Sample records for effects test series

  1. Irradiation effects test series test IE1 test results report. [PWR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Quapp; C. M. Allison; L. C. Farrar; A. S. Mehner

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the results of the first programmatic test in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Test Series. This test (IE-1) used four 0.97m long PWR-type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated Saxton fuel. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the effect of fuel pellet density on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and to evaluate the

  2. Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report. [PWR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Quapp; C. M. Allison; L. C. Farrar

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective

  3. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  4. Effective Strategies for Dealing with Test Anxiety. Teacher to Teacher Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lisa

    Test anxiety is exceedingly common among learners in adult basic education. Any one or more of the following can cause individuals to experience test anxiety: learned behavior resulting from the expectations of parents, teachers, or significant others; associations that students have built between grades or test performance and personal worth;…

  5. Infinite Series & Convergence Tests Chae A. Clark

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    Infinite Series & Convergence Tests Chae A. Clark clark.chae.umd@gmail.com M.S. Candidate Applied Geometric Series A series is geometric iff k=0 ak = k=0 crk where r = ak+1 ak = constant Also, the first term of a geometric series must be a constant. 1.1 Special Cases If a = 0, the series converges to 0

  6. Single-event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: Proton Testing for SEE and TNID Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Previous testing of the Enhanced Power Conversion (EPC) eGaN FETs showed sensitivity to destructive single-event effects (SEE) effects to heavy ions. The presence of tungsten plugs in the gate area raises concerns that the device may be vulnerable to SEE from protons. Irradiation of biased and unbiased devices with heavy ion has results in some damage suspected of being due to total non-ionizing dose (TNID). Proton irradiation is a better radiation type to study this effect. This study presents the results of testing device with protons for SEE and TNID. No SEE in the EPC2012 device, the most sensitive device to SEE, were seen with 53 MeV protons at several angles. The devices continued to function after 1.5 Mrad (Si) of proton dose with only a slight shift in parameters. These results suggest that gross TNID will not be a factor in using these devices nor suffer from SEE due to protons. However, the device should be tested at with 500 MeV protons to guarantee to immunity proton SEE.

  7. CIGARETTE IGNITION PROPENSITY TESTING - Third Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Z. Su; Patrice Leroux

    In the previous testing series, More Menthol, Merit Ultra Light and Merit Ultima cigarettes had been found to have a lower ignition propensity relative to other cigarette brands tested. The third testing series was conducted to further determine the ignition propensity of the More and the Merit cigarettes as well as selected tobacco sticks (for a total of 7 brands

  8. The effect of cell design and test criteria on the series/parallel performance of nickel cadmium cells and batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpert, G.; Webb, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Three batteries were operated in parallel from a common bus during charge and discharge. SMM utilized NASA Standard 20AH cells and batteries, and LANDSAT-D NASA 50AH cells and batteries of a similar design. Each battery consisted of 22 series connected cells providing the nominal 28V bus. The three batteries were charged in parallel using the voltage limit/current taper mode wherein the voltage limit was temperature compensated. Discharge occurred on the demand of the spacecraft instruments and electronics. Both flights were planned for three to five year missions. The series/parallel configuration of cells and batteries for the 3-5 yr mission required a well controlled product with built-in reliability and uniformity. Examples of how component, cell and battery selection methods affect the uniformity of the series/parallel operation of the batteries both in testing and in flight are given.

  9. Static Load Tests, Short Series Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Zygmunt

    2015-02-01

    Statistic load test is the most commonly used method for estimation of the bearing capacity of piles. From the test we obtain the series a values: load-settlement, Q-s curve. In practice, it is extremely difficult to reach the critical load of the pile when the settlement turns out of control. The existing methods that allow bearing capacity to be calculated give the value which is very often 1/10 of the critical load. The question arises if it is possible based upon short series of load, i.e., 0-0.4 critical load, to predict the critical value of the load, with accuracy which is sufficient for practical calculation. The paper presents a method how to calculate the critical load based upon short series of load in the static load tests.

  10. The NASA B-757 HIRF Test Series: Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of aircraft tests aimed at characterizing the electromagnetic environment (EME) in and around a Boeing 757 airliner. Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into the aircraft and the signals induced on select structures as the aircraft was flown past known RF transmitters. These measurements were conducted to provide data for the validation of computational techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transport aircraft. This paper reports on the results of flight tests using RF radiators in the HF, VHF, and UHF ranges and on efforts to use computational and analytical techniques to predict RF field levels inside the airliner at these frequencies.

  11. ENGI 3424 Series Page 5-x1 Summary of Tests for Series Convergence

    E-print Network

    George, Glyn

    ENGI 3424 Series Page 5-x1 Summary of Tests for Series Convergence (also in the suggestions for formula sheets) Divergence Test: 1 lim 0n nn n a a diverges Geometric series: 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 a telescoping series or the geometric series. p-series: 1 1 p n n converges [absolutely] iff p > 1; diverges

  12. Specification Tests for Nonlinear Time Series Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor L. Kheifets

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new parametric model adequacy test for possibly nonlinear and nonstationary time series models (possibly with covariates) such as generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) and autoregressive conditional duration (ACD). We consider the correct specification of parametric conditional distributions, not only some partic- ular conditional characteristics such as moments or symmetry. Knowing the true distribution is important in

  13. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A SERIES CYCLONE TEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are commonly used in the processing industry as primary particulate emissions abatement devices. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of one, two, three, or four 1D3D cyclones, in series, on airstreams heavily loaded (236 g/m3) with fine particulate (mass median diameter <10...

  14. The effect of cell design and test criteria on the series\\/parallel performance of nickel cadmium cells and batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Halpert; D. A. Webb

    1983-01-01

    Three batteries were operated in parallel from a common bus during charge and discharge. SMM utilized NASA Standard 20AH cells and batteries, and LANDSAT-D NASA 50AH cells and batteries of a similar design. Each battery consisted of 22 series connected cells providing the nominal 28V bus. The three batteries were charged in parallel using the voltage limit\\/current taper mode wherein

  15. Testing parameter of the power series distribution of a zero inflated power series model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Patil; D. T. Shirke

    2007-01-01

    The Zero Inflated Power Series Distribution (ZIPSD) contains two parameters. The first parameter indicates inflation of zero and the other parameter is that of the Power Series distribution. We provide three asymptotic tests for testing the parameter of Power Series distribution, using an unconditional (standard) likelihood approach, a conditional likelihood approach and a test based on sample mean, respectively. The

  16. Fluid flow measurements of Test Series A and B for the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.

    1987-12-01

    The degree of waste isolation achieved by a repository seal system is dependent upon the fluid flow characteristics, or permeability, of the seals. In order to obtain meaningful, site-specific data on the performance of various possible seal system components, a series of in situ experiments called the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT) are being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report contains the results of gas flow, tracer penetration, and brine flow tests conducted on concrete seals in vertical (Test Series A) and horizontal (Test Series B) configurations. The test objectives were to evaluate the seal performance and to determine if there existed scaling effects which could influence future SSSPT designs. 3 refs., 77 figs.

  17. 77 FR 38282 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...EPA-HQ-OPPT-2009-0154; FRL-9333-1] Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability...is announcing the availability of the final test guidelines for Series 850--Ecological Effects Test Guidelines, consisting of Groups B, C,...

  18. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  19. Computer Symbolic Algebra Applied to Convergence Testing of Infinite Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Explains how a microcomputer-based algebra software system, muMATH, can be used to help students understand the theory of convergence of infinite series. Examples are given to illustrate nth term test, ratio test, comparison test, integral test, and Raabe's test. (10 references) (LRW)

  20. PHARMACOLOGY RESEARCH, SAFETY TESTING AND REGULATION SERIES ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    E-print Network

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    #12;#12;PHARMACOLOGY ­ RESEARCH, SAFETY TESTING AND REGULATION SERIES ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE: CAUSES Substances S. B. Zotov and O. I. Tuzhikov ISBN: 978-1-60741-973-0 Antibiotic Resistance: Causes and Risk-1-60741-623-4 #12;PHARMACOLOGY ­ RESEARCH, SAFETY TESTING AND REGULATION SERIES ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE: CAUSES

  1. Significance Tests in Parallel and in Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Good

    1958-01-01

    The advice is often given that significance tests should be selected before sampling evidence is examined. It is suggested here that this advice is appropriate only for inexperienced statisticians, and an approximate rule of thumb is tentatively proposed in the hope of provoking discussion, namely that the statistician could in some cases use a harmonic mean or weighted harmonic mean

  2. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA; Meares, Andrew [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  3. Mighty Eagle 'Rocks' Flight Testing Series - Duration: 2:00.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, recently completed a series of test objectives â?? even going as high as 100 feet for several free flights. The vehicle is a three-legged protot...

  4. Ecotoxicological test systems proceedings of a series of workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, A.S. (ed.)

    1981-06-01

    A series of six workshops was conducted by the Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to identify laboratory methods and data evaluation techniques for predicting the environmental effects of chemical substances. Methods were evaluated for their potential for standardization and for use in the ecological hazard and risk assessment processes under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The workshops addressed assessment and policy requirements of multispecies toxicology test procedures, mathematical models useful in hazard and risk assessments, and methods for measuring effects of chemicals on terrestrial and aquatic population interactions and ecosystem properties. The workshops were primarily used as a mechanism to gather information about research in progress. This information was part of the data base used to prepare a critical review of laboratory methods for ecological toxicology.

  5. Uniaxial compression test series on Bullfrog Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R H; Jones, A K; Nimick, K G

    1982-04-01

    Nineteen uniaxial compressive experiments were performed on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, obtained from drillhole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated samples were deformed at a nominal strain rate of 10{sup -5} sec{sup -1}, atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young`s moduli and Poisson`s ratios ranged from 4.63 to 153. MPa, .0028 to .0058, 2.03 to 28.9 GPa and .08 to .16, respectively.

  6. Running and testing of Josephson voltage standard series arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmann, P.; Funck, T.; Grimm, L. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    It was found that the yield of the Josephson tunnel junction series arrays produced is limited by the test systems at present commonly in use to test and work them as voltage standards. We present a new voltage biasing system. It allows a junction-by-junction inspection of the array under test between zero and 10 volts with an excellent current resolution of 10{sup -7} A and an excellent voltage resolution of 10{sup -6}V.

  7. CH 11: Infinite Sequences and Series 11.3 The Integral Test and Estimates of Sums (and p-series)

    E-print Network

    Gera, Ralucca

    CH 11: Infinite Sequences and Series 11.3 The Integral Test and Estimates of Sums (and p-series) 1. the integral test helps to decide if a series is convergent, but it doesn't give the sum of the series f(x) dx convergent = i=1 an convergent · 1 f(x) dx divergent = i=1 an divergent 2. p-series

  8. Testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures in a controlled environment: The SERI CMFERT (Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Training) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Franconi, E.

    1990-03-01

    For several years the Solar Energy Research Institute has been testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures, with the support of the US DOE Office of State and Local Assistance Programs Weatherization Assistance Program, the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems, the seven states within the federal Weatherization Region 7, the Colorado Division of Housing, and the DOE Denver Support Office. During the winter of 1988--89, several weatherization measures were thermally tested on three mobile homes under controlled conditions inside a large environmental enclosure. The effects of each weatherization measure on conduction losses, infiltration losses, and combined furnace and duct-delivered heat efficiency were monitored. The retrofit options included air sealing, duct repair, furnace tune-up, interior storm panels, floor insulation, and roof insulation. The study demonstrated that cost-effective heating energy savings of about 20% to 50% are possible if weatherization techniques adapted to the special construction details in mobile homes are applied. 24 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Iranian rainfall series analysis by means of nonparametric tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaee, P. Hosseinzadeh

    2014-05-01

    The study of the trends and fluctuations in rainfall has received a great deal of attention, since changes in rainfall patterns may lead to floods or droughts. The objective of this study was to analyze the annual, seasonal, and monthly rainfall time series at seven rain gauge stations in the west of Iran for a 40-year period (from October 1969 to September 2009). The homogeneity of the rainfall data sets at the rain gauge stations was checked by using the cumulative deviations test. Three nonparametric tests, namely Kendall, Spearman, and Mann-Kendall, at the 95 % confidence level were used for the trend analysis and the Theil-Sen estimator was applied for determining the magnitudes of the trends. According to the homogeneity analysis, all of the rainfall series except the September series at Vasaj station were found to be homogeneous. The obtained results showed an insignificant trend in the annual and seasonal rainfall series at the majority of the considered stations. Moreover, only three significant trends were observed at the February rainfall of Aghajanbolaghi station, the November series of Vasaj station, and the March rainfall series of Khomigan station. The findings of this study on the temporal trends of rainfall can be implemented to improve the water resources strategies in the study region.

  10. Adaptive split test for multivariate time series classification trees Adaptive split test for multivariate time series

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .e., parametrized) time series metric to cover both behav- ior and values proximities. The metric's parameters may are then applied on the fitted basis coefficients (e.g., Garcia-Escudero & Gordaliza (2005), Serban & Wasserman (2005)). A sec- ond class of works proposes new heuristics starting generally with the time hal-00741944

  11. Testing for Unit Roots in Seasonal Time Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Dickey; D. P. Hasza; W. A. Fuller

    1984-01-01

    Regression estimators of coefficients in seasonal autoregressive models are described. The percentiles of the distributions for time series that have unit roots at the seasonal lag are computed by Monte Carlo integration for finite samples and by analytic techniques and Monte Carlo integration for the limit case. The tabled distributions may be used to test the hypothesis that a time

  12. Testing time symmetry in time series using data compression dictionaries.

    PubMed

    Kennel, Matthew B

    2004-05-01

    Time symmetry, often called statistical time reversibility, in a dynamical process means that any segment of time-series output has the same probability of occurrence in the process as its time reversal. A technique, based on symbolic dynamics, is proposed to distinguish such symmetrical processes from asymmetrical ones, given a time-series observation of the otherwise unknown process. Because linear stochastic Gaussian processes, and static nonlinear transformations of them, are statistically reversible, but nonlinear dynamics such as dissipative chaos are usually statistically irreversible, a test will separate large classes of hypotheses for the data. A general-purpose and robust statistical test procedure requires adapting to arbitrary dynamics which may have significant time correlation of undetermined form. Given a symbolization of the observed time series, the technology behind adaptive dictionary data compression algorithms offers a suitable estimate of reversibility, as well as a statistical likelihood test. The data compression methods create approximately independent segments permitting a simple and direct null test without resampling or surrogate data. We demonstrate the results on various time-series-reversible and irreversible systems. PMID:15244905

  13. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Ten. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 2.] Tests M14-M26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 14 through 26 include: (14) calculating an average; (15) identifying parts of the scientific method; (16) reading a geological map; (17) identifying elements, mixtures and compounds; (18) using Ohm's law in calculation; (19) interpreting…

  14. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eleven. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 3.] Tests M27-M38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 27 through 38 include: (27) reading a grid plan; (28) identifying common invertebrates; (29) characteristics of invertebrates; (30) identifying elements; (31) using scientific notation part I; (32) classifying minerals; (33) predicting the…

  15. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Thirteen. Mastery Testing Program. [Mastery Tests Series 5.] Tests M51-M65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 51 through 65 include: (51) interpreting atomic and mass numbers; (52) extrapolating from a geological map; (53) matching geological sections and maps; (54) identifying parts of the human eye; (55) identifying the functions of parts of a…

  16. Mark III Confirmatory Test Program: 1\\/root 3 scale condensation and stratification phenomena, Test Series 5807

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Varzaly; W. A. Grafton; H. Chang; M. K. Mitchell

    1977-01-01

    A series of steam and liquid blowdown tests was performed to evaluate condensation phenomenon and suppression pool thermal stratification for the Mark III Pressure Suppression Containment System. The tests were conducted at the General Electric Pressure Suppression Test Facility in San Jose, California. The volumetric scale factor of the facility was 1:130, based on the BWR\\/6-251 series Mark III containment

  17. The NASA B-757 HIRF test series: Low power on-the-ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, A.J.; Zacharias, R.A.; Pennock, S.T.; Avalle, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Carney, H. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical and experimental for the assessment of electromagnetic effects i n transports, for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs, and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. A series of fly-by experiments were conducted in early 1995 in which the NASA B-757 was flown in the vicinity of a Voice of America station ({approximately}25 MHz), a fixed transmitter driving an LP array (172 MHz), and an ASRF radar at Wallops Island (430 MHz). In this paper, the overall test program is defined with particular attention to the on-the-ground portion. It is described in detail with presentation of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation will also be presented.

  18. Approaches to Language Testing. Advances in Language Testing Series: 2. Papers in Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This volume, one in a series on modern language testing, collects four essays dealing with current approaches to lanquage testing. The introduction traces the development of language testing theory and examines the role of linguistics in this area. "The Psycholinguistic Basis," by E. Ingram, discusses some interpretations of the term…

  19. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-03-14

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

  20. FIELD DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's OHMSETT facility has developed a rapid field test that includes some of the theoretical aspects and conditions of dispersion at sea. This Field Dispersant Effectiveness Test (FDET) has been used to evaluate the dispersibility of various commonly-transported oils and mak...

  1. test collection retrieval effectiveness

    E-print Network

    Lalmas, Mounia

    and provide means, in the form of a large XML test collection and appropriate scoring methodsINEX evaluation test collection retrieval effectiveness The INEX Evaluation Initiative Gabriella increases, so is the need to assess their benefit to users. The benefit to a given user depends largely

  2. Progress report on LLTR Series II Test A-2 (Part 1). [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Freede, W.J.; Neely, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains a complete set of valid and final digital and analog data plots for LLTR Series II, Test A-2. Included is an Accuracy Statement regarding this data as required by Revision 0 of the GE Test Request, Specification No. 23A2062. The Series II, Sodium-Water Reaction Test A-2 was performed in the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). This was the third of three planned double-edged guillotine (DEG) rupture tests of a single tube which will be followed by a number of small leak tests. The test article is the LLTI which is a full-size diameter internals, shortened in length and prototypic of the CRBR steam generator. It is installed in the Large Leak Test Vessel (LLTV). The overall test program was formulated by General Electric (GE) as Test Requester to establish steam generator design and to verify analytical models/codes to estimate the effect of large leak accidents in an LMFBR demonstration plant steam generator and system.

  3. Illustration of the WPS benefit through BATMAN test series: Tests on large specimens under WPS loading configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yuritzinn; L. Ferry; S. Chapuliot; P. Mongabure; D. Moinereau; A. Dahl; P. Gilles

    2008-01-01

    To study the effects of warm pre-stressing on the toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel, the “Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique”, in collaboration with “Electricité De France” and AREVA-NP, has made a study combining modeling and a series of experiments on large specimens submitted to a thermal shock or isothermal cooling. The tests were made on 18MND5 ferritic steel bars, containing

  4. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2004-04-26

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focuses on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report presents results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. This report was originally published in March 2001. In January 2004, a transcription error was discovered in the value reported for the uranium metal content of KE North Loadout Pit sample FE-3. This revision of the report corrects the U metal content of FE-3 from 0.0013 wt% to 0.013 wt%.

  5. A test for second order stationarity of a time series based on the Discrete Fourier Transform

    E-print Network

    Subba Rao, Suhasini

    A test for second order stationarity of a time series based on the Discrete Fourier Transform property, we construct a Portmanteau type test statistic for testing stationarity of the time series. It is shown that under the null of stationarity, the test statistic is approximately a chi square distribution

  6. 10.3 p-series and the ratio test Let p be a positive number. An infinite series of the form

    E-print Network

    Thomases, Becca

    10.3 p-series and the ratio test Let p be a positive number. An infinite series of the form n=1 1 np = 1 1p + 1 2p + 1 3p + ... is called a p-series. If p = 1, the series is called the harmonic series n=1 1 n = 1 + 1 2 + 1 3 + 1 4 + ... #12;Classifying p-series: n=1 1 n3 is a p-series with p = 3

  7. Multiple Regression Model Based Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Structural Change Detection of Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Katsunori; Hattori, Tetsuo; Kawano, Hiromichi

    In real time analysis and forecasting of time series data, it is important to detect the structural change as immediately, correctly, and simply as possible. And it is necessary for rebuilding the next prediction model after the change point as soon as possible. For this kind of time series data analysis, in general, multiple linear regression models are used. In this paper, we present two methods, i.e., Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) and Chow Test that is well-known in economics, and describe those experimental evaluations of the effectiveness in the change detection using the multiple regression models. Moreover, we extend the definition of the detected change point in the SPRT method, and show the improvement of the change detection accuracy.

  8. Relay test program. Series 2 tests: Integral testing of relays and circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing.

  9. The Compensation Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  10. The Executive Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legon, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  11. The Audit Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staisloff, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  12. Modulation and SSR tests performed on the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor unit at Slatt substation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Hauer; W. A. Mittelstadt; R. J. Piwko; B. L. Damsky; J. D. Eden

    1996-01-01

    Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA's Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE's Boardman steam generator are well understood and are effectively avoided by normal TCSC valve firing logic. Modulation tests, performed with the Boardman plant offline, show that the TCSC can be a

  13. Gamma test analysis tools for non-linear time series Samuel Edward Kemp

    E-print Network

    Jones, Antonia J.

    Gamma test analysis tools for non-linear time series by Samuel Edward Kemp Department of Computing surface temperature. Gamma test analysis tools for non-linear time series Samuel Kemp #12. This thesis is dedicated to them. Samuel Edward Kemp August 2006 Gamma test analysis tools for non-linear time

  14. General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Theresa A.

    1989-06-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four Pu-238O2-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40 percent) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions.

  15. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Extended series test program large fragment tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.

    1989-08-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electric power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electric power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory was modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents, and an extended series safety test program was initiated. The program included a series of large fragment tests that simulated the collision of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragments, generated in an SRB motor case rupture or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action, with the GPHS-RTG. The tests indicated that fueled clads, inside a converter, will not breach or release fuel after a square (142 cm on a side) SRB fragment impacts flat-on at velocities up to 212 m/s, and that only the leading fueled capsules breach and release fuel after the square SRB fragment impacts the modules, inside the converter, edge-on at 95 m/s. 8 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40%) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Misuse study of latch attachment: a series of frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

    2007-01-01

    This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G's when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G's, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values. PMID:18184489

  18. Testing the stationarity of economic time series: further Monte Carlo evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Schlitzer

    1995-01-01

    Testing the stationarity of economic time series has become a central issue in empirical economics. This paper evaluates, via Monte Carlo simulation, the empirical power and size of the augmented Dickey-Fuller test for a unit root (ADF test), the most widely used in empirical works, and of the test recently proposed by Kwiatkowski et al. (1992; KPSS test), where the

  19. On a robust test for SETAR-type nonlinearity in time series analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    King Chi Hung; Siu Hung Cheung; Wai-Sum Chan; Li-Xin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    There has been growing interest in exploiting potential forecast gains from the nonlinear structure of self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) models. Statistical tests have been proposed in the literature to help analysts check for the presence of SETAR-type nonlinearities in observed time series. However, previous studies show that classical nonlinearity tests are not robust to additive outliers. In practice, time series

  20. Analysis of extrema of heartbeat time series in exercise test

    E-print Network

    Cammarota, Camillo

    reflects the physiological control mechanism of the autonomic nervous system on heart rate. This series of the heart rate. The main mechanism is the autonomous nervous system, which controls heart rate via the sympathetic and parasympathetic terminations. The vari- ability of the RR sequence, known as Heart Rate

  1. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  2. Current Developments in Language Testing. Anthology Series 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anivan, Sarinee, Ed.

    The selection of papers on language testing includes: "Language Testing in the 1990s: How Far Have We Come? How Much Further Have We To Go?" (J. Charles Alderson); "Current Research/Development in Language Testing" (John W. Oller, Jr.); "The Difficulties of Difficulty: Prompts in Writing Assessment" (Liz Hamp-Lyons, Sheila Prochnow); "The Validity…

  3. IMPROVED LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a program to evaluate an Improved Laboratory Dispersant Effectiveness Test (ILDET) which was developed to replace EPA's Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test (RSDET). The report summarizes the development of the IL...

  4. A Surrogate Test for Pseudo-periodic Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Michael; Harrison, Robert G.; Tse, C. K.

    2002-07-01

    Standard (linear) surrogate methods are only useful for time series exhibiting no pseudo-periodic structure. We describe a new algorithm that can distinguish between a noisy periodic orbit and deterministic non-periodic inter-cycle dynamics. Possible origins of deterministic non-periodic inter-cycle dynamics include: non-periodic linear or nonlinear dynamics, or chaos. This new algorithm is based on mimicking the large-scale dynamics with a local model, but obliterating the fine scale features with dynamic noise. We demonstrate the application of this method to artificial data and experimental time series, including human electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia (VT). The method is able to successfully differentiate between the chaotic Rössler system and a pseudo periodic realization of the Rössler equations with dynamic noise. Application to ECG data demonstrates that both sinus rhythm and VT exhibit nontrivial inter-cycle dynamics.

  5. NASA Boeing 757 HIRF test series low power on-the-ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, A.J.; Pennock, S.T.; Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley AFB, VA (United States). Langley Research Center] [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley AFB, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1996-08-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transports; for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs; and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/ Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants in this project were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. The tests were performed over a five week period during September through November, 1994. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. This report and the associated test plan that is included as an appendix represent a definition of the overall on-the-ground test program. They include descriptions of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. In this report, a detailed description of each executed test is provided, as is the data identification (data id) relating the specific test with its relevant data files. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation are also presented. The test plan which guided the execution of the tests, a test report by UIE Inc., and the report describing the concrete pad characterization are included as appendices.

  6. Carrascolendas: Effects of a Spanish/English Television Series for Primary School Children. Final Report. Evaluation Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick; And Others

    The second year evaluation of the effects and usage of "Carrascolendas," a children's television series in Spanish and English, was conducted in three phases. A field experiment used criterion referenced tests among Mexican-American children comprising the target audience to measure learning effects. Two experimental groups viewed the series--one…

  7. Time Series Analysis of Alternative Media Effects Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.

    A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…

  8. Automated classification of Permanent Scatterers time-series based on statistical characterization tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The application of space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry has progressed, over the last two decades, from the pioneer use of single interferograms for analyzing changes on the earth's surface to the development of advanced multi-interferogram techniques to analyze any sort of natural phenomena which involves movements of the ground. The success of multi-interferograms techniques in the analysis of natural hazards such as landslides and subsidence is widely documented in the scientific literature and demonstrated by the consensus among the end-users. Despite the great potential of this technique, radar interpretation of slope movements is generally based on the sole analysis of average displacement velocities, while the information embraced in multi interferogram time series is often overlooked if not completely neglected. The underuse of PS time series is probably due to the detrimental effect of residual atmospheric errors, which make the PS time series characterized by erratic, irregular fluctuations often difficult to interpret, and also to the difficulty of performing a visual, supervised analysis of the time series for a large dataset. In this work is we present a procedure for automatic classification of PS time series based on a series of statistical characterization tests. The procedure allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) and retrieve for each trend a series of descriptive parameters which can be efficiently used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. The classification algorithms were developed and tested using an ENVISAT datasets available in the frame of EPRS-E project (Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing) of the Italian Ministry of Environment (track "Modena", Northern Apennines). This dataset was generated using standard processing, then the time series are typically affected by a significant noise to signal ratio. The results of the analysis show that even with such a rough-quality dataset, our automated classification procedure can greatly improve radar interpretation of mass movements. In general, uncorrelated PS (type 0) are concentrated in flat areas such as fluvial terraces and valley bottoms, and along stable watershed divides; linear PS (type 1) are mainly located on slopes (both inside or outside mapped landslides) or near the edge of scarps or steep slopes; non-linear PS (types 2 to 5) typically fall inside landslide deposits or in the surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of classified PS allows to detect deformation phenomena not visible by considering the average velocity alone, and provide important information on the temporal evolution of the phenomena such as acceleration, deceleration, seasonal fluctuations, abrupt or continuous changes of the displacement rate. Based on these encouraging results we integrated all the classification algorithms into a Graphical User Interface (called PSTime) which is freely available as a standalone application.

  9. Design and evaluation of a 3 million DN series-hybrid thrust bearing. [stability tests and fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Winn, L. W.; Eusepi, M.

    1976-01-01

    The bearing, consisting of a 150-mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid-film bearing, was fatigue tested. Test conditions were representative of a mainshaft ball bearing in a gas turbine engine operating at maximum thrust load to simulate aircraft takeoff conditions. Tests were conducted up to 16000 rpm and at this speed an axial load of 15568 newtons (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the series-hybrid bearing principle, the effective ball bearing speed was reduced to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. It was concluded that a speed reduction of this magnitude results in a ten-fold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful evaluation of fluid-film bearing lubricant supply failure was performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm. A complete and smooth changeover to full-scale ball bearing operation was effected when the oil supply to the fluid-film bearing was cut off. Reactivation of the fluid-film oil supply system resulted in a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

  10. A 727/JT8D-100 series engine exhaust system propulsion performance model test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haugan, W. J.; Kern, P. R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented from testing one-eighth scale models of the Pratt and Whitney aircraft reference and Boeing nozzles for the JT8D-100 series mixed flow engines. The objective of the test was to obtain the nozzle velocity and flow coefficients for the reference configurations and compare these with the Boeing configurations which incorporated a longer splitter between the fan and primary flows. A further comparison was made between the JT8D-100 series nozzles and the Boeing JT8D-9/727 production nozzle performance. A statistical analysis was used to compare configurations which showed the performance (velocity coefficient) of the reference and the Boeing configuration was the same for the JT8D-109. It also showed no difference between reference and the Boeing configuration for the JT8D-115 and no difference for the JT8D-117 nozzles. Bypass ratio (match) was shown to be equally dependent on splitter position as on nozzle area within the range investigated. The nozzles were very similar in flow coefficient within an engine family. Excellent profile data was recorded. The effects of swirl on the nozzle performance was examined and found to degrade the velocity and flow coefficients.

  11. X-0557 modified Steven tests : series I and II /.

    SciTech Connect

    Straight, J. W. (James W.); Osborn, M. A. (Michael A.); Coulter, W. L. (William L.); Mang, J. T. (Joseph T.); Anderson, M. C. (Mark C.); Idar, D. J. (Deanne J.)

    2002-01-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). These have been investigated using different experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, including, but not limited to the drop weight impact, Taylor anvil impact, Susan,1 and more recently, the Steven and Modified Steven tests.2-8 Ideally, the data will be used to further advance 3-D finite element analysis predictive capability with improved bulk constitutive HE models for the assessment of HE response to mechanical insult. Our overall objectives for these experiments were to (1) evaluate the HE reaction threshold behavior for two different lots of X-0557, and (2) characterize the degree of reaction violence relative to a detonation. This report summarizes our single impact test results on the two different lots of X-0557 in Modified Steven targets.

  12. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series I Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Bredt, Paul R.; King, Christopher M.; Sell, Rachel L.; Burger, Leland L.; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2000-09-12

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor and canister sludge. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. The overall goals for this testing were to collect detailed gas generation rate and composition data to ascertain the quantity and reactivity of the metallic uranium (and other reactive species) present in the K Basin sludge. The gas generation evaluation included four large-scale vessels (850 ml) and eight small-scale vessels (30 ml) in an all-metal, leak tight system. The tests were conducted for several thousand hours at ambient and elevated temperatures (32 C, 40 C, 60 C, 80 C, and 95 C) to accelerated the reactions and provide conclusive gas generation data within a reasonable testing period. The sludge used for these tests was collected from the KE Basin floor and canister barrels (containing damaged spent fuel elements) using a consolidated sampling technique (i.e., material from several locations was combined to form ''consolidated samples''). Portions of these samples were sieved to separate particles greater than 250 m (P250) from particle less than 250 m (M250). This separation was performed to mimic the separation operations that are planned during the retrieval of certain K Basin sludge types and to gain a better understanding of how uranium metal is distributed in the sludge. The corrosion rate of the uranium metal particles in the sludge was found to agree reasonably well with corrosion rates reported in the literature.

  13. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the air

  14. Single-event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: Comparison of EPC1000 and EPC2000 Series Devices for Destructive SEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Recent testing of the EPC1000 series eGaN FETs has shown sensitivity to Single Event Effects (SEE) that are destructive. These effects are most likely the failure of the very thin gate structure in HEMT architecture. EPC has recently changed the doping of the substrate to improve the performance and the SEE response. This testing compares the SEE response of both devices.

  15. Advancing Toward Test Automation through Effective Manual Testing

    E-print Network

    Advancing Toward Test Automation through Effective Manual Testing May 2005 Advancing Toward Test Automation through Effective Manual Testing Bob Levy, Lead Product Manager ­ Functional Test Dennis Elenburg, IT Specialist ­ Rational Products #12;Advancing Toward Test Automation through Effective Manual Testing Page 2

  16. Ground testing of the nonvented fill method of orbital propellant transfer - Results of initial test series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a series of no-vent fill experiments conducted on a 175 cu ft flightweight hydrogen tank. The experiments consisted of the nonvented fill of the tankage with liquid hydrogen using two different inlet systems (top spray, and bottom spray) at different tank initial conditions and inflow rates. Nine tests were completed of which six filled in exceess of 94 percent. The experiments demonstrated a consistent and repeatable ability to fill the tank in excess of 94 percent using the nonvented fill technique. Ninety-four percent was established as the high level cutoff due to requirements for some tank ullage to prevent rapid tank pressure rise which occurs in a tank filled entirely with liquid. The best fill was terminated at 94 percent full with a tank internal pressure less than 26 psia. Although the baseline initial tank wall temperature criteria was that all portions of the tank wall be less than 40 R, fills were achieved with initial wall temperatures as high as 227R.

  17. Effective Second Language Writing. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasten, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The classroom practices discussed in "Effective Second Language Writing" reflect various trends and methodologies; however, the underlying theme in this volume of the Classroom Practice Series is the need for clear and meaningful communication between ESL writers and their readers. While approaches differ, two core beliefs are constant: ESL…

  18. Analysis of Complex Intervention Effects in Time-Series Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Cathleen

    An iterative least squares procedure for analyzing the effect of various kinds of intervention in time-series data is described. There are numerous applications of this design in economics, education, and psychology, although until recently, no appropriate analysis techniques had been developed to deal with the model adequately. This paper…

  19. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraf

  20. The power of tests for weak stationary time series in finite samples: An empirical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaoguang; Mayer, Michael; Heck, Bernhard

    2010-05-01

    Whether or not a time series is weakly stationary has long been a question of major interest in the field of time series analysis related to different scientific disciplines. A time series is considered as weakly stationary if the associated mean and covariance function do not vary with respect to time. That is to say, the original time series has statistical properties similar to those of the 'time-shifted' series. Weak stationary time series can be sufficiently modelled, e.g. by means of so-called autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes. In the case of non-stationary time series appropriate detrending procedures have to be performed prior to the analysis in order to transform the data to weakly stationary form. According to the properties that weakly stationary processes exhibit homogenous variances, statistical inferences for weak stationarity can be carried out using variance homogeneity tests (e.g. two-sample ?-test, multiple-sample Bartlett test). In addition, regarding a time series as an autoregressive (AR) process, the weak stationarity can be assessed by revising the existence of unit roots of the associated characteristic equation of the AR process. In the presence of unit roots, the analysed data are considered as non-stationary. The most famous autoregressive unit root tests are the augmented Dickey-Fuller test, the Phillips-Perron test, and the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test. In this paper the power of stationarity tests is empirically investigated using a large amount of representative data simulated by means of autoregressive (integrated) moving average (AR(I)MA) processes. The test results are analysed based on statistical measures characterising the performance of a binary classification test, e.g. specificity (proportion of correctly identified null hypothesis) and sensitivity (proportion of correctly identified alternative hypothesis). The statistical analysis illustrates that the sensitivity of all investigated stationarity tests increases with increasing sample sizes. In comparison with the employed homogeneity tests whose specificity decreases with growing data volume, the specificity of the applied unit root tests remains at a high and constant level which corresponds very well to the specified probability of type I error ?.

  1. Testing homeopathy in mouse emotional response models: pooled data analysis of two series of studies.

    PubMed

    Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Marzotto, Marta; Magnani, Paolo; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Olioso, Debora; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1?mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5?mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter "time spent in central area" and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters "time spent in lit area" and "number of light-dark transitions," without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization. PMID:22548123

  2. Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Marzotto, Marta; Magnani, Paolo; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Olioso, Debora; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1?mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5?mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization. PMID:22548123

  3. Tracking signal test to monitor an intelligent time series forecasting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan; Jaraiedi, Majid; Iskander, Wafik H.

    2004-03-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on the subject of Intelligent Time Series forecasting, including many variations on the use of neural networks. However, investigation of model adequacy over time, after the training processes is completed, remains to be fully explored. In this paper we demonstrate a how a smoothed error tracking signals test can be incorporated into a neuro-fuzzy model to monitor the forecasting process and as a statistical measure for keeping the forecasting model up-to-date. The proposed monitoring procedure is effective in the detection of nonrandom changes, due to model inadequacy or lack of unbiasedness in the estimation of model parameters and deviations from the existing patterns. This powerful detection device will result in improved forecast accuracy in the long run. An example data set has been used to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

  4. Testing for Homogeneity of Variance in Time Series: Long Memory, Wavelets and the Nile River

    E-print Network

    Percival, Don

    Testing for Homogeneity of Variance in Time Series: Long Memory, Wavelets and the Nile River Brandon Whitcher Geophysical Statistics Project National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado of Washington Seattle, Washington February 22, 2001 Abstract We consider the problem of testing for homogeneity

  5. Testing for a Unit Root in a Time Series With a Changing Mean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Perron

    1990-01-01

    This study considers testing for a unit root in a time series characterized by a structural change in its mean level. My approach follows the “intervention analysis” of Box and Tiao (1975) in the sense that I consider the change as being exogenous and as occurring at a known date. Standard unit-root tests are shown to be biased toward nonrejection

  6. Results of the mission profile life test. [for J-series mercury ion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven J series 30-cm diameter thrusters have been tested in segments of up to 5,070 hr, for 14,541 hr in the Mission Profile Life Test facility. Test results have indicated the basic thruster design to be consistent with the lifetime goal of 15,000 hr at 2-A beam. The only areas of concern identified which appear to require additional verification testing involve contamination of mercury propellant isolators, which may be due to facility constituents, and the ability of specially covered surfaces to contain sputtered material and prevent flake formation. The ability of the SCR, series resonant inverter power processor to operate the J series thruster and autonomous computer control of the thruster/processor system were demonstrated.

  7. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges and Irradiated Metallic Uranium Fuel Particles Series III Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Elmore, Monte R.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2003-08-01

    The path forward for managing of Hanford K Basin sludge calls for it to be packaged, shipped, and stored at T Plant until final processing at a future date. An important consideration for the design and cost of retrieval, transportation, and storage systems is the potential for heat and gas generation through oxidation reactions between uranium metal and water. This report, the third in a series (Series III), describes work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess corrosion and gas generation from irradiated metallic uranium particles (fuel particles) with and without K Basin sludge addition. The testing described in this report consisted of 12 tests. In 10 of the tests, 4.3 to 26.4 g of fuel particles of selected size distribution were placed into 60- or 800-ml reaction vessels with 0 to 100 g settled sludge. In another test, a single 3.72-g fuel fragment (i.e., 7150-mm particle) was placed in a 60 ml reaction vessel with no added sludge. The twelfth test contained only sludge. The fuel particles were prepared by crushing archived coupons (samples) from an irradiated metallic uranium fuel element. After loading the sludge materials (whether fuel particles, mixtures of fuel particles and sludge, or sludge-only) into reaction vessels, the solids were covered with an excess of K Basin water, the vessels closed and connected to a gas measurement manifold, and the vessels back-flushed with inert neon cover gas. The vessels were then heated to a constant temperature. The gas pressures and temperatures were monitored continuously from the times the vessels were purged. Gas samples were collected at various times during the tests, and the samples analyzed by mass spectrometry. Data on the reaction rates of uranium metal fuel particles with water as a function of temperature and particle size were generated. The data were compared with published studies on metallic uranium corrosion kinetics. The effects of an intimate overlying sludge layer (''blanket'') on the uranium metal corrosion rates were also evaluated.

  8. SERIES \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pneumococcal vaccination: current and future issues. A ?.Ortqvist. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major global health burden meaning the development of effective vaccines is urgently needed. The current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine has been shown to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia in immunocompetent young adults, but not in elderly persons. However, in prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease,

  9. An experimental investigation of internally ignited fires in nuclear power plant control cabinets: Part 2, Room effects tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Chavez; S. P. Nowlen

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the second part of a two-part series of full-scale electrical cabinet fire tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The first part of this test series investigated the effects of various cabinet parameters on a cabinet fire. The second part of the test series, described here, investigated the effects

  10. An endurance test of a 900 series 30-cm engineering model ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The 10,000 hour endurance test of the first engineering model 30-cm thruster (S/N 701) identified discharge chamber erosion as a life limiting problem. Modifications to minimize this problem have been implemented in the 900 series thrusters. This paper describes a test conducted to evaluate the success of these modifications. The post-test analysis results of thruster 701 are summarized and the erosion reducing modifications described. Test results for thruster 901 up to 4165 hours, when the test was interrupted by a shorted wire, are described. The conclusions of a post-test examination of thruster 901 are included. Also being evaluated was a thermal vacuum breadboard SCR series inverter power processor which is described.

  11. Testing for density dependence allowing for weather effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rothery; Ian Newton; Lois Dale; Tomasz Wesolowski

    1997-01-01

    A test for density dependence in time-series data allowing for weather effects is presented. The test is based on a discrete\\u000a time autoregressive model for changes in population density with a covariate for the effects of weather. The distribution\\u000a of the test statistic on the null hypothesis of density independence is obtained by parametric bootstrapping. A computer simulation\\u000a exercise is

  12. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 7. Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test series 3. 07. 9 - steady-state film boiling in upflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Mullins; D. K. Felde; A. G. Sutton; S. S. Gould; D. G. Morris; J. J. Robinson

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test series 3.07.9 was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water Reactor (ORNL-PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on September 11, September 18, and October 1, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test

  13. A test for second order stationarity of a time series based on the Discrete Fourier Transform -Technical report

    E-print Network

    Subba Rao, Suhasini

    A test for second order stationarity of a time series based on the Discrete Fourier Transform stationary. Exploiting this important property, we construct a Portmanteau type test statistic for testing stationarity of the time series. It is shown that under the null of stationarity, the test statistic has

  14. Characteristics of static induction transistors: Effects of series resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Mochida; J. Nishizawa; T. Ohmi; R. K. Gupta

    1978-01-01

    It is established experimentally that the I-V characteristics of a static induction transistor (SIT) and their temperature dependence are consistent with a major current transport mechanism of majority-carrier injection control plus the effect of series channel resistance. The I-V characteristics follow an exponential behavior in the low-current region and change to approximately a linear-or square-law relation in the high-current region

  15. High heat flux facility GLADIS:. Operational characteristics and results of W7-X pre-series target tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; McNeely, P.

    2007-08-01

    The new ion beam facility GLADIS started the operation at IPP Garching. The facility is equipped with two individual 1.1 MW power ion sources for testing actively cooled plasma facing components under high heat fluxes. Each ion source generates heat loads between 3 and 55 MW/m 2 with a beam diameter of 70 mm at the target position. These parameters allow effective testing from probes to large components up to 2 m length. The high heat flux allows the target to be installed inclined to the beam and thus increases the heated surface length up to 200 mm for a heat flux of 15 MW/m 2 in the standard operating regime. Thus the facility has the potential capability for testing of full scale ITER divertor targets. Heat load tests on the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series divertor targets have been successfully started. These tests will validate the design and manufacturing for the production of 950 elements.

  16. Empirical Fokker-Planck-based test of stationarity for time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkal, Cahit; Cecen, Aydin A.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a test of stationarity based on the drift coefficients of the Langevin type and the associated Fokker-Planck equations. The test relies on the estimation of the drift coefficients of the underlying probability densities and posits that a time series is nonstationary if the estimated drift term is a nonlinear function of the random variable of the observed time series and the Markov property holds. We provide ample empirical evidence that demonstrates that well- known stationary systems give rise to linear estimates of the drift coefficients, whereas nonstationary time series exhibit nonlinear estimates of the drift term. This does not, indeed, imply that a nonlinear drift term in the Fokker-Planck equation of a dynamic stochastic process causes nonstationarity.

  17. Unraveling the cause-effect relation between time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X. San

    2014-11-01

    Given two time series, can one faithfully tell, in a rigorous and quantitative way, the cause and effect between them? Based on a recently rigorized physical notion, namely, information flow, we solve an inverse problem and give this important and challenging question, which is of interest in a wide variety of disciplines, a positive answer. Here causality is measured by the time rate of information flowing from one series to the other. The resulting formula is tight in form, involving only commonly used statistics, namely, sample covariances; an immediate corollary is that causation implies correlation, but correlation does not imply causation. It has been validated with touchstone linear and nonlinear series, purportedly generated with one-way causality that evades the traditional approaches. It has also been applied successfully to the investigation of real-world problems; an example presented here is the cause-and-effect relation between the two climate modes, El Niño and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), which have been linked to hazards in far-flung regions of the globe. In general, the two modes are mutually causal, but the causality is asymmetric: El Niño tends to stabilize IOD, while IOD functions to make El Niño more uncertain. To El Niño, the information flowing from IOD manifests itself as a propagation of uncertainty from the Indian Ocean.

  18. Unraveling the cause-effect relation between time series.

    PubMed

    Liang, X San

    2014-11-01

    Given two time series, can one faithfully tell, in a rigorous and quantitative way, the cause and effect between them? Based on a recently rigorized physical notion, namely, information flow, we solve an inverse problem and give this important and challenging question, which is of interest in a wide variety of disciplines, a positive answer. Here causality is measured by the time rate of information flowing from one series to the other. The resulting formula is tight in form, involving only commonly used statistics, namely, sample covariances; an immediate corollary is that causation implies correlation, but correlation does not imply causation. It has been validated with touchstone linear and nonlinear series, purportedly generated with one-way causality that evades the traditional approaches. It has also been applied successfully to the investigation of real-world problems; an example presented here is the cause-and-effect relation between the two climate modes, El Niño and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), which have been linked to hazards in far-flung regions of the globe. In general, the two modes are mutually causal, but the causality is asymmetric: El Niño tends to stabilize IOD, while IOD functions to make El Niño more uncertain. To El Niño, the information flowing from IOD manifests itself as a propagation of uncertainty from the Indian Ocean. PMID:25493782

  19. OBIT DEVELOPMENT MEMO SERIES NO. 8 1 Testing Obit with a 100 GByte simulated dataset

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    OBIT DEVELOPMENT MEMO SERIES NO. 8 1 Testing Obit with a 100 GByte simulated dataset W. D. Cotton model used for the target field was the CLEAN model derived from a moderately deep VLA survey (22 µ machine, mortibus, in Charlottesville. This machine has dual quad core Xenon processors for a total of 8

  20. Development and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole Models of TQC Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Bossert; G. Ambrosio; N. Andreev; E. Barzi; S. Caspi; G. Chlachidze; D. T. Dietderich; S. Feher; P. Ferracin; A. Ghosh; A. R. Hafalia; V. S. Kashikhin; V. V. Kashikhin; M. J. Lamm; F. Nobrega; I. Novitski; D. Orris; G. L. Sabbi; M. Tartaglia; A. V. Zlobin

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b and TQC02E, the second and third models in the TQC series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet

  1. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS-K575, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Schmidt, Glen L. [New Mexico Tech, Institute for Engineering Research and Applications, 901 University Blvd SE, Albuquerque, NM 87109-4339 (United States); Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger [NASA MSFC, TD40, Marshall Space Flight Center, AL, 35812 (United States)

    2004-02-04

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  2. Testing statistical significance of multivariate time series analysis techniques for epileptic seizure prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelter, Björn; Winterhalder, Matthias; Maiwald, Thomas; Brandt, Armin; Schad, Ariane; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Timmer, Jens

    2006-03-01

    Nonlinear time series analysis techniques have been proposed to detect changes in the electroencephalography dynamics prior to epileptic seizures. Their applicability in practice to predict seizure onsets is hampered by the present lack of generally accepted standards to assess their performance. We propose an analytic approach to judge the prediction performance of multivariate seizure prediction methods. Statistical tests are introduced to assess patient individual results, taking into account that prediction methods are applied to multiple time series and several seizures. Their performance is illustrated utilizing a bivariate seizure prediction method based on synchronization theory.

  3. Tests for detecting a shift in the mean of hydrological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buishand, T. A.

    1984-07-01

    A practical problem in time-series analysis of hydrological and meteorological data is to find statistical techniques for testing for an abrupt change in the mean at an unknown time. Suitable techniques have been developed in the situation of a single time series, { yi}. Attention is paid to the likelihood ratio statistic V and to a Bayesian statistic U. Complications arise if we want to test for a shift in the mean using a regression on a second correlated sequence, { xi}, because the critical values of the test statistic in general depend on the configuration of the xi's. For the statistic U, this problem can be solved using techniques similar to those for testing for serial correlation in least-squares regression. A so-called bounds test can be performed on the least-squares residuals. Unfortunately, there is quite a large possibility that this test is inconclusive. As an alternative to the bounds test, the statistic U can be applied to transformed residuals. The tests are illustrated with runoff and precipitation data for the Colorado River Basin, U.S.A., and the River Thames at Teddington, U.K.

  4. Hospital waste shredder test series at the DONLEE Pilot Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the coal firing and coal and noninfectious hospital waste co-firing testing and emissions rates for the tests conducted at the DONLEE pilot plant facility during mid-December 1991 through early March 1992. The emissions obtained during these tests are in turn used to predict the emission rates for the proof-of-concept facility that is to be built at the Lebanon Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In addition, the reliability and performance of the waste shredding/feeding system were evaluated from this testing.

  5. Hospital waste shredder test series at the DONLEE Pilot Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Robert; Sak, James

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the coal firing and coal and noninfectious hospital waste co-firing testing and emissions rates for the tests conducted at the DONLEE pilot plant facility during mid-December 1991 through early March 1992. The emissions obtained during these tests are in turn used to predict the emission rates for the proof-of-concept facility that is to be built at the Lebanon Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In addition, the reliability and performance of the waste shredding/feeding system were evaluated from this testing.

  6. Overview of the 6 Meter HIAD Inflatable Structure and Flexible TPS Static Load Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Greg; Kazemba, Cole; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony; Hughes, Steve; Cassell, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil

    2014-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). At the beginning of 2014, a 6m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 6m HIAD structure was constructed in a stacked toroid configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber reinforced thin films, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile woven structural straps to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for displacement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The centerbody of the inflatable structure was attached to a pedestal mount as seen in Figure 1. Using an impermeable membrane seal draped over the test article, partial vacuum was pulled beneath the HIAD, resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to provide many data sets including: deformed shape, shoulder deflection, strap loads, cord loads, inflation pressures, and applied static load.In this overview, the 6m HIAD static load test series will be discussed in detail, including the 6m HIAD inflatable structure and flexible TPS design, test setup and execution, and finally initial results and conclusions from the test series.

  7. A Bayesian test for excess zeros in a zero-inflated power series distribution

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, Archan; Datta, Gauri S

    2008-01-01

    Power series distributions form a useful subclass of one-parameter discrete exponential families suitable for modeling count data. A zero-inflated power series distribution is a mixture of a power series distribution and a degenerate distribution at zero, with a mixing probability $p$ for the degenerate distribution. This distribution is useful for modeling count data that may have extra zeros. One question is whether the mixture model can be reduced to the power series portion, corresponding to $p=0$, or whether there are so many zeros in the data that zero inflation relative to the pure power series distribution must be included in the model i.e., $p\\geq0$. The problem is difficult partially because $p=0$ is a boundary point. Here, we present a Bayesian test for this problem based on recognizing that the parameter space can be expanded to allow $p$ to be negative. Negative values of $p$ are inconsistent with the interpretation of $p$ as a mixing probability, however, they index distributions that are physic...

  8. Testing for nonlinearity in time series: The method of surrogate data

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, J.; Galdrikian, B.; Longtin, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Eubank, S.; Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States) Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    We describe a statistical approach for identifying nonlinearity in time series; in particular, we want to avoid claims of chaos when simpler models (such as linearly correlated noise) can explain the data. The method requires a careful statement of the null hypothesis which characterizes a candidate linear process, the generation of an ensemble of surrogate'' data sets which are similar to the original time series but consistent with the null hypothesis, and the computation of a discriminating statistic for the original and for each of the surrogate data sets. The idea is to test the original time series against the null hypothesis by checking whether the discriminating statistic computed for the original time series differs significantly from the statistics computed for each of the surrogate sets. We present algorithms for generating surrogate data under various null hypotheses, and we show the results of numerical experiments on artificial data using correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and forecasting error as discriminating statistics. Finally, we consider a number of experimental time series -- including sunspots, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, and fluid convection -- and evaluate the statistical significance of the evidence for nonlinear structure in each case. 56 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

  10. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU II card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-10-21

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality.

  11. Systematic two-dimensional cascade tests of NACA 65-series compressor blades at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrig, L Joseph; Emery, James C; Erwin, John R

    1957-01-01

    A two-dimensional low-speed porous-wall cascade tunnel investigation has been conducted to establish the performance of the NACA 65-series compressor blade sections over the useful range of inlet angle, solidity, and section camber. Design points for optimum high-speed operation are presented. The loading limitation is determined for some conditions. Trends of section operating range with increasing section camber are determined for the four inlet angles tested.

  12. Validity and reliability of the Newtest Powertimer 300-series® testing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eystein Enoksen; Espen Tønnessen; Shaher Shalfawi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Newtest Powertimer 300-series® portable contact mat and photocells (Newtest Oy, Finland). The participants were 20 male soccer players aged 19.1±3.5 years. The validity and reliability of the Powertimer (contact mat and photocells) were assessed in a comparison of a laboratory testing method (force platform and

  13. Fabrication and test of LARP technological quadrupole models of TQC series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Bossert; G. Ambrosio; N. Andreev; E. Barzi; G. Chlachidze; S. Feher; V. S. Kashikhin; V. V. Kashikhin; M. Lamm; A. Nobrega; I. Novitski

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based

  14. Fabrication and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole Models of TQC Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodger C. Bossert; Giorgio Ambrosio; Nilolai Andreev; Emanuela Barzi; Guram Chlachidze; Sandor Feher; Vladimir S. Kashikhin; Vadim V. Kashikhin; Michael Lamm; Alfred Nobrega; Igor Novitski; Darryl Orris; Michael Tartaglia; Alexander V. Zlobin; Shlomo Caspi; Daniel R. Dietderich; Paolo Ferracin; A. R. Hafalia; GianLuca Sabbi; Arup Ghosh; Peter Wanderer

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based

  15. Fabrication and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole Models of TQC Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodger C. Bossert; Giorgio Ambrosio; Nikolai Andreev; Emanuela Barzi; Guram Chlachidze; Sandor Feher; Vladimir S. Kashikhin; Vadim V. Kashikhin; Michael Lamm; Alfred Nobrega; Igor Novitski; Darryl Orris; Michael Tartaglia; Alexander V. Zlobin; Shlomo Caspi; Daniel R. Dietderich; Paolo Ferracin; A. R. Hafalia; Gianluca Sabbi; Arup Ghosh; Peter Wanderer

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based

  16. Species effects on nitrogen cycling: a test with perennial grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Wedin; David Tilman

    1990-01-01

    To test for differing effects of plant species on nitrogen dynamics, we planted monocultures of five perennial grasses (Agropyron repens, Agrostis scabra, Poa pratensis, Schizachyrium scoparium, and Andropogon gerardi) on a series of soils ranging from sand to black soil. In situ net N mineralization was measured in the monocultures for three years. By the third year, initially identical soils

  17. Minimum-test series for the intermediate-size inducer pump in SPTF at ETEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-04

    The overall test program includes pump assembly, installation, testing, removal from the test loop, disassembly and final inspection of the entire pump. Testing will include: checkout tests, head/flow and efficiency characterizations at design and two-loop flow/speed ratios and at selected sodium temperatures; suction performance determination; and a design point endurance test, up to 2000 hours, based on available time. The endurance test will be run at 100 percent NPSH margin. After testing, the pump will be cleaned of sodium, disassembled, and examined to determine the effects of operation at 100 percent NPSH margin for an extended period of time. The testing will be done at Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). Assembly, sodium removal, disassembly, and initial inspection will be performed at Component Handling and Cleaning Facility (CHCF) and sodium testing will be done at Sodium Pump Test Facility (SPTF).

  18. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS. [Integrated Tiger Series (ITS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method.

  19. Naive hypothesis testing for case series analysis with time-varying exposure onset measurement error: inference for infection-cardiovascular risk in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Sandra M; Dalrymple, Lorien S; ?entürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V

    2013-06-01

    The case series method is useful in studying the relationship between time-varying exposures, such as infections, and acute events observed during the observation periods of individuals. It provides estimates of the relative incidences of events in risk periods (e.g., 30-day period after infections) relative to the baseline periods. When the times of exposure onsets are not known precisely, application of the case series model ignoring exposure onset measurement error leads to biased estimates. Bias-correction is necessary in order to understand the true directions and effect sizes associated with exposure risk periods, although uncorrected estimators have smaller variance. Thus, inference via hypothesis testing based on uncorrected test statistics, if valid, is potentially more powerful. Furthermore, the tests can be implemented in standard software and do not require additional auxiliary data. In this work, we examine the validity and power of naive hypothesis testing, based on applying the case series analysis to the imprecise data without correcting for the error. Based on simulation studies and theoretical calculations, we determine the validity and relative power of common hypothesis tests of interest in case series analysis. In particular, we illustrate that the tests for the global null hypothesis, the overall null hypotheses associated with all risk periods or all age effects are valid. However, tests of individual risk period parameters are not generally valid. Practical guidelines are provided and illustrated with data from patients on dialysis. PMID:23731166

  20. Strategies of symbolization in cardiovascular time series to test individual gestational development in the fetus.

    PubMed

    Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Van Leeuwen, Peter

    2015-02-13

    The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series retrieves dynamical properties of the underlying regulation which are robust against the symbolic transformation. In this study, three different transformations to produce a symbolic series were applied to fetal RR interval series to test whether they reflect individual changes of fetal heart rate variability in the course of pregnancy. Each transformation was applied to 215 heartbeat datasets obtained from 11 fetuses during the second and the third trimester of pregnancy (at least 10 datasets per fetus, median 17). In the symbolic series, the occurrence of symbolic sequences of length 3 was categorized according to the amount of variations in the sequence: no variation of the symbols, one variation, two variations. Linear regression with respect to gestational age showed that the individual course during pregnancy performed best using a binary transformation reflecting whether the RR interval differences are below or above a threshold. The median goodness of fit of the individual regression lines was 0.73 and also the variability among the individual slopes was low. Other transformations to symbolic dynamics performed worse but were still able to reflect the individual progress of fetal cardiovascular regulation. PMID:25548263

  1. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Registration effective as to class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1... Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed...of security is issuable in two or more series with different terms, each such...

  2. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Registration effective as to class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1... Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed...of security is issuable in two or more series with different terms, each such...

  3. 17 CFR 240.12d1-1 - Registration effective as to class or series.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Registration effective as to class or series. 240.12d1-1 Section 240.12d1-1... Registration effective as to class or series. (a) An application filed...of security is issuable in two or more series with different terms, each such...

  4. Fabrication and testing of W7-X pre-series target elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscary, J.; Böswirth, B.; Greuner, H.; Grigull, P.; Missirlian, M.; Plankensteiner, A.; Schedler, B.; Friedrich, T.; Schlosser, J.; Streibl, B.; Traxler, H.

    2007-03-01

    The assembly of the highly-loaded target plates of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) divertor requires the fabrication of 890 target elements (TEs). The plasma facing material is made of CFC NB31 flat tiles bonded to a CuCrZr copper alloy water-cooled heat sink. The elements are designed to remove a stationary heat flux and power up to 10 MW m-2 and 100 kW, respectively. Before launching the serial fabrication, pre-series activities aimed at qualifying the design, the manufacturing route and the non-destructive examinations (NDEs). High heat flux (HHF) tests performed on full-scale pre-series TEs resulted in an improvement of the design of the bond between tiles and heat sink to reduce the stresses during operation. The consequence is the fabrication of additional pre-series TEs to be tested in the HHF facility GLADIS. NDEs of this bond based on thermography methods are developed to define the acceptance criteria suitable for serial fabrication.

  5. Immediate versus sustained effects: interrupted time series analysis of a tailored intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Detailed intervention descriptions and robust evaluations that test intervention impact—and explore reasons for impact—are an essential part of progressing implementation science. Time series designs enable the impact and sustainability of intervention effects to be tested. When combined with time series designs, qualitative methods can provide insight into intervention effectiveness and help identify areas for improvement for future interventions. This paper describes the development, delivery, and evaluation of a tailored intervention designed to increase primary health care professionals’ adoption of a national recommendation that women with mild to moderate postnatal depression (PND) are referred for psychological therapy as a first stage treatment. Methods Three factors influencing referral for psychological treatment were targeted using three related intervention components: a tailored educational meeting, a tailored educational leaflet, and changes to an electronic system data template used by health professionals during consultations for PND. Evaluation comprised time series analysis of monthly audit data on percentage referral rates and monthly first prescription rates for anti-depressants. Interviews were conducted with a sample of health professionals to explore their perceptions of the intervention components and to identify possible factors influencing intervention effectiveness. Results The intervention was associated with a significant, immediate, positive effect upon percentage referral rates for psychological treatments. This effect was not sustained over the ten month follow-on period. Monthly rates of anti-depressant prescriptions remained consistently high after the intervention. Qualitative interview findings suggest key messages received from the intervention concerned what appropriate antidepressant prescribing is, suggesting this to underlie the lack of impact upon prescribing rates. However, an understanding that psychological treatment can have long-term benefits was also cited. Barriers to referral identified before intervention were cited again after the intervention, suggesting the intervention had not successfully tackled the barriers targeted. Conclusion A time series design allowed the initial and sustained impact of our intervention to be tested. Combined with qualitative interviews, this provided insight into intervention effectiveness. Future research should test factors influencing intervention sustainability, and promote adoption of the targeted behavior and dis-adoption of competing behaviors where appropriate. PMID:24188718

  6. [The dermatoscopy in the skin pathergy testing: case series in patients with suspected Behçet's Disease].

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; de Castro, Lúcia Porto Fonseca; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Pacheco, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystemic disease consisting of a varying combination of ocular, mucocutaneous, neurologic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and other manifestations. Its diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, in which a positive pathergy test scores 1. A case series with 26 suspected patients is presented, and the skin pathergy test was performed in 23. The results were read in 48hours, and they were considered negative when without papule, and positive with a papule or pustule. Positive results were divided by papule size, and dermatoscopy was done to measure and observe its clinical aspects. After the readings, a biopsy was performed, with annotation of histopathological aspects. The test was negative in 2 (8.7%) and positive in 21 (91.3%) patients. The results and the literature review are presented. PMID:25445631

  7. Testing backreaction effects with observations

    SciTech Connect

    Larena, Julien [Cosmology and Gravity Group, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Cape Town (South Africa); CNRS, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH), CNRS UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano [CNRS, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH), CNRS UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Buchert, Thomas [Universite Lyon 1, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL), CNRS UMR 5574, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH), CNRS UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Kunz, Martin [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    In order to quantitatively test the ability of averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies to correctly describe observations of the large-scale properties of the Universe, we introduce a smoothed template metric corresponding to a constant spatial curvature model at any time, but with an evolving curvature parameter. This metric is used to compute quantities along an approximate effective light cone of the averaged model of the Universe. As opposed to the standard Friedmann model, we parametrize this template metric by exact scaling properties of an averaged inhomogeneous cosmology, and we also motivate this form of the metric by results on a geometrical smoothing of inhomogeneous cosmological hypersurfaces. The purpose of the paper is not to demonstrate that the backreaction effect is actually responsible for the dark energy phenomenon by explicitly calculating the effect from a local model of the geometry and the distribution of matter, but rather to propose a way to deal with observations in the backreaction context, and to understand what kind of generic properties have to hold in order for a backreaction model to explain the observed features of the Universe on large scales. We test our hypothesis for the template metric against supernova data and the position of the cosmic microwave background peaks, and infer the goodness of fit and parameter uncertainties. We find that averaged inhomogeneous models can reproduce the observations without requiring an additional dark energy component (though a volume acceleration is still needed), and that current data do not disfavor our main assumption on the effective light cone structure. We also show that the experimental uncertainties on the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter from baryon acoustic oscillations measurements--forseen in future surveys like the proposed EUCLID satellite project--are sufficiently small to distinguish between a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker template geometry and the template geometry with consistently evolving curvature.

  8. The effect of pranayama on test anxiety and test performance

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In an educational setting, anxiety is often experienced by students when taking a test; which is called ‘test anxiety’. This study intends to investigate the effect of doing pranayama on test anxiety and test performance. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 107 MA students who were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. The students of the experimental group practiced pranayama for one full semester. Sarason's (1980) test anxiety scale was given to both the control and experimental groups in the final session, before taking the examination. Results: After practicing pranayama, only 33% of the participants of the experimental group experienced high test anxiety, while this percentage was nearly twice in the control group (66.7%). Furthermore, the result of the t-test for test anxiety and test performance showed that the students of the experimental group had significantly lower mean test anxiety scores (M = 16.00) as compared to the students of the control group (M = 19.31). Also, the test performance scores of the experimental group were higher when compared with the control group. There was a negative correlation between the final test performance and test anxiety (r = ?.204, P < .05). Conclusions: Pranayama seems to have a significant positive effect on test anxiety and test performance. It could be used as an important technique by students prior to their examinations, to reduce their test anxiety and increase their test performance. PMID:23439436

  9. Continuous Time-Frequency Transform for Unevenly Sampled Time Series and Significance Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Crucifix, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Spectral analysis is a common approach for the interpretation of climate time series. In particular, the continuous wavelet transform and the Gabor transform are generally well-suited for non-stationary, multi-periodic and highly noisy data. The purpose of this contribution is to propose a rigorous framework to estimate the significance of wavelet spectra given unevenly sampled data. To this end, we expand the theory developed by G. Foster [1], originally targeted for astronomical data, as follows: (i) Define the model: Significance testing is always based on a model, that needs to be properly defined. (ii) Define the parametric hypotheses H0 (null case) and H1 (alternative case), and attempt to find an appropriate statistical summary. The idea is to obtain a well-known distribution under H0, allowing an analytical approach and avoiding most of Monte-Carlo simulations which can be expensive in time. We also discuss the choice to be done for the analysis function of the time-frequency transform. Indeed, Morlet wavelet is often chosen, but it is not always the best option. Some examples of paleoclimate time series analysis will be given. Finally, we investigate whether considering the interpolated data to get a constant time step and using the traditional tools may lead to significant errors. Reference: [1] G. Foster. Wavelets for period analysis of unevenly sampled time series. The Astronomical Journal, 112(4):1709-1729, 1996.

  10. A test of uranium-series dating of fossil tooth enamel: results from Tournal Cave, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Tavoso, A.; de Lumley, H.

    1988-01-01

    A series of well preserved mammal bones and horse teeth was analyzed from archaeological levels of Tournal Cave (Magdalenian, Aurignacian, and Mousterain) to test the hypothesis that well-crystallized enamel behaves more as a closed system than does whole bone. The isotopic composition of bones and tooth enamels from this deposit meet criteria for confidence, and gave no reasons to suspect contamination or open-system behavior. Two samples for which 231Pa could be analyzed showed internal concordance with the respective 230Th ages. In spite of the favourable isotopic criteria, however, comparison of the U-series ages of the bones and the tooth enamel with stratigraphic position and 14C control indicated the dates were not meaningful. In general, both bones and tooth enamels gave ages too young, although some were clearly too old. Neither group showed any systematic increase of age with stratigraphic depth. Tooth enamel, therefore, shows no advantage over bone for U-series dating for this site. In Tournal cave both bones and enamel are apparently open to U, which is probably cycling as a consequences of post-depositional groundwater movement. ?? 1988.

  11. Estimating the number of segments in time series data using permutation tests Kari T. Vasko & Hannu T.T. Toivonen

    E-print Network

    Toivonen, Hannu

    Estimating the number of segments in time series data using permutation tests Kari T. Vasko & Hannu of clustering analysis. It addresses the following data mining problem: given a time series T , find, Finland fKari.Vasko,Hannu.Toivoneng@cs.helsinki.fi Abstract Segmentation is a popular technique

  12. Fabrication and test of LARP technological quadrupole models of TQC series

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley /Brookhaven

    2008-08-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9K to 4.5K.

  13. Fuel performance improvement program: description and characterization of HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 test rods

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Barner, J.O.; Welty, R.K.

    1980-03-01

    The fabrication process and as-built characteristics of the HBWR Series H-2 and H-3 test rods, as well as the three packed-particle (sphere-pac) rods in HBWR Series H-4 are described. The HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 tests are part of the irradiation test program of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program. Fifteen rods were fabricated for the three test series. Rod designs include: (1) a reference dished pellet design incorporating chamfered edges, (2) a chamfered, annular pellet design combined with graphite-coated cladding, and (3) a sphere-pac design. Both the annular-coated and sphere-pac designs include internal pressurization using helium.

  14. Enraf Series 854 advanced technology gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.A.

    1995-01-30

    This procedure checks that the shipment of the gauge to Hanford did not cause a failure. This procedure provides acceptance testing for Enraf Series 854 level gauges used to monitor levels in Hanford Waste Storage Tanks. The test will verify that the gauge functions according to the manufacturer`s instructions and specifications and is properly setup prior to being delivered to the tank farm area. Enraf-Nonius Series 854 level gauges are certified by Factory Mutual (FM) for National Fire Protectional Association (NFPA 70) hazardous Class 1, Division 1, Groups B, C, and D Locations. Its measuring principle is based on the detection of variations in the weight of a displacer suspended in the process fluid. The displacer is connected to a wire wounded on a precision measuring drum. A level change causes a change in the weight of the displacer which will be detected by the force transducer. Electronics within the gauge cause a servo motor to adjust the position of the displacer and compute the tank level based on the new position of the displacer drum. The gauge displays the level in decimal inches. An analog output signal transmits the level data for remote data processing.

  15. Theoretical approach for plasma series resonance effect in geometrically symmetric dual radio frequency plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2012-02-27

    Plasma series resonance (PSR) effect is well known in geometrically asymmetric capacitively couple radio frequency plasma. However, plasma series resonance effect in geometrically symmetric plasma has not been properly investigated. In this work, a theoretical approach is made to investigate the plasma series resonance effect and its influence on Ohmic and stochastic heating in geometrically symmetric discharge. Electrical asymmetry effect by means of dual frequency voltage waveform is applied to excite the plasma series resonance. The results show considerable variation in heating with phase difference between the voltage waveforms, which may be applicable in controlling the plasma parameters in such plasma.

  16. The quadratic Zeeman effect in hydrogen Rydberg series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Clark; K. T. Taylor

    1980-01-01

    The authors present the oscillator strengths for dipole transitions to high Rydberg states for hydrogen in a magnetic field of 47 kG. The complex spectra can be largely understood in terms of independent, weakly interacting series.

  17. Tank Tests of NACA Model 40 Series of Hulls for Small Flying Boats and Amphibians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Dawson, John R

    1937-01-01

    The NACA model 40 series of flying-boat hull models consists of 2 forebodies and 3 afterbodies combined to provide several forms suitable for use in small marine aircraft. One forebody is the usual form with hollow bow sections and the other has a bottom surface that is completely developable from bow to step. The afterbodies include a short pointed afterbody with an extension for the tail surfaces, a long afterbody similar to that of a seaplane float but long enough to carry the tail surfaces, and a third obtained by fitting a second step in the latter afterbody. The various combinations were tested in the NACA Tank by the general method over a suitable range of loadings. Fixed-trim tests were made for all speeds likely to be used and free-to-trim tests were made at low speeds to slightly beyond the hump speed. The characteristics of the hulls at best trim angles have been deduced from the data of the tests at fixed trim angles and are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients applicable to any size hull.

  18. Systematic Two-Dimensional Cascade Tests of NACA 65-Series Compressor Blades at Low Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, James C; Herrig, L Joseph; Erwin, John R; Felix, A Richard

    1958-01-01

    The performance of NACA 65-series compressor blade section in cascade has been investigated systematically in a low-speed cascade tunnel. Porous test-section side walls and for high-pressure-rise conditions, porous flexible end walls were employed to establish conditions closely simulating two-dimensional flow. Blade sections of design lift coefficients from 0 to 2.7 were tested over the usable angle-of-attack range for various combinations of inlet-flow angle. A sufficient number of combinations were tested to permit interpolation and extrapolation of the data to all conditions within the usual range of application. The results of this investigation indicate a continuous variation of blade-section performance as the major cascade parameters, blade camber, inlet angle, and solidity were varied over the test range. Summary curves of the results have been prepared to enable compressor designers to select the proper blade camber and angle of attack when the compressor velocity diagram and desired solidity have been determined.

  19. Economic downturns and male cesarean deliveries: a time-series test of the economic stress hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of the recent Great Recession, increasing attention has focused on the health consequences of economic downturns. The perinatal literature does not converge on whether ambient economic declines threaten the health of cohorts in gestation. We set out to test the economic stress hypothesis that the monthly count of cesarean deliveries (CD), which may gauge the level of fetal distress in a population, rises after the economy declines. We focus on male CD since the literature reports that male more than female fetuses appear sensitive to stressors in utero. Methods We tested our ecological hypothesis in California for 228 months from January 1989 to December 2007, the most recent data available to us at the time of our tests. We used as the independent variable the Bureau of Labor Statistics unadjusted total state employment series. Time-series methods controlled for patterns of male CD over time. We also adjusted for the monthly count of female CD, which controls for well-characterized factors (e.g., medical-legal environment, changing risk profile of births) that affect CD but are shared across infant sex. Results Findings support the economic stress hypothesis in that male CD increases above its expected value one month after employment declines (employment coefficient?=?-24.09, standard error?=?11.88, p?=?.04). Additional exploratory analyses at the metropolitan level indicate that findings in Los Angeles and Orange Counties appear to drive the State-level relation. Conclusions Contracting economies may perturb the health of male more than female fetuses sufficiently enough to warrant more CD. Male relative to female CD may sensitively gauge the cohort health of gestations. PMID:24906208

  20. Frozen Gaussian series representation of the imaginary time propagator theory and numerical tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dong H. [Center of Theory and Computational Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Shao Jiushu [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Pollak, Eli [Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovoth (Israel)

    2009-07-28

    Thawed Gaussian wavepackets have been used in recent years to compute approximations to the thermal density matrix. From a numerical point of view, it is cheaper to employ frozen Gaussian wavepackets. In this paper, we provide the formalism for the computation of thermal densities using frozen Gaussian wavepackets. We show that the exact density may be given in terms of a series, in which the zeroth order term is the frozen Gaussian. A numerical test of the methodology is presented for deep tunneling in the quartic double well potential. In all cases, the series is observed to converge. The convergence of the diagonal density matrix element is much faster than that of the antidiagonal one, suggesting that the methodology should be especially useful for the computation of partition functions. As a by product of this study, we find that the density matrix in configuration space can have more than two saddle points at low temperatures. This has implications for the use of the quantum instanton theory.

  1. Synthesis of a New Series of Substituted Pyrimidines and Its Evaluation for Antibacterial and Antinociceptive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Akhlaq; Alorainy, Mohammad S.; Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Khan, Suroor A.; Raza, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pyrimidines are a well known group of compounds reported to have different biological activities. Prompted from the diversity of its wider use and being an integral part of genetic material, an effort was made to synthesize a novel series of amino-pyrimidine derivatives of pharmaceutical interest by condensing the guanidinyl derivative of nalidixic acid with different chalcones. Methods: The structures of all synthesized compounds were established on the basis of IR and 1HNMR spectral studies. All of the new compounds in this series were screened for antimicrobial activity. Gram +ve and Gram ?ve strains were used to ascertain the spectrum of activity. ED50 values in the tail flick test were determined and recorded. Analgesic potential of compounds by using tail flick test in SWR male mice have also revealed promising results. Results: All of the derivatives were effective in Gram –ve test against E. coli. None of the compounds show any inhibition of Gram +ve strain S. aureus. m-Bromo substitution derivative of amino-pyrimidines showed appreciable activity against E. coli, while 2,4 dichloro and p-chloro substitution derivatives also demonstrated improved activity. Compound 4 was most potent. The order of potency for these derivatives was 4>5?6>1>2>7>3. Parallel to antimicrobial activity, m-bromo substitution derivative showed significant (P<0.01) antinociceptive response in comparison to control, and this effect was comparable to aspirin group. Trimethoxy substitution of benzene ring demonstrated moderate activity, whereas p-bromo substitution essentially had no antinociceptive effects in mice. Conclusion: Comparing meta- and para- bromo substitutions, there had been significant (P<0.01) difference in the antinociceptive response of both the bromo-substituted derivatives. It was observed that bromo-substitution at meta- position demonstrated comparatively higher potential for its antibacterial as well as antinociceptive properties. PMID:21475470

  2. Statistical algorithm to test the presence of correlation between time series with age/dating uncertainties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haam, E. K.; Huybers, P.

    2008-12-01

    To understand the Earth's climate, we must understand the inter-relations between its specific geographical areas which, in the case of paleoclimatology, can be profitably undertaken from an empirical perspective. However, assessment of the inter-relation between separate paleoclimate records is inevitably hindered by uncertainties in the absolute and relative age/dating of these climate records, because the correlation between two paleoclimate data with age uncertainty can change dramatically when variations of the age are allowed within the uncertainty limit. Through rigorous statistical analysis of the available proxy data, we can hope to gain better insight into the nature and scope of the mechanisms governing their variability. We propose a statistical algorithm to test for the presence of correlation between two paleoclimate time series with age/dating uncertainties. Previous works in this area have focused on searching for the maximum similarity out of all possible realizations of the series, either heuristically (visual wiggle matching) or through more quantitative methods (eg. cross-correlation maximizer, dynamic programming). In contrast, this algorithm seeks to determine the statistical significance of the maximum covariance. The probability of obtaining a certain maximum covariance from purely random events can provide us with an objective standard for real correlation and it is assessed using the theory of extreme order statistics, as a multivariate normal integral. Since there is no known closed form solution for a multivariate normal integral, a numerical method is used. We apply this algorithm to test for the correlation of the Dansgaard-Oeschger variability observed during MIS3 in the GISPII ice core and millennial variability recorded at cites including Botuvera Cave in Brazil, Hulu Cave in China, Eastern Indonesia, the Arabian Sea, Villa Cave in Europe, New Zealand and the Santa Barbara basin. Results of the analysis are presented as a map of the statistical significance of the covariance between GISP II and each of these sites.

  3. RESEARCH REPORTS Paradoxical Effects of Testing

    E-print Network

    Chan, Jason C.K.

    RESEARCH REPORTS Paradoxical Effects of Testing: Retrieval Enhances Both Accurate Recall (RES). Here, we sought to test the generality of RES and to further elucidate its underlying mechanisms even when proactive interference played a minimal role. Keywords: testing effect, eyewitness memory

  4. Effects of structural tests on aircraft safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdem Acar; Raphael T. Haftka; Nam-Ho Kim; Deepti Buchi

    This paper investigates the effects of structural tests on aircraft safety. In particular, the paper focuses on the effect of the number of coupon tests and structural element tests on the final distribution of failure stress. The mean failure stress is assumed to be predicted by a failure criterion (e.g. Tsai-Wu), and the initial distribution of this mean failure stress

  5. Pretest Report for the Full Span Propulsive Wing/Canard Model Test in the NASA Langley 4 x 7 Meter Low Speed Wind Tunnel Second Series Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1986-01-01

    A full span propulsive wing/canard model is to be tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 4 x 7 meter low speed wind tunnel. These tests are a continuation of the tests conducted in Feb. 1984, NASA test No.290, and are being conducted under NASA Contract NAS1-17171. The purpose of these tests is to obtain extensive lateral-directional data with a revised fuselage concept. The wings, canards, and vertical tail of this second test series model are the same as tested in the previous test period. The fuselage and internal flow path have been modified to better reflect an external configuration suitable for a fighter airplane. Internal ducting and structure were changed as required to provide test efficiency and blowing control. The model fuselage tested during the 1984 tests was fabricated with flat sides to provide multiple wing and canard placement variations. The locations of the wing and canard are important variables in configuration development. With the establishment of the desired relative placement of the lifting surfaces, a typically shaped fuselage has been fabricated for these tests. This report provides the information necessary for the second series tests of the propulsive wing/canard model. The discussion in this report is limited to that affected by the model changes and to the second series test program. The pretest report information for test 290 which is valid for the second series test was published in Rockwell report NR 83H-79. This report is presented as Appendix 1 and the modified fuselage stress report is presented as Appendix 2 to this pretest report.

  6. Health maintenance facility system effectiveness testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Gosbee, John; Bueker, Richard; Kupra, Debra; Ruta, Mary

    1993-01-01

    The Medical Simulations Working Group conducted a series of medical simulations to evaluate the proposed Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) Preliminary Design Review (PDR) configuration. The goal of these simulations was to test the system effectiveness of the HMF PDR configurations. The objectives of the medical simulations are to (1) ensure fulfillment of requirements with this HMF design, (2) demonstrate the conformance of the system to human engineering design criteria, and (3) determine whether undesirable design or procedural features were introduced into the design. The simulations consisted of performing 6 different medical scenarios with the HMF mockup in the KRUG laboratory. The scenarios included representative medical procedures and used a broad spectrum of HMF equipment and supplies. Scripts were written and simulations performed by medical simulations working group members under observation from others. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, debriefings, and videotapes. Results were extracted and listed in the individual reports. Specific issues and recommendations from each simulation were compiled into the individual reports. General issues regarding the PDR design of the HMF are outlined in the summary report.

  7. Note---Analysis of Time Series with Calendar Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lon-Mu Liu

    1980-01-01

    Most national economic data and many marketing series are compiled monthly according to the Gregorian Calendar, but some of the ancient festivals or holidays, such as Easter, Jewish Passover, and Chinese New Year, are set by lunar calendar. Therefore the date of a holiday may vary between two adjacent months from year to year. Some product marketing and consumer behavior

  8. The Governance Committee: Independent Institutions. AGB Effective Committee Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. B.; Lanier, James L.

    2013-01-01

    This publication is part of an AGB series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimal committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices outlined in this publication support the objectives of board…

  9. Comparing the Effectiveness of Software Testing Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor R. Basili; Richard W. Selby

    1987-01-01

    This study applies an experimentation methodology to compare three state-of-the-practice software testing techniques: a) code reading by stepwise abstraction, b) functional testing using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, and c) structural testing using 100 percent statement coverage criteria. The study compares the strategies in three aspects of software testing: fault detection effectiveness, fault detection cost, and classes of faults

  10. The Effects of Data Set Size on Nonlinear Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, John; Tolle, Charles

    2000-09-01

    We present the results of our study in which we investigated the effects small data sets have on nonlinear time series analysis tools, namely average mutual information, false nearest-neighbors tests and the dominant Lyapunov exponent. We also looked at the subsequent effects on attractor reconstruction. We drew our data from four well-known systems: Henon map, Rossler (3D), Lorenz (3D), and the Pinsky-Rinzel neuron model (8D), as well as an integrate-and-fire version of the Rossler system. Using results from the TISEAN and Nonlinear Dynamics Toolbox software packages, we show that for properly sampled data, there is a limiting set size less than which the algorithms fail to give clear or accurate results and complicates or prevents attractor reconstruction.

  11. Full-Scale Tests of Several Propellers Equipped with Spinners, Cuffs, Airfoil and Round Shanks, and NACA 16-Series Sections, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Hartman, Edwin P.; Pepper, Edward

    1940-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests of several propeller, cuff, and spinner combinations were conducted in the 20 foot propeller-research tunnel. Three propellers, which ranged in diameter from 8.4 to 11.25 feet, were tested at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners of two diameters. The tests covered a blade angle range from 20 deg to 65 deg. The effect of spinner diameter and propeller cuffs on the characteristics of one propeller was determined. Test were also conducted using a propeller which incorporated aerodynamically good shank sections and using one which incorporated the NACA 16 series sections for the outer 20 percent of the blades. Compressibility effects were not measured, owing to the low testing speeds. The results indicated that a conventional propeller was slightly more efficient when tested in conjunction with a 28 inch diameter spinner than with a 23 inch spinner, and that cuffs increased the efficiency as well as the power absorption characteristics. A propeller having good aerodynamic shanks was found to be definitely superior from the efficiency standpoint to a conventional round-shank propeller with or without cuffs; this propeller would probably be considered structurally impracticable, however. The propeller incorporating the NACA 16 series sections at the tims were found to have a slightly higher efficiency than a conventional propeller; the take-off characteristics appeared to be equally good. The effects noted above probably would be accentuated at helical speeds at which compressibility effects would enter.

  12. Numerical Analysis of Relaxation Test Based on Prony Series Material Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahdi Mottahedi; Alexandru Dadalau; Alexander Hafla; Alexander Verl

    \\u000a In performing an experimental analysis it is always important to take into account different parameters influencing the results.\\u000a Boundary conditions in addition to the specimen size in case of nonlinear materials could be even more effective. Hence, a\\u000a full analysis of these parameters before doing any test on the real material seems necessary. In this paper, these effects\\u000a are numerically

  13. Evaluation of mutagenicity testing of extracts from processed oil shale. Water quality series report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, J.G.; Adams, V.D.

    1980-05-01

    The evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of processed oil shale extracts was carried out by the use of the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Four types of spent oil shale were used to obtain samples for testing and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in the shale extracts are known to give about 90% detection rate by the Ames test. Solvent extraction of the shale with organic solvents gave extracts which were found to contain mutagenically-active fractions. The choice of solvents was shown to have a great effect on the magnitude of the mutagenic response and may also generate a co-mutagenic effect. The Ames test failed to identify mutagens in the aqueous leachates from the spent oil shale. One of the major problems of the Ames test was that the dose response curves of one-to-one mixture of two mutagens were nonadditive. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strong mutagenic PAH, was found to mask the mutagenic response of other mutagens. The complex mixture of PAHs in processed oil shale may exhibit high mutagenicity due to possible co-mutagenesis. Further biological testing is necessary to establish the environmental impact of natural leaching of oil shale waste and the reliability of the Ames test.

  14. Hot-flow tests of a series of 10-percent-scale turbofan forced mixing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, V. L.; Povinelli, L. A.; Gerstenmaier, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    An approximately 1/10-scale model of a mixed-flow exhaust system was tested in a static facility with fully simulated hot-flow cruise and takeoff conditions. Nine mixer geometries with 12 to 24 lobes were tested. The areas of the core and fan stream were held constant to maintain a bypass ratio of approximately 5. The research results presented in this report were obtained as part of a program directed toward developing an improved mixer design methodology by using a combined analytical and experimental approach. The effects of lobe spacing, lobe penetration, lobe-to-centerbody gap, lobe contour, and scalloping of the radial side walls were investigated. Test measurements included total pressure and temperature surveys, flow angularity surveys, and wall and centerbody surface static pressure measurements. Contour plots at various stations in the mixing region are presented to show the mixing effectiveness for the various lobe geometries.

  15. Testing and Development Progress for the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) Testing Series in the High Power Propulsion Thermal Simulator (HPPTS) at Marshall Space Flight Center

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Poston, David; Kapernick, Rick; Reid, Bob [Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of California, US Department of Energy, PO Box 1663, MS J576, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Salvail, Pat [ITT Research Institute, Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Ring, Peter [Advanced Methods and Materials, 510 Lawrence Expressway, Suite 203, Sunnyvale, California, 94086 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series, whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 400 kW flight configuration system, has demonstrated that realistic testing can be performed using non-nuclear methods. This test series, carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities, successfully completed a testing program with a 30 kWt core, Stirling engine, and ion engine configuration. Additionally, a 100 kWt core is in fabrication and appropriate test facilities are being reconfigured. This paper describes the current SAFE non-nuclear tests, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. (authors)

  16. a New Category Stream Cipher Using Novel and Tested Pseudorandom Character Series with Dynamic Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralee, Krishnan C. R.

    2008-10-01

    This symmetric key algorithm and its implementation convert manually entered password into mathematical expression, which is further used to generate an infinitely non-repetitive sequence of presumably random characters. These random series of characters are used to encrypt the data. This encrypted data stream is in turn swapped by dividing the data, block by block and the size of the blocks keep changing from the beginning of the data to the end of the data. The swapping commences from the beginning of the encryption and proceeds. The size of the block for swapping is narrow compared to the full length of the data and entirely depends on the one of the earlier characters which has already got swapped away from its initial position. All the characters will be mapped uniquely to mathematical expressions of a set of parameters in a pool of 256 expressions. These expressions corresponding to all characters in a password are added together to obtain a resultant expression. The above mentioned expressions corresponding to each character are further modified in advance (before summing up together) by including a `position index'. This is inevitable to take care of the repetition of characters within a password and also in the case of a permutated password. In the case of permutated passwords, the random characters generated should be different in each case. In another words, each character and its position in the password have its own unique identity. Two pools of mathematical expressions are employed, coupled with different initiations to the parameters, to get a couple of pseudorandom character series, one's value being fed to the other. These are XORed together giving rise to a random series passing the popularly available randomness tests done by Nernst and Die hard. The initiating vector will be using, possibly the system time, and annexed with the original password to get the modified password. The system is similar to the conventional IV manipulation. The swapping will obviate substitution attack and the initiating vector method will prevent the possibility of reuse of key.

  17. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period*

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; de Castro, Paulo Carrara

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk. PMID:24474122

  18. Test report for single event effects of the 80386DX microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. Kevin; Schwartz, Harvey R.; Nichols, Donald K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Section 514 Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing and Analysis Group has performed a series of SEE tests of certain strategic registers of Intel's 80386DX CHMOS 4 microprocessor. Following a summary of the test techniques and hardware used to gather the data, we present the SEE heavy ion and proton test results. We also describe the registers tested, along with a system impact analysis should these registers experience a single event upset.

  19. A Testing Effect with Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cheryl I.; Mayer, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    A testing effect occurs when a learner performs better on a retention test after studying the material and taking a practice-retention test than after studying the material twice. In the present study, 282 participants watched a narrated animation about lightning formation and then watched the presentation again (restudy), took a…

  20. Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.

    PubMed

    Garrec, D A; Norton, I T

    2012-08-01

    Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water. PMID:22621913

  1. Forecasting volcanic air pollution in Hawaii: Tests of time series models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reikard, Gordon

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic air pollution, known as vog (volcanic smog) has recently become a major issue in the Hawaiian islands. Vog is caused when volcanic gases react with oxygen and water vapor. It consists of a mixture of gases and aerosols, which include sulfur dioxide and other sulfates. The source of the volcanic gases is the continuing eruption of Mount Kilauea. This paper studies predicting vog using statistical methods. The data sets include time series for SO2 and SO4, over locations spanning the west, south and southeast coasts of Hawaii, and the city of Hilo. The forecasting models include regressions and neural networks, and a frequency domain algorithm. The most typical pattern for the SO2 data is for the frequency domain method to yield the most accurate forecasts over the first few hours, and at the 24 h horizon. The neural net places second. For the SO4 data, the results are less consistent. At two sites, the neural net generally yields the most accurate forecasts, except at the 1 and 24 h horizons, where the frequency domain technique wins narrowly. At one site, the neural net and the frequency domain algorithm yield comparable errors over the first 5 h, after which the neural net dominates. At the remaining site, the frequency domain method is more accurate over the first 4 h, after which the neural net achieves smaller errors. For all the series, the average errors are well within one standard deviation of the actual data at all the horizons. However, the errors also show irregular outliers. In essence, the models capture the central tendency of the data, but are less effective in predicting the extreme events.

  2. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a larger anthropometric portion of the astronaut population, and elements tested only in the unsuited condition need to be evaluated with an EVA suit and appropriate analog environment.

  3. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  4. Qualifciation test series of the indium needle FEEP micro-propulsion system for LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharlemann, C.; Buldrini, N.; Killinger, R.; Jentsch, M.; Polli, A.; Ceruti, L.; Serafini, L.; DiCara, D.; Nicolini, D.

    2011-11-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna project (LISA) is a co-operative program between ESA and NASA to detect gravitational waves by measuring distortions in the space-time fabric. LISA Pathfinder is the precursor mission to LISA designed to validate the core technologies intended for LISA. One of the enabling technologies is the micro-propulsion system based on field emission thrusters necessary to achieve the uniquely stringent propulsion requirements. A consortium consisting of Astrium GmbH and the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt (formerly AIT) was commissioned by ESA to develop and qualify the micro-propulsion system based on the Indium Needle FEEP technology. Several successful tests have verified the proper Needle Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) operation and the thermal and mechanical design of subcomponents of the developed system. For all functional tests, the flight representative Power Control Unit developed by SELEX Galileo S.p.A (also responsible for the Micro-Propulsion Subsystem (MPS) development) was used. Measurements have shown the exceptional stability of the thruster. An acceptance test of one Thruster Cluster Assembly (TCA) over 3600 h has shown the stable long term operation of the developed system. During the acceptance test compliance to all the applicable requirements have been shown such as a thrust resolution of 0.1 ?N, thrust range capability between 0 and 100 ?N, thrust overshoot much lower than the required 0.3 ?N+3% and many others. In particular important is the voltage stability of the thruster (±1% over the duration of the testing) and the confirmation of the very low thrust noise. Based on the acceptance test the lifetime of the thruster is expected to exceed 39,000 h generating a total impulse bit of 6300 Ns at an average thrust level of 50 ?N. A flight representative qualification model of the Needle FEEP Cluster Assembly (DM1) equipped with one active TCA has performed a qualification program consisting of acceptance, vibration, shock, and thermal vacuum test. During the last test, the thermal vacuum test (TVT), a performance decrease was observed. According to a preliminary analysis, this performance decrease is not linked to the thermal conditions simulated in the TVT but might be rather linked to secondary effects of the TVT set-up.

  5. Prospective Case Series on the Effects of Lumbosacral Manipulation on Dysmenorrhea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise A. Holtzman; Kristina L. Petrocco-Napuli; Jeanmarie R. Burke

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveThe objective of this prospective case series was to collect preliminary data as to the effectiveness of a specific chiropractic technique, drop table method, in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

  6. Two-part test of vaccine effect.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zonghui; Proschan, Michael

    2015-05-20

    Vaccine benefit is usually two-folded: (i) prevent a disease or, failing that, (ii) diminish the severity of a disease. To assess vaccine effect, we propose two adaptive tests. The weighted two-part test is a combination of two statistics, one on disease incidence and one on disease severity. More weight is given to the statistic with the larger a priori effect size, and the weights are determined to maximize testing power. The randomized test applies to the scenario where the total number of infections is relatively small. It uses information on disease severity to bolster power while preserving disease incidence as the primary interest. Properties of the proposed tests are explored asymptotically and by numerical studies. Although motivated by vaccine studies, the proposed tests apply to any trials that involve both binary and continuous outcomes for evaluating treatment effect. Published 2015. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25630496

  7. Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

  8. Matching-Tests: Reduced Anxiety and Increased Test Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven H. Shaha

    1984-01-01

    A review of research on the negative effects of text anxiety on scholastic performance led to the consideration of the use of matching formats for anxiety reduction. Three experiments were conducted in which high school juniors and seniors took parallel matching and multiple-choice tests covering topics of prior knowledge (Exp. I) or recently learned information (Experiments II and III). Results

  9. 77 FR 15750 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 810 Series; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ...documents. In particular, data recommendations for testing against the spore formers Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium difficile have been added. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Antimicrobials, Chemical testing, Test...

  10. Evaluating condition based maintenance effectiveness for two processes in series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javid Koochaki; Jos Bokhorst; Hans Wortmann; Warse Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to study maintenance policies on a plant-wide level. It focuses on the effectiveness of condition-based maintenance (CBM). It highlights the role of the production context and the importance of using appropriate metrics to assess CBM. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A simulation model was developed to explore the effects of production context using traditional performance indicators (costs and

  11. Random Test Run Length and Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, James H.; Groce, Alex; Weston, Melissa; Xu, Ru-Gang

    2008-01-01

    A poorly understood but important factor in many applications of random testing is the selection of a maximum length for test runs. Given a limited time for testing, it is seldom clear whether executing a small number of long runs or a large number of short runs maximizes utility. It is generally expected that longer runs are more likely to expose failures -- which is certainly true with respect to runs shorter than the shortest failing trace. However, longer runs produce longer failing traces, requiring more effort from humans in debugging or more resources for automated minimization. In testing with feedback, increasing ranges for parameters may also cause the probability of failure to decrease in longer runs. We show that the choice of test length dramatically impacts the effectiveness of random testing, and that the patterns observed in simple models and predicted by analysis are useful in understanding effects observed.

  12. Modular Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety Disorders: A Partial Effectiveness Test in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Angela Wai Mon

    2010-01-01

    The current study used a programmatic dissemination model as a guiding framework for testing an evidence-supported treatment (EST) for child anxiety disorders in the school setting. The main goal of the project was to conduct the first of a planned series of partial-effectiveness tests (group-design randomized controlled trials) evaluating the…

  13. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, J. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  14. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  15. Tide effects removed from well tests

    SciTech Connect

    Aase, E.P.B.; Jelmert, T.A. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondeim (Norway); Vik, S.A. [Saga Petroleum A.S., Sandvika (Norway)

    1995-05-01

    To avoid distorted data when analyzing well pressure tests of permeable offshore reservoirs, one needs to account for periodic ocean tidal stress. Quartz-crystal bottom hole pressure recorders provide a high resolution of reservoir pressure but also measures pressure fluctuations from tidal effects during well testing. Periodic oscillations in the reservoir pressure are due to the three mechanisms: solid earth tide; barometric tide/effect; and ocean tide. The paper uses sample data from an offshore reservoir to illustrate how tide effects can be identified in the data and the correction procedure to use to remove these effects.

  16. The Obama effect: An experimental test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Aronson; Sheana Jannone; Matthew McGlone; Tanisha Johnson-Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Past research on stereotype threat and role model effects, as well as a recent quasi-experiment (Marx, Ho, & Freidman, this issue) suggested the possibility of an “Obama effect” on African American’s standardized test performance, whereby the salience of Barack Obama’s stereotype defying success could positively impact performance. We tested this reasoning in a randomized experiment with a broad sample of

  17. Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences. Educational Practices Series-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…

  18. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  19. Secrets of Highly Effective Meetings. The Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Maria M.; Bauer, Laurie K.

    Whenever educators gather to achieve a common goal, every participant should arrive with a sense of purpose and leave with a feeling of accomplishment. This book explains how to make meetings more efficient and effective. It outlines: (1) the correlation between excellent meetings and excellent results; (2) how to plan, open, conduct, and follow…

  20. Facing the Risks of the "Mozart Effect." Grand Masters Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bennett

    1999-01-01

    Explores the argument introduced by the "Mozart Effect" research: that music's positive influence on spatial-temporal reasoning should be the purpose for music education. Considers the implications by reshaping the National Standards for Music Education to fulfill the spatial-temporal rationale. Suggests how to reconcile musical and other purposes…

  1. Situational Effects in Ability Testing 1 Running head: SITUATIONAL EFFECTS IN ABILITY TESTING

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach.03.011 #12;Situational Effects in Ability Testing 2 Abstract Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists

  2. New hybrid non-linear transformations of divergent perturbation series for quadratic Zeeman effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Belkic

    1989-01-01

    The problem of hydrogen atoms in an external uniform magnetic field (quadratic Zeeman effect) is studied by means of perturbation theory. The power series for the ground-state energy in terms of magnetic-field strength B is divergent. Nevertheless, it is possible to induce convergence of this divergent series by applying various non-linear transformations, such as those of Shanks (e), Levin (t,

  3. Comparing the effectiveness of software testing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Selby, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    This study compares the results of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing in three aspects of software testing: fault detection effectiveness, fault detection cost, and classes of faults detected. Thirty two professional programmers and 42 advanced students applied the three techniques to four unit-sized programs in a fractional experimental design. The major results of this study are the following: (1) With the professional programmers, code reading detected more software faults and had a higher detection rate than did functional or structural testing, while functional testing detected more faults than did structural testing, but functional and structural testing were not different in fault detection rate. (2) In one advanced student subject group, code reading and functional testing were not different in faults found, but were superior to structural testing, while in the other advanced student subject group there was no difference among the techniques. (3) With the advanced student subjects, the three techniques were not different in fault deteciton rate. (4) Number of faults observed, fault detection rate, and total effort in detection depended on the type of software tested. (5) Code reading detected more interface faults than did the other methods. (6) Functional testing detected more control faults than did the other methods. (7) When asked to estimate the percentage of faults detected, code readers gave the most accurate estimates while functional testers gave the least accurate estimates. Appendix B includes the source code for the word.

  4. The effect of distributed series resistance on the dark and illuminated current-voltage characteristics of solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Araujo; A. Cuevas; J. M. Ruiz

    1986-01-01

    Distributed series resistance effects in solar cells are analyzed and the correctness of representing these by a lumped parameter is discussed for any conditions of bias and illumination. In addition to a general mathematical methodology, analytical expressions are derived to simplify the estimation of series resistance effects on the dark and illuminated J-V characteristics of the cell. The equivalent series

  5. Non-verbal Effects in Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)

  6. Interpreting the Macroeconomic Time Series Facts: The Effects of Monetary Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Sims

    1992-01-01

    Existing theory and evidence on the effects of monetary policy are reviewed. Substantial room for disagreement among economists remains. New evidence, based on multivariate time series studies of several countries, is presented. While certain patterns in the data consistent with effective monetary policy are strikingly similar across countries, others, particularly the tendency of interest rate increases to predict high inflation,

  7. Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) Review Series: Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance

    E-print Network

    Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) Review Series: Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance Dates: October 28, 2011 Location: Rutgers University­ Livingston Campus, Tillett Hall in understanding both the content and organization of Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance

  8. Temperature effects on dog hindpaw series and parallel vascular circuits.

    PubMed

    Baker, C H; Davis, D L; Lindsey, B G; Sutton, E T

    1983-07-01

    The effect of environmental temperature (skin surface) on distribution of blood flow between the parallel vascular circuits has been assessed in vascularly and neurally isolated hindpaws perfused at constant pressure. The paw was sealed in a chamber filled with water at 10, 20, 30, or 40 degrees C. Peripheral resistance increased as the temperature decreased in both innervated and denervated paws. Resistance in the denervated paws was less than in the innervated paws at all temperatures. Recovery of 85Sr microspheres was less at 40 degrees C than at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C in the denervated paws but did not change in innervated paws. Capillary availability (diffusion capacity and filtration coefficient) increased with each elevation in temperature in both groups. At 10 degrees C both arteriovenous (AV) shunt and capillary flows were low in innervated paws with low capillary and high shunt flow in denervated paws. At 20 and 30 degrees C capillary flow increased with temperature and arteriovenous anastomosis (AVA) flow was unchanged in denervated paws. In innervated paws AV shunt flow fraction slightly increased, with capillary perfusion markedly increased as temperature was elevated. The increased capillary flow in both groups passed through an enlarged capillary bed, whereas the number and/or diameter of AVAs remained essentially unchanged. PMID:6346904

  9. Effects of reinforcement on standardized test performance.

    PubMed

    Ayllon, T; Kelly, K

    1972-01-01

    The effects of two different motivational conditions upon standardized test performance were explored for two student populations. The first study involving 12 trainable retardates showed a significant increase in score on the Metropolitan Readiness Test given under reinforcement conditions when these results were compared with scores taken under standard testing conditions. In a second study, these same results were obtained with a group of 30 normal fourth-graders. An additional study was conducted to determine the effect of different experiences with token reinforcement procedures on test performance. It was found that a group of children with six weeks' exposure to reinforcement for daily academic performance scored higher under both conditions of test administration (standard and reinforcement) than a control group. However, in a single exposure to token reinforcement for correct performance on the Metropolitan Test, both the experimental group and its match control showed a parallel increase in test performance. These findings offer a procedure that yields a more representative assessment of a student's academic achievement than does testing under standard conditions. PMID:16795371

  10. Testing for nonlinearity in time series: the method of surrogate data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Theder; Bryan Galdrikian; J. Doyne Farmer

    1992-01-01

    We describe a statistical approach for identifying nonlinearity in time series. The method first specifies some linear process as a null hypothesis, then generates surrogate data sets which are consistent with this null hypothesis, and finally computes a discriminating statistic for the original and for each of the surrogate data sets. If the value computed for the original data is

  11. Method tests effects of heat on FBE pipeline coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, G.L.; Bates, C.R.

    1988-06-20

    A new procedure for testing elevated-temperature cathodic disbondment (C.D.) in fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings appears consistent and reliable. Further, its results question C.D. theories that fail to account for effects at above-ambient temperatures. The work to develop this procedure also included experiments that demonstrated how the relative performance of coating systems - especially FBE line-pipe coatings operated at elevated temperature - could not be predicted from ambient-temperature assessment. Data reported in this third in a series on pipeline-protection technology confirm and expand on these aspects and introduce more recent results on the behavior of FBE coatings subjected to elevated-temperature C.D. testing.

  12. J-2X Engine Ready For Second Test Series - Duration: 3 minutes, 55 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse video of the installation of J-2X engine 10001 in the A-2 test-stand at Stennis, complete with clamshell assembly and nozzle extension. With these enhancements test engineers will measur...

  13. System size effects in the N/Z dependence of balance energy for isotopic series

    E-print Network

    Sakshi Gautam; Aman Deep Sood

    2011-07-25

    We study the system size effects in the N/Z dependence of balance energy for the isotopic series. We find drastic effect of symmetry energy on the N/Z dependence of E$_{bal}$ throughout the mass range. We also find that the N/Z dependence of E$_{bal}$ for isotopic series of lighter system is slightly more sensitive to symmetry energy as compared to that of heavier systems. We also study the mass dependence of E$_{bal}$ for the N/Z range from 1.0-2.0. We find that the mass dependence of E$_{bal}$ varies with the N/Z ratio.

  14. Tests of Reading Readiness and Achievement: A Review and Evaluation. Reading Aids Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Roger; Anastasiow, Nicholas

    This book is intended primarily for classroom teachers and other personnel who work directly with teachers in selecting reading readiness tests or achievement tests. The first chapter lists and briefly explains the criteria used by the authors in reviewing the tests included. These criteria are concerned with norms, standardization, objectivity,…

  15. Language Testing Symposium: A Psycholinguistic Approach. Language and Language Learning [Series], No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alan, Ed.

    Eleven papers on language testing deal with various psycholinguistic aspects ranging from the particular application of language aptitude tests to statistical methods of measurement and evaluation. Several chapters treat the difficulties involved in testing spoken language aptitude and attainment. Contributors to this volume include K. Brown, A.…

  16. Detection of Undocumented Changepoints Using Multiple Test Statistics and Composite Reference Series

    E-print Network

    Detection of Undocumented Changepoints Using Multiple Test Statistics and Composite Reference of three hypothesis test statistics that are commonly used in the detection of undocu- mented changepoints the choice of the hypothesis test statistic, provided that the composite is calculated from the serially

  17. Essentials of WJ III[TM] Tests of Achievement Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Nancy; Wendling, Barbara J.; Woodcock, Richard W.

    The widely used Woodcock Johnson (WJ) Test of Achievement has been separated into two distinct tests, Achievement and Cognitive Abilities. This book is designed to help busy mental health professionals acquire the knowledge and skills they need to use the third revision of the WJ Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH) , including administration,…

  18. Effects of Laser Wavelength on Ablator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength-dependent or spectral radiation effects are potentially significant for thermal protection materials. NASA atmospheric entry simulations include trajectories with significant levels of shock layer radiation which is concentrated in narrow spectral lines. Tests using two different high powered lasers, the 10.6 micron LHMEL I CO2 laser and the near-infrared 1.07 micron fiber laser, on low density ablative thermal protection materials offer a unique opportunity to evaluate spectral effects. Test results indicated that the laser wavelength can impact the thermal response of an ablative material, in terms of bond-line temperatures, penetration times, mass losses, and char layer thicknesses.

  19. Movement-related effects in fMRI time-series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Friston; S. R. Williams; R. Howard; R. S. J. Frackowiak; R. Turner

    1996-01-01

    Abstract This paper concerns the spatial and intensity transformations that are required to adjust for the confounding,effects of subject movement,during fMRI activation studies. We present an approach that models, and removes, movement-relatedartefacts from fMRI time-series. This approach is predicated on the ,observation ,that movement-related effects are extant even after perfect realignment. These effects can be divided into those that are

  20. Analysis of Effects of Meteorological Factors on Dengue Incidence in Sri Lanka Using Time Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Kensuke; Kumarendran, Balachandran; Mettananda, Sachith; Gunasekara, Deepa; Fujii, Yoshito; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions of eastern and South-eastern Asia, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks occur frequently. Previous studies indicate an association between meteorological variables and dengue incidence using time series analyses. The impacts of meteorological changes can affect dengue outbreak. However, difficulties in collecting detailed time series data in developing countries have led to common use of monthly data in most previous studies. In addition, time series analyses are often limited to one area because of the difficulty in collecting meteorological and dengue incidence data in multiple areas. To gain better understanding, we examined the effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in three geographically distinct areas (Ratnapura, Colombo, and Anuradhapura) of Sri Lanka by time series analysis of weekly data. The weekly average maximum temperature and total rainfall and the total number of dengue cases from 2005 to 2011 (7 years) were used as time series data in this study. Subsequently, time series analyses were performed on the basis of ordinary least squares regression analysis followed by the vector autoregressive model (VAR). In conclusion, weekly average maximum temperatures and the weekly total rainfall did not significantly affect dengue incidence in three geographically different areas of Sri Lanka. However, the weekly total rainfall slightly influenced dengue incidence in the cities of Colombo and Anuradhapura. PMID:23671694

  1. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Multiple Hypothesis Testing by Clustering Treatment Effects

    E-print Network

    Newton, Michael

    Multiple Hypothesis Testing by Clustering Treatment Effects David B. DAHL and Michael A. NEWTON, but rather to properly control an error rate. The false discovery rate David B. Dahl is Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843 (E-mail: dahl

  3. The NASA atomic oxygen effects test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Brady, Joyce A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Atomic Oxygen Effects Test Program was established to compare the low earth orbital simulation characteristics of existing atomic oxygen test facilities and utilize the collective data from a multitude of simulation facilities to promote understanding of mechanisms and erosion yield dependence upon energy, flux, metastables, charge, and environmental species. Four materials chosen for this evaluation include Kapton HN polyimide, FEP Teflon, polyethylene, and graphite single crystals. The conditions and results of atomic oxygen exposure of these materials is reported by the participating organizations and then assembled to identify degrees of dependency of erosion yields that may not be observable from any single atomic oxygen low earth orbital simulation facility. To date, the program includes 30 test facilities. Characteristics of the participating test facilities and results to date are reported.

  4. ECOS Inquiries Series -University of Montana Effect of Acid Rain on the Ability of

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Carol

    1 ECOS Inquiries Series - University of Montana Effect of Acid Rain on the Ability of Soil Microbes OF ACID RAIN ON THE ABILITY OF SOIL MICROBES TO DECOMPOSE ORGANIC NITROGEN 3. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: a ecosystems. One well known example of this is the production of acid rain due to certain air pollutants

  5. Effects of Manual Therapy on Craniofacial Pain in Patients With Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Case Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Méndez-Sánchez; Javier González-Iglesias; Ana Silvia Puente-González; Jose Luis Sánchez-Sánchez; Emilio J. Puentedura; César Fernández-de-las-Peñas

    ObjectiveChronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is thought to develop through an inadequate drainage of nasal and sinus secretions and perpetuated by local mechanical and autonomic nervous system factors. Manual therapy may have an effect on these factors providing symptomatic relief of CRS symptoms. The purpose of this prospective case series was to report the results of manual therapy on a set of

  6. Effects of Series Elasticity on the Human Knee Extension Torque-Angle Relationship in Vivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubo, Keitaro; Ohgo, Kazuya; Takeishi, Ryuichi; Yoshinaga, Kazunari; Tsunoda, Naoya; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of series elasticity on the torque-angle relationship of the knee extensors in vivo. Forty-two men volunteered to take part in the present study. The participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions at eight knee-joint angles (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110[degree]). The…

  7. Planning, Instruction, and Assessment: Effective Teaching Practices. James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Leslie W.; Hindman, Jennifer; Stronge, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This entry in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series focuses on specific strategies teachers can use to improve the quality of their instruction. Studies have shown teacher quality to be the top indicator of student achievement, with the effects of good teachers apparent even as students move on to successive grades. In this book, Grant,…

  8. Statistical Considerations in Choosing a Test Reliability Coefficient. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (10)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…

  9. Reflections on a Century of College Admissions Tests. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.4.09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.; Geiser, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Standardized testing for college admissions has grown exponentially since the first administration of the old "College Boards" in 1901. This paper surveys major developments since then: the introduction of the "Scholastic Aptitude Test" in 1926, designed to tap students' general analytic ability; E.F. Lindquist's creation of the ACT in 1959 as a…

  10. Performance Testing: Issues Facing Vocational Education. Research and Development Series No. 190.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirer, Janet E., Ed.

    Addressing issues facing vocational education on the topic of performance testing, this handbook consists of a collection of seventeen commissioned papers and reactions to the papers. Two papers are presented on each of the following types of issues that must be considered before a performance test can be constructed: philosophical, technical,…

  11. Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications. Evaluation in Education and Human Services Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K., Ed.; Zaal, Jac N., Ed.

    The 14 chapters of this book focus on the technical advances, advances in applied settings, and emerging topics in the testing field. Part 1 discusses methodological advances, Part 2 considers developments in applied settings, and Part 3 reviews emerging topics in the field of testing. Part 1 papers include: (1) "Advances in Criterion-Referenced…

  12. Dynamic Testing with Tangible Electronics: Measuring Children's Change in Strategy Use with a Series Completion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Elliott, Julian G.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to explore the use of a novel approach that incorporates dynamic testing and tangible electronics in the assessment of children's learning potential and strategy use. Sample: A total of 77 children with a mean age 8.9 years participated in the study; half of them were dynamically tested using graduate prompt techniques; the…

  13. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    This report asserts that rapid changes in many areas, such as technology and communications, marked the 20th century, the first century of ability testing. Predictions about the second century of testing seem difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, E. Kirkpatrick (1900) in his American Psychological…

  14. Selecting and Using Tests of Career Skills. Information Series No. 177.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Arthur M.; Pfister, Linda A.

    The increased attention to measuring career skills has resulted in more instrument development, more testing of students, and more test administrators. There are three key areas of concern. The first area is that of identifying purposes to be served by assessing career skills. Purposes include permitting descriptions of the current status of…

  15. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, T. A.; England, J. F.; Berenbrock, C. E.; Mason, R. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Lamontagne, J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as "less-than" values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  16. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  17. Sleep can reduce the testing effect -it enhances recall of restudied items but can leave recall of retrieved items

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Sleep can reduce the testing effect - it enhances recall of restudied items but can leave recall intervals include both wake and sleep delay, which can influence memory contents differently. In fact, sleep. We investigated in a series of 5 experiments whether sleep influences the testing effect. After

  18. Matching-Tests: Reduced Anxiety and Increased Test Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.

    1984-01-01

    It was hypothesized that matching test formats would reduce test anxiety. Three experiments were conducted in which high school juniors and seniors took parallel matching and multiple-choice tests covering topics of prior knowledge or recently learned information. Results showed that matching tests were superior to multiple choice formats.…

  19. Generalized Euler transformation for summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation series: the Zeeman effect

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, J.N.

    1983-07-01

    A generalized Euler transformation (GET) is introduced which provides a powerful alternative method of accurately summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schroedinger (RS) perturbation series when other summability methods fail or are difficult to apply. The GET is simple to implement and, unlike a number of other summation procedures, requires no a priori knowledge of the analytic properties of the function underlying the RS series. Application of the GET to the difficult problem of the RS weak-field ground-state eigenvalue series of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field (quadratic Zeeman effect) yields sums of good accuracy over a very wide range of field strengths up to the most intense fields of 10/sup 14/ G. The GET results are compared with those obtained by other summing methods.

  20. Generalized Euler transformation for summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation series: The Zeeman effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Jeremiah N.

    1983-07-01

    A generalized Euler transformation (GET) is introduced which provides a powerful alternative method of accurately summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schrödinger (RS) perturbation series when other summability methods fail or are difficult to apply. The GET is simple to implement and, unlike a number of other summation procedures, requires no a priori knowledge of the analytic properties of the function underlying the RS series. Application of the GET to the difficult problem of the RS weak-field ground-state eigenvalue series of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field (quadratic Zeeman effect) yields sums of good accuracy over a very wide range of field strengths up to the most intense fields of 1014 G. The GET results are compared with those obtained by other summing methods.

  1. Multistage Adaptive Testing for a Large-Scale Classification Test: Design, Heuristic Assembly, and Comparison with Other Testing Modes. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (6)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yi; Nozawa, Yuki; Gao, Xiaohong; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Multistage adaptive tests (MSTs) have gained increasing popularity in recent years. MST is a balanced compromise between linear test forms (i.e., paper-and-pencil testing and computer-based testing) and traditional item-level computer-adaptive testing (CAT). It combines the advantages of both. On one hand, MST is adaptive (and therefore more…

  2. Testing for a Unit Root in Time Series With Pretest Data-Based Model Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alastair R Hall

    1994-01-01

    In this article we examine the impact of data-based lag-length estimation on the behavior of the augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) test for a unit root. We derive conditions under which the ADF test converges to the distribution tabulated by Dickey and Fuller and verify that these conditions are satisfied by several commonly employed lag-selection strategies. Simulation evidence indicates that the performance

  3. Statistical Test for Dynamical Nonstationarity in Observed Time-Series Data

    E-print Network

    Matthew B. Kennel

    1995-12-21

    Information in the time distribution of points in a state space reconstructed from observed data yields a test for ``nonstationarity''. Framed in terms of a statistical hypothesis test, this numerical algorithm can discern whether some underlying slow changes in parameters have taken place. The method examines a fundamental object in nonlinear dynamics, the geometry of orbits in state space, with corrections to overcome difficulties in real dynamical data which cause naive statistics to fail.

  4. Examining the Testing Effect with Open-and Closed-Book Tests

    E-print Network

    McDermott, Kathleen

    Examining the Testing Effect with Open- and Closed-Book Tests POOJA K. AGARWAL*, JEFFREY D. Louis, St. Louis, USA SUMMARY Two experiments examined the testing effect with open-book tests, in which students view notes and textbooks while taking the test, and closed-book tests, in which students take

  5. Assessing error sources for Landsat time series analysis for tropical test sites in Viet Nam and Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Michael; Verbesselt, Jan; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio

    2013-10-01

    Researchers who use remotely sensed data can spend half of their total effort analysing prior data. If this data preprocessing does not match the application, this time spent on data analysis can increase considerably and can lead to inaccuracies. Despite the existence of a number of methods for pre-processing Landsat time series, each method has shortcomings, particularly for mapping forest changes under varying illumination, data availability and atmospheric conditions. Based on the requirements of mapping forest changes as defined by the United Nations (UN) Reducing Emissions from Forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) program, the accurate reporting of the spatio-temporal properties of these changes is necessary. We compared the impact of three fundamentally different radiometric preprocessing techniques Moderate Resolution Atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN), Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and simple Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) on mapping forest changes using Landsat time series data. A modification of Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) monitor was used to jointly map the spatial and temporal agreement of forest changes at test sites in Ethiopia and Viet Nam. The suitability of the pre-processing methods for the occurring forest change drivers was assessed using recently captured Ground Truth and high resolution data (1000 points). A method for creating robust generic forest maps used for the sampling design is presented. An assessment of error sources has been performed identifying haze as a major source for time series analysis commission error.

  6. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses fr...

  7. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Pressure Distribution Tests on a Series of Clark Y Biplane Cellules with Special Reference to Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Richard W

    1933-01-01

    The pressure distribution data discussed in this report represents the results of part of an investigation conducted on the factors affecting the aerodynamic safety of airplanes. The present tests were made on semispan, circular-tipped Clark Y airfoil models mounted in the conventional manner on a separation plane. Pressure readings were made simultaneously at all test orifices at each of 20 angles of attack between -8 degrees and +90 degrees. The results of the tests on each wing arrangement are compared on the bases of maximum normal force coefficient, lateral stability at a low rate of roll, and relative longitudinal stability. Tabular data are also presented giving the center of pressure location of each wing.

  9. BIMA Memoranda Series Report from First Hat Creek Fiber-Optic Test

    E-print Network

    maintained to antennas 1 and 2. 2.1 Fiber-Optic Link Fiber-optic transmitter and receiver units were was carried back to the control room in a second fiber in the cable and fed into the optical rec* *eiver unit for the distribution of LO and IF signals was successfully i* *nstalled and tested on antenna #3 at Hat Creek

  10. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  11. Cognitive Area Brown Bag Series 2005 Kevin D. Ashley. 2005 Hypothesis formation and testing in

    E-print Network

    Ashley, Kevin D.

    . Carney of trading drugs for sex in motor home located in downtown San Diego parking lot. After Research and Development Center University of Pittsburgh With thanks to: Vincent Aleven, CMU, co-PI, Niels tests: State of CA (Mr. Hanoian): Like automobile exception. If place-to-search has wheels and is self

  12. Validity Evidence for ACT Compass® Placement Tests. ACT Research Report Series 2014 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrick, Paul A.; Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    We examined the validity of using Compass® test scores and high school grade point average (GPA) for placing students in first-year college courses and for identifying students at risk of not succeeding. Consistent with other research, the combination of high school GPA and Compass scores performed better than either measure used alone. Results…

  13. SIR MARK A REACTOR CONTROL CYCLINDER. ACTUATOR PLUG AND QUICK DISCONNECT ASSEMBLY. Interim Report for Period Ending December 1, 1954. Series 1 Test, Fixture No. 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Bissonnette; M. A. Colapinto; J. A. McBride

    1954-01-01

    Interim report is made on the fourth of a series of tests investigating ; the operating characteristics of the reactor mechanical system components ; including a SIR Mark A prototype control cylinder, a SIR Mark A quick disconnect ; unit, and a SIR Mark A control actuator plug. Components were tested, in the ; Mark A Test Fixture No. 2,

  14. Validation of non-Darcian flow effects in slug tests conducted in fractured rock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA series of rising and falling head slug tests with different initial applied head differentials (?Ho) were conducted in open fractured dolostone and sandstone boreholes using straddle packers isolating specific depth intervals (1.5 m length) to examine the influence of non-Darcian flow. The open holes were developed and inspected using video and acoustic televiewing (ATV) to ensure that evidence of skin effects due to drilling were absent. The transmissivity (T) values obtained from both the rising and falling head slug tests were very similar at low initial applied head; however, the T values were progressively smaller at larger ?Ho, suggesting error due to non-Darcian flow. Non-Darcian flow behavior was confirmed by constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals where the injection rate (Q) vs. applied head (dH) relationship became non-linear at relatively low injection rates, and the non-Darcian data also resulted in lower T values. For a series of slug tests conducted at different ?Ho, non-Darcian flow effects gradually increased as ?Ho increased, consistent with the trends for constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals. To maintain Darcian flow conditions in the fractured dolostone and sandstone tested in this study, ?Ho must be kept small, generally less than 0.2 m. This study demonstrates that by conducting both "stepped" slug tests and constant head step tests, the Darcian flow assumption for both types of tests can be rigorously validated. However, when only slug tests are conducted, it is necessary to conduct a series of "stepped" slug tests, including tests with small applied head differentials, to avoid errors due to non-Darcian flow.

  15. Testing the individual effective dose hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hung T; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The assumption of the individual effective dose is the basis for the probit method used for analyzing dose or concentration-response data. According to this assumption, each individual has a uniquely innate tolerance expressed as the individual effective dose (IED) or the smallest dose that is sufficient to kill the individual. An alternative to IED, stochasticity suggests that individuals do not have uniquely innate tolerance; deaths result from random processes occurring among similar individuals. Although the probit method has been used extensively in toxicology, the underlying assumption has not been tested rigorously. The goal of the present study was to test which assumption, IED or stochasticity, best explained the response of Daphnia magna exposed to multiple pulses of copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) over 24 d. Daphnia magna were exposed to subsequent age-dependent 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of copper (Cu). Age-dependent 24-h LC50 values and Cu depuration test were determined prior to the 24-d bioassay. The LC50 values were inversely related to organism age. The Cu depuration of D. magna did not depend on age or Cu concentration, and 5 d was sufficient recovery time. Daphnia magna were exposed to 4 24-h Cu exposures, and surviving organisms after each exposure were transferred to Cu-free culture media for recovery before the next exposure. Stochasticity appropriately explained the survival and reproduction response of D. magna exposed to Cu. PMID:24318469

  16. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Ralph; C. P. Cameron; C. M. Ghanbari

    1992-01-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy

  17. Effects of State Tests on Classroom Test Items in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom tests from nine eighth-grade mathematics teachers were collected from the 2003-04 and 2005-06 school years. These years represent one school year prior to the eighth-grade Ohio Achievement Test (OAT) in mathematics being implemented and the year after the eighth-grade OAT in mathematics was implemented, respectively. In addition,…

  18. Two-Sample Testing in High Dimension and a Smooth Block Bootstrap for Time Series

    E-print Network

    Gregory, Karl Bruce

    2014-06-12

    .2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1. 0 ? = 0.05 mod?p GCT lg?p GCT Ch?Q SK CLX ARMA (n, m) = (45 ,60 ) 0 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 ? = 0.05 LR (n, m) = (45 ,60 ) 0 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 ? = 0.05 ? Po w e r Figure 2.3: Power curves... Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3.1 Technical Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3.2 Power of the Generalized Component Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.4 Simulation Studies...

  19. Single-Event Transient Testing of Low Dropout PNP Series Linear Voltage Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adell, Philippe; Allen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    As demand for high-speed, on-board, digital-processing integrated circuits on spacecraft increases (field-programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors in particular), the need for the next generation point-of-load (POL) regulator becomes a prominent design issue. Shrinking process nodes have resulted in core rails dropping to values close to 1.0 V, drastically reducing margin to standard switching converters or regulators that power digital ICs. The goal of this task is to perform SET characterization of several commercial POL converters, and provide a discussion of the impact of these results to state-of-the-art digital processing IC through laser and heavy ion testing

  20. Effects of Mode of Instruction, Testing, Order of Testing, and Cued Recall on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis M.; De Melo, Hermes

    1984-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate effect of verbal instruction alone vs. verbal instruction complemented by simple line drawings; effect of visual testing vs. nonvisual testing; effect of verbal cued vs. free recall on student achievement; effect of order of testing on subsequent achievement; and interaction among type of instruction,…

  1. One-step nucleic acid amplification testing in medullary thyroid cancer lymph nodes: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Fendler, Wojciech; Borowiec, Maciej; M?ynarski, Wojciech; Paduszynska, Katarzyna; Grzegory, Anna; Pomorski, Lech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Locoregional relapse in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) may be caused by nodal micrometastases. Medullary thyroid cancer lymph nodes have not yet been evaluated by one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect MTC cells by OSNA in cervical lymph nodes and compare the obtained outcomes with conventional histopathology. Material and methods Twenty-one randomized, unenlarged lymph nodes from 5 patients with MTC were examined by histopathology and OSNA. Lymph nodes were divided into four representative blocks by a sterile, single use, special cutting device in the same way as in the clinical protocol study performed by Tsujimoto et al. Two blocks were used for histopathology and immunohistochemistry, 2 for OSNA. Results Positive results of histopathology and OSNA were revealed in 4 patients. The outcomes of OSNA and histopathology were corresponding in 3 patients. Positive histopathology results of 2 lymph nodes from 2 patients were confirmed by OSNA. In 1 patient there were only negative results of both examinations. One-step nucleic acid amplification failed to detect metastasis in 1 lymph node in 2 patients although it did not change the TNM status in these patients. There were no false positive results in the OSNA test. Conclusions One-step nucleic acid amplification may be an alternative method to histopathology in detecting nodal involvement in MTC. Further studies should evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of OSNA and the impact on staging in MTC. PMID:25861300

  2. Validation of an Academic Listening Test: Effects of "Breakdown" Tests and Test Takers' Cognitive Awareness of Listening Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Youngshin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a test

  3. Testing the hypothesis that treatments have negligible effects: Minimum-effect tests in the general linear model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin R. Murphy; Brett Myors

    1999-01-01

    Researchers are often interested in testing the hypothesis that the effects of treatments, interventions, and so on are negligibly small rather than testing the hypothesis that treatments have no effect whatsoever. A number of procedures for conducting such tests have been suggested but have yet to be widely adopted. In this article, simple methods of testing such minimum-effect hypotheses are

  4. Testing & Research, Part I. Options in Education: Program Transcripts of a Weekly Series Broadcast by Member Stations of National Public Radio. Program No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    Several program transcripts on educational testing from the National Public Radio series, Options in Education, are included in this pamphlet. In "The I.Q. Controversy," Ned Block discusses culturally biased standardized tests. Dr. Harold Hodgkinson, former Director of the National Institute of Education, and Noel Epstein, Education Editor of the…

  5. EFFECTS OF SERIES AND SHUNT FACTS DEVICES IN TRANSIENT STABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF MULTI-MACHINE POWER SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Javad Sajjadi; M. Hasan Mohseninejad; Saeed Afsharnia

    In this paper a study is performed on Transient Stability enhancement in multi-machine power systems using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). The paper uses the Injection Model of UPFC and series quadrature voltage injection and shunt compensation used for oscillation damping and then the effects of series and shunt compensation separately and together analyzed. Then different locations for UPFC in

  6. TIME SERIES Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

    E-print Network

    Weber, Richard

    TIME SERIES Contents Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 Models for time series 1 1.1 Time series data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3 Analysing the effects of smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 Estimation

  7. Testing new physics effects in B ?K*?+?-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Rusa; Sinha, Rahul; Das, Diganta

    2014-11-01

    It is generally believed that the decay mode B ?K*?+?- is one of the best modes to search for physics beyond the standard model. The angular distribution enables the independent measurement of several observables as a function of the dilepton invariant mass. The plethora of observables so obtained enable unique tests of the standard model contributions. We start by writing the most general parametric form of the standard model amplitude for B ?K*?+?- taking into account comprehensively all contributions within the standard model. These include all short-distance and long-distance effects, factorizable and nonfactorizable contributions, complete electromagnetic corrections to hadronic operators up to all orders, resonance contributions and the finite lepton and quark masses. The parametric form of the amplitude in the standard model results a new relation involving all the C P conserving observables. The derivation of this relation only needs the parametric form of the amplitude and not a detailed calculation of it. Hence, we make no approximations, however, innocuous. The violation of this relation will provide a smoking gun signal of new physics. We use the 1 fb-1 LHC b data to explicitly show how our relation can be used to test standard model and search for new physics that might contribute to this decay.

  8. Thermal Measurements from a Series of Tests with a Large Cylindrical Calorimeter on the Leeward Edge of a JP-8 Pool Fire in Cross-Flow

    SciTech Connect

    SUO-ANTTILA,JILL M.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.

    2001-07-01

    As part of the full scale fuel fire experimental program, a series of JP-8 pool fire experiments with a large cylindrical calorimeter (3.66 m diameter), representing a C-141 aircraft fuselage, at the lee end of the fuel pool were performed at Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division (NAWCWPNS). The series was designed to support Weapon System Safety Assessment (WSSA) needs by addressing the case of a transport aircraft subjected to a large fuel fire. The data collected from this mock series will allow for characterization of the fire environment via a survivable test fixture. This characterization will provide important background information for a future test series utilizing the same fuel pool with an actual C-141 aircraft in place of the cylindrical calorimeter.

  9. DIRECTORY OF SHORT TERM TESTS FOR HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The directory provides basic information on the short term tests for health and ecological effects being performed by various U.S. EPA Laboratories through the Office of Health and Ecological Effects. The test systems are cross-indexed....

  10. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017...PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining...Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order for...

  11. Why Do Rereading Lag Effects Depend on Test Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous research, rereading after a long lag versus a short lag led to greater performance on delayed tests but not on immediate tests. The current study tested two accounts of why the effects of rereading lag depend on test delay. The "levels of representation" ("LOR") "hypothesis" states that the effects reflect differential emphasis on…

  12. Nontidal ocean loading: amplitudes and potential effects in GPS height time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, T.; Collilieux, X.; Wuite, J.; Altamimi, Z.; Ray, J.

    2012-11-01

    Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) changes are caused by a redistribution of the ocean's internal mass that are driven by atmospheric circulation, a change in the mass entering or leaving the ocean, and/or a change in the integrated atmospheric mass over the ocean areas. The only previous global analysis investigating the magnitude of OBP surface displacements used older OBP data sets (van Dam et al. in J Geophys Res 129:507-517, 1997). Since then significant improvements in meteorological forcing models used to predict OBP have been made, augmented by observations from satellite altimetry and expendable bathythermograph profiles. Using more recent OBP estimates from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) project, we reassess the amplitude of the predicted effect of OBP on the height coordinate time series from a global distribution of GPS stations. OBP-predicted loading effects display an RMS scatter in the height of between 0.2 and 3.7 mm, larger than previously reported but still much smaller (by a factor of 2) than the scatter observed due to atmospheric pressure loading. Given the improvement in GPS hardware and data analysis techniques, the OBP signal is similar to the precision of weekly GPS height coordinates. We estimate the effect of OBP on GPS height coordinate time series using the MIT reprocessed solution, mi1. When we compare the predicted OBP height time series with mi1, we find that the scatter is reduced over all stations by 0.1 mm on average with reductions as high as 0.7 mm at some stations. More importantly we are able to reduce the scatter on 65 % of the stations investigated. The annual component of the OBP signal is responsible for 80 % of the reduction in scatter on average. We find that stations located close to semi-enclosed bays or seas are affected by OBP loading to a greater extent than other stations.

  13. Fault detection using a two-model test for changes in the parameters of an autoregressive time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholtz, P.; Smyth, P.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of a statistical hypothesis testing method for detecting changes in the characteristics of an observed time series. The work is motivated by the need for practical automated methods for on-line monitoring of Deep Space Network (DSN) equipment to detect failures and changes in behavior. In particular, on-line monitoring of the motor current in a DSN 34-m beam waveguide (BWG) antenna is used as an example. The algorithm is based on a measure of the information theoretic distance between two autoregressive models: one estimated with data from a dynamic reference window and one estimated with data from a sliding reference window. The Hinkley cumulative sum stopping rule is utilized to detect a change in the mean of this distance measure, corresponding to the detection of a change in the underlying process. The basic theory behind this two-model test is presented, and the problem of practical implementation is addressed, examining windowing methods, model estimation, and detection parameter assignment. Results from the five fault-transition simulations are presented to show the possible limitations of the detection method, and suggestions for future implementation are given.

  14. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, M.E.; Cameron, C.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ghanbari, C.M. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm[sup 2] that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW[sub t]. The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m [times] 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm[sup 2] over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW[sub t]. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm[sup 2] over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW[sub t]. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm[sup 2] over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW[sub t]. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

  15. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, M. E.; Cameron, C. P.; Ghanbari, C. M.

    1992-11-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm(sup 2) that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW(sub t). The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m (times) 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm(sup 2) over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW(sub t). A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm(sup 2) over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW(sub t). Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm(sup 2) over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW(sub t). High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

  16. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, M.E.; Cameron, C.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ghanbari, C.M. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm{sup 2} that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW{sub t}. The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m {times} 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm{sup 2} over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW{sub t}. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW{sub t}. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm{sup 2} over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW{sub t}. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

  17. Power Series Introduction

    E-print Network

    Vickers, James

    Power Series 16.4 Introduction In this section we consider power series. These are examples of infinite series where each term contains a variable, x, raised to a positive integer power. We use the ratio test to obtain the radius of convergence R, of the power series and state the important result

  18. Results of an experiment in a Zion-like geometry to investigate the effect of water on the containment basement floor on direct containment heating (DCH) in the Surtsey Test Facility: The IET-4 test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Allen; T. K. Blanchat; M. Pilch; R. T. Nichols

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses the fourth experiment of the Integral Effects Test (IET-4) series which was conducted to investigate the effects of high pressure melt ejection on direct containment heating. Scale models (1:10) of the Zion reactor pressure vessel (RPV), cavity, instrument tunnel, and subcompartment structures were constructed in the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The RPV was modeled

  19. Series-coupled silicon racetrack resonators and the Vernier effect: theory and measurement.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Robi; Jaeger, Nicolas A; Rouger, Nicolas; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2010-11-22

    Silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators can be used as multiplexers in wavelength division multiplexing applications. The free spectral range should be comparable to the span of the C-band so that a maximum number of channels can be multiplexed. However, the free spectral range is inversely proportional to the length of the resonator and, therefore, bending losses can become non-negligible. A viable alternative to increase the free spectral range is to use the Vernier effect. In this work, we present the theory of series-coupled racetrack resonators exhibiting the Vernier effect. We demonstrate the experimental performance of the device using silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides. The extended free spectral range is 36 nm and the interstitial peak suppression is from 9 dB to 17 dB. PMID:21164861

  20. Transitions in effective scaling behavior of accelerometric time series across sleep and wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Zinkhan, Melanie; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Penzel, Thomas; Fietze, Ingo; Pillmann, Frank; Stang, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    We study the effective scaling behavior of high-resolution accelerometric time series recorded at the wrists and hips of 100 subjects during sleep and wake. Using spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis we find long-term correlated fluctuations with a spectral exponent \\beta \\approx 1.0 (1/f noise). On short time scales, ? is larger during wake (\\approx 1.4 ) and smaller during sleep (\\approx 0.6 ). In addition, characteristic peaks at 0.2-0.3 Hz (due to respiration) and 4-10 Hz (probably due to physiological tremor) are observed in periods of weak activity. Because of these peaks, spectral analysis is superior in characterizing effective scaling during sleep, while detrending analysis performs well during wake. Our findings can be exploited to detect sleep-wake transitions.

  1. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)] [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

  2. Time-Series Analysis of Mortality Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Components in Detroit and Seattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiang; Ito, Kazuhiko; Lall, Ramona; Lippmann, Morton; Thurston, George

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent toxicological and epidemiological studies have shown associations between particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but which PM components are most influential is less well known. Objectives In this study, we used time-series analyses to determine the associations between daily fine PM [PM ? 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] concentrations and daily mortality in two U.S. cities—Seattle, Washington, and Detroit, Michigan. Methods We obtained daily PM2.5 filters for the years of 2002–2004 and analyzed trace elements using X-ray fluorescence and black carbon using light reflectance as a surrogate measure of elemental carbon. We used Poisson regression and distributed lag models to estimate excess deaths for all causes and for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases adjusting for time-varying covariates. We computed the excess risks for interquartile range increases of each pollutant at lags of 0 through 3 days for both warm and cold seasons. Results The cardiovascular and respiratory mortality series exhibited different source and seasonal patterns in each city. The PM2.5 components and gaseous pollutants associated with mortality in Detroit were most associated with warm season secondary aerosols and traffic markers. In Seattle, the component species most closely associated with mortality included those for cold season traffic and other combustion sources, such as residual oil and wood burning. Conclusions The effects of PM2.5 on daily mortality vary with source, season, and locale, consistent with the hypothesis that PM composition has an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM. PMID:21193387

  3. Assessments of higher-order ionospheric effects on GPS coordinate time series: A case study of CMONOC with longer time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Ma, Yifang

    2014-05-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HIO) corrections are proposed to become a standard part for precise GPS data analysis. For this study, we deeply investigate the impacts of the HIO corrections on the coordinate time series by implementing re-processing of the GPS data from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Nearly 13 year data are used in our three processing runs: (a) run NO, without HOI corrections, (b) run IG, both second- and third-order corrections are modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 (IGRF11) to model the magnetic field, (c) run ID, the same with IG but dipole magnetic model are applied. Both spectral analysis and noise analysis are adopted to investigate these effects. Results show that for CMONOC stations, HIO corrections are found to have brought an overall improvement. After the corrections are applied, the noise amplitudes decrease, with the white noise amplitudes showing a more remarkable variation. Low-latitude sites are more affected. For different coordinate components, the impacts vary. The results of an analysis of stacked periodograms show that there is a good match between the seasonal amplitudes and the HOI corrections, and the observed variations in the coordinate time series are related to HOI effects. HOI delays partially explain the seasonal amplitudes in the coordinate time series, especially for the U component. The annual amplitudes for all components are decreased for over one-half of the selected CMONOC sites. Additionally, the semi-annual amplitudes for the sites are much more strongly affected by the corrections. However, when diplole model is used, the results are not as optimistic as IGRF model. Analysis of dipole model indicate that HIO delay lead to the increase of noise amplitudes, and that HIO delays with dipole model can generate false periodic signals. When dipole model are used in modeling HIO terms, larger residual and noise are brought in rather than the effective improvements.

  4. Effects of a Dynamic Progressive Orthotic Intervention for Chronic Hemiplegia: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Mettler, Joni A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Case series design on a single subgroup of participants Introduction: Management of hypertonicity and resistance to passive movement (RTPM) in the upper extremity is an intractable problem for persons with stroke and the therapists who provide their care. Therapists have limited options for assessment and treatment of this condition which can profoundly limit functional performance and quality of life. Purpose of the Study: To evaluate the effect of a 12-week dynamic progressive orthotic intervention in persons with chronic stroke exhibiting wrist flexion contracture who are residents of a long term skilled nursing facility. Methods: A custom fitted dynamic progressive wrist extension orthotic was applied to 6 residents with chronic stroke. The orthotic was worn for 4 hours daily, 4X/week for 12 weeks. Wrist passive range of motion (PROM) and RTPM were measured weekly and after discontinuation of the orthotics using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Tardieu Scale of Spasticity. Signal analysis of electromyographical (EMG) flexor response to extensor stretching was also measured before and after orthotic intervention using maximal root mean square (RMS) values and EMG burst onset time. Results: A moderate effect was found for changes in PROM with the orthotic intervention. Progress made diminished following discontinuation. Moderate effects were also seen in EMG measures which indicated increases in amount of resistive-free movement following intervention. Conclusions: A dynamic progressive orthotic intervention can be an effective option for increasing wrist PROM and reducing RTPM in persons with chronic stroke. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:23149271

  5. Series of experiments for empirical validation of solar gain modeling in building energy simulation codes—Experimental setup, test cell characterization, specifications and uncertainty analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Manz; P. Loutzenhiser; T. Frank; P. A. Strachan; R. Bundi; G. Maxwell

    2006-01-01

    Empirical validation of building energy simulation codes is an important component in understanding the capacity and limitations of the software. Within the framework of Task 34\\/Annex 43 of the International Energy Agency (IEA), a series of experiments was performed in an outdoor test cell. The objective of these experiments was to provide a high-quality data set for code developers and

  6. Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression Designs: A Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error…

  7. Time series analysis of air pollution and mortality: effects by cause, age and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, N.; Fletcher, T.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between outdoor air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.?DESIGN—Time series study?METHODS—All causes, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality were analysed and the role of age and socioeconomic status in modifying associations between mortality and air pollution were investigated. Models used Poisson regression and included terms for temporal patterns, meteorology, and autocorrelation.?MAIN RESULTS—All causes all ages mortality showed much smaller associations with air pollution than mortality for specific causes and age groups. In the elderly, a 3-4% increase in daily deaths for all causes and for cardiovascular diseases was associated with an increase in fine particulate matter and in sulphur dioxide from the 10th to the 90th percentile. For respiratory deaths the increase in mortality was higher (6%). Cardiovascular deaths were additionally associated with levels of carbon monoxide (4% increase in daily deaths). The associations between air pollutants and mortality in children under 5 years of age were not statistically significant. There was a significant trend of increasing risk of death according to age with effects most evident for subjects over 65 years old. The effect of air pollution was also larger in areas of higher socioeconomic level.?CONCLUSIONS—These results show further evidence of an association between air pollution and mortality but of smaller magnitude than found in other similar studies. In addition, it seems that older age groups are at a higher risk of mortality associated with air pollution. Such complexity should be taken into account in health risk assessment based on time series studies.???Keywords: air pollution; mortality; socioeconomic status PMID:10990478

  8. Preliminary Results of the Third Test Series of Nonmetal Material Flammability Evaluation In SKOROST Apparatus on the Space Station Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Alymov, V. F.; Smirnov, A. B.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ye.Belov, D.; Balashov, Ye.V.; Andreeva, T. V.; Semenov, A. V.; Melikhov, A. S.; Bolodyan, I. A.; Potyakin, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    The work has been done according to the US/Russian Joint Project "Experimental Evaluation of the Material Flammability in Microgravity" a continued combustion study in the SKOROST test apparatus on the OS Mir. The objective of the project was to evaluate the flammability and flame-spread rate for the selected polymer materials in low velocity flow in microgravity. Lately, the issue of nonmetal material combustion in microgravity has become of great importance, based on the necessity to develop the fire safety system for the new International Space Station (ISS). Lack of buoyant flow in microgravity reduces oxygen transfer into the combustion zone, which leads to flame extinction when the flow velocity is less than the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for the material. The ISS FGB fire-safety system was developed based on this phenomenon. The existence of minimum flow velocity V(sub lim) to sustain fire for the selected materials was determined both theoretically and experimentally. In the latter, it is shown that, even for thermally thin nonmetal materials with a very low oxygen index C(sub lim) of 12.5% (paper sheets with the thickness of 0.1 mm), a limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) exists at oxygen concentration Co(sub OX) = 17-21%, and is about 1.0 - 0.1 cm/sec. This might be explained by the relative increase in thermal losses due to radiation from the surface and from the gaseous phase. In the second series of experiments in Skorost apparatus on Orbital Station Mir the existence of the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for combustion was confirmed for PMMA and glass-epoxy composite strip samples 2 mm thick at oxygen concentration C(sub OX) = 21.5%. It was concluded that V(sub lim) depends on C(sub OX) for the PMMA sample with a low oxygen index of 15.5%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was less than 0.5 cm/sec, and for the glass-epoxy composite sample with a high oxygen index of 19%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was higher than 15 cm/sec. As of now only those materials that maintain their integrity during combustion were investigated. The materials that disintegrate when burning present more danger for fire safety because the flame can spread farther with the parts of the structure, ejected melt drops, et cetera. Materials such as polyethylene are of great interest since they form a lengthy melt zone during the combustion in normal gravity. This melt zone generates drops of liquids that promote faster flame spread compared to usual combustion. The preliminary results of polyethylene insulation flammability evaluation in microgravity are shown in the NASA Wire Insulation Flammability (WIF) experiment during Space Shuttle flight STS-50. A lot of interesting data was collected during the WIF test program. However, one of the most important results was that, in microgravity, the extinction of the polyethylene occurred almost immediately when the flow of relatively low oxygen concentration (C(sub OX)=21%) was stopped. The purpose of the work reported here is to expand the existing data base on material flammability in microgravity and to conduct the third series of the space experiment using Skorost apparatus on Orbiatl Station Mir with melting polymers, which might increase the probability of fire and its propagation in ventilated microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft.

  9. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory effects of a series of novel 7-hydroxycoumarin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Timonen, Juri M; Nieminen, Riina M; Sareila, Outi; Goulas, Antonis; Moilanen, Lauri J; Haukka, Matti; Vainiotalo, Pirjo; Moilanen, Eeva; Aulaskari, Paula H

    2011-09-01

    A number of 7-hydroxycoumarins have been synthesised by Pechmann cyclisation using differently substituted resorcinols employing perchloric acid as the condensing agent. All the compounds have been characterised by analytical and spectroscopic methods. The anti-inflammatory properties were tested with LPS-induced inflammation in J774 macrophages. Expression of iNOS and COX-2 was determined by Western blot, NO by nitrite assay and IL-6 by ELISA analyses. Fifteen of the tested 7-hydroxycoumarins also inhibited IL-6 production but none of them had any major inhibitory effect on COX-2 expression. PMID:21680063

  10. Time-series Photometry of the Pre-Main Sequence Binary V4046 Sgr: Testing the Accretion Stream Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Ardila, David R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Most stars are born in binaries, and the evolution of protostellar disks in pre-main sequence (PMS) binary stars is a current frontier of star formation research. PMS binary stars can have up to three accretion disks: two circumstellar disks and a circumbinary disk separated by a dynamically cleared gap. Theory suggests that mass may periodically flow in an accretion stream from a circumbinary disk across the gap onto circumstellar disks or stellar surfaces. Thus, accretion in PMS binaries is controlled by not only radiation, disk viscosity, and magnetic fields, but also by orbital dynamics.As part of a larger, ongoing effort to characterize mass accretion in young binary systems, we test the predictions of the binary accretion stream theory through continuous, multi-orbit, multi-color optical and near-infrared (NIR) time-series photometry. Observations such as these are capable of detecting and characterizing these modulated accretion streams, if they are generally present. Broad-band blue and ultraviolet photometry trace the accretion luminosity and photospheric temperature while NIR photometry provide a measurement of warm circumstellar material, all as a function of orbital phase. The predicted phase and magnitude of enhanced accretion are highly dependent on the binary orbital parameters and as such, our campaign focuses on 10 PMS binaries of varying periods and eccentricities. Here we present multi-color optical (U, B,V, R), narrowband (H?), and multi-color NIR (J, H) lightcurves of the PMS binary V4046 Sgr (P=2.42 days) obtained with the SMARTS 1.3m telescope and LCOGT 1m telescope network. These results act to showcase the quality and breadth of data we have, or are currently obtaining, for each of the PMS binaries in our sample. With the full characterization of our sample, these observations will guide an extension of the accretion paradigm from single young stars to multiple systems.

  11. Effective BlackBox Testing with Genetic Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Last; Shay Eyal; Abraham Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Black-box (functional) test cases are identified from functional requirements of the tested system, which is viewed as a mathematical function mapping its inputs onto its outputs. While the number of possible black-box tests for any non-trivial program is extremely large, the testers can run only a limited number of test cases under their resource limitations. An effective set of test

  12. Adaptive testing: effects on user performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Jettmar; Clifford Nass

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the effects of interface adaptation on user performance in HCI and CMC. No studies to date have explored the psychological effects of a combination of software performance monitoring and adaptation. This combination is the focus of the present study. Two competing possible effects of adaptive interfaces are presented: 1) Social facilitation, according to which users with high

  13. Effect of chiropractic intervention on small scoliotic curves in younger subjects: A time-series cohort design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Lantz; Jasper Chen

    2001-01-01

    Background: Chiropractors have long claimed to affect scoliotic curves, and case studies abound reporting on successful outcomes. No clinical trials exist, however, that evaluate chiropractic's effectiveness in the management of scoliotic curves. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of chiropractic intervention in the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in curves less than 20°. Design: Cohort time-series trial with all subjects electing

  14. Coronal magnetic field diagnostics via the Hanle effect of Lyman series lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineschi, S.; Habbal, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic field plays a major role in the physics of the solar corona. However, there are no direct measurements of this physical parameter. We describe a method that can provide the most direct determination of the vector magnetic field in the extended corona (i.e., at heliocentric heights between 1.2 R(solar radius) and 2.0 R(solar radius)). The method is based on polarimetric observations of UV lines of the Lyman series, that is, Lyman alpha (Ly-alpha), lambda 1216 A, Lyman beta (Ly-beta), lambda 1025 A, and Lyman gamma (Ly-gamma), lambda 972 A. These lines have a collisional and a resonantly scattered component. Linear polarization is induced in the resonant component by the anisotropy in the chromospheric radiation field that illuminates the corona. Magnetic fields can be suitably determined through the effects that they induce on this resonance polarization (Hanle effect). The Hanle effect of the Ly-alpha is sensitive to field strengths in the 10 - 100 gauss range. The resonance polarization of Ly-beta and Ly-gamma is sensitive, through the Hanle effect, to fields with strengths between 3 - 30 gauss, and 0.3 - 6 gauss, respectively. We describe a new method for separating the resonant from the collisional component of the Ly-beta and Ly-gamma; the method is based on the approximation, valid within 10%, that the collisional component of the Ly-alpha is negligible, in typical coronal conditions. From the intensity and the polarization of the resonant components of these Lyman lines, the strength and direction of coronal fields can be determined. We model the sensitivity of Hanle-effect diagnostics for different coronal structures (e.g., coronal holes and loops).

  15. Bond Testing for Effects of Silicone Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaia, James; Evans, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 ATK Thiokol discovered that the smocks and coveralls worn by its operations personnel for safety and contamination control were themselves contaminated with a silicone defoamer and a silicone oil. As a growing list of items have been identified as having this form of contamination, it was desirable to devise a test method to determine if the contamination level detected could cause subsequent processing concerns. The smocks and coveralls could potentially contact bonding surfaces during processing so the test method focused on dry transfer of the silicone from the clothing to the bonding surface.

  16. Fear Appeals in the Primary Classroom: Effects on Test Anxiety and Test Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William; Best, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether fear appeals used prior to a test increased self-reported test anxiety and had a detrimental effect on test scores. Forty primary school pupils were instructed for one week under a low threat condition under which no fear appeals were made and another week under a high threat condition in which fear appeals…

  17. Test effectiveness study report: An analytical study of system test effectiveness and reliability growth of three commercial spacecraft programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Failure data from 16 commercial spacecraft were analyzed to evaluate failure trends, reliability growth, and effectiveness of tests. It was shown that the test programs were highly effective in ensuring a high level of in-orbit reliability. There was only a single catastrophic problem in 44 years of in-orbit operation on 12 spacecraft. The results also indicate that in-orbit failure rates are highly correlated with unit and systems test failure rates. The data suggest that test effectiveness estimates can be used to guide the content of a test program to ensure that in-orbit reliability goals are achieved.

  18. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order for...in a significant adverse effect on the health and safety...Illegal production of a nuclear weapon; or (b) Theft,...

  19. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order for...in a significant adverse effect on the health and safety...Illegal production of a nuclear weapon; or (b) Theft,...

  20. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order for...in a significant adverse effect on the health and safety...Illegal production of a nuclear weapon; or (b) Theft,...

  1. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order for...in a significant adverse effect on the health and safety...Illegal production of a nuclear weapon; or (b) Theft,...

  2. Treatments of Effect Sizes and Statistical Significance Tests in Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Reviewed statistics textbooks published since 1995 to determine the treatment of effect sizes and statistical significance tests. Each of the 89 textbooks included statistical significance, while only 60 included information on effect sizes. (SLD)

  3. Data book for 12.5-inch diameter SRB thermal model water flotation test: 14.7 psia, series P020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Data acquired from the initial series of tests conducted to determine how thermal conditions affect SRB (Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster) flotation are presented. Acceleration, pressure, and temperature data recorded from initial water impact to final flotation position using a 12.5-inch diameter thermal model of the SRB at ambient pressure are included. The model was 136.9 inches long and weighed 117.3 lbm. The tests indicated the following differences from ambient temperature tests: (1) significant negative static pressures can occur during penetration; (2) maximum penetration is increased; and (3) final flotation is in the spar buoy mode.

  4. Testing Interaction Effects in Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacker, Randall E.; Rigdon, Edward

    Research questions that test the interaction between either categorical variables or multiplicative expressions are commonly found in multiple regression and analysis of variance applications. In contract, research questions posing an interaction between observed variables in a path analytic model are not commonly found in the literature. This is…

  5. Testing for polygenic effects in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Chen, Yue-Ming; Wei, Peng

    2015-05-01

    To confirm associations with a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), each with only a small effect size, as hypothesized in the polygenic theory for schizophrenia, the International Schizophrenia Consortium (2009, Nature 460:748-752) proposed a polygenic risk score (PRS) test and demonstrated its effectiveness when applied to psychiatric disorders. The basic idea of the PRS test is to use a half of the sample to select and up-weight those more likely to be associated SNPs, and then use the other half of the sample to test for aggregated effects of the selected SNPs. Intrigued by the novelty and increasing use of the PRS test, we aimed to evaluate and improve its performance for GWAS data. First, by an analysis of the PRS test, we point out its connection with the Sum test [Chapman and Whittaker, , Genet Epidemiol 32:560-566; Pan, , Genet Epidemiol 33:497-507]; given the known advantages and disadvantages of the Sum test, this connection motivated the development of several other polygenic tests, some of which may be more powerful than the PRS test under certain situations. Second, more importantly, to overcome the low statistical efficiency of the data-splitting strategy as adopted in the PRS test, we reformulate and thus modify the PRS test, obtaining several adaptive tests, which are closely related to the adaptive sum of powered score (SPU) test studied in the context of rare variant analysis [Pan et al., 2014, Genetics 197:1081-1095]. We use both simulated data and a real GWAS dataset of alcohol dependence to show dramatically improved power of the new tests over the PRS test; due to its superior performance and simplicity, we recommend the whole sample-based adaptive SPU test for polygenic testing. We hope to raise the awareness of the limitations of the PRS test and potential power gain of the adaptive SPU test. PMID:25847094

  6. The Testing Effect on Skills Learning Might Last 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromann, C. B.; Bohnstedt, C.; Jensen, M. L.; Ringsted, C.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research question was: does testing as a final activity in a…

  7. The Testing Effect for Learning Principles and Procedures from Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, Kim J. H.; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored whether a testing effect occurs not only for retention of facts but also for application of principles and procedures. For that purpose, 38 high school students either repeatedly studied a text on probability calculations or studied the text, took a test on the content, restudied the text, and finally took the test a second…

  8. Reduced Anxiety and Increased Assessment Effectiveness with Matching Test Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.

    Traditionally, matching test formats have been avoided in favor of multiple-choice items for several reasons, including item analysis properties and chance performance characteristics. In the light of research on test format and anxiety, this study postulates that, if a matching test could assess knowledge for a given topic as effectively as an…

  9. EVALUATION OF THREE OIL SPILL LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA evaluated three laboratory Methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and currently required by regulation) in the United States, the Swirling Flask Test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-Dilution Test (used in France and other Eu...

  10. Including the Effects of Future Tests in Aircraft Structural Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdem Acar; Raphael T. Haftka; Nam-Ho Kim; Deepti Buchi

    1. Abstract In this paper, we investigate the effects of future tests on aircraft structural safety, focusing on the numbers of coupon tests and structural element tests. The mean failure stress is assumed to be predicted by a failure criterion (e.g. Tsai-Wu), and the initial distribution of this mean failure stress reflects the uncertainty in the analysis procedure that uses

  11. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

  12. The effect of schooling and ability on achievement test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; K. J. Kathleen J. Mullen

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

  13. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  14. A simulated lightning effects test facility for testing live and inert missiles and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Jeffery D.; Knaur, James A.; Moore, Truman W., Jr.; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Details of a simulated lightning effects test facility for testing live and inert missiles, motors, and explosive components are described. The test facility is designed to simulate the high current, continuing current, and high rate-of-rise current components of an idealized direct strike lightning waveform. The Lightning Test Facility was in operation since May, 1988, and consists of: 3 separate capacitor banks used to produce the lightning test components; a permanently fixed large steel safety cage for retaining the item under test (should it be ignited during testing); an earth covered bunker housing the control/equipment room; a charge/discharge building containing the charging/discharging switching; a remotely located blockhouse from which the test personnel control hazardous testing; and interconnecting cables.

  15. Time-Series Analysis: Assessing the Effects of Multiple Educational Interventions in a Small-Enrollment Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Aaron R.

    2009-11-01

    Time-series designs are an alternative to pretest-posttest methods that are able to identify and measure the impacts of multiple educational interventions, even for small student populations. Here, we use an instrument employing standard multiple-choice conceptual questions to collect data from students at regular intervals. The questions are modified by asking students to distribute 100 Confidence Points among the options in order to indicate the perceived likelihood of each answer option being the correct one. Tracking the class-averaged ratings for each option produces a set of time-series. ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) analysis is then used to test for, and measure, changes in each series. In particular, it is possible to discern which educational interventions produce significant changes in class performance. Cluster analysis can also identify groups of students whose ratings evolve in similar ways. A brief overview of our methods and an example are presented.

  16. Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beatriz U Ramirez (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

    2010-09-01

    After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

  17. Environmental effects of dredging. Engineer manual series on dredging and dredged material disposal. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, M.R.

    1988-03-01

    This technical note describes a series of Engineer Manuals (EMs) on dredging and dredged material disposal being published by the Office, Chief of Engineers, US Army. The note describes the purpose of the manual series, intended audience, major topics covered, availability of published manuals, and the status of future manuals.

  18. Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

  19. Statistical Significance Testing and Clinical Effectiveness Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Wise

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness studies, by definition, must reflect patient and treatment variables that exist in the real world of practice. This includes identifying the covariates that contribute to both positive and negative outcomes. The use of clinically significant change and reliable change indices is reviewed to demonstrate that patient changes can be made on the basis of normative comparisons, using outcome relevant

  20. Effect of sequence on the ionization behavior of a series of amphiphilic polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Michael; Siddique, Bushra; Duhamel, Jean

    2013-04-01

    The behavior of five polypeptides made of hydrophilic and pH-responsive aspartic acid (Asp) and hydrophobic phenylalanine (Phe), which had been prepared by stitching together short well-defined sequences of Asp and Phe, was studied as a function of pH. The effect of pH on these polypeptides referred to as (Asp3Phe1)n, (Asp2Phe1)n, (Asp1Phe1)n, (Asp1Phe2)n, and (Asp1Phe3)n varied dramatically depending on their constituting sequence. The more hydrophobic polypeptides (Asp1Phe2)n and (Asp1Phe3)n behaved as if the Asp's were isolated from each other and showed an apparent pKa (pKa(app)) that remained constant with level of ionization (? = [Asp(-)]/[Asp]total) and equaled 5.4 and 6.4, respectively. The more hydrophilic polypeptides (Asp3Phe1)n and (Asp2Phe1)n behaved like weak polyacids showing a linear increase in pKa(app) with increasing ?. The pKa(app) of (Asp1Phe1)n showed a trend as a function of ? intermediate between the Asp-rich and Phe-rich polypeptides, behaving as if the Asp's were isolated at low ? values (<0.35) but acting as a weak polyacid for large ? values (>0.35). The effect that ?, and thus the charge density of the polypeptides, had on the collapse and aggregation of the polypeptides was characterized by conducting static light scattering and fluorescence measurements. Static light scattering measurements demonstrated that all polypeptides precipitated and aggregated in solution at a critical charge density of 0.2. Fluorescence measurements with pyrene indicated that this behavior was due to the formation of Phe aggregates in water. Together, these experiments provide a complete description of how pH affects the behavior of a series of unique amphiphilic polypeptides designed with a well-defined sequence. PMID:23484851

  1. Short term effects of air pollution on health: a European approach using epidemiologic time series data: the APHEA protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Katsouyanni; J Schwartz; C Spix; G Touloumi; D Zmirou; A Zanobetti; B Wojtyniak; J M Vonk; A Tobias; A Pönkä; S Medina; L Bachárová; H R Anderson

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Results from several studies over the past five years have shown that the current levels of pollutants in Europe and North America have adverse short term effects on health. The APHEA project aims to quantifying these in Europe, using standardised methodology. The project protocol and analytical methodology are presented here. DESIGN: Daily time series data were gathered

  2. Studying the effect of weather conditions on daily crash counts using a discrete time-series model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Brijs; Dimitris Karlis; Geert Wets

    2008-01-01

    In previous research, significant effects of weather conditions on car crashes have been found. However, most studies use monthly or yearly data and only few studies are available analyzing the impact of weather conditions on daily car crash counts. Furthermore, the studies that are available on a daily level do not explicitly model the data in a time-series context, hereby

  3. The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment in the Five Most Active Execution States: A Time Series Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott H. Decker; Carol W. Kohfeld

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the death penalty on the murder rate. A 50-year time series is employed for the period 1930-1980 for the five states with the largest number of executions during this period: Georgia, New York, Texas, California, and North Carolina. Taken together, these five states accounted for 40 percent of all the executions performed during this

  4. Is Post-Secondary Education in Canada a Cost-Effective Proposition? Working Paper Series. W-01-9E

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, John; Fougere, Maxime; Rouleau, Manon

    2002-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the return on investment to post-secondary education in Canada, by gender. In it, three time series are developed respectively on the cost-effectiveness of non-university post-secondary diplomas (1981-1996), bachelor's degrees (1989-1996) and university degrees (1981-1996), including bachelor's, master's and…

  5. A test of the I2 ground state molecular constants deduced from Fourier absorption spectroscopy : the Wood's resonance series

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    's resonance series induced by the mercury green line. Fabry-Perot measure- ments were made up to v" = 22 [2'étalons Fabry-Perot n'est que partiellement satis- faisante. En particulier, les valeurs mesurées correspondant of molecular constants and earlier experimental values deduced from Fabry-Perot interferometric measurements

  6. Effect of test set minimization on fault detection effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Eric Wong; Joseph Robert Horgan; Saul London; Aditya P. Mathur

    1995-01-01

    Size and code coverage are important attributes of a set of tests. When a program P is executed on el- ements of the test set T, we can observe the fault detecting capability of T for P. We can also observe the degree to which T induces code coverage on P according to some coverage criterion. We would like to

  7. Group Testing Regression Models with Fixed and Random Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Tebbs, Joshua M.; Bilder, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Group testing, where subjects are tested in pools rather than individually, has a long history of successful application in infectious disease screening. In this paper, we develop group testing regression models to include covariate effects which are best regarded as random. We present approaches to fit mixed effects models using maximum likelihood, investigate likelihood ratio and score tests for variance components, and evaluate small sample performance using simulation. We illustrate our methods using chlamydia and gonorrhea data collected by the state of Nebraska as part of the Infertility Prevention Project. PMID:19210734

  8. The Effect of Testing on Student Achievement, 1910-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes research on the effect of testing on student achievement as found in English-language sources, comprising several hundred studies conducted between 1910 and 2010. Among quantitative studies, mean effect sizes range from a moderate d [image omitted] 0.55 to a fairly large d [image omitted] 0.88, depending on the way effects

  9. Zeeman Effect of J=2 States of Sr: g-Factor Variation for Interacting Rydberg Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Wynne; J. A. Armstrong; P. Esherick

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the g factor for a series of bound, 5snd J=2 states in Sr, in the region of an avoided crossing between 1D2 and 3D2 Rydberg series, show a variation which is in agreement with the prediction of multichannel quantum-defect theory. The g factor was measured by multiphonon ionization spectroscopy. The dependence of ionization signal on laser polarization was

  10. Trend Change Detection in NDVI Time Series: Effects of Inter-Annual Variability and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Neigh, Christopher S.R.; Reichstein, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Changing trends in ecosystem productivity can be quantified using satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the estimation of trends from NDVI time series differs substantially depending on analyzed satellite dataset, the corresponding spatiotemporal resolution, and the applied statistical method. Here we compare the performance of a wide range of trend estimation methods and demonstrate that performance decreases with increasing inter-annual variability in the NDVI time series. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. A breakpoint detection analysis reveals that an overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI trends can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Based on our results, we give practical recommendations for the application of trend methods on long-term NDVI time series. Particularly, we apply and compare different methods on NDVI time series in Alaska, where both greening and browning trends have been previously observed. Here, the multi-method uncertainty of NDVI trends is quantified through the application of the different trend estimation methods. Our results indicate that greening NDVI trends in Alaska are more spatially and temporally prevalent than browning trends. We also show that detected breakpoints in NDVI trends tend to coincide with large fires. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that seasonal trend methods need to be improved against inter-annual variability to quantify changing trends in ecosystem productivity with higher accuracy.

  11. SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, K.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

  12. Issues and Consequences for State-Level Minimum Competency Testing Programs. State Assessment Series. Wyoming Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Scott F.; Sheinker, Alan

    This report reviews the current status, empirical findings, theoretical issues, and practical considerations related to state-level minimum competency testing programs. It finds that, although two-thirds of current testing programs now use direct writing prompts to assess writing achievement, essentially all programs rely on multiple choice tests

  13. The Effects of Test Accommodation on Test Performance: A Review of the Literature1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Sireci; Shuhong Li; Stanley Scarpati

    Abstract ,Over 150 studies pertaining to test accommodations were identified inthe literature and 40 studies that empirically studied the effects of test accommodations on the performance,of students with disabilities or English language learners were reviewed. The results of these studies are discussed as are the internal and external validity of the authors’ conclusions. All studies were critiqued with respect to

  14. Effects of Item Arrangement, Knowledge of Arrangement, Test Anxiety and Sex on Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Effects of item arrangement, test anxiety, and sex on a mathematics test taken by motivated, upper-division undergraduates and beginning graduate students were investigated. Results showed that males outperformed females when items were arranged from easy to hard. (Author/GK)

  15. The Effect of Review on Student Ability and Test Efficiency for Computerized Adaptive Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary E. Lunz; Betty A. Bergstrom; Benjamin D. Wright

    1992-01-01

    The effect of reviewing items and altering responses on the efficiency of computerized adap tive tests and the resultant ability estimates of examinees were explored. 220 students were ran domly assigned to a review condition; their test instructions indicated that each item must be answered when presented, but that the responses could be reviewed and altered at the end of

  16. Effect on road traffic injuries of criminalizing road traffic offences: a time–series study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Katherine; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the effect of criminalizing some traffic behaviours, after the reform of the Spanish penal code in 2007, on the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain. Methods This study followed an interrupted times–series design in which the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain before and after the criminalization of offences were compared. The data on road traffic injuries in 2000–2009 were obtained from the road traffic collision database of the General Traffic Directorate. The dependent variables were stratified by sex, age, injury severity, type of road user, road type and time of collision. Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted with adjustments for time trend, seasonality, previous interventions and national fuel consumption. Findings The overall number of male drivers involved in injury collisions dropped (relative risk, RR:?0.93; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.89–0.97) after the reform of the penal code, but among women no change was observed (RR:?0.99; 95% CI: 0.95–1.03). In addition, 13?891 men (P?

  17. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ON FETAL TESTES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Fetal Testes Testosterone Production Lambright, CS , Wilson, VS , Furr, J, Wolf, CJ, Noriega, N, Gray, LE, Jr. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC Exposure of pregnant rodents to certain environmental chemicals during criti...

  18. USING POTATOES IN PROPAGATION TESTS FOR NONTARGET PLANT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current tests required for pesticide registration under the FIFRA only investigate seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research with sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant reproduction with little or no visible effect on vege...

  19. Effect Size as an Alternative to Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Andrew L.

    The present paper discusses criticisms of statistical significance testing from both historical and contemporary perspectives. Statistical significance testing is greatly influenced by sample size and often results in meaningless information being over-reported. Variance-accounted-for-effect sizes are presented as an alternative to statistical…

  20. Race of Examiner Effects and the Validity of Intelligence Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, William G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence for the influence of examiner's race on examinee's performance on intelligence tests is reviewed. The current literature, 1966 through 1980, offers little support for the hypothesis that examiner's race has a systematic effect on examinee's performance on intelligence tests. Conceptual and methodological issues are…

  1. The Effect of Instructions on Multiple-Choice Test Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Prieto; Ana R. Delgado

    1999-01-01

    Most standardized tests instruct subjects to guess under scoring procedures that do not correct for guessing or correct only for expected random guessing. Other scoring rules, such as offering a small reward for omissions or punishing errors by discounting more than expected from random guessing, have been proposed. This study was designed to test the effects of these four instruction\\/scoring

  2. Effects of First Occasion Test Experience on Longitudinal Cognitive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of additional test experience on longitudinal change in 5 cognitive abilities was examined in a sample of healthy adults ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Participants receiving experience with parallel versions of the cognitive tests on the first occasion had more positive cognitive change an average of 2.5 years later than participants…

  3. Test Report: Cost Effective Foundation Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; T. E. Rahl; G. A. Twitchell; R. G. Kobbe

    2003-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to demonstrate and quantify the thermal effectiveness of rigid insulation board when installed on the exterior of a buried concrete foundation wall. A heated, insulated box was constructed along one wall of an existing, unheated building to simulate the living space of a home. The crawl space beneath the living space was divided into two sections. One featured external foundation insulation, while the other side had none. 36 temperature and heat flux sensors were installed at predetermined locations to measure the temperature profile and heat flow out of the living space. The temperature profile through the foundation was then used to calculate the total heat flow out of the foundation for both cases. This experiment showed that a significant energy savings is available with exterior foundation insulation. Over the course of 3 months, the heat-loss differential between the insulated and non-insulated foundations was 4.95 kilowatt-hours per lineal foot of foundation wall, for a ratio of 3:1. For a 2200 sq. ft home with a foundation perimeter 200 ft. long, this would amount to a savings of 990 kW-hrs in just 3 months, or 330 kW-hrs per month. Extrapolating to an 8-month heating year, we would expect to save over 2640 kW-hrs per year for such a home. The savings for a basement foundation, rather than a crawlspace, would be approach twice that amount, nearing 5280 kW-hr per year. Because these data were not collected during the coldest months of the year, they are conservative, and greater savings may be expected during colder periods.

  4. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology and RUT-daily use to determine the optimal strategy. Methods General practitioners included 18–65 years women with symptoms of AUC, performed a RUT and sent urines for analysis at a central laboratory. Different treatment strategies were simulated based on RUT and resistance results. Results Among 347 enrolled patients, 78% had a positive urine culture. Escherichia coli predominated (71%) with high rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (100%), fosfomycin (99%), ofloxacin (97%), and even pivmecillinam (87%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87%). Modelization showed that the systematic use of RUT would reduce by 10% the number of patients treated. Fosfomycin for patients with positive RUT offered a 90% overall bacterial coverage, compared to 98% for nitrofurantoin. 95% for ofloxacin, 86% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 78% for pivmecillinam. Conclusion Local epidemiology surveillance data not biased by complicated UTI demonstrates that the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has not affected AUC yet. Fosfomycin first line in all patients with positive RUT seems the best treatment strategy for AUC, combining good bacterial coverage with expected low toxicity and limited effect on fecal flora. Trial registration The current study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00958295) PMID:24612927

  5. The Effects of the Reverse Current Caused by the Series Compensation on the Current Differential Protection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cui; Yin, Xianggen; Qi, Xuanwei; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The series capacitor compensation is one of the key technologies in the EHV and UHV long distance power transmission lines. This paper analyzes the operation characteristics of the main protection combined with the engineering practice when the transmission line overcompensation due to the series compensation system is modified and analyzes the influence of the transition resistance and the system operation mode on the current differential protection. According to the simulation results, it presents countermeasure on improving the sensitivity of differential current protection. PMID:25247206

  6. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  7. Single-event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: EPC2015, EPC2014, EPC2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Heavy ion testing of newly available eGaN FETs from EPC were tested in May of 2012 at TAM. The EPC2001, EPC2012, and EPC2014 were tested for general single-event effect response from gold and xenon ions. Overall, the devices showed radiation degradation commensurate with breakdown in isolation oxides, and similar testing by EPC and Microsemi agrees with these data.

  8. Bilingual Accommodations for Limited English Proficient Students on Statewide Reading Tests: Phase 1. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kristin K.; Anderson, Michael E.; Swierzbin, Bonnie; Thurlow, Martha L.

    This report shares the initial Phase 1 results from a quantitative and qualitative study examining the feasibility and desirability of offering Minnesota students with limited English proficiency (LEP) a reading test with bilingual test items and answer choices. In considering the use of a native language translation accommodation to the Minnesota…

  9. Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

    Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test

  10. Effects of health information exchange adoption on ambulatory testing rates

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Stephen E; Radcliff, Tiffany A; LeBlanc, William G; Dickinson, L Miriam; Libby, Anne M; Nease, Donald E

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of the adoption of ambulatory electronic health information exchange (HIE) on rates of laboratory and radiology testing and allowable charges. Design Claims data from the dominant health plan in Mesa County, Colorado, from 1 April 2005 to 31 December 2010 were matched to HIE adoption data on the provider level. Using mixed effects regression models with the quarter as the unit of analysis, the effect of HIE adoption on testing rates and associated charges was assessed. Results Claims submitted by 306 providers in 69 practices for 34?818 patients were analyzed. The rate of testing per provider was expressed as tests per 1000 patients per quarter. For primary care providers, the rate of laboratory testing increased over the time span (baseline 1041 tests/1000 patients/quarter, increasing by 13.9 each quarter) and shifted downward with HIE adoption (downward shift of 83, p<0.01). A similar effect was found for specialist providers (baseline 718 tests/1000 patients/quarter, increasing by 19.1 each quarter, with HIE adoption associated with a downward shift of 119, p<0.01). Even so, imputed charges for laboratory tests did not shift downward significantly in either provider group, possibly due to the skewed nature of these data. For radiology testing, HIE adoption was not associated with significant changes in rates or imputed charges in either provider group. Conclusions Ambulatory HIE adoption is unlikely to produce significant direct savings through reductions in rates of testing. The economic benefits of HIE may reside instead in other downstream outcomes of better informed, higher quality care. PMID:23698257

  11. Magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 4}(Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} alloy series

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Xuejun

    1999-12-01

    Alloys from the Gd{sub 4}(Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} series were prepared by melting a stoichiometric amounts of pure metals in an induction furnace. The crystal structure is of the anti-Th{sub 3}P{sub 4} type (space group I{bar 4}3d) for all the compounds tested. The linear increase of the lattice parameters with Bi concentration is attributed to the larger atomic radius of Bi than that of Sb. Magnetic measurements show that the alloys order ferromagnetically from 266K to 330K, with the ordering temperature increasing with decreasing Bi concentration. The alloys are soft ferromagnets below their Curie temperatures, and follow the Curie-Weiss law above their ordering temperatures. The paramagnetic effective magnetic moments are low compared to the theoretical value for a free Gd{sup 3+}, while the ordered magnetic moments are close to the theoretical value for Gd. The alloys exhibit a moderate magnetocaloric effect (MCE) whose maxima are located between 270K and 338K and have relatively wide peaks. The peak MCE temperature decreases with decreasing Bi concentration while the peak height increases with decreasing Bi concentration. The Curie temperatures determined from inflection points of heat capacity are in good agreement with those obtained from the magnetocaloric effect. The MCE results obtained from the two different methods (magnetization and heat capacity) agree quite well with each other for all of the alloys in the series.

  12. Test scores of urban and rural bank workers in Nigeria: an analysis of the effect of location on test performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Johnnie

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the literature relating to job-related testing, and describes a specific study which examined the test scores, on written tests, of urban and rural bank workers in a national bank. The purpose of the test was to determine the effect of location on test performance of the two sets of bank workers. Also compares the test performance of individual bank

  13. Field performance testing : heritability and correction of sex effect

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Field performance testing : heritability and correction of sex effect J. NAVEAU S.C.A., Pen animals from the selection centre of Pen-Ar-Lan (France). The sex effect was estimated on the basis models, one including sex, the other excluding it. Results showed that in a farm unit, sex may

  14. ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING TEST REPORTS FOR EVALUATING VOC CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report outlines the approach taken by EPA to review existing test reports for evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) control device effectiveness and identifying missing control device effectiveness information. A format is presented to provide guidance and serve as the b...

  15. Testing Hypotheses on Specific Environmental Causal Effects on Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rutter; Andrew Pickles; Robin Murray; Lindon Eaves

    2001-01-01

    There have been strong critiques of the notion that environmental influences can have an important effect on psychological functioning. The substance of these criticisms is considered in order to infer the methodological challenges that have to be met. Concepts of cause and of the testing of causal effects are discussed with a particular focus on the need to consider sample

  16. Effects of changes in observational sites position and surrounding urbanisation on the temperature time series of the city of Trento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Lorenzo; Zardi, Dino; de Franceschi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    Results from field measurements and numerical simulations are analysed to evaluate the spatial variability of near-surface temperature in the urban area of Trento in the Alps. The analysis aims at gaining information supporting the reconstruction of the series of temperature observations in the city, the earliest dating back to 1816: a challenging task, due to various relocations of the observatories and the increasing effects of urbanisation. The specifically designed field campaign was carried out from August 2009 to November 2010: five identical temperature sensors were placed at the sites of the historical observatories of Trento, to detect possible systematic differences between these places under various seasonal patterns and weather conditions. However, since differences measured nowadays may not be representative of those occurred in the past, numerical simulations were also run with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, coupled with an advanced urban parameterization scheme, using a historical land use, reproducing early XX century urbanisation. Moreover, to test if the model is suitable to reproduce microclimatic differences in the urban area, simulations including the present land use, high-resolution urban morphology and anthropogenic heat sources were performed and compared against the observations carried out during the field campaign. The validation highlights that the model captures well the thermal field inside the urban area, as well as the average temperature differences between the urban sites, with mean absolute errors of order 1°C and 0.5°C respectively. However it reproduces poorly the variability connected with seasonality and weather conditions. Furthermore it is found that the model simulates well the typical features of the urban heat island, even though urbanisation effects tend to be overestimated. The analysis of the results of the "historical" simulations shows that temperature differences between the observatories more embedded in the urban area have not changed significantly from the past, probably due to similar changes in the surrounding urbanisation, whereas more relevant modifications have occurred at an observatory on the eastern sidewall of the valley, progressively incorporated in the urban area. Finally the comparison between "present" and "historical" simulations suggests that the progressive urbanisation has played a significant role on Trento temperature record in the last century, the effect being more significant under sunny conditions, when the urban heat island is stronger.

  17. MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL MODELS FOR EFFECTS OF PM AND COPOLLUTANTS IN A DAILY TIME SERIES EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most analyses of daily time series epidemiology data relate mortality or morbidity counts to PM and other air pollutants by means of single-outcome regression models using multiple predictors, without taking into account the complex statistical structure of the predictor variable...

  18. Effects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a)

    E-print Network

    Scofield, John H.

    cells. The model circuit consists of a capacitance C in parallel with a resistance r circuit consisting of a capacitance (C) in parallel with a shunt resistance (r), with these in series admittance of a four-element circuit is calculated and compared with measurements on two typical CIGS solar

  19. BIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL IONIZING RADIATION: DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This represents the first in a series of lectures sponsored by the Agency to present a range of perspectives on controversial environmental and health issues from the vantage points of distinguished scientists. The views expressed are, therefore, not necessarily the views of the ...

  20. A series expansion of the solid Earth tide effect on geopotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Sergey M.

    2013-04-01

    We develop analytical series representing the main part of corrections to the geopotential coefficients caused by the solid Earth tides, where Love numbers are assumed to be frequency-independent. The series are compact, precise and valid over 1800 A.D.-2200 A.D. The maximum difference between the corrections given by the analytical series and their numerical values, obtained with use of the DE/LE-423 planetary/lunar ephemerides, does not exceed 0.7× 10^{-12}. A new algorithm is proposed for calculating amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients for frequency dependence of Love numbers. It uses the representation of the Earth tide-generating potential in the standard HW95 format and takes into account the phase of tidal waves. Corrections of up to 2× 10^{-12} to the published by the IERS Conventions (2010) amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients are suggested. Examples of use of the obtained series in analytical theories of motion of low-altitude STARLETTE and high-altitude ETALON-1 satellites are given.

  1. Generalized Euler transformation for summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation series: the Zeeman effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremiah N. Silverman

    1983-01-01

    A generalized Euler transformation (GET) is introduced which provides a powerful alternative method of accurately summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schroedinger (RS) perturbation series when other summability methods fail or are difficult to apply. The GET is simple to implement and, unlike a number of other summation procedures, requires no a priori knowledge of the analytic properties of the function underlying the

  2. Generalized Euler transformation for summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation series: The Zeeman effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremiah N. Silverman

    1983-01-01

    A generalized Euler transformation (GET) is introduced which provides a powerful alternative method of accurately summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schrödinger (RS) perturbation series when other summability methods fail or are difficult to apply. The GET is simple to implement and, unlike a number of other summation procedures, requires no a priori knowledge of the analytic properties of the function underlying the

  3. Two approaches for effective modelling of rain-rate time-series for radiocommunication system simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Alasseur; A. Núñez; F. P. Fontán; L. Hussona; C. Fiebigc; P. Mariño

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes two methods for generating synthetic rain rate time-series capable of being used to simulate the performance of radio communication systems operating above 10 GHz. Rain rates are modelled because they are widely available and because an approximate link to signal attenuation can be established owing to the significant correlation between them. The proposed models are based on

  4. Major results from safety-related integral effect tests with VISTA-ITL for the SMART design

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H. S.; Min, B. Y.; Shin, Y. C.; Yi, S. J. [Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Div., Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    A series of integral effect tests (IETs) was performed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI) using the VISTA integral test loop (VISTA-ITL) as a small-scale IET program. Among them this paper presents major results acquired from the safety-related IETs with the VISTA-ITL facility for the SMART design. Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests of safety injection system (SIS) line break, shutdown cooling system (SCS) line break and pressurizer safety valve (PSV) line break were successfully performed and the transient characteristics of a complete loss of flowrate (CLOF) was simulated properly with the VISTA-ITL facility. (authors)

  5. Test of the gravitational redshift effect at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisher, T. P.; Anderson, J. D.; Campbell, J. K.

    1990-03-01

    The results of a test of the gravitational redshift effect at Saturn are reported. Measurements of the redshift were obtained with the Voyager 1 spacecraft during its encounter with Saturn in 1980. Because the spacecraft was equipped with an ultrastable crystal oscillator (USO), it is possible to test the redshift effect at an interesting level of accuracy. Assuming that radiation in the Saturn magnetosphere has had a negligible effect on the USO, the prediction of general relativity to an accuracy of 1 percent is verified. This limit could be of interest for constraining possible alternative theories of gravity.

  6. A multivariate approach for processing magnetization effects in triggered event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging time series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Esposito; Francesco Di Salle; Franciszek Hennel; Ornella Santopaolo; Marcus Herdener; Klaus Scheffler; Rainer Goebel; Erich Seifritz

    2006-01-01

    Triggered event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging requires sparse intervals of temporally resolved functional data acquisitions, whose initiation corresponds to the occurrence of an event, typically an epileptic spike in the electroencephalographic trace. However, conventional fMRI time series are greatly affected by non-steady-state magnetization effects, which obscure initial blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Here, conventional echo-planar imaging and a post-processing solution

  7. Effect of passive stretching and jogging on the series elastic muscle stiffness and range of motion of the ankle joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J McNair; Stephen N Stanley

    1996-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the effect of stretching and jogging on the series elastic muscle stiffness of the plantar flexors and on the range of dorsiflexion at the ankle joint.Methods24 healthy subjects participated in this study. Each subject undertook all of the following protocols, in random order: (1) stretching protocol: five 30 s static stretches with 30 s rest between stretches; (2)

  8. Effect of copper content on corrosion behavior and chromate conversion coating protection of 7xxx series aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingjiang

    The addition of Cu in Al-Zn-Mg alloys increases the mechanical strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking of 7xxx series aluminum alloys (AA7xxx). The peak aged T6 temper provides the maximum mechanical strength by precipitation hardening. However, the presence of noble Cu makes AA7xxx-T6 more susceptible to localized corrosion, such as pitting, crevice and intergranular corrosion (IGC). In order to protect AA7xxx-T6 from localized corrosion, protective chromate conversion coatings (CCCs) must be used. Cu has been reported to affect the CCC protection performance. The exact roles of Cu content in corrosion behavior and CCC protection of AA7xxx-T6 are the focus of this study. Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) approaches were used in combination with materials characterization techniques, such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB), SEM, TEM, High Resolution TEM (HRTEM), Scanning TEM (STEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS). Electrochemical tests on AA7xxx-T6 with various Cu content in deaerated chloride solution found that all alloys except for essentially Cu-free AA7004-T6 had two breakdown potentials, which increased logarithmically with increasing Cu content. Transient dissolution of the fine hardening precipitates and the surrounding solid solution in a thin surface layer was found in the Cu-containing alloys polarized at potentials between the two breakdown potentials. Stable dissolution associated with combined IGC and selective grain attack was found above the second breakdown potential. EIS tests revealed that the overall influence of Cu on the corrosion behavior was detrimental due to Cu enrichment in aerated chloride solution. TEM and STEM analysis revealed that CCC was heterogeneous on the heterogeneous microstructure of AA7075-T6. The coatings formed on coarse intermetallic particles were much thinner than CCC formed on the matrix. It was found that the CCC formed on the matrix mainly consisted of a CrIIIOOH backbone and chemisorbed HCrVIO4-. A sol-gel model for CCC formation was supported by the observations in this study. Finally the Cu content can have different effects on CCC protection: Cu is beneficial to CCC protection for coatings formed on polished AA7xxx-T6, but Cu is detrimental if it is enriched on the surface prior to CCC formation.

  9. Radiation thermometer size-of-source effect testing using aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Liebmann, F.; Kolat, T. [Fluke Corporation, 799 E Utah Valley Dr., American Fork, Utah, USA, 84003 (United States)] [Fluke Corporation, 799 E Utah Valley Dr., American Fork, Utah, USA, 84003 (United States)

    2013-09-11

    Size-of-source effect is an important attribute of any radiation thermometer. The effects of this attribute may be quantified in a number of different ways to include field-of-view, distance ratio, or size-of-source effect. These parameters provide needed information for the user of a radiation thermometer, as they aid in determining whether the measured object is large enough for adequate radiation thermometry measurement. Just as important, these parameters provide needed information for calibration. This information helps to determine calibration geometry, and it is needed for calibration uncertainty determination. For determination of size-of-source effect, there are a limited number of test methods furnished by the standards available today. The test methods available may be cumbersome to perform due to the cost of the required equipment and the time needed to set-up and perform the test. Other methods have been proposed. This paper discusses one such method. This method uses a circular aperture such as that used in radiation thermometer calibration. It describes the method both theoretically and mechanically. It then discusses testing done to verify this method comparing the results to those obtained while performing steps in current standards. Finally, based on this testing, the basis for a new standard test method is presented.

  10. Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Tests of a Family of Models of Flying Hulls Derived from a Streamline Body -- NACA Model 84 Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Olson, Roland E; Draley, Eugene C; Luoma, Arvo A

    1943-01-01

    A series of related forms of flying-boat hulls representing various degrees of compromise between aerodynamic and hydrodynamic requirements was tested in Langley Tank No. 1 and in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. The purpose of the investigation was to provide information regarding the penalties in water performance resulting from further aerodynamic refinement and, as a corollary, to provide information regarding the penalties in range or payload resulting from the retention of certain desirable hydrodynamic characteristics. The information should form a basis for over-all improvements in hull form.

  11. Effects of reinforcement on standardized test performance1

    PubMed Central

    Ayllon, Teodoro; Kelly, Kathy

    1972-01-01

    The effects of two different motivational conditions upon standardized test performance were explored for two student populations. The first study involving 12 trainable retardates showed a significant increase in score on the Metropolitan Readiness Test given under reinforcement conditions when these results were compared with scores taken under standard testing conditions. In a second study, these same results were obtained with a group of 30 normal fourth-graders. An additional study was conducted to determine the effect of different experiences with token reinforcement procedures on test performance. It was found that a group of children with six weeks' exposure to reinforcement for daily academic performance scored higher under both conditions of test administration (standard and reinforcement) than a control group. However, in a single exposure to token reinforcement for correct performance on the Metropolitan Test, both the experimental group and its match control showed a parallel increase in test performance. These findings offer a procedure that yields a more representative assessment of a student's academic achievement than does testing under standard conditions. PMID:16795371

  12. Effects of automatic item eliminations based on item test analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jaap HJ Muntinga (University of Groningen Medical Physiology)

    2007-09-08

    Item test analysis is an aid to identify items that need to be eliminated from an assessment. An automatic elimination procedure based on item statistics, therefore, could help to increase the quality of a test in an objective manner. This was investigated by studying the effect of a standardized elimination procedure on the test results of a second-year course over a period of 6 successive years in 1,624 candidates. Cohort effects on the item elimination were examined by determining the number of additional items that had to be eliminated from three different tests in 3 successive academic years in two cohorts. The items that were part of more than one test and had to be eliminated according to the procedure in at least one of the tests appeared to have to be retained according to the same procedure in most of the other tests. The procedure harmed the high scoring students relatively more often than the other students, and the number of eliminated items appeared to be cohort dependent. As a consequence, automatic elimination procedures obscure the transparency of the grading process unacceptably and transform valid tests into inadequate samples of the course content.

  13. Assessment of the prozone effect in malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The prozone effect (or high doses-hook phenomenon) consists of false-negative or false-low results in immunological tests, due to an excess of either antigens or antibodies. Although frequently cited as a cause of false-negative results in malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially at high parasite densities of Plasmodium falciparum, it has been poorly documented. In this study, a panel of malaria RDTs was challenged with clinical samples with P. falciparum hyperparasitaemia (> 5% infected red blood cells). Methods Twenty-two RDT brands were tested with seven samples, both undiluted and upon 10 ×, 50 × and 100 × dilutions in NaCl 0.9%. The P. falciparum targets included histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2, n = 17) and P. falciparum-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pf-pLDH, n = 5). Test lines intensities were recorded in the following categories: negative, faint, weak, medium or strong. The prozone effect was defined as an increase in test line intensity of at least one category after dilution, if observed upon duplicate testing and by two readers. Results Sixteen of the 17 HRP-2 based RDTs were affected by prozone: the prozone effect was observed in at least one RDT sample/brand combination for 16/17 HRP-2 based RDTs in 6/7 samples, but not for any of the Pf-pLDH tests. The HRP-2 line intensities of the undiluted sample/brand combinations with prozone effect (n = 51) included a single negative (1.9%) and 29 faint and weak readings (56.9%). The other target lens (P. vivax-pLDH, pan-specific pLDH and aldolase) did not show a prozone effect. Conclusion This study confirms the prozone effect as a cause of false-negative HRP-2 RDTs in samples with hyperparasitaemia. PMID:19948018

  14. Two-Dimensional Air-Flow Tests of the Effect of ITA Flowliner Slot Modification by Grinding/Polishing on Edge Tone Generation Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor); Walker, Bruce E.

    2004-01-01

    Hersh Walker Acoustics (HWA) has performed a series of wind tunnel tests to support crack-repair studies for ITA flowliner vent slots. The overall goal of these tests is to determine if slot shape details have a significant influence on the propensity of the flowliner to produce aero-acoustic oscillations that could increase unsteady stresses on the flowliner walls. The test series, conducted using a full-scale two-dimensional model of a six-slot segment of the 38 slot liner, was intended to investigate the effects of altering slot shape by grinding away cracked portions.

  15. V/STOL and STOL ground effects and testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    The ground effects associated with V/STOL operation were examined and an effort was made to develop the equipment and testing techniques needed for that understanding. Primary emphasis was on future experimental programs in the 40 x 80 and the 80 x 120 foot test sections and in the outdoor static test stand associated with these facilities. The commonly used experimental techniques are reviewed and data obtained by various techniques are compared with each other and with available estimating methods. These reviews and comparisons provide insight into the limitations of past studies and the testing techniques used and identify areas where additional work is needed. The understanding of the flow mechanics involved in hovering and in transition in and out of ground effect is discussed. The basic flow fields associated with hovering, transition and STOL operation of jet powered V/STOL aircraft are depicted.

  16. Effects of a maximal exercise test on neurocognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Covassin; Leigh Weiss; John Powell; Christopher Womack; M. R Lovell

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a maximal exercise test on cognitive function in recreational athletes.Design: A repeated-measures design was used to compare baseline with post-cognitive function and fatigue symptoms after a maximal exercise test.Setting: Division 1 American Midwestern University, (Michigan State University, Michigan, USA).Participants: 102 male and female recreational athletes.Intervention: Participants in the experimental group (n = 54) were

  17. System size effects and N/Z dependence of balance energy for different isotopic series

    E-print Network

    Aman D. Sood; Sakshi Gautam

    2011-12-13

    We study the N/Z dependence of energy of vanishing flow or balance energy for different isotopic series of various system masses like Ca+Ca, Ni+Ni, Zr+Zr, Sn+Sn and Xe+Xe. We find that balance energy decreases with N/Z of the system and follows a linear behaviour. The slope of N/Z dependence is steeper for lighter systems like Ca+Ca and less for heavier ones like Xe+Xe.

  18. Effects of dating errors on nonparametric trend analyses of speleothem time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, M.; Fohlmeister, J.; Scholz, D.

    2012-05-01

    A fundamental problem in paleoclimatology is to take fully into account the various error sources when examining proxy records with quantitative methods of statistical time series analysis. Records from dated climate archives such as speleothems add extra uncertainty from the age determination to the other sources that consist in measurement and proxy errors. This paper examines three stalagmite time series of oxygen isotopic composition (?18O) from two caves in Western Germany, the series AH-1 from the Atta cave and the series Bu1 and Bu4 from the Bunker cave. These records carry regional information about past changes in winter precipitation and temperature. U/Th and radiocarbon dating reveals that they cover the later part of the Holocene, the past 8.6 thousand years (ka). We analyse centennial- to millennial-scale climate trends by means of nonparametric Gasser-Müller kernel regression. Error bands around fitted trend curves are determined by combining (1) block bootstrap resampling to preserve noise properties (shape, autocorrelation) of the ?18O residuals and (2) timescale simulations (models StalAge and iscam). The timescale error influences on centennial- to millennial-scale trend estimation are not excessively large. We find a "mid-Holocene climate double-swing", from warm to cold to warm winter conditions (6.5 ka to 6.0 ka to 5.1 ka), with warm-cold amplitudes of around 0.5‰ ?18O; this finding is documented by all three records with high confidence. We also quantify the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the current warmth. Our analyses cannot unequivocally support the conclusion that current regional winter climate is warmer than that during the MWP.

  19. Effects of dating errors on nonparametric trend analyses of speleothem time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, M.; Fohlmeister, J.; Scholz, D.

    2012-10-01

    A fundamental problem in paleoclimatology is to take fully into account the various error sources when examining proxy records with quantitative methods of statistical time series analysis. Records from dated climate archives such as speleothems add extra uncertainty from the age determination to the other sources that consist in measurement and proxy errors. This paper examines three stalagmite time series of oxygen isotopic composition (?18O) from two caves in western Germany, the series AH-1 from the Atta Cave and the series Bu1 and Bu4 from the Bunker Cave. These records carry regional information about past changes in winter precipitation and temperature. U/Th and radiocarbon dating reveals that they cover the later part of the Holocene, the past 8.6 thousand years (ka). We analyse centennial- to millennial-scale climate trends by means of nonparametric Gasser-Müller kernel regression. Error bands around fitted trend curves are determined by combining (1) block bootstrap resampling to preserve noise properties (shape, autocorrelation) of the ?18O residuals and (2) timescale simulations (models StalAge and iscam). The timescale error influences on centennial- to millennial-scale trend estimation are not excessively large. We find a "mid-Holocene climate double-swing", from warm to cold to warm winter conditions (6.5 ka to 6.0 ka to 5.1 ka), with warm-cold amplitudes of around 0.5‰ ?18O; this finding is documented by all three records with high confidence. We also quantify the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the current warmth. Our analyses cannot unequivocally support the conclusion that current regional winter climate is warmer than that during the MWP.

  20. Food and density effects in sediment tests with Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.M.; Thompson, R.S. [ZENECA Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Environmentally relevant and cost-effective test procedures are needed to assess the impact of sediment-associated chemicals, and further the understanding of factors controlling bioavailability. Experiments were performed to optimize the biology of chronic test systems (using the freshwater midge Chironomus riparius) in sediments with different characteristics. The effects of food level (0 to 1.0 mg/organism/day) and organism density (20 to 56 per vessel) on survival and successful development of newly hatched larvae, through to adult emergence, were investigated. The test system comprised of three replicate vessels per treatment, each containing 40 g dry weight (equivalent) of substrate, flooded with reconstituted water to a total volume of 300 ml. Aeration was provided throughout the test period. Natural sediments with low organic carbon content did not support development to emergence without supplemental feeding. However, with sufficient daily food (ground fish-flake) the small-scale test systems supported greater than 80% emergence. Minimum food levels were defined at which survival and development were unchanged over a wide range of organism densities, by comparison with results using an inorganic substrate the nutritional role as well as effects on chemical partitioning. Since incorporated food carbon, unlike daily additions, would be expected to be at chemical equilibrium with the sediment, the implications of the results when formulating artificial sediments for standardized tests are discussed.

  1. South Carolina Statewide Testing Program 1977-78. General Report. Office of Research Report Series. Volume One/Number 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busbee, Cyril B.

    The results and methodology of the South Carolina 1977-78 statewide spring testing program for grades 3, 6, and 11 are presented and discussed. The discussion of the results focuses on a comparison of the 1978 results to national norms, a comparison of 1978 to 1977 results, a performance comparison across grade levels, and a comparison of skill…

  2. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  3. Effects of Alcohol Tax Increases on Alcohol-Related Disease Mortality in Alaska: Time-Series Analyses From 1976 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Bradley H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated the effects of tax increases on alcoholic beverages in 1983 and 2002 on alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska. Methods. We used a quasi-experimental design with quarterly measures of mortality from 1976 though 2004, and we included other states for comparison. Our statistical approach combined an autoregressive integrated moving average model with structural parameters in interrupted time-series models. Results. We observed statistically significant reductions in the numbers and rates of deaths caused by alcohol-related disease beginning immediately after the 1983 and 2002 alcohol tax increases in Alaska. In terms of effect size, the reductions were –29% (Cohen's d = –0.57) and –11% (Cohen's d = –0.52) for the 2 tax increases. Statistical tests of temporary-effect models versus long-term-effect models showed little dissipation of the effect over time. Conclusions. Increases in alcohol excise tax rates were associated with immediate and sustained reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska. Reductions in mortality occurred after 2 tax increases almost 20 years apart. Taxing alcoholic beverages is an effective public health strategy for reducing the burden of alcohol-related disease. PMID:19008507

  4. Experimental and Structural Testing Module to Analyze Paralogue-Specificity and Affinity in the Hsp90 Inhibitors Series

    PubMed Central

    Taldone, Tony; Patel, Pallav D.; Patel, Maulik; Patel, Hardik J.; Evans, Christopher E.; Rodina, Anna; Ochiana, Stefan; Shah, Smit K.; Uddin, Mohammad; Gewirth, Daniel; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    We here describe the first reported comprehensive analysis of Hsp90 paralogue affinity and selectivity in the clinical Hsp90 inhibitor chemotypes. This has been possible through the development of a versatile experimental assay based on a new FP-probe (16a) that we both describe here. The assay can test rapidly and accurately the binding affinity of all major Hsp90 chemotypes and has a testing range that spans low nanomolar to millimolar binding affinities. We couple this assay with a computational analysis that allows for rationalization of paralogue selectivity and defines not only the major binding modes that relay pan-paralogue binding or, conversely, paralogue selectivity, but also identifies molecular characteristics that impart such features. The methods developed here provide a blueprint for parsing out the contribution of the four Hsp90 paralogues to the perceived biological activity with the current Hsp90 chemotypes and set the ground for the development of paralogue selective inhibitors. PMID:23965125

  5. Small-Scale Seal Performance Test Series ''A'' thermal\\/structural data through the 180th day. [Concrete seals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stormont

    1987-01-01

    As part of an in-situ test of the performance of concrete seals, measurements of temperature, strain, stress, and displacement are being made in seals and in adjacent rock. The seals vary in size from 15.2-cm diameter by 30.4-cm length to 91.4-cm diameter by 91.4-cm length, and are located in vertical boreholes in predominately halite host rock. This report contains data

  6. Test and evaluation of the Argonne BPAC10 Series air chamber calorimeter designed for 20 minute measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.; Jung, E.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Cremers, T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This paper is the final report on DOE-OSS Task ANLE88002 Fast Air Chamber Calorimetry.'' The task objective was to design, construct, and test an isothermal air chamber calorimeter for plutonium assay of bulk samples that would meet the following requirements for sample power measurement: average sample measurement time less than 20 minutes. Measurement of samples with power output up to 10 W. Precision of better than 1% RSD for sample power greater than 1 W. Precision better than 0.010 watt SD, for sample power less than 1 W. This report gives a description of the calorimeter hardware and software and discusses the test results. The instrument operating procedure, included as an appendix, gives examples of typical input/output and explains the menu driven software. Sample measurement time of less than 20 minutes was attained by pre-equilibration of the samples in low cost precision preheaters and by prediction of equilibrium measurements. Tests at the TA55 Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, on typical samples, indicates that the instrument meets all the measurement requirements.

  7. Aging Effects on the Structure Underlying Balance Abilities Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as ‘Static’. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as ‘Static and Reactive’. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were acceptable (young group, GFI=0.931; older group, GFI=0.923). Static, dynamic and reactive factors relating to balance ability had loadings 0.21, 0.24, and 0.76 in the young group and 0.71, 0.28, and 0.43 in the older group, respectively. It is suggested that the common factorial structure of balance abilities were static, dynamic and reactive, and that for young people reactive balance ability was characterized and explained by balance ability, whereas for older people it was static balance ability.

  8. Laboratory effectiveness testing of water-in-oil emulsion breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Bier, I.; Conrod, D. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tennyson, E. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The physics and chemistry of water-in-oil emulsions dominate the development of effectiveness tests. Emulsions are variable in stability--this variability is largely dependent on oil type and degree of weathering. These factors complicate the development of a test. Emulsions which have low stability will apparently break easily with chemical emulsion breakers. Broken emulsions will form a foam-like material, called rag, which retains water which is not part of the stable emulsions. Analytical methods used to determine the final stability of the broken or unbroken emulsion were evaluated. Measurements of water content and viscosity measurements show correlation to emulsion stability. Viscosity provides a more reliable measure of emulsion stability but water content measurements are more convenient and are largely used in this study. Twelve tests were developed in the past. Two testing methods have been developed to a usable stage. These tests are described and data using them provided. The effects of mixing time, agent amount, settling time and mixing energy on effectiveness results are presented.

  9. Chamber leakage effects on measured gas concentrations during contained demilitarization tests at NTS X-Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher R. Shadix; Joel Lipkin

    1999-11-01

    A series of contained explosive detonation and propellant burn experiments was conducted during 1996 and 1997 using a specially constructed, large, underground chamber located in the X-tunnel complex at Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  10. Test Report: Direct and Indirect Lightning Effects on Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    Lightning tests were performed on composite materials as a part of an investigation of electromagnetic effects on the materials. Samples were subjected to direct and remote simulated lightning strikes. Samples included various thicknesses of graphite filament reinforced plastic (GFRP), material enhanced by expanded aluminum foil layers, and material with an aluminum honeycomb core. Shielding properties of the material and damage to the sample surfaces and joints were investigated. Adding expanded aluminum foil layers and increasing the thickness of GFRP improves the shielding effectiveness against lightning induced fields and the ability to withstand lightning strikes. A report describing the lightning strike tests performed by the U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL, STERT-TE-E-EM, is included as an appendix.

  11. Testing Belbin's Team Role Theory of Effective Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Jane S.; Stanton, Neville A.

    1999-01-01

    Belbin's theory that teams with a wide range of roles are more effective than those with role imbalance was tested with six teams composed of individuals with homogenous roles and six with mixed roles. Mixed teams performed better on team tasks. (SK)

  12. EFFECT OF ADULT MALLARD AGE ON AVIAN REPRODUCTIVE TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to determine the effect of using two different ages of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) adults within the first breeding season on reproductive tests under standard Toxic Substances Control Act avian reproductive guidelines. The adult age groups were 7 and 11 m...

  13. EFFECTS OF TESTS AND QUALITY CONTROL ON AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL SAFETY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdem Acar; Raphael T. Haftka; Nam-Ho Kim

    Uncertainty about material properties and analysis models is high when structures are being designed. Designing them for reasonable probabilities of failure with these high uncertainties is not feasible. Instead, the uncertainties are usually reduced before employing some measures including structural tests, quality control, maintenance and health monitoring. The importance of modeling the effects of these uncertainty reduction measures (URMs) during

  14. Advances in Testing the Statistical Significance of Mediation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Abraham, W. Todd; Wei, Meifen; Russell, Daniel W.

    2006-01-01

    P. A. Frazier, A. P. Tix, and K. E. Barron (2004) highlighted a normal theory method popularized by R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) for testing the statistical significance of indirect effects (i.e., mediator variables) in multiple regression contexts. However, simulation studies suggest that this method lacks statistical power relative to some…

  15. The secular increase in test scores is a “Jensen effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Colom; Manuel Juan-Espinosa; Lu??s F. Garc??a

    2001-01-01

    The “Jensen effect” results from the correlation between the g factor and a huge number of psychological and biological variables. Although Rushton (Rushton, J. P. (1999). Secular gains in IQ not related to the g factor and inbreding depression — unlike Black–White differences: a reply to Flynn. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 381–389) proposed that the secular increase in test scores

  16. BATTERY POWERED COST EFFECTIVE TDS LOGGER INTENDED FOR WATER TESTING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BATTERY POWERED COST EFFECTIVE TDS LOGGER INTENDED FOR WATER TESTING I. A. IVAN1,2 , V. STIHI1 , M of drinkable, surface (lakes, rivers) and/or industrial waters. Providing a first reading of potential water of Targoviste city water utility. Key words: water quality, conductivity-meter, TDS, microcontroller. 1

  17. Test of a Contingency Model of Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reavis, Charles A.; Derlega, Valerian J.

    The basic theory that the teacher style required for effective learning in the classroom is contingent on the favorableness of the group situation was tested in a controlled experiment. Eight groups of eighth-grade boys were assigned to two teachers, four groups for each. Two hypotheses were under examination: (1) A task-oriented teacher will be…

  18. A series of low-altitude aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18, and 25 at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, D.P.

    1999-12-01

    A series of low-altitude, aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18,and 25 of the Nevada Test Site was conducted from December 1996 through June 1999. The surveys were conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The flights were conducted at a nominal altitude of 15 meters above ground level along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 23 meters apart. The purpose of these low-altitude surveys was to measure, map, and define the areas of americium-241 activity. The americium contamination will be used to determine the areas of plutonium contamination. Americium-241 activity was detected within 8 of the 11 regions. The three regions where americium-241 was not detected were in the inactive Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex in Area 25, which encompassed the Test Cell A and Test Cell C reactor test stands and the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly facility.

  19. Effect of ITRF2000 on TOPEX/POSEIDON Orbit Determination and Mean Sea Level Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. C.; Chambers, D. P.; Choi, K.; Eanes, R. J.

    2001-12-01

    The precision orbits produced by NASA for the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter satellite are based on a set of SLR and DORIS station coordinates determined in 1995 (CSR95L01 and CSR95D02). However, it is clear that this terrestrial reference system needs to be updated. In particular, the DORIS station velocities in CSR95D02 are not sufficiently well determined to accurately propagate the positions into the current years, much less into the Jason-1 follow-on mission. The ITRF2000 reference frame is a new solution for the SLR, DORIS and GPS tracking stations which is a significant improvement over previous solutions. The concern is that artificial trends can be introduced into the sea level observations from changes or errors in the reference system used for orbit determination. ITRF97 has a significant offset (2 cm) and drift (2 mm/yr) relative to the CSR system, so it was not adopted for the NASA orbit production. ITRF2000 has adopted the SLR determination of the terrestrial origin, which has substantially removed this offset and drift. By adopting ITRF2000, NASA and CNES should be able to adopt the same terrestrial reference frame for the transition from TOPEX/POSEIDON to Jason-1. The level of backward compatibility with the CSR95L01/D02 system is examined to determine if any significant artifacts in the sea level time series are introduced in the sea level time series based on the NASA orbits.

  20. Short term effect of rainfall on suspected malaria episodes at Magaria, Niger: a time series study.

    PubMed

    Jusot, Jean-François; Alto, Oumarou

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological patterns of malaria are influenced by different kinds of climate. In Sahelian countries, the link between climatic factors and malaria is still insufficiently quantified. The aim of this work was to conduct a time-series study of rainfall to estimate the increased risk of malaria morbidity. Daily suspected malaria episodes among subjects of all ages were collected retrospectively in three health care facilities between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2003 at Magaria, Niger. These daily numbers were analysed with time-series methods, using generalized additive models with a negative binomial family. The impact of rainfall 40 days before occurrence of suspected malaria episodes was studied using a distributed lag model. More than 13 000 suspected malaria episodes were registered corresponding to an annual cumulative incidence rate of 7.4%. The overall excess risk of suspected malaria episodes for an increase of 1mm of rainfall after 40 days of exposure was estimated at 7.2%. This study allowed to specify the excess risk of rainfall on the occurrence of suspected malaria episodes in an intermediate rainfall area located in the Sahelian region in Niger. It was a first step to a health impact assessment. PMID:21925691

  1. Effect of different tropospheric mapping functions on the TRF, CRF and position time-series estimated from VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesmer, Volker; Boehm, Johannes; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2007-06-01

    This paper compares estimated terrestrial reference frames (TRF) and celestial reference frames (CRF) as well as position time-series in terms of systematic differences, scale, annual signals and station position repeatabilities using four different tropospheric mapping functions (MF): The NMF (Niell Mapping Function) and the recently developed GMF (Global Mapping Function) consist of easy-to-handle stand-alone formulae, whereas the IMF (Isobaric Mapping Function) and the VMF1 (Vienna Mapping Function 1) are determined from numerical weather models. All computations were performed at the Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI) using the OCCAM 6.1 and DOGS-CS software packages for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data from 1984 until 2005. While it turned out that CRF estimates only slightly depend on the MF used, showing small systematic effects up to 0.025 mas, some station heights of the computed TRF change by up to 13 mm. The best agreement was achieved for the VMF1 and GMF results concerning the TRFs, and for the VMF1 and IMF results concerning scale variations and position time-series. The amplitudes of the annual periodical signals in the time-series of estimated heights differ by up to 5 mm. The best precision in terms of station height repeatability is found for the VMF1, which is 5 7% better than for the other MFs.

  2. Power series evaluation of Zernike covariances for turbulence-induced phase distortions including outer scale and servo lag effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchers, Jeffrey D.; Ellerbroek, Brent L.

    1999-09-01

    Mellin transform techniques are applied to develop power series formulas to efficiently evaluate covariances for zernike representations of turbulence-induced phase distortions along a pair of ray paths through the atmosphere from one or several sources at finite or infinite range. The formulas also apply when the phase distortions are temporally filtered by a closed loop adaptive optics system. The power series formulas are developed using an automated computer logic algorithm designed to solve multiple contour integrals in multiple complex planes resulting from the application of Mellin transform techniques. Results are presented for the von Karman turbulence spectrum with a finite outer scale. Amplitude scintillation effects are neglected. The Taylor hypothesis is assumed to model the temporal behavior of the turbulence using either a fixed or random wind profile. The resulting formulas are weighted integrals of the refractive index structure constant C(subscript n)(superscript 2)(z), where the weighting functions are power series in from one to six indices depending on the beacons used and the choices made regarding the atmospheric turbulence spectrum and the direction of the wind.

  3. Small-Scale Seal Performance Test Series ''A'' thermal/structural data through the 180th day. [Concrete seals

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    As part of an in-situ test of the performance of concrete seals, measurements of temperature, strain, stress, and displacement are being made in seals and in adjacent rock. The seals vary in size from 15.2-cm diameter by 30.4-cm length to 91.4-cm diameter by 91.4-cm length, and are located in vertical boreholes in predominately halite host rock. This report contains data collected through the 180th day after seal emplacement and presents discussion and conclusions based on these data. A double hump in the temperature history resulting from concrete hydration was consistently observed and is thought to be a result of the two-phase hydration of the concrete. The concrete strain and stress data indicate that creep of adjacent rock is the predominant mechanism for stress and strain changes in the seals. The trend of these data suggests that they may eventually stabilize or equilibrate. The seals exhibited little structural response to a 2-MPa axial load from fluid flow/permeability testing, indicating substantial concrete/rock interface strength. 13 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. The Application of Theory and Method of Time Series in the Modeling of Software Reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Zhongmin; Wu Yeqing

    2010-01-01

    According to the characteristics of software failure data, the software reliability model is built by the time series theory. As an example, a software control system of failure data in testing phase as a time series, analysis and forecast are carried out on the basis of stochastic time series model. The result shows that this method has a good effect

  5. Complementary series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Golay

    1961-01-01

    A set of complementary series is defined as a pair of equally long, finite sequences of two kinds of elements which have the property that the number of pairs of like elements with any one given separation in one series is equal to the number of pairs of unlike elements with the same given separation in the other series. (For

  6. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years) were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover) on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death). Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m3 on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic) and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards. PMID:24157504

  7. Effects of hull form parameters on seakeeping for YTU gulet series with cruiser stern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakici, Ferdi; Aydin, Muhsin

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to identify the relations between seakeeping characteristics and hull form parameters for YTU Gulet series with cruiser stern. Seakeeping analyses are carried out by means of a computer software which is based on the strip theory and statistical short term response prediction method. Multiple regression analysis is used for numerical assessment through a computer software. RMS heave-pitch motions and absolute vertical accelerations on passenger saloon for Sea State 3 at head waves are investigated for this purpose. It is well known that while ship weight and the ratios of main dimensions are the primary factors on ship motions, other hull form parameters (CP, CWP, CVP, etc.) are the secondary factors. In this study, to have an idea of geometric properties on ship motions of gulets three different regression models are developed. The obtained outcomes provide practical predictions of seakeeping behavior of gulets with a high level of accuracy that would be useful during the concept design stage

  8. Effects of high energy simulated space radiation on polymeric second-surface mirrors. [thermal control coatings - performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eogdall, L. B.; Cannaday, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    A radiation effects experimental program was performed, in which second surface mirror type thermal control coatings were exposed to ultraviolet radiation, electrons, and protons simultaneously. Stability was assessed by making periodic spectral reflectance measurements in situ (and in air after testing for comparison). Solar absorption coefficients were derived by computer. Many of the exposed materials showed large amounts of degradation in reflectance absorptance, principally due to the electron exposure. A series of tests was conducted, leading to the identification of a modified second surface mirror that shows considerable improvement and promise for stability during thermal control applications in a charged particle space radiation environment.

  9. Effects of Introduced Materials in the Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, L; Jones, RL

    2002-01-11

    Water samples previously acquired from superheated (>140 C) zones within hydrological test boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) show relatively high fluoride concentrations (5-66 ppm) and low pH (3.1-3.5) values. In these high temperature regions of the rock, water is present superheated vapor only--liquid water for sampling purposes is obtained during the sampling process by cooling. Based on data collected to date, it is evident that the source of the fluoride and low pH is from introduced man-made materials (Teflon{trademark} and/or Viton{trademark} fluoroelastomer) used in the test. The test materials may contribute fluoride either by degassing hydrogen fluoride (HF) directly to produce trace concentrations of HF gas ({approx}0.1 ppm) in the high temperature steam, or by leaching fluoride in the sampling tubes after condensation of the superheated steam. HF gas is known to be released from Viton{trademark} at high temperatures (Dupont Dow Elastomers L.L.C., Elkton, MD, personal communication) and the sample water compositions indicate near stoichiometric balance of hydrogen ion and fluoride ion, indicating dissolution of HF gas into the aqueous phase. These conclusions are based on a series of water samples collected to determine if the source of the fluoride is from the degradation of materials originally installed to facilitate measurements. Analyses of these water samples show that the source of the fluoride is the introduced materials, that is the Viton{trademark} packers used to isolate test zones and/or Teflon{trademark} tubing used to draw water and steam from the test zones. In particular, water samples collected from borehole (BH) 72 high temperatures ({approx} 170 C) prior to introduction of any Viton{trademark} or Teflon{trademark} show pH Values (4.8 to 5.5) and fluoride concentrations well below 1 ppm over a period of six months. These characteristics are typical of condensing DST steam that contains only some dissolved carbon dioxide generated by water-mineral-gas reactions in the rock. With the introduction of the Viton{trademark} packer materials and Teflon{trademark} sampling tube in BH72, the water samples show pH values drop to 3.8, while fluoride rises to 2.4 ppm within three days. After nine days, the pH values reach as low as 3.4 and fluoride concentrations rise as high as 7.5 ppm in the collected samples. The background information describing the fluoride issue and a summary of the water collection activities along with the analytical results are provided below. The results of the field test confirm the hypothesis that the source of the fluoride in specific samples from the DST is the introduced test materials (i.e. Viton{trademark} and/or Teflon{trademark}). This is positive from the perspective of repository performance, particularly waste package and drip shield degradation behavior, as deleterious introduced materials would be avoided in an operating repository. Ongoing laboratory testing to be Completed in January 2002, and additional testing in BH72 and BH55 will address further details, such as the specific material introducing the fluorine and the material breakdown process.

  10. An effective approach for gap-filling continental scale remotely sensed time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Bhatt, Samir; Mappin, Bonnie; Hay, Simon I.; Gething, Peter W.

    2014-12-01

    The archives of imagery and modeled data products derived from remote sensing programs with high temporal resolution provide powerful resources for characterizing inter- and intra-annual environmental dynamics. The impressive depth of available time-series from such missions (e.g., MODIS and AVHRR) affords new opportunities for improving data usability by leveraging spatial and temporal information inherent to longitudinal geospatial datasets. In this research we develop an approach for filling gaps in imagery time-series that result primarily from cloud cover, which is particularly problematic in forested equatorial regions. Our approach consists of two, complementary gap-filling algorithms and a variety of run-time options that allow users to balance competing demands of model accuracy and processing time. We applied the gap-filling methodology to MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and daytime and nighttime Land Surface Temperature (LST) datasets for the African continent for 2000-2012, with a 1 km spatial resolution, and an 8-day temporal resolution. We validated the method by introducing and filling artificial gaps, and then comparing the original data with model predictions. Our approach achieved R2 values above 0.87 even for pixels within 500 km wide introduced gaps. Furthermore, the structure of our approach allows estimation of the error associated with each gap-filled pixel based on the distance to the non-gap pixels used to model its fill value, thus providing a mechanism for including uncertainty associated with the gap-filling process in downstream applications of the resulting datasets.

  11. An effective approach for gap-filling continental scale remotely sensed time-series

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Bhatt, Samir; Mappin, Bonnie; Hay, Simon I.; Gething, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    The archives of imagery and modeled data products derived from remote sensing programs with high temporal resolution provide powerful resources for characterizing inter- and intra-annual environmental dynamics. The impressive depth of available time-series from such missions (e.g., MODIS and AVHRR) affords new opportunities for improving data usability by leveraging spatial and temporal information inherent to longitudinal geospatial datasets. In this research we develop an approach for filling gaps in imagery time-series that result primarily from cloud cover, which is particularly problematic in forested equatorial regions. Our approach consists of two, complementary gap-filling algorithms and a variety of run-time options that allow users to balance competing demands of model accuracy and processing time. We applied the gap-filling methodology to MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and daytime and nighttime Land Surface Temperature (LST) datasets for the African continent for 2000–2012, with a 1 km spatial resolution, and an 8-day temporal resolution. We validated the method by introducing and filling artificial gaps, and then comparing the original data with model predictions. Our approach achieved R2 values above 0.87 even for pixels within 500 km wide introduced gaps. Furthermore, the structure of our approach allows estimation of the error associated with each gap-filled pixel based on the distance to the non-gap pixels used to model its fill value, thus providing a mechanism for including uncertainty associated with the gap-filling process in downstream applications of the resulting datasets. PMID:25642100

  12. Perspectives on Effective Teaching and the Cooperative Classroom. Analysis and Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhartz, Judy, Ed.

    This collection of 7 articles focuses on the themes of 10 workshops that comprise an inservice training program, Effective Teaching, and the Cooperative Classroom. In "Research in Teacher Effectiveness," Georgea M. Sparks traces the research findings on effective teaching practices and educational outcomes during the last 15 years, and briefly…

  13. Predicting the Effects of Test Media in Ground-Based Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Gaffney, Richard L.; Parker, Peter A.; Chelliah, Harsha K.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Givi, Peyman; Hassan, Hassan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of work which began in mid-2004 sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Test & Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the effects of the test media on the flameholding characteristics in scramjet engines. The program has several components including the development of advance algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work involving the development of phenomenological models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes, large-eddy simulation techniques and reduced-kinetics models. Experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts will also be described, along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data.

  14. Development of Methods to Predict the Effects of Test Media in Ground-Based Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Parker, Peter A.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Chelliah, Harsha K.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Givi, Peyman; Hassan, Hassan A.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses work that began in mid-2004 sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Test & Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program. The work was undertaken to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the effects of the test media on the flameholding characteristics in scramjet engines. The program had several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. This report provides details of the completed work, involving the development of phenomenological models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes, large-eddy simulation techniques and reduced-kinetics models. Experiments that provided data for the modeling efforts are also described, along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data.

  15. The effect of test system misalignment in the dynamic tension test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H. C.; Wang, T. P.; Yip, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of test system misalignment are analyzed for dynamic tension tests using sheet type rectangular 1100-0 aluminum specimens. The strain rate is assumed constant only on the natural axis of the specimen even though the specimen is subjected to a constant strain rate test. The results include: (1) the lower the strain rate, the more significant the misalignment errors become; (2) misalignment errors of 50% are found at the extreme fibers of the specimen; (3) the strain rate variation in the cross section decreases with increasing plastic strain and vanishes at plastic strain equal to 0.8% at the midspan of the specimen; and (4) the neutral axis shifts toward the centerline of the specimen as the plastic strain increases, but it reaches a limit and does not completely move back to the centerline.

  16. Design, synthesis, in vitro antiproliferative evaluation, and kinase inhibitory effects of a new series of imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Maksoud, Mohammed S; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Gamal El-Din, Mahmoud M; Tae, Jinsung; Choi, Hong Seok; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Yoo, Kyung Ho; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Design and synthesis of a new series of 5,6-diarylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazole derivatives possessing terminal aryl sulfonamide moiety are described. Their in vitro antiproliferative activities against a panel of 57 human cancer cell lines of nine different cancer types were tested at the NCI. Compounds 8a, 8b, 8n, 8q, 8t, and 8u showed the highest mean % inhibition values over the 57 cell line panel at 10 ?M, and they were further tested in 5-dose testing mode to determine their IC50 values. Among the six compounds, compound 8u possessing terminal para-hydroxybenzenesulfonamido moiety and ethylene linker showed the highest potency. It demonstrated superior potency than Sorafenib against eight different cell lines, and was equipotent to Sorafenib against COLO 205 colon cancer cell line. Its IC50 values over NCI-H460 non-small cell lung cancer cell line and MCF7 breast cancer cell line were 0.845 ?M and 0.476 ?M, respectively. Compounds 8a, 8b, 8q, 8t, and 8u showed high selectivity indices towards cancer cells over L132 normal lung cell line. Compound 8u showed potential inhibitory effects over the components of ERK pathway. Its IC50 value over V600E-B-RAF and C-RAF kinases were 39.9 nM and 19.0 nM, respectively. PMID:25841200

  17. PUMA-PCCS separate effect tests and RELAP5 code evaluation in PUMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung Won

    One of the key areas in the design of advanced nuclear reactors is to develop a reliable Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). The purpose of the current work is to better understand the condensation phenomena in PCCS for the downward co-current flow of a steam/air mixture through condenser tube bundles during the three PCCS operational modes, namely the bypass mode, the cyclic venting mode and the long-term cooling mode. A series of unique separate-effect PCCS test data were obtained for condensation heat transfer in the PCCS heat exchangers of the PUMA (Purdue University Multidimensional Integral Test Assembly) facility under a task sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Test conditions includes bypass mode, cyclic venting mode and long term mode, covering a wide range of Loss of Coolant Accident(LOCA) conditions with a parameters of pressure, mass flow rate, noncondensable(NC) gases, and PCCS pool water level. The parametric effect studies and a further validation of the PUMA-PCCS separate effect test data were performed. The evaluation of a best estimate system code (RELAP5/MOD3.3) was performed by using unique PUMA-PCCS separate effects data and PUMA-Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) integral test (1998). Through a sensitivity studies of nodalization method and physical models on the MSLB test simulations, deficiencies in RELAP5/MOD3.3 code were found as follows: (1) over prediction of heat removal rate by condensation models, (2) overestimation of SP heat transfer through the horizontal venting line and thermal stratification distortion, (3) underestimation of NC gas effects in PCCS by the distortion of cyclic venting phenomena and (4) overestimation of the DW and SP wall condensation. The improvement for the code calculation predictions could be obtained by removing the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code deficient factors in the PUMA MSLB integral test simulation. The unique PCCS NC gas venting visualizations were obtained according to various PCCS inlet NC gas conditions. Through the local control volume analysis on the NC gas venting phenomena, the NC gas mass flow rate was obtained in the long term mode and the cyclic venting effects on the PCCS heat removal rate were analyzed. In addition, the estimation of mass and energy transfer through PCCS cyclic venting phenomena was studied by using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code simulation (FLUENT).

  18. A study of the effect of nonrandom sampling on the estimation of exposure variability using exposure-time series from the OSHA IMIS health inspection database

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.T.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nonrandom sampling over time may have on the estimation of variability, namely the geometric standard deviation, using time series of personal exposure data.

  19. Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dale J.; Levy, Roger; Scheepers, Christoph; Tily, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how random effects structures affect the generalizability of an analysis. Here, we argue that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the standards that have been in place for many decades. Through theoretical arguments and Monte Carlo simulation, we show that LMEMs generalize best when they include the maximal random effects structure justified by the design. The generalization performance of LMEMs including data-driven random effects structures strongly depends upon modeling criteria and sample size, yielding reasonable results on moderately-sized samples when conservative criteria are used, but with little or no power advantage over maximal models. Finally, random-intercepts-only LMEMs used on within-subjects and/or within-items data from populations where subjects and/or items vary in their sensitivity to experimental manipulations always generalize worse than separate F1 and F2 tests, and in many cases, even worse than F1 alone. Maximal LMEMs should be the ‘gold standard’ for confirmatory hypothesis testing in psycholinguistics and beyond. PMID:24403724

  20. A system to test the effects of materials on the electron drift lifetime in liquid argon and observations on the effect of water

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.; Jaskierny, W.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.; Tope, T.; /Fermilab; ,

    2009-07-01

    A materials test system (MTS) has been developed at FNAL to assess the suitability of materials for use in a large liquid argon time projection chamber. During development of the MTS, it was noted that controlling the cryostat pressure with a 'raining' condenser reduced the electron drift lifetime in the liquid argon. The effect of condensing has been investigated using a series of passive materials to filter the condensate. We report the results of these studies and of tests on different candidate materials for detector construction. The inferred reduction of electron drift lifetime by water concentrations in the parts per trillion is of particular interest.

  1. A Multifactor Analysis of the Instructional Effect of Type of Instruction, Testing, Recall and Order of Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Melo, Hermes Teixeria; Dwyer, Francis M.

    This study investigated the effects of (1) verbal instruction alone vs. verbal instruction complemented by simple line drawings; (2) visual testing vs. nonvisual testing; (3) verbal cueing vs. free recall on achievement; and (4) order of testing on subsequent achievement. Interactions among type of instruction, type of testing, and order of…

  2. Time-series analysis of ion and isotope geochemistry of selected springs of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.F.; Edkins, J.; Jacobson, R.L.; Hess, J.W.

    1990-11-01

    The temporal variations of ion and isotope geochemistry were observed at six selected springs on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada and included: Cane, Whiterock, Captain Jack, Topopah, Tippipah, and Oak Springs. The sites were monitored from 1980 to 1982 and the following parameters were measured: temperature, pH, electrical conductance, discharge, cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}), anions Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, silica, stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 13}C), and radioactive isotopes ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C). A more detailed study was continued from 1982 to 1988 at Cane and Whiterock Springs. Field microloggers were installed at these sites in 1985 to measure the high frequency response of temperature, electrical conductance, and discharge to local precipitation. Stage fluctuations near the discharge point dissolve minerals/salts as groundwater inundates the mineralized zone immediately above the equilibrium water table. This phenomena was most noticeable at Whiterock Spring and lagged the discharge response by several hours. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation and groundwater suggests a 1.5 to 2 month travel time for meteoric water to migrate from the recharge area to the discharge point. Groundwater age determinations suggest a mean age of approximately 30 years at Whiterock Spring and possibly older at Cane Spring. However, the short travel time and geochemical integrity of recharge pulses suggest that the waters are poorly mixed along the flow paths. 25 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. [Genotoxic effect of cadmium chloride in various test-systems].

    PubMed

    Pesheva, M G; Chankova, S G; Avramova, Ts V; Milanov, D V; Genova, G K

    1997-02-01

    Many industrial regions of Bulgaria are contaminated with cadmium. Induction of various genetic damages by four concentrations of cadmium chloride was studied in various test systems. None of the tested concentrations induced gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. An increase in frequency of gene mutations, mitochondrial mutations, and intragene recombination was detected in Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated with the highest cadmium chloride concentration. A clastogenic effect and a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) were induced in radicle meristem cells of Pisum sativum L. by the two highest cadmium chloride concentrations. Cadmium chloride was also shown to increase the frequency of sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRLs) and dominant lethals (DLs) in Drosophila germ cells. The results obtained in different test systems allow cadmium chloride to be considered a weak mutagen inducing various genetic damages. PMID:9162694

  4. The effect of streambed heterogeneity on groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes inferred from temperature time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Dylan J.; Cranswick, Roger H.; Simmons, Craig T.; Shanafield, Margaret A.; Lautz, Laura K.

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional analytical heat transport equations based on temperature time series data have become popular tools to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions. The influence of nonideal field conditions on the use of these equations has been assessed for nonsinusoidal stream temperature signals, uncertainty in thermal parameters, sensor accuracy and multidimensional flow. Given that streambeds are often highly heterogeneous, the influence of streambed heterogeneity on flux estimates from temperature time series requires further investigation. Synthetic streambed temperatures were generated using two-dimensional numerical models with heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distributions. Streambed temperatures were used to calculate fluxes using methods based on amplitude ratios (Ar), phase shifts (??) and both (Ar??). Calculated fluxes were compared to known fluxes from the numerical models for flow fields analogous to losing streams. The influence of streambed structure, degree of heterogeneity, depth of the sensor pair, and location along a flow path were assessed. Errors in calculated fluxes increased with sensor pair depth, position along a flow path, and with the degree of heterogeneity. These errors were larger for streambeds with isotropic structures compared with anisotropic structures, and of the three methods tested; the ?? method produced the largest errors. The simultaneous estimation of strong fluxes using ??, and an inability to obtain a flux estimate from Ar can suggest the presence of low hydraulic conductivity zones. Given the large errors and inability to determine flow direction from the ?? method, the Ar and Ar?? methods are recommended for downwelling fluxes.

  5. Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge: Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgun, Levent; Isik, Cemalettin; Tatar, Enver; Isleyen, Tevfik; Soylu, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain students' ability to transfer their knowledge about mathematical series to the problems that they encounter. The data of the study were obtained by using two different tests, namely "Problem Solving Test (PST)" and "Series Character Identification Test (SCT)" which were developed by the researchers. The study…

  6. The Cost-Effectiveness of Distance Education for Teacher Training. BRIDGES Research Report Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, H. Dean; And Others

    This study, conducted by the Basic Research and Implementation in DevelopinG Education Systems (BRIDGES) Project, demonstrates a relatively inexpensive way for governments to increase the effectiveness of their teaching force. The report describes distance teacher education programs in Sri Lanka and Indonesia as being cost-effective (the low…

  7. Effective Schools. What Research Says About Series, Number 1, Data-Search Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Arthuryne; Valentine, Barbara

    Over a decade of research findings representing the work of more than 100 scholars are contained in the growing body of knowledge about effective schools. This report summarizes the results of studies that focus specifically on the characteristics of effective principals, classrooms, and teachers. The report also offers notes of caution to users…

  8. Threshold effects in positron scattering from isoelectronic series of atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2014-10-01

    The observation of features, often referred to as "Wigner cusps" in a scattering cross section at the opening of a new scattering channel has been widely reported in electron scattering, and has been attributed to strong coupling between the two scattering channels. Recently a series of cusps were observed in positron scattering from the noble gases [A. C. L. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073201 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.073201]. In this case, the strong opening of the positronium formation cross section resulted in a cusplike feature, or bump, in the total elastic scattering cross section. The positronium formation channel is typically the largest partial scattering cross section in the region of the electronic excitation and ionization thresholds in most atoms and molecules, and it is plausible that similar features may exist in other atomic and molecular species. We have undertaken measurements of the isoelectronic targets of helium—H2, and neon—H2O, NH3, and CH4, in an effort to better understand the mechanisms leading to these threshold features.

  9. In-office bleaching effects on the pulp flow and tooth sensitivity - case series.

    PubMed

    Cartagena, Andrés Felipe; Parreiras, Sibelli Olivieri; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra; Campanha, Nara Hellen

    2015-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive method capable of evaluating variations in pulp blood flow (PBF) and pulp vitality. This method has thus far not been used to assess changes in blood flow after in-office bleaching. The aim of this case series report was to measure changes in PBF by LDF in the upper central incisor of three patients submitted to in-office bleaching. The buccal surfaces of the upper arch were bleached with a single session of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel with three 15-min applications. The color was recorded using a value-oriented Vita shade guide before in-office bleaching and one week after the procedure. The tooth sensitivity (TS) in a verbal scale was reported, and PBF was assessed by LDF before, immediately, and one week after the bleaching session. The lower arch was submitted to dental bleaching but not used for data assessment. A whitening degree of 3 to 4 shade guide units was detected. All participants experienced moderate to considerable TS after the procedure. The PBF readings reduced 20% to 40% immediately after bleaching. One week post-bleaching, TS and PBF were shown to be equal to baseline values. A reversible decrease of PBF was detected immediately after bleaching, which recovered to the baseline values or showed a slight increase sooner than one week post-bleaching. The LDF method allows detection of pulp blood changes in teeth submitted to in-office bleaching, but further studies are still required. PMID:25627891

  10. Method tests effects of heat on FBE pipeline coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Higgins; C. R. Bates

    1988-01-01

    A new procedure for testing elevated-temperature cathodic disbondment (C.D.) in fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings appears consistent and reliable. Further, its results question C.D. theories that fail to account for effects at above-ambient temperatures. The work to develop this procedure also included experiments that demonstrated how the relative performance of coating systems - especially FBE line-pipe coatings operated at elevated

  11. Summary of the Wisconsin Test Facility effective earth conductivity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Bannister

    1976-01-01

    The effective conductivity of the geoelectrically complex Wisconsin Test Facility area has been measured by a number of different methods during the past few years. These methods include the H\\/I induction method, the wave impedance measurement technique (employing lightning discharges as the source), and two direct current methods ,the four-terminal-array in-line dipole and Schlumberger techniques). The principal results obtained from

  12. Testing the effectiveness of commonly-used site curing regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    É. Nolan; M. A. Ali; P. A. M. Basheer; B. K. Marsh

    1997-01-01

    A range of seven test methods was used to asses the effectiveness of curing on C30 and C50 Portland cement concretes. Curing\\u000a was by formwork retention, wrapping in wet hessian or wrapping in polythene for periods of between one and seven days. Specimens\\u000a from each mix were also subjected to both air and water storage.\\u000a \\u000a Electrical resistance measurement and water

  13. Effective Size Analysis of the Diametral Compression (Brazil) Test Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This study considers the finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and Weibull effective size analysis for the diametral compression (DC) or Brazil specimen loaded with three different push-rod geometries. Those geometries are a flat push-rod, a push-rod whose radius of curvature is larger than that for the DC specimen, and a push-rod whose radius of curvature matches that of the DC specimen. Such established effective size analysis recognizes that the tensile strength of structural ceramics is typically one to two orders of magnitude less than its compressive strength. Therefore, because fracture is much more apt to result from a tensile stress than a compressive one, this traditional analysis only considers the first principal tensile stress field in the mechanically loaded ceramic component for the effective size analysis. The effective areas and effective volumes were computed as function of Weibull modulus using the CARES/Life code. Particular attention was devoted to the effect of mesh sensitivity and localized stress concentration. The effect of specimen width on the stress state was also investigated. The effects of push-rod geometry, the use of steel versus WC push-rods, and considering a frictionless versus no-slip interface between push-rod and specimen on the maximum stresses, where those stresses are located, and the effective area and effective volume results are described. Of the three push-rod geometries, it is concluded that the push-rod (made from WC rather than steel) whose radius of curvature matches that of the DC specimen is the most apt to cause fracture initiation within the specimen's bulk rather than at the loading interface. Therefore, its geometry is the most likely to produce a valid diametral compression strength test. However, the DC specimen remains inefficient in terms of its area and volume efficiencies; namely, the tensile strength of only a few percent of the specimen's entire area or volume is sampled. Given the high probability that a valid (or invalid) test can be proven by ceramic fractographic practices suggests that this test method and specimen is questionable for use with relatively strong structural ceramics.

  14. Effects of temperature on in situ toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, C.D.; Burton, G.A. Jr. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    With increasing concern over the impacts and perturbations to receiving waters as a result of storm water runoff and contaminated sediments, many investigators have turned towards in situ testing for direct response data. In situ testing has been shown to be an effective assessment tool. In order to further evaluate the limitations of this method, temperature effects were evaluated. There is concern that laboratory to stream transfer of test organisms may induce significant stress if water temperatures are too cool. This study was designed to specifically address the issue of temperature tolerance and attenuation of Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas in in situ conditions. Temperature tolerance is of importance in areas where receiving waters are subject to low or fluctuating temperatures as well as areas of more temperate climates. In this study, the organisms where exposed to temperatures as low as 2 C for variable lengths of time, removed and allowed to come to ambient laboratory temperatures then monitored for acute or chronic responses. No effects on survival were observed after 48 h. at 5 C; however lower temperatures increased mortality.

  15. CH 11: Infinite Sequences and Series 11.5 Alternating Series

    E-print Network

    Gera, Ralucca

    CH 11: Infinite Sequences and Series 11.5 Alternating Series 1. an alternating series: the terms of the sequence alternate between positive and negative numbers 2. alternating series test: Let n=1 (-1)n-1 bn be an alternating series. If bn+1 bn for all n and lim n bn = 0, then the series converges. 3. alternating harmonic

  16. ACC Study Guide Series, II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Katherine; And Others

    This series of one-page study guides offers helpful hints and tips to students on the art of successful studying. The guides in this collection include: (1) Improving Your Test-Taking Skills, which covers preparing for tests, reducing test anxiety, and things to do upon receiving a test and before turning in a test; (2) Strategies for Test

  17. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability...MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS Test Requirements § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on...

  18. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40.273 Section 40.273 Transportation...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the effect...

  19. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40.273 Section 40.273 Transportation...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the effect...

  20. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40.273 Section 40.273 Transportation...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the effect...

  1. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40.273 Section 40.273 Transportation...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the effect...

  2. Coronary computed tomography as a cost-effective test strategy for coronary artery disease assessment - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Irfan; Abbas, Naeem; Nasir, Khurram; Budoff, Matthew J

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular imaging imparts a huge burden on healthcare spending. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) may provide a cost effective means of diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) and reducing downstream cost of testing. We performed a systematic search of literature for randomized controlled trials or prospective or retrospective non-randomized comparative studies or case series, decision analytic models and technology reports in which some or all of the patients underwent CCTA and looking at the cost effectiveness, comparative effectiveness and downstream test utilization associated with the use of CCTA. We found 42 articles matching our criteria. CCTA either as first line or as a layering test may represent a cost effective strategy for initial evaluation of patients with CAD prevalence of 10%-50% in both near-term and long-term diagnostic periods. For CAD prevalence ?70%, ICA as initial test may represent cost effective strategy for diagnosis of stable chest pain. CCTA may represent cost-effective strategy when performed as a layering test to equivocal initial stress imaging before performing ICA. Use of CCTA is cost- and time-effective strategy for evaluation of low risk (<30% CAD prevalence) acute chest pain patients in emergency department and can be used for safe exclusion of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Use of coronary calcium score as an initial test may require further evidence to be deemed cost-effective strategy. CCTA may represent a cost effective and may be associated with less downstream testing for diagnosis of stable chest pain patients in low to intermediate risk patients whereas for low risk acute chest pain patients, use of CCTA is associated with expedited patient management, less cost and safe exclusion of ACS. PMID:24769305

  3. Effects of the series length on Lempel-Ziv Complexity during sleep.

    PubMed

    Rivolta, Massimo W; Migliorini, Matteo; Aktaruzzaman, Md; Sassi, Roberto; Bianchi, Anna M

    2014-08-01

    Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) has been demonstrated to be a powerful complexity measure in several biomedical applications. During sleep, it is still not clear how many samples are required to ensure robustness of its estimate when computed on beat-to-beat interval series (RR). The aims of this study were: i) evaluation of the number of necessary samples in different sleep stages for a reliable estimation of LZC; ii) evaluation of the LZC when considering inter-subject variability; and iii) comparison between LZC and Sample Entropy (SampEn). Both synthetic and real data were employed. In particular, synthetic RR signals were generated by means of AR models fitted on real data. The minimum number of samples required by LZC for having no changes in its average value, for both NREM and REM sleep periods, was 10(4) (p<;0.01) when using a binary quantization. However, LZC can be computed with N >1000 when a tolerance of 5% is considered satisfying. The influence of the inter-subject variability on the LZC was first assessed on model generated data confirming what found (>10(4); p<;0.01) for both NREM and REM stage. However, on real data, without differentiate between sleep stages, the minimum number of samples required was 1.8×10(4). The linear correlation between LZC and SampEn was computed on a synthetic dataset. We obtained a correlation higher than 0.75 (p<;0.01) when considering sleep stages separately, and higher than 0.90 (p<;0.01) when stages were not differentiated. Summarizing, we suggest to use LZC with the binary quantization and at least 1000 samples when a variation smaller than 5% is considered satisfying, or at least 10(4) for maximal accuracy. The use of more than 2 levels of quantization is not recommended. PMID:25570053

  4. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither...

  5. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither...

  6. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither...

  7. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither...

  8. 49 CFR 40.207 - What is the effect of a cancelled drug test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.207 What is the effect of a cancelled drug test? (a) A cancelled drug test is neither...

  9. Accelerated test techniques for micro-circuits: Evaluation of high temperature (473 k - 573 K) accelerated life test techniques as effective microcircuit screening methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The application of high temperature accelerated test techniques was shown to be an effective method of microcircuit defect screening. Comprehensive microcircuit evaluations and a series of high temperature (473 K to 573 K) life tests demonstrated that a freak or early failure population of surface contaminated devices could be completely screened in thirty two hours of test at an ambient temperature of 523 K. Equivalent screening at 398 K, as prescribed by current Military and NASA specifications, would have required in excess of 1,500 hours of test. All testing was accomplished with a Texas Instruments' 54L10, low power triple-3 input NAND gate manufactured with a titanium- tungsten (Ti-W), Gold (Au) metallization system. A number of design and/or manufacturing anomalies were also noted with the Ti-W, Au metallization system. Further study of the exact nature and cause(s) of these anomalies is recommended prior to the use of microcircuits with Ti-W, Au metallization in long life/high reliability applications. Photomicrographs of tested circuits are included.

  10. 3-D numerical evaluation of density effects on tracer tests.

    PubMed

    Beinhorn, M; Dietrich, P; Kolditz, O

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we present numerical simulations carried out to assess the importance of density-dependent flow on tracer plume development. The scenario considered in the study is characterized by a short-term tracer injection phase into a fully penetrating well and a natural hydraulic gradient. The scenario is thought to be typical for tracer tests conducted in the field. Using a reference case as a starting point, different model parameters were changed in order to determine their importance to density effects. The study is based on a three-dimensional model domain. Results were interpreted using concentration contours and a first moment analysis. Tracer injections of 0.036 kg per meter of saturated aquifer thickness do not cause significant density effects assuming hydraulic gradients of at least 0.1%. Higher tracer input masses, as used for geoelectrical investigations, may lead to buoyancy-induced flow in the early phase of a tracer test which in turn impacts further plume development. This also holds true for shallow aquifers. Results of simulations with different tracer injection rates and durations imply that the tracer input scenario has a negligible effect on density flow. Employing model cases with different realizations of a log conductivity random field, it could be shown that small variations of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of the tracer injection well have a major control on the local tracer distribution but do not mask effects of buoyancy-induced flow. PMID:16183165

  11. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program: A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, David L.; Mccook, Morgan W. (editor); Vaughan, William W. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Department and NASA have joined in a program to study the space environment which surrounds the earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with sub-orbital rocket probes. The chemical releases will 'paint' the magnetic and electric fields of earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments. Some of the topics discussed include the following: the effects of earthspace; the need for active experiments; types of chemical releases; the CRRES program schedule; international support and coordinated studies; photographing chemical releases; information on locating chemical releases for observation by the amateur; and CRRES as a program.

  12. Homogenising time series: beliefs, dogmas and facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domonkos, P.

    2011-06-01

    In the recent decades various homogenisation methods have been developed, but the real effects of their application on time series are still not known sufficiently. The ongoing COST action HOME (COST ES0601) is devoted to reveal the real impacts of homogenisation methods more detailed and with higher confidence than earlier. As a part of the COST activity, a benchmark dataset was built whose characteristics approach well the characteristics of real networks of observed time series. This dataset offers much better opportunity than ever before to test the wide variety of homogenisation methods, and analyse the real effects of selected theoretical recommendations. Empirical results show that real observed time series usually include several inhomogeneities of different sizes. Small inhomogeneities often have similar statistical characteristics than natural changes caused by climatic variability, thus the pure application of the classic theory that change-points of observed time series can be found and corrected one-by-one is impossible. However, after homogenisation the linear trends, seasonal changes and long-term fluctuations of time series are usually much closer to the reality than in raw time series. Some problems around detecting multiple structures of inhomogeneities, as well as that of time series comparisons within homogenisation procedures are discussed briefly in the study.

  13. The Effects of Instruction on College Nonmajors' Conceptions of Respiration and Photosynthesis. Research Series No. 164.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charles W.; And Others

    The processes of photosynthesis and respiration are basic to the understanding of many other aspects and functions of biological systems. Because of their curricular significance, these processes served as the focal point in an investigation of student conceptions and instructional effectiveness. In this study, students in a college nonscience…

  14. Analyzing Group Level Effects with Clustered Data Using Taylor Series Linearization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    Clustered data (e.g., students within schools) are often analyzed in educational research where data are naturally nested. As a consequence, multilevel modeling (MLM) has commonly been used to study the contextual or group-level (e.g., school) effects on individual outcomes. The current study investigates the use of an alternative procedure to…

  15. Effective Early Learning: Case Studies in Improvement. 0 to Eight Years Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascal, Christine; Bertram, Tony

    This book presents nine case studies describing the experiences of practitioners involved in the first, developmental phase of the Effective Early Learning Research Project, providing a topical discussion of criteria and methodologies for evaluating and improving the quality of learning in a variety of early years settings in the United Kingdom.…

  16. Preparing Effective Special Education Teachers. What Works for Special-Needs Learners Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlin, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    What tools are in the toolkit of an excellent special educator, and how can teacher preparation programs provide these tools in the most efficient, effective way possible? This practical, clearly written book is grounded in current research and policy as well as the author's extensive experience as a teacher educator. It identifies what special…

  17. Named Series: Epigenetics, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Epigenetic perspective on the developmental effects of bisphenol A

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    and function(s) of the endocrine system (Patisaul and Adewale, 2009). EDCs have been largely shown to produce development Behavior Immune Endocrine disruptor Transgenerational a b s t r a c t Bisphenol A (BPA effects and discuss the transgener- ational implications of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Ã?

  18. Effective Performance Appraisals for Quality Student Service. Staff Training and Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Robert B.

    This manual, in workbook format, introduces the principles of how to conduct an effective employee performance appraisal in the higher education setting. It uses several case studies to illustrate these principles. It is designed to be used for individual study or group workshops and seminars. The topics discussed include establishing a positive…

  19. Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

    Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

  20. Are Hofmeister Series Relevant to Modern Ion-Specific Effects Research?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the quantification of ion-specific effects has been performed with experimental designs unsuited for this purpose. Designs built using salt-based factors rather than ion-based components are potentially confounded and are predicated upon a number of unsupported and untested assumptio...

  1. Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Practices for English Language Learners. Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersh C.; Tellez, Kip

    This study synthesized research from 1990 to the present on effective teaching for English Language Learners (ELLs), focusing on instructional strategies and methods found to have the most educational benefit and value to the greatest number of ELLs. A total of nearly 100 potentially applicable articles were retrieved, and 34 were included in the…

  2. The Greenhouse Effect: A Selected Bibliography. Bibliography Series Twenty-two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    The purpose of this bibliography is to provide listings of articles, books, and documents which are available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library, California Polytechnic State University, and other libraries on the problem of the greenhouse effect published since 1980. Listings are organized as: (1) "Subject Headings"; (2) "Carbon Dioxide…

  3. Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components. ERIC/CASS Counseling Digest Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, L. DiAnne, Ed.

    This document contains a collection of ERIC Digests on supervision, a topic of critical professional importance for counselors. Following an introductory article by the guest editor, L. DiAnne Borders, "Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components," 19 digests address a different facet of supervision. The 19 digests are: (1) "Models of Clinical…

  4. Effects of temperature on mortality in Hong Kong: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C

    2014-09-01

    Although interest in assessing the impacts of hot temperature and mortality in Hong Kong has increased, less evidence on the effect of cold temperature on mortality is available. We examined both the effects of heat and cold temperatures on daily mortality in Hong Kong for the last decade (2002-2011). A quasi-Poisson model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of temperatures on cause-specific and age-specific mortality. Non-linear effects of temperature on mortality were identified. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with cold temperature (11.1 °C, 1st percentile of temperature) relative to 19.4 °C (25th percentile of temperature) was 1.17 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29) for lags 0-13. The relative risk of non-accidental mortality associated with high temperature (31.5 °C, 99th percentile of temperature) relative to 27.8 °C (75th percentile of temperature) was 1.09 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.17) for lags 0-3. In Hong Kong, extreme cold and hot temperatures increased the risk of mortality. The effect of cold lasted longer and greater than that of heat. People older than 75 years were the most vulnerable group to cold temperature, while people aged 65-74 were the most vulnerable group to hot temperature. Our findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies for extreme cold and hot temperatures. PMID:25179530

  5. Not Your Parents’ Test Scores: Cohort Reduces Psychometric Aging Effects

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Kennison, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Increases over birth cohorts in psychometric abilities may impact effects of aging. Data from 2 cohorts of the Long Beach Longitudinal Study, matched on age but tested 16 years apart, were modeled over ages 55–87 to test the hypothesis that the more fluid abilities of reasoning, list and text recall, and space would show larger cohort differences than vocabulary. This hypothesis was confirmed. At age 74, average performance estimates for people from the more recently born cohort were equivalent to those of people from the older cohort when they were up to 15 years younger. This finding suggests that older adults may perform like much younger ones from the previous generation on fluid measures, indicating higher levels of abilities than expected. This result could have major implications for the expected productivity of an aging workforce as well as for the quality of life of future generations. However, cohort improvements did not mitigate age declines. PMID:17874953

  6. The origins of multifractality in financial time series and the effect of extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Elena; Hanan, William; Heffernan, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of multifractal testing of two sets of financial data: daily data of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index and minutely data of the Euro Stoxx 50 index. Where multifractal scaling is found, the spectrum of scaling exponents is calculated via Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. In both cases, further investigations reveal that the temporal correlations in the data are a more significant source of the multifractal scaling than are the distributions of the returns. It is also shown that the extreme events which make up the heavy tails of the distribution of the Euro Stoxx 50 log returns distort the scaling in the data set. The most extreme events are inimical to the scaling regime. This result is in contrast to previous findings that extreme events contribute to multifractality.

  7. The effect of opium addiction on thyroid function tests

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of abnormalities has been identified among drug addicted users especially heroin addicts. However, there are a few studies to assess the opium effects on thyroid hormones. the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of opium on the thyroid function tests. Method In this case–control, 50 male addicts, aged 20–50 years, with history of addiction to opium lasting more than two years, and 50 male non-addicts as control group were randomly selected. 10 cc blood sample was taken for measurements of TSH, total T4 and T3, free T4 and T3, and T3 resin uptake (T3RU) and 50 cc urine sample for opium testing. Results The univariate analysis revealed that there was not a significant association between opium and serum levels of T4 and TSH, but compared with control group, a slight increase in total T3 and a decrease in T3RU were observed among addicts (P?effect on serum free T4 level after adjusting of age and cigarette smoking (P?

  8. Testing Gravity Against Early Time Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; /Shanghai, Astron. Observ. /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    A generic prediction of general relativity is that the cosmological linear density growth factor D is scale independent. But in general, modified gravities do not preserve this signature. A scale dependent D can cause time variation in gravitational potential at high redshifts and provides a new cosmological test of gravity, through early time integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect-large scale structure (LSS) cross correlation. We demonstrate the power of this test for a class of f(R) gravity, with the form f(R) = {lambda}{sub 1}H{sub 0}{sup 2} exp(-R/{lambda}{sub 2}H{sub 0}{sup 2}). Such f(R) gravity, even with degenerate expansion history to {Lambda}CDM, can produce detectable ISW effect at z {approx}> 3 and l {approx}> 20. Null-detection of such effect would constrain {lambda}{sub 2} to be {lambda}{sub 2} > 1000 at > 95% confidence level. On the other hand, robust detection of ISW-LSS cross correlation at high z will severely challenge general relativity.

  9. Effects of measurement resolution on the analysis of temperature time series for stream-aquifer flux estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-López, Carlos D.; Meixner, Thomas; Ferré, Ty P. A.

    2011-12-01

    From its inception in the mid-1960s, the use of temperature time series (thermographs) to estimate vertical fluxes has found increasing use in the hydrologic community. Beginning in 2000, researchers have examined the impacts of measurement and parameter uncertainty on the estimates of vertical fluxes. To date, the effects of temperature measurement discretization (resolution), a characteristic of all digital temperature loggers, on the determination of vertical fluxes has not been considered. In this technical note we expand the analysis of recently published work to include the effects of temperature measurement resolution on estimates of vertical fluxes using temperature amplitude and phase shift information. We show that errors in thermal front velocity estimation introduced by discretizing thermographs differ when amplitude or phase shift data are used to estimate vertical fluxes. We also show that under similar circumstances sensor resolution limits the range over which vertical velocities are accurately reproduced more than uncertainty in temperature measurements, uncertainty in sensor separation distance, and uncertainty in the thermal diffusivity combined. These effects represent the baseline error present and thus the best-case scenario when discrete temperature measurements are used to infer vertical fluxes. The errors associated with measurement resolution can be minimized by using the highest-resolution sensors available. But thoughtful experimental design could allow users to select the most cost-effective temperature sensors to fit their measurement needs.

  10. Correlation and relaxation effects near threshold in photoabsorption of the Ar isoelectronic series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jobin; Pradhan, Gagan B.; Radojevic', Vojislav; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Manson, Steven T.

    2010-03-01

    The photoabsorption cross sections of the the 3s subshell of isoelectronic Cl^-, Ar and K^+ have been calculated at various levels of approximation to understand how correlation and relaxation effects behave with increasing nuclear charge using the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) [1] and its modification, the RRPA-with- Relaxation (RRPA-R) [2]. To study the correlation in the form of interchannel coupling, RRPA was employed with and without coupling between the 3d and 3p photoabsorption channels. Interchannel coupling is found to dominate the 3s cross section for Cl^-, and become less and less important with increasing Z as discovered earlier for the Ne sequence [3]. Core-relaxation effects, of great importance for Cl^-, diminish with increasing Z. Thus, both interchannel coupling and core-relaxation must be included for even qualitative accuracy for negative ions, but these effects diminish with increasing Z. [1]. W. R. Johnson, C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 20 964 (1979). [2]. V. Radojevic', M. Kutzner and H. P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 40, 727 (1989). [3]. H. S. Chakraborthy, P. C. Deshmukh and S. T. Manson, Ap. J. 595, 1312 (2003)

  11. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  12. The effect of temperature on food poisoning: a time-series analysis of salmonellosis in ten European countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kovats, R. S.; Edwards, S. J.; Hajat, S.; Armstrong, B. G.; Ebi, K. L.; Menne, B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between environmental temperature and reported Salmonella infections in 10 European populations. Poisson regression adapted for time-series data was used to estimate the percentage change in the number of cases associated with a 1 degree C increase in average temperature above an identified threshold value. We found, on average, a linear association between temperature and the number of reported cases of salmonellosis above a threshold of 6 degrees C. The relationships were very similar in The Netherlands, England and Wales, Switzerland, Spain and the Czech Republic. The greatest effect was apparent for temperature 1 week before the onset of illness. The strongest associations were observed in adults in the 15-64 years age group and infection with Salmonella Enteritidis (a serotype of Salmonella). Our findings indicate that higher temperatures around the time of consumption are important and reinforce the need for further education on food-handling behaviour. PMID:15188714

  13. Effects of specimen resonances on acoustic-ultrasonic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Kahn, E. B.; Lee, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of specimen resonances on acoustic ultrasonic (AU) nondestructive testing were investigated. Selected resonant frequencies and the corresponding normal mode nodal patterns of the aluminum block are measured up to 75.64 kHz. Prominent peaks in the pencil lead fracture and sphere impact spectra from the two transducer locations corresponded exactly to resonant frequencies of the block. It is established that the resonant frequencies of the block dominated the spectral content of the output signal. The spectral content of the output signals is further influenced by the transducer location relative to the resonant frequency nodal lines. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to AU parameters and measurements.

  14. Evaluation of Margaria staircase test: the effect of body size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandar Nedeljkovic; Dragan M. Mirkov; Nemanja Pazin; Slobodan Jaric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methodology of Margaria staircase test (MT) for assessment of muscle anaerobic\\u000a power. Specifically, we hypothesized that due to the scaling effects the outcome of MT calculated using the standard formula\\u000a that suggests the power output to be proportional to body mass [P = (m · g · h)\\/T; P = power output, m = body mass, g = 9.81 m\\/s2, h = height of stairs climbed,

  15. Testing Matter Effects in Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    E-print Network

    M. Freund; M. Lindner; S. T. Petcov; A. Romanino

    2000-02-04

    Assuming three-neutrino mixing, we study the capabilities of very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to verify and test the MSW effect and to measure the lepton mixing angle theta_13. We suppose that intense neutrino and antineutrino beams will become available in so-called neutrino factories. We find that the most promising and statistically significant results can be obtained by studying nu_e ->nu_mu and \\bar{nu}_e-> \\bar{nu}_mu oscillations which lead to matter enhancements and suppressions of wrong sign muon rates. We show the theta_13 ranges where matter effects could be observed as a function of the baseline. We discuss the scaling laws of rates, significances and sensitivities with the relevant mixing angles and experimental parameters. Our analysis includes fluxes, event rates and statistical aspects so that the conclusions should be useful for the planning of experimental setups. We discuss the subleading Delta m^2_{21} effects in the case of the LMA MSW solution of the solar problem, showing that they are small for L >= 7000 km. For shorter baselines, Delta m^2_{21} effects can be relevant and their dependence on L offers a further handle for the determination of the CP-violation phase \\delta. Finally we comment on the possibility to measure the specific distortion of the energy spectrum due to the MSW effect.

  16. The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Barufaldi

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple?choice test, correct concept test, and incorrect concept test) related to the greenhouse effect and

  17. Comparing Direct versus Indirect Measures of the Pedagogical Effectiveness of Team Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Direct measures (tests) of the pedagogical effectiveness of team testing and indirect measures (student surveys) of pedagogical effectiveness of team testing were collected in several sections of an undergraduate marketing course with varying levels of the use of team testing. The results indicate that although students perceived team testing to…

  18. Natural oxidation of a temperature series of biochars: Opposite effect on the sorption of aromatic cationic herbicides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kaishun; Xie, Ya; Qiu, Yuping

    2015-04-01

    The natural oxidation of biochar in the environment has been widely observed. However, its influence on the sorption of organic contaminants remains poorly understood. In the present study, a series of wood-based biochars prepared between 300 and 600°C (referred to as BC300-BC600) was abiotically incubated for one year to examine the aging effect of the temperature series of biochars on their sorption of aromatic cationic herbicides (ACHs, paraquat and diquat) as well as a nonpolar reference adsorbate (naphthalene). One year of oxidation showed no obvious effect on the surface area, but distinct increases in the O/C elemental ratio, density of the surface groups and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were observed. Therefore, these properties were significantly affected by the charring temperature. After incubation, high-temperature biochars (BC500 and BC600) displayed a 14.1-36.3% decrease in the sorption (qm) of ACHs. The alteration of their sorption tendency was similar to the reduced sorption of naphthalene on oxidized biochars, in which the increased surface groups lowered the surface area accessible to adsorbates because of blockage by adsorbed water molecule clusters. Conversely, a pronounced increase of ACHs sorption by 121.7-201.1% on the low-temperature biochar (BC300) was observed, presumably due to the increase of CEC values after oxidation. This result was further demonstrated by a significant linear relationship between the paraquat sorption (qm) and CEC values (R(2)=0.9895) of oxidized biochars. Interestingly, one year of oxidation simultaneously resulted in an enhanced sorption of paraquat and a reduced sorption of diquat on BC400, which indicated that the oxidation-induced sorption change of ACHs is a complex function of changes in the surface properties of the biochars as well as the molecular structure of the solute. PMID:25621722

  19. Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Josep; Gleichman, Amy J; Hughes, Ethan G; Rossi, Jeffrey E; Peng, Xiaoyu; Lai, Meizan; Dessain, Scott K; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lynch, David R

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1–NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified. We aimed to analyse the clinical and immunological features of patients with the disorder and examine the effects of antibodies against NMDA receptors in neuronal cultures. Methods We describe the clinical characteristics of 100 patients with encephalitis and NR1–NR2 antibodies. HEK293 cells ectopically expressing single or assembled NR1–NR2 subunits were used to determine the epitope targeted by the antibodies. Antibody titres were measured with ELISA. The effect of antibodies on neuronal cultures was determined by quantitative analysis of NMDA-receptor clusters. Findings Median age of patients was 23 years (range 5–76 years); 91 were women. All patients presented with psychiatric symptoms or memory problems; 76 had seizures, 88 unresponsiveness (decreased conciousness), 86 dyskinesias, 69 autonomic instability, and 66 hypoventilation. 58 (59%) of 98 patients for whom results of oncological assessments were available had tumours, most commonly ovarian teratoma. Patients who received early tumour treatment (usually with immunotherapy) had better outcome (p=0.004) and fewer neurological relapses (p=0.009) than the rest of the patients. 75 patients recovered or had mild deficits and 25 had severe deficits or died. Improvement was associated with a decrease of serum antibody titres. The main epitope targeted by the antibodies is in the extracellular N-terminal domain of the NR1 subunit. Patients’ antibodies decreased the numbers of cell-surface NMDA receptors and NMDA-receptor clusters in postsynaptic dendrites, an effect that could be reversed by antibody removal. Interpretation A well-defined set of clinical characteristics are associated with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. The pathogenesis of the disorder seems to be mediated by antibodies. PMID:18851928

  20. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite program (CRRES): A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    CRRES is a program to study the space environment which surrounds Earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The satellite will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with suborbital rocket probes. These chemical releases will paint the magnetic and electric fields in Earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments.

  1. The effects of additive outliers on the seasonal KPSS test: a Monte Carlo analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami Khedhiri; Ghassen El Montasser

    2010-01-01

    This article builds on the test proposed by Lyhagen [The seasonal KPSS statistic, Econom. Bull. 3 (2006), pp. 1–9] for seasonal time series and having the null hypothesis of level stationarity against the alternative of unit root behaviour at some or all of the zero and seasonal frequencies. This new test is qualified as seasonal-frequency Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin (KPSS) test and it

  2. Establishing and Explaining the Testing Effect in Free Recall for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipowski, Stacy L.; Pyc, Mary A.; Dunlosky, John; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently shown memory is enhanced when learning combines test trials with study trials compared with study trials alone (i.e., testing effect). However, the majority of work on testing effects has involved undergraduate students. In the current experiment, the authors examined testing effects in 2 groups of elementary school…

  3. Single-event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: The Effect of Load Conditions on Destructive SEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Recent testing of Enhanced Power Conversion (EPC) eGaN FET devices design for power use has shown that the devices are susceptible to Single-Event Effects (SEE) that degrade or destroy the device. The exact mechanism of the SEE is not known. The testing so far has been in the static condition, in the fully off condition, and with minimal load conditions. These conditions may not be worst case. This report presents the results of a study that tests some of the load conditions for SEE. The EPC2012 and EPC1012 were chosen for the test. The tests were performed the TAMU radiation effects facility in May and June of 2013.

  4. Test of the Stark-effect theory using photoionization microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. B.; Fabrikant, I. I.; Du, M. L.; Bordas, C.

    2012-11-01

    We formulate the dynamics of electron-wave propagation in photoionization microscopy for nonhydrogenic atoms, based on a frame transformation between the spherical and parabolic coordinates used in Harmin's Stark-effect theory. An expression for the wave function for photoelectrons ejected from the nonhydrogenic atomic source has been derived. The spatial distributions of electron current densities or differential cross sections for Na are computed and compared to those from a recently developed coupled-channel theory. The difference between these two approaches is analyzed and attributed to the frame transformation for irregular wave functions. Since more detailed physical information can be extracted by comparing differential cross sections, rather than total cross sections, photoionization microscopy is proposed to test the Stark-effect theory.

  5. Effective and Efficient Test Architecture Design for SOCs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandeep Kumar Goel; Erik Jan Marinissen

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of test architectures for modular SOC testing. These architectures consist of wrappers and TAMs (test access mechanisms). For a given SOC, with specified parameters of modules and their tests, we design architectures which minimize the required ATE vector memory depth and test application time. In this paper, we formulate the problems of test architecture

  6. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients’ demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  7. Effect of injection screen slot geometry on hydraulic conductivity tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Harald; Nemer, Bassel; Hatfield, Kirk

    2014-04-01

    Hydraulic conductivity and its spatial variability are important hydrogeological parameters and are typically determined through injection tests at different scales. For injection test interpretation, shape factors are required to account for injection screen geometry. Shape factors act as proportionality constants between hydraulic conductivity and observed ratios of injection flow rate and injection head at steady-state. Existing results for such shape factors assume either an ideal screen (i.e., ignoring effects of screen slot geometry) or infinite screen length (i.e., ignoring effects of screen extremes). In the present work, we investigate the combined effects of circumferential screen slot geometry and finite screen length on injection shape factors. This is done in terms of a screen entrance resistance by solving a steady-state potential flow mixed type boundary value problem in a homogeneous axi-symmetric flow domain using a semi-analytical solution approach. Results are compared to existing analytical solutions for circumferential and longitudinal slots on infinite screens, which are found to be identical. Based on an existing approximation, an expression is developed for a dimensionless screen entrance resistance of infinite screens, which is a function of the relative slot area only. For anisotropic conditions, e.g., when conductivity is smaller in the vertical direction than in the horizontal, screen entrance losses for circumferential slots increase, while they remain unaffected for longitudinal slots. This work is not concerned with investigating the effects of (possibly turbulent) head losses inside the injection device including the passage through the injection slots prior to entering the porous aquifer.

  8. Uterine Compression Sutures as an Effective Treatment for Postpartum Hemorrhage: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Al Riyami, Nihal; Hui, Dini; Herer, Elaine; Nevo, Ori

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the role of uterine compression sutures as a conservative treatment for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) after failed medical treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who delivered between 2003 and 2009 at a single tertiary care center and who underwent uterine compression sutures for PPH. Twelve women had uterine compression sutures for PPH. The mean age of the patients was 36.3 ± 5.2 years. The mean gestational age at delivery was 37.7 ± 2.0 weeks, and the average estimated blood loss was 2.1 ± 1.1 L. The mean procedure time to perform the uterine compression sutures was 9.3 ± 2.8 minutes. The success rate of compression sutures was 92% with only one failure resulting in a hysterectomy. Uterine compression sutures are an effective method for the treatment of PPH, thus avoiding hysterectomy and preserving potential fertility. PMID:23705085

  9. Effect of Power Bleaching on the Fluorosis Stained Anterior Teeth Case Series

    PubMed Central

    M, Annapoorna B; Tejaswi, Sunil; Shetty, Suneeth; K, Sowmya H

    2014-01-01

    Bleaching is a conservative method for restoring the colour of intrinsic discoloration of teeth. The combination of McInnes solution and power bleaching is effective procedure for bleaching of fluorosis stained teeth. Definitely bleaching with McInnes bleaching agent gives instant results, not dependent on patient’s compliance as other office based procedures, no dehydration of the tooth occurs with no damage to the pulp. Bleaching with this solution is esthetically pleasing and minimally invasive option for young patients rather than a complete coronal covering. The dentist is in complete control of the process throughout the treatment. It is a fast process the results are evident even after a single visit. PMID:25302292

  10. The effectiveness of switching antidepressants during remission: a case series of depressed patients who experienced intolerable side effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Posternak; Mark Zimmerman

    2002-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether depressed patients who have experienced intolerable side effects to one antidepressant can safely and effectively be switched to a second antidepressant while the depressive disorder is in remission. The present study sought to determine the viability of such a strategy. Methods: All subjects were psychiatric outpatients who were treated in an open-label manner according to

  11. Effects of four noise competitors on the California Consonant Test.

    PubMed

    Danhauer, J L; Leppler, J G

    1979-08-01

    Thirty-five normal-hearing listeners' speech discrimination scores were obtained for the California Consonant Test (CCT) in four noise competitors: (1) a four talker complex (FT), (2) a nine-talker complex developed at Bowling Green State University (BGMTN), (3) cocktail party noise (CPN), and (4) white noise (WN). Five listeners received the CCT stimuli mixed ipsilaterally with each of the competing noises at one of seven different signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns). Articulation functions were plotted for each noise competitor. Statistical analysis revealed that the noise types produced few differences on the CCT scores over most of the S/Ns tested, but that noise competitors similar to peripheral maskers (CPN and WN) had less effect on the scores at more severe levels than competitors more similar to perceptual maskers (FT and BGMTN). Results suggest that the CCT should be sufficiently difficult even without the present of a noise competitor for normal-hearing listeners in many audiologic testing situations. Levels that should approximate CCT maximum discrimination (D-Max) scores for normal listeners are suggested for use when clinic time does not permit the establishment of articulation functions. The clinician should determine the S/N of the CCT tape itself before establishing listening levels. PMID:480940

  12. Spectral studies on a series of metal ion complexes derived from pyrimidine nucleus, TEM, biological and ?-irradiation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ashqer, Sawsan; Abou-Melha, Khlood S.; Al-Hazmi, G. A. A.; Saad, Fawaz A.; El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.

    2014-11-01

    A series of thiouracil complexes was prepared, all the prepared compounds are investigated by all possible tools. The ligand coordinates towards two central atoms as a neutral hexadentate mode. The octahedral structure was proposed with Ni(II), Pt(IV) and UO2(II) complexes. Square-pyramidal and square planar with VO(II) and Pd(II) complexes, respectively. VO(II) complex was irradiated by using Gamma radiation to through a light on the probability of geometry changes with the effect of radiation. The parameters calculated from ESR spectra before and after ?-irradiation reflect the rigidity of the complex towards the effect. Such may discuss the unaffected biological behavior before and after irradiation. XRD patterns were carried out to emphasis on the nature of the particles and the purity of products. The ligand, Pt(IV) and Pd(II) are found in nanometer range. TEM is a sensitive tool used to justify on the microstructure and surface morphology. All the investigated compounds are in nanorange. TG curves reflect a lower thermal stability of all investigated complexes due to the presence of water of crystallization. Finally, a toxic effect was observed with all investigated complexes towards Gram positive bacterium as well as a resistant behavior was observed with Gram negative bacteria.

  13. Spectral studies on a series of metal ion complexes derived from pyrimidine nucleus, TEM, biological and ?-irradiation effect.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashqer, Sawsan; Abou-Melha, Khlood S; Al-Hazmi, G A A; Saad, Fawaz A; El-Metwaly, Nashwa M

    2014-11-11

    A series of thiouracil complexes was prepared, all the prepared compounds are investigated by all possible tools. The ligand coordinates towards two central atoms as a neutral hexadentate mode. The octahedral structure was proposed with Ni(II), Pt(IV) and UO2(II) complexes. Square-pyramidal and square planar with VO(II) and Pd(II) complexes, respectively. VO(II) complex was irradiated by using Gamma radiation to through a light on the probability of geometry changes with the effect of radiation. The parameters calculated from ESR spectra before and after ?-irradiation reflect the rigidity of the complex towards the effect. Such may discuss the unaffected biological behavior before and after irradiation. XRD patterns were carried out to emphasis on the nature of the particles and the purity of products. The ligand, Pt(IV) and Pd(II) are found in nanometer range. TEM is a sensitive tool used to justify on the microstructure and surface morphology. All the investigated compounds are in nanorange. TG curves reflect a lower thermal stability of all investigated complexes due to the presence of water of crystallization. Finally, a toxic effect was observed with all investigated complexes towards Gram positive bacterium as well as a resistant behavior was observed with Gram negative bacteria. PMID:24956491

  14. Quantification of the acute effect of a low dose of red wine by nonlinear measures of RR and QT interval series in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Platiša, Mirjana M; Gal, Vera; Nestorovi?, Zorica; Gojkovi?-Bukarica, Ljiljana

    2014-10-01

    The measures of nonlinear properties of RR interval and QT interval time series are sensitive to physiologically- or pathologically-induced complexity/regularity changes, but were not used to estimate the effect of alcohol intake. We wanted to examine the potential of these measures to quantify the acute effect of a low dose of red wine in healthy subjects. In separate experiments, fourteen young volunteers drank 200ml of red wine and a control drink with equal concentration of ethanol. ECG in supine position was recorded 20min before and 60min after drink intake. RR interval and QT interval series were extracted from ECG and we calculated variability, scaling exponents (?1 and ?2) and sample entropy (SampEn) for both series. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) were measured every 10min. The immediate effect of both the drinks was equal: HR, BP and QT variability exhibited a sudden increase and then a decrease. However, the prolonged effect of wine and the control drink was different. Wine decreased both BP (p<0.05) and reduced complexity of RR and QT series (increased scaling exponents and decreased SampEn). The control drink prolonged QT and RR intervals (p<0.05). These results point out that the nonlinear properties of RR and QT interval series could be used to differentiate the effect of wine and ethanol. Changes in RR and QT interval series induced by a low dose of red wine are more detectable by methods that quantify the structure of the series than by methods that quantify their variability. PMID:25194258

  15. Effects of slip testing parameters on measured coefficient of friction.

    PubMed

    Beschorner, Kurt E; Redfern, Mark S; Porter, William L; Debski, Richard E

    2007-11-01

    Slips and falls are a major cause of injuries in the workplace. Devices that measure coefficient of friction (COF) of the shoe-floor-contaminant interface are used to evaluate slip resistance in various environments. Testing conditions (e.g. loading rate, timing, normal force, speed, shoe angle) are believed to affect COF measurements; however, the nature of that relationship is not well understood. This study examines the effects of normal force (NF), speed, and shoe angle on COF within physiologically relevant ranges. A polyvinyl chloride shoe was tested using a modified industrial robot that could attain high vertical loads and relatively high speeds. Ground reaction forces were measured with a loadcell to compute COF. Experiment #1 measured COF over a range of NF ( approximately 100-500 N) for two shoe angles (10 degrees and 20 degrees ), four speeds (0.05, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.50 m/s), and two contaminants (diluted detergent and diluted glycerol). Experiment #2 further explored speed effect by testing seven speeds (0.01, 0.05, 0.20, 0.35, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m/s) at a given NF (350 N) and shoe angle (20 degrees ) using the same two contaminants. Experiment #1 showed that faster speeds significantly decreased COF, and that a complex interaction existed between NF and shoe angle. Experiment #2 showed that increasing speed decreased COF asymptotically. The results imply that COF is dependent on film thickness separating the shoe and the heel, which is dependent on speed, shoe angle, and NF, consistent with tribological theory. PMID:17196925

  16. The CLEAN Workshop Series: Promoting Effective Pedagogy for Teaching Undergraduate Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, K. B.; Bruckner, M. Z.; Manduca, C. A.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    To prepare students to understand a changing climate, it is imperative that we equip educators with the best possible tools and methods for reaching their audience. As part of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) professional development efforts, two workshops for undergraduate faculty were held in 2012. These workshops used a variety of activities to help faculty learn about recent climate research, take part in demonstrations of successful activities for teaching climate topics, and collaborate to create new teaching materials. The workshops also facilitated professional networking among participants. Both workshops were held online, eliminating the need for travel, encouraging participants without travel funds to attend, and allowing international collaborations and presentations. To create an authentic experience, the workshop used several technologies such as the Blackboard Collaborate web conferencing platform, SERC's web-based collaboration tools and online discussion threads, and conference calls. The workshop Communicating Climate Science in the Classroom, held in April 2012, explored practices for communicating climate science and policy in the classroom and provided strategies to improve student understanding of this complex and sensitive topic. Workshop presentations featured public opinion research on Americans' perceptions of climate change, tactics for identifying and resolving student misconceptions, and methods to address various "backfire effects" that can result from attempts to correct misinformation. Demonstrations of teaching approaches included a role-playing simulation of emissions negotiations, Princeton's climate stabilization wedges game, and an activity that allows students to use scientific principles to tackle misinformation. The workshop Teaching Climate Complexity was held in May 2012. Teaching the complexities of climate science requires an understanding of many facets of the Earth system and a robust pedagogic approach that fosters systems thinking. Workshop participants heard presentations from top climate scientists about topics such as the role of carbon dioxide in regulating Earth's climate, the silicate-weathering thermostat hypothesis, effects of water vapor in the climate system, and albedo effects from the loss of Artic sea ice. Demonstrations of classroom techniques allowed participants to use a jigsaw approach to understand poleward heat transport, plot atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and use a mass balance model to explore the role of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. A hallmark of the CLEAN workshops is that participants are actively engaged in team projects to create new teaching materials. In the Communicating Climate workshop, John Cook led a demonstration of techniques featured in his Debunking Handbook and workshop participants created examples of how to respond to common climate myths in the classroom. In the Climate Complexities workshop, participants used existing elements within the CLEAN reviewed collection to create a comprehensive sequence of activities that can be used to teach elements of Earth's climate system. Activities from the workshop are archived on the CLEAN website, including screen cast recordings of all the presentations and materials created at each workshop. For more information, visit the workshop website at the URL below.

  17. The Effects of Method of Test Preparation on Standardized Mathematics Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookman, Alan B.; Iwanicki, Edward F.

    1983-01-01

    Eighth- and ninth-grade students underwent several forms of preparation before taking a mathematics achievement test: (1) going over practice problems (of the nature covered by the test); (2) review sessions; and (3) lecture and discussion on the importance of the test. Test preparation significantly affected mathematics achievement test

  18. Separate effects testing and analyses to investigate liner tearing of the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment building

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, B.L.; Lambert, L.D.; Bergman, V.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The overpressurization of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment building demonstrated that liner tearing is a plausible failure mode in such structures under severe accident conditions. A combined experimental and analytical program was developed to determine the important parameters which affect liner tearing and to develop reasonably simple analytical methods for predicting when tearing will occur. Three sets of test specimens were designed to allow individual control over and investigation of the mechanisms believed to be important in causing failure of the liner plate. The series of tests investigated the effect on liner tearing produced by the anchorage system, the loading conditions, and the transition in thickness from the liner to the insert plate. Before testing, the specimens were analyzed using two- and three-dimensional finite element models. Based on the analysis, the failure mode and corresponding load conditions were predicted for each specimen. Test data and post-test examination of test specimens show mixed agreement with the analytical predictions with regard to failure mode and specimen response for most tests. Many similarities were also observed between the response of the liner in the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model and the response of the test specimens. This work illustrates the fact that the failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete containment building can be greatly influenced by details of liner and anchorage system design. Further, it significantly increases the understanding of containment building response under severe conditions.

  19. Effect of uneven sampling on correlation dimension computed from time series data

    E-print Network

    Sandip V. George; G. Ambika; R. Misra

    2014-10-16

    Observational data, especially astrophysical data, is often limited by uneven sampling that arises due to lack of observations for a variety of reasons. Such inadvertent gaps are usually smoothed over using interpolation techniques. However the smoothing techniques can introduce artificial effects, especially when non-linear analysis is undertaken. We investigate how uneven sampling can affect the computed values of correlation dimension of the system, without using any interpolation. For this we introduce gaps artificially in synthetic data derived from standard chaotic systems, like the Rossler and Lorenz, with frequency of occurrence and size of missing data drawn from Gaussian distributions. Then we study the changes in correlation dimension with change in the distributions of frequency of gaps introduced and size of data removed. We find that for a considerable range of gap frequency and size, the value of correlation dimension is not significantly affected. This would mean that in such specific cases, the calculated values can still be reliable and acceptable. Thus our study introduces a method of checking the reliability of computed correlation dimension values by calculating the distribution of gaps with respect to its size and frequency and comparing with the standard plots presented in the paper. This is illustrated for real world examples of the data from three variable stars, R Scuti, U Monocerotis and SU Tauri. We also demonstrate how a cubic spline interpolation can cause an unevenly sampled noisy data to be misinterpreted as being chaotic in origin. This is demonstrated for the non chaotic light curve of variable star SS Cygni, which gives a saturated D2 value, when interpolated using a cubic spline.

  20. Linking manipulative experiments to field data to test the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Venesky, Matthew D; Liu, Xuan; Sauer, Erin L; Rohr, Jason R

    2013-10-01

    The dilution effect, the hypothesis that biodiversity reduces disease risk, has received support in many systems. However, few dilution effect studies have linked mechanistic experiments to field patterns to establish both causality and ecological relevance. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments and tested the dilution effect hypothesis in an amphibian-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) system and tested for consistency between our laboratory experiments and field patterns of amphibian species richness, host identity and Bd prevalence. In our laboratory experiments, we show that tadpoles can filter feed Bd zoospores and that the degree of suspension feeding was positively associated with their dilution potential. The obligate suspension feeder, Gastrophryne carolinensis, generally diluted the risk of chytridiomycosis for tadpoles of Bufo terrestris and Hyla cinerea, whereas tadpoles of B. terrestris (an obligate benthos feeder) generally amplified infections for the other species. In addition, G. carolinensis reduced Bd abundance on H. cinerea more so in the presence than absence of B. terrestris and B. terrestris amplified Bd abundance on H. cinerea more so in the absence than presence of G. carolinensis. Also, when ignoring species identity, species richness was a significant negative predictor of Bd abundance. In our analysis of field data, the presence of Bufo spp. and Gastrophryne spp. were significant positive and negative predictors of Bd prevalence, respectively, even after controlling for climate, vegetation, anthropogenic factors (human footprint), species richness and sampling effort. These patterns of dilution and amplification supported our laboratory findings, demonstrating that the results are likely ecologically relevant. The results from our laboratory and field data support the dilution effect hypothesis and also suggest that dilution and amplification are predictable based on host traits. Our study is among the first to link manipulative experiments, in which a potential dilution mechanism is supported, with analyses of field data on species richness, host identity, spatial autocorrelation and disease prevalence. PMID:24289288

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Dynamic ground effects flight test of an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Stephenson, Mark T.; Burcham, Frank W.; Curry, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests to determine the changes in the aerodynamic characteristics of an F-15 aircraft caused by dynamic ground effects are described. Data were obtained for low and high sink rates between 0.7 and 6.5 ft/sec and at two landing approach speeds and flap settings: 150 kn with the flaps down and 170 kn with the flaps up. Simple correlation curves are given for the change in aerodynamic coefficients because of ground effects as a function of sink rate. Ground effects generally caused an increase in the lift, drag, and nose-down pitching movement coefficients. The change in the lift coefficient increased from approximately 0.05 at the high-sink rate to approximately 0.10 at the low-sink rate. The change in the drag coefficient increased from approximately 0 to 0.03 over this decreasing sink rate range. No significant difference because of the approach configuration was evident for lift and drag; however, a significant difference in pitching movement was observed for the two approach speeds and flap settings. For the 170 kn with the flaps up configuration, the change in the nose-down pitching movement increased from approximately -0.008 to -0.016. For the 150 kn with the flaps down configuration, the change was approximately -0.008 to -0.038.

  3. Estimating the Effects of Test Length and Test Time on Parameter Estimation Using the HYBRID Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Kentaro

    The traditional indicator of test speededness, missing responses, clearly indicates a lack of time to respond (thereby indicating the speededness of the test), but it is inadequate for evaluating speededness in a multiple-choice test scored as number correct, and it underestimates test speededness. Conventional item response theory (IRT) parameter…

  4. Comparing the Effects of Test Anxiety on Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) offer textual and/or aural input for test takers on which to base their subsequent oral responses. This path-analytic study modeled the relationship between test anxiety and the performance of such tasks and explored whether test anxiety would differentially affect the performance of independent…

  5. Nonparametric tests of treatment effect based on combined endpoints for mortality and recurrent events.

    PubMed

    Tayob, Nabihah; Murray, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Terminal events are commonly combined with other outcomes to improve the power for detecting treatment effects in clinical studies. This manuscript explores novel ways to combine information on terminal and recurrent events in constructing two-sample tests. Existing approaches follow either a time-to-first event analysis approach or a recurrent event modeling approach. Nonparametric recurrent event analyses are often restricted by independence assumptions on gap times between events. Although time-to-first event analyses are not subject to this restriction, they discard information that occurs beyond the initial event and are much less powerful for detecting treatment differences. We develop two new approaches for determining treatment effects, motivated by less restrictive assumptions of time-to-first event analyses that combine information from multiple follow-up intervals. The first testing procedure pools (correlated) short-term ? -restricted outcomes from prespecified intervals starting at times t(k), k = 1, . . . , b, and compares estimated ? -restricted mean survival across treatment groups from this combined dataset. The second procedure calculates conditional ?-restricted means from those at risk at times t(k), k = 1, . . . , b, and compares the area under a function of these by treatment. Variances calculations, taking into account correlation of short-term outcomes within individuals, linearize random components of the test statistics following Woodruff (1971. A simple method for approximating the variance of a complicated estimate. Journal of the American Statistical Association 66, 411-414) and more recently Williams (1995. Product-limit survival functions with correlated survival times. Lifetime Data Analysis 1, 171-186). Simulations compare the finite sample performance of our tests to the robust proportional rates model proposed by Lin and others (2000. Semiparametric regression for the mean and rate functions of recurrent events. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology) 62(4), 711-730) and the Ghosh and Lin (2000. Non-parametric analysis of recurrent events and death. Biometrics 56(2), 554-562) combined test for recurrent events and death. For different treatment effect patterns the proposed methods perform favorably when compared with existing methods. These new analysis approaches also produce correct type I error rates with correlated gap times between events. New methods are applied to data from a trial of azithromycin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:24719282

  6. Homogenising time series: Beliefs, dogmas and facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domonkos, P.

    2010-09-01

    For obtaining reliable information about climate change and climate variability the use of high quality data series is essentially important, and one basic tool of quality improvements is the statistical homogenisation of observed time series. In the recent decades large number of homogenisation methods has been developed, but the real effects of their application on time series are still not known entirely. The ongoing COST HOME project (COST ES0601) is devoted to reveal the real impacts of homogenisation methods more detailed and with higher confidence than earlier. As part of the COST activity, a benchmark dataset was built whose characteristics approach well the characteristics of real networks of observed time series. This dataset offers much better opportunity than ever to test the wide variety of homogenisation methods, and analyse the real effects of selected theoretical recommendations. The author believes that several old theoretical rules have to be re-evaluated. Some examples of the hot questions, a) Statistically detected change-points can be accepted only with the confirmation of metadata information? b) Do semi-hierarchic algorithms for detecting multiple change-points in time series function effectively in practise? c) Is it good to limit the spatial comparison of candidate series with up to five other series in the neighbourhood? Empirical results - those from the COST benchmark, and other experiments too - show that real observed time series usually include several inhomogeneities of different sizes. Small inhomogeneities seem like part of the climatic variability, thus the pure application of classic theory that change-points of observed time series can be found and corrected one-by-one is impossible. However, after homogenisation the linear trends, seasonal changes and long-term fluctuations of time series are usually much closer to the reality, than in raw time series. The developers and users of homogenisation methods have to bear in mind that the eventual purpose of homogenisation is not to find change-points, but to have the observed time series with statistical properties those characterise well the climate change and climate variability.

  7. Implementing and evaluating a regional strategy to improve testing rates in VA patients at risk for HIV, utilizing the QUERI process as a guiding framework: QUERI Series

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Matthew B; Bowman, Candice; Hoang, Tuyen; Anaya, Henry; Osborn, Teresa; Gifford, Allen L; Asch, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    Background We describe how we used the framework of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) to develop a program to improve rates of diagnostic testing for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This venture was prompted by the observation by the CDC that 25% of HIV-infected patients do not know their diagnosis – a point of substantial importance to the VA, which is the largest provider of HIV care in the United States. Methods Following the QUERI steps (or process), we evaluated: 1) whether undiagnosed HIV infection is a high-risk, high-volume clinical issue within the VA, 2) whether there are evidence-based recommendations for HIV testing, 3) whether there are gaps in the performance of VA HIV testing, and 4) the barriers and facilitators to improving current practice in the VA. Based on our findings, we developed and initiated a QUERI step 4/phase 1 pilot project using the precepts of the Chronic Care Model. Our improvement strategy relies upon electronic clinical reminders to provide decision support; audit/feedback as a clinical information system, and appropriate changes in delivery system design. These activities are complemented by academic detailing and social marketing interventions to achieve provider activation. Results Our preliminary formative evaluation indicates the need to ensure leadership and team buy-in, address facility-specific barriers, refine the reminder, and address factors that contribute to inter-clinic variances in HIV testing rates. Preliminary unadjusted data from the first seven months of our program show 3–5 fold increases in the proportion of at-risk patients who are offered HIV testing at the VA sites (stations) where the pilot project has been undertaken; no change was seen at control stations. Discussion This project demonstrates the early success of the application of the QUERI process to the development of a program to improve HIV testing rates. Preliminary unadjusted results show that the coordinated use of audit/feedback, provider activation, and organizational change can increase HIV testing rates for at-risk patients. We are refining our program prior to extending our work to a small-scale, multi-site evaluation (QUERI step 4/phase 2). We also plan to evaluate the durability/sustainability of the intervention effect, the costs of HIV testing, and the number of newly identified HIV-infected patients. Ultimately, we will evaluate this program in other geographically dispersed stations (QUERI step 4/phases 3 and 4). PMID:18353185

  8. Effect of Test-Expectancy and Word Bank Availability on Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Clause, Christopher B.; Kreiner, David S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined test-expectancy as it applies to fill-in-the-blank tests. We randomly assigned 60 college students to take a fill-in-the-blank vocabulary test in one of three conditions. Two groups took the test with a word bank available; we told one group but not the other that they would have a word bank. The third group took the test with no word…

  9. CHI-SQUARE TEST STATISTICS AND DERIVED MEASURES OF EFFECT FOR HAWKS, RAPTORS, AND ALL BIRDS

    E-print Network

    BIRDS #12;D-1 APPENDIX D CHI-SQUARE TEST STATISTICS AND DERIVED MEASURES OF EFFECT FOR HAWKS, RAPTORS, AND ALL BIRDS Table D1. Chi-square test statistics and derived measures of effect for all hawks. Variable

  10. Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: emerging issues and their experimental test in aquatic environments

    E-print Network

    Leslie, Heather

    Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: emerging issues and their experimental test. Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: emerging issues and their experimental test in aquatic evidence of the functional importance of biodiversity to ecosystem processes and properties. Compared

  11. Entwicklung diagnostischer Rechtschreibtests in ladinischer und surselvischer Sprache (Serie TOR). Forschungsbericht Nr. 5 (The Development of Diagnostic Spelling Tests in Ladin and Surselvan [TOR Series]. Research Bulletin No. 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August; And Others

    To meet the instructional needs of the hundreds of children who speak the Ladin and Surselvan Raeto-Romance dialects of Switzerland, spelling categories pertinent to the two dialects were established based on the spelling test concept of Rudolf Mueller. Following classic test analysis procedures, three diagnostic dictation tests (one in Ladin, two…

  12. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test

  13. 40 CFR 53.56 - Test for effect of variations in ambient pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Test for effect of variations in ambient pressure. 53.56 Section 53.56 Protection...Test for effect of variations in ambient pressure. (a) Overview. (1) This test...variations in ambient (barometric) pressure. Tests shall be conducted in a...

  14. 40 CFR 53.56 - Test for effect of variations in ambient pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Test for effect of variations in ambient pressure. 53.56 Section 53.56 Protection...Test for effect of variations in ambient pressure. (a) Overview. (1) This test...variations in ambient (barometric) pressure. Tests shall be conducted in a...

  15. Effects of Coarse Particulate Matter on Emergency Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases: A Time-Series Analysis in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Tse, Lap Ah; Tam, Wilson; Wong, Tze Wai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have linked daily counts of hospital admissions to particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ? 10 ?m (PM10) and ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), but relatively few have investigated the relationship of hospital admissions with coarse PM (PMc; 2.5–10 ?m aerodynamic diameter). Objectives: We conducted this study to estimate the health effects of PMc on emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Hong Kong after controlling for PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants. Methods: We conducted a time-series analysis of associations between daily emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Hong Kong from January 2000 to December 2005 and daily PM2.5 and PMc concentrations. We estimated PMc concentrations by subtracting PM2.5 from PM10 measurements. We used generalized additive models to examine the relationship between PMc (single- and multiday lagged exposures) and hospital admissions adjusted for time trends, weather conditions, influenza outbreaks, PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone). Results: A 10.9-?g/m3 (interquartile range) increase in the 4-day moving average concentration of PMc was associated with a 1.94% (95% confidence interval: 1.24%, 2.64%) increase in emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases that was attenuated but still significant after controlling for PM2.5. Adjusting for gaseous pollutants and altering models assumptions had little influence on PMc effect estimates. Conclusion: PMc was associated with emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Hong Kong independent of PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants. Further research is needed to evaluate health effects of different components of PMc. PMID:22266709

  16. Effects of Testing Conditions on Conceptual Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a…

  17. A study of effective regression testing in practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Eric Wong; J. R. Horgan; Saul London; Hira Agrawal

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of regression testing is to ensure that changes made to software, such as adding new features or modifying existing features, have not adversely affected features of the software that should not change. Regression testing is usually performed by running some, or all, of the test cases created to test modifications in previous versions of the software. Many techniques

  18. The Red Queen Race between Parasitic Chytrids and Their Host, Planktothrix: A Test Using a Time Series Reconstructed from Sediment DNA.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Marcia; Haande, Sigrid; Ostermaier, Veronika; Rohrlack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic chytrid fungi (phylum Chytridiomycota) are known to infect specific phytoplankton, including the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix. Subspecies, or chemotypes of Planktothrix can be identified by the presence of characteristic oligopeptides. Some of these oligopeptides can be associated with important health concerns due to their potential for toxin production. However, the relationship between chytrid parasite and Planktothrix host is not clearly understood and more research is needed. To test the parasite - host relationship over time, we used a sediment core extracted from a Norwegian lake known to contain both multiple Planktothrix chemotype hosts and their parasitic chytrid. Sediment DNA of chytrids and Planktothrix was amplified and a 35-year coexistence was found. It is important to understand how these two antagonistic species can coexistence in a lake. Reconstruction of the time series showed that between 1979-1990 at least 2 strains of Planktothrix were present and parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids was low. After this period one chemotype became dominant and yet showed continued low susceptibility to chytrid parasitism. Either environmental conditions or intrinsic characteristics of Planktothrix could have been responsible for this continued dominance. One possible explanation could be found in the shift of Planktothrix to the metalimnion, an environment that typically consists of low light and decreased temperatures. Planktothrix are capable of growth under these conditions while the chytrid parasites are constrained. Another potential explanation could be due to the differences between cellular oligopeptide variations found between Planktothrix chemotypes. These oligopeptides can function as defense systems against chytrids. Our findings suggest that chytrid driven diversity was not maintained over time, but that the combination of environmental constraints and multiple oligopeptide production to combat chytrids could have allowed one Planktothrix chemotype to have dominance despite chytrid presence. PMID:25793898

  19. The Red Queen Race between Parasitic Chytrids and Their Host, Planktothrix: A Test Using a Time Series Reconstructed from Sediment DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Marcia; Haande, Sigrid; Ostermaier, Veronika; Rohrlack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic chytrid fungi (phylum Chytridiomycota) are known to infect specific phytoplankton, including the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix. Subspecies, or chemotypes of Planktothrix can be identified by the presence of characteristic oligopeptides. Some of these oligopeptides can be associated with important health concerns due to their potential for toxin production. However, the relationship between chytrid parasite and Planktothrix host is not clearly understood and more research is needed. To test the parasite - host relationship over time, we used a sediment core extracted from a Norwegian lake known to contain both multiple Planktothrix chemotype hosts and their parasitic chytrid. Sediment DNA of chytrids and Planktothrix was amplified and a 35-year coexistence was found. It is important to understand how these two antagonistic species can coexistence in a lake. Reconstruction of the time series showed that between 1979–1990 at least 2 strains of Planktothrix were present and parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids was low. After this period one chemotype became dominant and yet showed continued low susceptibility to chytrid parasitism. Either environmental conditions or intrinsic characteristics of Planktothrix could have been responsible for this continued dominance. One possible explanation could be found in the shift of Planktothrix to the metalimnion, an environment that typically consists of low light and decreased temperatures. Planktothrix are capable of growth under these conditions while the chytrid parasites are constrained. Another potential explanation could be due to the differences between cellular oligopeptide variations found between Planktothrix chemotypes. These oligopeptides can function as defense systems against chytrids. Our findings suggest that chytrid driven diversity was not maintained over time, but that the combination of environmental constraints and multiple oligopeptide production to combat chytrids could have allowed one Planktothrix chemotype to have dominance despite chytrid presence. PMID:25793898

  20. The KPSS Test with Outliers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Otero; Jeremy Smith

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the effects of outliers on the KPSS tests. We find that for nonstationary series outliers induce spurious stationarity\\u000a by lowering the power of these tests. The empirical size of these tests is also found to be sensitive to the location of the\\u000a outlier.