I error in ordinary least-squares models. Demonstrates through Monte Carlo simulation the conditions under which distortion in Type I error is less than predicted by asymptotic theory. Suggests a recently developed small-sample method for time-series analyses. (SLD)

  11. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of metabolism in aquatic ecosystems. Central to this open water or “Odum” method is the assumption that the DO time is not strongly affected by advection and that effects due to advect...

  12. Effects of Series Elasticity on the Human Knee Extension Torque-Angle Relationship in Vivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubo, Keitaro; Ohgo, Kazuya; Takeishi, Ryuichi; Yoshinaga, Kazunari; Tsunoda, Naoya; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of series elasticity on the torque-angle relationship of the knee extensors in vivo. Forty-two men volunteered to take part in the present study. The participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions at eight knee-joint angles (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110[degree]). The…

  13. Teaching and Testing Solutions to the Problem of Debilitating Effects of Test Anxiety on Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kennedy T.; Horton, Margaret W.

    Educational solutions to the problem of test anxiety were explored. Test anxiety has a debilitating effect on performance which increases over the school years. The solution is, first, to measure test anxiety so that the extent of it, as well as the effectiveness of programs designed to alleviate it, can be measured. The seven-item Comfort Index,…

  14. Tank Tests of Models of Floats for Single-float Seaplanes First Series.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J B

    1936-01-01

    Large models of the Mark V and Mark VI floats used for single float seaplanes (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) models 41-A and 41-B, respectively) were tested in the NACA tank to provide general test data for typical single floats and a basis for possible improvements of their form. The resistance of model 41-B was greater than that of model 41-A, either when free to trim or at the best trim angle for each. The resistance of model 35-B (a pointed step hull tested free to trim) was less than either of the models at the hump speed, greater at intermediate planing speeds, and less at the speeds and loads near get-away, although the spray was generally worse owing to the absence of transverse flare. The results of the fixed-trim tests of model 41-A were cross plotted to obtain data at the angle for zero trimming moment and at the best trim angle. The trims assumed by models 41-A and 41-B, when tested free to trim, were found to be excessive at the hump speed. The corresponding trim of model 35-B was found to be approximately 3 degrees lower because of the lower angle of afterbody keel used in this model, and the maximum hump resistance was 15 percent lower.

  15. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  16. Profile of GMAT® Testing: Residence Report. Testing Years 2010 through 2014. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes five-year global GMAT testing trends and includes: (1) GMAT exams taken by residence; (2) GMAT exams taken by gender; (3) Mean age of GMAT examinees; (4) Mean GMAT Total score; and (5) GMAT score-sending breakdowns by program type (MBA, non-MBA master's, and doctoral/other), TY 2014. This data brief can be used to help build…

  17. Difficulty and Discrimination Parameters of Boston Naming Test Items in a Consecutive Clinical Series

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Rush, Beth K.; Lucas, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability. PMID:21593059

  18. Pressure Distribution Tests on a Series of Clark Y Biplane Cellules with Special Reference to Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Richard W

    1933-01-01

    The pressure distribution data discussed in this report represents the results of part of an investigation conducted on the factors affecting the aerodynamic safety of airplanes. The present tests were made on semispan, circular-tipped Clark Y airfoil models mounted in the conventional manner on a separation plane. Pressure readings were made simultaneously at all test orifices at each of 20 angles of attack between -8 degrees and +90 degrees. The results of the tests on each wing arrangement are compared on the bases of maximum normal force coefficient, lateral stability at a low rate of roll, and relative longitudinal stability. Tabular data are also presented giving the center of pressure location of each wing.

  19. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  20. Test report for single event effects of the 80386DX microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. Kevin; Schwartz, Harvey R.; Nichols, Donald K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Section 514 Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing and Analysis Group has performed a series of SEE tests of certain strategic registers of Intel's 80386DX CHMOS 4 microprocessor. Following a summary of the test techniques and hardware used to gather the data, we present the SEE heavy ion and proton test results. We also describe the registers tested, along with a system impact analysis should these registers experience a single event upset.

  1. Testing the heterospecific attraction hypothesis with time-series data on species co-occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio; Botella, Francisco; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2010-01-01

    The distributional patterns of actively moving animals are influenced by the cues that the individuals use for choosing sites into which they settle. Individuals may gather information about habitat quality using two types of strategies, either directly assessing the relevant environmental factors, or using the presence of conspecifics or heterospecifics as an indirect measure of habitat quality. We examined patterns of heterospecific attraction with observational time-series data on a community of seven waterbird species breeding in artificial irrigation ponds. We fitted to the data a multivariate logistic regression model, which attributes the presence–absence of each species to a set of environmental and spatial covariates, to the presence of con- and heterospecifics in the previous year and to the presence of heterospecifics in the same year. All species showed a clear tendency to continue breeding in the same sites where they were observed in the previous year. Additionally, the presence of heterospecifics, both in the previous year and in the same year, generally increased the probability that the focal species was found breeding on a given pond. Our data thus give support for the heterospecific attraction hypothesis, though causal inference should be confirmed with manipulative experiments. PMID:20462909

  2. The Effects of Reynolds Number on the Application of NACA 16 Series Airfoil Characteristics to Propeller Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Harold E.

    1947-01-01

    An analysis has been made of airfoil data taken on several NACA 16-series propeller airfoils from tests of 5-inch-chord models in the Langley 24 inch high-speed tunnel and l2-inch-chord models in the Langley 8 foot high-speed tunnel, This analysis has shown that the combined effects of Reynolds number changes and variations in airfoil characteristics resulting from differences in models and tunnels are such that when 5 inch-chord and l2-inch-chord data are applied to full-scale propeller design at or near the design condition, differences of less than 1 percent in efficiency will be involved.

  3. Effects of the types of overlap on the mechanical properties of FSSW welded AZ series magnesium alloy joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Shen, Jun; Wang, Lin-Zhi

    2012-03-01

    The effects of the types of overlap on the mechanical properties of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) welded AZ series magnesium alloy joints were investigated by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, and tensile tests. The results show that the microstructure of the stir zone adjacent to the periphery of the rotating pin is mainly composed of the upper sheet. The average distance D between the longitudinal segment of the curved interface and the keyhole periphery, the tensile shear force, and the microhardness of the stir zone of the FSSW welded AZ61 alloy joint are the highest in all samples. During FSSW of AZ31 and AZ61 dissimilar magnesium alloys, the irregular deformation of the longitudinal segment of the curved interface appears, while the microhardness of the stir zone is higher when AZ61 alloy is the upper sheet. Moreover, the microhardness of the stir zone increases initially and then decreases sharply in the longitudinal test position.

  4. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  5. 77 FR 38282 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... public comment by a notice document published in the Federal Register issue of March 4, 1996 (61 FR 8279... in the Federal Register issue of May 1, 1996 (61 FR 19276) (FRL- ] 5366-3). The test guidelines were... issue of October 26, 2007 (72 FR 60934-60988) (FRL-8106-5). Furthermore, the option of...

  6. Measured versus predicted performance of the SERI test house: A validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; Burch, J.

    1983-11-01

    The reliability of building energy analysis simulations was investigated by testing key algorithms against detailed thermal performance data collected under controlled building operating conditions. Comparative studies showed significant disagreement among several programs when used to simulate the performance of passive solar buildings. The sources of prediction errors were assessed.

  7. PUBLISHED STANDARIZED TESTS - AN ANNOTATED LIST FOR JUNIOR COLLEGES. FIELD STUDIES REPORT SERIES, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEIBEL, DEAN W.

    FROM THE CATALOGS AND OTHER DESCRIPTIVE MATERIALS OF 23 PUBLISHERS OF STANDARDIZED TESTS, THE AUTHOR SELECTED GROUP-TYPE, PAPER AND PENCIL, POST-HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS. INFORMATION ABOUT EACH ENTRY INCLUDES (1) THE TITLE, (2) THE PUBLISHER, (3) WORKING TIME, (4) NUMBER OF EQUIVALENT FORMS, (5) A DESCRIPTION, (6) A REFERENCE…

  8. Wind Tunnel Pressure Distribution Tests on a Series of Biplane Wing Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Noyes, Richard

    1929-01-01

    This report is on the changes in forces on each wing of a biplane cellule when either the stagger or the gap is varied. Since each test was carried up to a 90 degree angle of attack, the results may be used in the study of stalled flight and of spinning as well as in the structural design of biplane wings.

  9. The Validity of Oral Accommodation in Testing: NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Timothy J.

    This study examined the impact of oral presentation of a mathematics test on the performance of disabled and nondisabled students. Sixty-five learning disabled and 54 nondisabled fourth graders took two matched forms of a mathematics assessment based on National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) items. Order of presentation for the…

  10. Validity Evidence for ACT Compass® Placement Tests. ACT Research Report Series 2014 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrick, Paul A.; Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    We examined the validity of using Compass® test scores and high school grade point average (GPA) for placing students in first-year college courses and for identifying students at risk of not succeeding. Consistent with other research, the combination of high school GPA and Compass scores performed better than either measure used alone. Results…

  11. Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Kakati, M.

    2011-10-15

    Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

  12. Spatiotemporal model or time series model for assessing city-wide temperature effects on mortality?

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Most studies examining the temperature-mortality association in a city used temperatures from one site or the average from a network of sites. This may cause measurement error as temperature varies across a city due to effects such as urban heat islands. We examined whether spatiotemporal models using spatially resolved temperatures produced different associations between temperature and mortality compared with time series models that used non-spatial temperatures. We obtained daily mortality data in 163 areas across Brisbane city, Australia from 2000 to 2004. We used ordinary kriging to interpolate spatial temperature variation across the city based on 19 monitoring sites. We used a spatiotemporal model to examine the impact of spatially resolved temperatures on mortality. Also, we used a time series model to examine non-spatial temperatures using a single site and the average temperature from three sites. We used squared Pearson scaled residuals to compare model fit. We found that kriged temperatures were consistent with observed temperatures. Spatiotemporal models using kriged temperature data yielded slightly better model fit than time series models using a single site or the average of three sites' data. Despite this better fit, spatiotemporal and time series models produced similar associations between temperature and mortality. In conclusion, time series models using non-spatial temperatures were equally good at estimating the city-wide association between temperature and mortality as spatiotemporal models. PMID:23026801

  13. Retrieval Mode Distinguishes the Testing Effect from the Generation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…

  14. Assessing error sources for Landsat time series analysis for tropical test sites in Viet Nam and Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Michael; Verbesselt, Jan; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio

    2013-10-01

    Researchers who use remotely sensed data can spend half of their total effort analysing prior data. If this data preprocessing does not match the application, this time spent on data analysis can increase considerably and can lead to inaccuracies. Despite the existence of a number of methods for pre-processing Landsat time series, each method has shortcomings, particularly for mapping forest changes under varying illumination, data availability and atmospheric conditions. Based on the requirements of mapping forest changes as defined by the United Nations (UN) Reducing Emissions from Forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) program, the accurate reporting of the spatio-temporal properties of these changes is necessary. We compared the impact of three fundamentally different radiometric preprocessing techniques Moderate Resolution Atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN), Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and simple Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) on mapping forest changes using Landsat time series data. A modification of Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) monitor was used to jointly map the spatial and temporal agreement of forest changes at test sites in Ethiopia and Viet Nam. The suitability of the pre-processing methods for the occurring forest change drivers was assessed using recently captured Ground Truth and high resolution data (1000 points). A method for creating robust generic forest maps used for the sampling design is presented. An assessment of error sources has been performed identifying haze as a major source for time series analysis commission error.

  15. Ocean tide loading effects on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, N. T.; Stewart, M. P.

    2003-04-01

    GPS data from continuously operating GPS receivers are usually made available on a daily basis in 24 hour data files, so it is convenient for the user to adopt 24 hour data processing sessions. Time series are often then formed from the discrete 24 hour solutions, used for such applications as crustal deformation monitoring or high quality coordinate determination. When heights are estimated, ocean tide loading is a systematic error source that must be considered. Since the principal ocean tide loading effects have periods close to 12 and 24 hours respectively, it has been suggested from previous works that if models for ocean tide loading are not applied when processing GPS data as 24 hour sessions, at worst a small increase in the variance of the height time series will result. This paper further investigates the effects of ocean tide loading on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series, by considering a year of both simulated and real data from sites in Australia, at which the ocean tide loading effects differ substantially. The effect of each of the individual constituents is also considered. The role of the tropospheric delay mitigation strategy is addressed, regarding the effect on the height estimates when ocean tide loading effects are modelled or ignored.

  16. Coyote series for 40-m/sup 3/ liquefied natural gas (LNG) dispersion, RPT, and vapor burn tests

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R.P.

    1982-02-01

    Last year the emphasis of the 40-m/sup 3/ LNG spill experiments was on gas dispersion. This year the investigation was extended into the rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions, and combustion and dispersion measurements were made during vapor cloud fires. A total of 13 RPT spills in 5 tests were conducted from July to November, 1981. A summary of these tests is presented in a table. RPT testing was also done concurrently with the vapor fires. The goal of the RPT tests is to understand the physics behind RPT explosions so that their severity in an accident situation can be predicted. The focus of this year's studies was on vapor burn tests. These experiments involved a series of 5 spills of up to about 40-m/sup 3/ under a restricted range of atmospheric conditions with ignition near the upwind of the cloud. One test involved nearly pure methane. The experiments will provide information on the combustion characteristics of a well-mixed gas cloud in the open atmosphere.

  17. Results from NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] Series 2 bare fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-09-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Two bare spent fuel specimens plus the empty cladding hulls were tested in NNWSI J-13 well water in unsealed fused silica vessels under ambient hot cell air conditions (25{degree}C) in the currently reported tests. One of the specimens was prepared from a rod irradiated in the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 reactor and the other from a rod irradiated in the Turkey Point Unit 3 reactor. Results indicate that most radionuclides of interest fall into three groups for release modeling. The first group principally includes the actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm), all of which reached solubility-limited concentrations that were orders of magnitude below those necessary to meet the NRC 10 CFR 60.113 release limits for any realistic water flux predicted for the Yucca Mountain repository site. The second group is nuclides of soluble elements such as Cs, Tc, and I, for which release rates do not appear to be solubility-limited and may depend on the dissolution rate of fuel. In later test cycles, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 129}I were continuously released at rates between about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of inventory per year. The third group is radionuclides that may be transported in the vapor phase, of which {sup 14}C is of primary concern. Detailed test results are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 15 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Multistage Adaptive Testing for a Large-Scale Classification Test: Design, Heuristic Assembly, and Comparison with Other Testing Modes. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (6)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yi; Nozawa, Yuki; Gao, Xiaohong; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Multistage adaptive tests (MSTs) have gained increasing popularity in recent years. MST is a balanced compromise between linear test forms (i.e., paper-and-pencil testing and computer-based testing) and traditional item-level computer-adaptive testing (CAT). It combines the advantages of both. On one hand, MST is adaptive (and therefore more…

  19. Gravity effects obtained from global hydrology models in comparison with high precision gravimetric time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Wilmes, Herbert; Güntner, Andreas; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Water mass changes are a major source of variations in residual gravimetric time series obtained from the combination of observations with superconducting and absolute gravimeters. Changes in the local water storage are the main influence, but global variations contribute to the signal significantly. For three European gravity stations, Bad Homburg, Wettzell and Medicina, different global hydrology models are compared. The influence of topographic effects is discussed and due to the long-term stability of the combined gravity time series, inter-annual signals in model data and gravimetric observations are compared. Two sources of influence are discriminated, i.e., the effect of a local zone with an extent of a few kilometers around the gravimetric station and the global contribution beyond 50km. Considering their coarse resolution and uncertainties, local effects calculated from global hydrological models are compared with the in-situ gravity observations and, for the station Wettzell, with local hydrological monitoring data.

  20. Counterion effect on interfacial water at charged interfaces and its relevance to the Hofmeister series.

    PubMed

    Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Tahara, Tahei

    2014-04-30

    Specific counterion effects represented by Hofmeister series are important for a variety of phenomena such as protein precipitations, surface tensions of electrolytes solutions, phase transitions of surfactants, etc. We applied heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy to study the counterion effect on the interfacial water at charged interfaces and discussed the observed effect with relevance to the Hofmeister series. Experiments were carried out for model systems of positively charged cetyltrimethylammonium monolayer/electrolyte solution interface and negatively charged dodecylsulfate monolayer/electrolyte interface. At the positively charged interface, the intensity of the OH band of the interfacial water decreases in the order of the Hofmeister series, suggesting that the adsorbability of halide anions onto the interface determines the Hofmeister order as previously proposed by Zhang and Cremer (Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2006, 10, 658-663). At the negatively charged interfaces, on the other hand, the OH band intensity does not depend significantly on the countercation, whereas variation in the hydrogen-bond strength of the interfacial water is well correlated with the Hofmeister order of the cation effect. These results provide new insights into the molecular level mechanisms of anionic and cationic Hofmeister effects. PMID:24742093

  1. Random Test Run Length and Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, James H.; Groce, Alex; Weston, Melissa; Xu, Ru-Gang

    2008-01-01

    A poorly understood but important factor in many applications of random testing is the selection of a maximum length for test runs. Given a limited time for testing, it is seldom clear whether executing a small number of long runs or a large number of short runs maximizes utility. It is generally expected that longer runs are more likely to expose failures -- which is certainly true with respect to runs shorter than the shortest failing trace. However, longer runs produce longer failing traces, requiring more effort from humans in debugging or more resources for automated minimization. In testing with feedback, increasing ranges for parameters may also cause the probability of failure to decrease in longer runs. We show that the choice of test length dramatically impacts the effectiveness of random testing, and that the patterns observed in simple models and predicted by analysis are useful in understanding effects observed.

  2. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, J. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  3. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  4. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1986-07-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of infinite exposure, estimated exposure, and 1-yr effective biological exposure are explained.

  6. The Negative Testing Effect and Multifactor Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2013-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, we investigated the factors that dictate when taking a test improves subsequent memory performance (the "testing effect"). In Experiment 1, participants retrieving a set of targets during a retrieval practice phase ultimately recalled fewer of those targets compared with a group of participants who studied the…

  7. Single-Event Transient Testing of Low Dropout PNP Series Linear Voltage Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adell, Philippe; Allen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    As demand for high-speed, on-board, digital-processing integrated circuits on spacecraft increases (field-programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors in particular), the need for the next generation point-of-load (POL) regulator becomes a prominent design issue. Shrinking process nodes have resulted in core rails dropping to values close to 1.0 V, drastically reducing margin to standard switching converters or regulators that power digital ICs. The goal of this task is to perform SET characterization of several commercial POL converters, and provide a discussion of the impact of these results to state-of-the-art digital processing IC through laser and heavy ion testing

  8. Presentation order effects in product taste tests.

    PubMed

    Dean, M L

    1980-05-01

    Presentation order in paired-comparison testing was varied to measure the impact of primacy versus recency effects on consumer product evaluations. Overall preference and product rating scores were gathered for 1196 male and female Ss aged 13--49 years in two consumer research studies covering 11 taste tests. First position preference bias characterized the findings, lending support to the attention decrement hypothesis or a suggested palate desensitization effect on subsequent taste trial behavior. PMID:7381797

  9. Tide effects removed from well tests

    SciTech Connect

    Aase, E.P.B.; Jelmert, T.A.; Vik, S.A.

    1995-05-01

    To avoid distorted data when analyzing well pressure tests of permeable offshore reservoirs, one needs to account for periodic ocean tidal stress. Quartz-crystal bottom hole pressure recorders provide a high resolution of reservoir pressure but also measures pressure fluctuations from tidal effects during well testing. Periodic oscillations in the reservoir pressure are due to the three mechanisms: solid earth tide; barometric tide/effect; and ocean tide. The paper uses sample data from an offshore reservoir to illustrate how tide effects can be identified in the data and the correction procedure to use to remove these effects.

  10. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing – one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID:26696958

  11. The acute effects of heavy back squats on mechanical variables during a series of bilateral hops.

    PubMed

    Moir, Gavin L; Dale, Jonathan R; Dietrich, Wendy W

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of performing a heavy resistance exercise (HRE) protocol on the mechanical variables during a series of bilateral hops. In a block-randomized design, 10 strength trained men performed an HRE or a control treatment before performing 5 series of bilateral hops separated by 2 minutes of passive recovery. Each series of bilateral hops was performed for 15 seconds on a force platform with the subject hopping at a frequency of 2.0 Hz. From the vertical force trace, the vertical force during the countermovement phase of each hop, the negative displacement during the countermovement phase, and the vertical stiffness were calculated. The HRE treatment consisted of performing parallel back squats with 40, 50, 60, and 80% of each subject's 1-repetition maximum after a series of dynamic stretches. The control treatment consisted of the dynamic stretches only. No significant differences in any of the mechanical variables were reported after the 2 treatments (p > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between the absolute maximal strength values and the percent change in any of the mechanical variables after the 2 treatments. Despite the lack of significant changes reported for the group, there were some notable individual responses. It is possible that increases in vertical stiffness during bilateral hops can be achieved after an HRE protocol in certain individuals. However, practitioners should be aware of the specificity issues and the individual nature of the responses to such protocols. PMID:19528867

  12. Skin test responsiveness to a series of new tuberculins of children living in three Vietnamese cities.

    PubMed

    Ly, H M; Trach, D D; Long, H T; Thuy, N K; Tuan, N A; Ninh, T T; Stanford, J L; Hendriks, J T; Wright, E P

    1989-03-01

    A skin test survey was conducted among 1035 children aged 7-19 years living in three cities in Vietnam. Fifteen new tuberculins, including leprosin-A, were applied; an induration of 2 mm diameter or more was considered positive. Compared to some other tropical countries, low levels of sensitisation were recorded and remarkable regional differences were found. Positivity to any tuberculins (pooled data) among non-BCG-vaccinated children was significantly lower in Hanoi (13.1%) and HoChiMinh-City [HCMC] (15.5%) than in Nha Trang (25.7%) [p = 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively]. The proportion of non-vaccinated children responding to Tuberculin ranged from 18.4% in Hanoi to 54.5% in Nha Trang. Leprosin-A elicited a response in 14.9% of the children in Nha Trang, but in very few of those in Hanoi (4.3%) or HCMC (3.0%). Thus, of the three cities studied, significant sensitisation to both M. tuberculosis and M. leprae was demonstrable only in Nha Trang. In Hanoi most of the response was to fast-growing species whilst in HCMC and Nha Trang it was mainly to slow-growing species. These results may account in part for the observed differences in the prevalence of tuberculosis and leprosy between the north and the south of Vietnam. PMID:2781608

  13. [Microcirculatory effects of fluctophoresis series in patient with moderate chronic periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    P'ianzina, A V; Gerasimenko, M Iu

    2013-01-01

    The results of fluctophoresis series in 160 patients aged 35-75 years with chronic periodontal disease are discussed in the paper. It was shown that fluctophoresis may improve both clinical and rheographic values, as well and laser Doppler flowmetry rates because of improved microcirculation. Mildronat fluctophoresis influences myogenic regulation while nivaline acts as neurogenic vessel tone regulator. Acovegine fluctophoresis is effective in cases with neither myogenic nor neurogenic regulation disorder. PMID:23994854

  14. Comparing the effectiveness of software testing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Selby, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    This study compares the results of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing in three aspects of software testing: fault detection effectiveness, fault detection cost, and classes of faults detected. Thirty two professional programmers and 42 advanced students applied the three techniques to four unit-sized programs in a fractional experimental design. The major results of this study are the following: (1) With the professional programmers, code reading detected more software faults and had a higher detection rate than did functional or structural testing, while functional testing detected more faults than did structural testing, but functional and structural testing were not different in fault detection rate. (2) In one advanced student subject group, code reading and functional testing were not different in faults found, but were superior to structural testing, while in the other advanced student subject group there was no difference among the techniques. (3) With the advanced student subjects, the three techniques were not different in fault deteciton rate. (4) Number of faults observed, fault detection rate, and total effort in detection depended on the type of software tested. (5) Code reading detected more interface faults than did the other methods. (6) Functional testing detected more control faults than did the other methods. (7) When asked to estimate the percentage of faults detected, code readers gave the most accurate estimates while functional testers gave the least accurate estimates. Appendix B includes the source code for the word.

  15. Modular Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety Disorders: A Partial Effectiveness Test in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Angela Wai Mon

    2010-01-01

    The current study used a programmatic dissemination model as a guiding framework for testing an evidence-supported treatment (EST) for child anxiety disorders in the school setting. The main goal of the project was to conduct the first of a planned series of partial-effectiveness tests (group-design randomized controlled trials) evaluating the…

  16. Presentation Order Effects in Product Taste Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Michael L.

    1980-01-01

    Presentation order in paired-comparison testing was varied to measure the impact of primacy v recency effects on consumer product evaluation. First position preference bias characterized the findings, lending support to the attention decrement hypothesis or a suggested palate desensitization effect on subsequent taste trial behavior. (Author)

  17. Non-verbal Effects in Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)

  18. Exploring the effects of Hofmeister series ions on structural dynamics of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ningning; Wright, Thomas; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Xie, Aihua

    2011-03-01

    Water is known as the lubricant of life. Most proteins lose their biological function upon dehydration. We found that in a variety of high concentration salt solutions, photoactive yellow protein, a blue light bacterial photoreceptor protein, loses its functionally important structural motions for receptor activation. We hypothesize that this effect is caused by reduced structural dynamics of water due to strong water-ion interactions. Here we report our experimental studies on the effects of salts on changes in structural dynamics of water at different time scales. The results are expected to provide deep insight regarding how Hofmeister series ions alter the structural dynamics of proteins.

  19. Solar/geomagnetic activity effects on climate. Case study: European air temperature time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrica, Venera; Demetrescu, Crisan; Maris, Georgeta

    2010-05-01

    The effects of solar/geomagnetic activity on European climate are investigated by using surface air temperature and solar/geomagnetic indices. A set of 24 time series of air temperature measured at European stations between 1900 and 2006, and 4 European and 14 Romanian stations with 150 year long records, has been processed to show solar/geomagnetic activity signatures at decadal and centennial timescales. The time series were filtered by means of 11- and 22-year running averages and the corresponding variations were compared to solar/geomagnetic variability. Results show a similar temporal behaviour at all analysed stations with amplitude differences that can be understood in terms of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns influenced by the solar/geomagnetic forcing at the corresponding timescales, but with local intensity differences.

  20. Laboratory effectiveness testing of oil spill dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.A.; Wang, Z.; Handfield, D.; Ianuzzi, D.; Ackerman, F.

    1995-06-01

    Dispersant effectiveness tests are reviewed. Studies have been conducted of the variances among several standard regulatory tests. Three main causes of differences have been identified, oil-to-water ratio, settling time and energy. Energy can be partially compensated for in high energy tests by correcting for natural dispersion. With this correction and with high oil-to-water ratios and a settling time of at least 10 minutes, five apparatuses yield very similar results for a variety of oils and dispersants. Recent studies into the energy variation of dispersant tests show that the energy level varies in many apparatuses. The repeatability of energy levels in apparatus is largely responsible for the variation in dispersant effectiveness values in certain apparatus. Studies of analytical procedures show that traditional extraction and analysis methods cause a bias to results. Methods to overcome these difficulties are presented.

  1. Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) test program is being lead by NASA Ames for Configuration Aerodynamics (CA). Representatives from CA, Technology Integration (TI), Inlet, and the Nozzle ITD's are working with Ames in defining and executing this test program. The objective of the CA 4-14 milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) and design variations using computational and experimental methods. The experimental aspect includes static calibrations, transonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. The test program will generate a comprehensive database that will include all appropriate wind tunnel corrections, with emphasis placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the TCA.

  2. Comparison of acute aquatic effects of the oil dispersant Corexit 9500 with those of other Corexit series dispersants.

    PubMed

    Singer, M M; George, S; Jacobson, S; Lee, I; Weetman, L L; Tjeerdema, R S; Sowby, M L

    1996-11-01

    The acute aquatic toxicity of a new Corexit series dispersant, Corexit 9500, was evaluated and compared with that of others in the series using early life stages of two common nearshore marine organisms: the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and a kelp forest mysid (Holmesimysis costata). Spiked-concentration testing was performed under closed, flowthrough conditions, with dispersant concentrations measured in real time using UV spectrophotometry. Median-effect concentrations ranged from 12.8 to 19.7 initial ppm for Haliotis and from 158.0 to 245.4 initial ppm for Holmesimysis. The difference in sensitivity of the two types of tests was consistent with patterns seen with other oil dispersants. Also, these data indicate Corexit 9500 to be of similar toxicity to Corexit 9527 and 9554. Corexit 9500 represents a reformulation of a long-time industry "standard," Corexit 9527, to allow use on higher viscosity oils and emulsions. The present data suggest that acute aquatic toxicity concerns surrounding the use of this newer dispersant should not be significantly different from those associated with the use of Corexit 9527. PMID:8950541

  3. Effects of Laser Wavelength on Ablator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength-dependent or spectral radiation effects are potentially significant for thermal protection materials. NASA atmospheric entry simulations include trajectories with significant levels of shock layer radiation which is concentrated in narrow spectral lines. Tests using two different high powered lasers, the 10.6 micron LHMEL I CO2 laser and the near-infrared 1.07 micron fiber laser, on low density ablative thermal protection materials offer a unique opportunity to evaluate spectral effects. Test results indicated that the laser wavelength can impact the thermal response of an ablative material, in terms of bond-line temperatures, penetration times, mass losses, and char layer thicknesses.

  4. Immediate Effect of Therapeutic Massage on Pain Sensation and Unpleasantness: A Consecutive Case Series

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain is a common condition that poses a significant burden to its sufferers and costs the US economy billions of dollars each year in lost productivity. Individuals complaining of musculoskeletal pain make up a large proportion of clients treated by massage therapists in community practices, yet few studies have examined the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on this type of pain in the practice setting. Purpose: To assess the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on musculoskeletal pain sensation and unpleasantness in a community setting. Setting: Solo private practice in central Virginia, United States. Participants: One hundred sixteen first-time clients who complained of musculoskeletal pain as a presenting symptom. Research design: Prospective, consecutive practice-based case series. Intervention: A single 60-minute session of individualized therapeutic massage; techniques used included Swedish massage employing effleurage, petrissage, and friction,;deep tissue; myofascial; positional release; passive and resisted joint mobilization; and biofield modalities. Main Outcome Measures: Visual Analog Scales for pain sensation and unpleasantness. Results: Both pain sensation and unpleasantness were significantly reduced by a single session of therapeutic massage. Mean pain sensation decreased from 3.76 (SD=1.87) prior to massage to .89 (SD=1.35) following massage, with t=18.87, P<.001. Mean pain unpleasantness decreased from 5.21 (SD=2.48) prior to massage to .64 (SD=1.23) following massage, with t =20.45, P<.001. Effect sizes were 1.76 and 1.90, respectively. Conclusions: In this case series, therapeutic massage appeared to be an effective intervention for common musculoskeletal pain that influenced both the physical and affective dimension of the pain experience. Although care was taken to reduce potential bias through limiting eligibility to first time clients and use of a standardized script, practice-based case series have inherent limitations. Issues in conducting practice-based research by massage therapists and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26421235

  5. Irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels (Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program Series 4 and 5)

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, R.G.; McGowan, J.J.; Menke, B.H.; Nanstad, R.K.; Thoms, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple testing is done at two laboratories of typical nuclear pressure vessel materials (both irradiated and unirradiated) and statistical analyses of the test results. Multiple tests are conducted at each of several test temperatures for each material, standard deviations are determined, and results from the two laboratories are compared. The Fourth Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Irradiation Series, almost completed, was aimed at elastic-plastic and fully plastic fracture toughness of low-copper weldments (current practice welds). A typical nuclear pressure vessel plate steel was included for statistical purposes. The Fifth HSST Irradiation Series, now in progress, is aimed at determining the shape of the K/sub IR/ curve after significant radiation-induced shift of the transition temperatures. This series includes irradiated test specimens of thicknesses up to 100 mm and weldment compositions typical of early nuclear power reactor pressure vessel welds.

  6. Nontidal ocean loading: amplitudes and potential effects in GPS height time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, T.; Collilieux, X.; Wuite, J.; Altamimi, Z.; Ray, J.

    2012-11-01

    Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) changes are caused by a redistribution of the ocean's internal mass that are driven by atmospheric circulation, a change in the mass entering or leaving the ocean, and/or a change in the integrated atmospheric mass over the ocean areas. The only previous global analysis investigating the magnitude of OBP surface displacements used older OBP data sets (van Dam et al. in J Geophys Res 129:507-517, 1997). Since then significant improvements in meteorological forcing models used to predict OBP have been made, augmented by observations from satellite altimetry and expendable bathythermograph profiles. Using more recent OBP estimates from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) project, we reassess the amplitude of the predicted effect of OBP on the height coordinate time series from a global distribution of GPS stations. OBP-predicted loading effects display an RMS scatter in the height of between 0.2 and 3.7 mm, larger than previously reported but still much smaller (by a factor of 2) than the scatter observed due to atmospheric pressure loading. Given the improvement in GPS hardware and data analysis techniques, the OBP signal is similar to the precision of weekly GPS height coordinates. We estimate the effect of OBP on GPS height coordinate time series using the MIT reprocessed solution, mi1. When we compare the predicted OBP height time series with mi1, we find that the scatter is reduced over all stations by 0.1 mm on average with reductions as high as 0.7 mm at some stations. More importantly we are able to reduce the scatter on 65 % of the stations investigated. The annual component of the OBP signal is responsible for 80 % of the reduction in scatter on average. We find that stations located close to semi-enclosed bays or seas are affected by OBP loading to a greater extent than other stations.

  7. Fault detection using a two-model test for changes in the parameters of an autoregressive time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholtz, P.; Smyth, P.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of a statistical hypothesis testing method for detecting changes in the characteristics of an observed time series. The work is motivated by the need for practical automated methods for on-line monitoring of Deep Space Network (DSN) equipment to detect failures and changes in behavior. In particular, on-line monitoring of the motor current in a DSN 34-m beam waveguide (BWG) antenna is used as an example. The algorithm is based on a measure of the information theoretic distance between two autoregressive models: one estimated with data from a dynamic reference window and one estimated with data from a sliding reference window. The Hinkley cumulative sum stopping rule is utilized to detect a change in the mean of this distance measure, corresponding to the detection of a change in the underlying process. The basic theory behind this two-model test is presented, and the problem of practical implementation is addressed, examining windowing methods, model estimation, and detection parameter assignment. Results from the five fault-transition simulations are presented to show the possible limitations of the detection method, and suggestions for future implementation are given.

  8. A Strong Test of Exposure Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Richard L.; Zajonc, Robert B.

    1976-01-01

    A strong test of exposure effects was made by eliminating confounding demand characteristics through the use of a between-subject design. Each subject viewed novel stimuli at a single frequency level, and then rated them on several affective scales. (Editor)

  9. Test Impact Revisited: Washback Effect Over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the long-term effects of two national language tests in Israel, one in Arabic as a second language and one in English as a foreign language. The study employed questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis from teachers, students and language inspectors. Findings reveal that washback varies over time, owing to factors such as the…

  10. The NASA atomic oxygen effects test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Brady, Joyce A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Atomic Oxygen Effects Test Program was established to compare the low earth orbital simulation characteristics of existing atomic oxygen test facilities and utilize the collective data from a multitude of simulation facilities to promote understanding of mechanisms and erosion yield dependence upon energy, flux, metastables, charge, and environmental species. Four materials chosen for this evaluation include Kapton HN polyimide, FEP Teflon, polyethylene, and graphite single crystals. The conditions and results of atomic oxygen exposure of these materials is reported by the participating organizations and then assembled to identify degrees of dependency of erosion yields that may not be observable from any single atomic oxygen low earth orbital simulation facility. To date, the program includes 30 test facilities. Characteristics of the participating test facilities and results to date are reported.

  11. Barkas effect in a central collision: Exact numerical results and the tenth-order Born series

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkelsen, H.H. ); Flyvbjerg, H. )

    1990-10-01

    The time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a central collision between a heavy point charge and a harmonically bound electron is solved numerically. This is done in a basis of energy eigenfunctions of the undisturbed electron. Our numerical method also provides the coefficients of the Born series for the collision. We compare the Born expansion with the exact results. In agreement with other calculations we find a significant Barkas effect for some collision parameter values. At low velocities the Barkas correction is shown to be very large, but at higher velocities it becomes very small even for ions with high charges.

  12. [Time series studies of air pollution by fires and the effects on human health].

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2013-11-01

    Burnoffs (intentional fires for agricultural purposes) and forest fires of large proportions have been observed in various regions of the planet. Exposure to high levels of air pollutants emitted by fires can be responsible for various harmful effects on human health. In this article, the literature on estimating acute effects of air pollution on human health by fires in the regions with the highest number of fires on the planet, using a time series approach is summarized. An attempt was made to identify gaps in knowledge. The study consisted of a narrative review, in which the characteristics of the selected studies were grouped by regions of the planet with a higher incidence of burnoffs: Amazon, America, Australia and Asia. The results revealed a large number of studies in Australia, few studies in the Amazon and great heterogeneity in the results on the significant effects on human health. PMID:24196890

  13. Seemingly unrelated intervention time series models for effectiveness evaluation of large scale environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Ip, Ryan H L; Li, W K; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2013-09-15

    Large scale environmental remediation projects applied to sea water always involve large amount of capital investments. Rigorous effectiveness evaluations of such projects are, therefore, necessary and essential for policy review and future planning. This study aims at investigating effectiveness of environmental remediation using three different Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) time series models with intervention effects, including Model (1) assuming no correlation within and across variables, Model (2) assuming no correlation across variable but allowing correlations within variable across different sites, and Model (3) allowing all possible correlations among variables (i.e., an unrestricted model). The results suggested that the unrestricted SUR model is the most reliable one, consistently having smallest variations of the estimated model parameters. We discussed our results with reference to marine water quality management in Hong Kong while bringing managerial issues into consideration. PMID:23932418

  14. Examination of the "specimen-size-effect" in stress-corrosion-cracking (SCC) tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerad, E.; Dunn, B. D.

    2003-09-01

    The effect of the specimen's size on the determination of susceptibility to SCC is investigated by a series of SCC-tests. Parameter variations considered were in particular two types of material grades, two stress levels (75% and 50% of the 0.2% proof stress) and, most important, two specimens sizes, i.e. standard turned stress-corrosion test specimens (according to ECSS) and miniature size test specimens (according to ASTM).

  15. Testing & Research, Part I. Options in Education: Program Transcripts of a Weekly Series Broadcast by Member Stations of National Public Radio. Program No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    Several program transcripts on educational testing from the National Public Radio series, Options in Education, are included in this pamphlet. In "The I.Q. Controversy," Ned Block discusses culturally biased standardized tests. Dr. Harold Hodgkinson, former Director of the National Institute of Education, and Noel Epstein, Education Editor of the…

  16. Thermal Measurements from a Series of Tests with a Large Cylindrical Calorimeter on the Leeward Edge of a JP-8 Pool Fire in Cross-Flow

    SciTech Connect

    SUO-ANTTILA,JILL M.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.

    2001-07-01

    As part of the full scale fuel fire experimental program, a series of JP-8 pool fire experiments with a large cylindrical calorimeter (3.66 m diameter), representing a C-141 aircraft fuselage, at the lee end of the fuel pool were performed at Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division (NAWCWPNS). The series was designed to support Weapon System Safety Assessment (WSSA) needs by addressing the case of a transport aircraft subjected to a large fuel fire. The data collected from this mock series will allow for characterization of the fire environment via a survivable test fixture. This characterization will provide important background information for a future test series utilizing the same fuel pool with an actual C-141 aircraft in place of the cylindrical calorimeter.

  17. Hilbert series and operator bases with derivatives in effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Brian; Lu, Xiaochuan; Melia, Tom; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a systematic framework for counting and finding independent operators in effective field theories, taking into account the redundancies associated with use of the classical equations of motion and integration by parts. By working in momentum space, we show that the enumeration problem can be mapped onto that of understanding a polynomial ring in the field momenta. All-order information about the number of independent operators in an effective field theory is encoded in a geometrical object of the ring known as the Hilbert series. We obtain the Hilbert series for the theory of N real scalar fields in (0+1) dimensions—an example, free of space-time and internal symmetries, where aspects of our framework are most transparent. Although this is as simple a theory involving derivatives as one could imagine, it provides fruitful lessons to be carried into studies of more complicated theories: we find surprising and rich structure from an interplay between integration by parts and equations of motion and a connection with SL(2,C) representation theory, which controls the structure of the operator basis.

  18. Power series representations for complex bosonic effective actions. II. A small field renormalization group flow

    SciTech Connect

    Balaban, Tadeusz; Feldman, Joel; Knoerrer, Horst; Trubowitz, Eugene

    2010-05-15

    In a previous paper, we developed a power series representation and estimates for an effective action of the form ln[{integral}e{sup f({alpha}{sub 1},...,{alpha}{sub s};z*,z)}d{mu}(z*,z)/{integral}e{sup f(0,...,0;z*,z)}d{mu}(z*,z)]. Here, f({alpha}{sub 1},...,{alpha}{sub s};z{sub *},z) is an analytic function of the complex fields {alpha}{sub 1}(x),...,{alpha}{sub s}(x),z{sub *}(x),z(x) indexed by x in a finite set X and d{mu}(z*,z) is a compactly supported product measure. Such effective actions occur in the small field region for a renormalization group analysis. We illustrate the technique by a model renormalization group flow motivated by the ultraviolet regime in many boson systems.

  19. Transitions in effective scaling behavior of accelerometric time series across sleep and wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Zinkhan, Melanie; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Penzel, Thomas; Fietze, Ingo; Pillmann, Frank; Stang, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    We study the effective scaling behavior of high-resolution accelerometric time series recorded at the wrists and hips of 100 subjects during sleep and wake. Using spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis we find long-term correlated fluctuations with a spectral exponent \\beta \\approx 1.0 (1/f noise). On short time scales, ? is larger during wake (\\approx 1.4 ) and smaller during sleep (\\approx 0.6 ). In addition, characteristic peaks at 0.2-0.3 Hz (due to respiration) and 4-10 Hz (probably due to physiological tremor) are observed in periods of weak activity. Because of these peaks, spectral analysis is superior in characterizing effective scaling during sleep, while detrending analysis performs well during wake. Our findings can be exploited to detect sleep-wake transitions.

  20. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: an introduction to time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L; Roberts, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Currently, the most widely used method in the disease management (DM) industry for evaluating program effectiveness is referred to as the "total population approach." This model is a pretest-posttest design, with the most basic limitation being that without a control group, there may be sources of bias and/or competing extraneous confounding factors that offer a plausible rationale explaining the change from baseline. Furthermore, with the current inclination of DM programs to use financial indicators rather than program-specific utilization indicators as the principal measure of program success, additional biases are introduced that may cloud evaluation results. This paper presents a non-technical introduction to time-series analysis (using disease-specific utilization measures) as an alternative, and more appropriate, approach to evaluating DM program effectiveness than the current total population approach. PMID:14736348

  1. Positive patch test reactions to allergens of the dental series and the relation to the clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Khamaysi, Ziad; Bergman, Reuven; Weltfriend, Sara

    2006-10-01

    The clinical manifestations of contact allergic dermatitis to dental materials are not uniform. This study was performed to detect the frequent allergens in the dental series associated with contact dermatitis and to define the causal relationship between the different allergens and the relevant clinical presentations. Between the years 2000 and 2004, 134 patients, aged 20-80 years, were patch tested. 121 patients were included in the study. The most frequent oral manifestations were cheilitis and perioral dermatitis (25.6%), burning mouth (15.7%), lichenoid reaction (14.0%), and orofacial granulomatosis (10.7%). 18 (14.9%) patients were dental personnel, all of whom suffered from hand dermatitis. The common allergens detected included goldsodiumthiosulphate (14.0%), nickel sulfate (13.2%), mercury (9.9%), palladium chloride (7.4%), cobalt chloride (5.0%), and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (5.8%). Positive reactions to metals were frequent in all the different clinical variants, and no specific association between a specific clinical presentation and a particular allergen was found. Allergy to mercury was not a significant factor contributing to the pathogenesis of oral lichenoid reactions. However, a strong association with contact allergy to mercury in dental fillings was found in 2 patients with orofacial granulomatosis. PMID:16958919

  2. Phthalate esters: Testing for ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Thompson, R.; Croudace, C.; Stewart, K.; Williams, N.

    1995-12-31

    Ortho-phthalate esters are produced in high tonnages for use as plasticizers, in particular for PVC. Their physical chemical properties are typically very low water solubility and high octanol/water partition coefficient. This combination of properties presents a number of experimental difficulties in the design and interpretation of ecological effect studies. These difficulties are described and results presented showing techniques for the performance of reproduction studies with the water flea, Daphnia magna, in aqueous solution and with the midge, Chironomus riparius, in sediments. The results which showed no effect for the phthalate esters tested are discussed in the context of other ecotoxicity data obtained on these products.

  3. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H.; Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S.

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

  4. Effect of nitrogen and fluorine on mechanical properties and bioactivity in two series of bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Ahmed; Mercier, Cyrille; Tricoteaux, Arnaud; Hampshire, Stuart; Leriche, Anne; Follet, Claudine

    2013-07-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in body fluids, and fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for both orthopaedic and, in particular, dental applications for caries inhibition. However, because of their poor strength their use is restricted to non-load-bearing applications. In order to increase their mechanical properties, doping with nitrogen has been performed on two series of bioactive glasses: series (I) was a "bioglass" composition (without P2O5) within the quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-Si3N4 and series (II) was a simple substitution of CaF2 for CaO in series (I) glasses keeping the Na:Ca ratio constant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the variation in nitrogen and fluorine content on the properties of these glasses. The density, glass transition temperature, hardness and elastic modulus all increased linearly with nitrogen content which indicates that the incorporation of nitrogen stiffens the glass network because N is mainly in 3-fold coordination with Si atoms. Fluorine addition significantly decreases the thermal property values but the mechanical properties of these glasses remain unchanged with fluorine. The combination of both nitrogen and fluorine in oxyfluoronitride glasses gives better mechanical properties at much lower melting temperatures since fluorine reduces the melting point, allows higher solubility of nitrogen and does not affect the higher mechanical properties arising from incorporation of nitrogen. The characterization of these N and F substituted bioactive glasses using (29)Si MAS NMR has shown that the increase in rigidity of the glass network can be explained by the formation of SiO3N, SiO2N2 tetrahedra and Q(4) units with extra bridging anions at the expense of Q(3) units. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations similar to those in human blood plasma. Formation of a bioactive apatite layer on the samples treated in SBF was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The crystallinity of this layer decreases with increasing N content suggesting that N may decrease bioactivity slightly. PMID:23676624

  5. Hands-On Approach to Structure Activity Relationships: The Synthesis, Testing, and Hansch Analysis of a Series of Acetylcholineesterase Inhibitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locock, Katherine; Tran, Hue; Codd, Rachel; Allan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This series of three practical sessions centers on drugs that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholineesterase. This enzyme is responsible for the inactivation of acetylcholine and has been the target of drugs to treat glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease and for a number of insecticides and warfare agents. These sessions relate to a series of carbamate…

  6. Hands-On Approach to Structure Activity Relationships: The Synthesis, Testing, and Hansch Analysis of a Series of Acetylcholineesterase Inhibitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locock, Katherine; Tran, Hue; Codd, Rachel; Allan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This series of three practical sessions centers on drugs that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholineesterase. This enzyme is responsible for the inactivation of acetylcholine and has been the target of drugs to treat glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease and for a number of insecticides and warfare agents. These sessions relate to a series of carbamate…

  7. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series

    EPA Science Inventory

    In aquatic systems, time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of ecosystem metabolism. Central to this open-water method is the assumption that the DO time series is a Lagrangian specification of the flow field. However, most DO time series are coll...

  8. Time-Series Analysis of Mortality Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Components in Detroit and Seattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiang; Ito, Kazuhiko; Lall, Ramona; Lippmann, Morton; Thurston, George

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent toxicological and epidemiological studies have shown associations between particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but which PM components are most influential is less well known. Objectives In this study, we used time-series analyses to determine the associations between daily fine PM [PM ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] concentrations and daily mortality in two U.S. cities—Seattle, Washington, and Detroit, Michigan. Methods We obtained daily PM2.5 filters for the years of 2002–2004 and analyzed trace elements using X-ray fluorescence and black carbon using light reflectance as a surrogate measure of elemental carbon. We used Poisson regression and distributed lag models to estimate excess deaths for all causes and for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases adjusting for time-varying covariates. We computed the excess risks for interquartile range increases of each pollutant at lags of 0 through 3 days for both warm and cold seasons. Results The cardiovascular and respiratory mortality series exhibited different source and seasonal patterns in each city. The PM2.5 components and gaseous pollutants associated with mortality in Detroit were most associated with warm season secondary aerosols and traffic markers. In Seattle, the component species most closely associated with mortality included those for cold season traffic and other combustion sources, such as residual oil and wood burning. Conclusions The effects of PM2.5 on daily mortality vary with source, season, and locale, consistent with the hypothesis that PM composition has an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM. PMID:21193387

  9. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses fr...

  10. Effects of State Tests on Classroom Test Items in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom tests from nine eighth-grade mathematics teachers were collected from the 2003-04 and 2005-06 school years. These years represent one school year prior to the eighth-grade Ohio Achievement Test (OAT) in mathematics being implemented and the year after the eighth-grade OAT in mathematics was implemented, respectively. In addition,…

  11. Tests of the Aharonov-Bohm effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprez, Adam Preston

    The Aharonov-Bohm effect was first proposed in 1959, and has stimulated discussion and controversy since the start. Seen by many as a purely quantum mechanical effect, it nevertheless involves such issues as gauge invariance and relativistic dynamics. This multi-faceted nature has led it to be considered a keystone of modern quantum theory. Over the past half-century, interest has remained strong in what many believe is still an open debate as to the purely quantum nature. Additionally, discovery of similar effects for particles other than electrons has further driven curiosity. To better understand the issues such as electromagnetic mass and relativistic effects involved in the Aharonov-Bohm effect, a theoretical study of a simpler two particle system was done. The goal was to understand the manner in which mass of the system behaved strictly classically as compared to a relativistically. As a result of this, a Gedanken experiment is presented which serves as a test for covariance. The two particle system was extended to a spherical shell interacting with a single particle, and a second thought experiment put forth to explore a coupling between electromagnetism and gravitation. In the course of searching for simpler systems which involved the same issues as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, a system presented in the Feynman Lectures of Physics was found to be appropriate. We conduct a complete relativistic analysis of this system as a step towards a full relativistic analysis of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Given the history and significance of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, it is perhaps surprising that relevant experimental tests had not been completed. For the first time, we searched for time delays as an electron passes a macroscopic solenoid. Such time delays are characteristic of classical forces acting on the electron. No such delays were found, seemingly confirming the standard viewpoint. It is still possible a classical explanation may exist for microscopic solenoids, though our experiment has served to place an upper limit for any such explanation. The definitive experiment concerning the Aharonov-Bohm Effect has yet to be completed. Proposed by Zeilinger, it consists of showing the dispersionless nature of the effect. To accomplish this requires an electron interferometer capable of enclosing a larger area and operating at lower energies than any which currently exist. We are attempting to construct such an interferometer using a hybrid approach with a nanofabricated grating and electron bi-prism. We have shown that experimentally that this combination can produce a large beam separation and still retain sufficient coherence to function as an interferometer.

  12. Effects of a Dynamic Progressive Orthotic Intervention for Chronic Hemiplegia: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Mettler, Joni A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Case series design on a single subgroup of participants Introduction: Management of hypertonicity and resistance to passive movement (RTPM) in the upper extremity is an intractable problem for persons with stroke and the therapists who provide their care. Therapists have limited options for assessment and treatment of this condition which can profoundly limit functional performance and quality of life. Purpose of the Study: To evaluate the effect of a 12-week dynamic progressive orthotic intervention in persons with chronic stroke exhibiting wrist flexion contracture who are residents of a long term skilled nursing facility. Methods: A custom fitted dynamic progressive wrist extension orthotic was applied to 6 residents with chronic stroke. The orthotic was worn for 4 hours daily, 4X/week for 12 weeks. Wrist passive range of motion (PROM) and RTPM were measured weekly and after discontinuation of the orthotics using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Tardieu Scale of Spasticity. Signal analysis of electromyographical (EMG) flexor response to extensor stretching was also measured before and after orthotic intervention using maximal root mean square (RMS) values and EMG burst onset time. Results: A moderate effect was found for changes in PROM with the orthotic intervention. Progress made diminished following discontinuation. Moderate effects were also seen in EMG measures which indicated increases in amount of resistive-free movement following intervention. Conclusions: A dynamic progressive orthotic intervention can be an effective option for increasing wrist PROM and reducing RTPM in persons with chronic stroke. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:23149271

  13. Effect of Velocity in Icing Scaling Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents additional results of a study first published in 1999 to determine the effect of scale velocity on scaled icing test results. Reference tests were made with a 53.3-cm-chord NACA 0012 airfoil model in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel at an airspeed of 67 m/s, an MVD of 40 microns, and an LWC of 0.6 g/cu m. Temperature was varied to provide nominal freezing fractions of 0.8, 0.6, and 0.5. Scale tests used both 35.6- and 27.7-cm-chord 0012 models for 2/3- and 1/2-size scaling. Scale test conditions were found using the modified Ruff (AEDC) scaling method with the scale velocity determined in five ways. Four of the scale velocities were found by matching the scale and reference values of water-film thickness, velocity, Weber number, and Reynolds number. The fifth scale velocity was simply the average of those found by matching the Weber and Reynolds numbers. The resulting scale velocities ranged from 85 to 220 percent of the reference velocity. For a freezing fraction of 0.8, the value of the scale velocity had no effect on how well the scale ice shape simulated the reference shape. For nominal freezing fractions of 0.5 and 0.6, the best simulation of the reference shape was achieved when the scale velocity was the average of the constant-Weber-number and the constant-Reynolds-number velocities.

  14. Time-series Photometry of the Pre-Main Sequence Binary V4046 Sgr: Testing the Accretion Stream Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Ardila, David R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Most stars are born in binaries, and the evolution of protostellar disks in pre-main sequence (PMS) binary stars is a current frontier of star formation research. PMS binary stars can have up to three accretion disks: two circumstellar disks and a circumbinary disk separated by a dynamically cleared gap. Theory suggests that mass may periodically flow in an accretion stream from a circumbinary disk across the gap onto circumstellar disks or stellar surfaces. Thus, accretion in PMS binaries is controlled by not only radiation, disk viscosity, and magnetic fields, but also by orbital dynamics.As part of a larger, ongoing effort to characterize mass accretion in young binary systems, we test the predictions of the binary accretion stream theory through continuous, multi-orbit, multi-color optical and near-infrared (NIR) time-series photometry. Observations such as these are capable of detecting and characterizing these modulated accretion streams, if they are generally present. Broad-band blue and ultraviolet photometry trace the accretion luminosity and photospheric temperature while NIR photometry provide a measurement of warm circumstellar material, all as a function of orbital phase. The predicted phase and magnitude of enhanced accretion are highly dependent on the binary orbital parameters and as such, our campaign focuses on 10 PMS binaries of varying periods and eccentricities. Here we present multi-color optical (U, B,V, R), narrowband (H?), and multi-color NIR (J, H) lightcurves of the PMS binary V4046 Sgr (P=2.42 days) obtained with the SMARTS 1.3m telescope and LCOGT 1m telescope network. These results act to showcase the quality and breadth of data we have, or are currently obtaining, for each of the PMS binaries in our sample. With the full characterization of our sample, these observations will guide an extension of the accretion paradigm from single young stars to multiple systems.

  15. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing: Practical Approach to Test Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2014-01-01

    While standards and guidelines for performing SEE testing have existed for several decades, guidance for developing SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this presentation, the variety of areas that need to be considered ranging from resource issues (funds, personnel, schedule) to extremely technical challenges (particle interaction and circuit application), shall be discussed. Note: We consider the approach outlined here as a living document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account.

  16. Downflow dryout in a heated ribbed vertical annulus with a cosine power profile (Results from test series ECS-2, WSR, and ECS-2cE)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, T.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Condie, K.G.

    1990-12-01

    Experiments designed to investigate surface dryout in a heated, ribbed annulus test section simulating one of the annular coolant channels of a Savannah River Plant production reactor Mark 22 fuel assembly have been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The inner surface of the annulus was constructed of aluminum and was electrically heated to provide an axial cosine power profile and a flat azimuthal power shape. Data presented in this report are from the ECS-2, WSR, and ECS-2cE series of tests. These experiments were conducted to examine the onset of wall thermal excursion for a range of flow, inlet fluid temperature, and annulus outlet pressure. Hydraulic boundary conditions on the test section represent flowrates (0.1--1.4 1/s), inlet fluid temperatures (293--345 K), and outlet pressures (-18--139.7 cm of water relative to the bottom of the heated length (61--200 cm of water relative to the bottom of the lower plenum)) expected to occur during the Emergency Coolant System (ECS) phase of postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident in a production reactor. The onset of thermal excursion based on the present data is consistent with data gathered in test rigs with flat axial power profiles. The data indicate that wall dryout is primarily a function of liquid superficial velocity. Air entrainment rate was observed to be a strong function of the boundary conditions (primarily flowrate and liquid temperature), but had a minor effect on the power at the onset of thermal excursion for the range of conditions examined. 14 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. The carcinogenic effect of a series of petroleum-derived oils on the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Gradiski, D; Vinot, J; Zissu, D; Limasset, J C; Lafontaine, M

    1983-12-01

    Six groups of 30 Swiss mice were treated by application to the skin in the dorsolumbar region two times a week for 12 months of a "white oil" and five samples of petroleum oils derived from the same "crude" (Middle East), which were collected in the same refinery at different stages of "solvent treatment" and which form a homogeneous series with increasing concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The macroscopic and histopathologic examination of the animals (skin and organs) up to 18 months shows the following effects with respect to the 60-mouse control group: --a marked irritating effect for the "aromatic extract," the "distillate," and a "mixture" of intermediary concentration between "distillate" and "raffinate," --a definite tumorigenic effect on the skin (papillomas, kerato-acanthomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and fibrosarcomas) of the "aromatic extract" and the "distillate." The biological answer is in significant association with the PAH concentration of the samples, which is estimated by different analytical methods: viscosity index, percentage of aromatic carbon, "total PAH" according to a gravimetric method, and benzo[a]pyrene concentration. PMID:6315389

  18. Effectiveness of back-to-back testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vouk, Mladen A.; Mcallister, David F.; Eckhardt, David E.; Caglayan, Alper; Kelly, John P. J.

    1987-01-01

    Three models of back-to-back testing processes are described. Two models treat the case where there is no intercomponent failure dependence. The third model describes the more realistic case where there is correlation among the failure probabilities of the functionally equivalent components. The theory indicates that back-to-back testing can, under the right conditions, provide a considerable gain in software reliability. The models are used to analyze the data obtained in a fault-tolerant software experiment. It is shown that the expected gain is indeed achieved, and exceeded, provided the intercomponent failure dependence is sufficiently small. However, even with the relatively high correlation the use of several functionally equivalent components coupled with back-to-back testing may provide a considerable reliability gain. Implications of this finding are that the multiversion software development is a feasible and cost effective approach to providing highly reliable software components intended for fault-tolerant software systems, on condition that special attention is directed at early detection and elimination of correlated faults.

  19. Validation of non-Darcian flow effects in slug tests conducted in fractured rock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA series of rising and falling head slug tests with different initial applied head differentials (?Ho) were conducted in open fractured dolostone and sandstone boreholes using straddle packers isolating specific depth intervals (1.5 m length) to examine the influence of non-Darcian flow. The open holes were developed and inspected using video and acoustic televiewing (ATV) to ensure that evidence of skin effects due to drilling were absent. The transmissivity (T) values obtained from both the rising and falling head slug tests were very similar at low initial applied head; however, the T values were progressively smaller at larger ?Ho, suggesting error due to non-Darcian flow. Non-Darcian flow behavior was confirmed by constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals where the injection rate (Q) vs. applied head (dH) relationship became non-linear at relatively low injection rates, and the non-Darcian data also resulted in lower T values. For a series of slug tests conducted at different ?Ho, non-Darcian flow effects gradually increased as ?Ho increased, consistent with the trends for constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals. To maintain Darcian flow conditions in the fractured dolostone and sandstone tested in this study, ?Ho must be kept small, generally less than 0.2 m. This study demonstrates that by conducting both "stepped" slug tests and constant head step tests, the Darcian flow assumption for both types of tests can be rigorously validated. However, when only slug tests are conducted, it is necessary to conduct a series of "stepped" slug tests, including tests with small applied head differentials, to avoid errors due to non-Darcian flow.

  20. Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression Designs: A Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error…

  1. Coronal magnetic field diagnostics via the Hanle effect of Lyman series lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineschi, S.; Habbal, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic field plays a major role in the physics of the solar corona. However, there are no direct measurements of this physical parameter. We describe a method that can provide the most direct determination of the vector magnetic field in the extended corona (i.e., at heliocentric heights between 1.2 R(solar radius) and 2.0 R(solar radius)). The method is based on polarimetric observations of UV lines of the Lyman series, that is, Lyman alpha (Ly-alpha), lambda 1216 A, Lyman beta (Ly-beta), lambda 1025 A, and Lyman gamma (Ly-gamma), lambda 972 A. These lines have a collisional and a resonantly scattered component. Linear polarization is induced in the resonant component by the anisotropy in the chromospheric radiation field that illuminates the corona. Magnetic fields can be suitably determined through the effects that they induce on this resonance polarization (Hanle effect). The Hanle effect of the Ly-alpha is sensitive to field strengths in the 10 - 100 gauss range. The resonance polarization of Ly-beta and Ly-gamma is sensitive, through the Hanle effect, to fields with strengths between 3 - 30 gauss, and 0.3 - 6 gauss, respectively. We describe a new method for separating the resonant from the collisional component of the Ly-beta and Ly-gamma; the method is based on the approximation, valid within 10%, that the collisional component of the Ly-alpha is negligible, in typical coronal conditions. From the intensity and the polarization of the resonant components of these Lyman lines, the strength and direction of coronal fields can be determined. We model the sensitivity of Hanle-effect diagnostics for different coronal structures (e.g., coronal holes and loops).

  2. A new method to detect nonlinearity in a time-series: synthesizing surrogate data using a Kolmogorov-Smirnoff tested, hidden Markov model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsworth, C. P.; Cowper, M. R.; McLaughlin, S.; Mulgrew, B.

    2001-07-01

    A way of statistically testing for nonlinearity in a time-series is to employ the method of surrogate data. This method often makes use of the Fourier transform (FT) in order to generate the surrogate. As various authors have shown, this can lead to artefacts in the surrogates and spurious detection of nonlinearity can result. This paper documents a new method to synthesize surrogate data using a 1st order hidden Markov model (HMM) combined with a Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test (KS-test) to determine the required resolution of the HMM. Significance test results for a sinewave, Henon map and Gaussian noise time-series are presented. It is demonstrated that KS-tested HMM surrogates can be successfully used to distinguish between a deterministic and stochastic time-series. Then by applying a simple test for linearity, using linear and nonlinear predictors, it is possible to determine the nature of the deterministic class and hence conclude whether the system is linear deterministic or nonlinear deterministic. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the method works for periodic functions too, where FT surrogates break down.

  3. Does Testing Impair Relational Processing? Failed Attempts to Replicate the Negative Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Wissman, Kathryn T.; Vaughn, Kalif E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on testing effects (i.e., practice tests are more effective than restudy for enhancing subsequent memory) has focused on explaining when and why testing enhances memory. Of particular interest for present purposes, Zaromb and Roediger (2010) reported evidence that testing effects in part reflect enhanced relational processing,…

  4. Clinical Effect of Acupotomy Combined with Korean Medicine: A Case Series of a Herniated Intervertebral Disc.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ji; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Young-Il

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of acupotomy for treating patients with a herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD). This case series includes five HIVD patients who were treated at the Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Daejeon University Dunsan Korean Hospital, Daejeon, Korea, from January 2015 to April 2015. Acupotomy was performed three times over a 2-week period, along with Korean medical treatment. The outcomes were evaluated by using a numeric rating scale (NRS), physical examination, the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI), the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36), and the Surgical Safety Checklist. The NRS and physical examination results, as well as the ODI scores, were improved in all cases. No significant differences were noted on the SF-36. No patients had any adverse effects. This study, with its findings of encouraging responses in reducing low back pain and radiating pain and in recovering the kinetic state of soft tissue, supports the potential use of acupotomy for the treatment of patients suffering from HIVD. PMID:26896075

  5. Time-series analysis of mortality effects from airborne particulate matter size fractions in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Shigong; Shang, Kezheng; Liu, Zirui; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wei, Linbo; Wang, Mingzhen

    2013-12-01

    Evidence concerning the health risk of fine and coarse particles is limited in developing Asian countries. The modifying effect between particles and temperature and season also remains unclear. Our study is one of the first to investigate the acute effect of particles size fractions, modifying effects and interannual variations of relative risk in a developing megacity where particulate levels are extraordinarily high compared to other Asian cities. After controlling for potential confounding, the results of a time-series analysis during the period 2005-2009 show that a 10 ?g m-3 increase in PM2.5 levels is associated with a 0.65% (95% CI: 0.29-0.80%), 0.63% (95% CI: 0.25-0.83%), and 1.38% (95% CI: 0.51-1.71%) increase in non-accidental mortality, respiratory mortality, and circulatory mortality, respectively, while a 10 ?g m-3 increase in PM10 is similarly associated with increases of 0.15% (95% CI: 0.04-0.22%), 0.08% (95% CI: 0.01-0.18%), and 0.44% (95% CI: 0.12-0.63%). We did not find a significant effect of PM2.5-10 on daily mortality outcomes. Our analyses conclude that temperature and particulates, exposures to both of which are expected to increase with climate change, might act together to worsen human health in Beijing, especially in the cool seasons. The level of the estimated percentage increase assume an escalating tendency during the study period, in addition to having a low value in 2008, and after the Olympic Games, the values increased significantly as the temporary atmospheric pollution control measures were terminated mostly.

  6. Design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of RF MEMS series switches using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcawich, Ronald G.

    The aim of this thesis was to design and prototype a robust, low voltage RF MEMS switch for use in military phased arrays. The frequencies of interest for this work include very low frequencies down to DC operation with the upper limit extending to at least 40 GHz. This broad frequency requirement requires a robust high frequency design and simulation using microwave transmission lines. With the aid of researchers at the US Army Research Laboratory, co-planar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines were chosen and designed to provide a low loss, 50 ohm impedance transmission line for the switch. CPW designs allow for both series and shunt switch configuration with this work focusing on a series switch. Furthermore, a series switch an ohmic contact was chosen as opposed to capacitive contacts. Piezoelectric actuation is chosen for the switch to enable operating voltages less than 10 volts while still maintaining a restoring force to prevent stiction. To meet these demands, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been chosen for the piezoelectric actuator. Mechanical modeling of cantilevers comprised of an elastic layer and a Pt-PZT-Pt actuator were used to demonstrate feasibility of closing large gaps between switch contacts. Placement of the actuator to minimize perturbations to the RF transmission line is critical for broadband performance. Using fabrication design rules, electro-mechanical modeling, and high frequency design, the actuators were designed to fit with the RF gap between the RF conductor and ground planes of the CPW transmission line. Optimal performance was obtained with the actuators mechanically isolated from a majority of the RF transmission except for a small section that provides the contact pad to enable switch closure. The resulting switch is the first demonstrated first surface micromachined RF MEMS switch operating from DC to 65 GHz. This switch has a median actuation voltage below 5 volts with operation as low as 2 volts. Isolation in the off state is better than -20 dB across the frequency band with values better than -60 dB observed for frequency below 1 GHz. The insertion loss in the on state is less than 1 dB below 40 GHz and remains below 2 dB up to 65 GHz. Switching time was demonstrated at 40 mus and was limited by bouncing between the contacts, with initial contact observed at less than 10 mus. The cycle reliability of this switch has been tested with high contact resistance failures observed in the low 106 cycles range. The reliability appears to be limited by organic contamination between the contacting surfaces, possibly the result of resist residue and/or the development of a frictional polymer on the platinum coated contact surface. With one application of this RF MEMS switch targeted for military phased arrays, temperature sensitivity is an extremely important characteristic. The PZT SW5.1 design exhibited excellent off state performance with no change in the isolation characteristics from -25°C to 100°C. However, in the on state, the actuation voltage is required to increase to 20 volts to ensure operation at 100°C. The temperature sensitivity was improved by redesigning the RF contact pad to enable co-linear contact between the RF input and output sides of the transmission. This redesign, PZT SW5.2, successfully enables operation of the PZT RF MEMS switch from -25°C to 100°C with an actuation voltage less than 10 volts. The isolation of the newer design remains similar to the earlier design with values better than -20 dB up through 50 GHz. The insertion loss of this design exhibited a slight improvement compared to the earlier design with values less than 0.3 dB below 40 GHz and rising to 0.5 dB up through 50 GHz. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. Use of sediment serial dilution series to establish biological effect levels and clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Timmer, E.; DeLong, T.; Millard, J.; Dobroski, C.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment serial dilution study was used to determine biological effect levels for two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. The sediments for the test were collected from a New England brook which contained elevated levels of lead and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of the sediment dilution study was two-fold: (1 ) to provide a site-specific estimation of biological effect levels, thus reducing uncertainties associated with using literature-based values, and (2) to establish clean-up goals specific to this freshwater system.

  8. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and molecular modeling of 5-hydroxyisoquinolinium salt series; the effect of the hydroxyl moiety.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Ondrej; Dolezal, Rafael; Malinak, David; Marek, Jan; Salajkova, Sarka; Pasdiorova, Marketa; Honegr, Jan; Korabecny, Jan; Nachtigal, Petr; Nachon, Florian; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-02-15

    In the present paper, we describe the synthesis of a new group of 5-hydroxyisoquinolinium salts with different lengths of alkyl side-chain (C10-C18), and their chromatographic analysis and biological assay for in vitro activity against bacterial and fungal strains. We compare the lipophilicity and efficacy of hydroxylated isoquinolinium salts with the previously published (non-hydroxylated) isoquinolinium salts from the point of view of antibacterial and antifungal versatility and cytotoxic safety. Compound 11 (C18) had to be excluded from the testing due to its low solubility. Compounds 9 and 10 (C14, C16) showed only moderate efficacy against G+ bacteria, notably with excellent potency against Staphyloccocus aureus, but no effect against G- bacteria. In contrast, non-hydroxylated isoquinolinium salts showed excellent antimicrobial efficacy within the whole series, particularly 14 (C14) against G+ strains and 15 (C16) against fungi. The electronic properties and desolvation energies of 5-hydroxyisoquinolinium and isoquinolinium salts were studied by quantum-chemistry calculations employing B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method and an implicit water-solvent simulation model (SCRF). Despite the positive mesomeric effect of the hydroxyl moiety reducing the electron density of the quaternary nitrogen, it is probably the higher lipophilicity and lower desolvation energy of isoquinolinium salts, which is responsible for enhanced antimicrobial versatility and efficacy. PMID:26774252

  9. The Persistence of Effects. A Supplement to "An Evaluation of FREESTYLE: A Television Series to Reduce Sex Role Stereotypes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jerome; Davidson, Terrence

    This report describes a follow-up study of the persistence of the effects of the FREESTYLE experiment, which had indicated that this television series was capable of bringing about large changes in the sex role orientation of 9-to-12-year-olds. Designed to determine whether the effects associated with a 4 month media intervention could be found to…

  10. Environmental effects of dredging. Engineer manual series on dredging and dredged material disposal. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, M.R.

    1988-03-01

    This technical note describes a series of Engineer Manuals (EMs) on dredging and dredged material disposal being published by the Office, Chief of Engineers, US Army. The note describes the purpose of the manual series, intended audience, major topics covered, availability of published manuals, and the status of future manuals.

  11. A Test of the Testing Effect: Acquiring Problem-Solving Skills from Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies to the…

  12. Testing the Effects of Active Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a series of replications of an analog experiment, focusing on the short-term affective impact of two types of active listening, one neutral or interpretive and the other a paraphrase that assumes the client's accuracy of interpretation. The results suggest that differently worded active-listening responses may lead to different…

  13. Validation of an Academic Listening Test: Effects of "Breakdown" Tests and Test Takers' Cognitive Awareness of Listening Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Youngshin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a test…

  14. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, M. E.; Cameron, C. P.; Ghanbari, C. M.

    1992-11-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm(sup 2) that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW(sub t). The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m (times) 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm(sup 2) over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW(sub t). A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm(sup 2) over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW(sub t). Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm(sup 2) over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW(sub t). High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

  15. Statistical analysis of the extreme values of stress time series from the Portevin-Le Châtelier effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugiumtzis, D.; Kehagias, A.; Aifantis, E. C.; Neuhäuser, H.

    2004-09-01

    In an effort to understand the deterministic vs stochastic character of the Portevin-Le Châtelier (PLC) phenomenon, we investigate the structure of the underlying mechanism that generates the stick-slip patterns of stress over time. The stress time series is reduced to a series of successive pairs of minimum and maximum values representing the stick-slip patterns and a statistical analysis by means of hypothesis testing is applied to it. The null hypothesis of least deterministic structure is that the time series of extreme values is a bounded random walk of alternating direction (BRWAD); that is, besides the constraint of succession of minima to maxima bounded at a predefined range there are no other correlations in the data. To implement the test we use surrogate data generated by a model consistent with a BRWAD type process, which also uses the statistics of the original data to best mimic them. The proposed hypothesis testing is found to perform properly on simulated data from stochastic and deterministic systems. For the PLC time series, the null hypothesis is rejected at a high level of confidence giving evidence for some deterministic structure in the succession of the extreme stress values. This result allows for further statistical analysis including also the time aspect of the stick-slip patterns.

  16. Time-series modeling of reservoir effects on river nitrate concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoch, A.L.; Schilling, K.E.; Chan, K.-S.

    2009-01-01

    Saylorville Reservoir is a 24.1 km2 impoundment of the Des Moines River located approximately 10 km north of the City of Des Moines, Iowa, USA. Surface water from the Des Moines River used for drinking water supply is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen. Monthly mean nitrate concentration data collected upstream and downstream of the reservoir for a 30-year period (1977-2006) were selected for time-series analysis. Our objectives were to (1) develop a model describing nitrate concentrations downstream of the reservoir as a function of the concentrations entering the reservoir and (2) use the model to provide a 1-month ahead forecast for downstream water quality. Results indicated that downstream nitrate can be effectively modeled using a transfer function approach that utilized inflow concentrations during the current and previous month as input variables. Inflow concentrations were modeled using an AR(20) model, with the higher order model consistent with temporal correlation noted by others. The transfer function model suggested that the reservoir is reducing nitrate concentrations by 22 ?? 6%, a reduction that greatly exceeds previous estimates. Monthly nitrate forecasted with the model were nearly all within a 95% prediction interval of their actual measured values and did not appear greatly affected by flow variations. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-derivative operators of the Standard Model effective field theory via Hilbert series methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Landon; Martin, Adam

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we explore an extension of Hilbert series techniques to count operators that include derivatives. For sufficiently low-derivative operators, we conjecture an algorithm that gives the number of invariant operators, properly accounting for redundancies due to the equations of motion and integration by parts. Specifically, the conjectured technique can be applied whenever there is only one Lorentz invariant for a given partitioning of derivatives among the fields. At higher numbers of derivatives, equation of motion redundancies can be removed, but the increased number of Lorentz contractions spoils the subtraction of integration by parts redundancies. While restricted, this technique is sufficient to automatically recreate the complete set of invariant operators of the Standard Model effective field theory for dimensions 6 and 7 (for arbitrary numbers of flavors). At dimension 8, the algorithm does not automatically generate the complete operator set; however, it suffices for all but five classes of operators. For these remaining classes, there is a well defined procedure to manually determine the number of invariants. Assuming our method is correct, we derive a set of 535 dimension-8 N f = 1 operators.

  18. Spectral analysis of time series of events: effect of respiration on heart rate in neonates.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, Wim; Williams, Amber L; Lasky, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    Certain types of biomedical processes such as the heart rate generator can be considered as signals that are sampled by the occurring events, i.e. QRS complexes. This sampling property generates problems for the evaluation of spectral parameters of such signals. First, the irregular occurrence of heart beats creates an unevenly sampled data set which must either be pre-processed (e.g. by using trace binning or interpolation) prior to spectral analysis, or analyzed with specialized methods (e.g. Lomb's algorithm). Second, the average occurrence of events determines the Nyquist limit for the sampled time series. Here we evaluate different types of spectral analysis of recordings of neonatal heart rate. Coupling between respiration and heart rate and the detection of heart rate itself are emphasized. We examine both standard and data adaptive frequency bands of heart rate signals generated by models of coupled oscillators and recorded data sets from neonates. We find that an important spectral artifact occurs due to a mirror effect around the Nyquist limit of half the average heart rate. Further we conclude that the presence of respiratory coupling can only be detected under low noise conditions and if a data-adaptive respiratory band is used. PMID:19075368

  19. Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

  20. Data book for 12.5-inch diameter SRB thermal model water flotation test: 14.7 psia, series P020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Data acquired from the initial series of tests conducted to determine how thermal conditions affect SRB (Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster) flotation are presented. Acceleration, pressure, and temperature data recorded from initial water impact to final flotation position using a 12.5-inch diameter thermal model of the SRB at ambient pressure are included. The model was 136.9 inches long and weighed 117.3 lbm. The tests indicated the following differences from ambient temperature tests: (1) significant negative static pressures can occur during penetration; (2) maximum penetration is increased; and (3) final flotation is in the spar buoy mode.

  1. Potential effects of alpha-recoil on uranium-series dating of calcrete

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of paleosol ages in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, at the time the site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository, is important for fault-displacement hazard assessment. Uranium-series isotope data were obtained for surface and subsurface calcrete samples from trenches and boreholes in Midway Valley, Nevada, adjacent to Yucca Mountain. 230Th/U ages of 33 surface samples range from 1.3 to 423 thousand years (ka) and the back-calculated 234U/238U initial activity ratios (AR) are relatively constant with a mean value of 1.54 ± 0.15 (1?), which is consistent with the closed-system behavior. Subsurface calcrete samples are too old to be dated by the 230Th/U method. U-Pb data for post-pedogenic botryoidal opal from a subsurface calcrete sample show that these subsurface calcrete samples are older than ~ 1.65 million years (Ma), old enough to have attained secular equilibrium had their U-Th systems remained closed. However, subsurface calcrete samples show U-series disequilibrium indicating open-system behavior of 238U daughter isotopes, in contrast with the surface calcrete, where open-system behavior is not evident. Data for 21 subsurface calcrete samples yielded calculable 234U/238U model ages ranging from 130 to 1875 ka (assuming an initial AR of 1.54 ± 0.15, the mean value calculated for the surface calcrete samples). A simple model describing continuous ?-recoil loss predicts that the 234U/238U and 230Th/238U ARs reach steady-state values ~ 2 Ma after calcrete formation. Potential effects of open-system behavior on 230Th/U ages and initial 234U/238U ARs for younger surface calcrete were estimated using data for old subsurface calcrete samples with the 234U loss and assuming that the total time of water-rock interaction is the only difference between these soils. The difference between the conventional closed-system and open-system ages may exceed errors of the calculated conventional ages for samples older than ~ 250 ka, but is negligible for younger soils.

  2. A Look at Computer-Assisted Testing Operations. The Illinois Series on Educational Application of Computers, No. 12e.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muiznieks, Viktors; Dennis, J. Richard

    In computer assisted test construction (CATC) systems, the computer is used to perform the mechanical aspects of testing while the teacher retains control over question content. Advantages of CATC systems include question banks, decreased importance of test item security, computer analysis and response to student test answers, item analysis…

  3. Functional-Level Testing: A "Must" for Valid and Accurate Assessment Results. EREAPA Publication Series No. 95-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Patricia H.

    When individuals are given tests that are too hard or too easy, the resulting scores are likely to be poor estimates of their performance. To get valid and accurate test scores that provide meaningful results, one should use functional-level testing (FLT). FLT is the practice of administering to an individual a version of a test with a difficulty…

  4. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of feeding

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  5. Trend Change Detection in NDVI Time Series: Effects of Inter-Annual Variability and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Neigh, Christopher S.R.; Reichstein, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Changing trends in ecosystem productivity can be quantified using satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the estimation of trends from NDVI time series differs substantially depending on analyzed satellite dataset, the corresponding spatiotemporal resolution, and the applied statistical method. Here we compare the performance of a wide range of trend estimation methods and demonstrate that performance decreases with increasing inter-annual variability in the NDVI time series. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. A breakpoint detection analysis reveals that an overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI trends can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Based on our results, we give practical recommendations for the application of trend methods on long-term NDVI time series. Particularly, we apply and compare different methods on NDVI time series in Alaska, where both greening and browning trends have been previously observed. Here, the multi-method uncertainty of NDVI trends is quantified through the application of the different trend estimation methods. Our results indicate that greening NDVI trends in Alaska are more spatially and temporally prevalent than browning trends. We also show that detected breakpoints in NDVI trends tend to coincide with large fires. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that seasonal trend methods need to be improved against inter-annual variability to quantify changing trends in ecosystem productivity with higher accuracy.

  6. Irradiation effects on Charpy impact and tensile properties of low upper-shelf welds, HSSI series 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Berggren, R.G. )

    1991-08-01

    When reactor pressure vessel steels exhibit Charpy V-notch impact upper-shelf energy levels of less than 68 J (50 ft-lb), the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix G, are not met. The regulations require, as an option, that a fracture mechanics analysis be performed that conservatively demonstrates adequate safety margins for continued operation. Under conditions where large prefracture crack-tip plastic zones are present, linear-elastic fracture mechanics concepts are not applicable, and the use of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics concepts has been recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A number of Babcock and Wilcox Company-fabricated reactor vessels in commercial pressurized water reactor plants include welds with both relatively low initial Charpy upper-shelf energies and high copper concentrations, which make them highly sensitive to neutron irradiation. As a result, the Charpy upper-shelf energies of many welds are expected to fall below 68 J (50 ft-lb) prior to reaching design life. The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program conducted the Second and Third Irradiation Series to investigate the effects of irradiation on the ductile fracture toughness of seven commercially fabricated, low upper-shelf welds. This report represents analyses of the Charpy impact and tensile test data, including adjustments for irradiation temperature and fluence normalization, which make possible comparison of the irradiation sensitivity the different welds.

  7. The Testing Effect in Recognition Memory: A Dual Process Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; McDermott, Kathleen B.

    2007-01-01

    The testing effect, or the finding that taking an initial test improves subsequent memory performance, is a robust and reliable phenomenon--as long as the final test involves recall. Few studies have examined the effects of taking an initial recall test on final recognition performance, and results from these studies are equivocal. In 3…

  8. Fatigue Effects on Intelligence Test Performance in the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Walter R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate effects of fatigue on intelligence test performance in the elderly. Fatigue effects were investigated by varying number of previous tests, by introducing breaks, and by using a pre-test fatigue-producing condition. The elderly are not as susceptible to test fatigue as previous results suggested. (Author)

  9. Will Teacher Value-Added Scores Change When Accountability Tests Change? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Value-added evaluations use student test scores to assess teacher effectiveness. How student achievement is judged can depend on which test is used to measure it. Thus it is reasonable to ask whether a teacher's value-added score depends on which test is used to calculate it. Would it change if a different test was used? Specifically, might a…

  10. Uranium-series Comminution Ages of Pleistocene Sediments: Effects of Sample Pretreatment Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, V. E.; Depaolo, D. J.; Christensen, J. N.

    2008-12-01

    The uranium-series comminution age method has great potential for dating a wide variety of clastic Quaternary sediments and for providing information about sediment transport and storage times in different environments. This method, applicable to silt- and clay-sized particles, is based on the time-dependent decrease in the 234U/238U ratio due to alpha recoil loss of the 234U daughter from a grain (DePaolo et al. 2006). In order to apply the method to sediments and soils, which are chemically complex, heterogeneous assemblages of multiple phases, the detrital component must be isolated. This requires the removal of phases that can potentially host uranium with a different isotopic composition than the detrital component, including: the adsorbed (exchangeable) fraction, authigenic carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, and organic compounds. We apply several procedures for removing these non-detrital phases, which mainly involve leaching (as well as ashing in some cases), to a suite of sediments with different bulk compositions, ages, and from a range of depositional settings (including alluvial fan, pluvial lake, and subglacial settings). The efficacy of each method is evaluated to determine which procedures are most effective at removing the non-detrital components while causing minimal damage to the clasts. This evaluation is based on measurements of the (234U/238U) activity ratio, the primary piece of information needed to obtain a sediment's comminution age. Additional measurements include x-ray diffraction for the host mineralogy, and scanning electron microscopy to observe any changes in surface textures. Initial results suggest that a sequential leaching procedure modified from Tessier et al. (1979) is a good choice for pretreating samples in order to obtain its comminution age.

  11. The effect of adjustable suture (Khaw) trabeculectomy on intraocular pressure: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ahmet; Kocatürk, Tolga; Dayanır, Volkan

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) outcome as well as complications associated with adjustable suture trabeculectomy in glaucoma patients who were uncontrolled under maximum medical therapy. In this retrospective case series, 35 eyes of 30 patients are included in the study. Adjustable suture trabeculectomy with 0.2 mg/cc mitomycin-C for 3 min was performed by the same surgeon. Subconjunctival 5-fluorouracil injection, transconjunctival suture adjustment, digital massage, and/or argon suturolysis were utilized postoperatively as needed. Complete success, qualified success, and failure were defined as IOP ≤18 mmHg without medication, IOP ≤18 mmHg with one or more medications, and IOP >18 mmHg with medication or need for additional glaucoma surgery, respectively. Of the 35 eyes, 13 had primary open angle, 18 had psuedoexfoliative, 1 had juvenile, 1 had pigmentary, 1 had uveitic, and 1 had chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Mean preoperative IOP of 30.1 ± 10.5 mmHg dropped to 10.8 ± 4.7 mmHg (p < 0.001) after a mean follow-up of 595 ± 435 days. Nine eyes had the desired IOP on first postoperative day where no transconjunctival suture adjustment was performed. Remaining 26 eyes required a mean of two adjustments (range 1-7) during the first postoperative 24 days in order to achieve a desirable IOP. Complete success, qualified success, and failure were observed in 28 (80 %), 5 (14 %), and 2 (6 %) eyes, respectively. There were no serious complications related to adjustable suture trabeculectomy. We believe adjustable suture trabeculectomy to be a safe and effective alternative to standard trabeculectomy where a desirable low IOP can be achieved. PMID:26002838

  12. Artemisinin and a Series of Novel Endoperoxide Antimalarials Exert Early Effects on Digestive Vacuole Morphology? ‡

    PubMed Central

    del Pilar Crespo, Maria; Avery, Thomas D.; Hanssen, Eric; Fox, Emma; Robinson, Tony V.; Valente, Peter; Taylor, Dennis K.; Tilley, Leann

    2008-01-01

    Artermisinin and its derivatives are now the mainstays of antimalarial treatment; however, their mechanism of action is only poorly understood. We report on the synthesis of a novel series of epoxy-endoperoxides that can be prepared in high yields from simple starting materials. Endoperoxides that are disubstituted with alkyl or benzyl side chains show efficient inhibition of the growth of both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. A trans-epoxide with respect to the peroxide linkage increases the activity compared to that of its cis-epoxy counterpart or the parent endoperoxide. The novel endoperoxides do not show a strong interaction with artemisinin. We have compared the mechanism of action of the novel endoperoxides with that of artemisinin. Electron microscopy reveals that the novel endoperoxides cause the early accumulation of endocytic vesicles, while artemisinin causes the disruption of the digestive vacuole membrane. At longer incubation times artemisinin causes extensive loss of organellar structures, while the novel endoperoxides cause myelin body formation as well as the accumulation of endocytic vesicles. An early event following endoperoxide treatment is the redistribution of the pH-sensitive probe LysoSensor Blue from the digestive vacuole to punctate structures. By contrast, neither artemisinin nor the novel endoperoxides caused alterations in the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum nor showed antagonistic antimalarial activity when they were used with thapsigargin. Analysis of rhodamine 123 uptake by P. falciparum suggests that disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential occurs as a downstream effect rather than as an initiator of parasite killing. The data suggest that the digestive vacuole is an important initial site of endoperoxide antimalarial activity. PMID:17938190

  13. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series-Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of metabolism in aquatic ecosystems. Central to this open water or "Odum" method is the assumption that the DO time is not strongly affected by advection and that effects due to advection or mixin...

  14. Validation of an Academic Listening Test: Effects of "Breakdown" Tests and Test Takers' Cognitive Awareness of Listening Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Youngshin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a test…

  15. The effects of nonlinear series resonance on Ohmic and stochastic heating in capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Kawamura, E.; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2008-06-15

    The flow of electron and ion conduction currents across a nonlinear capacitive sheath to the electrode surface self-consistently sets the dc bias voltage across the sheath. We incorporate these currents into a model of a homogeneous capacitive sheath in order to determine the enhancement of the Ohmic and stochastic heating due to self-excitation of the nonlinear series resonance in an asymmetric capacitive discharge. At lower pressures, the series resonance can enhance both the Ohmic and stochastic heating by factors of 2-4, with the Ohmic heating tending to zero as the pressure decreases. The model was checked, for a particular set of parameters, by a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation using the homogeneous sheath approximation, giving good agreement. With a self-consistent Child-law sheath, the PIC simulation showed increased heating, as expected, whether the series resonance is important or not.

  16. The effects of cell asynchrony on time-series data: an analysis on gene expression level of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Dauwels, Justin; Cao, Jianshu

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the intraerythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, time-series gene expression data are measured of infected red blood cells. However, the observed data is blurred due to cell asynchrony during experiments. In this paper, the effects of cell asynchrony are investigated by conducting numerical experiments. The simulation results suggest that cell asynchrony has varying effects on different intrinsic expression patterns. Specifically, the intrinsic patterns with high expression around the late life stage are more likely to be affected by cell asynchrony. It is also investigated how the effects of cell asynchrony are influenced by the experimental conditions. Certain parameters are identified that have a strong effects on cell asynchrony, and these parameters should be measured during biological experiments in order to deblur time-series gene expression data. PMID:25571171

  17. Effect of Aminophenyl and Aminothiahexyl α-d-Glycosides of the Manno-, Gluco-, and Galacto-Series on Type 1 Fimbriae-Mediated Adhesion of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fessele, Claudia; Lindhorst, Thisbe K.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to the glycosylated surface of their target cells is typically mediated by fimbrial lectins, exposed on the bacterial surface. Among the best-investigated and most important fimbriae are type 1 fimbriae, for which α-d-mannopyranoside-specificity has been described. This carbohydrate specificity is mediated by the type 1 fimbrial lectin FimH. In this account, we have employed four different set-ups to assay type 1 fimbriae-mediated bacterial adhesion, including tailor-made glycoarrays. The focus of our study was on testing FimH specificity with regard to the glycone part of a glycosidic ligand by testing a series of synthetic α-mannosides, as well as α-glucosides and α-galactosides. Unexpectedly, it was found that in solution all tested aminothiahexyl glycosides inhibit bacterial adhesion but that this effect is unspecific. Instead it is due to cytotoxicity of the respective glycosides at high mm concentrations. PMID:24833058

  18. The Effects of the Reverse Current Caused by the Series Compensation on the Current Differential Protection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cui; Yin, Xianggen; Qi, Xuanwei; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The series capacitor compensation is one of the key technologies in the EHV and UHV long distance power transmission lines. This paper analyzes the operation characteristics of the main protection combined with the engineering practice when the transmission line overcompensation due to the series compensation system is modified and analyzes the influence of the transition resistance and the system operation mode on the current differential protection. According to the simulation results, it presents countermeasure on improving the sensitivity of differential current protection. PMID:25247206

  19. Evaluation of the effects of climate and man intervention on ground waters and their dependent ecosystems using time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Stefanopoulos, Kyriakos

    2011-06-01

    SummaryGroundwaters and their dependent ecosystems are affected both by the meteorological conditions as well as from human interventions, mainly in the form of groundwater abstractions for irrigation needs. This work aims at investigating the quantitative effects of meteorological conditions and man intervention on groundwater resources and their dependent ecosystems. Various seasonal Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models with external predictor variables were used in order to model the influence of meteorological conditions and man intervention on the groundwater level time series. Initially, a seasonal ARIMA model that simulates the abstraction time series using as external predictor variable temperature ( T) was prepared. Thereafter, seasonal ARIMA models were developed in order to simulate groundwater level time series in 8 monitoring locations, using the appropriate predictor variables determined for each individual case. The spatial component was introduced through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Application of the proposed methodology took place in the Neon Sidirochorion alluvial aquifer (Northern Greece), for which a 7-year long time series (i.e., 2003-2010) of piezometric and groundwater abstraction data exists. According to the developed ARIMA models, three distinct groups of groundwater level time series exist; the first one proves to be dependent only on the meteorological parameters, the second group demonstrates a mixed dependence both on meteorological conditions and on human intervention, whereas the third group shows a clear influence from man intervention. Moreover, there is evidence that groundwater abstraction has affected an important protected ecosystem.

  20. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Etienne M; Lefebvre E; Frebourg N; Hamel H; Pestel-Caron M; Caron F; Bacyst Study Group

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology and RUT-daily use to determine the optimal strategy.METHODS: General practitioners included 18-65 years women with symptoms of AUC, performed a RUT and sent urines for analysis at a central laboratory. Different treatment strategies were simulated based on RUT and resistance results.RESULTS: Among 347 enrolled patients, 78% had a positive urine culture. Escherichia coli predominated (71%) with high rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (100%), fosfomycin (99%), ofloxacin (97%), and even pivmecillinam (87%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87%). Modelization showed that the systematic use of RUT would reduce by 10% the number of patients treated. Fosfomycin for patients with positive RUT offered a 90% overall bacterial coverage, compared to 98% for nitrofurantoin. 95% for ofloxacin, 86% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 78% for pivmecillinam.CONCLUSION: Local epidemiology surveillance data not biased by complicated UTI demonstrates that the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has not affected AUC yet. Fosfomycin first line in all patients with positive RUT seems the best treatment strategy for AUC, combining good bacterial coverage with expected low toxicity and limited effect on fecal flora.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The current study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00958295).

  1. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology and RUT-daily use to determine the optimal strategy. Methods General practitioners included 18–65 years women with symptoms of AUC, performed a RUT and sent urines for analysis at a central laboratory. Different treatment strategies were simulated based on RUT and resistance results. Results Among 347 enrolled patients, 78% had a positive urine culture. Escherichia coli predominated (71%) with high rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (100%), fosfomycin (99%), ofloxacin (97%), and even pivmecillinam (87%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87%). Modelization showed that the systematic use of RUT would reduce by 10% the number of patients treated. Fosfomycin for patients with positive RUT offered a 90% overall bacterial coverage, compared to 98% for nitrofurantoin. 95% for ofloxacin, 86% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 78% for pivmecillinam. Conclusion Local epidemiology surveillance data not biased by complicated UTI demonstrates that the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has not affected AUC yet. Fosfomycin first line in all patients with positive RUT seems the best treatment strategy for AUC, combining good bacterial coverage with expected low toxicity and limited effect on fecal flora. Trial registration The current study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00958295) PMID:24612927

  2. A Test for the Presence of Covariance Between Time-uncertain Series of Data with application to a Collection of Proxy Records Showing Millennial Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haam, E.; Huybers, P.

    2009-12-01

    Statistical measures of the relationships between time series are generally altered by the presence of errors in timing, i.e. when applied to time-uncertain series. We use a statistical test, MCTEST (Maximum Covariance of Time-uncErtain Series Test), to compute the significance of covariance between time-uncertain series wherein the probability of obtaining a maximum covariance from randomly realized time-uncertain series is assessed using the theory of extreme order statistics. The results of this analytical method provide insight into the influence of timing errors upon covariance and are shown to be consistent with results derived from a Monte Carlo procedure. An earlier versions of the MCTEST is augmented to account for non-uniformly distributed constraints on timing from radiometric estimates and to obtain results much more rapidly through the use of dynamic programming. We apply this methodology to test the significance of the covariance between the following time-uncertain series: (1) delta-18O from GISP2, (2) % Reflectance at Cariaco Basin, (3) delta-18O at Hulu Cave China, (4) Total Organic Carbon at Arabian Sea(136KL), (5) delta-D at EPICA Dronning Maud Land, (6) Bioturbation record at Santa Barbara (893A), (7) CaCO3 at Bermuda Rise (GPC5), (8) delta-180 (MD95-2042), (9) delta-18O from Botuvera Cave at Brazil, (10) delta 13C record from core RC11-83, AND (11) delta-18O from MC97-2120. The results support the global nature of the millennial scale variability. Interestingly, tropical record generally show high covariance with the other records and the Arabian Sea record (136 KL) is most strongly correlated with the others records in the collection, more so even than the GISP2 record. Of course, correlation is not alone indicative of causation, but these results do suggest that the locus of millennial scale variability may be centered more in the tropics than in the Northern North Atlantic.

  3. SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, K.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

  4. Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

    Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test…

  5. An Empirical Bayes Enhancement of Mantel-Haenszel DIF Analysis for Computer-Adaptive Tests. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    This study investigated the applicability to computerized adaptive testing (CAT) data of a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis that involves an empirical Bayes (EB) enhancement of the popular Mantel Haenszel (MH) DIF analysis method. The computerized Law School Admission Test (LSAT) assumed for this study was similar to that currently…

  6. Summary of construction details and test performance of recent series of 1. 8 meter SSC dipoles at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Goodzeit, C.; Wanderer, P.

    1990-01-01

    Certain design features of the SSC dipole magnets are evaluated with 1.8-meter models built and tested at BNL. We report the results of recent tests of such magnets relating quench performance and field quality measurements to mechanical design and assembly features such as collar material, collared coil dimensions and fit with the yoke and coil prestress level. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues" (e.g., group differences in…

  8. Test Takers with Disabilities: A Summary of Data from Special Administrations of the LSAT. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Linda F.

    This report provides information about test takers with disabilities who participated in a variety of accommodated administrations of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Results indicate the number of LSATs administered with accommodations increased 100% from 1990 to 1993. During that 4-year period, more than 2,700 LSATs were administered under…

  9. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-up (BPS:96/98) Field Test Report. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Kelly, Janice E.; Doherty, John M.; Simpson, Joe B.; Marti, Norma

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Followup 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). Students in this survey were first interviewed during 1995 as part of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 1996 field test. The BPS:96/98 full-scale student sample includes…

  10. The Effect of Divorce on Suicide in Finland: A Time Series Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Investigated divorce-suicide relationship in Finland. Cochrane-Orcutt time series analysis confirms divorce-suicide linkage for Finland. A 1 percent increase in divorce was associated with 0.24 percent increase in male suicide and 0.12 percent increase in female suicide. Given that divorce and religiosity trends were highly correlated, concluded…

  11. BIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL IONIZING RADIATION: DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This represents the first in a series of lectures sponsored by the Agency to present a range of perspectives on controversial environmental and health issues from the vantage points of distinguished scientists. The views expressed are, therefore, not necessarily the views of the ...

  12. A Unified Framework for Estimating Minimum Detectable Effects for Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Cristofer; Unlu, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series (C-SITS) design is a frequently employed quasi-experimental method, in which the pre- and post-intervention changes observed in the outcome levels of a treatment group is compared with those of a comparison group where the difference between the former and the latter is attributed to the treatment. The…

  13. MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL MODELS FOR EFFECTS OF PM AND COPOLLUTANTS IN A DAILY TIME SERIES EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most analyses of daily time series epidemiology data relate mortality or morbidity counts to PM and other air pollutants by means of single-outcome regression models using multiple predictors, without taking into account the complex statistical structure of the predictor variable...

  14. Effective low-order models for atmospheric dynamics and time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Gluhovsky, Alexander; Grady, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    The paper focuses on two interrelated problems: developing physically sound low-order models (LOMs) for atmospheric dynamics and employing them as novel time-series models to overcome deficiencies in current atmospheric time series analysis. The first problem is warranted since arbitrary truncations in the Galerkin method (commonly used to derive LOMs) may result in LOMs that violate fundamental conservation properties of the original equations, causing unphysical behaviors such as unbounded solutions. In contrast, the LOMs we offer (G-models) are energy conserving, and some retain the Hamiltonian structure of the original equations. This work examines LOMs from recent publications to show that all of them that are physically sound can be converted to G-models, while those that cannot lack energy conservation. Further, motivated by recent progress in statistical properties of dynamical systems, we explore G-models for a new role of atmospheric time series models as their data generating mechanisms are well in line with atmospheric dynamics. Currently used time series models, however, do not specifically utilize the physics of the governing equations and involve strong statistical assumptions rarely met in real data. PMID:26931600

  15. Tidal effects on stratospheric temperature series derived from successive advanced microwave sounding units

    PubMed Central

    Keckhut, P; Funatsu, B M; Claud, C; Hauchecorne, A

    2015-01-01

    Stratospheric temperature series derived from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on board successive NOAA satellites reveal, during periods of overlap, some bias and drifts. Part of the reason for these discrepancies could be atmospheric tides as the orbits of these satellites drifted, inducing large changes in the actual times of measurement. NOAA 15 and 16, which exhibit a long period of overlap, allow deriving diurnal tides that can correct such temperature drifts. The characteristics of the derived diurnal tides during summer periods is in good agreement with those calculated with the Global Scale Wave Model, indicating that most of the observed drifts are likely due to the atmospheric tides. Cooling can be biased by a factor of 2, if times of measurement are not considered. When diurnal tides are considered, trends derived from temperature lidar series are in good agreement with AMSU series. Future adjustments of temperature time series based on successive AMSU instruments will require considering corrections associated with the local times of measurement. PMID:26300563

  16. Effective low-order models for atmospheric dynamics and time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluhovsky, Alexander; Grady, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    The paper focuses on two interrelated problems: developing physically sound low-order models (LOMs) for atmospheric dynamics and employing them as novel time-series models to overcome deficiencies in current atmospheric time series analysis. The first problem is warranted since arbitrary truncations in the Galerkin method (commonly used to derive LOMs) may result in LOMs that violate fundamental conservation properties of the original equations, causing unphysical behaviors such as unbounded solutions. In contrast, the LOMs we offer (G-models) are energy conserving, and some retain the Hamiltonian structure of the original equations. This work examines LOMs from recent publications to show that all of them that are physically sound can be converted to G-models, while those that cannot lack energy conservation. Further, motivated by recent progress in statistical properties of dynamical systems, we explore G-models for a new role of atmospheric time series models as their data generating mechanisms are well in line with atmospheric dynamics. Currently used time series models, however, do not specifically utilize the physics of the governing equations and involve strong statistical assumptions rarely met in real data.

  17. A Generalized DIF Effect Variance Estimator for Measuring Unsigned Differential Test Functioning in Mixed Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Algina, James

    2006-01-01

    One approach to measuring unsigned differential test functioning is to estimate the variance of the differential item functioning (DIF) effect across the items of the test. This article proposes two estimators of the DIF effect variance for tests containing dichotomous and polytomous items. The proposed estimators are direct extensions of the…

  18. Examination of historical landslide time series: a test case from the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M.; Witt, A.; Malamud, B. D.; Guzzetti, F.; Peruccacci, S.

    2010-12-01

    Determining when, or how frequently, landslides can occur in an area is of primary importance for erosion and landscape evolution studies, and for landslide hazard and risk assessments. Studies of the temporal occurrence of landslides over extended periods are rare due to paucity and reliability of information. In this work, we exploit a catalogue of historical landslides in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, in the 52-year period 1951-2002. The catalogue consists of 2,255 reported landslides, and is based on historical archives and chronicles. In our analyses, we use two measures for the intensity of landsliding over time: (i) the number of reported landslides in a day (DL), and (ii) the number of reported landslides in an event (Sevent), where an event is one or more consecutive days with landsliding. From 1951 to 2002 in the study area there were 1057 days with 1 ? DL ? 45 landslides per day, and 596 events with 1 ? Sevent ? 129 landslides per event. We perform the following analyses with associated conclusions: (i) We examine temporal correlations of landslide intensities, measured by DL and Sevent, using power-spectral analysis and surrogate data analysis, and conclude that the landslide intensity series DL has strong temporal correlations, and Sevent has likely temporal correlations. (ii) We study temporal clustering in DL and Sevent, considering extremes over different landslide intensity thresholds, and we determine that DL and Sevent each have temporal correlations, but Sevent to a lesser degree. (iii) Using autocorrelation analysis, we examine correlations between successive inter-extreme occurrence times (?), and find for DL linear correlations in ?. For Sevent results are inconclusive; however, using Kendall’s rank correlation analysis, we find that the time series of ? are strongly correlated, for both DL and Sevent. (iv) We apply Fano Factor analysis, finding for both DL and Sevent the timings of extremes over a given threshold exhibit a fractal structure, and therefore clustered in time. (v) We find that the probability density of landslide intensities in the time series of DL and Sevent are power-law distributed, over at least two-orders of magnitude, strong evidence that the frequency-size of triggered landslide events over time scale as a power-law. If confirmed, this could have important implications for risk assessment and erosion modeling. (vi) Finally, we compare our time series of landslides with the daily rainfall record for a representative station in the study area. We find that for short antecedent rainfall periods, the minimum amount of rainfall necessary to trigger landslides varies considerably with the intensity of the landsliding (DL and Sevent); whereas for long antecedent periods the magnitude is largely independent of the cumulative amount of rainfall, and the largest values of landslide intensity are always preceded by abundant rainfall. Further, the analysis of the rainfall trend suggests that the trigger of landslides in the study area is related to seasonal rainfall.

  19. Reducing the Misinformation Effect Through Initial Testing: Take Two Tests and Recall Me in the Morning?

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Mark J.; Weinsheimer, Camille C.; Bodner, Glen E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Initial retrieval of an event can reduce people’s susceptibility to misinformation. We explored whether protective effects of initial testing could be obtained on final free recall and source-monitoring tests. After studying six household scenes (e.g., a bathroom), participants attempted to recall items from the scenes zero, one, or two times. Immediately or after a 48-hour delay, non-presented items (e.g., soap and toothbrush) were exposed zero, one, or four times through a social contagion manipulation in which participants reviewed sets of recall tests ostensibly provided by other participants. A protective effect of testing emerged on a final free recall test following the delay and on a final source-memory test regardless of delay. Taking two initial tests did not increase these protective effects. Determining whether initial testing will have protective (versus harmful) effects on memory has important practical implications for interviewing eyewitnesses. PMID:26949288

  20. Compendium of Test Results of Recent Single Event Effect Tests Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Steven S.; Allen, Gregory R.; Irom, Farokh; Scheick, Leif Z.; Adell, Philippe C.; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion and proton-induced single event effect (SEE) results from recent tests for a variety of microelectronic devices. The compendium covers devices tested over the last two years by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  1. Defensiveness Effects on Sex Differences in Children's Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.

    Relationships among the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC), the Lie Scale for Children (LSC), and sex were estimated from a pooled sample of 1,755 children in grades 1 to l0. Defensiveness and test anxiety showed equally strong sex differences; sex effects in test anxiety were not completely attributable to sex effects in defensiveness, but…

  2. A Note on Testing for Multivariate Effect Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Neil H.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overall test statistic to evaluate significance that yields 100% (1-alpha) confidence intervals for all linear combinations of effect sizes, shows how the stepdown Finite Intersection Test (N. Timm, 1995) may be used to test whether effect sizes are simultaneously different from zero, and illustrates the procedure. (SLD)

  3. Bond Testing for Effects of Silicone Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaia, James; Evans, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 ATK Thiokol discovered that the smocks and coveralls worn by its operations personnel for safety and contamination control were themselves contaminated with a silicone defoamer and a silicone oil. As a growing list of items have been identified as having this form of contamination, it was desirable to devise a test method to determine if the contamination level detected could cause subsequent processing concerns. The smocks and coveralls could potentially contact bonding surfaces during processing so the test method focused on dry transfer of the silicone from the clothing to the bonding surface.

  4. Swaziland Behavioural Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyane, Masotsha J.; And Others

    The Swaziland Behavioural Assessment Series (SBAS) is a battery of ability tests derived from the Flanagan Aptitude Classification Tests and the Internationally Developed Tests, for use in the guidance of secondary school students towards relevant educational and vocational opportunities. The SBAS has been field tested in Swaziland. Sixteen…

  5. Literacy without Schooling: Testing for Intellectual Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Sylvia; Cole, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Examines relationship between literacy and intellectual development and the belief that literacy leads to higher forms of thought. Describes research findings among the Vai of Liberia, a people who invented a syllabic writing system to represent their own language. Investigates effects of becoming literate separately from effects of attending…

  6. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017.10 Energy... Adverse effect test. In order for information to be identified as UCNI, it must be determined that the... significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security...

  7. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017.10 Energy... Adverse effect test. In order for information to be identified as UCNI, it must be determined that the... significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security...

  8. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017.10 Energy... Adverse effect test. In order for information to be identified as UCNI, it must be determined that the... significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security...

  9. 10 CFR 455.63 - Cost-effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost-effectiveness testing. 455.63 Section 455.63 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.63 Cost-effectiveness testing. (a... paragraph (a) of this section, if the State plan requires the cost effectiveness of an energy...

  10. 10 CFR 455.63 - Cost-effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost-effectiveness testing. 455.63 Section 455.63 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.63 Cost-effectiveness testing. (a... paragraph (a) of this section, if the State plan requires the cost effectiveness of an energy...

  11. 10 CFR 455.63 - Cost-effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost-effectiveness testing. 455.63 Section 455.63 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.63 Cost-effectiveness testing. (a... paragraph (a) of this section, if the State plan requires the cost effectiveness of an energy...

  12. Effects of changes in observational sites position and surrounding urbanisation on the temperature time series of the city of Trento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Lorenzo; Zardi, Dino; de Franceschi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    Results from field measurements and numerical simulations are analysed to evaluate the spatial variability of near-surface temperature in the urban area of Trento in the Alps. The analysis aims at gaining information supporting the reconstruction of the series of temperature observations in the city, the earliest dating back to 1816: a challenging task, due to various relocations of the observatories and the increasing effects of urbanisation. The specifically designed field campaign was carried out from August 2009 to November 2010: five identical temperature sensors were placed at the sites of the historical observatories of Trento, to detect possible systematic differences between these places under various seasonal patterns and weather conditions. However, since differences measured nowadays may not be representative of those occurred in the past, numerical simulations were also run with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, coupled with an advanced urban parameterization scheme, using a historical land use, reproducing early XX century urbanisation. Moreover, to test if the model is suitable to reproduce microclimatic differences in the urban area, simulations including the present land use, high-resolution urban morphology and anthropogenic heat sources were performed and compared against the observations carried out during the field campaign. The validation highlights that the model captures well the thermal field inside the urban area, as well as the average temperature differences between the urban sites, with mean absolute errors of order 1°C and 0.5°C respectively. However it reproduces poorly the variability connected with seasonality and weather conditions. Furthermore it is found that the model simulates well the typical features of the urban heat island, even though urbanisation effects tend to be overestimated. The analysis of the results of the "historical" simulations shows that temperature differences between the observatories more embedded in the urban area have not changed significantly from the past, probably due to similar changes in the surrounding urbanisation, whereas more relevant modifications have occurred at an observatory on the eastern sidewall of the valley, progressively incorporated in the urban area. Finally the comparison between "present" and "historical" simulations suggests that the progressive urbanisation has played a significant role on Trento temperature record in the last century, the effect being more significant under sunny conditions, when the urban heat island is stronger.

  13. South Carolina Statewide Testing Program 1977-78. General Report. Office of Research Report Series. Volume One/Number 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busbee, Cyril B.

    The results and methodology of the South Carolina 1977-78 statewide spring testing program for grades 3, 6, and 11 are presented and discussed. The discussion of the results focuses on a comparison of the 1978 results to national norms, a comparison of 1978 to 1977 results, a performance comparison across grade levels, and a comparison of skill…

  14. South Carolina Statewide Testing Program 1977-78. General Report. Office of Research Report Series. Volume One/Number 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busbee, Cyril B.

    The results and methodology of the South Carolina 1977-78 statewide spring testing program for grades 3, 6, and 11 are presented and discussed. The discussion of the results focuses on a comparison of the 1978 results to national norms, a comparison of 1978 to 1977 results, a performance comparison across grade levels, and a comparison of skill…

  15. School Policies and the Black-White Test Score Gap. Working Paper Series. SAN08-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines school-related policies and strategies that have been proposed or justified, at least in part, on the basis of their potential for reducing black-white test score gaps. These include strategies, one of which is greater integration, to reduce differences in the quality of teachers faced by black and white students; school and…

  16. Test order effects in simultaneous protocols.

    PubMed

    Imam, Abdulrazaq A; Warner, Timothy A

    2014-03-01

    Simultaneous protocols typically yield poorer stimulus equivalence outcomes than do other protocols commonly used in equivalence research. Two independent groups of three 3-member equivalence sets of stimuli were used in conditional discrimination procedures in two conditions, one using the standard simultaneous protocol and the other using a hybrid simultaneous training and simple-to-complex testing. Participants completed the two conditions in one long session in Experiment 1, but in separate sessions in Experiment 2. The same stimulus sets used in Experiment 1 were randomized for the two conditions in Experiment 2. Overall, accuracy was better with the hybrid than with the standard protocol in both experiments. The equivalence yield was also better under the hybrid than under the standard protocol in each experiment. The results suggest that the order of testing for emergent relations may account for the difficulty often encountered with the standard simultaneous protocol. PMID:24272620

  17. Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Tests of a Family of Models of Flying Hulls Derived from a Streamline Body -- NACA Model 84 Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Olson, Roland E; Draley, Eugene C; Luoma, Arvo A

    1943-01-01

    A series of related forms of flying-boat hulls representing various degrees of compromise between aerodynamic and hydrodynamic requirements was tested in Langley Tank No. 1 and in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. The purpose of the investigation was to provide information regarding the penalties in water performance resulting from further aerodynamic refinement and, as a corollary, to provide information regarding the penalties in range or payload resulting from the retention of certain desirable hydrodynamic characteristics. The information should form a basis for over-all improvements in hull form.

  18. Single-Event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: EPC2015, EPC2014, EPC2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Heavy ion testing of newly available eGaN FETs from EPC were tested in May of 2012 at TAM. The EPC2001, EPC2012, and EPC2014 were tested for general single-event effect response from gold and xenon ions. Overall, the devices showed radiation degradation commensurate with breakdown in isolation oxides, and similar testing by EPC and Microsemi agrees with these data.

  19. Effect of copper content on corrosion behavior and chromate conversion coating protection of 7xxx series aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingjiang

    The addition of Cu in Al-Zn-Mg alloys increases the mechanical strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking of 7xxx series aluminum alloys (AA7xxx). The peak aged T6 temper provides the maximum mechanical strength by precipitation hardening. However, the presence of noble Cu makes AA7xxx-T6 more susceptible to localized corrosion, such as pitting, crevice and intergranular corrosion (IGC). In order to protect AA7xxx-T6 from localized corrosion, protective chromate conversion coatings (CCCs) must be used. Cu has been reported to affect the CCC protection performance. The exact roles of Cu content in corrosion behavior and CCC protection of AA7xxx-T6 are the focus of this study. Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) approaches were used in combination with materials characterization techniques, such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB), SEM, TEM, High Resolution TEM (HRTEM), Scanning TEM (STEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS). Electrochemical tests on AA7xxx-T6 with various Cu content in deaerated chloride solution found that all alloys except for essentially Cu-free AA7004-T6 had two breakdown potentials, which increased logarithmically with increasing Cu content. Transient dissolution of the fine hardening precipitates and the surrounding solid solution in a thin surface layer was found in the Cu-containing alloys polarized at potentials between the two breakdown potentials. Stable dissolution associated with combined IGC and selective grain attack was found above the second breakdown potential. EIS tests revealed that the overall influence of Cu on the corrosion behavior was detrimental due to Cu enrichment in aerated chloride solution. TEM and STEM analysis revealed that CCC was heterogeneous on the heterogeneous microstructure of AA7075-T6. The coatings formed on coarse intermetallic particles were much thinner than CCC formed on the matrix. It was found that the CCC formed on the matrix mainly consisted of a CrIIIOOH backbone and chemisorbed HCrVIO4-. A sol-gel model for CCC formation was supported by the observations in this study. Finally the Cu content can have different effects on CCC protection: Cu is beneficial to CCC protection for coatings formed on polished AA7xxx-T6, but Cu is detrimental if it is enriched on the surface prior to CCC formation.

  20. Comparing Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Testing Strategies: Targeted and Routine Testing in Washington, DC

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Amanda D.; Choi, Sungwoog; Dor, Avi; Skillicorn, Jennifer; Peterson, James; Rocha, Nestor; Kharfen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine HIV testing is an essential approach to identifying undiagnosed infections, linking people to care and treatment, and preventing new infections. In Washington, DC, where HIV prevalence is 2.4%, a combination of routine and targeted testing approaches has been implemented since 2006. Methods We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of the District of Columbia (DC) Department of Health’s routine and targeted HIV testing implementation strategies. We collected HIV testing data from 3 types of DC Department of Health-funded testing sites (clinics, hospitals, and community-based organizations); collected testing and labor costs; and calculated effectiveness measures including cost per new diagnosis and cost per averted transmission. Results Compared to routine testing, targeted testing resulted in higher positivity rates (1.33% vs. 0.44%). Routine testing averted 34.30 transmissions per year compared to targeted testing at 17.78. The cost per new diagnosis was lower for targeted testing ($2,467 vs. $7,753 per new diagnosis) as was the cost per transmission averted ($33,160 vs. $104,205). When stratified by testing site, both testing approaches were most cost effective in averting new transmissions when conducted by community based organizations ($25,037 routine; $33,123 targeted) compared to hospitals or clinics. Conclusions While routine testing identified more newly diagnosed infections and averted more infections than targeted testing, targeted testing is more cost effective per diagnosis and per transmission averted overall. Given the high HIV prevalence in DC, the DC Department of Health’s implementation strategy should continue to encourage routine testing implementation with emphasis on a combined testing strategy among community-based organizations. PMID:26465771

  1. Introducing Novel Generation of High Accuracy Camera Optical-Testing and Calibration Test-Stands Feasible for Series Production of Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekouei Shahraki, M.; Haala, N.

    2015-12-01

    The recent advances in the field of computer-vision have opened the doors of many opportunities for taking advantage of these techniques and technologies in many fields and applications. Having a high demand for these systems in today and future vehicles implies a high production volume of video cameras. The above criterions imply that it is critical to design test systems which deliver fast and accurate calibration and optical-testing capabilities. In this paper we introduce new generation of test-stands delivering high calibration quality in single-shot calibration of fisheye surround-view cameras. This incorporates important geometric features from bundle-block calibration, delivers very high (sub-pixel) calibration accuracy, makes possible a very fast calibration procedure (few seconds), and realizes autonomous calibration via machines. We have used the geometrical shape of a Spherical Helix (Type: 3D Spherical Spiral) with special geometrical characteristics, having a uniform radius which corresponds to the uniform motion. This geometrical feature was mechanically realized using three dimensional truncated icosahedrons which practically allow the implementation of a spherical helix on multiple surfaces. Furthermore the test-stand enables us to perform many other important optical tests such as stray-light testing, enabling us to evaluate the certain qualities of the camera optical module.

  2. The effect of testing versus restudy on retention: a meta-analytic review of the testing effect.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A

    2014-11-01

    Engaging in a test over previously studied information can serve as a potent learning event, a phenomenon referred to as the testing effect. Despite a surge of research in the past decade, existing theories have not yet provided a cohesive account of testing phenomena. The present study uses meta-analysis to examine the effects of testing versus restudy on retention. Key results indicate support for the role of effortful processing as a contributor to the testing effect, with initial recall tests yielding larger testing benefits than recognition tests. Limited support was found for existing theoretical accounts attributing the testing effect to enhanced semantic elaboration, indicating that consideration of alternative mechanisms is warranted in explaining testing effects. Future theoretical accounts of the testing effect may benefit from consideration of episodic and contextually derived contributions to retention resulting from memory retrieval. Additionally, the bifurcation model of the testing effect is considered as a viable framework from which to characterize the patterns of results present across the literature. PMID:25150680

  3. Advances in series resonant inverter technology and its effect on spacecraft employing electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of transistorized Series Resonant Inverters (SRIs), which is higher than that of silicon-controlled rectifier alternatives, reduces spacecraft radiator requirements by 40% and may eliminate the need for heat pipes on 30-cm ion thruster systems. Recently developed 10- and 25-kW inverters have potential applications in gas thrusters, and represent the first spaceborne SRI designs for such power levels. Attention is given to the design and control system approaches employed in these inverter designs to improve efficiency and reduce weight, along with the impact of such improved parameters on electric propulsion systems.

  4. Experimental and Structural Testing Module to Analyze Paralogue-Specificity and Affinity in the Hsp90 Inhibitors Series

    PubMed Central

    Taldone, Tony; Patel, Pallav D.; Patel, Maulik; Patel, Hardik J.; Evans, Christopher E.; Rodina, Anna; Ochiana, Stefan; Shah, Smit K.; Uddin, Mohammad; Gewirth, Daniel; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    We here describe the first reported comprehensive analysis of Hsp90 paralogue affinity and selectivity in the clinical Hsp90 inhibitor chemotypes. This has been possible through the development of a versatile experimental assay based on a new FP-probe (16a) that we both describe here. The assay can test rapidly and accurately the binding affinity of all major Hsp90 chemotypes and has a testing range that spans low nanomolar to millimolar binding affinities. We couple this assay with a computational analysis that allows for rationalization of paralogue selectivity and defines not only the major binding modes that relay pan-paralogue binding or, conversely, paralogue selectivity, but also identifies molecular characteristics that impart such features. The methods developed here provide a blueprint for parsing out the contribution of the four Hsp90 paralogues to the perceived biological activity with the current Hsp90 chemotypes and set the ground for the development of paralogue selective inhibitors. PMID:23965125

  5. Test and evaluation of the Argonne BPAC10 Series air chamber calorimeter designed for 20 minute measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.; Jung, E.A. ); Cremers, T. )

    1990-10-01

    This paper is the final report on DOE-OSS Task ANLE88002 Fast Air Chamber Calorimetry.'' The task objective was to design, construct, and test an isothermal air chamber calorimeter for plutonium assay of bulk samples that would meet the following requirements for sample power measurement: average sample measurement time less than 20 minutes. Measurement of samples with power output up to 10 W. Precision of better than 1% RSD for sample power greater than 1 W. Precision better than 0.010 watt SD, for sample power less than 1 W. This report gives a description of the calorimeter hardware and software and discusses the test results. The instrument operating procedure, included as an appendix, gives examples of typical input/output and explains the menu driven software. Sample measurement time of less than 20 minutes was attained by pre-equilibration of the samples in low cost precision preheaters and by prediction of equilibrium measurements. Tests at the TA55 Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, on typical samples, indicates that the instrument meets all the measurement requirements.

  6. 4STAR Spectrometer for Sky-scanning Sun-tracking Atmospheric Research: Results from Test-flight Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Flynn, C.; Dunagan, S.; Johnson, R.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Kluzek, C.; Kassianov, E.; Sinyuk, A.; Livingston, J. M.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal Rosenheimer, M.

    2011-12-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) concept combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) and AERONET-like sky scanning capability with state-of-the-art monolithic spectrometry. The overall science goal for the 4STAR is to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to climate. The spectral capability will improve retrievals of gas constituents (e.g., H2O, O3, and NO2) and thereby improve determination of aerosol properties as residual components of the total optical depth. The sky scanning capability will enable retrievals of aerosol type (via complex refractive index and shape) and aerosol size distribution extending to larger sizes than attainable by direct-beam sun photometry alone. 4STAR also carries the potential for improved cloud retrievals by combining its zenith sky radiance measurements with surface albedo estimates (analogous to the recently published AERONET cloud mode observations). Vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties may then be obtained through combination of the direct-beam and sky-scanning measurements from an airborne platform flying through different altitudes. When flown as a component of an integrated field campaign, the 4STAR would tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based remote sensing measurements while providing an exact match of layers sampled by airborne in-situ instruments. The extensive track record of the AATS-6 and AATS-14 sun photometers with more than 100 peer-reviewed publications from more than a dozen field campaigns establishes the value of this approach. We initially developed three different versions of a ground-based prototype, 4STAR-Ground, that we characterized extensively through laboratory tests, field tests, and instrument intercomparisons. This included a 4-way intercomparison of 4STAR, AATS-14, a Prede Sun Photometer, and three Cimel Sun Photometers at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Subsequently the airborne version of 4-STAR has been assembled and integrated on PNNL's G-1 research aircraft. Airworthiness of this installation was demonstrated to the FAA, DOE and NASA with engineering analyses and test flights. Science test flights were carried out in April 2011. Additional flights and a calibration/characterization at Mauna Loa are expected to be completed prior to this presentation. 4STAR is scheduled to participate in DOE ARM's Two-Column Aerosol Project off the coast of Cape Cod, MA in 2012 and 2013. During the presentation we expect to show results from the 2011 4STAR science test-flights and ground-based characterizations.

  7. Fear Appeals in the Primary Classroom: Effects on Test Anxiety and Test Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William; Best, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether fear appeals used prior to a test increased self-reported test anxiety and had a detrimental effect on test scores. Forty primary school pupils were instructed for one week under a low threat condition under which no fear appeals were made and another week under a high threat condition in which fear appeals…

  8. Effect of test concentration in the ready biodegradability test for chemical substances: Improvement of OECD test guideline 301C.

    PubMed

    Nabeoka, Ryosuke; Taruki, Masanori; Kayashima, Takakazu; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, understanding the environmental persistence of chemicals is very important for risk assessment, and ready biodegradability tests are mainly conducted according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 301C. However, the highest test concentration specified in test guideline 301C, 100?mg/L, may cause microbial toxicity and incomplete biodegradation. The authors performed test guideline 301C tests at test concentrations of 30?mg/L for 13 substances that were readily biodegradable in ready biodegradability tests but not in test guideline 301C tests. Of the 5 substances with potential to cause microbial toxicity at 100?mg/L, the percentage of biodegradation of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, 4-chloro-3-cresol (CC), thymol (THY), and p-tert-butyl-?-methylbenzenepropionaldehyde measured by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) increased in the test guideline 301C test at 30?mg/L, suggesting a reduction in toxicity effects. Furthermore, CC and THY met the criteria for ready biodegradability, which are more than 60% of biodegradation by BOD and a 10-d window. Of the 8 substances with a low potential for causing microbial toxicity at 100?mg/L, the percentage of biodegradation of only 2-(diethylamino)ethanol increased in the test guideline 301C test at 30?mg/L. Employing a lower test concentration in the standard test guideline 301C test will contribute to improvement of consistency between results of a test guideline 301C test and other ready biodegradability tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:84-90. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26211908

  9. Adding an astrophysically motivated detection confidence test, Effective Distance Ratio, to our standard confidence tests for Inspiral Candidate Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    In order to detect gravitational-wave signals from compact binary inspiral systems in the data from the LIGO detectors the LSC-Virgo Compact Binary Coalescence (CBC) group has developed an analysis method based on optimal matched filtering. In order to confirm the possible discovery of gravitational waves, the CBC group has developed a detection checklist intended to validate the statistically significant candidate events produced by the CBC analysis. This checklist is a series of additional tests under active development for integration into our search infrastructure, or a set of ``final'' quantitative checks geared to corroborating a detection or to identifying a false alarm. We practice this checklist with the loudest candidates found (even if not statistically significant) and with simulated signals. As part of this talk we will present an evolving checklist test, the Effective Distance Ratio, and discuss this tests potential for candidate validation because of simple astrophysical basis. In addition to presenting this test, we will review the standard inspiral candidate validation methodology giving context about where our new confidence test fits into the inspiral search hierarchy.

  10. Magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 4}(Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} alloy series

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Xuejun

    1999-12-01

    Alloys from the Gd{sub 4}(Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} series were prepared by melting a stoichiometric amounts of pure metals in an induction furnace. The crystal structure is of the anti-Th{sub 3}P{sub 4} type (space group I{bar 4}3d) for all the compounds tested. The linear increase of the lattice parameters with Bi concentration is attributed to the larger atomic radius of Bi than that of Sb. Magnetic measurements show that the alloys order ferromagnetically from 266K to 330K, with the ordering temperature increasing with decreasing Bi concentration. The alloys are soft ferromagnets below their Curie temperatures, and follow the Curie-Weiss law above their ordering temperatures. The paramagnetic effective magnetic moments are low compared to the theoretical value for a free Gd{sup 3+}, while the ordered magnetic moments are close to the theoretical value for Gd. The alloys exhibit a moderate magnetocaloric effect (MCE) whose maxima are located between 270K and 338K and have relatively wide peaks. The peak MCE temperature decreases with decreasing Bi concentration while the peak height increases with decreasing Bi concentration. The Curie temperatures determined from inflection points of heat capacity are in good agreement with those obtained from the magnetocaloric effect. The MCE results obtained from the two different methods (magnetization and heat capacity) agree quite well with each other for all of the alloys in the series.

  11. A Test of the Abstinence Violation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Audrey J.

    According to the abstinence violation effect, highly controlled drinkers tend to overindulge following an initial slip. To investigate this relapse model, 47 male college students, ranging in age from 21 to 46, were assigned either to an unrestrained or a restrained drinker group according to their scores on the Restrained Drinking Scale. Subjects…

  12. The effect of doping on magnetic properties of (Fe1-xMnx)2P1-ySiy series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goraus, Jerzy; Hawe?ek, Lukasz; W?odarczyk, Patryk

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present results of ab initio calculations for the (Fe1-xMnx)2P1-ySiy series, where we investigate the effect of doping on magnetic properties of these materials. Such compounds, which belong to the Fe2 P class of magnetocaloric materials are now extensively studied, due to their potential applications in magnetic cooling. In the hexagonal Fe2 P-type structure, transition metals occupy two inequivalent Wyckoff positions: 3 f and 3 g. We have shown that the preference of occupation of one site by the particular transition metal leads to different dependence of magnetic properties with respect to the total doping effect.

  13. Test effectiveness study report: An analytical study of system test effectiveness and reliability growth of three commercial spacecraft programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Failure data from 16 commercial spacecraft were analyzed to evaluate failure trends, reliability growth, and effectiveness of tests. It was shown that the test programs were highly effective in ensuring a high level of in-orbit reliability. There was only a single catastrophic problem in 44 years of in-orbit operation on 12 spacecraft. The results also indicate that in-orbit failure rates are highly correlated with unit and systems test failure rates. The data suggest that test effectiveness estimates can be used to guide the content of a test program to ensure that in-orbit reliability goals are achieved.

  14. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  15. Testing for polygenic effects in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Chen, Yue-Ming; Wei, Peng

    2015-05-01

    To confirm associations with a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), each with only a small effect size, as hypothesized in the polygenic theory for schizophrenia, the International Schizophrenia Consortium (2009, Nature 460:748-752) proposed a polygenic risk score (PRS) test and demonstrated its effectiveness when applied to psychiatric disorders. The basic idea of the PRS test is to use a half of the sample to select and up-weight those more likely to be associated SNPs, and then use the other half of the sample to test for aggregated effects of the selected SNPs. Intrigued by the novelty and increasing use of the PRS test, we aimed to evaluate and improve its performance for GWAS data. First, by an analysis of the PRS test, we point out its connection with the Sum test [Chapman and Whittaker, Genet Epidemiol 32:560-566; Pan, Genet Epidemiol 33:497-507]; given the known advantages and disadvantages of the Sum test, this connection motivated the development of several other polygenic tests, some of which may be more powerful than the PRS test under certain situations. Second, more importantly, to overcome the low statistical efficiency of the data-splitting strategy as adopted in the PRS test, we reformulate and thus modify the PRS test, obtaining several adaptive tests, which are closely related to the adaptive sum of powered score (SPU) test studied in the context of rare variant analysis [Pan et al., 2014, Genetics 197:1081-1095]. We use both simulated data and a real GWAS dataset of alcohol dependence to show dramatically improved power of the new tests over the PRS test; due to its superior performance and simplicity, we recommend the whole sample-based adaptive SPU test for polygenic testing. We hope to raise the awareness of the limitations of the PRS test and potential power gain of the adaptive SPU test. PMID:25847094

  16. Evaluation of antithrombotic effect: Importance of testing components and methodologies.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junichiro; Tamura, Yukinori; Ijiri, Yoshinobu; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Murakami, Masahiro; Matsuo, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial antithrombotic effect of some dietary components may offer the most promising approach of prevention of cardiovascular diseases and arterial thrombosis. The major stumbling block in finding effective dietary components is the lack of physiologically relevant techniques which can detect potential antithrombotic effect in humans. The presently used platelet function and coagulation tests do not allow the assessment of global thrombotic status and their value in screening dietary components for antithrombotic effect is questionable. Most of these in vitro tests ignore the effect of flow and shear stress, thrombin generation and vascular endothelium, the major contributors to arterial thrombogenesis in humans. As a gold standard, we employed the helium-neon (He-Ne) laser-induced thrombosis test in murine carotid artery and mesenteric microvessels, as the pathomechanism of this test closely reflects arterial thrombogenesis in humans. Results obtained with laser thrombosis test were compared with various shear-induced in vitro platelet function tests which use native blood (Haemostatometry, Thrombotic Status Analyser, Global Thrombosis Test-GTT). Contribution of vascular endothelium to thrombogenesis was assessed by measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMV) in vivo. The combination of the two shear-induced ex vivo thrombosis tests (Haemostatometry and GTT) with FMV correlated most closely with the laser-thrombosis test. Our findings suggest that combining the commercially available point-of-care GTT with the FMV test could provide a better assessment of the overall thrombotic status than either of the two tests alone. PMID:26370524

  17. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  18. The Testing Effect for Learning Principles and Procedures from Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, Kim J. H.; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored whether a testing effect occurs not only for retention of facts but also for application of principles and procedures. For that purpose, 38 high school students either repeatedly studied a text on probability calculations or studied the text, took a test on the content, restudied the text, and finally took the test a second…

  19. EVALUATION OF THREE OIL SPILL LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA evaluated three laboratory Methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and currently required by regulation) in the United States, the Swirling Flask Test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-Dilution Test (used in France and other Eu...

  20. The Testing Effect for Learning Principles and Procedures from Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, Kim J. H.; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored whether a testing effect occurs not only for retention of facts but also for application of principles and procedures. For that purpose, 38 high school students either repeatedly studied a text on probability calculations or studied the text, took a test on the content, restudied the text, and finally took the test a second…

  1. Learned Helplessness: The Effect of Failure on Test-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael; Hwang, Chi-En; Copella, Margaret; Clark, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This study examined learned helplessness and its effect on test taking. Students were given one of two tests; the first began with extremely difficult questions and the other started with easy questions. The researchers hypothesized that those who took the test beginning with difficult questions would become easily frustrated and possibly doubt…

  2. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  3. The Testing Effect on Skills Learning Might Last 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromann, C. B.; Bohnstedt, C.; Jensen, M. L.; Ringsted, C.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research question was: does testing as a final activity in a…

  4. Endovascular treatment of intracranial infectious aneurysms in eloquent cortex with super-selective provocative testing: Case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Matthew R; Stapleton, Christopher J; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial infectious aneurysms (IIAs) are a rare subgroup of intracranial aneurysms. Often erroneously termed mycotic aneurysms, these lesions most often result from infectious endocarditis and involve the distal anterior cortical circulation. Diagnosis typically follows headaches or septic infarcts, although increasing numbers of lesions are found incidentally, during screening protocols for infectious endocarditis. Open surgical treatment was previously the mainstay of treatment; however, these IIAs are often fusiform and quite fragile, making open surgical obliteration difficult and typically requiring lesion trapping. Current treatment techniques more commonly involve endovascular coil embolization or parent vessel occlusion. Many of these lesions occur distally, in or around the eloquent cortex, making embolization potentially dangerous. We present cases that highlight the use of super-selective provocative testing with sodium amobarbital and lidocaine, to help clarify and predict the risk of parent vessel occlusion in IIAs located in the eloquent cortex. PMID:26672110

  5. A simulated lightning effects test facility for testing live and inert missiles and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Jeffery D.; Knaur, James A.; Moore, Truman W., Jr.; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Details of a simulated lightning effects test facility for testing live and inert missiles, motors, and explosive components are described. The test facility is designed to simulate the high current, continuing current, and high rate-of-rise current components of an idealized direct strike lightning waveform. The Lightning Test Facility was in operation since May, 1988, and consists of: 3 separate capacitor banks used to produce the lightning test components; a permanently fixed large steel safety cage for retaining the item under test (should it be ignited during testing); an earth covered bunker housing the control/equipment room; a charge/discharge building containing the charging/discharging switching; a remotely located blockhouse from which the test personnel control hazardous testing; and interconnecting cables.

  6. An effective approach for gap-filling continental scale remotely sensed time-series

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Bhatt, Samir; Mappin, Bonnie; Hay, Simon I.; Gething, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    The archives of imagery and modeled data products derived from remote sensing programs with high temporal resolution provide powerful resources for characterizing inter- and intra-annual environmental dynamics. The impressive depth of available time-series from such missions (e.g., MODIS and AVHRR) affords new opportunities for improving data usability by leveraging spatial and temporal information inherent to longitudinal geospatial datasets. In this research we develop an approach for filling gaps in imagery time-series that result primarily from cloud cover, which is particularly problematic in forested equatorial regions. Our approach consists of two, complementary gap-filling algorithms and a variety of run-time options that allow users to balance competing demands of model accuracy and processing time. We applied the gap-filling methodology to MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and daytime and nighttime Land Surface Temperature (LST) datasets for the African continent for 2000–2012, with a 1 km spatial resolution, and an 8-day temporal resolution. We validated the method by introducing and filling artificial gaps, and then comparing the original data with model predictions. Our approach achieved R2 values above 0.87 even for pixels within 500 km wide introduced gaps. Furthermore, the structure of our approach allows estimation of the error associated with each gap-filled pixel based on the distance to the non-gap pixels used to model its fill value, thus providing a mechanism for including uncertainty associated with the gap-filling process in downstream applications of the resulting datasets. PMID:25642100

  7. Effects of Reference Performance Testing During Aging Using Commercial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; David Howell

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program, under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, is investigating lithium-ion batteries for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells are aged under various test conditions, including temperatures and states-of-charge. Life testing is interrupted at regular intervals to conduct reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to measure changes in the electrical performance of the cells and then to determine cell degradation as a function of test time. Although designed to be unobtrusive, data from the Advanced Technology Development Gen 2 cells indicated that RPTs actually contributed to cell degradation and failure. A study was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using commercially available lithium-ion cells to determine the impact of RPTs on life. A series of partial RPTs were performed at regular intervals during life testing and compared to a control group that was life tested without RPT interruption. It was determined that certain components of the RPT were detrimental, while others appeared to improve cell performance. Consequently, a new "mini" RPT was designed as an unobtrusive alternative. Initial testing with commercial cells indicates that the impact of the mini RPT is significantly less than the Gen 2 cell RPT.

  8. Using Response-Time Constraints in Item Selection To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

    This paper proposes an item selection algorithm that can be used to neutralize the effect of time limits in computer adaptive testing. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the test takers on the items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has been administered. Predictions from the model are…

  9. Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

  10. Effect-based interpretation of toxicity test data using probability and comparison with alternative methods of analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Markle, P.J.; Bottomley, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is described that incorporates the intra- and intertest variability and the biological effect of bioassay data in evaluating the toxicity of single and multiple tests for regulatory decision-making purposes. The single- and multiple-test regulatory decision probabilities were determined from t values (n {minus} 1, one-tailed) derived from the estimated biological effect and the associated standard error at the critical sample concentration. Single-test regulatory decision probabilities below the selected minimum regulatory decision probability identify individual tests as noncompliant. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability below the multiple-test regulatory decision minimum identifies groups of tests in which the magnitude and persistence of the toxicity is sufficient to be considered noncompliant or to require enforcement action. Regulatory decision probabilities derived from the t distribution were compared with results based on standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests using single- and multiple-concentration toxicity test data from an actual national pollutant discharge incorporated the precision of the effect estimate into regulatory decisions at a fixed level of effect. Also, probability-based interpretation of toxicity tests provides incentive to laboratories to produce, and permit holders to use, high-quality, precise data, particularly when multiple tests are used in regulatory decisions. These results are contrasted with standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests in which the intratest precision is a determining factor in setting the biological effect used for regulatory decisions.

  11. Effective School Boards: Strategies for Improving Board Performance. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoley, Eugene R., Jr.

    This book provides guidance for school-board members who wish to enhance their effectiveness. It is structured around two central questions: What does an effective school board look like? and How can a board, with the support of its superintendent and community, become more effective? Part 1 describes the issues facing school boards and the major…

  12. Power series evaluation of Zernike covariances for turbulence-induced phase distortions including outer scale and servo lag effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchers, Jeffrey D.; Ellerbroek, Brent L.

    1999-09-01

    Mellin transform techniques are applied to develop power series formulas to efficiently evaluate covariances for zernike representations of turbulence-induced phase distortions along a pair of ray paths through the atmosphere from one or several sources at finite or infinite range. The formulas also apply when the phase distortions are temporally filtered by a closed loop adaptive optics system. The power series formulas are developed using an automated computer logic algorithm designed to solve multiple contour integrals in multiple complex planes resulting from the application of Mellin transform techniques. Results are presented for the von Karman turbulence spectrum with a finite outer scale. Amplitude scintillation effects are neglected. The Taylor hypothesis is assumed to model the temporal behavior of the turbulence using either a fixed or random wind profile. The resulting formulas are weighted integrals of the refractive index structure constant C(subscript n)(superscript 2)(z), where the weighting functions are power series in from one to six indices depending on the beacons used and the choices made regarding the atmospheric turbulence spectrum and the direction of the wind.

  13. A series of low-altitude aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18, and 25 at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, D.P.

    1999-12-01

    A series of low-altitude, aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18,and 25 of the Nevada Test Site was conducted from December 1996 through June 1999. The surveys were conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The flights were conducted at a nominal altitude of 15 meters above ground level along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 23 meters apart. The purpose of these low-altitude surveys was to measure, map, and define the areas of americium-241 activity. The americium contamination will be used to determine the areas of plutonium contamination. Americium-241 activity was detected within 8 of the 11 regions. The three regions where americium-241 was not detected were in the inactive Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex in Area 25, which encompassed the Test Cell A and Test Cell C reactor test stands and the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly facility.

  14. Time-series analysis of ion and isotope geochemistry of selected springs of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.F.; Edkins, J.; Jacobson, R.L.; Hess, J.W.

    1990-11-01

    The temporal variations of ion and isotope geochemistry were observed at six selected springs on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada and included: Cane, Whiterock, Captain Jack, Topopah, Tippipah, and Oak Springs. The sites were monitored from 1980 to 1982 and the following parameters were measured: temperature, pH, electrical conductance, discharge, cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}), anions Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, silica, stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 13}C), and radioactive isotopes ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C). A more detailed study was continued from 1982 to 1988 at Cane and Whiterock Springs. Field microloggers were installed at these sites in 1985 to measure the high frequency response of temperature, electrical conductance, and discharge to local precipitation. Stage fluctuations near the discharge point dissolve minerals/salts as groundwater inundates the mineralized zone immediately above the equilibrium water table. This phenomena was most noticeable at Whiterock Spring and lagged the discharge response by several hours. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation and groundwater suggests a 1.5 to 2 month travel time for meteoric water to migrate from the recharge area to the discharge point. Groundwater age determinations suggest a mean age of approximately 30 years at Whiterock Spring and possibly older at Cane Spring. However, the short travel time and geochemical integrity of recharge pulses suggest that the waters are poorly mixed along the flow paths. 25 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  16. Effective panitumumab treatment in patients with heavily pre-treated metastatic colorectal cancer: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tzovaras, Alexandros A; Karagiannis, Athanassios; Margari, Charalambia; Barla, Georgia; Ardavanis, Alexandros

    2011-03-01

    In heavily pre-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), further chemotherapy has not demonstrated efficacy. Panitumumab is indicated as monotherapy treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing, Kirsten (K)-RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer after failure of fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-containing regimens. However, panitumumab has not been specifically evaluated in patients following failure of a bevacizumab-containing regimen. One female and two male patients with mCRC presented with tumour recurrence in the para-aortic lymph nodes, the liver and the local presacral lymph nodes, respectively. The patients were confirmed to have K-RAS wild-type-expressing tumours. Following the failure of bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy regimens, all three patients received panitumumab monotherapy. Panitumumab was well-tolerated. All the patients responded to panitumumab monotherapy in this late-stage setting. This patient series suggests that panitumumab can improve patient outcomes and may be an alternative treatment option in patients with mCRC who have received prior treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. PMID:21498734

  17. A simple and effective method for quantifying spatial anisotropy of time series of precipitation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Tero J.; Kokkonen, Teemu; Seed, Alan W.

    2014-07-01

    The spatial shape of a precipitation event has an important role in determining the catchment's hydrological response to a storm. To be able to generate stochastic design storms with a realistic spatial structure, the anisotropy of the storm has to be quantified. In this paper, a method is proposed to estimate the anisotropy of precipitation fields, using the concept of linear Generalized Scale Invariance (GSI). The proposed method is based on identifying the values of GSI parameters that best describe isolines of constant power on the two-dimensional power spectrum of the fields. The method is evaluated using two sets of simulated fields with known anisotropy and a measured precipitation event with an unknown anisotropy from Brisbane, Australia. It is capable of accurately estimating the anisotropy parameters of simulated nonzero fields, whereas introducing the rain-no rain intermittency alters the power spectra of the fields and slightly reduces the accuracy of the parameter estimates. The parameters estimated for the measured event correspond well with the visual observations on the spatial structure of the fields. The method requires minimum amount of decision making and user interaction, making it suitable for analyzing anisotropy of storm events consisting of long time series of fields with a changing spatial structure.

  18. The effects of intermediate temperature irradiation on the mechanical behavior of 300-series austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odette, G. R.; Lucas, G. E.

    1991-03-01

    Data in the literature on the microstructures and mechanical properties of solution annealed 300-series austenitic stainless steels irradiated under conditions relevant to the design of near term fusion reactors show consistent trends for a variety of alloys and environments. The yield stress increases rapidly approaching a saturation value of about 850 ±100 MPa, essentially identical to the ultimate stress. Visible irradiation-induced features, which are predominantly helium bubbles and dislocation loops, can account for only about 50 to 70% of these increases. The uniform elongation is reduced to less than 1% due to the decrease in strain hardening and severe flow localization following irradiation. The fracture toughness also decreases to values near or below 50 MPa m {1}/{2}. A simple critical strain model is shown to be qualitatively consistent with the observed toughness trends. These results suggest that more rigorous fracture models can be developed to permit quantitative predictions of toughness changes based on a variety of measurements made on small specimens.

  19. Response Mode Effects on Computer Based Problem Solving. Report Series 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bobby R.; Sustik, Joan M.

    This response mode study attempts to determine whether different response modes are helpful or not in facilitating the thought process in a given problem solving situation. The Luchins Water Jar Test (WJT) used in this study illustrates the phenomena "Einstelling" (mechanization of response) because it does not require any specialized content…

  20. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years) were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover) on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death). Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m3 on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic) and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards. PMID:24157504

  1. Lagged PM2.5 effects in mortality time series: Critical impact of covariate model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two most common approaches to modeling the effects of air pollution on mortality are the Harvard and the Johns Hopkins (NMMAPS) approaches. These two approaches, which use different sets of covariates, result in dissimilar estimates of the effect of lagged fine particulate ma...

  2. A THEORY OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN MANAGEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FIEDLER, FRED E.

    CENTRAL TO THE THEORY OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS OUTLINED HERE IS A CONTINGENCY MODEL, ACCORDING TO WHICH GROUP EFFECTIVENESS DEPENDS ON INTERACTION BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES AND THE DEGREE TO WHICH SITUATIONS ENABLE LEADERS TO EXERT INFLUENCE. THE THEORY PREDICTS THAT A TASK-ORIENTED STYLE WILL BE THE BEST STYLE IN FAVORABLE LEADERSHIP…

  3. Shots ABLE, BAKER, CHARLIE, and DOG, the first tests of the TUMBLER-SNAPPER Series 1 April-1 May 1952. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, J.; Maag, C.

    1982-06-15

    The first chapter of this volume describes the physical setting and general characteristics of Shots ABLE, BAKER, CHARLIE, and DOG and briefly introduces the Desert Rock exercises and the scientific activities in which DOD personnel participated. The remaining four chapters address each of the four shots in turn. Each of these chapters describes the setting and characteristics of one detonation and details DOD participation in the scientific projects conducted by the test groups. The chapters describing CHARLIE and DOG also discuss the training activities associated with Exercise Desert Rock IV. The chapters conclude by discussing the radiological protection procedures used to minimize the potential for exposures to ionizing radiation. Details of the overall radiological protection program at Operation TUMBLER-SNAPPER are provided in the series volume, 'Operation TUMBLER-SNAPPER, 1952',.

  4. A Procedure for Testing the Difference between Effect Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Richard G.; Flowers, Claudia

    A special case of the homogeneity of effect size test, as applied to pairwise comparisons of standardized mean differences, was evaluated. Procedures for comparing pairs of pretest to posttest effect sizes, as well as pairs of treatment versus control group effect sizes, were examined. Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate Type I error rates…

  5. Boussignac CPAP system for brain death confirmation with apneic test in case of acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome – series of cases

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are some patients with severe respiratory disturbances like adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and suspicion of brain death, for whom typical performance of the apneic test is difficult to complete because of quick desaturation and rapid deterioration without effective ventilation. To avoid failure of brain death confirmation and possible loss of organ donation another approach to apneic test is needed. We present two cases of patients with clinical symptoms of brain death, with lung pathology (acute lung injury, ARDS, lung embolism and lung infection), in whom apneic tests for recognizing brain death were difficult to perform. During typical performance of apneic test involving the use of oxygen catheter for apneic oxygenation we observed severe desaturation with growing hypotension and hemodynamic destabilization. But with the use of Boussignac CPAP system all necessary tests were successfully completed, confirming the patient’s brain death, which gave us the opportunity to perform procedures for organ donation. The main reason of apneic test difficulties was severe gas exchange disturbances secondary to ARDS. Thus lack of positive end expiratory pressure during classical performance of apneic test leads to quick desaturation and rapid hemodynamic deterioration, limiting the observation period below dedicated at least 10-minute interval. Conclusion The Boussignac CPAP system may be an effective tool for performing transparent apneic test in case of serious respiratory disturbances, especially in the form of acute lung injury or ARDS. PMID:26124664

  6. Effects of homeopathic mother tinctures on breath alcohol testing.

    PubMed

    Boatto, Gianpiero; Trignano, Claudia; Burrai, Lucia; Spanu, Andrea; Nieddu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In some countries, it is illegal to drive with any detectable amount of alcohol in blood; in others, the legal limit is 0.5 g/L or lower. Recently, some defendants charged with driving under the influence of alcohol and have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results were due to the ingestion of homeopathic mother tinctures. These preparations are obtained by maceration, digestion, infusion, or decoction of herbal material in hydroalcoholic solvent. A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the alcoholic content of three homeopathic mother tinctures and their ability to produce inaccurate breath alcohol results. Nine of 30 subjects gave positive results (0.11-0.82 g/L) when tests were taken within 1 min after drinking mother tincture. All tests taken at least 15 min after the mother tincture consumption and resulted in alcohol-free readings. An observation period of 15-20 min prior to breath alcohol testing eliminates the possibility of false-positive results. PMID:25387897

  7. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program: A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, David L.; Mccook, Morgan W. (Editor); Vaughan, William W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Department and NASA have joined in a program to study the space environment which surrounds the earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with sub-orbital rocket probes. The chemical releases will 'paint' the magnetic and electric fields of earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments. Some of the topics discussed include the following: the effects of earthspace; the need for active experiments; types of chemical releases; the CRRES program schedule; international support and coordinated studies; photographing chemical releases; information on locating chemical releases for observation by the amateur; and CRRES as a program.

  8. Effectiveness of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) in anorexia nervosa: a case series.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Buzzichelli, Sara; Marzola, Enrica; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is effective in improving cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa (AN). Twenty AN outpatients were consecutively recruited at the Eating Disorders Center of the Turin University. All participants completed 10 sessions of CRT. Neuropsychological performances improved with CRT. Data showed also a significant improvement of impulse regulation and interoceptive awareness (subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2). CRT was also associated with improvement of reflexive skills and awareness. These preliminary findings are promising, but further work is necessary to find ways of enhancing the effects of this treatment. PMID:22876988

  9. Study Finds Stool Test Effective for Detecting Colon Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Study Finds Stool Test Effective for Detecting Colon Cancer Colonoscopy still preferred screening, but this offers less ... for blood in the stool can consistently detect colon cancer when used on an annual basis, and they ...

  10. USING POTATOES IN PROPAGATION TESTS FOR NONTARGET PLANT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current tests required for pesticide registration under the FIFRA only investigate seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research with sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant reproduction with little or no visible effect on vege...

  11. Testing a Sociological Theory of Recreational Drug Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, James D.; Briggs, Donald A.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that the normal effects of recreationally used drugs vary across substances, users, and situations as a function of normative content, normative clarity, and situational context was tested. (Author/JC)

  12. GIS Surface Effects Map Archive, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Dennis N.

    2003-08-28

    The GIS Surface Effects Map Archive contains a comprehensive collection of maps showing the surface effects produced by underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. From 1951 to 1992, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and agencies of the U.S. Department of Energy used field and aerial-photo mapping techniques to painstakingly map such surface effects as collapse sinks, craters, cracks, fractures, faults, and pressure ridges. Shortly after each test, a complex surface effects map was produced. Of the more than 920 underground detonations conducted at the Nevada Test Site, 688 were mapped for surface effects. This archive preserves these original maps in digital format. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to digitally reproduce each original, hand-drawn surface effects map and to assemble these maps into the digital data sets of this archive. The archive was designed to allow easy access to the maps, while preserving the original maps for perpetuity. Users can query the detonation sites database; prepare, view, and print individual or composite maps; and perform various types of scientific analysis and management tasks. Spatial analyses and queries can be performed on detonation sites and related surface effects in conjunction with other chronological, geographical, geological, or hydrological information via links to external maps and databases. This browser interface provides information about the archive, the history of surface effects mapping at the Nevada Test Site, the methods used to produce the digital surface effects maps, and links to published reports, data tables, and maps. Location maps show testing areas, operational areas, and detonation sites. Demonstration maps illustrate the methods used to produce the digital surface effects maps and exhibit some of the characteristics and uses for these data. Use the links below to view and print individual surface effects maps, retrieve information about the detonations and types of surface effects produced, and to learn about the organization and intended use of the map data contained in the archive.

  13. Effects of First Occasion Test Experience on Longitudinal Cognitive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of additional test experience on longitudinal change in 5 cognitive abilities was examined in a sample of healthy adults ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Participants receiving experience with parallel versions of the cognitive tests on the first occasion had more positive cognitive change an average of 2.5 years later than participants…

  14. Teacher Effectiveness on High- and Low-Stakes Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Beveridge, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use data from the Houston Independent School District to estimate teacher effects on two different academic tests of the same subject areas, administered in the same school year to the same students at approximately the same time of year. The first is the statewide "high-stakes" test administered as part of the Texas accountability…

  15. Stereotype threat? Effects of inquiring about test takers' gender on conceptual test performance in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    It has been found that activation of a stereotype, for example by indicating one's gender before a test, typically alters performance in a way consistent with the stereotype, an effect called "stereotype threat." On a standardized conceptual physics assessment, we found that asking test takers to indicate their gender right before taking the test did not deteriorate performance compared to an equivalent group who did not provide gender information. Although a statistically significant gender gap was present on the standardized test whether or not students indicated their gender, no gender gap was observed on the multiple-choice final exam students took, which included both quantitative and conceptual questions on similar topics.

  16. Retention and Rewards: Promoting Career Advancement for Effective Leaders. [Federal Policy Platform Series. Brief 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Principals are the leverage point for education reforms and the primary drivers of school improvement. A critical part of maintaining a corps of effective principals is rewarding and retaining the best school leaders. Unfortunately, few systems systematically identify principals that make important contributions to student learning or celebrate…

  17. Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Practices for English Language Learners. Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersh C.; Tellez, Kip

    This study synthesized research from 1990 to the present on effective teaching for English Language Learners (ELLs), focusing on instructional strategies and methods found to have the most educational benefit and value to the greatest number of ELLs. A total of nearly 100 potentially applicable articles were retrieved, and 34 were included in the…

  18. Analyzing Group Level Effects with Clustered Data Using Taylor Series Linearization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    Clustered data (e.g., students within schools) are often analyzed in educational research where data are naturally nested. As a consequence, multilevel modeling (MLM) has commonly been used to study the contextual or group-level (e.g., school) effects on individual outcomes. The current study investigates the use of an alternative procedure to…

  19. Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components. ERIC/CASS Counseling Digest Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, L. DiAnne, Ed.

    This document contains a collection of ERIC Digests on supervision, a topic of critical professional importance for counselors. Following an introductory article by the guest editor, L. DiAnne Borders, "Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components," 19 digests address a different facet of supervision. The 19 digests are: (1) "Models of Clinical…

  20. The Effect of Financial Aid Policies on Admission and Enrollment. Admission Practices Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scannell, James J.

    This study looks at the evolution of the financial aid process as a function of higher education administration and its impact on the recruitment and retention of college students. It illustrates the effects on enrollment of differing financial aid strategies and recommends possible directions for meeting the challenges of the 21st century.…

  1. Student Outcomes Assessment Plan. Pima County Community College District Institutional Effectiveness Series: 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pima County Community Coll. District, AZ.

    The Student Outcomes Assessment Program (SOAP) at Pima Community College (PCC) in Arizona has six major components: (1) the use of success indicators to assess the college's success in achieving its mission; (2) a classroom assessment mini-grant program designed to support faculty research with a direct effect on learning; (3) the use of general…

  2. Effective Performance Appraisals for Quality Student Service. Staff Training and Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Robert B.

    This manual, in workbook format, introduces the principles of how to conduct an effective employee performance appraisal in the higher education setting. It uses several case studies to illustrate these principles. It is designed to be used for individual study or group workshops and seminars. The topics discussed include establishing a positive…

  3. Toward Effective Public School Programs for Deaf Students: Context, Process, and Outcomes. Special Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluwin, Thomas N., Ed.; And Others

    This book's aim is to define and clarify the issues involved in the education of deaf and hard of hearing children in local public schools, to bring to light the accumulating research in this area, and to recommend actions for organizing effective educational programs. The book offers a perspective on the current confusion in the field of deaf…

  4. The Effects of Instruction on College Nonmajors' Conceptions of Respiration and Photosynthesis. Research Series No. 164.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charles W.; And Others

    The processes of photosynthesis and respiration are basic to the understanding of many other aspects and functions of biological systems. Because of their curricular significance, these processes served as the focal point in an investigation of student conceptions and instructional effectiveness. In this study, students in a college nonscience…

  5. Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

    Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

  6. Effecting Curriculum Change: Experiences with the Conceptual Skills Project. Research in Education Series/4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Ellen M.; Leithwood, Kenneth A.

    This book describes and analyzes a plan that effected the relatively successful implementation of a packaged curriculum program in a large number of school classrooms. The Conceptual Skills Program (CSP) was oriented toward detailed prespecified objectives that allow assessment before instruction of relevant student competencies, structured…

  7. Effective Early Learning: Case Studies in Improvement. 0 to Eight Years Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascal, Christine; Bertram, Tony

    This book presents nine case studies describing the experiences of practitioners involved in the first, developmental phase of the Effective Early Learning Research Project, providing a topical discussion of criteria and methodologies for evaluating and improving the quality of learning in a variety of early years settings in the United Kingdom.…

  8. Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

    Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

  9. The Greenhouse Effect: A Selected Bibliography. Bibliography Series Twenty-two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    The purpose of this bibliography is to provide listings of articles, books, and documents which are available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library, California Polytechnic State University, and other libraries on the problem of the greenhouse effect published since 1980. Listings are organized as: (1) "Subject Headings"; (2) "Carbon Dioxide…

  10. The Greenhouse Effect: A Selected Bibliography. Bibliography Series Twenty-two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    The purpose of this bibliography is to provide listings of articles, books, and documents which are available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library, California Polytechnic State University, and other libraries on the problem of the greenhouse effect published since 1980. Listings are organized as: (1) "Subject Headings"; (2) "Carbon Dioxide…

  11. Are Hofmeister Series Relevant to Modern Ion-Specific Effects Research?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the quantification of ion-specific effects has been performed with experimental designs unsuited for this purpose. Designs built using salt-based factors rather than ion-based components are potentially confounded and are predicated upon a number of unsupported and untested assumptio...

  12. Effects of temperature on mortality in Hong Kong: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C

    2015-07-01

    Although interest in assessing the impacts of hot temperature and mortality in Hong Kong has increased, less evidence on the effect of cold temperature on mortality is available. We examined both the effects of heat and cold temperatures on daily mortality in Hong Kong for the last decade (2002-2011). A quasi-Poisson model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of temperatures on cause-specific and age-specific mortality. Non-linear effects of temperature on mortality were identified. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with cold temperature (11.1 °C, 1st percentile of temperature) relative to 19.4 °C (25th percentile of temperature) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29) for lags 0-13. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with high temperature (31.5 °C, 99th percentile of temperature) relative to 27.8 °C (75th percentile of temperature) was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.17) for lags 0-3. In Hong Kong, extreme cold and hot temperatures increased the risk of mortality. The effect of cold lasted longer and greater than that of heat. People older than 75 years were the most vulnerable group to cold temperature, while people aged 65-74 were the most vulnerable group to hot temperature. Our findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies for extreme cold and hot temperatures. PMID:25179530

  13. Effects of temperature on mortality in Hong Kong: a time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P. C.

    2015-07-01

    Although interest in assessing the impacts of hot temperature and mortality in Hong Kong has increased, less evidence on the effect of cold temperature on mortality is available. We examined both the effects of heat and cold temperatures on daily mortality in Hong Kong for the last decade (2002-2011). A quasi-Poisson model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of temperatures on cause-specific and age-specific mortality. Non-linear effects of temperature on mortality were identified. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with cold temperature (11.1 °C, 1st percentile of temperature) relative to 19.4 °C (25th percentile of temperature) was 1.17 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29) for lags 0-13. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with high temperature (31.5 °C, 99th percentile of temperature) relative to 27.8 °C (75th percentile of temperature) was 1.09 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.17) for lags 0-3. In Hong Kong, extreme cold and hot temperatures increased the risk of mortality. The effect of cold lasted longer and greater than that of heat. People older than 75 years were the most vulnerable group to cold temperature, while people aged 65-74 were the most vulnerable group to hot temperature. Our findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies for extreme cold and hot temperatures.

  14. A study of the effect of nonrandom sampling on the estimation of exposure variability using exposure-time series from the OSHA IMIS health inspection database

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.T.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nonrandom sampling over time may have on the estimation of variability, namely the geometric standard deviation, using time series of personal exposure data.

  15. Evaluating the effects of test methods and fluids compositions on the performance of corrosion inhibitors electrochemically

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.J.

    1999-11-01

    In an attempt to answer the question ``can carbon steel be adequately protected from corrosion by use of corrosion inhibitors due to the high CO{sub 2} concentration``, the authors initiated a project to identify the best commercial corrosion inhibitor by conducting a series of performance evaluation tests. They solicited the inhibitors from various chemical suppliers and evaluated their performance using various test methods in test fluid compositions simulating field conditions. Inhibitor performance was evaluated using electrochemical techniques including EIS and DC in the Rotating Cylinder Electrode (RCE) system and the conventional weight loss methods. Various tests were conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of velocity, chemical partition, and dispersibility on inhibitor performance in various test fluids. Physical characteristics testing including emulsion tendency and brine dispersibility were also conducted. Results show that some commercial corrosion inhibitors can be used to protect carbon steel in high CO{sub 2} concentration. There are significant performance differences among commercial products in various test methods and fluid compositions. Results show the importance of multiple performance evaluations when selecting corrosion inhibitors for particular field applications. An inhibitor that out performs others under various testing conditions would have a much greater chance to protect against corrosion in the field.

  16. Two levels ARIMAX and regression models for forecasting time series data with calendar variation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartono, Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Prastyo, Dedy Dwi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a calendar variation model for forecasting retail sales data with the Eid ul-Fitr effect. The proposed model is based on two methods, namely two levels ARIMAX and regression methods. Two levels ARIMAX and regression models are built by using ARIMAX for the first level and regression for the second level. Monthly men's jeans and women's trousers sales in a retail company for the period January 2002 to September 2009 are used as case study. In general, two levels of calendar variation model yields two models, namely the first model to reconstruct the sales pattern that already occurred, and the second model to forecast the effect of increasing sales due to Eid ul-Fitr that affected sales at the same and the previous months. The results show that the proposed two level calendar variation model based on ARIMAX and regression methods yields better forecast compared to the seasonal ARIMA model and Neural Networks.

  17. Correlation and relaxation effects near threshold in photoabsorption of the Ar isoelectronic series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jobin; Pradhan, Gagan B.; Radojevic', Vojislav; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Manson, Steven T.

    2010-03-01

    The photoabsorption cross sections of the the 3s subshell of isoelectronic Cl^-, Ar and K^+ have been calculated at various levels of approximation to understand how correlation and relaxation effects behave with increasing nuclear charge using the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) [1] and its modification, the RRPA-with- Relaxation (RRPA-R) [2]. To study the correlation in the form of interchannel coupling, RRPA was employed with and without coupling between the 3d and 3p photoabsorption channels. Interchannel coupling is found to dominate the 3s cross section for Cl^-, and become less and less important with increasing Z as discovered earlier for the Ne sequence [3]. Core-relaxation effects, of great importance for Cl^-, diminish with increasing Z. Thus, both interchannel coupling and core-relaxation must be included for even qualitative accuracy for negative ions, but these effects diminish with increasing Z. [1]. W. R. Johnson, C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 20 964 (1979). [2]. V. Radojevic', M. Kutzner and H. P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 40, 727 (1989). [3]. H. S. Chakraborthy, P. C. Deshmukh and S. T. Manson, Ap. J. 595, 1312 (2003)

  18. OHMSETT (Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank) test series 77: Global Oil Recovery Skimmer, Veegarm Skimming Arm, Kebab 600, Wylie Skimmer and the Skim-Pak Cluster. Final report Jan 80-Jun 81

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, M.

    1984-03-01

    This report covers the performance testing of five oil spill recovery devices at the Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank in Leonardo, New Jersey. The GOR Skimmer was tow tested in harbor chops, regular waves, and calm water at tow speeds through 2 knots to determine the effectiveness of modifications made to the device since it was last tested. The performance was consistently lower after the modifications in all conditions. The Hydrovac Veegarm was the most exhaustively tested skimmer in this program.

  19. Testing effects in mixed- versus pure-list designs.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Sensenig, Amanda E; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of list composition in the testing effect. Across three experiments, participants learned items through study and initial testing or study and restudy. List composition was manipulated, such that tested and restudied items appeared either intermixed in the same lists (mixed lists) or in separate lists (pure lists). In Experiment 1, half of the participants received mixed lists and half received pure lists. In Experiment 2, all participants were given both mixed and pure lists. Experiment 3 followed Erlebacher's (Psychological Bulletin, 84, 212-219, 1977) method, such that mixed lists, pure tested lists, and pure restudied lists were given to independent groups. Across all three experiments, the final recall results revealed significant testing effects for both mixed and pure lists, with no reliable difference in the magnitude of the testing advantage across list designs. This finding suggests that the testing effect is not subject to a key boundary condition-list design-that impacts other memory phenomena, including the generation effect. PMID:24619791

  20. Effects of extracochlear gacyclidine perfusion on tinnitus in humans: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Gentiana Ioana; Warnecke, Athanasia; Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Gacyclidine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, is a phencyclidine derivative with neuroprotective properties. It has been previously safely administered intravenously to acute traumatic brain-injured patients. Experiments in guinea pigs have shown that local administration of gacyclidine to the cochlea can suppress salicylate-induced tinnitus. Thus, we thought that patients with therapy-resistant sensorineural tinnitus might benefit from a local therapy with gacyclidine. As a compassionate treatment, we administered aqueous gacyclidine solution via a Durect RWmuCath(TM) into the round window niche in six patients with unilateral deafness associated with tinnitus. The response of each patient to the drug treatment was given a numerical value by the use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) on a scale of 0-10 for tinnitus intensity, where 0 represented no tinnitus and 10 represented unbearable tinnitus-intensity or -annoyance (subjective). After constant perfusion of gacyclidine for 40-63 h, four out of six patients experienced a temporary relief from their tinnitus. No serious side effects were recorded in any of the cases. Gacyclidine might present a potent drug for the suppression of sensorineural tinnitus in humans and therefore should be considered for future double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trials. For lasting effective treatment, controlled intracochlear and long-term delivery of the drug seems to be necessary. Further studies investigating the toxicological effects of gacyclidine intracochlear perfusion as well as different dosages and therapy durations are under way to ensure the safety of the drug for long-term human use and warrant clinical trials. PMID:19847455

  1. Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Josep; Gleichman, Amy J; Hughes, Ethan G; Rossi, Jeffrey E; Peng, Xiaoyu; Lai, Meizan; Dessain, Scott K; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lynch, David R

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1–NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified. We aimed to analyse the clinical and immunological features of patients with the disorder and examine the effects of antibodies against NMDA receptors in neuronal cultures. Methods We describe the clinical characteristics of 100 patients with encephalitis and NR1–NR2 antibodies. HEK293 cells ectopically expressing single or assembled NR1–NR2 subunits were used to determine the epitope targeted by the antibodies. Antibody titres were measured with ELISA. The effect of antibodies on neuronal cultures was determined by quantitative analysis of NMDA-receptor clusters. Findings Median age of patients was 23 years (range 5–76 years); 91 were women. All patients presented with psychiatric symptoms or memory problems; 76 had seizures, 88 unresponsiveness (decreased conciousness), 86 dyskinesias, 69 autonomic instability, and 66 hypoventilation. 58 (59%) of 98 patients for whom results of oncological assessments were available had tumours, most commonly ovarian teratoma. Patients who received early tumour treatment (usually with immunotherapy) had better outcome (p=0.004) and fewer neurological relapses (p=0.009) than the rest of the patients. 75 patients recovered or had mild deficits and 25 had severe deficits or died. Improvement was associated with a decrease of serum antibody titres. The main epitope targeted by the antibodies is in the extracellular N-terminal domain of the NR1 subunit. Patients’ antibodies decreased the numbers of cell-surface NMDA receptors and NMDA-receptor clusters in postsynaptic dendrites, an effect that could be reversed by antibody removal. Interpretation A well-defined set of clinical characteristics are associated with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. The pathogenesis of the disorder seems to be mediated by antibodies. PMID:18851928

  2. Solvation effects in complex-forming reactions. IV. Complexes of a series of donors with tetracyanoethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Safin, D.Kh.; Chmutova, G.A.

    1987-09-20

    The enthalpies of formation were measured and the positions of the charge-transfer bands in the electronic spectra were determined for the complexes of dipropyl sulfide, thioanisole, and mesitylene with tetracyanoethylene in a wide range of solvents. The relative enthalpies of solvation (interaction) of the complexes in the ground and excited states were determined with due regard to the enthalpies of solution of the reagents and the solvatochromism of the charge-transfer bands. The general relationships were investigated, and features of the effect of solvents on the complexes with iodine and tetracyanoethylene as acceptors were studied in terms of the thermodynamic approach.

  3. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite program (CRRES): A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    CRRES is a program to study the space environment which surrounds Earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The satellite will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with suborbital rocket probes. These chemical releases will paint the magnetic and electric fields in Earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments.

  4. Statin-Associated Muscle-Related Adverse Effects: A Case Series of 354 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cham, Stephanie; Evans, Marcella A.; Denenberg, Julie O.; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective To characterize the properties and natural history of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin)-associated muscle-related adverse effects (MAEs). Design Patient-targeted postmarketing adverse-effect surveillance approach coupling survey design with an open-ended narrative. Setting University-affiliated health care system. Subjects Three hundred fifty-four patients (age range 34–86 yrs) who self-reported muscle-related problems associated with statin therapy. Measurements and Main Results Patients with perceived statin-associated MAEs completed a survey assessing statin drugs and dosages; characteristics of the MAEs; time course of onset, resolution, or recurrence; and impact on quality of life (QOL). Cases were assessed for putative drug adverse-effect causality by using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale criteria and were evaluated for inclusion in groups for which mortality benefit with statins has been shown. Patients reported muscle pain (93%), fatigue (88%), and weakness (85%). Three hundred patients (85%) met literature criteria for probable or definite drug adverse-effect causality. Ninety-four percent of atorvastatin usages (240/255) generated MAEs versus 61% of lovastatin usages (38/62, p<0.0001). Higher potency statins reproduced MAEs in 100% of 39 rechallenges versus 73% (29/40) with lower potency rechallenges (p<0.01). Time course of onset after statin initiation varied (median 14 wks); some MAEs occurred after long-term symptom-free use. Recurrence with rechallenge had a significantly shorter latency to onset (median 2 wks). The MAEs adversely affected all assessed functional and QOL domains. Most patients with probable or definite MAEs were in categories for which available randomized controlled trial evidence shows no trend to all-cause mortality benefit with statin therapy. Conclusion This study complements available information on the properties and natural history of statin-associated MAEs, affirming dose dependence and strong QOL impact. The data indicating a dose-dependent relationship between MAE risk and recurrence suggest lower potency statins or discontinuation may bear consideration for ameliorating symptoms. PMID:20500044

  5. Clinical trials in dementia: learning effects with repeated testing.

    PubMed Central

    Claus, J J; Mohr, E; Chase, T N

    1991-01-01

    The possible confounding role of learning effects during multiple test administration in clinical trials in demented subjects remains uncertain. Seventeen mildly to severely affected patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 16 controls were evaluated with an extensive neuropsychological battery of manually administered and computerized tests. Subjects received 3 weekly sessions using alternate test forms, to mimic a baseline, placebo, and drug condition. Mean scores of AD patients as a group showed no stable improvement, but more subtle learning effects were suggested by an association of dementia severity and change scores in verbal and visual learning. Controls evidenced consistent learning in 3 of 9 tests. These results suggest that clinical trials data from AD patients, especially those with moderately severe impairment, are not contaminated by learning. Degree of cognitive impairment may be related to learning capacity, suggesting caution for learning effects in controls and possibly in patients with mild AD. PMID:2049365

  6. Effects of health information exchange adoption on ambulatory testing rates

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Stephen E; Radcliff, Tiffany A; LeBlanc, William G; Dickinson, L Miriam; Libby, Anne M; Nease, Donald E

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of the adoption of ambulatory electronic health information exchange (HIE) on rates of laboratory and radiology testing and allowable charges. Design Claims data from the dominant health plan in Mesa County, Colorado, from 1 April 2005 to 31 December 2010 were matched to HIE adoption data on the provider level. Using mixed effects regression models with the quarter as the unit of analysis, the effect of HIE adoption on testing rates and associated charges was assessed. Results Claims submitted by 306 providers in 69 practices for 34 818 patients were analyzed. The rate of testing per provider was expressed as tests per 1000 patients per quarter. For primary care providers, the rate of laboratory testing increased over the time span (baseline 1041 tests/1000 patients/quarter, increasing by 13.9 each quarter) and shifted downward with HIE adoption (downward shift of 83, p<0.01). A similar effect was found for specialist providers (baseline 718 tests/1000 patients/quarter, increasing by 19.1 each quarter, with HIE adoption associated with a downward shift of 119, p<0.01). Even so, imputed charges for laboratory tests did not shift downward significantly in either provider group, possibly due to the skewed nature of these data. For radiology testing, HIE adoption was not associated with significant changes in rates or imputed charges in either provider group. Conclusions Ambulatory HIE adoption is unlikely to produce significant direct savings through reductions in rates of testing. The economic benefits of HIE may reside instead in other downstream outcomes of better informed, higher quality care. PMID:23698257

  7. Effects of a Mask on Breathing Impairment During a Fencing Assault: A Case Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Passali, Desiderio; Cambi, Jacopo; Salerni, Lorenzo; Stortini, Giancarlo; Bellussi, Luisa Maria; Passali, Francesco Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fencers often complain of progressive difficulty in breathing during matches, which is generally attributed to restricted air, light and heat circulation from wearing a mask. Physiologically, the nasal structure generates airflow resistance that can reach -50% of the total respiratory resistance. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the presence of nasal obstruction in fencers and the relationship with the use of mask. Materials and Methods: An observational study on 40 fencers (18 males, 22 females) was conducted. Fencers perform a usual assault, wearing the mask and standardized physical exercises (running, sprints and obstacles) without the mask. ENT examination with a nasal flexible fiberscope, Anterior Active Rhinomanometry (AAR) and Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) measurement before and after physical activity with or without the mask was recorded. Results: Before physical exercise, the total nasal airway resistance mean value for AAR was 0.33 ± 0.17 Pa/cm3/s at 150 Pa. After a match with the mask, the mean value was 0.28 ± 0.16 Pa/cm3/s. After normal physical exercises without mask, the mean value was 0.24 ± 0.15 Pa/cm3/s. Using t tests, statistically significant difference between nasal resistance before and after physical activity (P < 0.05) was observed, but no significant difference in nasal resistance between the basal value and that taken after a match wearing the masks (P = 0.1265). PNIF values significantly increase with exercise (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study shows that wearing the mask causes increased breathing impairment in fencers, when compared with similar physical activity without the mask. PMID:26448845

  8. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients' demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  9. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients’ demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  10. Adalimumab - an effective and promising treatment for patients with fistulizing Crohn's disease: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology which may affect any part of the bowel. Fistulas are a common and often serious complication of Crohn's disease. The treatment for fistulizing Crohn's disease can be medical, surgical or a combination of the two. Recently, adalimumab, a fully human anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody, has been suggested as a safe and effective treatment for the induction and maintenance of remission in adult patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease, who are refractory to conventional therapy or intolerant to infliximab. However, large studies focusing on evaluating the efficacy of adalimumab in fistulizing Crohn's disease have not yet been published. Case presentation We report the cases of three patients, of European Caucasian ethnicity and Greek nationality, with active luminal and fistulizing Crohn's disease. All of the cases were treated successfully with adalimumab. Patient 1 (a 44-year-old man) and patient 2 (an 18-year-old woman) developed early post-surgical enterocutaneous fistulas, while patient 3 (a 20-year-old woman) had peri-anal fistulizing Crohn's disease. Adalimumab treatment (160 mg subcutaneously at week zero, 80 mg at week two, and 40 mg every other week) was used for three different indications: (1) after the failure of other conservative medical treatments for Crohn's disease (patient 1); (2) as a monotherapy in treating a naive patient (patient 2); (3) after an intolerance to infliximab (patient 3). A remission of the active luminal and fistulizing disease was achieved soon after the initiation of adalimumab and sustained thereafter with maintenance doses. No further surgical intervention was required and no adverse effects were observed in any of the cases. Conclusions Fistulizing Crohn's disease remains a challenge in clinical practice. Adalimumab seems to be an effective, well-tolerated and safe treatment option for the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with moderate to severe peri-anal fistulizing Crohn's disease. Furthermore, adalimumab seems to be a promising treatment option for patients with moderate to severe fistulizing Crohn's disease with enterocutaneous fistulas. However, this clinical observation needs to be investigated in further clinical trials. PMID:21418588

  11. Estimating and Testing Mediation Effects with Censored Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated influences of censored data on mediation analysis. Mediation effect estimates can be biased and inefficient with censoring on any one of the input, mediation, and output variables. A Bayesian Tobit approach was introduced to estimate and test mediation effects with censored data. Simulation results showed that the Bayesian…

  12. Random Effects Structure for Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing: Keep It Maximal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Dale J.; Levy, Roger; Scheepers, Christoph; Tily, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how random effects structures affect the generalizability of an analysis. Here, we argue that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the…

  13. ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING TEST REPORTS FOR EVALUATING VOC CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report outlines the approach taken by EPA to review existing test reports for evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) control device effectiveness and identifying missing control device effectiveness information. A format is presented to provide guidance and serve as the b...

  14. The Effect of Black Peers on Black Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armor, David J.; Duck, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have used increasingly complex methodologies to estimate the effect of peer characteristics--race, poverty, and ability--on student achievement. A paper by Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin using Texas state testing data has received particularly wide attention because it found a large negative effect of school percent black on black math…

  15. Random Effects Structure for Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing: Keep It Maximal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Dale J.; Levy, Roger; Scheepers, Christoph; Tily, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how random effects structures affect the generalizability of an analysis. Here, we argue that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the…

  16. The CLEAN Workshop Series: Promoting Effective Pedagogy for Teaching Undergraduate Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, K. B.; Bruckner, M. Z.; Manduca, C. A.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    To prepare students to understand a changing climate, it is imperative that we equip educators with the best possible tools and methods for reaching their audience. As part of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) professional development efforts, two workshops for undergraduate faculty were held in 2012. These workshops used a variety of activities to help faculty learn about recent climate research, take part in demonstrations of successful activities for teaching climate topics, and collaborate to create new teaching materials. The workshops also facilitated professional networking among participants. Both workshops were held online, eliminating the need for travel, encouraging participants without travel funds to attend, and allowing international collaborations and presentations. To create an authentic experience, the workshop used several technologies such as the Blackboard Collaborate web conferencing platform, SERC's web-based collaboration tools and online discussion threads, and conference calls. The workshop Communicating Climate Science in the Classroom, held in April 2012, explored practices for communicating climate science and policy in the classroom and provided strategies to improve student understanding of this complex and sensitive topic. Workshop presentations featured public opinion research on Americans' perceptions of climate change, tactics for identifying and resolving student misconceptions, and methods to address various "backfire effects" that can result from attempts to correct misinformation. Demonstrations of teaching approaches included a role-playing simulation of emissions negotiations, Princeton's climate stabilization wedges game, and an activity that allows students to use scientific principles to tackle misinformation. The workshop Teaching Climate Complexity was held in May 2012. Teaching the complexities of climate science requires an understanding of many facets of the Earth system and a robust pedagogic approach that fosters systems thinking. Workshop participants heard presentations from top climate scientists about topics such as the role of carbon dioxide in regulating Earth's climate, the silicate-weathering thermostat hypothesis, effects of water vapor in the climate system, and albedo effects from the loss of Artic sea ice. Demonstrations of classroom techniques allowed participants to use a jigsaw approach to understand poleward heat transport, plot atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and use a mass balance model to explore the role of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. A hallmark of the CLEAN workshops is that participants are actively engaged in team projects to create new teaching materials. In the Communicating Climate workshop, John Cook led a demonstration of techniques featured in his Debunking Handbook and workshop participants created examples of how to respond to common climate myths in the classroom. In the Climate Complexities workshop, participants used existing elements within the CLEAN reviewed collection to create a comprehensive sequence of activities that can be used to teach elements of Earth's climate system. Activities from the workshop are archived on the CLEAN website, including screen cast recordings of all the presentations and materials created at each workshop. For more information, visit the workshop website at the URL below.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 300 - Swirling Flask Dispersant Effectiveness Test, Revised Standard Dispersant Toxicity Test, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agents are provided in 40 CFR 300.5. 2.0Swirling Flask Dispersant Effectiveness Test 2.1Summary of Method... Chemicals) in 40 CFR part 300 (National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan). They are... Effectiveness Test, Revised Standard Dispersant Toxicity Test, and Bioremediation Agent Effectiveness Test...

  18. Effect of Scopolamine Butylbromide on Clozapine-induced Hypersalivation in Schizophrenic Patients: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ippei; Suzuki, Tatsuyo; Kishi, Taro; Kanamori, Daisuke; Hanya, Manako; Uno, Junji; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-30

    Clozapine has been demonstrated to be useful for treating refractory schizophrenia. However, hypersalivation occurs in 31.0- 97.4% of the patients treated with clozapine. Accordingly, some patients who are disturbed by their hypersalivation refuse to continue with clozapine treatment. This study investigated the efficacy of the anticholinergic agent scopolamine butylbromide against clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Five schizophrenia patients were coadministered scopolamine butylbromide (30-60 mg/ day) for 4 weeks. At the baseline and after 4 weeks' treatment, we subjectively evaluated hypersalivation using a visual analog scale and objectively assessed it using the Drooling Severity Scale and Drooling Frequency Scale. As a result, improvements in the patients' Drooling Severity Scale and Drooling Frequency Scale scores, but no improvements in their visual analog scale scores, were observed after scopolamine butylbromide treatment. These results indicate that at least some schizophrenic patients with clozapine-induced hypersalivation would benefit from scopolamine butylbromide treatment. We conclude that clozapine-induced hypersalivation is one factor of stress to patients. Subjective hypersalivation was not improved, but objective hypersalivation was, by scopolamine butylbromide treatment. However, scopolamine butylbromide and clozapine possess anticholinergic effects so clinicians should closely monitor patients who take scopolamine butylbromide. PMID:25912544

  19. Radiation thermometer size-of-source effect testing using aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Liebmann, F.; Kolat, T.

    2013-09-11

    Size-of-source effect is an important attribute of any radiation thermometer. The effects of this attribute may be quantified in a number of different ways to include field-of-view, distance ratio, or size-of-source effect. These parameters provide needed information for the user of a radiation thermometer, as they aid in determining whether the measured object is large enough for adequate radiation thermometry measurement. Just as important, these parameters provide needed information for calibration. This information helps to determine calibration geometry, and it is needed for calibration uncertainty determination. For determination of size-of-source effect, there are a limited number of test methods furnished by the standards available today. The test methods available may be cumbersome to perform due to the cost of the required equipment and the time needed to set-up and perform the test. Other methods have been proposed. This paper discusses one such method. This method uses a circular aperture such as that used in radiation thermometer calibration. It describes the method both theoretically and mechanically. It then discusses testing done to verify this method comparing the results to those obtained while performing steps in current standards. Finally, based on this testing, the basis for a new standard test method is presented.

  20. SINGLE EVENT EFFECTS TEST FACILITY AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Bernie; Gallmeier, Franz X; Dominik, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of microelectronics of ever diminishing feature size in avionics systems has led to a growing Single Event Effects (SEE) susceptibility arising from the highly ionizing interactions of cosmic rays and solar particles. Single event effects caused by atmospheric radiation have been recognized in recent years as a design issue for avionics equipment and systems. To ensure a system meets all its safety and reliability requirements, SEE induced upsets and potential system failures need to be considered, including testing of the components and systems in a neutron beam. Testing of ICs and systems for use in radiation environments requires the utilization of highly advanced laboratory facilities that can run evaluations on microcircuits for the effects of radiation. This paper provides a background of the atmospheric radiation phenomenon and the resulting single event effects, including single event upset (SEU) and latch up conditions. A study investigating requirements for future single event effect irradiation test facilities and developing options at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is summarized. The relatively new SNS with its 1.0 GeV proton beam, typical operation of 5000 h per year, expertise in spallation neutron sources, user program infrastructure, and decades of useful life ahead is well suited for hosting a world-class SEE test facility in North America. Emphasis was put on testing of large avionics systems while still providing tunable high flux irradiation conditions for component tests. Makers of ground-based systems would also be served well by these facilities. Three options are described; the most capable, flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station using about one kW of proton beam power on a gas-cooled tungsten target, with dual test enclosures. Less expensive options are also described.