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1

Statistical tests for deterministic effects in broad band time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a normalized version of the indicators of Savit and Green, and prove that these normalized statistics have, asymptotically, a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one if the time series is random in the sense of being IID (independent and identically distributed). We verify this result numerically, and study the magnitude of the finite size effects. We also show that these statistics are very sensitive to the existence of deterministic effects in the series, even if the underlying deterministic structure is complex, such as those generated by a chaotic system. We show that with moderate amounts of data, the statistics can easily indicate the presence of an underlying attractor even in the presence of IID noise which is as large as, or greater than the signal. Finally, we discuss the generalization of our approach to include (1) other null hypotheses besides IID which express assumptions of specific dependencies and (2) the study of deterministic effects between more than one time series.

Wu, Kesheng; Savit, Robert; Brock, William

1993-11-01

2

Precision Tests of a Quantum Hall Effect Device DC Equivalent Circuit Using Double-Series and Triple-Series Connections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precision tests verify the dc equivalent circuit used by Ricketts and Kemeny to describe a quantum Hall effect device in terms of electrical circuit elements. The terms employ the use of cryogenic current comparators and the double-series and triple-serie...

A. Jeffery R. E. Elmquist M. E. Cage

1995-01-01

3

Test Bashing Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of 14 articles which appeared in the electronic news bulletin, "EducationNews.org," and which were part of a series on "Test Bashing," a discussion of the use of standardized tests that focuses on controversies surrounding the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills and test score improvements in Texas. The articles are: (1)…

Phelps, Richard P.

4

Extending the Alternating Series Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

Katsuura, Hidefumi

2012-01-01

5

Classroom Issues with Series Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We find infinite series in calculus to be one of the most confusing topics our students encounter. In this note, we look at some issues that our students find difficult or ambiguous involving the Ratio Test, the Root Test, and also the Alternating Series Test. We offer some suggestions and some examples, which could be a supplement to the set of…

Sadek, Jawad; Euler, Russell

2005-01-01

6

The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

7

Replicating Ricardian Equivalence Tests with Simulated Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper replicates standard consumption function tests of Ricardian equivalence using series generated from a model which nests Ricardian equivalence within a non-Ricardian alternative (due to finite horizons and\\/or distortionary taxation). The author shows that the estimates of the effects of taxation on consumption are not robust and that standard tests may have weaknesses which can lead to conflicting results,

Emanuela Cardia

1997-01-01

8

Understanding Cancer Series: Gene Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Gene Testing Slide Number and Title Genes in the News DNA Chemical Bases in DNA DNA Molecules Gene Subunits DNA->RNA->Protein Different Genes - Different Functions ...

9

Understanding Cancer Series: Gene Testing  

Cancer.gov

Lydia Schindler Donna Kerrigan, M.S. Jeanne Kelly Brian Hollen Illustrates what genes are, explains how mutations occur and are identified within genes, and discusses the benefits and limitations of gene testing for cancer and other disorders. These PowerPoint slides are not locked files. You can mix and match slides from different tutorials as you prepare your own lectures. In the Notes section, you will find explanations of the graphics.

10

Multi-frac test series. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a series of five full-scale tests performed to evaluate various multi-frac concepts. The tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site in horizontal boreholes drilled in ash-fall tuff from a tunnel under 1300 ft of overburden.

Schmidt, R.A.; Warpinski, N.R.; Finley, S.J.; Shear, R.C.

1981-11-01

11

FLAME Test Vehicle 1976 Flight Test Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FLAME vehicle was designed as an inexpensive test vehicle to subject various reentry nosetip experiments to ICBM-type reentry environments. The vehicle is a two-stage solid rocket that is dropped from an F-4 aircraft, allowed to coast for a predetermi...

J. R. Fryer

1977-01-01

12

Mark III confirmatory test program: one-third scale pool swell impact tests, Test Series 5805  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 51 blowdown tests was performed in support of the Mark III ; pressure suppression concept with particular emphasis on the effect of pool swell ; impact on structures located above the suppression pool. The integrated steam ; generator and drywell of the Pressure Suppression Test Facility was used to ; accelerate the water mass in the one-third

T. R. McIntyre; W. J. Bilanin; M. A. Ross; J. E. Torbeck

1975-01-01

13

PBF-LOCA Test Series: Test LOC-5 experiment predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) Test Series being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has been designed to provide data for the development and the assessment of fuel behavior computer codes used to predict the response of a pressurized light water reactor (PWR) during a hypothetical break in the cold-leg inlet or

M. E. Waterman; T. R. Yackle

1979-01-01

14

The Effect of Exceeding Prescribed Time Limits in the Administration of a Standardized Test of Reading Comprehension and Mathematics Applications. Research Series. CEPSE/No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the second in a series designed to explore the probable consequences of exceeding the prescribed time limits in the administration of standardized achievement tests. This study considered whether the test user could apply norms that accompany the test if departures were made from established time limits, and whether increased testing…

Rudman, Herbert C.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

15

Effects of Scale Transformation and Test Termination Rule on the Precision of Ability Estimates in CAT. ACT Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Error indices (bias, standard error of estimation, and root mean square error) obtained on different scales of measurement under different test termination rules in a computerized adaptive test (CAT) context were examined. Four ability estimation methods were studied: (1) maximum likelihood estimation (MLE); (2) weighted likelihood estimation…

Yi, Qing; Wang, Tianyou; Ban, Jae-Chun

16

The Effects of Dimensionality on True Score Conversion Tables for the Law School Admission Test. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Law School Admission Test (LSAT) was examined to see if the items on a form could be divided into different subgroups in which items looked statistically similar within the subgroups but statistically different between subgroups. Of such subgrouping can be detected, it is likely that the subgroups of items measure different abilities, and the…

Camilli, Gregory; Wang, Ming-mei; Fesq, Jaqueline

17

Supplementary information on Series II Test A-5 test conditions  

SciTech Connect

Test planning and test preparation for LLTR Series II Test A-5 are continuing at GE and ETEC. The main objective for this test is to obtain data on the type and magnitude of steam tube blowout failures resulting from worst case leak conditions under the superheater hot standby condition (i.e., the plant condition considered most susceptible to steam tube blowout failures from wastage/overheating). A corollary objective is to add large quantities of steam (i.e. approx. 330 lbs) to simulate the amount that could be added in a plant system (such as CRBRP) before pressure would build up in the intermediate Heat Transport System to blow the expansion tank rupture disc. This report recommends the preferred method for operating the LLTR primary/secondary steam systems for Test A-5. i.e., Option 5 - Common Supply Tanks for Primary and Secondary Systems.

Not Available

1981-11-16

18

Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge wire testing  

SciTech Connect

An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on tank 241-S-106 during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge`s stainless steel measuring wire broke. After examination and laboratory analysis, it was determined that the wire broke due to severe chloride ion corrosion. It is suspected that the chloride ion contamination came from the radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liner. It is well documented that the breakdown of PVC due to radiation produces chloride containing compounds. This document provides a qualification test plan to remove and have analyzed the wire in all of the Enraf Series 854 that have been installed to date. These tests will confirm the presence or absence of chloride ions in the PVC liners and/or on the Enraf measuring wires installed in the tanks. This test will involve removing the 316 stainless steel wire drums from all of the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauges that have been installed. New 316 stainless steel wire drums shall be installed into the gauges and the gauges will be placed back into service. The wire that is removed from the gauges shall be sent to the 222-S Lab or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. Additional wire replacements will occur at intervals as determined necessary by the results of the laboratory analyses.

Barnes, G.A.

1994-09-15

19

Testing the Effectiveness of an Intervention Model Based on Data Use: A Replication Series across Clusters of Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention models based on data use can be effective in raising student achievement. This article presents 3 studies of one such model which had reported improved reading comprehension levels in 7 poor urban multicultural schools serving indigenous and ethnic minority communities. The intervention (the Learning Schools Model) used a process…

McNaughton, Stuart; Lai, Mei Kuin; Hsiao, Selena

2012-01-01

20

Test Prediction for Semiscale Mod-3 Test S-SB-2: Small Break Test Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains a pretest analysis of the Semiscale Mod-3 system thermal-hydraulic response for the first test in the small break test series (Test S-SB-2). This test series was designed to be compatible with small break loss-of-coolant experiments...

B. W. Murri D. M. Snider S. E. Dingman C. P. Fineman

1979-01-01

21

Space shuttle orbiter test flight series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

1977-01-01

22

Test prediction for Semiscale Mod3 Test SSB2: small break test series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains a pretest analysis of the Semiscale Mod-3 system thermal-hydraulic response for the first test in the small break test series (Test S-SB-2). This test series was designed to be compatible with small break loss-of-coolant experiments defined for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program and computer code calculations performed by the Code Assessment and Applications Program to predict pressurized

B. W. Murri; D. M. Snider; S. E. Dingman; C. P. Fineman

1979-01-01

23

Results of the PBF/LOFT Lead Rod Test Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PBF/LOFT Lead Rod (PBF/LLR) Test Series consisted of four sequential, nuclear blowdown experiments (Test LLR-3, LLR-5, LLR-4, and LLR-4A). The primary objective of the test series was to evaluate the extent of mechanical deformation that would be expe...

D. J. Varacalle R. R. Hobbins R. W. Garner

1979-01-01

24

Fluid flow measurements of Test Series A and B for the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests  

SciTech Connect

The degree of waste isolation achieved by a repository seal system is dependent upon the fluid flow characteristics, or permeability, of the seals. In order to obtain meaningful, site-specific data on the performance of various possible seal system components, a series of in situ experiments called the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT) are being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report contains the results of gas flow, tracer penetration, and brine flow tests conducted on concrete seals in vertical (Test Series A) and horizontal (Test Series B) configurations. The test objectives were to evaluate the seal performance and to determine if there existed scaling effects which could influence future SSSPT designs. 3 refs., 77 figs.

Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.

1987-12-01

25

Generalized runs tests for heteroscedastic time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of testing for nonhomogeneous white noise (i.e., independently but possibly nonidentically distributed observations, with a common, specified or unspecified, median) against alternatives of serial dependence is considered. This problem includes as a particular case the important problem of testing for heteroscedastic white noise. When the value of the common median is specified, invariance arguments suggest basing this test

Jean-Marie Dufour; Marc Hallin; Ivan Mizera

1998-01-01

26

77 FR 38282 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OPPT-2009-0154; FRL-9333-1] Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 850 Series; Notice of Availability...is announcing the availability of the final test guidelines for Series 850--Ecological Effects Test Guidelines, consisting of Groups B, C,...

2012-06-27

27

Enraf Series 854 advanced technology gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the Enraf Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies that the gauge is functional.

Huber, J.H.

1996-09-11

28

Ford Aerospace High-G Test Series II and III  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of tests is being conducted on electronic and optical components and assemblies to determine how well they operate after periods of constant high acceleration. This testing is being performed for the Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation in support of the Air Force Space and Technology Center Sagittar Program. This final report documents the second and third series of

Beshears

1987-01-01

29

Computer Symbolic Algebra Applied to Convergence Testing of Infinite Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how a microcomputer-based algebra software system, muMATH, can be used to help students understand the theory of convergence of infinite series. Examples are given to illustrate nth term test, ratio test, comparison test, integral test, and Raabe's test. (10 references) (LRW)

Matthews, John H.

1989-01-01

30

Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. It ... test, as exercise or increased activity can alter hGH levels. Inform your health-care provider if you ...

31

Test Plan for Series 3 NNWSI Spent Fuel Leaching/Dissolution Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Series 3 tests will differ from the Series 2 tests in that the Series 3 tests will be run at 85 sup 0 C (J-13 water) in sealed 304 stainless steel (SS) test vessels. The current NNWSI reference spent fuel container material is 304L SS. The candidate N...

C. N. Wilson

1986-01-01

32

Ford Aerospace High-G Test Series II and III  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests is being conducted on electronic and optical components and assemblies to determine how well they operate after periods of constant high acceleration. This testing is being performed for the Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation in support of the Air Force Space and Technology Center Sagittar Program. This final report documents the second and third series of tests which consisted of 47 test runs. The tests included the evaluation of some packaging techniques in an effort to extend the load capacity of a Panasonic lithium battery. Other tests conducted in Series II consisted of accelerating two receiver units (one with a gallium arsenide lens and the other with a zinc sulfide lens) to various G levels up to 120,281 G's. The qualification target for each of these units is 120,000 G's. In Test Series III, it was possible to further extend the Panasonic lithium battery life by not only encapsulating the battery in Castolite plastic, but also enclosing the entire assembly in an aluminum housing. The other components tested in Test Series III included two receiver units (one with a germanium lens and the other a 19-mm Kodak zinc sulfide lens), a 40-mm hybrid controller, a zinc sulfide lens assembly, an Altus lithium battery, a germanium filter, and two detectors. The qualification target for the 2 batteries and the 40-mm hybrid controller is 120,000 G's, while the qualification target for each of the other components tested in Series III is 140,000 G's.

Beshears, D.L.

1987-03-01

33

Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.  

SciTech Connect

While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA; Meares, Andrew [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA

2013-07-01

34

FLECHT low flooding rate skewed test series data report. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FLECHT Low Flooding Rate Tests were conducted in an improved original FLECHT Test Facility to provide heat transfer coefficient and entrainment data at forced flooding rates of 1 in.\\/sec. and with electrically heated rod bundles which had cosine and top skewed axial power profiles. The top-skewed axial power profile test series has now been successfully completed and is here

E. R. Rosal; C. E. Conway; M. C. Krepinevich

1977-01-01

35

The Effect of Exceeding Prescribed Time Limits in the Administration of Standardized Achievement Tests: An Abstract. Research Series. CEPSE/No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect on achievement when the prescribed maximum time limits of a standardized achievement test are exceeded was studied using students nested in block-by-treatment combinations. The analysis was a hierarchical (nested) randomized blocks analysis of covariance involving 408 fifth graders taking the Stanford Achievement Test in Lansing,…

Rudman, Herbert C.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

36

Testing for deterministic and stochastic cycles in macroeconomic time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we use a statistical procedure which is appropriate to test for deterministic and stochastic (stationary and\\u000a nonstationary) cycles in macroeconomic time series. These tests have standard null and local limit distributions and are easy\\u000a to apply to raw time series. Monte Carlo evidence shows that they perform relatively well in the case of functional misspecification\\u000a in the

Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Luis A. Gil-Alana

2007-01-01

37

Operation TEAPOT, 1955 continental nuclear weapons test series. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the activities of an estimated 11,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Operation TEAPOT, the fifth atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series conducted in Nevada from 18 February to 15 May 1955. Activities engaging DOD personnel included Exercise Desert Rock VI observer programs, troop tests, and technical service programs; AEC scientific and diagnostic experiments to evaluate the

J. Ponton; C. Maag; M. Wilkinson; R. F. Shepanek

1981-01-01

38

Freight Car Truck Design Optimization. Detailed Test Plan Series 4 Tests. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the detailed test plans for Series 4 Tests of Phase I of the Truck Design Optimization Project. It is a continuation of a previous report presenting the introduction and the detailed test plans for Series 1, 2, and 3 Tests, for Phase...

1975-01-01

39

Testing time series irreversibility using complex network methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absence of time-reversal symmetry is a fundamental property of many nonlinear time series. Here, we propose a new set of statistical tests for time series irreversibility based on standard and horizontal visibility graphs. Specifically, we statistically compare the distributions of time-directed variants of the common complex network measures degree and local clustering coefficient. Our approach does not involve surrogate data and is applicable to relatively short time series. We demonstrate its performance for paradigmatic model systems with known time-reversal properties as well as for picking up signatures of nonlinearity in neuro-physiological data.

Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.; Kurths, Jürgen

2013-04-01

40

ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) Acceptance Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides acceptance testing for Enraf Series 854 level gauges used to monitor levels in Hanford Waste Storage Tanks. The test will verify that the gauge functions according to the manufacturer's instructions and specifications and is properly setup prior to being delivered to the tank farm area. This ATP does not set up the gauge for any specific tank, but is generalized to permit testing the gauge prior to installation package preparation.

HUBER, J.H.

1999-08-17

41

Iranian rainfall series analysis by means of nonparametric tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the trends and fluctuations in rainfall has received a great deal of attention, since changes in rainfall patterns may lead to floods or droughts. The objective of this study was to analyze the annual, seasonal, and monthly rainfall time series at seven rain gauge stations in the west of Iran for a 40-year period (from October 1969 to September 2009). The homogeneity of the rainfall data sets at the rain gauge stations was checked by using the cumulative deviations test. Three nonparametric tests, namely Kendall, Spearman, and Mann-Kendall, at the 95 % confidence level were used for the trend analysis and the Theil-Sen estimator was applied for determining the magnitudes of the trends. According to the homogeneity analysis, all of the rainfall series except the September series at Vasaj station were found to be homogeneous. The obtained results showed an insignificant trend in the annual and seasonal rainfall series at the majority of the considered stations. Moreover, only three significant trends were observed at the February rainfall of Aghajanbolaghi station, the November series of Vasaj station, and the March rainfall series of Khomigan station. The findings of this study on the temporal trends of rainfall can be implemented to improve the water resources strategies in the study region.

Talaee, P. Hosseinzadeh

2014-05-01

42

Pin Failure Modeling of the A Series CABRI Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EXPAND pin fialure model, a research tool designed to model pin failure under prompt burst conditions, has been used to predict failure conditions for several of the A series CABRI tests as part of the United States participation in the CABRI Joint Pr...

M. F. Young J. L. Portugal

1978-01-01

43

Loss-of-coolant accident test series TC1 experiment operating specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to specify the experiment operating procedure for the test series TC-1. The effects of externally mounted cladding thermocouples on the fuel rod thermal behavior during LOCA blowdown and reflood cycles will be investigated in the test. Potential thermocouple effects include: (a) delayed DNB, (b) momentary cladding rewets following DNB, (c) premature cladding rewet during

Yackle

1979-01-01

44

Testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures in a controlled environment: The SERI CMFERT (Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Training) Project  

SciTech Connect

For several years the Solar Energy Research Institute has been testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures, with the support of the US DOE Office of State and Local Assistance Programs Weatherization Assistance Program, the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems, the seven states within the federal Weatherization Region 7, the Colorado Division of Housing, and the DOE Denver Support Office. During the winter of 1988--89, several weatherization measures were thermally tested on three mobile homes under controlled conditions inside a large environmental enclosure. The effects of each weatherization measure on conduction losses, infiltration losses, and combined furnace and duct-delivered heat efficiency were monitored. The retrofit options included air sealing, duct repair, furnace tune-up, interior storm panels, floor insulation, and roof insulation. The study demonstrated that cost-effective heating energy savings of about 20% to 50% are possible if weatherization techniques adapted to the special construction details in mobile homes are applied. 24 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

Judkoff, R.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Franconi, E.

1990-03-01

45

Experiment Data Report for Test RIA 1-2 (Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recorded test data are presented for the second of six planned tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series 1, Test RIA 1-2. This test, conducted at the Power Burst Facility, had the following objectives: (1) Characterize the response of p...

C. L. Zimmermann C. E. White R. P. Evans

1979-01-01

46

The Abuses of Standardized Testing. Fastback Series No. 92.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author takes the position that standardized tests, as presently developed and marketed, do have potentially positive uses. However, these advantages are outweighed by the tests' deleterious effects on children and programs. Standardized tests refer to published, norm referenced, achievement and intelligence tests which contain specific…

Perrone, Vito

47

Science Library of Test Items. Volume Thirteen. Mastery Testing Program. [Mastery Tests Series 5.] Tests M51-M65.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 51 through 65 include: (51) interpreting atomic and mass numbers; (52) extrapolating from a geological map; (53) matching geological sections and maps; (54) identifying parts of the human eye; (55) identifying the functions of parts of a…

New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

48

The NASA B-757 HIRF test series: Low power on-the-ground tests  

SciTech Connect

The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical and experimental for the assessment of electromagnetic effects i n transports, for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs, and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. A series of fly-by experiments were conducted in early 1995 in which the NASA B-757 was flown in the vicinity of a Voice of America station ({approximately}25 MHz), a fixed transmitter driving an LP array (172 MHz), and an ASRF radar at Wallops Island (430 MHz). In this paper, the overall test program is defined with particular attention to the on-the-ground portion. It is described in detail with presentation of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation will also be presented.

Poggio, A.J.; Zacharias, R.A.; Pennock, S.T.; Avalle, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Carney, H. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

1995-07-01

49

FLECHT low flooding rate cosine test series data report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FLECHT Low Flooding Rate Tests were conducted in an improved ; original FLECHT Test Facility to provide heat transfer coefficient and ; entrainment data at forced flooding rates of 1 in.\\/sec and below. In addition ; these tests were performed to supplement parametric effects studied in the ; original FLECHT program, provide data for reflood model development, repeat ;

E. R. Rosal; L. E. Hochreiter; M. F. McGuire; M. C. Krepinevich

1975-01-01

50

Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge testing in Tank 241-S-106  

SciTech Connect

An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on Tank 241-S-106 (S-106) during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge`s measuring wire broke. An investigation has been started to determine how the wire broke. This test plan identifies a qualification test that is part of this investigation. This test will also provide evidence as to the location and extent of potential corrosion on the measuring wire due to tank environment. The results from this testing will provide data for better material selections. This test will involve placing the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauge back into service with the same type of measuring wire (316 stainless steel) that originally broke on August 11, 1994. The gauge will be operated for 14 days. At the end of the 14-day test, the wire shall be sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis.

Barnes, G.A.

1994-08-23

51

Summary of results from the Series 2 and Series 3 NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] bare fuel dissolution tests  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project is studying dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent nuclear fuel in Nevada Test Site groundwater. Specimens were tested for multiple cycles in J-13 well water. The Series 2 tests were run in unsealed silica vessels under ambient hot cell air (25{sup 0}C) for five cycles for a total of 34 months. The Series 3 tests were run in sealed stainless steel vessels at 25{sup 0}C and 85{sup 0}C for three cycles for a total of 15 months. Selected summary results from Series 2 and Series 3 tests with bare fuel specimens are reported. Uranium concentrations in later test cycles ranged from 1 to 2 {mu}g/ml in the Series 2 Tests versus about 0.1 to 0.4 {mu}g/ml in Series 3 with the lowest concentrations occurring in the 85{sup 0}C tests. Preferential release of fission products Cs, I, Sr and Tc, and activation product C-14, was indicated relative to the actinides. Tc-99 and Cs-137 activities measured in solution after Cycle 1 increased linearly with time, with the rate of increase greater at 85{sup 0}C than at 25{sup 0}C. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Wilson, C.N.

1987-11-01

52

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focuses on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report presents results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. This report was originally published in March 2001. In January 2004, a transcription error was discovered in the value reported for the uranium metal content of KE North Loadout Pit sample FE-3. This revision of the report corrects the U metal content of FE-3 from 0.0013 wt% to 0.013 wt%.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2004-04-26

53

Great Lakes Ore Carrier Series Ice Resistance Model Tests Draft Variation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work is an extension of the test series reported in WIMB Report No. 18 'Great Lakes Ore Carrier Series Ice Model Test Program' which covered model tests of nine different hull forms of which eight formed a systematic series with bow form, ship length...

J. Virtanen B. M. Johansson E. Makinen P. B. Mentz V. Rinehart

1975-01-01

54

Loss-of-coolant accident test series test loc 3 experiment predictions. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) Test Series being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has been designed to provide data for the development and the assessment of fuel behavior computer codes used to predict the response of light water reactors during a hypothetical break in the cold-leg inlet or hot-leg outlet of

T. R. Yackle; P. H. Klink; J. W. Spore; L. K. Sepold; D. W. Nigg

1979-01-01

55

Progress report on LLTR Series II Test A-2 (Part 1). [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a complete set of valid and final digital and analog data plots for LLTR Series II, Test A-2. Included is an Accuracy Statement regarding this data as required by Revision 0 of the GE Test Request, Specification No. 23A2062. The Series II, Sodium-Water Reaction Test A-2 was performed in the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). This was the third of three planned double-edged guillotine (DEG) rupture tests of a single tube which will be followed by a number of small leak tests. The test article is the LLTI which is a full-size diameter internals, shortened in length and prototypic of the CRBR steam generator. It is installed in the Large Leak Test Vessel (LLTV). The overall test program was formulated by General Electric (GE) as Test Requester to establish steam generator design and to verify analytical models/codes to estimate the effect of large leak accidents in an LMFBR demonstration plant steam generator and system.

Freede, W.J.; Neely, H.H.

1980-01-01

56

Health Maintenance Facility System Effectiveness Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Medical Simulations Working Group conducted a series of medical simulations to evaluate the proposed Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) Preliminary Design Review (PDR) configuration. The goal of these simulations was to test the system effectiveness of...

C. W. Lloyd J. Gosbee R. Bueker D. Kupra M. Ruta

1993-01-01

57

Illustration of the WPS benefit through BATMAN test series: Tests on large specimens under WPS loading configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effects of warm pre-stressing on the toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel, the “Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique”, in collaboration with “Electricité De France” and AREVA-NP, has made a study combining modeling and a series of experiments on large specimens submitted to a thermal shock or isothermal cooling. The tests were made on 18MND5 ferritic steel bars, containing

T. Yuritzinn; L. Ferry; S. Chapuliot; P. Mongabure; D. Moinereau; A. Dahl; P. Gilles

2008-01-01

58

Curriculum-Referenced Test Development Workshop Series: Workshops One through Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of materials represents the first three workshops in a series of five designed to assist school districts and educators to develop their own curriculum-referenced tests. The series has been assembled to provide school districts with a relatively inexpensive test development method. The series is designed to reduce costs by pooling…

Arter, Judith A.

59

Relay test program. Series 2 tests: Integral testing of relays and circuit breakers  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing.

Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-02-01

60

CLINICAL EVALUATION OF PATIENTS PATCH TESTED WITH PLANT SERIES: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY  

PubMed Central

Background: Plants are ubiquitous in nature and are essential for human life, though some do have detrimental effects. In India, there are various indigenous and foreign plants that are well known to cause dermatitis, Parthenium hysterophorus being the foremost. Aims of the Study: To study the clinical features of patients presenting with plant dermatitis and evaluate plant allergen series patch test results. Materials and Methods: 50 patients with suspected plant dermatitis were evaluated regarding evolution of dermatitis, precipitating factors and contact with various plants. 31 patients (62%) complained of photo sensitivity and 24 (48%) had involvement of sun-exposed areas. Our provisional diagnoses included allergic contact dermatitis in 16, air borne contact dermatitis in 9, phytophotodermatitis in 7, photodermatitis in 6, airborne contact dermatitis to other causes in 4, phytodermatitis in 3. Patients were patch tested with Indian standard series of allergens as well as plant allergen series consisting of common allergenic plants of local flora in and around Manipal and also with plants strongly suspected by the patient. 35 tested positive with maximum positives (26 patients, i.e., 52%) to Parthenium hysterophorus (Compositae). Results: The result of patch testing was correlated with the history and clinical examination and relevance established. Conclusions: Majority of the patients with clinically suspected plant dermatitis belonged to 3rd or 4th decade and Parthenium was the leading plant allergen Sensitization to Leguminosae plants and Hopea ponga, seen in 9 cases, have not been reported earlier in literature.

Davis, Suraj V; Shenoi, S D; Prabhu, S; Shirwaiker, A; Balachandran, C

2011-01-01

61

General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

1986-09-01

62

Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells  

SciTech Connect

This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells.

Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

1985-03-01

63

General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests  

SciTech Connect

General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40%) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Cull, T.A.

1989-06-01

64

General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four Pu-238O2-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40 percent) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions.

Cull, Theresa A.

1989-06-01

65

General-Purpose Heat Source development: Extended series test program large fragment tests  

SciTech Connect

General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electric power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electric power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory was modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents, and an extended series safety test program was initiated. The program included a series of large fragment tests that simulated the collision of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragments, generated in an SRB motor case rupture or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action, with the GPHS-RTG. The tests indicated that fueled clads, inside a converter, will not breach or release fuel after a square (142 cm on a side) SRB fragment impacts flat-on at velocities up to 212 m/s, and that only the leading fueled capsules breach and release fuel after the square SRB fragment impacts the modules, inside the converter, edge-on at 95 m/s. 8 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

Cull, T.A.

1989-08-01

66

Forecasting ocean wave energy: Tests of time-series models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the ability of time-series models to predict the energy from ocean waves. Data sets from four Pacific Ocean sites are analyzed. The energy flux is found to exhibit nonlinear variability. The probability distribution has heavy tails, while the fractal dimension is non-integer. This argues for using nonlinear models. The primary technique used here is a time-varying parameter

Gordon Reikard

2009-01-01

67

A SIMPLE TEST OF NORMALITY FOR TIME SERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers testing for normality for correlated data. The proposed test procedure employs the skewness-kurtosis test statistic, but studentized by standard error estimators that are consistent under serial dependence of the observations. The standard error estimators are sample versions of the asymptotic quantities that do not incorporate any downweighting, and, hence, no smoothing parameter is needed. Therefore, the main

Ignacio N. Lobato; Carlos Velasco

2004-01-01

68

Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1986-09-01

69

Pediatric autonomic testing: retrospective review of a large series.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To describe the reasons for referral, autonomic diagnoses, test results, and patient management in a large pediatric population referred for testing for an autonomic disorder. DESIGN. The authors reviewed autonomic testing data and medical records for patients aged 18 years and younger who underwent testing between 1993 and 2007 and who had adequate clinical data. Relevance of test results to clinical symptoms was ranked on a 3-point scale. Treatments were noted and their benefit ranked on a 5-point scale. RESULTS. Among 142 pediatric patients identified, postural tachycardia syndrome was most common (71%) while orthostatic hypotension was rare (5%). Testing provided relevant information regarding the patient's symptoms in 88% of the cases. Beta-blockers were the most commonly prescribed medication (59%); 73% improved. CONCLUSIONS. Postural tachycardia syndrome was common in this large pediatric population, whereas orthostatic hypotension was infrequent. The symptomatic improvement in the majority bears an unclear relationship to treatment. Prospective studies are needed. PMID:21868597

Sukul, Devraj; Chelimsky, Thomas C; Chelimsky, Gisela

2012-01-01

70

Misuse Study of Latch Attachment: A Series of Frontal Sled Tests  

PubMed Central

This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G’s when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G’s, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values.

Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

2007-01-01

71

Misuse study of latch attachment: a series of frontal sled tests.  

PubMed

This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G's when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G's, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values. PMID:18184489

Menon, Rajiv; Ghati, Yoganand

2007-01-01

72

A Series of Lower Bounds to the Reliability of a Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two lower bounds to reliability in classical test theory, Guttman's lamda and Cronbach's alpha, are shown to be terms of an infinite series of lower bounds. All terms of this series are equal to reliability if and only if the test contains items which are tau-equivalent. (Author/JKS)

ten Berge, Jos M. F.; Zegers, Frits E.

1978-01-01

73

A series of lower bounds to the reliability of a test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two well-known lower bounds to the reliability in classical test theory, Guttman's 2 and Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are shown to be terms of an infinite series of lower bounds. All terms of this series are equal to the reliability if and only if the test is composed of items which are essentially tau-equivalent. Some practical examples, comparing the first 7

J. M. F. ten Berge; Frits E. Zegers

1978-01-01

74

FIELD DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA's OHMSETT facility has developed a rapid field test that includes some of the theoretical aspects and conditions of dispersion at sea. This Field Dispersant Effectiveness Test (FDET) has been used to evaluate the dispersibility of various commonly-transported oils and mak...

75

Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

1976-01-01

76

Multiple skin testing of Kenyan schoolchildren with a series of new tuberculins.  

PubMed Central

This study on Kenyan schoolchildren aims to elucidate the effect of contact with environmental mycobacteria on the development of specific delayed hypersensitivity. A series of 12 skin test reagents was employed; eleven of them were prepared from extracts of living mycobacteria and the last was the P.P.D. RT 23. Eight of the new tuberculins were prepared from mycobacteria recovered from the East African environment. A total of 8641 tests were carried out on 4320 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years in four townships. Two of these townships were in fertile agricultural areas and two were in the desert. Just over 80% of the children had received BCG immunization The results obtained showed that increasing age, geographical locality and BCG immunization all had a profound effect, and socioeconomic background had some effect, on the pattern of reactivity to the various reagents. The rationale behind the use of the series of new tuberculins and the results obtained with them are discussed in relation to the interacting effects of the factors complicating these results.

Paul, R. C.; Stanford, J. L.; MisljenA?vic, O.; Lefering, J.

1975-01-01

77

Test reliability and effective test length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of effective test length are developed for speeded and power tests, which are independent of the number of items in the test or of the time required for administration. These measures are used in determining reliability for (1) speeded and power tests, where a separately timed short parallel form is administered in addition to the full-length test; (2) power

William H. Angoff

1953-01-01

78

Fitting Categorical Models to Effect Sizes from a Series of Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statistical test is described which determines homogeneity of effect size of an experiment series. An overall fit statistic is partitioned into between-class fit statistic and within-class fit statistic. These statistics permit assessment of differences between effect sizes for different classes and homogeneity of effect size within classes.…

Hedges, Larry V.

1982-01-01

79

NASA Boeing 757 HIRF test series low power on-the-ground tests  

SciTech Connect

The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transports; for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs; and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/ Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants in this project were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. The tests were performed over a five week period during September through November, 1994. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. This report and the associated test plan that is included as an appendix represent a definition of the overall on-the-ground test program. They include descriptions of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. In this report, a detailed description of each executed test is provided, as is the data identification (data id) relating the specific test with its relevant data files. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation are also presented. The test plan which guided the execution of the tests, a test report by UIE Inc., and the report describing the concrete pad characterization are included as appendices.

Poggio, A.J.; Pennock, S.T.; Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley AFB, VA (United States). Langley Research Center] [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley AFB, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

1996-08-01

80

X-0557 modified Steven tests : series I and II /.  

SciTech Connect

Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). These have been investigated using different experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, including, but not limited to the drop weight impact, Taylor anvil impact, Susan,1 and more recently, the Steven and Modified Steven tests.2-8 Ideally, the data will be used to further advance 3-D finite element analysis predictive capability with improved bulk constitutive HE models for the assessment of HE response to mechanical insult. Our overall objectives for these experiments were to (1) evaluate the HE reaction threshold behavior for two different lots of X-0557, and (2) characterize the degree of reaction violence relative to a detonation. This report summarizes our single impact test results on the two different lots of X-0557 in Modified Steven targets.

Straight, J. W. (James W.); Osborn, M. A. (Michael A.); Coulter, W. L. (William L.); Mang, J. T. (Joseph T.); Anderson, M. C. (Mark C.); Idar, D. J. (Deanne J.)

2002-01-01

81

General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series  

SciTech Connect

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

1985-05-01

82

X-0557 modified Steven tests : series I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). These have been investigated using different experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, including, but not limited to the drop weight impact, Taylor anvil impact, Susan,1 and more recently, the Steven and Modified Steven tests.2-8 Ideally, the data

J. W. Straight; M. A. Osborn; W. L. Coulter; J. T. Mang; M. C. Anderson; D. J. Idar

2002-01-01

83

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series I Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor and canister sludge. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. The overall goals for this testing were to collect detailed gas generation rate and composition data to ascertain the quantity and reactivity of the metallic uranium (and other reactive species) present in the K Basin sludge. The gas generation evaluation included four large-scale vessels (850 ml) and eight small-scale vessels (30 ml) in an all-metal, leak tight system. The tests were conducted for several thousand hours at ambient and elevated temperatures (32 C, 40 C, 60 C, 80 C, and 95 C) to accelerated the reactions and provide conclusive gas generation data within a reasonable testing period. The sludge used for these tests was collected from the KE Basin floor and canister barrels (containing damaged spent fuel elements) using a consolidated sampling technique (i.e., material from several locations was combined to form ''consolidated samples''). Portions of these samples were sieved to separate particles greater than 250 m (P250) from particle less than 250 m (M250). This separation was performed to mimic the separation operations that are planned during the retrieval of certain K Basin sludge types and to gain a better understanding of how uranium metal is distributed in the sludge. The corrosion rate of the uranium metal particles in the sludge was found to agree reasonably well with corrosion rates reported in the literature.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Bredt, Paul R.; King, Christopher M.; Sell, Rachel L.; Burger, Leland L.; Silvers, Kurt L.

2000-09-12

84

Trend tests in time series with missing values: A case study with imputation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testing for trend is an important problem, especially when one is dealing with environmental time series. The tests considered here are the usual t-test and the Mann-Kendall test, a nonparametric version widely used because it requires fewer assumptions. The aim is to assess the performance of two trend tests in time series with autocorrelation after an imputation method is applied to estimate the missing observations. The performance of the trend tests will be illustrated for some well-known data sets existing in R software.

Ramos, M. Rosário; Cordeiro, Clara

2013-10-01

85

Material Evaluation Test Series 07, 08A, and 09A  

SciTech Connect

This research effort examines the post-detonation environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of experimental explosive tests with mercury. Specific experimental information is necessary for the evaluation of post-detonation by-products in comparison with those potentially resulting from mercury-bearing material accumulation in biomass accumulation areas, such as landfills, from batteries, electrical switches, thermometers, and fluorescent lights (Lindberg et al 2001). This will assist in determining appropriate abatement techniques for cleaning the work environment and environmental mitigation to determine waste stream components and risk assessment protocol. Determination of the by-products for personal protection equipment and personal exposure monitoring parameters are also part of this experimental work.

Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Koester, C; Lyle, J

2006-04-11

86

Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Education Policy for Action Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Value-added measures of teacher effectiveness are the centerpiece of a national movement to evaluate, promote, compensate, and dismiss teachers based in part on their students' test results. Federal, state, and local policy-makers have adopted these methods en masse in recent years in an attempt to objectively quantify teaching effectiveness and…

Corcoran, Sean P.

2010-01-01

87

Automated classification of Permanent Scatterers time-series based on statistical characterization tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry has progressed, over the last two decades, from the pioneer use of single interferograms for analyzing changes on the earth's surface to the development of advanced multi-interferogram techniques to analyze any sort of natural phenomena which involves movements of the ground. The success of multi-interferograms techniques in the analysis of natural hazards such as landslides and subsidence is widely documented in the scientific literature and demonstrated by the consensus among the end-users. Despite the great potential of this technique, radar interpretation of slope movements is generally based on the sole analysis of average displacement velocities, while the information embraced in multi interferogram time series is often overlooked if not completely neglected. The underuse of PS time series is probably due to the detrimental effect of residual atmospheric errors, which make the PS time series characterized by erratic, irregular fluctuations often difficult to interpret, and also to the difficulty of performing a visual, supervised analysis of the time series for a large dataset. In this work is we present a procedure for automatic classification of PS time series based on a series of statistical characterization tests. The procedure allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) and retrieve for each trend a series of descriptive parameters which can be efficiently used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. The classification algorithms were developed and tested using an ENVISAT datasets available in the frame of EPRS-E project (Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing) of the Italian Ministry of Environment (track "Modena", Northern Apennines). This dataset was generated using standard processing, then the time series are typically affected by a significant noise to signal ratio. The results of the analysis show that even with such a rough-quality dataset, our automated classification procedure can greatly improve radar interpretation of mass movements. In general, uncorrelated PS (type 0) are concentrated in flat areas such as fluvial terraces and valley bottoms, and along stable watershed divides; linear PS (type 1) are mainly located on slopes (both inside or outside mapped landslides) or near the edge of scarps or steep slopes; non-linear PS (types 2 to 5) typically fall inside landslide deposits or in the surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of classified PS allows to detect deformation phenomena not visible by considering the average velocity alone, and provide important information on the temporal evolution of the phenomena such as acceleration, deceleration, seasonal fluctuations, abrupt or continuous changes of the displacement rate. Based on these encouraging results we integrated all the classification algorithms into a Graphical User Interface (called PSTime) which is freely available as a standalone application.

Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal

2013-04-01

88

Ethics of HIV testing in general practice without informed consent: a case series  

PubMed Central

This case series presents two general practice cases where HIV testing occurred, or results suggestive of HIV were received, before informed consent was obtained. Bioethical and professional principles are used to explore these dilemmas.

Fraser, J

2005-01-01

89

A Design for Linking Tests of a Multi-Level, Multi-Form Achievement Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, comparable content-area forms and levels of a multi-level, multi-form achievement test series have been equated using the equipercentile method. There is some evidence to indicate, however, that better procedures are needed. A linking procedure is being used to equate simultaneously 40 different test forms of an achievement test

Lenke, Joanne M.; Canner, Jane M.

90

Shot APPLE 2, A Test of the TEAPOT Series, 5 May 1955.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the activities of more than 2,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot APPLE 2, the thirteenth nuclear test in the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 5 May 1955 and involved par...

J. Ponton M. Wilkinson S. Rohrer

1981-01-01

91

Shot BEE, A Test of the TEAPOT Series, 22 March 1955.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the activities of more than 3,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot BEE, the sixth nuclear test in the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 22 March 1955 and involved participa...

C. Maag M. Wilkinson S. Rohrer

1981-01-01

92

Shot Bee, a test of the TEAPOT series, 22 March 1955. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of more than 3,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot BEE, the sixth nuclear test in the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 22 March 1955 and involved participants from Exercise Desert Rock VI, AFSWP, AFSWC, and the AEC Test Groups. The Marine Brigade Exercise troop test involved 2,271 Marines and was the largest single project conducted during Operation TEAPOT.

Maag, C.; Wilkinson, M.; Rohrer, S.

1981-11-24

93

Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the air

1998-01-01

94

A 727/JT8D-100 series engine exhaust system propulsion performance model test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented from testing one-eighth scale models of the Pratt and Whitney aircraft reference and Boeing nozzles for the JT8D-100 series mixed flow engines. The objective of the test was to obtain the nozzle velocity and flow coefficients for the reference configurations and compare these with the Boeing configurations which incorporated a longer splitter between the fan and primary flows. A further comparison was made between the JT8D-100 series nozzles and the Boeing JT8D-9/727 production nozzle performance. A statistical analysis was used to compare configurations which showed the performance (velocity coefficient) of the reference and the Boeing configuration was the same for the JT8D-109. It also showed no difference between reference and the Boeing configuration for the JT8D-115 and no difference for the JT8D-117 nozzles. Bypass ratio (match) was shown to be equally dependent on splitter position as on nozzle area within the range investigated. The nozzles were very similar in flow coefficient within an engine family. Excellent profile data was recorded. The effects of swirl on the nozzle performance was examined and found to degrade the velocity and flow coefficients.

Haugan, W. J.; Kern, P. R. A.

1974-01-01

95

Ground testing on the nonvented fill method of orbital propellant transfer: Results of initial test series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a series of no-vent fill experiments conducted on a 175 cu ft flightweight hydrogen tank. The experiments consisted of the nonvented fill of the tankage with liquid hydrogen using two different inlet systems (top spray, and bottom spray) at different tank initial conditions and inflow rates. Nine tests were completed of which six filled in excess of 94 percent. The experiments demonstrated a consistent and repeatable ability to fill the tank in excess of 94 percent using the nonvented fill technique. Ninety-four percent was established as the high level cutoff due to requirements for some tank ullage to prevent rapid tank pressure rise which occurs in a tank filled entirely with liquid. The best fill was terminated at 94 percent full with a tank internal pressure less than 26 psia. Although the baseline initial tank wall temperature criteria was that all portions of the tank wall be less than 40 R, fills were achieved with initial wall temperatures as high as 227 R.

Chato, David J.

1991-01-01

96

Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Executive Summary. Education Policy for Action Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Value-added" measures of teacher effectiveness are the centerpiece of a national movement to evaluate, promote, compensate, and dismiss teachers based in part on their students' test results. Federal, state, and local policy-makers have embraced these measures in recent years as a means to objectively quantify teacher quality and to identify,…

Corcoran, Sean P.

2010-01-01

97

JPL Test Effectiveness Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1) The pilot study provided meaningful conclusions that are generally consistent with the earlier Test Effectiveness work done between 1992 and 1994: a) Analysis of pre-launch problem/failure reports is consistent with earlier work. b) Analysis of post-launch early mission anomaly reports indicates that there are more software issues in newer missions, and the no-test category for identification of post-launch failures is more significant than in the earlier analysis. 2) Future work includes understanding how differences in Missions effect these analyses: a) There are large variations in the number of problem reports and issues that are documented by the different Projects/Missions. b) Some missions do not have any reported environmental test anomalies, even though environmental tests were performed. 3) Each project/mission has different standards and conventions for filling out the PFR forms, the industry may wish to address this issue: a) Existing problem reporting forms are to document and track problems, failures, and issues (etc.) for the projects, to ensure high quality. b) Existing problem reporting forms are not intended for data mining.

Shreck, Stephanie; Sharratt, Stephen; Smith, Joseph F.; Strong, Edward

2008-01-01

98

Design and evaluation of a 3 million DN series-hybrid thrust bearing. [stability tests and fatigue tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bearing, consisting of a 150-mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid-film bearing, was fatigue tested. Test conditions were representative of a mainshaft ball bearing in a gas turbine engine operating at maximum thrust load to simulate aircraft takeoff conditions. Tests were conducted up to 16000 rpm and at this speed an axial load of 15568 newtons (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the series-hybrid bearing principle, the effective ball bearing speed was reduced to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. It was concluded that a speed reduction of this magnitude results in a ten-fold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful evaluation of fluid-film bearing lubricant supply failure was performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm. A complete and smooth changeover to full-scale ball bearing operation was effected when the oil supply to the fluid-film bearing was cut off. Reactivation of the fluid-film oil supply system resulted in a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

Scibbe, H. W.; Winn, L. W.; Eusepi, M.

1976-01-01

99

Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraf

1998-01-01

100

Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

2009-01-01

101

The power of tests for weak stationary time series in finite samples: An empirical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether or not a time series is weakly stationary has long been a question of major interest in the field of time series analysis related to different scientific disciplines. A time series is considered as weakly stationary if the associated mean and covariance function do not vary with respect to time. That is to say, the original time series has statistical properties similar to those of the 'time-shifted' series. Weak stationary time series can be sufficiently modelled, e.g. by means of so-called autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes. In the case of non-stationary time series appropriate detrending procedures have to be performed prior to the analysis in order to transform the data to weakly stationary form. According to the properties that weakly stationary processes exhibit homogenous variances, statistical inferences for weak stationarity can be carried out using variance homogeneity tests (e.g. two-sample ?-test, multiple-sample Bartlett test). In addition, regarding a time series as an autoregressive (AR) process, the weak stationarity can be assessed by revising the existence of unit roots of the associated characteristic equation of the AR process. In the presence of unit roots, the analysed data are considered as non-stationary. The most famous autoregressive unit root tests are the augmented Dickey-Fuller test, the Phillips-Perron test, and the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test. In this paper the power of stationarity tests is empirically investigated using a large amount of representative data simulated by means of autoregressive (integrated) moving average (AR(I)MA) processes. The test results are analysed based on statistical measures characterising the performance of a binary classification test, e.g. specificity (proportion of correctly identified null hypothesis) and sensitivity (proportion of correctly identified alternative hypothesis). The statistical analysis illustrates that the sensitivity of all investigated stationarity tests increases with increasing sample sizes. In comparison with the employed homogeneity tests whose specificity decreases with growing data volume, the specificity of the applied unit root tests remains at a high and constant level which corresponds very well to the specified probability of type I error ?.

Luo, Xiaoguang; Mayer, Michael; Heck, Bernhard

2010-05-01

102

General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.

George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1986-05-01

103

General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1985-09-01

104

Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies  

PubMed Central

Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1?mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5?mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization.

Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Marzotto, Marta; Magnani, Paolo; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Olioso, Debora; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

2012-01-01

105

Testing for homogeneity of variance in time series: Long memory, wavelets, and the Nile River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of testing for homogeneity of variance in a time series with long memory structure. We demonstrate that a test whose null hypothesis is designed to be white noise can, in fact, be applied, on a scale by scale basis, to the discrete wavelet transform of long memory processes. In particular, we show that evaluating a normalized

B. Whitcher; S. D. Byers; P. Guttorp; D. B. Percival

2002-01-01

106

Testing for Homogeneity of Variance in Time Series: Long Memory, Wavelets and the Nile River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of testing for homogeneity of variance in a time series withlong memory structure. We demonstrate that a test whose null hypothesis is designedto be white noise can in fact be applied, on a scale by scale basis, to the discretewavelet transform of long memory processes. In particular, we show that evaluatinga normalized cumulative sum of squares

Brandon Whitcher; Simon D. Byers

1998-01-01

107

Enraf series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides acceptance testing for Enraf Series 854 level gauges used to monitor levels in Hanford Waste Storage Tanks. The test will verify that the gauge functions according to the manufacturer`s instructions and specifications and is properly setup prior to being delivered to the tank farm area.

Barnes, G.A.

1995-05-08

108

Estimating damping effectiveness of BPA's thyristor controlled series capacitor by applying time and frequency domain methods to measured response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, a 500-kV thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) was installed in the Bonneville Power Administration system in the northwestern United States. Extensive field testing has included modulation experiments to determine the effect of the TCSC ...

D. J. Trudnowski M. K. Donnelly J. F. Hauer

1995-01-01

109

Pre-test evaluation of LLTR series II Test A-7. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present pre-test predictions of pressure histories for the A-7 test to be conducted in the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) in April 1981.

Knittle, D.

1981-03-01

110

Patch test results with the metalworking fluid series of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG).  

PubMed

Based on the information of the interdisciplinary task force on allergy diagnostics in the metal branch, in 2001, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) compiled two metalworking fluid (MWF) test series with currently and previously used components, respectively. After 2 years of patch testing, we present results obtained with these series, based on data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). 251 metalworkers who were patch tested because of suspected MWF dermatitis in 2002 and 2003 were included in this retrospective data analysis. Of these, 206 were tested with the current MWF series and 155 with the historical MWF series. Among the current MWF allergens, monoethanolamine ranked 1st with 11.6% positive reactions. Diethanolamine (3.0%), triethanolamine (1.1%), and diglycolamine (1.9%) elicited positive reactions far less frequently. Allergic reactions to p-aminoazobenzene were frequently observed (6.0%), but the relevance of these reactions is still obscure. Positive reactions to biocides ranged from 4.5% for Bioban CS 1135 to 0.5% for iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and 2-phenoxyethanol. Concomitant reactions to formaldehyde, which caused positive reactions in 3.3%, and formaldehyde releasers occurred to varying extents without conclusive pattern. No positive reactions were seen to dibutyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, tricresyl phosphate, isopropyl myristate or benzotriazole. With the historical MWF test series, positive reactions to methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) were observed most frequently. However, sensitization via allergen sources other than MWF seems likely, as MDBGN, during the study period, has been one of the most frequent preservative allergens in cosmetics and body care products. Other historical MWF allergens comprised morpholinyl mercaptobenzothiazole (3.3%), benzisothiazolinone (BIT; 2.0%) and Bioban P 1487(1.3%). BIT is currently used in MWF again, so it was shifted to the current MWF test series. As decreasing reaction frequencies to former MWF allergens that are no longer used can be expected, the historical series should be re-evaluated after some years. The test series with current MWF allergens has to be kept up-to-date based on information from industry and to be kept concise by eliminating test substances which never cause positive reactions. PMID:15479200

Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Dickel, Heinrich; Frosch, Peter J; Koch, Patrick; Becker, Detlef; Jappe, Uta; Aberer, Werner; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

2004-09-01

111

Empirical Fokker-Planck-based test of stationarity for time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a test of stationarity based on the drift coefficients of the Langevin type and the associated Fokker-Planck equations. The test relies on the estimation of the drift coefficients of the underlying probability densities and posits that a time series is nonstationary if the estimated drift term is a nonlinear function of the random variable of the observed time series and the Markov property holds. We provide ample empirical evidence that demonstrates that well- known stationary systems give rise to linear estimates of the drift coefficients, whereas nonstationary time series exhibit nonlinear estimates of the drift term. This does not, indeed, imply that a nonlinear drift term in the Fokker-Planck equation of a dynamic stochastic process causes nonstationarity.

Erkal, Cahit; Cecen, Aydin A.

2014-06-01

112

The motor performance test series in Parkinson's disease is influenced by depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Motor Performance Test Series (MPTS) is widely used for treatment control in Parkinson's disease (PD). To elucidate the possible influence of depression on the fine motor skills in PD, 54 patients with idiopathic PD were investigated with the MPTS. 27 patients with major intensity of depression were compared to 27 age and motor disability matched patients with minor

W. Kuhn; N. Heye; Th. Müller; P. Kraus; P. Klotz; B. Friedrich; F. L. Welter; H. Przuntek

1996-01-01

113

Invited commentary: recommendation for a north american pediatric patch test series.  

PubMed

Given the increased recognition of pediatric allergic contact dermatitis and lack of patch testing consensus in children, we present a minimum basic 20-allergen North American pediatric series, for screening children ages 6-12 with suspected contact allergy. PMID:24744270

Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla; Herro, Elise M

2014-06-01

114

Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series  

SciTech Connect

The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Phenomenology

1994-08-01

115

Experiment Data Report for PBF/LOFT Lead Rod Test Series (Tests LLR-S0, -3, -4, -4A, and -5).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recorded test data are presented for Tests LLR-SO, LLR-3, LLR-4, LLR-4A, and LLR-5 of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program PBF/LOFT Lead Rod (LLR) Test Series. This test series, conducted in the Power Burst Facility, was designed to provide a parametric eva...

R. J. Buckland D. H. Schwieder

1979-01-01

116

Multiple testing strategy for the detection of temporal irreversibility in stationary time series.  

PubMed

We propose a strategy for the detection of temporal irreversibility in stationary time series based on multiple bidimensional tests. The test is helpful to evaluate the displacement of irreversibility toward high dimensions. The test can be used independently of the theoretical functionals actually utilized to check irreversibility. The method was applied to simulated nonlinear signals generated by the delayed Henon map and a two-loop negative feedback model to show how the presence of a delay could produce the displacement of irreversibility toward higher dimensions. The method was applied also to series of a biological variable (i.e., heart period) that is known to be regulated by multiple feedback loops. Simulations and real data support the need of exploring progressively increasing embedding dimensions when assessing temporal irreversibility. PMID:18643347

Casali, Karina R; Casali, Adenauer G; Montano, Nicola; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Macagnan, Fabricio; Guzzetti, Stefano; Porta, Alberto

2008-06-01

117

Loss-of-coolant accident test series Test LOC 5. Experiment operating specification. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment operating procedure for Test LOC-5 is described. The test will be performed using four, separately shrouded fuel rods of PWR 15 x 15 design. Two rods have been previously irradiated and two rods will be unirradiated. One unirradiated and one irradiated rod will be backfilled with helium to a pressure typical of beginning-of-life PWR fuel rods, and the

Yackle

1979-01-01

118

ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 7. Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test series 3. 07. 9 - steady-state film boiling in upflow  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test series 3.07.9 was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water Reactor (ORNL-PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on September 11, September 18, and October 1, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test series 3.07.9 was designed to provide steady-state film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. This report presents the reduced instrument responses for THTF test series 3.07.9. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.

1982-05-01

119

Loss-of-Coolant Accident test series: Test LOC 3 experiment operating specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to specify the experiment operating procedure for Test LOC-3. The test will be performed using four, separately shrouded fuel rods of PWR 15x15 design. Two rods have been previously irradiated and two rods will be unirradiated. One unirradiated and one irradiated rod will be backfilled with helium to a pressure typical of beginning-of-life PWR

Yackle

1978-01-01

120

Test Series 2: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Exide FHC-19 battery cells  

SciTech Connect

The seismic-fragility of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and their thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the ''end-of-life'' of a battery if subjected to a seismic event. This report, the second in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium Exide FHC-19 cells from the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station operated by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of six electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations.

Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D. A.; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

1985-03-01

121

Final leak sizing for LLTR Series II Test A-3 and results from supporting tests in the sonar rig. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of LLTR Series II Test A-3 is to obtain data on leak propation resulting from sodium-water reaction wastage damage. A small leak in the order of 10⁻³ lb\\/sec could cause a larger secondary leak in a nearby tube by wastage. The second larger leak could cause additional tube leaks of somewhat larger size until total leakage with associated

1980-01-01

122

General-purpose heat source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet\\/fragment test series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power or space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four (238)PuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W sub (t). Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact needs to be determined. The bullet\\/fragment test

T. G. George; R. E. Tate; K. M. Axler

1985-01-01

123

Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells  

SciTech Connect

The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

1984-09-01

124

REACTIVITY INITIATED ACCIDENT TEST SERIES TEST RIA 1-4 EXPERIMENT PREDICTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The results of the pretest analyses for Test RIA 1-4 are presented. Test RIA 1-4 consists of a 3x3 array of previously irradiated MAP! fuel rods. The rods have 5.7% enriched UO{sub 2} fuel in zircaloy-4 cladding with an average burnup of 5300 MWd/t. The objective for Test RIA 1-4 is to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following RIA event for a radial-average peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g UO{sub 2}). Radial averaged peak fuel enthalpies of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g) 1077 J/g {257 cal/g), and 978 J/g (234 cal/g) for the corner, side, and center fuel rods, respectively, are planned to be achieved during a 2.7 ms reactor period power burst. The results of the FRAP-T5 analyses indicate that all nine rods will fail within 26 ms from the start of the power burst due to pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. All of the rods will undergo partial fuel melting. All rods will operate under extended film boiling (>30 sec) conditions and about 70% of the cladding length is expected to be molten. Approximately 15% of the cladding thickness will be oxided. Fuel swelling due to fission gas release and melting combined with fuel and cladding fragmentation, will probably produce a complete coolant flow blockage within the flow shroud.

Fukuda, S. K.; Martinson, Z. R.

1980-02-01

125

Effects of weather and climate on the dynamics of animal population time series.  

PubMed

Weather is one of the most basic factors impacting animal populations, but the typical strength of such impacts on population dynamics is unknown. We incorporate weather and climate index data into analysis of 492 time series of mammals, birds and insects from the global population dynamics database. A conundrum is that a multitude of weather data may a priori be considered potentially important and hence present a risk of statistical over-fitting. We find that model selection or averaging alone could spuriously indicate that weather provides strong improvements to short-term population prediction accuracy. However, a block randomization test reveals that most improvements result from over-fitting. Weather and climate variables do, in general, improve predictions, but improvements were barely detectable despite the large number of datasets considered. Climate indices such as North Atlantic Oscillation are not better predictors of population change than local weather variables. Insect time series are typically less predictable than bird or mammal time series, although all taxonomic classes display low predictability. Our results are in line with the view that population dynamics is often too complex to allow resolving mechanisms from time series, but we argue that time series analysis can still be useful for estimating net environmental effects. PMID:20880886

Knape, Jonas; de Valpine, Perry

2011-04-01

126

Minimum-test series for the intermediate-size inducer pump in SPTF at ETEC  

SciTech Connect

The overall test program includes pump assembly, installation, testing, removal from the test loop, disassembly and final inspection of the entire pump. Testing will include: checkout tests, head/flow and efficiency characterizations at design and two-loop flow/speed ratios and at selected sodium temperatures; suction performance determination; and a design point endurance test, up to 2000 hours, based on available time. The endurance test will be run at 100 percent NPSH margin. After testing, the pump will be cleaned of sodium, disassembled, and examined to determine the effects of operation at 100 percent NPSH margin for an extended period of time. The testing will be done at Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). Assembly, sodium removal, disassembly, and initial inspection will be performed at Component Handling and Cleaning Facility (CHCF) and sodium testing will be done at Sodium Pump Test Facility (SPTF).

Not Available

1980-01-04

127

Self-controlled case series method with smooth age effect.  

PubMed

The self-controlled case series method, commonly used to investigate potential associations between vaccines and adverse events, requires information on cases only and automatically controls all age-independent multiplicative confounders while allowing for an age-dependent baseline incidence. In the parametric version of the method, we modelled the age-specific relative incidence by using a piecewise constant function, whereas in the semiparametric version, we left it unspecified. However, mis-specification of age groups in the parametric version can lead to biassed estimates of exposure effect, and the semiparametric approach runs into computational problems when the number of cases in the study is moderately large. We, thus, propose to use a penalized likelihood approach where the age effect is modelled using splines. We use a linear combination of cubic M-splines to approximate the age-specific relative incidence and integrated splines for the cumulative relative incidence. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the performance of the new approach and its efficiency relative to the parametric and semiparametric approaches. Results show that the new approach performs equivalently to the existing methods when the sample size is small and works well for large data sets. We applied the new spline-based approach to data on febrile convulsions and paediatric vaccines. Co PMID:24038284

Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Yonas; Whitaker, Heather J; Farrington, C Paddy

2014-02-20

128

VISAR Validation Test Series at the Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility.  

SciTech Connect

A velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was recently deployed at the light initiated high explosive facility (LIHE) to measure the velocity of an explosively accelerated flyer plate. The velocity data from the flyer plate experiments, using the vendor's fringe constant of 100m/s/fringe, were consistently lower than model predictions. The goal of the VISAR validation test series was to confirm the VISAR system fringe constant. A low velocity gas gun was utilized to impact and accelerate a target at the LIHE facility. VISAR velocity data from the accelerated target was compared against an independent velocity measurement. The data from this test series did in fact reveal the fringe constant was significantly higher than the vendor's specification. The correct fringe constant for the LIHE VISAR system has been determined to be 123 m/s/fringe. The Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility recently completed a Phase I test series to develop an explosively accelerated flyer plate (X-Flyer). The X-Flyer impulse technique consists of first spraying a thin layer of silver acetylide silver nitrate explosive onto a thin flyer plate. The explosive is then initiated using an intense flash of light. The explosive detonation accelerates the flyer across a small air gap towards the test item. The impact of the flyer with the test item creates a shock pulse and an impulsive load in the test unit. The goal of Phase I of the X-Flyer development series was to validate the technique theory and design process. One of the key parameters that control the shock pulse and impulsive load is the velocity of the flyer at impact. To measure this key parameter, a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was deployed at the LIHE facility. The VISAR system was assembled by Sandia personnel from the Explosive Projects and Diagnostics department. The VISAR was a three leg, push-pull system using a fixed delay cavity. The primary optical components consisted of a delay bar and stand off that holds the air-reference mirror. When this component was ordered 2 years ago, a fringe constant of 100 m/s/fringe for a 532nm laser was specified. The fabrication/assembly vendor went out of business shortly after delivering the component and did not deliver the certification papers with the component. The vendor documentation to verify the fringe constant was not made available to Sandia. VISAR systems were generally not calibrated because the fringe constant could be determined from a known glass index of refraction and length. The VISAR system was deployed at the LIHE facility using the specified 100m/s/fringe. The Phase I X-Flyer development series was completed successfully measuring flyer velocities using the VISAR system. However flyer velocity measurements were on average 18% lower than analytical model predictions. In an effort to resolve the consistently slow velocity data, the VISAR data was under scrutiny. The purpose of the LIHE VISAR validation test series is to verify the velocity data taken with the VISAR system.

Covert, Timothy Todd

2007-02-01

129

Undulator Beam Pipe Magnetic Shielding Effect Tests  

SciTech Connect

The proposed stainless steel beampipe for the LCLS undulator has a measurable shielding effect on the magnetic field of the LCLS undulators. This note describes the tests used to determine the magnitude of the shielding effect, as well as deviations in the shielding effect caused by placing different phase shims in the undulator gap. The effect of the proposed Steel strongback which will be used to support the beam pipe, was also studied. A hall probe on a 3 axis movement system was set up to measure the main component of the magnetic field in the Prototype Undulator. To account for temperature variations of the magnetic field of the undulator for successive tests, a correction is applied which is described in this technical note. Using this method, we found the shielding effect, the amount which the field inside the gap was reduced due to the placement of the beampipe, to be {approx}10 Gauss. A series of tests was also performed to determine the effect of phase shims and X and Y correction shims on the shielding. The largest effect on shielding was found for the .3 mm phase shims. The effect of the .3 mm phase shims was to increase the shielding effect {approx}4 Gauss. The tolerance for the shielding effect of the phase shims is less than 1 gauss. The effect of the strongback was seen in its permanent magnetic field. It introduced a dipole field across the measured section of the undulator of {approx}3 gauss. This note documents the tests performed to determine these effects, as well as the results of those tests.

Fisher, Andrew; Wolf, Zachary; /SLAC; ,

2010-11-23

130

Modulation and SSR tests performed on the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor unit at Slatt substation  

SciTech Connect

Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA`s Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE`s Boardman steam generator are well understood and are effectively avoided by normal TCSC valve firing logic. Modulation tests, performed with the Boardman plant off line, show that the TCSC can be a powerful and responsive actuator for swing damping. Security considerations did not permit lightly damped operation of the controlled plant. Close analysis indicates that the TCSC damping contribution, though small, was measurable. The best estimate is that damping for the McNary mode is 7.33% and 8.55%, for the TCSC damper loop open and closed respectively. TCSC testing and monitoring is facilitated by an advanced interactive measurement network representing BPA`s approach to the information requirements of major control systems.

Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mittelstadt, W.A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)] [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Piwko, R.J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States)] [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States); Damsky, B.L. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Eden, J.D. [Portland General Electric, OR (United States)] [Portland General Electric, OR (United States)

1995-07-01

131

Final leak sizing for LLTR Series II Test A-3 and results from supporting tests in the sonar rig. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of LLTR Series II Test A-3 is to obtain data on leak propation resulting from sodium-water reaction wastage damage. A small leak in the order of 10/sup -3/ lb/sec could cause a larger secondary leak in a nearby tube by wastage. The second larger leak could cause additional tube leaks of somewhat larger size until total leakage with associated sodium-water reactions becomes sufficient to cause the termination of the process by actuation of the pressure relief and blowdown systems.

Chen, K.

1980-03-01

132

Dynamic performance of packed-bed dehumidifiers: experimental results from the SERI desiccant test loop  

SciTech Connect

Discussed are the design and construction of a desiccant test loop and results of tests with a silica-gel-packed bed. The test loop consists of two centrifugal fans, two duct heaters, a steam humidifier, 24.4m (80 ft) of 30-cm (12-in.) circular duct, instrumentation, and a test section. The loop is capable of testing adsorption and desorption modes at flow rates up to 0.340 kg/s (600 scfm) and at regeneration temperatures up to 120/sup 0/C (248/sup 0/F). Tests of a 74-cm(29-in.)-diameter, 3.2-cm(1.25-in.)-thick silica gel bed indicated that mass transfer occurs more readily in the adsorption direction than in the desorption direction. Pressure drop data indicated that the resistance of each of the two screens that hold the silica gel in place was equivalent to 2.5-cm(1-in.) of silica gel due to plugging. Results of the tests were also used to validate a SERI desiccant computer model, DESSIM.

Kutscher, C F; Barlow, R S

1982-08-01

133

What Test Oracle Should I Use for Effective GUI Testing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test designers widely believe that the overall effective- ness and cost of software testing depends largely on the type and number of test cases executed on the software. In this paper we show that the test oracle used during test- ing also contributes significantly to test effectiveness and cost. A test oracle is a mechanism that determines whether a software

Atif M. Memon; Ishan Banerjee; Adithya Nagarajan

2003-01-01

134

Continuous Time-Frequency Transform for Unevenly Sampled Time Series and Significance Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral analysis is a common approach for the interpretation of climate time series. In particular, the continuous wavelet transform and the Gabor transform are generally well-suited for non-stationary, multi-periodic and highly noisy data. The purpose of this contribution is to propose a rigorous framework to estimate the significance of wavelet spectra given unevenly sampled data. To this end, we expand the theory developed by G. Foster [1], originally targeted for astronomical data, as follows: (i) Define the model: Significance testing is always based on a model, that needs to be properly defined. (ii) Define the parametric hypotheses H0 (null case) and H1 (alternative case), and attempt to find an appropriate statistical summary. The idea is to obtain a well-known distribution under H0, allowing an analytical approach and avoiding most of Monte-Carlo simulations which can be expensive in time. We also discuss the choice to be done for the analysis function of the time-frequency transform. Indeed, Morlet wavelet is often chosen, but it is not always the best option. Some examples of paleoclimate time series analysis will be given. Finally, we investigate whether considering the interpolated data to get a constant time step and using the traditional tools may lead to significant errors. Reference: [1] G. Foster. Wavelets for period analysis of unevenly sampled time series. The Astronomical Journal, 112(4):1709-1729, 1996.

Lenoir, Guillaume; Crucifix, Michel

2014-05-01

135

A test of uranium-series dating of fossil tooth enamel: results from Tournal Cave, France  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of well preserved mammal bones and horse teeth was analyzed from archaeological levels of Tournal Cave (Magdalenian, Aurignacian, and Mousterain) to test the hypothesis that well-crystallized enamel behaves more as a closed system than does whole bone. The isotopic composition of bones and tooth enamels from this deposit meet criteria for confidence, and gave no reasons to suspect contamination or open-system behavior. Two samples for which 231Pa could be analyzed showed internal concordance with the respective 230Th ages. In spite of the favourable isotopic criteria, however, comparison of the U-series ages of the bones and the tooth enamel with stratigraphic position and 14C control indicated the dates were not meaningful. In general, both bones and tooth enamels gave ages too young, although some were clearly too old. Neither group showed any systematic increase of age with stratigraphic depth. Tooth enamel, therefore, shows no advantage over bone for U-series dating for this site. In Tournal cave both bones and enamel are apparently open to U, which is probably cycling as a consequences of post-depositional groundwater movement. ?? 1988.

Bischoff, J. L.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Tavoso, A.; de Lumley, H.

1988-01-01

136

Effects of aging condition on the fracture toughness of 2XXX and 7XXX series aluminum alloy composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on the effects of matrix aging condition (i.e., matrix temper) on the fracture toughness of 2XXX and 7XXX Al matrix alloys reinforced with SiC particulates, and the results are compared with the mechanical behavior. Fracture toughness testing was conducted on fatigue precracked bend specimens, and fracture surfaces were examined using SEM. Results revealed dramatic differences in the effect of matrix microstructure on the fracture properties of the two composite series. In the 7XXX material, the toughness values decreased from the underaged (UA) condition to the overaged (OA) condition by approximately 40 percent, while in the 2XXX series composite, the effect of matrix microstructure was marginal. In the 7XXX series composites, a transition in fracture mode from particle cracking (in UA) to matrix and linear-interface failure (in OA) was observed, while the 2XXX series composite failed predominantly by particle cracking.

Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

1989-01-01

137

An experimental investigation of internally ignited fires in nuclear power plant control cabinets: Part 2, Room effects tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the findings of the second part of a two-part series of full-scale electrical cabinet fire tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The first part of this test series investigated the effects of various cabinet parameters on a cabinet fire. The second part of the test series, described here, investigated the effects

J. M. Chavez; S. P. Nowlen

1988-01-01

138

Fabrication and test of LARP technological quadrupole models of TQC series  

SciTech Connect

In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9K to 4.5K.

Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley /Brookhaven

2008-08-01

139

Fabrication and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole Models of TQC Series  

SciTech Connect

In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9 K to 4.5 K.

Bossert, Rodger C.; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Andreev, Nilolai; Barzi, Emanuela; Chlachidze, Guram; Feher, Sandor; Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Orris, Darryl; Tartaglia, Michael; Zlobin, Alexander V.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ferracin, Paolo; Hafalia, A. R.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Ghosh, Arup; Wanderer, Peter

2008-08-17

140

Testing for density dependence allowing for weather effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test for density dependence in time-series data allowing for weather effects is presented. The test is based on a discrete\\u000a time autoregressive model for changes in population density with a covariate for the effects of weather. The distribution\\u000a of the test statistic on the null hypothesis of density independence is obtained by parametric bootstrapping. A computer simulation\\u000a exercise is

Peter Rothery; Ian Newton; Lois Dale; Tomasz Wesolowski

1997-01-01

141

Enraf Series 854 advanced technology gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This procedure checks that the shipment of the gauge to Hanford did not cause a failure. This procedure provides acceptance testing for Enraf Series 854 level gauges used to monitor levels in Hanford Waste Storage Tanks. The test will verify that the gauge functions according to the manufacturer`s instructions and specifications and is properly setup prior to being delivered to the tank farm area. Enraf-Nonius Series 854 level gauges are certified by Factory Mutual (FM) for National Fire Protectional Association (NFPA 70) hazardous Class 1, Division 1, Groups B, C, and D Locations. Its measuring principle is based on the detection of variations in the weight of a displacer suspended in the process fluid. The displacer is connected to a wire wounded on a precision measuring drum. A level change causes a change in the weight of the displacer which will be detected by the force transducer. Electronics within the gauge cause a servo motor to adjust the position of the displacer and compute the tank level based on the new position of the displacer drum. The gauge displays the level in decimal inches. An analog output signal transmits the level data for remote data processing.

Barnes, G.A.

1995-01-30

142

COMPREHENSIVE SERIES OF TESTS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results of seismic test on one third scale, twenty reinforced concrete interior beam- column joint subassemblages are reported. The effects of the combination of design parameters of joints on lateral capacity and post yielding behavior are investigated. Three major parameters selected in the test are (1) amount of longitudinal reinforcement, (2) ratio of the flexural strength of the beams

Hitoshi Shiohara; Fumio Kusuhara

143

Fitting Categorical Models to Effect Sizes from a Series of Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

One method of combining the results of a series of two-group experiments involves the estimation of the effect size (population value of the standarized mean difference) for each experiment. When each experiment has the same effect size, a pooled estimate of effect size provides a summary of the results of the series of experiments. However, when effect sizes are not

Larry V. Hedges

1982-01-01

144

Tank Tests of NACA Model 40 Series of Hulls for Small Flying Boats and Amphibians  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NACA model 40 series of flying-boat hull models consists of 2 forebodies and 3 afterbodies combined to provide several forms suitable for use in small marine aircraft. One forebody is the usual form with hollow bow sections and the other has a bottom surface that is completely developable from bow to step. The afterbodies include a short pointed afterbody with an extension for the tail surfaces, a long afterbody similar to that of a seaplane float but long enough to carry the tail surfaces, and a third obtained by fitting a second step in the latter afterbody. The various combinations were tested in the NACA Tank by the general method over a suitable range of loadings. Fixed-trim tests were made for all speeds likely to be used and free-to-trim tests were made at low speeds to slightly beyond the hump speed. The characteristics of the hulls at best trim angles have been deduced from the data of the tests at fixed trim angles and are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients applicable to any size hull.

Parkinson, John B; Dawson, John R

1937-01-01

145

Systematic two-dimensional cascade tests of NACA 65-series compressor blades at low speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of NACA 65-series compressor blade section in cascade has been investigated systematically in a low-speed cascade tunnel. Porous test-section side walls and for high-pressure-rise conditions, porous flexible end walls were employed to establish conditions closely simulating two-dimensional flow. Blade sections of design lift coefficients from 0 to 2.7 were tested over the usable angle-of-attack range for various combinations of inlet-flow angle. A sufficient number of combinations were tested to permit interpolation and extrapolation of the data to all conditions within the usual range of application. The results of this investigation indicate a continuous variation of blade-section performance as the major cascade parameters, blade camber, inlet angle, and solidity were varied over the test range. Summary curves of the results have been prepared to enable compressor designers to select the proper blade camber and angle of attack when the compressor velocity diagram and desired solidity have been determined.

Emery, James C; Herrig, L Joseph; Erwin, John R; Felix, A Richard

1958-01-01

146

Economic downturns and male cesarean deliveries: a time-series test of the economic stress hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Background In light of the recent Great Recession, increasing attention has focused on the health consequences of economic downturns. The perinatal literature does not converge on whether ambient economic declines threaten the health of cohorts in gestation. We set out to test the economic stress hypothesis that the monthly count of cesarean deliveries (CD), which may gauge the level of fetal distress in a population, rises after the economy declines. We focus on male CD since the literature reports that male more than female fetuses appear sensitive to stressors in utero. Methods We tested our ecological hypothesis in California for 228 months from January 1989 to December 2007, the most recent data available to us at the time of our tests. We used as the independent variable the Bureau of Labor Statistics unadjusted total state employment series. Time-series methods controlled for patterns of male CD over time. We also adjusted for the monthly count of female CD, which controls for well-characterized factors (e.g., medical-legal environment, changing risk profile of births) that affect CD but are shared across infant sex. Results Findings support the economic stress hypothesis in that male CD increases above its expected value one month after employment declines (employment coefficient?=?-24.09, standard error?=?11.88, p?=?.04). Additional exploratory analyses at the metropolitan level indicate that findings in Los Angeles and Orange Counties appear to drive the State-level relation. Conclusions Contracting economies may perturb the health of male more than female fetuses sufficiently enough to warrant more CD. Male relative to female CD may sensitively gauge the cohort health of gestations.

2014-01-01

147

Modulation and SSR tests performed on the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor unit at Slatt substation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA's Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE's Boardman steam generator are well unde...

J. F. Hauer W. A. Mittelstadt R. J. Piwko B. L. Damsky J. D. Eden

1995-01-01

148

Evaluation of a series hybrid thrust bearing at DN values to three million. 2: Fabrication and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of tests made to determine the experimental performance of a series hybrid bearing are reported. The bearing consists of a 150 mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid film bearing fitting an envelope with an outer radius of 86.4 mm (3.4 in.) and inner radius of 71 mm (2.8 in.). Tests were conducted up to 16,500 rpm, at which speed an axial load of 15,568 N (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the employment of the series hybrid bearing principle, it was possible to reduce the effective ball bearing speed to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. A reduction of this magnitude should result in a tenfold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful simulation of fluid film bearing lubricant supply failure, performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm, resulted in complete and smooth change over to full scale ball bearing operation when the oil supply to the fluid film bearing was discontinued. Reactivation of the fluid film supply system produced a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

Eusepi, M.; Winn, L. W.

1975-01-01

149

Space Fission System Test Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

Houts, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS-K575, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Schmidt, Glen L. [New Mexico Tech, Institute for Engineering Research and Applications, 901 University Blvd SE, Albuquerque, NM 87109-4339 (United States); Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger [NASA MSFC, TD40, Marshall Space Flight Center, AL, 35812 (United States)

2004-02-04

150

Significance Test or Effect Size?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe and question the argument that in psychological research, the significance test should be replaced (or, at least, supplemented) by a more informative index (viz., effect size or statistical power) in the case of theory-corroboration experimentation because it has been made on the basis of some debatable assumptions about the rationale of scientific investigation. The rationale of theory-corroboration experimentation

Siu L. Chow

1988-01-01

151

Radiation Tolerant Optical Fibers: From Sample Testing to Large Series Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of selecting, manufacturing, and in- stalling a large quantity (2500 km) of commercially available radiation tolerant specialty fibers is described. Radiation tests of various types of fibers from different manufacturers provided sufficient understanding of the radiation effects to select the best performing fiber type. Systematic verification of a sample of each preform assured a constan tq uality of

Thijs Wijnands; Kazuhiko Aikawa; Jochen Kuhnhenn; Daniel Ricci; Udo Weinand

2011-01-01

152

Design considerations and test facilities for accelerated radiation effects testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test design parameters for accelerated dose rate radiation effects tests for spacecraft parts and subsystems used in long term mission (years) are detailed. A facility for use in long term accelerated and unaccelerated testing is described.

Price, W. E.; Miller, C. G.; Parker, R. H.

1972-01-01

153

The Effects of Test Anxiety on Listening Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although decisions or inferences we make based on test scores depend both on characteristics of test-takers and of testing situations, little research has been undertaken on the effects of these characteristics on test performance (e.g., Alderson and Banerjee, 2002). This study focuses on one of the personal characteristics of test-takers, namely…

In'nami, Yo.

2006-01-01

154

Resolving pertussis immunity and vaccine effectiveness using incidence time series  

PubMed Central

Resolving the long-term, population-level consequence of vaccine-induced immunity to pertussis is a key challenge for control strategies and vaccine development. Controlled vaccine efficacy studies provide invaluable information; however, they are limited in scope by their sample size and follow-up duration. Long-term time series of incidence data collected by public health institutions provide insight at a broader scale, especially when the data are spatially explicit and age stratified. By using modern ecological and statistical methodolgies, which are reviewed in this paper, new insights into the duration of transmission-blocking immunity and the age-specific patterns of transmission can be gained. Recent advances in computing power and statistical software development will increasingly make these methods available to public health practitioners, vaccine developers and academics alike.

Lavine, Jennie S; Rohani, Pejman

2013-01-01

155

Pretest Report for the Full Span Propulsive Wing/Canard Model Test in the NASA Langley 4 x 7 Meter Low Speed Wind Tunnel Second Series Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full span propulsive wing/canard model is to be tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 4 x 7 meter low speed wind tunnel. These tests are a continuation of the tests conducted in Feb. 1984, NASA test No.290, and are being conducted under NASA Contract NAS1-17171. The purpose of these tests is to obtain extensive lateral-directional data with a revised fuselage concept. The wings, canards, and vertical tail of this second test series model are the same as tested in the previous test period. The fuselage and internal flow path have been modified to better reflect an external configuration suitable for a fighter airplane. Internal ducting and structure were changed as required to provide test efficiency and blowing control. The model fuselage tested during the 1984 tests was fabricated with flat sides to provide multiple wing and canard placement variations. The locations of the wing and canard are important variables in configuration development. With the establishment of the desired relative placement of the lifting surfaces, a typically shaped fuselage has been fabricated for these tests. This report provides the information necessary for the second series tests of the propulsive wing/canard model. The discussion in this report is limited to that affected by the model changes and to the second series test program. The pretest report information for test 290 which is valid for the second series test was published in Rockwell report NR 83H-79. This report is presented as Appendix 1 and the modified fuselage stress report is presented as Appendix 2 to this pretest report.

Stewart, V. R.

1986-01-01

156

Metals Analysis Results for the Structural Qualification Test Series (SQTS) 01 - 05.  

SciTech Connect

Enclosed is the report summarizing the metals analysis results at the Contained Firing Facility (CFF), during SQTS 01 - 05. This metals analysis includes evaluation of a bulk dust and surface swipe sampling protocol during the testing series that obtained samples at 3 primary locations in the CFF chamber area. The sampling protocol for each of the bulk dust samples involves an assessment of the concentration for 20 different metals, the oxidation state of selected metals, a particle size selective analysis, and morphological information. In addition, surface swipes were taken during SQTS 05 on the equipment and personnel door frames to indicate the characteristics of airborne metals due to leakage past the gasket seals. The bulk dust metals analysis indicates a nearly complete conversion of the aluminum casing to an oxide form with an even split between spherical and non-spherical morphology. Size selective analysis shows 83% of the particulates are in the inhalable size range of less than 100 microns and 46% are in the respirable range of less than 10 microns. Combining metals analysis and leakage results indicate the potential for a problematic personal exposure to metals external to the chamber unless modifications are made. Please feel free to call me at 2-8904 if you have any questions or if I may be of further service.

Zalk, D

2006-04-11

157

Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a larger anthropometric portion of the astronaut population, and elements tested only in the unsuited condition need to be evaluated with an EVA suit and appropriate analog environment.

Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

2009-01-01

158

Qualifciation test series of the indium needle FEEP micro-propulsion system for LISA Pathfinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna project (LISA) is a co-operative program between ESA and NASA to detect gravitational waves by measuring distortions in the space-time fabric. LISA Pathfinder is the precursor mission to LISA designed to validate the core technologies intended for LISA. One of the enabling technologies is the micro-propulsion system based on field emission thrusters necessary to achieve the uniquely stringent propulsion requirements. A consortium consisting of Astrium GmbH and the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt (formerly AIT) was commissioned by ESA to develop and qualify the micro-propulsion system based on the Indium Needle FEEP technology. Several successful tests have verified the proper Needle Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) operation and the thermal and mechanical design of subcomponents of the developed system. For all functional tests, the flight representative Power Control Unit developed by SELEX Galileo S.p.A (also responsible for the Micro-Propulsion Subsystem (MPS) development) was used. Measurements have shown the exceptional stability of the thruster. An acceptance test of one Thruster Cluster Assembly (TCA) over 3600 h has shown the stable long term operation of the developed system. During the acceptance test compliance to all the applicable requirements have been shown such as a thrust resolution of 0.1 ?N, thrust range capability between 0 and 100 ?N, thrust overshoot much lower than the required 0.3 ?N+3% and many others. In particular important is the voltage stability of the thruster (±1% over the duration of the testing) and the confirmation of the very low thrust noise. Based on the acceptance test the lifetime of the thruster is expected to exceed 39,000 h generating a total impulse bit of 6300 Ns at an average thrust level of 50 ?N. A flight representative qualification model of the Needle FEEP Cluster Assembly (DM1) equipped with one active TCA has performed a qualification program consisting of acceptance, vibration, shock, and thermal vacuum test. During the last test, the thermal vacuum test (TVT), a performance decrease was observed. According to a preliminary analysis, this performance decrease is not linked to the thermal conditions simulated in the TVT but might be rather linked to secondary effects of the TVT set-up.

Scharlemann, C.; Buldrini, N.; Killinger, R.; Jentsch, M.; Polli, A.; Ceruti, L.; Serafini, L.; DiCara, D.; Nicolini, D.

2011-11-01

159

Underground Ammunition Storage: Model Test to Investigate the Strength and Effectiveness of a Selfclosing Concrete Block. Test IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the 4th test in a series of model tests scale 1 : 50 examining the strength and effectiveness of a movable concrete block used in underground ammunition storages to reduce the effects of an accidental explosion in the storage. Measurements have be...

E. Flaten

1972-01-01

160

Assessing the effects of pharmacological agents on respiratory dynamics using time-series modeling.  

PubMed

Developing quantitative descriptions of how stimulant and depressant drugs affect the respiratory system is an important focus in medical research. Respiratory variables-respiratory rate, tidal volume, and end tidal carbon dioxide-have prominent temporal dynamics that make it inappropriate to use standard hypothesis-testing methods that assume independent observations to assess the effects of these pharmacological agents. We present a polynomial signal plus autoregressive noise model for analysis of continuously recorded respiratory variables. We use a cyclic descent algorithm to maximize the conditional log likelihood of the parameters and the corrected Akaike's information criterion to choose simultaneously the orders of the polynomial and the autoregressive models. In an analysis of respiratory rates recorded from anesthetized rats before and after administration of the respiratory stimulant methylphenidate, we use the model to construct within-animal z-tests of the drug effect that take account of the time-varying nature of the mean respiratory rate and the serial dependence in rate measurements. We correct for the effect of model lack-of-fit on our inferences by also computing bootstrap confidence intervals for the average difference in respiratory rate pre- and postmethylphenidate treatment. Our time-series modeling quantifies within each animal the substantial increase in mean respiratory rate and respiratory dynamics following methylphenidate administration. This paradigm can be readily adapted to analyze the dynamics of other respiratory variables before and after pharmacologic treatments. PMID:23193230

Wong, Kin Foon Kevin; Gong, Jen J; Cotten, Joseph F; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N

2013-04-01

161

Testing backreaction effects with observations  

SciTech Connect

In order to quantitatively test the ability of averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies to correctly describe observations of the large-scale properties of the Universe, we introduce a smoothed template metric corresponding to a constant spatial curvature model at any time, but with an evolving curvature parameter. This metric is used to compute quantities along an approximate effective light cone of the averaged model of the Universe. As opposed to the standard Friedmann model, we parametrize this template metric by exact scaling properties of an averaged inhomogeneous cosmology, and we also motivate this form of the metric by results on a geometrical smoothing of inhomogeneous cosmological hypersurfaces. The purpose of the paper is not to demonstrate that the backreaction effect is actually responsible for the dark energy phenomenon by explicitly calculating the effect from a local model of the geometry and the distribution of matter, but rather to propose a way to deal with observations in the backreaction context, and to understand what kind of generic properties have to hold in order for a backreaction model to explain the observed features of the Universe on large scales. We test our hypothesis for the template metric against supernova data and the position of the cosmic microwave background peaks, and infer the goodness of fit and parameter uncertainties. We find that averaged inhomogeneous models can reproduce the observations without requiring an additional dark energy component (though a volume acceleration is still needed), and that current data do not disfavor our main assumption on the effective light cone structure. We also show that the experimental uncertainties on the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter from baryon acoustic oscillations measurements--forseen in future surveys like the proposed EUCLID satellite project--are sufficiently small to distinguish between a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker template geometry and the template geometry with consistently evolving curvature.

Larena, Julien [Cosmology and Gravity Group, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Cape Town (South Africa); CNRS, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH), CNRS UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano [CNRS, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH), CNRS UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Buchert, Thomas [Universite Lyon 1, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL), CNRS UMR 5574, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH), CNRS UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Kunz, Martin [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2009-04-15

162

Facing the Risks of the "Mozart Effect." Grand Masters Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the argument introduced by the "Mozart Effect" research: that music's positive influence on spatial-temporal reasoning should be the purpose for music education. Considers the implications by reshaping the National Standards for Music Education to fulfill the spatial-temporal rationale. Suggests how to reconcile musical and other purposes…

Reimer, Bennett

1999-01-01

163

77 FR 38280 - Final Test Guidelines; 810 Series 2000 Product Performance; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Recommendations. These final test guidelines address efficacy testing...water. B. How were these final test guidelines developed? The product...and Coordination and Policy's Web site: http://www.epa...scipoly/sap/index.htm. The test guidelines described in...

2012-06-27

164

On testing for non-linear and time irreversible probabilistic structure in high frequency ASX financial time series data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present three nonparametric trispectrum tests that can establish whether the spectral decomposition of kurtosis of high frequency financial asset price time series is consistent with the assumptions of Gaussianity, linearity and time reversiblility. The detection of nonlinear and time irreversible probabilistic structure has important implications for the choice and implementation of a range of models of

Phillip Wild; John Foster

2012-01-01

165

Foreign Language Testing: Theory and Practice. Language and the Teacher: A Series in Applied Linguistics, Volume 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume, one in a series in applied linguistics, is a concise handbook of testing theory and practice in foreign language instruction. Two broad categories, "prognosis" and the "evaluation of attainment," are treated in five major chapters, including: (1) prognostic measurement, (2) achievement measurement, (3) proficiency measurement, (4)…

Clark, John L. D.

166

Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

Pribyl, Paul F.

167

Irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels (Heavy-Section Steel Technology program series 4 and 5)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents studies on the irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels. The Fourth Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Irradiation Series, almost completed, was aimed at elastic-plastic and fully plastic fracture toughness of low-copper weldments (''current practice welds''). A typical nuclear pressure vessel plate steel was included for statistical purposes. The Fifth HSST Irradiation Series, now in progress, is aimed at determining the shape of the K/sub IR/ curve after significant radiation-induced shift of the transition temperatures. This series includes irradiated test specimens of thicknesses up to 100 mm and weldment compositions typical of early nuclear power reactor pressure vessel welds. 27 refs., 22 figs. (JDB)

McGowan, J.J.; Nanstad, R.K.; Thoms, K.R.; Menke, B.H.

1985-01-01

168

Accelerated Test Techniques for Micro-Circuits: Evaluation of High Temperature (473 K - 573 K) Accelerated Life Test Techniques as Effective Microcircuit Screening Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of high temperature accelerated test techniques was shown to be an effective method of microcircuit defect screening. Comprehensive microcircuit evaluations and a series of high temperature (473 K to 573 K) life tests demonstrated that a f...

G. M. Johnson

1976-01-01

169

A Nonlinear IV Likelihood-Based Rank Test for Multivariate Time Series and Long Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test for the rank of a vector error correction model (VECM) or panel VECM based on the well-known trace test is proposed. The proposed test employs instrumental variables (IV's) generated by a class of nonlinear functions of the estimated stochastic trends of the VECM under the null. The test improves on the standard trace test by replacing the non-standard

J. Isaac Miller

2010-01-01

170

A Model for Optimal Constrained Adaptive Testing. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum information at the current ability estimate fixing…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Reese, Lynda M.

171

Testing for nonlinearity in time series: the method of surrogate data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a statistical approach for identifying nonlinearity in time series. The method first specifies some linear process as a null hypothesis, then generates surrogate data sets which are consistent with this null hypothesis, and finally computes a discriminating statistic for the original and for each of the surrogate data sets. If the value computed for the original data is

James Theder; Bryan Galdrikian; J. Doyne Farmer

1992-01-01

172

Normal heartbeat series are nonchaotic, nonlinear, and multifractal: New evidence from semiparametric and parametric tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new evidence that normal heartbeat series are nonchaotic, nonlinear, and multifractal. In addition to considering the largest Lyapunov exponent and the correlation dimension, the results of the parametric and semiparametric estimation of the long memory parameter (long-range dependence) unambiguously reveal that the underlying process is nonstationary, multifractal, and has strong nonlinearity.

Baillie, Richard T.; Cecen, Aydin A.; Erkal, Cahit

2009-06-01

173

Exploiting test structure: Case series, case–control comparison, and dissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most neuropsychological tests consist of multiple items, and a subject's test score is the sum of the item scores. The test results for each subject thus comprise multiple data-points, and any data-set with test results from more than one subject has at least a two-level structure, with the test item as the first level and the subject as the second

Michael Smithson; Martin Davies; Anne M. Aimola Davies

2011-01-01

174

Underground Ammunition Storage: Model Test to Investigate the Strength and Effectiveness of a Selfclosing Concrete Block. Test V.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of model tests (linear scale 1:50) was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of a selfclosing concrete block to reduce the damage caused by accidental explosions in underground ammunition storage sites. These model tests were performed in ...

A. Rinnan A. T. Skjeltorp A. Jenssen

1973-01-01

175

Effects of acetyl-DL-leucine in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a case series.  

PubMed

No existing medication has yet been shown to convincingly improve cerebellar ataxia. Therefore, the identification of new drugs for its symptomatic treatment is desirable. The objective of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of cerebellar ataxia with the amino acid acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil). Thirteen patients (eight males, median age 51 years) with degenerative cerebellar ataxia of different etiologies (SCA1/2, ADCA, AOA, SAOA) were treated with acetyl-DL-leucine (5 g/day) without titration for 1 week. Motor function was evaluated by changes in the Scale for the Rating and Assessment of Ataxia (SARA) and in the Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (SCAFI) during treatment compared to a baseline examination. Quality of life (EuroQol-5D-3L) and side effects were also assessed. Mean total SARA decreased remarkably (p = 0.002) from a baseline of 16.1 ± 7.1 to 12.8 ± 6.8 (mean ± SD) on medication. There were also significant improvements in sub-scores for gait (p = 0.022), speech (p = 0.007), finger-chase (p = 0.042), nose-finger-test (p = 0.035), rapid-alternating-movements (p = 0.002) and heel-to-shin (p = 0.018). Furthermore, patients showed better performance in the SCAFI consisting of the 8-m-walking-time (8 MW, p = 0.003), 9-Hole-Peg-Test of the dominant hand (9HPTD, p = 0.011) and the PATA rate (p = 0.005). Quality of life increased during treatment (p = 0.003). No side effects were reported. In conclusion, acetyl-DL-leucine significantly improved ataxic symptoms without side effects and therefore showed a good risk-benefit profile. These findings need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled trials. PMID:23835634

Strupp, Michael; Teufel, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Feuerecker, Regina; Muth, Carolin; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Klopstock, Thomas; Feil, Katharina

2013-10-01

176

Truck Design Optimization Project Field Test Data, Series 4, Tape TDOP 0127.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 3 data files on this magnetic tape include acceleration, force, and displacement measurements at critical points on a freight car and truck. Each file includes detailed alphanumeric descriptions of test conditions. The following are for all tests on t...

A. J. Bang

1975-01-01

177

Truck Design Optimization Project Field Test Data, Series 3, Tape TDOP 0116.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 3 data files on this magnetic tape include acceleration, force, and displacement measurements at critical points on a freight car and truck. Each file includes detailed alphanumeric descriptions of test conditions. The following are for all tests on t...

A. J. Bang

1975-01-01

178

Truck Design Optimization Project Field Test Data, Series 4, Tape TDOP 0153.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 4 data files on this magnetic tape include acceleration, force, and displacement measurements at critical points on a freight car and truck. Each file includes detailed alphanumeric descriptions of test conditions. The following are for all tests on t...

A. J. Bang

1975-01-01

179

Truck Design Optimization Project Field Test Data, Series 3, Tape TDOP 0094.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 3 data files on this magnetic tape include acceleration, force, and displacement measurements at critical points on a freight car and truck. Each file includes detailed alphanumeric descriptions of test conditions. The following are for all tests on t...

A. J. Bang

1975-01-01

180

Truck Design Optimization Project Field Test Data, Series 5, Tape TDOP 0179.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 3 data files on this magnetic tape include acceleration, force, and displacement measurements at critical points on a freight car and truck. Each file includes detailed alphanumeric description of test conditions. The following are for all tests on th...

A. J. Bang

1975-01-01

181

Truck Design Optimization Project Field Test Data, Series 1, Tape TDOP 0031.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 3 data files on this magnetic tape include acceleration, force, and displacement measurements at critical points on a freight car and truck. Each file includes detailed alphanumeric descriptions of test conditions. The following are for all tests on t...

A. J. Bang

1975-01-01

182

Truck Design Optimization Project Field Test Data, Series 1, Tape TDOP 0010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 4 data files on this magnetic tape include acceleration, force, and displacement measurements at critical points on a freight car and truck. Each file includes detailed alphanumeric descriptions of test conditions. The following are for all tests on t...

A. J. Bang

1975-01-01

183

Patch test sensitization caused by para-tertiary-butylcatechol. Results of a prospective study with a dilution series.  

PubMed

Para-tertiary-butylcatechol (PTBC) has been patch tested in Europe at 1% in petrolatum (pet.) and is now suspected of induction of patch test sensitization. A prospective study was initiated to obtain detailed data on this undesirable risk. A dilution series of PTBC (1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.1% pet.) was used. Patch tests were read on days (D) 1-3, 7, 14 and 21 after application. Patients who were unable to return for late readings were telephoned and asked to report any reaction at the patch test sites. 40 out of 46 patients included completed the study. Patch tests were negative in 35 patients. 4 patients showed a positive patch test at later readings only (D7-D21); 2 patients reacted to a concentration as low as 0.1%. Rechallenge was performed in 2 of these patients, revealing a clearly positive reaction as early as D2 after patch test application. PTBC clearly induced patch test sensitization in 10% of the patients. It cannot be excluded that patch testing with 0.25% PTBC or with even lower concentrations might induce patch test sensitization. The optimal patch test concentration still has to be determined but may be within the range of 0.01% to 0.25% PTBC. PMID:11683828

Hillen, U; Frosch, P J; John, S M; Pirker, C; Wundenberg, J; Goos, M

2001-10-01

184

A Classical Test Theory Perspective on LSAT Local Item Dependence. LSAC Research Report Series. Statistical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extended prior Law School Admission Council (LSAC) research related to the item response theory (IRT) local item independence assumption into the realm of classical test theory. Initially, results from the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and two other tests were investigated to determine the approximate state of local item independence…

Reese, Lynda M.

185

Essentials of WJ III[TM] Tests of Achievement Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The widely used Woodcock Johnson (WJ) Test of Achievement has been separated into two distinct tests, Achievement and Cognitive Abilities. This book is designed to help busy mental health professionals acquire the knowledge and skills they need to use the third revision of the WJ Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH) , including administration,…

Mather, Nancy; Wendling, Barbara J.; Woodcock, Richard W.

186

77 FR 15750 - Final Test Guidelines; OCSPP 810 Series; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...recommendations described in the test guidelines may be proposed...case-by-case basis. IV. How were these test guidelines developed? The product...and Coordination and Policy's Web site at http://www.epa...scipoly/sap/index.htm. The test guidelines were also...

2012-03-16

187

4-inch sample recovery canisters, Test Model D series. Final report, September 1969--May 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six tests were conducted on 4-Inch Test Model D Closures to develop an improved closure for the redesigned Sandia Recovery Canister (SRC). The first three closures tested used variations of the high explosive (HE) design used on the previous Model B (Seco...

P. L. Goode G. W. Neff

1970-01-01

188

Testing Students in Urban Schools: Current Problems and New Directions. Urban Diversity Series No. 100.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature on testing urban students indicates that standardized tests may not reflect accurately the ability and achievement of poor minority children. Further, new research in cognition makes clear that both teaching and testing could be structured to better prepare students for the complex thinking required by life. Since…

Ascher, Carol

189

Language Testing Symposium: A Psycholinguistic Approach. Language and Language Learning [Series], No. 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven papers on language testing deal with various psycholinguistic aspects ranging from the particular application of language aptitude tests to statistical methods of measurement and evaluation. Several chapters treat the difficulties involved in testing spoken language aptitude and attainment. Contributors to this volume include K. Brown, A.…

Davies, Alan, Ed.

190

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a series of metal propellers on a VE-7 airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An adjustable blade metal propeller was tested at five different angle settings, forming a series varying in pitch. The propeller was mounted on a VE-7 airplane in the twenty-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The efficiencies were found to be from 4 to 7 per cent higher than those of standard wood propellers operating under the same conditions. The results are given in convenient form for use in selecting propellers for aircraft.

Weick, Fred E

1929-01-01

191

Development, testing, and certification of the Northrup, Inc., ML series concentrating solar collector model NSC-01-0732  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is presented of the additional development work on the existing ML Series concentrating solar collector for use with solar heating and cooling systems. The report discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware, lists deliverable end items, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes certification statements of performance. This report shows that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use.

Parker, J. C.

1979-01-01

192

Subsonic roll-damping characteristics of a series of wings. [wind tunnel tests of various wing planforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic damping in roll of a series of wings has been investigated in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel at Mach numbers ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 by use of a forced oscillatory-roll technique. Tests were conducted on wings of aspect ratio 6 with sweep angles of 25, 35, and 45 deg and on 35 deg swept wings of aspect ratios 4 and 5.

Boyden, R. P.

1974-01-01

193

ORNL small-break LOCA heat transfer test series I: two-phase mixture level swell results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical values of two-phase mixture level swell are reported from a series of high-pressure low heat flux, steam-water tests in rod bundle geometry. Two-phase mixture level swell is the increase in height of a vertical two-phase mixture caused by the presence of vapor voids and is important in determining the degree of core uncovery during small-break loss-of-coolant accidents

Anklam

1981-01-01

194

The Effect of Recent Consumption of Caffeine-Containing Foodstuffs on Neuropsychological Tests in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of recent intake of caffeine-containing foodstuffs (CCFS) on a group of elderly participants (age range 67–95 years) on a series of neuropsychological tests. There was no significant effect of CCFS intake on performance in any of the tests in the battery used. However, a significant interaction effect was found between age and CCFS consumption on scores

Valerie E. Lesk; Thurza E. M. Honey; Celeste A. de Jager

2009-01-01

195

Health maintenance facility system effectiveness testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Medical Simulations Working Group conducted a series of medical simulations to evaluate the proposed Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) Preliminary Design Review (PDR) configuration. The goal of these simulations was to test the system effectiveness of the HMF PDR configurations. The objectives of the medical simulations are to (1) ensure fulfillment of requirements with this HMF design, (2) demonstrate the conformance of the system to human engineering design criteria, and (3) determine whether undesirable design or procedural features were introduced into the design. The simulations consisted of performing 6 different medical scenarios with the HMF mockup in the KRUG laboratory. The scenarios included representative medical procedures and used a broad spectrum of HMF equipment and supplies. Scripts were written and simulations performed by medical simulations working group members under observation from others. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, debriefings, and videotapes. Results were extracted and listed in the individual reports. Specific issues and recommendations from each simulation were compiled into the individual reports. General issues regarding the PDR design of the HMF are outlined in the summary report.

Lloyd, Charles W.; Gosbee, John; Bueker, Richard; Kupra, Debra; Ruta, Mary

1993-01-01

196

Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

Wilson, C.N.

1990-06-01

197

General-Purpose Heat Source safety verification test series: SVT-1 through SVT-6  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular heat source that will supply energy for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) in space missions. The Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) are performed to assess the plutonia containment capability of heat source modules subjected to certain accident environments. This interim report described the GPHS module configuration, the test environment, and the response of the module components following simulated reentry and solid Earth impact. The specific test environment of these initial six tests results from failure of the booster rocket to place the spacecraft in a proper trajectory and subsequent reentry of the GPHS modules from Earth orbit. 36 figs.

Pavone, D.; George, T.G.; Frantz, C.E.

1985-06-01

198

Interactive Effects of Test Anxiety, Test Difficulty, and Feedback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive effects of item difficulty, test anxiety, and failure feedback are examined in a study using multiple choice verbal aptitude items. Results indicate that ability estimates can be affected by the examinee's improved performance, especially for students given an easy test. (Author/DWH)

Rocklin, Thomas; Thompson, Joan M.

1985-01-01

199

Nonstationary Langevin equation: Statistical properties and application to explain effects observed in cardiological time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Langevin equation we develop the model of a stochastic process subject to a given time-dependent regulatory mechanism. The effects of this nonstationarity on the statistical properties of the time series, i.e., on global and conditional probability densities and on the moments of the distribution, are derived. Application of these results on simple model trends allows one to approximate cardiological data and thus to explain effects recently observed in the reconstruction of the deterministic part of the Langevin equation for time series of heart rate.

Kirchner, Jens; Meyer, Wolfgang; Elsholz, Markus; Hensel, Bernhard

2007-08-01

200

Interim Report on the NSRR Experimental Results (1). Orientational Test Series: (Tests 111-1--111-6).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The in-pile experiments on the nuclear reactor fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions were started in the NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor), JAERI, in October 1975. This report describes the results of the initial scoping test s...

T. Hoshi T. Inabe S. Shiozawa S. Kobayashi O. Hashimoto

1976-01-01

201

Great Lakes Ore Carrier Series Ice Resistance Model Test Program. Method for Predicting Level Ice Resistance of Ships with Main Dimensions Typical for the Great Lakes Bulk Carriers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a summary and conclusions from the ice breaking model tests of a systematic model series. The results of model tests are combined into one mathematical expression. With the expression it is possible to make ice resistance predictions ...

A. Roos K. Juurmaa H. Syrjala E. Makinen P. B. Mentz

1976-01-01

202

Dynamic Testing with Tangible Electronics: Measuring Children's Change in Strategy Use with a Series Completion Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: This study sought to explore the use of a novel approach that incorporates dynamic testing and tangible electronics in the assessment of children's learning potential and strategy use. Sample: A total of 77 children with a mean age 8.9 years participated in the study; half of them were dynamically tested using graduate prompt techniques; the…

Resing, Wilma C. M.; Elliott, Julian G.

2011-01-01

203

Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications. Evaluation in Education and Human Services Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 chapters of this book focus on the technical advances, advances in applied settings, and emerging topics in the testing field. Part 1 discusses methodological advances, Part 2 considers developments in applied settings, and Part 3 reviews emerging topics in the field of testing. Part 1 papers include: (1) "Advances in Criterion-Referenced…

Hambleton, Ronald K., Ed.; Zaal, Jac N., Ed.

204

Shock-Sensitive Testing of Analogous Series of Thin Films of Explosive Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small-scale test was developed to evaluate the relative sensitivity of thin films of high-explosive liquids to a range of shock inputs. This test demonstrated that bis(1-fluoro-1,1-dinitroethyl) formal (FEFO) is much more sensitive than the correspondin...

K. J. Scribner A. L. Frahm

1978-01-01

205

Performance Testing: Issues Facing Vocational Education. Research and Development Series No. 190.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing issues facing vocational education on the topic of performance testing, this handbook consists of a collection of seventeen commissioned papers and reactions to the papers. Two papers are presented on each of the following types of issues that must be considered before a performance test can be constructed: philosophical, technical,…

Spirer, Janet E., Ed.

206

Statistical Considerations in Choosing a Test Reliability Coefficient. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (10)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…

Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang

2012-01-01

207

Analysis of Effects of Meteorological Factors on Dengue Incidence in Sri Lanka Using Time Series Data  

PubMed Central

In tropical and subtropical regions of eastern and South-eastern Asia, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks occur frequently. Previous studies indicate an association between meteorological variables and dengue incidence using time series analyses. The impacts of meteorological changes can affect dengue outbreak. However, difficulties in collecting detailed time series data in developing countries have led to common use of monthly data in most previous studies. In addition, time series analyses are often limited to one area because of the difficulty in collecting meteorological and dengue incidence data in multiple areas. To gain better understanding, we examined the effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in three geographically distinct areas (Ratnapura, Colombo, and Anuradhapura) of Sri Lanka by time series analysis of weekly data. The weekly average maximum temperature and total rainfall and the total number of dengue cases from 2005 to 2011 (7 years) were used as time series data in this study. Subsequently, time series analyses were performed on the basis of ordinary least squares regression analysis followed by the vector autoregressive model (VAR). In conclusion, weekly average maximum temperatures and the weekly total rainfall did not significantly affect dengue incidence in three geographically different areas of Sri Lanka. However, the weekly total rainfall slightly influenced dengue incidence in the cities of Colombo and Anuradhapura.

Goto, Kensuke; Kumarendran, Balachandran; Mettananda, Sachith; Gunasekara, Deepa; Fujii, Yoshito; Kaneko, Satoshi

2013-01-01

208

Analysis of effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in Sri Lanka using time series data.  

PubMed

In tropical and subtropical regions of eastern and South-eastern Asia, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks occur frequently. Previous studies indicate an association between meteorological variables and dengue incidence using time series analyses. The impacts of meteorological changes can affect dengue outbreak. However, difficulties in collecting detailed time series data in developing countries have led to common use of monthly data in most previous studies. In addition, time series analyses are often limited to one area because of the difficulty in collecting meteorological and dengue incidence data in multiple areas. To gain better understanding, we examined the effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in three geographically distinct areas (Ratnapura, Colombo, and Anuradhapura) of Sri Lanka by time series analysis of weekly data. The weekly average maximum temperature and total rainfall and the total number of dengue cases from 2005 to 2011 (7 years) were used as time series data in this study. Subsequently, time series analyses were performed on the basis of ordinary least squares regression analysis followed by the vector autoregressive model (VAR). In conclusion, weekly average maximum temperatures and the weekly total rainfall did not significantly affect dengue incidence in three geographically different areas of Sri Lanka. However, the weekly total rainfall slightly influenced dengue incidence in the cities of Colombo and Anuradhapura. PMID:23671694

Goto, Kensuke; Kumarendran, Balachandran; Mettananda, Sachith; Gunasekara, Deepa; Fujii, Yoshito; Kaneko, Satoshi

2013-01-01

209

The Effect of Processing Technique and Reference Frame Definition on Noise in CGPS Position Time Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we investigate the effects of GPS processing techniques and strategies, and the related reference frame realization on the stochastic properties of continuous GPS (CGPS) position time series. It was of particular interest to establish whether and how different GPS processing strategies, e.g. double differencing (DD) and precise point positioning (PPP), the use of different orbit and clock products, and/or the definition of the reference frame, partly dependent on the applied strategy, affect the colored noise content of time series. We used CGPS position time series from 14 different solutions obtained from six different analysis centers as part of the European Sea Level Service - Research Infrastructure project (ESEAS-RI) using the GIPSY OASIS II, GAMIT and Bernese GPS softwares. All time series analyzed have at least three years of data for the period between 2000 and 2005. Furthermore, a selected set of position time series was also analyzed using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The noise content of the first 15 modes, representing the solution-specific common mode time series for each of the selected solutions were then also investigated for colored noise. Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) a white, a white plus flicker, a white plus power-law and a white plus first-order Gauss-Markov (FOGM) noise model were fitted to the position and EOF time series data. For both the position and EOF time series the parameter model included a constant, a rate and harmonic terms with annual, semi-annual, 4-monthly, 3-monthly, 2-monthly and 13.66 day periods. Position jumps were modeled at logged epochs or at visible discontinuities in the time series. The MLE showed that in most cases the best fitting noise model is a combination of white plus power-law noise. This model is closely followed by the combination of white plus flicker and white plus FOGM noise. The noise properties of the EOF time series follow predominantly a white plus power-law character, with the first few modes indicating a white plus flicker noise behavior. In general we find that DD solutions contain less noise than PPP solutions and that regional reference frame definitions further reduce the amount of noise in the time series.

Teferle, F. N.; Williams, S. D.; Kierulf, H. P.; Bingley, R. M.; Plag, H.

2005-12-01

210

Great Lakes Ore Carrier Series - Ice Resistance Model Tests in Ballast Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the model test program was to provide the ship designer with the methodology for designing ships to operate in ice waters. The methodology is to include quantitative relationships between ship form parameters, ice conditions, ship motion and...

A. Laine B. M. Johansson E. Makinen

1973-01-01

211

Great Lakes Ore Carrier Series - Ice Resistance Model Test Program in Loaded Condition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the model test program was to provide the ship designer with the methodology for designing ships to operate in ice waters. The methodology is to include quantitative relationships between ship form parameters, ice conditions, ship motion and...

B. M. Johansson E. Makinen

1972-01-01

212

Advanced Antenna Test Bed Characterization for Wideband Wireless Communications. NTIA Report Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An advanced antenna test bed for evaluating adaptive antennas and next-generation mobile communication systems is described. The key elements of the data acquisition system are 8 simultaneous channels, broadband impulse channel sounding, high speed analog...

P. F. Wilson P. B. Papazian M. G. Cotton Y. Lo

1999-01-01

213

Flight Test Technique Series - Volume 15. Introduction to Avionics Flight Test (Introduction aux Essais des Systemes D'armes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This case study has demonstrated a couple of important points. First, the simple techniques described in the previous sections are useful for real world application and are adequate for a wide range of quick measurements. What some of the tests lack in pr...

J. M. Clifton

1996-01-01

214

Planning, Instruction, and Assessment: Effective Teaching Practices. James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This entry in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series focuses on specific strategies teachers can use to improve the quality of their instruction. Studies have shown teacher quality to be the top indicator of student achievement, with the effects of good teachers apparent even as students move on to successive grades. In this book, Grant,…

Grant, Leslie W.; Hindman, Jennifer; Stronge, James H.

2010-01-01

215

Autocorrelation Effects on Least-Squares Intervention Analysis of Short Time Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clarifies several issues regarding the effects of autocorrelated errors on Type I error in ordinary least-squares models. Demonstrates through Monte Carlo simulation the conditions under which distortion in Type I error is less than predicted by asymptotic theory. Suggests a recently developed small-sample method for time-series analyses. (SLD)

Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.; McKnight, Scott

1999-01-01

216

Burning mouth syndrome: patch test results from a large case series.  

PubMed

Background:Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a burning or sore mouth in the absence of changes in the oral mucosa. It is often difficult to diagnose and treat. Numerous theories of the etiology have been suggested, including contact allergy.Objective:To determine the clinical utility of patch testing in patients with BMS.Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients diagnosed with BMS who had patch testing performed between January 1, 2008, and July 31, 2012.Results:Of 142 consecutive patients with BMS, 132 consented to patch testing; 89 (67%) had allergic patch test reactions. Of the patients with positive results, 66 (74%) had results that were deemed to have possible relevance. The most common allergens detected were nickel sulfate 2.5%, dodecyl gallate 0.3%, octyl gallate 0.3%, fragrance mix 8%, benzoyl peroxide 1%, and cinnamic alcohol 1%.Conclusions:Our findings suggest that contact allergy may be an etiologic factor in some patients with BMS. Patch testing is a useful investigation for BMS patients. PMID:24800705

Lynde, Carrie B; Grushka, Miriam; Walsh, Scott R A

2014-01-01

217

Burning mouth syndrome: patch test results from a large case series.  

PubMed

Background:Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a burning or sore mouth in the absence of changes in the oral mucosa. It is often difficult to diagnose and treat. Numerous theories of the etiology have been suggested, including contact allergy.Objective:To determine the clinical utility of patch testing in patients with BMS.Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients diagnosed with BMS who had patch testing performed between January 1, 2008, and July 31, 2012.Results:Of 142 consecutive patients with BMS, 132 consented to patch testing; 89 (67%) had allergic patch test reactions. Of the patients with positive results, 66 (74%) had results that were deemed to have possible relevance. The most common allergens detected were nickel sulfate 2.5%, dodecyl gallate 0.3%, octyl gallate 0.3%, fragrance mix 8%, benzoyl peroxide 1%, and cinnamic alcohol 1%.Conclusions:Our findings suggest that contact allergy may be an etiologic factor in some patients with BMS. Patch testing is a useful investigation for BMS patients. PMID:24518290

Lynde, Carrie B; Grushka, Miriam; Walsh, Scott R A

2014-01-01

218

A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as "less-than" values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

Cohn, T. A.; England, J. F.; Berenbrock, C. E.; Mason, R. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Lamontagne, J. R.

2013-08-01

219

Neutron exposure parameters for the metallurgical test specimens in the fifth heavy-section steel technology irradiation series capsules  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program, supported by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, has completed the Series 5 (HSST5) irradiation experiments. Twelve capsules which contain metallurgical test specimens have been irradiated at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These capsules have been disassembled, internal dosimeters have been analyzed, and exposure parameters are presented for each irradiation test specimen. This report describes the computational methodology for the least-squares adjustment of the dosimetry data with neutronics calculations, and it presents exposure parameters at each test specimen location for the fluence rate greater than 1.0 MeV, fluence rate greater than 0.1 MeV, and displacements per atom. The specific activity of each dosimeter at the end of irradiation is listed in the Appendix.

Miller, L.F.; Baldwin, C.A.; Stallmann, F.W.; Kam, F.B.K.

1988-03-01

220

A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series  

USGS Publications Warehouse

he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

Cohn, T. A.; England, J. F.; Berenbrock, C. E.; Mason, R. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Lamontagne, J. R.

2013-01-01

221

Testing the heterospecific attraction hypothesis with time-series data on species co-occurrence  

PubMed Central

The distributional patterns of actively moving animals are influenced by the cues that the individuals use for choosing sites into which they settle. Individuals may gather information about habitat quality using two types of strategies, either directly assessing the relevant environmental factors, or using the presence of conspecifics or heterospecifics as an indirect measure of habitat quality. We examined patterns of heterospecific attraction with observational time-series data on a community of seven waterbird species breeding in artificial irrigation ponds. We fitted to the data a multivariate logistic regression model, which attributes the presence–absence of each species to a set of environmental and spatial covariates, to the presence of con- and heterospecifics in the previous year and to the presence of heterospecifics in the same year. All species showed a clear tendency to continue breeding in the same sites where they were observed in the previous year. Additionally, the presence of heterospecifics, both in the previous year and in the same year, generally increased the probability that the focal species was found breeding on a given pond. Our data thus give support for the heterospecific attraction hypothesis, though causal inference should be confirmed with manipulative experiments.

Sebastian-Gonzalez, Esther; Sanchez-Zapata, Jose Antonio; Botella, Francisco; Ovaskainen, Otso

2010-01-01

222

Field Testing Educational Products. Aid Number 3 in Instructional Aids Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the evaluators' experience with a large-scale curriculum development project, this manual is designed to aid those who plan and implement field tests of educational products (instructional procedures and materials) in natural school settings. Within the procedures discussed, problems likely to arise are described. The steps in…

Brickell, Henry M.; Aslanian, Carol B.

223

A multicenter study of patch test reactions with dental screening series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dental products contain many allergens, and may cause problems both for patients undergoing dental treatment and for dental personnel because of occupational exposure. Individual patch test clinics may not study sufficient numbers of patients to collect reliable data on uncommon allergens. Objective: To collect information on dental allergens based on a multicenter study. Materials and Methods: The Finnish Contact

Lasse Kanerva; Tapio Rantanen; Kristiina Aalto-Korte; Tuula Estlander; Matti Hannuksela; Rauno J. Harvima; Taina Hasan; Maija Horsmanheimo; Riita Jolanki; Kirsti Kalimo; Arto Lahti; Kaija Lammintausta; Antti Lauerma; Kristiina Turjanmaa; Anna-Maija Vuorela

2001-01-01

224

Model Tests of a Series of Six Patrol Boats in Smooth and Rough Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three round-bottom models and three hard-chine models, with lengthbeam ratios of 3, 4 and 5 in each group and with constant displacement, were tested in smooth water and in irregular waves of Sea States 3 and 5. The hard-chine model and the round-model of...

Y. Chey

1964-01-01

225

10 years of patch testing with the (meth)acrylate series.  

PubMed

Statistics on 10 years of patch testing with 30 (meth)acrylates were compiled. Altogether 275 patients were patch tested and 48 patients (17.5%) had an allergic reaction to at least 1 (meth)acrylate. The (meth)acrylates most often provoking an allergic patch test reaction were 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA; 12.1%), 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA; 12.0%) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA; 11.4%). No allergic reactions were caused by 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]propane (BIS-MA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), oligotriacrylate 480 (OTA 480), N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA), or ethyl cyanoacrylate (ECA). The frequency of allergic patch test reactions presented cannot be considered as a "ranking" list of the most sensitizing (meth)acrylate compounds. In order to be able to judge the sensitization capacity of various (meth)acrylate compounds in humans, it would be necessary to have detailed information on the exposure history of the patients studied, including the purity of the (meth)acrylate compounds. Currently, this is not possible because (meth)acrylate-containing products regularly contain undeclared (meth)acrylate compounds. PMID:9455626

Kanerva, L; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T

1997-12-01

226

Special Education Teacher Responses to the 1997 Basic Standards Testing. State Assessment Series: Minnesota Report 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveyed special education teachers teaching eighth and ninth grade students in 27 Minnesota school districts to determine how decisions were made on the inclusion of children with disabilities in the 1997 administration of Minnesota's Basic Standards Test and what accommodations were provided and desired. Analysis of the 259 responses…

Spicuzza, Richard; Thurlow, Martha; Erickson, Ron; Ruhland, Aaron

227

Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect

Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Ave. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kakati, M. [Thermal Plasma Processed Materials Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402, Assam (India)

2011-10-15

228

The Spanish Employability Skills Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes efforts of the Florida Division of Vocational Education to translate the Employability Skills Series into Spanish. Reports the findings of the field-test evaluation conducted on the Spanish version of the Employability Skills Series which found the materials were just as effective in Spanish. (LRA)

Massey, Romeo; Kromhout, Ora

1979-01-01

229

TRAC (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) analyses of Savannah River 1985 L-Area test series  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-hydraulic benchmark analyses have been performed using the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) for the Savannah River 1985 L-Area AC process flow tests. TRAC models were prepared and run for each of the 11 L-Area steady-state tests. Comparison of the TRAC results with the Savannah River data focused on coolant pressures and flows in the six external loops as well as the magnitude and distribution of coolant pressures in the upper plenum. In general, the TRAC pressures, pressure drops, and coolant flow rates in the external loops are in reasonable agreement with the data. Moreover, although the TRAC results tend to slightly overpredict the upper- plenum pressure data, the results do provide an excellent representation of the radial and azimuthal variations in upper-plenum pressures. Thus, the 1985 L-Area benchmarks lend credibility and confidence to both TRAC and the TRAC Savannah River plant model. 4 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Elson, J.S.; Lime, J.F.

1990-01-01

230

Moisture diffusivities evaluated at high moisture levels from a series of water absorption tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents measured moisture diffusivities for sedimentary calcareous sandstone, lime silica bricks, bricks, and\\u000a autoclaved, aerated concrete. The moisture diffusivities were calculated from the relation between the water sorption coefficients\\u000a and the initial water content in the specimen before testing. The method used is based on Boltzmann transformation. The relation\\u000a between the water sorption coefficients and the initial water

M. Janz

2002-01-01

231

Test techniques for evaluation of indirect effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test techniques for evaluation of how well electrical and electronic equipment withstands the indirect effects of lightning were studied. The existing test techniques, and the philosophy behind some of the existing or evolving standards are discussed. Possible avenues of improvement in test techniques are suggested.

1977-01-01

232

Gravity effects obtained from global hydrology models in comparison with high precision gravimetric time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water mass changes are a major source of variations in residual gravimetric time series obtained from the combination of observations with superconducting and absolute gravimeters. Changes in the local water storage are the main influence, but global variations contribute to the signal significantly. For three European gravity stations, Bad Homburg, Wettzell and Medicina, different global hydrology models are compared. The influence of topographic effects is discussed and due to the long-term stability of the combined gravity time series, inter-annual signals in model data and gravimetric observations are compared. Two sources of influence are discriminated, i.e., the effect of a local zone with an extent of a few kilometers around the gravimetric station and the global contribution beyond 50km. Considering their coarse resolution and uncertainties, local effects calculated from global hydrological models are compared with the in-situ gravity observations and, for the station Wettzell, with local hydrological monitoring data.

Wziontek, Hartmut; Wilmes, Herbert; Güntner, Andreas; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

2010-05-01

233

Test report for single event effects of the 80386DX microprocessor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Section 514 Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing and Analysis Group has performed a series of SEE tests of certain strategic registers of Intel's 80386DX CHMOS 4 microprocessor. Following a summary of the test techniques and hardware used to gather the data, we present the SEE heavy ion and proton test results. We also describe the registers tested, along with a system impact analysis should these registers experience a single event upset.

Watson, R. Kevin; Schwartz, Harvey R.; Nichols, Donald K.

1993-01-01

234

Irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels (Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program Series 4 and 5)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple testing is done at two laboratories of typical nuclear pressure vessel materials (both irradiated and unirradiated) and statistical analyses of the test results. Multiple tests are conducted at each of several test temperatures for each material, standard deviations are determined, and results from the two laboratories are compared. The Fourth Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Irradiation Series, almost completed, was

R. G. Berggren; J. J. McGowan; B. H. Menke; R. K. Nanstad; K. R. Thoms

1984-01-01

235

Remote sensing of grazing effects on vegetation in northern Senegal using MODIS time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of grazing on vegetation development in the Sahel is a much debated and researched issue. For monitoring grazing intensity remote sensing could be a powerful tool, providing ways to fill some of the unavoidable gaps in information for research in this field. Especially as instruments with moderate spatial resolution capabilities onboard polar orbiting platforms, such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are providing time series of data which are now long enough to allow statistically valid per-pixel examinations. A key issue for proper application of remote sensing observations is an in depth understanding of how variations in surface properties are captured by satellite sensors. In this context, the sensitivity of remote sensing data to the effects of grazing, or lack of grazing, has been little examined. This study examines time series of in situ vegetation measurements sampled under different grazing regimes at the Widou Thiengoly site in semi-arid Northern Senegal and compares these with several growing season parameters. These parameters are derived using the TIMESAT software from time series of MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product, with 16 day temporal and 250 meters spatial resolution. Areas excluded from grazing are found on average to produce more herbaceous biomass and experience a change in annual species composition, with a greater presence of higher fodder quality species. Furthermore the biomass production in these areas presents a higher correlation to annual rainfall than that observed in adjacent grazed areas. These noticeable differences are only subtly reflected in the growing season parameters derived from MODIS data; e.g. the higher herbaceous biomass and different species composition are not well captured by commonly used parameters such as amplitude or integral of the NDVI time series. In light of these results, conclusions should be made with caution if time series of NDVI metrics are used to examine grazing or the effects of grazing on biomass.

Olsen, J. L.; Miehe, S.; Ceccato, P.; Fensholt, R.

2013-12-01

236

Experimental uncertainties in vacuum tests of PX-series AMTEC cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum tests of the Pluto-Express (PX), multitubes, vapor anode AMTEC cells are being performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) in Albuquerque, NM. Uncertainties associated with the different measurements performed in these tests are calculated. The uncertainty was the larger of +/-1% or +/-1.7 K in temperature measurements; +/-1.2% in the electric power output, +/-0.7% in the heat input, and +/-6.5% in heat rejection. Another uncertainty associated with the measurements of the BASE tube and evaporator temperatures was due to the placement of the thermocouples (TCs) in the respective cavities. In order to quantify this uncertainty, a heat transfer model was developed, which coupled heat conduction in the TC guide tube to forced convection, due to the flow of sodium vapor, and thermal radiation to the walls of the evaporator and the BASE tube cavities. The model predictions were in good agreement with the TC readings in PX-cells, which were about 15-18 K and 4-47 K, higher, respectively, than they should be for the BASE tube and evaporator, respectively.

Huang, Lianmin; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

1998-01-01

237

Using power series expansions of moduli to interpolate between release curves from dynamic tests: Technique and application  

SciTech Connect

Recently an appreciable number of continuous release profiles have been measured from dynamic experiments with geological materials. For each material an empirical generalization of the available release curves may be constructed to allow easy application of the experimental data to problems in much the same way as a linear shock velocity -- particle velocity fit allows easy application of Hugoniot data. This generalization is made in two steps. The first is to compute the Eulerian axial modulus at the Hugoniot pressure and its first three pressure derivatives along the release for each test. This corresponds to a partial Taylor series of the axial modulus, which integrates to give a very close match to the original release. An alternative formulation, which takes volume as the independent variable, fails because that Taylor series does not converge with the rapidity needed for these calculations. The second step is to plot each of these quantities against the Hugoniot pressure for the suite of tests, and fit these data. A release from an arbitrary pressure within the general range of the experimental data may be computed by using the interpolated modulus and its interpolated derivatives. This generalization, which allows volume to be computed as a function of pressure, reproduces the experimental curves fairly well. We present the results of applying this technique to release data for Mini Jade 2 grout, and briefly compare these results with those from several Nevada Test Site tuffs, saturated and dry Indiana Limestone, and aluminum. Finally, we use the generalized Mini Jade 2 data to solve a sample problem, that of estimating the error produced by making the release = Hugoniot'' assumption in the analysis of ground motion gauges in an underground test. 12 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Furnish, M.D.

1990-08-01

238

Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

2011-01-01

239

[Duodenal tube test and hepatic ultrasound in extrahepatic biliary atresia diagnosis: A four-case series].  

PubMed

Liver and biliary tree scintigraphy and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) have taken the place of the duodenal tube test (DTT) in the study of cholestatic jaundice due to extrahepatic biliary atresia (EBA). The usefulness of DTT associated with abdominal ultrasound (AUS) in the diagnosis of EBA was demonstrated in 4 patients presenting with cholestatic jaundice that underwent DTT and AUS; one of them also had MRC. DTT was negative for bile in the 4 patients; AUS did not identify the gallbladder or showed it as small and irregular, or detected a fibrous cord; MRC identified a choledochal cyst but no associated EBA; surgery and pathology study documented EBA in all 4 patients. DTT associated with AUS demonstrated the absence of bile in the duodenum and gallbladder abnormality, respectively, leading to surgical exploration within 24 to 48 hours. PMID:23499013

Elizondo-Vázquez, J B; Alvarez-Hernández, G; González-Armendáriz, A; Castillo-Aldaco, J; Martínez-Estrada, T; Pérez-Moya, G

2013-01-01

240

Single-Event Transient Testing of Low Dropout PNP Series Linear Voltage Regulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As demand for high-speed, on-board, digital-processing integrated circuits on spacecraft increases (field-programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors in particular), the need for the next generation point-of-load (POL) regulator becomes a prominent design issue. Shrinking process nodes have resulted in core rails dropping to values close to 1.0 V, drastically reducing margin to standard switching converters or regulators that power digital ICs. The goal of this task is to perform SET characterization of several commercial POL converters, and provide a discussion of the impact of these results to state-of-the-art digital processing IC through laser and heavy ion testing

Adell, Philippe; Allen, Gregory

2013-01-01

241

PANEL COINTEGRATION: ASYMPTOTIC AND FINITE SAMPLE PROPERTIES OF POOLED TIME SERIES TESTS WITH AN APPLICATION TO THE PPP HYPOTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine properties of residual-based tests for the null of no cointegration for dynamic panels in which both the short-run dynamics and the long-run slope coefficients are permitted to be heterogeneous across individual members of the panel. The tests also allow for individual heterogeneous fixed effects and trend terms, and we consider both pooled within dimension tests and group mean

Peter Pedroni

2004-01-01

242

Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958  

SciTech Connect

In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of infinite exposure, estimated exposure, and 1-yr effective biological exposure are explained.

Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

1986-07-01

243

Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958.  

PubMed

In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, UT; Ely, NV; and Las Vegas, NV. Three events, HARRY (19 May 1953), BEE (22 March 1955), and SMOKY (31 August 1957), accounted for more than half the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of "infinite exposure," "estimated exposure," and "1-yr effective biological exposure" are explained. PMID:3332000

Anspaugh, L R; Church, B W

1986-07-01

244

Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958  

SciTech Connect

In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

1985-12-01

245

Linearity Testing of Secondary Electron Multipliers using the IRMM-073/-074 Series of Isotope Reference Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For linearity testing as well as dead time correction of secondary electron multipliers (SEM), special sets of gravimetrically prepared synthetic isotope reference materials have been prepared by IRMM. Firstly, a set of 10 mixtures of 233U, 235U and 238U was made in which the 235U:238U ratios were kept at 1:1 and the 233U/235U ratios varied from 1.0 to 10-6 (IRMM-072/1-15). After the IRMM-072 series was exhausted, it has been replaced by the IRMM-073/1-15 and IRMM-074/1-10 series. In this paper two procedures for the application of IRMM-073/-074 for linearity testing are presented. First, the static procedure is ideal for ICPMS instruments to circumvent the influence of any plasma instabilities. The 233U within IRMM-073/1-15 (or IRMM-074/1-10) is detected at various intensity levels using the secondary electron multiplier, whereas the 235U and 238U isotopes are detected using a Faraday multi- collector at a uniform intensity level for each of the samples of the IRMM-073/1-15 series. The inter- calibration of the secondary electron multiplier versus the Faraday multi-collector is in each case performed using a jump of 235U into one Faraday cup. This static procedure is also applicable for TIMS instruments. However, because it is often more difficult in TIMS to realize a uniform intensity level for different standard solutions loaded on different filaments, the dynamic procedure appears to be the better choice for TIMS instruments. For the dynamic procedure one suitable solution of the series, e.g. IRMM-074/3 with a 233U/235U ratio of 0.01, is measured in peak-jumping mode only using the secondary electron multiplier. Results for the static and the dynamic procedures for both ICPMS and TIMS instruments will be presented, and the uncertainty of a dead time determination be evaluated.

Kuehn, H.; Richter, S.; Kivel, N.; Alonso, A.

2008-12-01

246

The acute effects of heavy back squats on mechanical variables during a series of bilateral hops.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of performing a heavy resistance exercise (HRE) protocol on the mechanical variables during a series of bilateral hops. In a block-randomized design, 10 strength trained men performed an HRE or a control treatment before performing 5 series of bilateral hops separated by 2 minutes of passive recovery. Each series of bilateral hops was performed for 15 seconds on a force platform with the subject hopping at a frequency of 2.0 Hz. From the vertical force trace, the vertical force during the countermovement phase of each hop, the negative displacement during the countermovement phase, and the vertical stiffness were calculated. The HRE treatment consisted of performing parallel back squats with 40, 50, 60, and 80% of each subject's 1-repetition maximum after a series of dynamic stretches. The control treatment consisted of the dynamic stretches only. No significant differences in any of the mechanical variables were reported after the 2 treatments (p > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between the absolute maximal strength values and the percent change in any of the mechanical variables after the 2 treatments. Despite the lack of significant changes reported for the group, there were some notable individual responses. It is possible that increases in vertical stiffness during bilateral hops can be achieved after an HRE protocol in certain individuals. However, practitioners should be aware of the specificity issues and the individual nature of the responses to such protocols. PMID:19528867

Moir, Gavin L; Dale, Jonathan R; Dietrich, Wendy W

2009-07-01

247

[Microcirculatory effects of fluctophoresis series in patient with moderate chronic periodontal disease].  

PubMed

The results of fluctophoresis series in 160 patients aged 35-75 years with chronic periodontal disease are discussed in the paper. It was shown that fluctophoresis may improve both clinical and rheographic values, as well and laser Doppler flowmetry rates because of improved microcirculation. Mildronat fluctophoresis influences myogenic regulation while nivaline acts as neurogenic vessel tone regulator. Acovegine fluctophoresis is effective in cases with neither myogenic nor neurogenic regulation disorder. PMID:23994854

P'ianzina, A V; Gerasimenko, M Iu

2013-01-01

248

Pressure Effects of Hydrogen and Nitrogen on the Second Doublet of Rb Principal Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure effects of nitrogen and hydrogen on the second doublet of the rubidium principal series, were studied at pressures up to 13 atmospheres. Both for hydrogen and nitrogen the 2P32 component broadens more conspicuously than the 2P12 one, and the relationship between the half-width and the relative density is linear. Nitrogen produces a red shift for both components, while hydrogen

Ch'en Shang-Yi; Pao Chia-Shan

1940-01-01

249

Test-Suite Reduction for Model Based Tests: Effects on Test Quality and Implications for Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model checking techniques can be successfully employed as a test case generation technique to generate tests from formal models. The number of tests cases produced, how- ever, is typically large for complex coverage criteria such as MCDC. Test-suite reduction can provide us with a smaller set of test cases that preserve the original coverage—often a dramatically smaller set. One potential

Mats Per Erik Heimdahl; George Devaraj

2004-01-01

250

Long Wavelength Video-Based Event Detection, Preliminary Results from the CVNX and VS1 Test Series, Ex-USS SHADWELL, April 7-25, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents results from long wavelength-response, or night vision video detection (LWVD) of fire, smoke, and hot objects obtained during the CVNX and VS1 Test Series. The cameras demonstrated thermal imaging capabilities and an enhanced sensiti...

D. A. Steinhurst C. P. Minor J. C. Owrutsky S. L. Rose-Pehrsson D. T. Gottuk

2003-01-01

251

Random Test Run Length and Effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A poorly understood but important factor in many applications of random testing is the selection of a maximum length for test runs. Given a limited time for testing, it is seldom clear whether executing a small number of long runs or a large number of short runs maximizes utility. It is generally expected that longer runs are more likely to expose failures -- which is certainly true with respect to runs shorter than the shortest failing trace. However, longer runs produce longer failing traces, requiring more effort from humans in debugging or more resources for automated minimization. In testing with feedback, increasing ranges for parameters may also cause the probability of failure to decrease in longer runs. We show that the choice of test length dramatically impacts the effectiveness of random testing, and that the patterns observed in simple models and predicted by analysis are useful in understanding effects observed.

Andrews, James H.; Groce, Alex; Weston, Melissa; Xu, Ru-Gang

2008-01-01

252

Uniting Mandelbrot’s Noah and Joseph Effects in Toy Models of Natural Hazard Time Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forecasting of extreme events is a highly topical, cross-disciplinary problem. One aspect which is potentially tractable even when the events themselves are stochastic is the probability of a “burst” of a given size and duration, defined as the area between a time series and a constant threshold. Many natural time series depart from the simplest, Brownian, case and in the 1960s Mandelbrot developed the use of fractals to describe these departures. In particular he proposed two kinds of fractal model to capture the way in which natural data is often persistent in time (his “Joseph effect”, common in hydrology and exemplified by fractional Brownian motion) and/or prone to heavy tailed jumps (the “Noah effect”, typical of economic index time series, for which he gave Levy flights as an examplar). Much of the earlier modelling, however, has emphasised one of the Noah and Joseph parameters (the tail exponent mu and one derived from the temporal behaviour such as power spectral beta) at the other one's expense. I will describe work [1] in which we applied a simple self-affine stable model-linear fractional stable motion (LFSM)-which unifies both effects to better describe natural data, in this case from space physics. I will show how we have resolved some contradictions seen in earlier work, where purely Joseph or Noah descriptions had been sought. I will also show recent work [2] using numerical simulations of LFSM and simple analytic scaling arguments to study the problem of the area between a fractional Levy model time series and a threshold. [1] Watkins et al, Space Science Reviews [2005] [2] Watkins et al, Physical Review E [2009

Credgington, D.; Watkins, N. W.; Chapman, S. C.; Rosenberg, S. J.; Sanchez, R.

2009-12-01

253

Effects on noise properties of GPS time series caused by higher-order ionospheric corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) effects are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system (GPS) analysis. These effects also influence the non-linear characteristics of GPS coordinate time series. In this paper, we investigate these effects on coordinate time series in terms of seasonal variations and noise amplitudes. Both power spectral techniques and maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) are used to evaluate these effects quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show an overall improvement for the analysis of global sites if HOI effects are considered. We note that the noise spectral index that is used for the determination of the optimal noise models in our analysis ranged between -1 and 0 both with and without HOI corrections, implying that the coloured noise cannot be removed by these corrections. However, the corrections were found to have improved noise properties for global sites. After the corrections were applied, the noise amplitudes at most sites decreased, among which the white noise amplitudes decreased remarkably. The white noise amplitudes of up to 81.8% of the selected sites decreased in the up component, and the flicker noise of 67.5% of the sites decreased in the north component. Stacked periodogram results show that, no matter whether the HOI effects are considered or not, a common fundamental period of 1.04 cycles per year (cpy), together with the expected annual and semi-annual signals, can explain all peaks of the north and up components well. For the east component, however, reasonable results can be obtained only based on HOI corrections. HOI corrections are useful for better detecting the periodic signals in GPS coordinate time series. Moreover, the corrections contributed partly to the seasonal variations of the selected sites, especially for the up component. Statistically, HOI corrections reduced more than 50% and more than 65% of the annual and semi-annual amplitudes respectively at the selected sites.

Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongfei

2014-04-01

254

Software partitioning for effective automated unit testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key problem for effective unit testing is the difficulty of partitioning large software systems into appropriate units that can be tested in isolation. We present an approach that identifies control and data inter-dependencies between soft- ware components using static program analysis, and divides the source code into units where highly-intertwined compo- nents are grouped together. Those units can then

Arindam Chakrabarti; Patrice Godefroid

2006-01-01

255

Tide effects removed from well tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid distorted data when analyzing well pressure tests of permeable offshore reservoirs, one needs to account for periodic ocean tidal stress. Quartz-crystal bottom hole pressure recorders provide a high resolution of reservoir pressure but also measures pressure fluctuations from tidal effects during well testing. Periodic oscillations in the reservoir pressure are due to the three mechanisms: solid earth tide;

E. P. B. Aase; T. A. Jelmert; S. A. Vik

1995-01-01

256

Exploring the effects of Hofmeister series ions on structural dynamics of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is known as the lubricant of life. Most proteins lose their biological function upon dehydration. We found that in a variety of high concentration salt solutions, photoactive yellow protein, a blue light bacterial photoreceptor protein, loses its functionally important structural motions for receptor activation. We hypothesize that this effect is caused by reduced structural dynamics of water due to strong water-ion interactions. Here we report our experimental studies on the effects of salts on changes in structural dynamics of water at different time scales. The results are expected to provide deep insight regarding how Hofmeister series ions alter the structural dynamics of proteins.

Xu, Ningning; Wright, Thomas; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Xie, Aihua

2011-03-01

257

Tide effects removed from well tests  

SciTech Connect

To avoid distorted data when analyzing well pressure tests of permeable offshore reservoirs, one needs to account for periodic ocean tidal stress. Quartz-crystal bottom hole pressure recorders provide a high resolution of reservoir pressure but also measures pressure fluctuations from tidal effects during well testing. Periodic oscillations in the reservoir pressure are due to the three mechanisms: solid earth tide; barometric tide/effect; and ocean tide. The paper uses sample data from an offshore reservoir to illustrate how tide effects can be identified in the data and the correction procedure to use to remove these effects.

Aase, E.P.B.; Jelmert, T.A. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondeim (Norway); Vik, S.A. [Saga Petroleum A.S., Sandvika (Norway)

1995-05-01

258

Effective topical combination therapy for treatment of lichen striatus in children: a case series and review.  

PubMed

Lichen striatus (LS) is an uncommon linear dermatosis that is primarily seen in children from 4 months to 15 years of age. While some of these eruptions are asymptomatic, others can be quite pruritic. In darker-skinned individuals, post-inflammatory hypopigmentation can be significant and may provide a cause for concern for the patients and/or their parents. In our case series of 4 patients, we observed rapid resolution of LS by combining a topical retinoid with a topical steroid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment with this kind of combination therapy in the English literature. The patients not only achieved satisfying cosmesis, but also complete resolution of their pruritus. The most common side effect of topical tazarotene is localized irritation at treatment sites, but the patients in this particular series tolerated the treatment well. PMID:22777233

Youssef, Sherry M; Teng, Joyce M C

2012-07-01

259

Undulator Beam Pipe Magnetic Shielding Effect Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed stainless steel beampipe for the LCLS undulator has a measurable shielding effect on the magnetic field of the LCLS undulators. This note describes the tests used to determine the magnitude of the shielding effect, as well as deviations in th...

Z. Wolf

2010-01-01

260

Clustering test cases to achieve effective test selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full testing involves running all the tests in the test suite. This is exhaustive and will consume an inordinate amount of time and money. Hence, an ordering of test cases aids in early detection of faults. However, ordering and running a large test suite is still infeasible, as it would not be possible to run all tests during regression testing.

P. G. Sapna; Hrushikesha Mohanty

2010-01-01

261

Irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels (Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program Series 4 and 5)  

SciTech Connect

Multiple testing is done at two laboratories of typical nuclear pressure vessel materials (both irradiated and unirradiated) and statistical analyses of the test results. Multiple tests are conducted at each of several test temperatures for each material, standard deviations are determined, and results from the two laboratories are compared. The Fourth Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Irradiation Series, almost completed, was aimed at elastic-plastic and fully plastic fracture toughness of low-copper weldments (current practice welds). A typical nuclear pressure vessel plate steel was included for statistical purposes. The Fifth HSST Irradiation Series, now in progress, is aimed at determining the shape of the K/sub IR/ curve after significant radiation-induced shift of the transition temperatures. This series includes irradiated test specimens of thicknesses up to 100 mm and weldment compositions typical of early nuclear power reactor pressure vessel welds.

Berggren, R.G.; McGowan, J.J.; Menke, B.H.; Nanstad, R.K.; Thoms, K.R.

1984-01-01

262

Fault detection using a two-model test for changes in the parameters of an autoregressive time series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes an investigation of a statistical hypothesis testing method for detecting changes in the characteristics of an observed time series. The work is motivated by the need for practical automated methods for on-line monitoring of Deep Space Network (DSN) equipment to detect failures and changes in behavior. In particular, on-line monitoring of the motor current in a DSN 34-m beam waveguide (BWG) antenna is used as an example. The algorithm is based on a measure of the information theoretic distance between two autoregressive models: one estimated with data from a dynamic reference window and one estimated with data from a sliding reference window. The Hinkley cumulative sum stopping rule is utilized to detect a change in the mean of this distance measure, corresponding to the detection of a change in the underlying process. The basic theory behind this two-model test is presented, and the problem of practical implementation is addressed, examining windowing methods, model estimation, and detection parameter assignment. Results from the five fault-transition simulations are presented to show the possible limitations of the detection method, and suggestions for future implementation are given.

Scholtz, P.; Smyth, P.

1992-01-01

263

Laboratory effectiveness testing of oil spill dispersants  

SciTech Connect

Dispersant effectiveness tests are reviewed. Studies have been conducted of the variances among several standard regulatory tests. Three main causes of differences have been identified, oil-to-water ratio, settling time and energy. Energy can be partially compensated for in high energy tests by correcting for natural dispersion. With this correction and with high oil-to-water ratios and a settling time of at least 10 minutes, five apparatuses yield very similar results for a variety of oils and dispersants. Recent studies into the energy variation of dispersant tests show that the energy level varies in many apparatuses. The repeatability of energy levels in apparatus is largely responsible for the variation in dispersant effectiveness values in certain apparatus. Studies of analytical procedures show that traditional extraction and analysis methods cause a bias to results. Methods to overcome these difficulties are presented.

Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.A.; Wang, Z.; Handfield, D.; Ianuzzi, D.; Ackerman, F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1995-06-01

264

[Time series studies of air pollution by fires and the effects on human health].  

PubMed

Burnoffs (intentional fires for agricultural purposes) and forest fires of large proportions have been observed in various regions of the planet. Exposure to high levels of air pollutants emitted by fires can be responsible for various harmful effects on human health. In this article, the literature on estimating acute effects of air pollution on human health by fires in the regions with the highest number of fires on the planet, using a time series approach is summarized. An attempt was made to identify gaps in knowledge. The study consisted of a narrative review, in which the characteristics of the selected studies were grouped by regions of the planet with a higher incidence of burnoffs: Amazon, America, Australia and Asia. The results revealed a large number of studies in Australia, few studies in the Amazon and great heterogeneity in the results on the significant effects on human health. PMID:24196890

do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

2013-11-01

265

Testing & Research, Part I. Options in Education: Program Transcripts of a Weekly Series Broadcast by Member Stations of National Public Radio. Program No. 78.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several program transcripts on educational testing from the National Public Radio series, Options in Education, are included in this pamphlet. In "The I.Q. Controversy," Ned Block discusses culturally biased standardized tests. Dr. Harold Hodgkinson, former Director of the National Institute of Education, and Noel Epstein, Education Editor of the…

George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

266

Demonstration of anticoagulation patient self-testing feasibility at an Indian Health Service facility: A case series analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Anticoagulation patient self-testing (PST) represents an alternative approach to warfarin monitoring by enabling patients to use coagulometers to test their international normalized ratio (INR) values. PST offers several advantages that potentially improve warfarin management. Objective To describe implementation and associated performance of a PST demonstration program at an Indian Health Service (IHS) facility. Methods A non-consecutive case series analysis of patients from a pharmacy-managed PST demonstration program was performed at an IHS facility in Oklahoma between July 2008 and February 2009. Results Mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) for the seven patients showed a small, absolute increase during the twelve weeks of PST compared to the twelve weeks prior to PST. Four of the seven patients had an increase in TTR during the twelve week course of PST compared to their baseline TTR. Three of four patients with increased TTR in the final eight week period of PST achieved a TTR of 100%. Of the three patients who experienced a decrease in TTR after initiating self-testing, two initially presented with a TTR of 100% prior to PST and one patient had a TTR of 100% for the final eight weeks of PST. The two patients not achieving a TTR of 100% during the twelve week PST period demonstrated an increase in TTR following the first four weeks of PST. Conclusions Although anticoagulation guidelines now emphasize patient self-management (PSM) only, optimal PST remains an integral process in PSM delivery. In the patients studied, the results of this analysis suggest that PST at the IHS facility provided a convenient, alternative method for management of chronic warfarin therapy for qualified patients. More than half of the patients demonstrated improvement in TTR. Although there is a learning curve immediately following PST initiation, the mean TTR for the entire PST period increased modestly when compared to the time period prior to PST.

Schupbach, Ryan R.; Bousum, John M.; Miller, Michael J.

267

Diabetogenic effect of a series of tricyclic delta opioid agonists structurally related to cyproheptadine.  

PubMed

The unexpected observation of a hyperglycemic effect of some tricycle-based delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists led to a series of studies to better understand the finding. Single administration of two novel tricyclic DOR agonists dose dependently elevated rat plasma glucose levels; 4-week toxicology studies confirmed the hyperglycemic finding and further revealed pancreatic ?-cell hypertrophy, including vacuole formation, as well as bone dysplasia and Harderian gland degeneration with regeneration. Similar diabetogenic effects were observed in dog. A review of the literature on the antiserotonergic and antihistaminergic drug cyproheptadine (CPH) and its metabolites revealed shared structural features as well as similar hyperglycemic effects to the present series of DOR agonists. To further evaluate these effects, we established an assay measuring insulin levels in the rat pancreatic ?-cell-derived RINm5F cell line, extensively used to study CPH and its metabolites. Like CPH, the initial DOR agonists studied reduced RINm5F cell insulin levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, compound DOR potency did not correlate with the insulin-reducing potency. Furthermore, the RINm5F cell insulin results correlated with the diabetogenic effect of the compounds in a 5-day mouse study. The RINm5F cell insulin assay enabled the identification of aryl-aryl-amine DOR agonists that lacked an insulin-reducing effect and did not elevate blood glucose in repeated dosing studies conducted over a suprapharmacologic dose range. Thus, not only did the RINm5F cell assay open a path for the further discovery of DOR agonists lacking diabetogenic potential but also it established a reliable, economical, and high-throughput screen for such potential, regardless of chemotype or target pharmacology. The present findings also suggest a mechanistic link between the toxicity observed here and that underlying Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome. PMID:20616206

Codd, Ellen E; Baker, Judith; Brandt, Michael R; Bryant, Stewart; Cai, Chaozhong; Carson, John R; Chevalier, Kristen M; Colburn, Raymond W; Coogan, Timothy P; Dax, Scott L; Decorte, Bart; Kemmerer, Michael; Legrand, Edmund K; Lenhard, James M; Leone, Angelique M; Lin, Ling; Mabus, John R; McDonnell, Mark E; McMillian, Michael K; McNally, James J; Stone, Dennis J; Wang, Charles Y; Zhang, Sui-Po; Flores, Christopher M

2010-10-01

268

Pyroshock testing: Effects of equipment simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is critical to a spacecraft's mission success that flight equipment be properly qualified to its expected shock environment. Simulators of varying fidelity are often used to measure the shock levels during spacecraft shock tests. Pyroshock test data from a recent spacecraft separation test will be shown that illustrates how shock response spectra differ for avionics equipment simulators of both low and high fidelity. The effect of the simulator weight on the shock response will also be shown. Additionally, data showing the attenuation of pyroshock levels, including its reduction with distance and across joints will be discussed. This observed attenuation data generally supports the standard methodologies for predictions of shock attenuation.

Hughes, William O.

2002-05-01

269

Ionospheric effects caused by the series of geomagnetic storms of September 9-14, 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the ionospheric effects caused by the series of geomagnetic storms of September 9-14, 2005. The behavior of different ionospheric parameters over the Yakutsk, Irkutsk, Millstone Hill and Arecibo stations during the considered period have been numerically calculated, using a global self-consistent model of the thermosphere, ionosphere, and protonosphere (GSM TIP) developed at WD IZMI-RAN. The model calculations of disturbances of the ionospheric parameters during storms qualitatively agree with the experimental data at these midlatitude stations. We suggest that the causes of the quantitative differences between the model calculations and the observational data were the use of the 3-hour Kp index of geomagnetic activity and the dipole approximation of geomagnetic field in GSM TIP, with additional contributions from the effects of solar flares which are not considered in GSM TIP.

Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Ratovsky, K. G.; Goncharenko, L. P.

2011-06-01

270

Transitions in effective scaling behavior of accelerometric time series across sleep and wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effective scaling behavior of high-resolution accelerometric time series recorded at the wrists and hips of 100 subjects during sleep and wake. Using spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis we find long-term correlated fluctuations with a spectral exponent \\beta \\approx 1.0 (1/f noise). On short time scales, ? is larger during wake (\\approx 1.4 ) and smaller during sleep (\\approx 0.6 ). In addition, characteristic peaks at 0.2-0.3 Hz (due to respiration) and 4-10 Hz (probably due to physiological tremor) are observed in periods of weak activity. Because of these peaks, spectral analysis is superior in characterizing effective scaling during sleep, while detrending analysis performs well during wake. Our findings can be exploited to detect sleep-wake transitions.

Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Zinkhan, Melanie; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Penzel, Thomas; Fietze, Ingo; Pillmann, Frank; Stang, Andreas

2013-09-01

271

Assessments of higher-order ionospheric effects on GPS coordinate time series: A case study of CMONOC with longer time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher-order ionospheric (HIO) corrections are proposed to become a standard part for precise GPS data analysis. For this study, we deeply investigate the impacts of the HIO corrections on the coordinate time series by implementing re-processing of the GPS data from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Nearly 13 year data are used in our three processing runs: (a) run NO, without HOI corrections, (b) run IG, both second- and third-order corrections are modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 (IGRF11) to model the magnetic field, (c) run ID, the same with IG but dipole magnetic model are applied. Both spectral analysis and noise analysis are adopted to investigate these effects. Results show that for CMONOC stations, HIO corrections are found to have brought an overall improvement. After the corrections are applied, the noise amplitudes decrease, with the white noise amplitudes showing a more remarkable variation. Low-latitude sites are more affected. For different coordinate components, the impacts vary. The results of an analysis of stacked periodograms show that there is a good match between the seasonal amplitudes and the HOI corrections, and the observed variations in the coordinate time series are related to HOI effects. HOI delays partially explain the seasonal amplitudes in the coordinate time series, especially for the U component. The annual amplitudes for all components are decreased for over one-half of the selected CMONOC sites. Additionally, the semi-annual amplitudes for the sites are much more strongly affected by the corrections. However, when diplole model is used, the results are not as optimistic as IGRF model. Analysis of dipole model indicate that HIO delay lead to the increase of noise amplitudes, and that HIO delays with dipole model can generate false periodic signals. When dipole model are used in modeling HIO terms, larger residual and noise are brought in rather than the effective improvements.

Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Ma, Yifang

2014-05-01

272

Testing effects for common versus proper names  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the testing effect as a function of item meaningfulness. In Experiments 1 and 2 participants studied lists of words that could serve as proper names or occupations (e.g., Mr Baker or baker), with the items given in a name context for one group and an occupation context for a second group. During an intervening phase participants

Amanda E. Sensenig; Megan K. Littrell-Baez; Edward L. DeLosh

2011-01-01

273

LOFT primary coolant pump separate-effects tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pump and motor units, indentical to those to be used in the primary-coolant system of the LOFT facility, were subjected to a series of tests to determine their suitability for loss-of-coolant experiments. These tests were mainly decompressions intended to simulate the various loadings which will occur in LOFT experiments. Additionally, performance tests, cavitation tests, and tests of the water

Felicione

1975-01-01

274

Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment  

SciTech Connect

SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

Ahrens, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)] [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1996-03-01

275

Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. II. Test series after Hardtack II, 1958, and summary.  

PubMed

The historical data on the cumulative individual external gamma exposures are tabulated for communities around the Nevada Test Site for the time periods of 1961 to the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963, and from then until 1975. The collective exposures during the two time periods are calculated to be 610 and 320 person-R, respectively. The total collective external gamma exposure from 1951 through 1975 for these communities s calculated to be 86,000 person-R. The area considered includes the countries of Clark, Lincoln, Nye, and White Pine in Nevada and the countries of Iron and Washington in Utah; inclusion of Salt Lake City would have substantially increased the calculated collective exposure because of the large population. The methods of calculation are reviewed. Also, the historical data on the assessment of dose via ingestion are reviewed with emphasis on the dose to the thyroid of infants living in St. George, UT, at the time of fallout from event HARRY on 19 May 1953. PMID:2211112

Anspaugh, L R; Ricker, Y E; Black, S C; Grossman, R F; Wheeler, D L; Church, B W; Quinn, V E

1990-11-01

276

Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. II. Test series after Hardtack II, 1958, and summary  

SciTech Connect

The historical data on the cumulative individual external gamma exposures are tabulated for communities around the Nevada Test Site for the time periods of 1961 to the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963, and from then until 1975. The collective exposures during the two time periods are calculated to be 610 and 320 person-R, respectively. The total collective external gamma exposure from 1951 through 1975 for these communities s calculated to be 86,000 person-R. The area considered includes the countries of Clark, Lincoln, Nye, and White Pine in Nevada and the countries of Iron and Washington in Utah; inclusion of Salt Lake City would have substantially increased the calculated collective exposure because of the large population. The methods of calculation are reviewed. Also, the historical data on the assessment of dose via ingestion are reviewed with emphasis on the dose to the thyroid of infants living in St. George, UT, at the time of fallout from event HARRY on 19 May 1953.

Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Wheeler, D.L.; Church, B.W.; Quinn, V.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

277

Design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of RF MEMS series switches using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this thesis was to design and prototype a robust, low voltage RF MEMS switch for use in military phased arrays. The frequencies of interest for this work include very low frequencies down to DC operation with the upper limit extending to at least 40 GHz. This broad frequency requirement requires a robust high frequency design and simulation using microwave transmission lines. With the aid of researchers at the US Army Research Laboratory, co-planar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines were chosen and designed to provide a low loss, 50 ohm impedance transmission line for the switch. CPW designs allow for both series and shunt switch configuration with this work focusing on a series switch. Furthermore, a series switch an ohmic contact was chosen as opposed to capacitive contacts. Piezoelectric actuation is chosen for the switch to enable operating voltages less than 10 volts while still maintaining a restoring force to prevent stiction. To meet these demands, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been chosen for the piezoelectric actuator. Mechanical modeling of cantilevers comprised of an elastic layer and a Pt-PZT-Pt actuator were used to demonstrate feasibility of closing large gaps between switch contacts. Placement of the actuator to minimize perturbations to the RF transmission line is critical for broadband performance. Using fabrication design rules, electro-mechanical modeling, and high frequency design, the actuators were designed to fit with the RF gap between the RF conductor and ground planes of the CPW transmission line. Optimal performance was obtained with the actuators mechanically isolated from a majority of the RF transmission except for a small section that provides the contact pad to enable switch closure. The resulting switch is the first demonstrated first surface micromachined RF MEMS switch operating from DC to 65 GHz. This switch has a median actuation voltage below 5 volts with operation as low as 2 volts. Isolation in the off state is better than -20 dB across the frequency band with values better than -60 dB observed for frequency below 1 GHz. The insertion loss in the on state is less than 1 dB below 40 GHz and remains below 2 dB up to 65 GHz. Switching time was demonstrated at 40 mus and was limited by bouncing between the contacts, with initial contact observed at less than 10 mus. The cycle reliability of this switch has been tested with high contact resistance failures observed in the low 106 cycles range. The reliability appears to be limited by organic contamination between the contacting surfaces, possibly the result of resist residue and/or the development of a frictional polymer on the platinum coated contact surface. With one application of this RF MEMS switch targeted for military phased arrays, temperature sensitivity is an extremely important characteristic. The PZT SW5.1 design exhibited excellent off state performance with no change in the isolation characteristics from -25°C to 100°C. However, in the on state, the actuation voltage is required to increase to 20 volts to ensure operation at 100°C. The temperature sensitivity was improved by redesigning the RF contact pad to enable co-linear contact between the RF input and output sides of the transmission. This redesign, PZT SW5.2, successfully enables operation of the PZT RF MEMS switch from -25°C to 100°C with an actuation voltage less than 10 volts. The isolation of the newer design remains similar to the earlier design with values better than -20 dB up through 50 GHz. The insertion loss of this design exhibited a slight improvement compared to the earlier design with values less than 0.3 dB below 40 GHz and rising to 0.5 dB up through 50 GHz. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Polcawich, Ronald G.

278

Preliminary Results of the Third Test Series of Nonmetal Material Flammability Evaluation In SKOROST Apparatus on the Space Station Mir  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work has been done according to the US/Russian Joint Project "Experimental Evaluation of the Material Flammability in Microgravity" a continued combustion study in the SKOROST test apparatus on the OS Mir. The objective of the project was to evaluate the flammability and flame-spread rate for the selected polymer materials in low velocity flow in microgravity. Lately, the issue of nonmetal material combustion in microgravity has become of great importance, based on the necessity to develop the fire safety system for the new International Space Station (ISS). Lack of buoyant flow in microgravity reduces oxygen transfer into the combustion zone, which leads to flame extinction when the flow velocity is less than the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for the material. The ISS FGB fire-safety system was developed based on this phenomenon. The existence of minimum flow velocity V(sub lim) to sustain fire for the selected materials was determined both theoretically and experimentally. In the latter, it is shown that, even for thermally thin nonmetal materials with a very low oxygen index C(sub lim) of 12.5% (paper sheets with the thickness of 0.1 mm), a limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) exists at oxygen concentration Co(sub OX) = 17-21%, and is about 1.0 - 0.1 cm/sec. This might be explained by the relative increase in thermal losses due to radiation from the surface and from the gaseous phase. In the second series of experiments in Skorost apparatus on Orbital Station Mir the existence of the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) for combustion was confirmed for PMMA and glass-epoxy composite strip samples 2 mm thick at oxygen concentration C(sub OX) = 21.5%. It was concluded that V(sub lim) depends on C(sub OX) for the PMMA sample with a low oxygen index of 15.5%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was less than 0.5 cm/sec, and for the glass-epoxy composite sample with a high oxygen index of 19%, the limiting flow velocity V(sub lim) was higher than 15 cm/sec. As of now only those materials that maintain their integrity during combustion were investigated. The materials that disintegrate when burning present more danger for fire safety because the flame can spread farther with the parts of the structure, ejected melt drops, et cetera. Materials such as polyethylene are of great interest since they form a lengthy melt zone during the combustion in normal gravity. This melt zone generates drops of liquids that promote faster flame spread compared to usual combustion. The preliminary results of polyethylene insulation flammability evaluation in microgravity are shown in the NASA Wire Insulation Flammability (WIF) experiment during Space Shuttle flight STS-50. A lot of interesting data was collected during the WIF test program. However, one of the most important results was that, in microgravity, the extinction of the polyethylene occurred almost immediately when the flow of relatively low oxygen concentration (C(sub OX)=21%) was stopped. The purpose of the work reported here is to expand the existing data base on material flammability in microgravity and to conduct the third series of the space experiment using Skorost apparatus on Orbiatl Station Mir with melting polymers, which might increase the probability of fire and its propagation in ventilated microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft.

Ivanov, A. V.; Alymov, V. F.; Smirnov, A. B.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ye.Belov, D.; Balashov, Ye.V.; Andreeva, T. V.; Semenov, A. V.; Melikhov, A. S.; Bolodyan, I. A.; Potyakin, V. I.

1999-01-01

279

Contact allergy to acrylates/methacrylates in the acrylate and nail acrylics series in southern Sweden: simultaneous positive patch test reaction patterns and possible screening allergens.  

PubMed

In a recent study we showed that all our dental personnel/patients were detected with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). We studied 90 patients tested to the acrylate and nail acrylics series at our department over a 10 year period to see whether screening allergens could be found. Patch testing with an acrylate and nail acrylics series was performed. Among the 10 acrylate/methacrylate-allergic occupational dermatitis patients tested to the acrylate series, the most common allergens were triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA, 8), diethyleneglycol diacrylate (5), and 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (BUDA, 5). All 10 of these patients would have been picked up by a short screening series combining TREGDA, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA), and BUDA or 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA). Among the 14 acrylate/methacrylate-allergic nail patients, the most common allergens were ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 11), 2-HEMA, (9), and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (9). Screening for 3 allergens i.e. 2-HEMA plus EGDMA plus TREGDA, would have detected all 14 nail patients. A short screening series combining 2-HEMA, EGDMA, TREGDA, 2-HPMA, bis-GMA, and BUDA or HDDA would have picked up all our past study patients (dental, industrial, and nail) with suspected allergy to acrylate/methacrylate allergens. PMID:17577353

Teik-Jin Goon, Anthony; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Goh, Chee-Leok; Isaksson, Marléne

2007-07-01

280

Evaluation of the PBF LOFT lead rod test results concerning surface thermocouple perturbation effects  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the PBF LOFT Lead Rod (LLR) Test program was to provide experimental data to characterize the mechanical behavior of LOFT type nuclear fuel rods under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, simulating the test conditions expected for the LOFT Power Ascension (L2) Test series. Although the LLR tests were not explicitly designed to evaluate cladding surface thermocouple perturbation effects, comparison of the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) data for rods instrumented with and without cladding thermocouples provided pertinent information concerning the effects of cladding thermocouples on the time to DNB and time to quench data. Documentation and review of this data is presented.

Carboneau, M.L.; Tolman, E.L.

1980-02-08

281

Downflow dryout in a heated ribbed vertical annulus with a cosine power profile (Results from test series ECS-2, WSR, and ECS-2cE)  

SciTech Connect

Experiments designed to investigate surface dryout in a heated, ribbed annulus test section simulating one of the annular coolant channels of a Savannah River Plant production reactor Mark 22 fuel assembly have been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The inner surface of the annulus was constructed of aluminum and was electrically heated to provide an axial cosine power profile and a flat azimuthal power shape. Data presented in this report are from the ECS-2, WSR, and ECS-2cE series of tests. These experiments were conducted to examine the onset of wall thermal excursion for a range of flow, inlet fluid temperature, and annulus outlet pressure. Hydraulic boundary conditions on the test section represent flowrates (0.1--1.4 1/s), inlet fluid temperatures (293--345 K), and outlet pressures (-18--139.7 cm of water relative to the bottom of the heated length (61--200 cm of water relative to the bottom of the lower plenum)) expected to occur during the Emergency Coolant System (ECS) phase of postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident in a production reactor. The onset of thermal excursion based on the present data is consistent with data gathered in test rigs with flat axial power profiles. The data indicate that wall dryout is primarily a function of liquid superficial velocity. Air entrainment rate was observed to be a strong function of the boundary conditions (primarily flowrate and liquid temperature), but had a minor effect on the power at the onset of thermal excursion for the range of conditions examined. 14 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

Larson, T.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Condie, K.G.

1990-12-01

282

Information Order Effects: Examining The Effect of Sequencing and Complexity in a Long Information Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As operators become dependent on systems for decision support, their decisions may be susceptible to order effects which may result in over-weighting of prior or recent information. The question this research seeks to answer is: Does the theory of anchori...

I. Keltz L. Adelman

2007-01-01

283

Development, Testing, and Certification of the Northrup, Inc., Ml Series Concentrating Solar Collector Model Nsc-01-0732.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary is presented of the additional development work on the existing ML Series concentrating solar collector for use with solar heating and cooling systems. The report discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware...

J. C. Parker

1979-01-01

284

A new method to detect nonlinearity in a time-series: synthesizing surrogate data using a Kolmogorov-Smirnoff tested, hidden Markov model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A way of statistically testing for nonlinearity in a time-series is to employ the method of surrogate data. This method often makes use of the Fourier transform (FT) in order to generate the surrogate. As various authors have shown, this can lead to artefacts in the surrogates and spurious detection of nonlinearity can result. This paper documents a new method

C. P. Unsworth; M. R. Cowper; S. McLaughlin; B. Mulgrew

2001-01-01

285

A new method to detect nonlinearity in a time-series: synthesizing surrogate data using a Kolmogorov–Smirnoff tested, hidden Markov model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A way of statistically testing for nonlinearity in a time-series is to employ the method of surrogate data. This method often makes use of the Fourier transform (FT) in order to generate the surrogate. As various authors have shown, this can lead to artefacts in the surrogates and spurious detection of nonlinearity can result. This paper documents a new method

C. P. Unsworth; M. R. Cowper; S. McLaughlin; B. Mulgrew

2001-01-01

286

Detection of nonlinearity in a time-series: by the synthesis of surrogate data using a Kolmogorov-Smirnoff tested, hidden Markov model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional methods of hypothesis testing for nonlinearity in a time-series employ the method of surrogate data which makes use of the Fourier transform (FT). As various authors have shown, this can lead to artifacts in the surrogates and spurious detection of nonlinearity can result. This paper documents a new method to synthesize surrogate data using a 1st order hidden Markov

C. P. Unsworth; M. Cowper; S. McLaughlin; B. Mulgrew

1999-01-01

287

Optimality of Lower Confidence Limits for the Reliability of Series Systems Obtained by the Method of Key Test Results or other Related Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to obtain lower confidence limits for the reliability of series systems using binomial subsystem data, K. A. Weaver introduced the method of 'key test results' . This work was extended by A. Winterbottom. In the present paper, conditions are obta...

B. Harris A. P. Soms

1985-01-01

288

EFFECTS OF FOREFOOT RUNNING ON CHRONIC EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: A CASE SERIES  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition that occurs almost exclusively with running whereby exercise increases intramuscular pressure compromising circulation, prohibiting muscular function, and causing pain in the lower leg. Currently, a lack of evidence exists for the effective conservative management of CECS. Altering running mechanics by adopting forefoot running as opposed to heel striking may assist in the treatment of CECS, specifically with anterior compartment symptoms. Case Description: The purpose of this case series is to describe the outcomes for subjects with CECS through a systematic conservative treatment model focused on forefoot running. Subject one was a 21 y/o female with a 4 year history of CECS and subject two was a 21 y/o male, 7 months status-post two-compartment right leg fasciotomy with a return of symptoms and a new onset of symptoms on the contralateral side. Outcome: Both subjects modified their running technique over a period of six weeks. Kinematic and kinetic analysis revealed increased step rate while step length, impulse, and peak vertical ground reaction forces decreased. In addition, leg intracompartmental pressures decreased from pre-training to post-training. Within 6 weeks of intervention subjects increased their running distance and speed absent of symptoms of CECS. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by the subjects at 7 months following intervention; subject one reported running distances up to 12.87 km pain-free and subject two reported running 6.44 km pain-free consistently 3 times a week. Discussion: This case series describes a potentially beneficial conservative management approach to CECS in the form of forefoot running instruction. Further research in this area is warranted to further explore the benefits of adopting a forefoot running technique for CECS as well as other musculoskeletal overuse complaints.

Gregory, Robert; Alitz, Curtis; Gerber, J. Parry

2011-01-01

289

Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression Designs: A Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error…

Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.

2007-01-01

290

The Essentials of Social Studies, Grades K-8: Effective Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment (Priorities in Practice Series)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's fixation on math and literacy testing makes it tough for social studies teachers to deliver a challenging curriculum. But you can overcome those constraints and prepare students to actively participate in a democratic society with the ideas from this new volume in our "Priorities in Practice" series. Firsthand accounts from talented and…

Checkley, Kathy

2007-01-01

291

Isotopic fractionation during leaching of impure carbonates and their effect on uranium series dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were designed to evaluate the behaviour of detritus during the leaching of impure carbonates by applying the U-Th isochron technique. We used one natural detritus and a pure, well-dated CaCO 3, alone and in artificial mixtures. One set of experiments was designed to study the effects of sample pre-treatment on the detritus and a second set to examine the effect of acid attacks on both the carbonate and the detritus fractions in a mixture of constant proportions. For both sets of data, the extracted fraction from the detritus was calculated for 238U, 234U, 230Th and 232Th and their constancy established. These conditions are necessary to apply the L/L method [Schwarcz, H.P., Latham, A.G., 1989. Dirty calcites. 1.-Uranium-series dating of contaminated calcite using leachates alone. Chemical Geology (Isotopes Geoscience Section) 80, 35-43] for U/Th dating. Finally, the L/L method was applied to the artificial impure carbonate and the resulting age is found in agreement with the age of the pure carbonate sample. We concluded that conditions of the L/L method to be applied for ageing impure carbonates hold.

Alcaraz Pelegrina, J. M.; Martínez-Aguirre, A.

2005-12-01

292

Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ?-linolenic series on the development of rat testicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 22?6?3 acid provided by dietary fish oil on the development of germinal tissue of rat testes, fatty acid composition\\u000a of lipids, and linoleic or ?-linolenic acid ?6 desaturation capacity was investigated. Results were compared to those obtained\\u000a in animals fed methyl palmitate and sunflower seed oil (linoleate). At 7 and 9 weeks of age, development of germinal

Sixta Ayala; Rodolfo R. Brenner; César Gómez Dumm

1977-01-01

293

Serial position effects in implicit and explicit tests of memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of serial position at study on implicit and explicit tests of memory were investigated. Both primacy and recency effects were observed in implicit tests of word-stem completion. These effects, however, were transient. No serial position effects were found in the second half of testing (Experiments 1 and 3) or when testing followed a 1-min, filled delay (Experiment 2).

Felicia B. Gershberg; Arthur P. Shimamura

1994-01-01

294

Validation of non-Darcian flow effects in slug tests conducted in fractured rock boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA series of rising and falling head slug tests with different initial applied head differentials (?Ho) were conducted in open fractured dolostone and sandstone boreholes using straddle packers isolating specific depth intervals (1.5 m length) to examine the influence of non-Darcian flow. The open holes were developed and inspected using video and acoustic televiewing (ATV) to ensure that evidence of skin effects due to drilling were absent. The transmissivity (T) values obtained from both the rising and falling head slug tests were very similar at low initial applied head; however, the T values were progressively smaller at larger ?Ho, suggesting error due to non-Darcian flow. Non-Darcian flow behavior was confirmed by constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals where the injection rate (Q) vs. applied head (dH) relationship became non-linear at relatively low injection rates, and the non-Darcian data also resulted in lower T values. For a series of slug tests conducted at different ?Ho, non-Darcian flow effects gradually increased as ?Ho increased, consistent with the trends for constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals. To maintain Darcian flow conditions in the fractured dolostone and sandstone tested in this study, ?Ho must be kept small, generally less than 0.2 m. This study demonstrates that by conducting both "stepped" slug tests and constant head step tests, the Darcian flow assumption for both types of tests can be rigorously validated. However, when only slug tests are conducted, it is necessary to conduct a series of "stepped" slug tests, including tests with small applied head differentials, to avoid errors due to non-Darcian flow.

Quinn, Patryk M.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

2013-04-01

295

Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two sol...

M. E. Ralph C. P. Cameron C. M. Ghanbari

1992-01-01

296

Effectiveness of back-to-back testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three models of back-to-back testing processes are described. Two models treat the case where there is no intercomponent failure dependence. The third model describes the more realistic case where there is correlation among the failure probabilities of the functionally equivalent components. The theory indicates that back-to-back testing can, under the right conditions, provide a considerable gain in software reliability. The models are used to analyze the data obtained in a fault-tolerant software experiment. It is shown that the expected gain is indeed achieved, and exceeded, provided the intercomponent failure dependence is sufficiently small. However, even with the relatively high correlation the use of several functionally equivalent components coupled with back-to-back testing may provide a considerable reliability gain. Implications of this finding are that the multiversion software development is a feasible and cost effective approach to providing highly reliable software components intended for fault-tolerant software systems, on condition that special attention is directed at early detection and elimination of correlated faults.

Vouk, Mladen A.; Mcallister, David F.; Eckhardt, David E.; Caglayan, Alper; Kelly, John P. J.

1987-01-01

297

Time-series modeling of reservoir effects on river nitrate concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saylorville Reservoir is a 24.1 km 2 impoundment of the Des Moines River located approximately 10 km north of the City of Des Moines, Iowa, USA. Surface water from the Des Moines River used for drinking water supply is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen. Monthly mean nitrate concentration data collected upstream and downstream of the reservoir for a 30-year period (1977-2006) were selected for time-series analysis. Our objectives were to (1) develop a model describing nitrate concentrations downstream of the reservoir as a function of the concentrations entering the reservoir and (2) use the model to provide a 1-month ahead forecast for downstream water quality. Results indicated that downstream nitrate can be effectively modeled using a transfer function approach that utilized inflow concentrations during the current and previous month as input variables. Inflow concentrations were modeled using an AR(20) model, with the higher order model consistent with temporal correlation noted by others. The transfer function model suggested that the reservoir is reducing nitrate concentrations by 22 ± 6%, a reduction that greatly exceeds previous estimates. Monthly nitrate forecasted with the model were nearly all within a 95% prediction interval of their actual measured values and did not appear greatly affected by flow variations.

Schoch, Andrea L.; Schilling, Keith E.; Chan, Kung-Sik

2009-08-01

298

Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives.

2014-01-01

299

Testing and Evaluation of the Stoeckert Shiley Multiflow Roller Pump Module, 10H Series, Model 10-10-00.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Stockert-Shiley, Multiflow Roller Pump is a precision peristaltic pump. It is an integral component of the Neonatal/Pediatric ECMO Transport System. The roller pump is plugged into a series bladder box, then into a modified Tripplite Isobar, then into...

A. E. Jones

1998-01-01

300

Effects of Mode of Instruction, Testing, Order of Testing, and Cued Recall on Student Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment was designed to investigate effect of verbal instruction alone vs. verbal instruction complemented by simple line drawings; effect of visual testing vs. nonvisual testing; effect of verbal cued vs. free recall on student achievement; effect of order of testing on subsequent achievement; and interaction among type of instruction,…

Dwyer, Francis M.; De Melo, Hermes

1984-01-01

301

A Test of the Testing Effect: Acquiring Problem-Solving Skills from Worked Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies to the…

van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth

2012-01-01

302

Validation of an Academic Listening Test: Effects of "Breakdown" Tests and Test Takers' Cognitive Awareness of Listening Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a test…

Chi, Youngshin

2011-01-01

303

Artemisinin and a Series of Novel Endoperoxide Antimalarials Exert Early Effects on Digestive Vacuole Morphology? ‡  

PubMed Central

Artermisinin and its derivatives are now the mainstays of antimalarial treatment; however, their mechanism of action is only poorly understood. We report on the synthesis of a novel series of epoxy-endoperoxides that can be prepared in high yields from simple starting materials. Endoperoxides that are disubstituted with alkyl or benzyl side chains show efficient inhibition of the growth of both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. A trans-epoxide with respect to the peroxide linkage increases the activity compared to that of its cis-epoxy counterpart or the parent endoperoxide. The novel endoperoxides do not show a strong interaction with artemisinin. We have compared the mechanism of action of the novel endoperoxides with that of artemisinin. Electron microscopy reveals that the novel endoperoxides cause the early accumulation of endocytic vesicles, while artemisinin causes the disruption of the digestive vacuole membrane. At longer incubation times artemisinin causes extensive loss of organellar structures, while the novel endoperoxides cause myelin body formation as well as the accumulation of endocytic vesicles. An early event following endoperoxide treatment is the redistribution of the pH-sensitive probe LysoSensor Blue from the digestive vacuole to punctate structures. By contrast, neither artemisinin nor the novel endoperoxides caused alterations in the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum nor showed antagonistic antimalarial activity when they were used with thapsigargin. Analysis of rhodamine 123 uptake by P. falciparum suggests that disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential occurs as a downstream effect rather than as an initiator of parasite killing. The data suggest that the digestive vacuole is an important initial site of endoperoxide antimalarial activity.

del Pilar Crespo, Maria; Avery, Thomas D.; Hanssen, Eric; Fox, Emma; Robinson, Tony V.; Valente, Peter; Taylor, Dennis K.; Tilley, Leann

2008-01-01

304

Effect of Treadmill Training on Specific Gait Parameters in Older Adults with Frailty: Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Treadmill walking training (TWT) as an intervention to improve the gait of frail older adults has not been well studied. In this pilot study, we describe the feasibility, tolerance, and effect of TWT on specific gait parameters during overground walking in four frail older adults as a prelude to developing larger scale exercise intervention trials in this high-risk population. Case Description Four community-residing frail older individuals (age>70) with Mini-Mental Status Examination score of 26 or higher and no activity limitations. Frailty was defined as presence of at least three out of the following five attributes: slow gait (<1 m/sec), unintentional weight loss (>10 lbs in prior year), self-report of poor grip strength, exhaustion, and low level of physical activity. Intervention TWT consisted of 24 sessions (3 times/week for 8 weeks). Five quantitative gait parameters [velocity, stride length, swing time, percentage of double support phase, coefficient of variation (COV) of stride length] during overground walking were measured at baseline, weekly during training, and immediately post-TWT. Outcome All participants tolerated TWT without significant complications. Following TWT, gait velocity increased in all participants by 6.4 to 26.8 cm/sec, which was larger than the reported value for meaningful change in gait velocity (4 cm/sec). Stride length and double support phase also showed improvement in all participants (mean percentage increase of 10.8 % for stride length, and 17.1% reduction for double support phase post training compared to baseline). Swing time improved in three participants (mean reduction of 4.5 %). The COV of stride length did not show consistent improvement. Discussion This case series shows that TWT is feasible and well tolerated by frail older adults, and may improve most gait parameters in this high-risk population.

Holtzer, Roee; Mahoney, Jeannette; Wang, Cuiling; Verghese, Joe

2011-01-01

305

Experimental results of an integral effects test in a zion-like geometry to investigate the effect of a classically inert atmosphere on direct containment heating: The IET-5 experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fifth experiment of the Integral Effects Test (IET-5) series was conducted to investigate the effects of high pressure melt ejection on direct containment heating. Scale models of the Zion reactor pressure vessel (RPV), cavity, instrument tunnel, and ...

M. D. Allen T. K. Blanchat M. Pilch R. T. Nichols

1992-01-01

306

Assessment of the dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period series during atrial fibrillation: effects of isoproterenol administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in the genesis and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF), but quantification of its electrophysiologic effects is extremely complex and difficult. Aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of linear and non-linear indexes to capture the fine changing dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period (LAP) series during

Luca T Mainardi; Valentina DA Corino; Leonida Lombardi; Claudio Tondo; Massimo Mantica; Federico Lombardi; Sergio Cerutti

2004-01-01

307

A New Model for Investigating the Mortality Effects of Multiple Air Pollutants in Air Pollution Mortality Time-Series Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the sometimes high correlation between air pollutants, the results from studies that focus on a single air pollutant can be difficult to interpret. In addition,

Steven Roberts

2006-01-01

308

Estimation of effect size in a meta-analysis of series of validity studies on matriculation examinations in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study formulated an algebraic path from the series of studies meta-analyzed on the validity of the University Matriculation Examination (UME) in Nigeria; in order to obtain a unique and common metrics with a view of making the results to convey the same interpretation. The study determined both the individual and overall effect sizes of 30 empirical studies. It also

E. O. Adeyemo; E. R. I. Afolabi

2009-01-01

309

The Effect on Non-Normal Distributions on the Integrated Moving Average Model of Time-Series Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Integrated Moving Average (IMA) model of time series, and the analysis of intervention effects based on it, assume random shocks which are normally distributed. To determine the robustness of the analysis to violations of this assumption, empirical sampling methods were employed. Samples were generated from three populations; normal,…

Doerann-George, Judith

310

Testing the hypothesis that treatments have negligible effects: Minimum-effect tests in the general linear model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers are often interested in testing the hypothesis that the effects of treatments, interventions, and so on are negligibly small rather than testing the hypothesis that treatments have no effect whatsoever. A number of procedures for conducting such tests have been suggested but have yet to be widely adopted. In this article, simple methods of testing such minimum-effect hypotheses are

Kevin R. Murphy; Brett Myors

1999-01-01

311

Effect of Aminophenyl and Aminothiahexyl ?-d-Glycosides of the Manno-, Gluco-, and Galacto-Series on Type 1 Fimbriae-Mediated Adhesion of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Adhesion of bacteria to the glycosylated surface of their target cells is typically mediated by fimbrial lectins, exposed on the bacterial surface. Among the best-investigated and most important fimbriae are type 1 fimbriae, for which ?-d-mannopyranoside-specificity has been described. This carbohydrate specificity is mediated by the type 1 fimbrial lectin FimH. In this account, we have employed four different set-ups to assay type 1 fimbriae-mediated bacterial adhesion, including tailor-made glycoarrays. The focus of our study was on testing FimH specificity with regard to the glycone part of a glycosidic ligand by testing a series of synthetic ?-mannosides, as well as ?-glucosides and ?-galactosides. Unexpectedly, it was found that in solution all tested aminothiahexyl glycosides inhibit bacterial adhesion but that this effect is unspecific. Instead it is due to cytotoxicity of the respective glycosides at high mm concentrations.

Fessele, Claudia; Lindhorst, Thisbe K.

2013-01-01

312

Test format and corrective feedback modify the effect of testing on long-term retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of format of an initial test and whether or not students received corrective feedback on that test on a final test of retention 3 days later. In Experiment 1, subjects studied four short journal papers. Immediately after reading each paper, they received either a multiple choice (MC) test, a short answer (SA) test, a list of

Sean H. K. Kang; Kathleen B. McDermott; Henry L. Roediger III

2007-01-01

313

EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON PERFORMANCE AND PERCEPTUAL RESPONSES IN A LABORATORY-SIMULATED BMX CYCLING QUALIFICATION SERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zabala, M, Requena, B, Sanchez-Munoz, C, Gonzalez-Badillo, JJ, Garcõ´a, I, Oopik, V, and Paasuke, M. Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance and perceptual responses in a laboratory-simulated BMX cycling qualification series. J Strength Cond Res 22(5): 1645-1653, 2008—The objective of this study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO32) ingestion on performance and perceptual responses in a

MIKEL ZABALA; BERNARDO REQUENA; CRISTOBAL SANCHEZ-MUNOZ; JUAN JOSEGONZALEZ-BADILLO; INMACULADA GARCIA; VAHUR OOPIK; MATI PAASUKE

314

Series resistance effects in 20 sq cm indium tin oxide-polycrystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indium tin oxide-Si solar cells of 20.8 sq cm area and 9.2% total area efficiency were fabricated on polycrystalline substrates. The cell fabrication sequence is described, with particular attention to the formation of an adherent low resistance front-contact grid based on a solder-dipping process. A detailed series resistance analysis of the structure is given; the sheet resistance of the indium tin oxide layer is measured by a voltage-probing technique and is found to be the dominant series resistance component for the specific grid pattern used.

Genis, A. P.; Osterwald, C.; Mahan, J. E.; Dubow, J. B.

1981-09-01

315

Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

Scott, James R.

2011-01-01

316

Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series  

PubMed Central

Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology and RUT-daily use to determine the optimal strategy. Methods General practitioners included 18–65 years women with symptoms of AUC, performed a RUT and sent urines for analysis at a central laboratory. Different treatment strategies were simulated based on RUT and resistance results. Results Among 347 enrolled patients, 78% had a positive urine culture. Escherichia coli predominated (71%) with high rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (100%), fosfomycin (99%), ofloxacin (97%), and even pivmecillinam (87%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87%). Modelization showed that the systematic use of RUT would reduce by 10% the number of patients treated. Fosfomycin for patients with positive RUT offered a 90% overall bacterial coverage, compared to 98% for nitrofurantoin. 95% for ofloxacin, 86% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 78% for pivmecillinam. Conclusion Local epidemiology surveillance data not biased by complicated UTI demonstrates that the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has not affected AUC yet. Fosfomycin first line in all patients with positive RUT seems the best treatment strategy for AUC, combining good bacterial coverage with expected low toxicity and limited effect on fecal flora. Trial registration The current study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00958295)

2014-01-01

317

Effect of Long-Term Climbing Training on Cerebellar Ataxia: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background. Efficient therapy for both limb and gait ataxia is required. Climbing, a complex task for the whole motor system involving balance, body stabilization, and the simultaneous coordination of all 4 limbs, may have therapeutic potential. Objective. To investigate whether long-term climbing training improves motor function in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Methods. Four patients suffering from limb and gait ataxia underwent a 6-week climbing training. Its effect on ataxia was evaluated with validated clinical balance and manual dexterity tests and with a kinematic analysis of multijoint arm and leg pointing movements. Results. The patients increased their movement velocity and achieved a more symmetric movement speed profile in both arm and leg pointing movements. Furthermore, the 2 patients who suffered the most from gait ataxia improved their balance and 2 of the 4 patients improved manual dexterity. Conclusion. Climbing training has the potential to serve as a new rehabilitation method for patients with upper and lower limb ataxia.

Marianne Anke, Stephan; Sylvie, Krattinger; Jerome, Pasquier; Shahid, Bashir; Thomas, Fournier; Dieter Georg, Ruegg; Karin, Diserens

2011-01-01

318

Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test…

Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

319

Imputation of Test Scores in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the imputation procedures used to deal with missing data in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the only current National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) dataset that contains scores from cognitive tests given the same set of students at multiple time points. As is inevitable, cognitive test…

Bokossa, Maxime C.; Huang, Gary G.

320

Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study: 2000/01 Follow-Up Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:2000/01). The B&B:2000/01 field test included important changes from previous B&B surveys (conducted in 1994 and 1997) in its sample design and collection of data. The introductory chapter describes the…

Biber, Melissa R.; Link, Michael W.; Riccobono, John A.; Siegel, Peter H.

321

HUSSAR SWORD Series. MIGHTY EPIC EVENT, Consolidated MIGHTY EPIC Compression Test Data for Structures and Interface Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report consolidates the compression test data and the physical properties data for the various structures, grouts and cores used in the MIGHTY EPIC underground nuclear test. The purpose of this report is to provide data for use in interpreting damage...

H. L. Piper

1977-01-01

322

Pyroshock testing: Effects of equipment simulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is critical to a spacecraft's mission success that flight equipment be properly qualified to its expected shock environment. Simulators of varying fidelity are often used to measure the shock levels during spacecraft shock tests. Pyroshock test data from a recent spacecraft separation test will be shown that illustrates how shock response spectra differ for avionics equipment simulators of both

William O. Hughes

2002-01-01

323

Construct Validation of Group-Administered Achievement Tests Through Individual Testing. BTES. Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study. Technical Note Series. Technical Note III-4. Phase III-A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical note describes part of the work done to develop student achievement tests in reading and mathematics for use in a later phase of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study. While the achievement battery consists primarily of group-administered multiple-choice test items, several individual-testing studies were conducted to examine the…

Filby, Nikola N.; Dishaw, Marilyn M.

324

Time-series Microarray Cluster Analysis Towards Mining the Effects of Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents clustering analysis using NOD Mice species microarray, from publicly available data at RNA Abundance Database (RAD). The analysis was supported by Short Time-Series Expression Miner (STEM) tool. The raw data involved short records of temporal gene expression data consisting nominal (gene accession numbers) and numerical (quantitative gene expression values) scales. NOD Mice species revealed a susceptibility to

Loh Wei Ping; Yahya Abu Hasan

2008-01-01

325

Pressure Effects of Rare Gases on the Second Doublet of Rubidium Principal Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The displacement, asymmetry, and broadening of the second doublet of the rubidium principal series perturbed by pure helium, neon and argon up to 13 atmospheres are observed. The displacement as well as the broadening of the doublet components are not the same. The 2P12 component shifts and broadens more conspicuously than the 2P112 component (an exception being the broadening by

Ny Tsi-Zé; Ch'en Shang-Yi

1937-01-01

326

MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL MODELS FOR EFFECTS OF PM AND COPOLLUTANTS IN A DAILY TIME SERIES EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Most analyses of daily time series epidemiology data relate mortality or morbidity counts to PM and other air pollutants by means of single-outcome regression models using multiple predictors, without taking into account the complex statistical structure of the predictor variable...

327

Effects of Temperature and Pressure Information in a Hybrid (Fourier Series \\/ Neural Networks) Solar Radiation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation modeling is a critical step in efficient management of solar energy. In this study, a novel solar radiation modeling procedure is developed with the a-priori information of temperature and pressure values, which are naturally dependent on solar radiation via indirect atmospheric phenomena. Firstly, daily behavior of hourly solar radiations is considered in frequency domain. Initial nine Fourier series

M. Fidan; F. O. Hocaoglu; O. N. Gerek

2009-01-01

328

A series expansion of the solid Earth tide effect on geopotential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop analytical series representing the main part of corrections to the geopotential coefficients caused by the solid Earth tides, where Love numbers are assumed to be frequency-independent. The series are compact, precise and valid over 1800 A.D.-2200 A.D. The maximum difference between the corrections given by the analytical series and their numerical values, obtained with use of the DE/LE-423 planetary/lunar ephemerides, does not exceed 0.7× 10^{-12}. A new algorithm is proposed for calculating amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients for frequency dependence of Love numbers. It uses the representation of the Earth tide-generating potential in the standard HW95 format and takes into account the phase of tidal waves. Corrections of up to 2× 10^{-12} to the published by the IERS Conventions (2010) amplitudes of the additional variations of the geopotential coefficients are suggested. Examples of use of the obtained series in analytical theories of motion of low-altitude STARLETTE and high-altitude ETALON-1 satellites are given.

Kudryavtsev, Sergey M.

2013-04-01

329

BIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL IONIZING RADIATION: DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This represents the first in a series of lectures sponsored by the Agency to present a range of perspectives on controversial environmental and health issues from the vantage points of distinguished scientists. The views expressed are, therefore, not necessarily the views of the ...

330

Testing and Merging Information for Effect Size Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-sample test for testing the equality of two effect sizes is presented. The null and non-null distributions of the proposed test statistic are derived. Further, the problem of estimating the effect size is considered when it is a priori suspected that two effect sizes may be close to each other. The combined data from all the samples leads to

Noriah M. Al-Kandari; Sana S. Buhamra; S. E. Ahmed

2007-01-01

331

Swaziland Behavioural Assessment Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Swaziland Behavioural Assessment Series (SBAS) is a battery of ability tests derived from the Flanagan Aptitude Classification Tests and the Internationally Developed Tests, for use in the guidance of secondary school students towards relevant educational and vocational opportunities. The SBAS has been field tested in Swaziland. Sixteen…

Ziyane, Masotsha J.; And Others

332

Qualitative Testing of the 2010 Census Enumeration of Transitory Locations (ETL) Forms. Study Series (Survey Methodology No. 2010-14).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the first qualitative testing of the Enumeration of Transitory Locations, a new Census operation for 2010. Transitory Locations are those where people often live or stay temporarily in between moving from place to place. Examples of ...

J. H. Childs N. Jurgenson

2010-01-01

333

Measuring the Use of a Principle by Retarded Adolescents and Nonretarded Children on a Redundancy Series Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results suggested that, when encountering difficulties in the problem-solving situations on the test, the retarded Ss tended to take the easiest or shortest path to a response by scanning a minimum amount of material. (Author/DLS)

Spitz, Herman H.; Semchuk, Maria T.

1979-01-01

334

Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing with Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792): Survival and Behavioral Responses to a Dilution Series of a Mining Effluent in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Survival, behavioral early warning responses to, and behavioral effects of a complex effluent from Richards Bay Minerals\\u000a in Natal, South Africa, were studied using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792) as a biosensor. Three replicates of eight juvenile fish were exposed to a dilution series of the effluent\\u000a (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100%) and the behavioral pattern

A. Gerhardt

1998-01-01

335

Series resistance effects in 20 sq cm indium tin oxide-polycrystalline silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indium tin oxide-Si solar cells of 20.8 sq cm area and 9.2% total area efficiency were fabricated on polycrystalline substrates. The cell fabrication sequence is described, with particular attention to the formation of an adherent low resistance front-contact grid based on a solder-dipping process. A detailed series resistance analysis of the structure is given; the sheet resistance of the indium

A. P. Genis; C. Osterwald; J. E. Mahan; J. B. Dubow

1981-01-01

336

Effect of artificial aging on the fatigue crack propagation resistance of 2000 series aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial aging performed to impart higher strength generally degrades the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) resistance of naturally aged 2xxx-series aluminum alloys. This behavior is examined for commercial AA2024-T351 and a naturally aged Al–Cu–Mg–Li alloy stressed in high-humidity air. Environmental fatigue crack growth rate decreases with initial-artificial aging, then increases monotonically with increasing aging time. Overaging does not improve cracking resistance.

G. H Bray; M Glazov; R. J Rioja; D Li; R. P Gangloff

2001-01-01

337

Time series analysis of air pollution and mortality: effects by cause, age and socioeconomic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate the association between outdoor air pollution and mortality in Sa?o Paulo, Brazil.DESIGNTime series studyMETHODSAll causes, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality were analysed and the role of age and socioeconomic status in modifying associations between mortality and air pollution were investigated. Models used Poisson regression and included terms for temporal patterns, meteorology, and autocorrelation.MAIN RESULTSAll causes all ages mortality showed

Nelson Gouveia; Tony Fletcher

2000-01-01

338

Geologic surface effects of underground nuclear testing, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a new Geographic Information System composite map of the geologic surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flat Physiographic Area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a continental location for testing nuclear devices (Allen and others, 1997, p.3). Originally known as the

Grasso

2000-01-01

339

Testing the Effectiveness of a Televised Dental Health Series for Children among a Predominantly Chicano Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five short videotaped programs were produced in which an ethnically nonidentifiable puppet interacts with either a dentist or dental hygienist, or both, to determine if audiovisual health education tools are of value in reducing the anxiety associated wit...

D. L. Shane I. W. Vogel J. L. Trujillo K. Bemis

1974-01-01

340

Contact allergy to (meth)acrylates in the dental series in southern Sweden: simultaneous positive patch test reaction patterns and possible screening allergens.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to dental allergens is a well-studied subject, more so among dental professionals than dental patients. 1632 subjects had been patch tested to either the dental patient series or dental personnel series at the department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Malmö, Sweden. Positive patch tests to (meth)acrylate allergens were seen in 2.3% (30/1322) of the dental patients and 5.8% (18/310) of the dental personnel. The most common allergen for both groups was 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), followed by ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, and methyl methacrylate. 47 (29 dental patients and 18 dental personnel) out of these 48 had positive patch tests to 2-HEMA. All 30 subjects who had a positive reaction to EGDMA had a simultaneous positive reaction to 2-HEMA. One dental patient reacted only to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). From our data, screening for (meth)acrylate contact allergy with 2-HEMA alone would have picked up 96.7% (29/30) of our (meth)acrylate-allergic dental patients and 100% (18/18) of our (meth)acrylate-allergic dental personnel. The addition of bis-GMA in dental patients would increase the pick-up rate to 100%. PMID:16958920

Goon, Anthony T J; Isaksson, Marléne; Zimerson, Erik; Goh, Chee Leok; Bruze, Magnus

2006-10-01

341

South Carolina Statewide Testing Program 1989 Summary Report. Office of Research Report Series, Volume One, Number 102.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the seventh consecutive year, the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, Form U (CTBS/U) was used to measure achievement in South Carolina public schools in the following areas: (1) reading; (2) spelling; (3) language; (4) mathematics; (5) reference skills; (6) science; and (7) social studies. Results for grades 4, 5, 7, 9, and 11 are summarized…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Research.

342

Educators' Responses to LEP Students' Participation in the 1997 Basic Standards Testing. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minnesota has developed a statewide assessment in response to the national movement toward state accountability and high standards for all students. The Minnesota Basic Standards Tests currently assess whether a student has achieved a minimum level of competency in reading, math, and writing. Limited English speaking (LEP) students in Minnesota…

Liu, Kristin; Spicuzza, Richard; Erickson, Ron; Thurlow, Martha; Ruhland, Aaron

343

Focus Group Input on Students with Limited English Proficiency and Minnesota's Basic Standards Tests. State Assessment Series: Minnesota, Report 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes findings of two half-day focus group meetings that discussed experiences and concerns about the participation of students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in Minnesota's Basic Standards Exams. The focus groups included test coordinators, general classroom teachers, and English as a Second Language teachers. The report…

Liu, Kristin; Spicuzza, Richard; Erickson, Ron

344

Extracting Mobility Degradation and Total Series Resistance of Cylindrical Gate-All-Around Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobility-degradation factor and the series resistance of cylindrical gate-all-around silicon nanowire field-effect transistors are extracted using the same mobility-degradation model as in the case of planar MOSFETs. The extraction is done by defining an asymptotic voltage as a function of the saturation current measured from devices with various lengths. The extracted mobility-degradation factor is an order of magnitude larger

Luryi Choi; Byoung Hak Hong; Young Chai Jung; Keun Hwi Cho; Kyoung Hwan Yeo; Dong-Won Kim; Gyo Young Jin; Kyung Seok Oh; Won-Seong Lee; Sang-Hun Song; Jae Sung Rieh; Dong Mok Whang; Sung Woo Hwang

2009-01-01

345

The Effects of Test Difficulty Manipulation in Computerized Adaptive Testing and Self-Adapted Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared easy and difficult versions of self-adapted tests (SAT) and computerized adapted tests. No significant differences were found among the tests for estimated ability or posttest state anxiety in studies with 187 Spanish high school students, although other significant differences were found. Discusses implications for interpreting test…

Ponsoda, Vicente; Olea, Julio; Rodriguez, Maria Soledad; Revuelta, Javier

1999-01-01

346

Effects of changes in observational sites position and surrounding urbanisation on the temperature time series of the city of Trento  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from field measurements and numerical simulations are analysed to evaluate the spatial variability of near-surface temperature in the urban area of Trento in the Alps. The analysis aims at gaining information supporting the reconstruction of the series of temperature observations in the city, the earliest dating back to 1816: a challenging task, due to various relocations of the observatories and the increasing effects of urbanisation. The specifically designed field campaign was carried out from August 2009 to November 2010: five identical temperature sensors were placed at the sites of the historical observatories of Trento, to detect possible systematic differences between these places under various seasonal patterns and weather conditions. However, since differences measured nowadays may not be representative of those occurred in the past, numerical simulations were also run with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, coupled with an advanced urban parameterization scheme, using a historical land use, reproducing early XX century urbanisation. Moreover, to test if the model is suitable to reproduce microclimatic differences in the urban area, simulations including the present land use, high-resolution urban morphology and anthropogenic heat sources were performed and compared against the observations carried out during the field campaign. The validation highlights that the model captures well the thermal field inside the urban area, as well as the average temperature differences between the urban sites, with mean absolute errors of order 1°C and 0.5°C respectively. However it reproduces poorly the variability connected with seasonality and weather conditions. Furthermore it is found that the model simulates well the typical features of the urban heat island, even though urbanisation effects tend to be overestimated. The analysis of the results of the "historical" simulations shows that temperature differences between the observatories more embedded in the urban area have not changed significantly from the past, probably due to similar changes in the surrounding urbanisation, whereas more relevant modifications have occurred at an observatory on the eastern sidewall of the valley, progressively incorporated in the urban area. Finally the comparison between "present" and "historical" simulations suggests that the progressive urbanisation has played a significant role on Trento temperature record in the last century, the effect being more significant under sunny conditions, when the urban heat island is stronger.

Giovannini, Lorenzo; Zardi, Dino; de Franceschi, Massimiliano

2014-05-01

347

Effect of copper content on corrosion behavior and chromate conversion coating protection of 7xxx series aluminum alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of Cu in Al-Zn-Mg alloys increases the mechanical strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking of 7xxx series aluminum alloys (AA7xxx). The peak aged T6 temper provides the maximum mechanical strength by precipitation hardening. However, the presence of noble Cu makes AA7xxx-T6 more susceptible to localized corrosion, such as pitting, crevice and intergranular corrosion (IGC). In order to protect AA7xxx-T6 from localized corrosion, protective chromate conversion coatings (CCCs) must be used. Cu has been reported to affect the CCC protection performance. The exact roles of Cu content in corrosion behavior and CCC protection of AA7xxx-T6 are the focus of this study. Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) approaches were used in combination with materials characterization techniques, such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB), SEM, TEM, High Resolution TEM (HRTEM), Scanning TEM (STEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS). Electrochemical tests on AA7xxx-T6 with various Cu content in deaerated chloride solution found that all alloys except for essentially Cu-free AA7004-T6 had two breakdown potentials, which increased logarithmically with increasing Cu content. Transient dissolution of the fine hardening precipitates and the surrounding solid solution in a thin surface layer was found in the Cu-containing alloys polarized at potentials between the two breakdown potentials. Stable dissolution associated with combined IGC and selective grain attack was found above the second breakdown potential. EIS tests revealed that the overall influence of Cu on the corrosion behavior was detrimental due to Cu enrichment in aerated chloride solution. TEM and STEM analysis revealed that CCC was heterogeneous on the heterogeneous microstructure of AA7075-T6. The coatings formed on coarse intermetallic particles were much thinner than CCC formed on the matrix. It was found that the CCC formed on the matrix mainly consisted of a CrIIIOOH backbone and chemisorbed HCrVIO4-. A sol-gel model for CCC formation was supported by the observations in this study. Finally the Cu content can have different effects on CCC protection: Cu is beneficial to CCC protection for coatings formed on polished AA7xxx-T6, but Cu is detrimental if it is enriched on the surface prior to CCC formation.

Meng, Qingjiang

348

Defensiveness Effects on Sex Differences in Children's Test Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships among the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC), the Lie Scale for Children (LSC), and sex were estimated from a pooled sample of 1,755 children in grades 1 to l0. Defensiveness and test anxiety showed equally strong sex differences; sex effects in test anxiety were not completely attributable to sex effects in defensiveness, but…

Eaton, Warren O.

349

Series tests of fine mesh photomultiplier tubes in magnetic fields of up to 1.2 Tesla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new lead\\/scintillating-fibre calorimeter (“SpaCal”) for the backward region of the H1 experiment at HERA (DESY) is equipped with fine mesh phototubes which operate in a magnetic field close to 1 T. A large sample of these tubes of the types Hamamatsu R5505 and R5506, and Hamamatsu R2490-05, have been tested in fields of up to 1.2T. We have investigated

R.-D. Appuhn; C. Arndt; E. Barrelet; R. Barschke; U. Bassler; T. Bipp; V. Boudry; F. Brasse; D. Bruncko; R. Buchholz; S. Chechelnitski; B. Claxton; G. Cozzika; J. Cvach; S. Dagoret-Campagne; W. D. Dau; H. Deckers; T. Deckers; F. Descamps; M. Dirkmann; J. Dowdell; V. Efremenko; E. Eisenhandler; A. N. Eliseev; G. Falley; J. Ferencei; M. Fleischer; B. Fominykh; K. Gadow; U. Goerlach; L. A. Gorbov; I. Gorelov; M. Grewe; L. Hajduk; A. Heck; I. Herynek; J. Hladký; M. Hütte; H. Hutter; W. Janczur; J. Janoth; L. Jönsson; H. Kolanoski; V. Korbel; F. Kriván; D. Lacour; B. Laforge; F. Lamarche; M. P. J. Landon; J.-F. Laporte; F. Lehner; R. Maracek; K. Meier; A. Meyer; A. Migliori; F. Moreau; G. Müller; P. Murín; V. Nagovizin; T. C. Nicholls; D. Ozerov; E. Perez; J. P. Pharabod; R. Pöschl; A. Rostovtsev; C. Royon; K. Rybicki; R. Schediwy; S. Schleif; K. Schmitt; A. Schuhmacher; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; Y. Sirois; P. A. Smirnov; V. Solochenko; J. Špalek; S. Spielmann; H. Steiner; A. Stellberger; J. Stiewe; M. Tasevský; V. Tchernyshov; K. Thiele; E. Tzamariudaki; S. Valkár; D. Vandenplas; G. Villet; K. Wacker; A. Walther; M. Weber; D. Wegener; T. Wenk; J. Žá?ek; A. Zhokin; K. Zuber

1998-01-01

350

Test component attachment effects on resonant plate pyrotechnic shock simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accepted technique for simulating pyrotechnic shock inputs has been the resonant plate test. The plate is designed so that its predominant modes generate the desired frequency content of a given shock test specification. The success of the test is dependent on the engineer's ability to effectively design and control the response of the resonant plate. In designing a test

R. Glenn Bell; Roger M. Zimmerman

1989-01-01

351

Effects of Coaching on GRE Aptitude Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After adjusting for different background characteristics of students, effects on test scores were related to the length and type of test coaching programs offered. The data suggest that the test item types in the Graduate Record Examination General Test appear to show little susceptibility to formal coaching experiences. (Author/DWH)

Powers, Donald E.

1985-01-01

352

Test and evaluation of the Argonne BPAC10 Series air chamber calorimeter designed for 20 minute measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the final report on DOE-OSS Task ANLE88002 Fast Air Chamber Calorimetry.'' The task objective was to design, construct, and test an isothermal air chamber calorimeter for plutonium assay of bulk samples that would meet the following requirements for sample power measurement: average sample measurement time less than 20 minutes. Measurement of samples with power output up to 10 W. Precision of better than 1% RSD for sample power greater than 1 W. Precision better than 0.010 watt SD, for sample power less than 1 W. This report gives a description of the calorimeter hardware and software and discusses the test results. The instrument operating procedure, included as an appendix, gives examples of typical input/output and explains the menu driven software. Sample measurement time of less than 20 minutes was attained by pre-equilibration of the samples in low cost precision preheaters and by prediction of equilibrium measurements. Tests at the TA55 Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, on typical samples, indicates that the instrument meets all the measurement requirements.

Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.; Jung, E.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Cremers, T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-10-01

353

Measuring effects of refractive surgery on corneas using Taylor series polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corneal topographers have made it possible to accurately map corneal shape. We applied this technology to model the post- refractive surgery cornea using Taylor series polynomials. Topography data was taken from 58 patient eyes with photorefractive keratectomy or astigmatic photorefractive keratectomy. We looked at the changes the cornea underwent surgically, as well as the healing process. We compared the post-ablation cornea to the pre-ablation cornea and to the intended correction using novel topography maps. From the refractive map, we quantified the spherical aberration as areas of defocus on the cornea.

Corbin, Jacob A.; Klein, Stanley A.; van de Pol, Corina

1999-06-01

354

Effect of Extraction and Precipitation Conditions During Soybean Protein Isolate Production on the Genistein Series Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the conditions for isolation of soy protein on the content of genistein and its conjugated forms was studied.\\u000a The major components of the genistein series isolated from soybean flour were malonyl genistin (54.3%), genistin (36.9%),\\u000a and equal amounts (4.4%) of genistein and acetyl genistin. A modification in the conjugation profile of genistein between\\u000a pH 4.5 and 8.0 and

F. J. Speroni Aguirre; V. Milesi; M. C. Añón

2007-01-01

355

International Study on Artemia. Nutritional Effects in Toxicity Tests: Use of Different Artemia Geographical Strains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of experiments was conducted to determine whether feeding marine organisms different geographical strains of Artemia prior to or during a toxicity test could significantly alter the results of the test. In each experiment, the test organisms were...

D. A. Bengtson A. D. Beck S. M. Lussier D. Migneault C. E. Olney

1984-01-01

356

Magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 4}(Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} alloy series  

SciTech Connect

Alloys from the Gd{sub 4}(Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} series were prepared by melting a stoichiometric amounts of pure metals in an induction furnace. The crystal structure is of the anti-Th{sub 3}P{sub 4} type (space group I{bar 4}3d) for all the compounds tested. The linear increase of the lattice parameters with Bi concentration is attributed to the larger atomic radius of Bi than that of Sb. Magnetic measurements show that the alloys order ferromagnetically from 266K to 330K, with the ordering temperature increasing with decreasing Bi concentration. The alloys are soft ferromagnets below their Curie temperatures, and follow the Curie-Weiss law above their ordering temperatures. The paramagnetic effective magnetic moments are low compared to the theoretical value for a free Gd{sup 3+}, while the ordered magnetic moments are close to the theoretical value for Gd. The alloys exhibit a moderate magnetocaloric effect (MCE) whose maxima are located between 270K and 338K and have relatively wide peaks. The peak MCE temperature decreases with decreasing Bi concentration while the peak height increases with decreasing Bi concentration. The Curie temperatures determined from inflection points of heat capacity are in good agreement with those obtained from the magnetocaloric effect. The MCE results obtained from the two different methods (magnetization and heat capacity) agree quite well with each other for all of the alloys in the series.

Niu, Xuejun

1999-12-01

357

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Environmental Verification Processes and Test Effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on the JPL processes for enviornmental verification and testing of aerospace systems is presented. The topics include: 1) Processes: a) JPL Design Principles b) JPL Flight Project Practices; 2) Environmental Verification; and 3) Test Effectiveness Assessment: Inflight Anomaly Trends.

Hoffman, Alan R.; Green, Nelson W.

2006-01-01

358

Effects of anomalous (suspicious) data on homogeneity test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogenization of meteorological time series is a fundamental step toward a rigorous climate change analysis. However, before this, the identification and correction of suspicious data is a preliminary and essential work, without it any analyses can be biased. In this poster we present how the suspicious data analysis (and discarding) affects inhomogeneity detection in a high dense database in the conterminous Spain. To do that we have developed a suspicious data detection following the approach by Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., (2008 Int. Journal of Climatology) to total stored data of monthly precipitation of AEMET (Spanish National Meteorological Agency, formerly INM) and then we compared the total amount of inhomogeneities detected (from statistical point of view) prior and after discarding suspicious data. Homogeneity test SNHT was applied at monthly and seasonal-annual scale. Detection and processing the results were done by specific software using reference series (Anclim and roclimDB, Stepanek, 2008). The total amount of monthly precipitation series analyzed is 6821. They are distributed across the study area with a high spatial density (1 observatory /150-200 km2). The total amount of inhomogeneities detected before to discard suspicious data is 9,412 affecting 5,120 series. After discarding a total of 12,399 monthly values (<1% of total original data) the series affected by statistical inhomogeneities were reduce to 2,849 and total amount of inhomogeneities to 3,531. Before and after suspicious data discarding, spatial distribution of inhomogeneities does not show any spatial pattern. Annually total inhomogeneity increase as increase total number of observatories but they decrease in relative terms from 40´s. We conclude that suspicious data significantly affect inhomogeneities detection in monthly precipitation dataset. Therefore, detection and correction/elimination of anomalous values should be an initial step before applying any homogeneity test.

Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Longares, L. A.; Brunetti, M.; Nanni, T.; Stepanek, P.; de Luis, M.

2009-04-01

359

JPL/NASA/IEEE Test Effectiveness Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(none given)From OBJECTIVES: Specific objectives of the working group are to support the innovation, development, evaluation and implementation of test methods, metrics and tools based on failure engineering/physics and/or root cause evaluations. Data sources systems and tools shall be developed and implemented that: 1) provide improved preventions, controls, analyses and tests (PACT) & field failure data collection, 2) facilities data analysis, archiving, retrieval, failure physics and/or root cause evaluations and 3) enable new and existing technology suitability evaluations to be performed.

Gibbel, M.; Larson, T.; Cornford, S.

1996-01-01

360

Effect of the Botanical Compound LCS101 on Chemotherapy-Induced Symptoms in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Case Series Report  

PubMed Central

The treatment of breast cancer invariably results in severe and often debilitating symptoms that can cause significant distress and severely impair daily function and quality-of-life (QOL). We treated a series of 20 female breast cancer patients with the botanical compound LCS101 as adjuvant to conventional chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment regimen, patients rated their symptoms. 70% reported that they had either no or mildly severe levels of fatigue; 60% none to mildly severe weakness; 85% none to mildly severe pain; 70% none to mildly severe nausea; and 80% none to mildly severe vomiting. Only 20% reported severe impairment of overall function, and only 40% severely impaired QOL. No toxic effects were attributed by patients to the LCS101 treatment, and 85% reported that they believed the botanical compound had helped reduce symptoms. The effects of LCS101 on clinical outcomes in breast cancer should be tested further using randomized controlled trials.

Samuels, Noah; Maimon, Yair; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y.

2013-01-01

361

Effect of the Botanical Compound LCS101 on Chemotherapy-Induced Symptoms in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Case Series Report.  

PubMed

The treatment of breast cancer invariably results in severe and often debilitating symptoms that can cause significant distress and severely impair daily function and quality-of-life (QOL). We treated a series of 20 female breast cancer patients with the botanical compound LCS101 as adjuvant to conventional chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment regimen, patients rated their symptoms. 70% reported that they had either no or mildly severe levels of fatigue; 60% none to mildly severe weakness; 85% none to mildly severe pain; 70% none to mildly severe nausea; and 80% none to mildly severe vomiting. Only 20% reported severe impairment of overall function, and only 40% severely impaired QOL. No toxic effects were attributed by patients to the LCS101 treatment, and 85% reported that they believed the botanical compound had helped reduce symptoms. The effects of LCS101 on clinical outcomes in breast cancer should be tested further using randomized controlled trials. PMID:23400272

Samuels, Noah; Maimon, Yair; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y

2013-01-01

362

How assertions can increase test effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel views of mature ideas on software and quality productivity are presented. The author investigates the nature of object oriented development and what it says about the nature of testing techniques. Specifically, he explores an approach to assertion placement based on error masking. As expected, he found that information hiding and encapsulation can be detrimental to system level and integration

J. Voas

1997-01-01

363

Effects of Incorporating Humor in Test Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two matched forms of a 50 item grammar test were developed. Twenty items designed to be humorous were included in one form. Inclusion of humorous items did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items, nor on commmon post-treatment items. Inclusion did not affect results of anxiety measures. (Author/DWH)

McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

1985-01-01

364

Effects of Instructional Backgrounds on Test Performances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an adaptive diagnostic test used as part of an instructional program in signed-number arithmetic on the PLATO system. Findings indicated that differences in prior and subsequent instructional methods affected the learning of more advanced materials and produced lower achievement scores on posttests. Thirty-two references are listed. (MER)

Tatsuoka, Kikumi; Birenbaum, Menucha

1981-01-01

365

Electron transport studies in rhombohedral series of Al-doped LaMnO3+?: an effective medium approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the electron transport studies in the rhombohedral LaMn1-xAlxO3+? series (0?x?20%) of samples. Though all the samples are ferromagnetic below a transition temperature (TC), only the samples with x?5% exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at TC while the samples with x?10% are all semiconducting above and below TC. The sample with x = 7.5% is a borderline case where MIT at TC is immediately taken over by semiconducting behaviour at lower temperatures. Thus a progressive crossover from ferromagnetic-metallic state to ferromagnetic-insulating state is observed in this series within the same structure. This is accompanied by a decrease in Mn4+ content across the magnetic and conduction percolation thresholds. This systematic crossover from a double exchange dominated regime to an exclusively superexchange regime, preserving the rhombohedral symmetry, makes the present series an important and unique one for the study of electron transport in the colossal magnetoresistance manganites. An effective medium approach is employed to explain the resistivity behaviour in this series over the whole temperature range, which gives strong support for polaronic conduction in all the samples. This polaronic conduction justifies the presence of dynamic Jahn-Teller effects in the samples and the change in the character of polarons across TC illustrates the role of electron-lattice interaction as well as its coupling to magnetic states (core spins) of the samples. The dominance of double exchange is evident from metallic resistivity in the samples with x?5% which have Mn4+ much above the percolation threshold for metallicity. However the observed non-trivial temperature dependence of metallic resistivity could not be explained by double exchange alone and it is shown in this study that one needs to take into account superexchange interactions even in the double exchange dominated regime to understand the electron transport, thus supporting the current understanding in these pervoskite manganites.

Krishnan, R. V.; Banerjee, A.

2000-09-01

366

An Annotated Bibliography of Research on the Medical College Admission Test. Medical College Admission Test Interpretive Studies Series, Report No. 82-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography includes 35 reports of research, dated from 1978 to 1983, on the new Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). These reports consist primarily of studies published in professional journals or presented as papers at professional meetings. No effort was made to screen the studies for methodological adequacy or other measures of…

Jones, Robert F.; Adams, Lori N.

367

Series tests of fine mesh photomultiplier tubes in magnetic fields of up to 1.2 Tesla  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeter ("SpaCal") for the backward region of the H1 experiment at HERA (DESY) is equipped with fine mesh phototubes which operate in a magnetic field close to 1 T. A large sample of these tubes of the types Hamamatsu R5505 and R5506, and Hamamatsu R2490-05, have been tested in fields of up to 1.2T. We have investigated the cathode homogeneity with and without magnetic field, the gain loss under the influence of the magnetic field, and stability with time. For a subsample of tubes, we have performed additional studies on stability with respect to temperature changes, variation of gain as a function of the magnetic field, high voltage discharges, single photo-electron response, and linearity. We finally summarize the experience with these tubes after one year of operation in the experiment.

Appuhn, R.-D.; Arndt, C.; Barrelet, E.; Barschke, R.; Bassler, U.; Bipp, T.; Boudry, V.; Brasse, F.; Bruncko, D.; Buchholz, R.; Chechelnitski, S.; Claxton, B.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dau, W. D.; Deckers, H.; Deckers, T.; Descamps, F.; Dirkmann, M.; Dowdell, J.; Efremenko, V.; Eisenhandler, E.; Eliseev, A. N.; Falley, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fominykh, B.; Gadow, K.; Goerlach, U.; Gorbov, L. A.; Gorelov, I.; Grewe, M.; Hajduk, L.; Heck, A.; Herynek, I.; Hladký, J.; Hütte, M.; Hutter, H.; Janczur, W.; Janoth, J.; Jönsson, L.; Kolanoski, H.; Korbel, V.; Krivá?, F.; Lacour, D.; Laforge, B.; Lamarche, F.; Landon, M. P. J.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lehner, F.; Mara?ek, R.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.; Migliori, A.; Moreau, F.; Müller, G.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nicholls, T. C.; Ozerov, D.; Perez, E.; Pharabod, J. P.; Pöschl, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rybicki, K.; Schediwy, R.; Schleif, S.; Schmitt, K.; Schuhmacher, A.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sirois, Y.; Smirnov, P. A.; Solochenko, V.; Špalek, J.; Spielmann, S.; Steiner, H.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Taševský, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiele, K.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Valkár, S.; VanDenPlas, D.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Walther, A.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wenk, T.; Žá?ek, J.; Zhokin, A.; Zuber, K.; H1 SpaCal Group

1998-02-01

368

Effectiveness of an online curriculum for medical students on genetics, genetic testing and counseling  

PubMed Central

Background It is increasingly important that physicians have a thorough understanding of the basic science of human genetics and the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) associated with genetic testing and counseling. Methods The authors developed a series of web-based courses for medical students on these topics. The course modules are interactive, emphasize clinical case studies, and can easily be incorporated into existing medical school curricula. Results Results of a ‘real world’ effectiveness trial indicate that the courses have a statistically significant effect on knowledge, attitude, intended behavior and self-efficacy related to genetic testing (p<0.001; N varies between 163 and 596 for each course). Conclusions The results indicate that this curriculum is an effective tool for educating medical students on the ELSI associated with genetic testing and for promoting positive changes in students' confidence, counseling attitudes and behaviors.

Metcalf, Mary P.; Tanner, T. Bradley; Buchanan, Amanda

2010-01-01

369

Test component attachment effects on resonant plate pyrotechnic shock simulation  

SciTech Connect

An accepted technique for simulating pyrotechnic shock inputs has been the resonant plate test. The plate is designed so that its predominant modes generate the desired frequency content of a given shock test specification. The success of the test is dependent on the engineer's ability to effectively design and control the response of the resonant plate. In designing a test to simulated a pyrotechnic environment, the location and mass of the test item become very important considerations since they have a profound impact on the dynamic response of the resonant plate. A relatively massive test item can change the plates's resonant frequency. Differences in the relative frequencies of the test item's fixture and the resonant plate may also effect the input to the test items. In this study, a simple mock test assembly is used to study test item and resonant plate interactions during a test. The implications of this interaction regarding the deviations of the shock test specification are also discussed. Data from shock tests performed with the test assembly mounted to a rigid mounting surface and a flexible resonant plate are compared. Frequency response functions and shock response spectra are generated from the test data and compared to show the significance of: (1) the relative stiffness of the mounting surface; and (2) the location of the input control point during a resonant plate test. These factors are shown to be particularly important in using resonant plate testing to simulate pyrotechnic shock environments. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Bell, G.R.; Zimmerman, R.M.

1989-01-01

370

Effect of series elasticity on isokinetic torque-angle relationship in humans.  

PubMed

The influence of muscle series elasticity on the relationship between torque and joint angle during dynamic contractions was studied. The torque-angle relationship during the maximal isokinetic knee extension was determined for six male subjects (25-45 years) at 0.52, 1.05, 1.57, 2.09, 2.62, 3.49 rad/s. The knee joint angle at which peak torque was observed showed a systematic shift to more extended positions, i.e., the quadriceps muscle-tendon unit length became shorter as the velocity increased [from 1.01 (0.12) rad (0.52 rad/s) to 0.75 (0.14) rad (3.49 rad/s), mean (SD)]. The corresponding difference in muscle-tendon unit length between 0.52 and 3.49 rad/s, estimated from the angle shift at peak torque and the moment arm length change of the quadriceps muscles, was 9 (4) mm. The relationship between estimated changes in muscle-tendon unit length and muscle force of the vastus lateralis and intermedius (VLI) over the seven velocities (including isometric contraction, 0 rad/s) coincided with the load-elongation properties of the series elastic component of VLI, determined separately in vivo by ultrasonography when the same subjects performed a ramp isometric knee extension. The results suggest that the torque-angle relationship is affected by the interaction between contractile and elastic components, and that peak torque angle shift is attributable to the elongation of tendinous tissues as a function of force applied to them. PMID:12172877

Kawakami, Y; Kubo, K; Kanehisa, H; Fukunaga, T

2002-08-01

371

Using Response-Time Constraints in Item Selection To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an item selection algorithm that can be used to neutralize the effect of time limits in computer adaptive testing. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the test takers on the items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has been administered. Predictions from the model are…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

372

Engineering Design Handbook, Ammunition Series. Section 2, Design for Terminal Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Classification of Missiles; Projectile Design; Blast Effect; Characteristics of High Explosives; Shaped Charge Ammunition; Liner performance, Spin compensation, Terminal ballistic effectiveness of shaped charges against tanks; Fragmentation; Kin...

1964-01-01

373

[Basic evaluation of BACTEC MGIT 960 Series for drug susceptibility testing of antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis].  

PubMed

This time, we compared conventional method Well pack P (the proportion method on Ogawa egg medium) with automated instrument BACTEC MGIT 960 AST system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Fifty-three M. tuberculosis stock strains were used. Concordance rates between the two methods were SM: 94.3%; INH: 100%; RFP: 100%; and EB: 90.5%. All 23 drug-susceptible strains corresponded to four drugs. Discrepant results were observed in six of 30 drug-resistant strain. The mean times for results from the MGIT 960 AST system was 8.7 days. On the other hand, with Well pack P, growth of drug resistant strains was slow, and it was still difficult to judge four weeks later. Although the MGIT 960 AST system has problems, such as its high cost of labor and reagents, and the confirmation of contamination, because it is an automatic instrument, there are no discrepancies due to different technician techniques. The MGIT 960 AST system was found to be a rapid and excellent method. PMID:15962580

Furuhata, Yukie; Kikuchi, Yuji; Tazawa, Yoko; Okada, Jun; Takei, Katsuaki; Shimojima, Masahiro

2004-01-01

374

Testing the Effectiveness of Advance Medical Directives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the research is to examine three key psychological assumptions underlying the effective use of advance medical directives in end-of-life decision making. Instructional advance directives are widely advocated as a crucial means of improving ...

P. H. Ditto

2002-01-01

375

Adding an astrophysically motivated detection confidence test, Effective Distance Ratio, to our standard confidence tests for Inspiral Candidate Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to detect gravitational-wave signals from compact binary inspiral systems in the data from the LIGO detectors the LSC-Virgo Compact Binary Coalescence (CBC) group has developed an analysis method based on optimal matched filtering. In order to confirm the possible discovery of gravitational waves, the CBC group has developed a detection checklist intended to validate the statistically significant candidate events produced by the CBC analysis. This checklist is a series of additional tests under active development for integration into our search infrastructure, or a set of ``final'' quantitative checks geared to corroborating a detection or to identifying a false alarm. We practice this checklist with the loudest candidates found (even if not statistically significant) and with simulated signals. As part of this talk we will present an evolving checklist test, the Effective Distance Ratio, and discuss this tests potential for candidate validation because of simple astrophysical basis. In addition to presenting this test, we will review the standard inspiral candidate validation methodology giving context about where our new confidence test fits into the inspiral search hierarchy.

Torres, Cristina

2010-10-01

376

Test component attachment effects on resonant plate pyrotechnic shock simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accepted technique for simulating pyrotechnic shock inputs has been the resonant plate test. The plate is designed so that its predominant modes generate the desired frequency content of a given shock test specification. The success of the test is dependent on the engineer's ability to effectively design and control the response of the resonant plate. In designing a test to simulate a pyrotechnic environment, the location and mass of the test item become very important considerations since they have a profound impact on the dynamic response of the resonant plate. A relatively massive test item can change the plates's resonant frequency. Differences in the relative frequencies of the test item's fixture and the resonant plate may also effect the input to the test items. In this study, a simple mock test assembly is used to study test item and resonant plate interactions during a test. The implications of this interaction regarding the deviations of the shock test specification are also discussed. Data from shock tests performed with the test assembly mounted to a rigid mounting surface and a flexible resonant plate are compared. Frequency response functions and shock response spectra are generated from the test data and compared to show the significance of: (1) the relative stiffness of the mounting surface; and (2) the location of the input control point during a resonant plate test.

Bell, R. Glenn; Zimmerman, Roger M.

377

A series of low-altitude aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18, and 25 at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

A series of low-altitude, aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18,and 25 of the Nevada Test Site was conducted from December 1996 through June 1999. The surveys were conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The flights were conducted at a nominal altitude of 15 meters above ground level along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 23 meters apart. The purpose of these low-altitude surveys was to measure, map, and define the areas of americium-241 activity. The americium contamination will be used to determine the areas of plutonium contamination. Americium-241 activity was detected within 8 of the 11 regions. The three regions where americium-241 was not detected were in the inactive Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex in Area 25, which encompassed the Test Cell A and Test Cell C reactor test stands and the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly facility.

Colton, D.P.

1999-12-01

378

Test effectiveness study report: An analytical study of system test effectiveness and reliability growth of three commercial spacecraft programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Failure data from 16 commercial spacecraft were analyzed to evaluate failure trends, reliability growth, and effectiveness of tests. It was shown that the test programs were highly effective in ensuring a high level of in-orbit reliability. There was only a single catastrophic problem in 44 years of in-orbit operation on 12 spacecraft. The results also indicate that in-orbit failure rates are highly correlated with unit and systems test failure rates. The data suggest that test effectiveness estimates can be used to guide the content of a test program to ensure that in-orbit reliability goals are achieved.

Feldstein, J. F.

1977-01-01

379

Everybody WINs: Effectively Involving Business in Workforce Development. The First in a Series of Policy Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As policymakers have begun reorienting the U.S. work force development system's priorities, a common theme has been the importance of work and training tied to real employment prospects. Workforce Innovation Networks (WINs) was created to test and advance the idea that local employer organizations can play important, productive roles in helping…

Richards, Carla J.; Herranz, Joaquin, Jr.

380

Effective code coverage in compositional systematic dynamic testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently automated test generation tools that implement variations of symbolic execution technology have demonstrated their ability to find subtle errors. However, one challenge they all face is how to effectively handle the exponential number of paths in large, realistic programs. This paper presents Directed Systematic Dynamic Testing approach, or DSDT for short, that combines compositional systematic dynamic testing with a

Zhiyuan Wan; Bo Zhou

2011-01-01

381

Qualification model spacecraft tests for DEMP, SGEMP, and ESD effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a satellite design demonstration test program is described. The test approach is comprehensive in that it includes the effects from electrostatic discharge (ESD), system generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP), as well as dispersed electromagnetic pulses (DEMP). The comprehensive test concept is based on the similarity of the satellite's response to several environments.

Chivington, E. P.; Madle, P. J.; Stadler, P. H.

1977-01-01

382

The effect of schooling and ability on achievement test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; K. J. Kathleen J. Mullen

2004-01-01

383

The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

2003-01-01

384

The Testing Effect on Skills Learning Might Last 6 Months  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research question was: does testing as a final activity in a…

Kromann, C. B.; Bohnstedt, C.; Jensen, M. L.; Ringsted, C.

2010-01-01

385

In vitro binding affinities of a series of flavonoids for ?-opioid receptors. Antinociceptive effect of the synthetic flavonoid 3,3-dibromoflavanone in mice.  

PubMed

The pharmacotherapy for the treatment of pain is an active area of investigation. There are effective drugs to treat this problem, but there is also a need to find alternative treatments free of undesirable side effects. In the present work the capacity of a series of flavonoids to bind to the ? opioid receptor was evaluated. The most active compound, 3,3-dibromoflavanone (31), a synthetic flavonoid, presented a significant inhibition of the binding of the selective ? opioid ligand [(3)H]DAMGO, with a Ki of 0.846 ± 0.263 ?M. Flavanone 31 was further synthesized using a simple and cheap procedure with good yield. Its in vivo effects in mice, after acute treatments, were studied using antinociceptive and behavioral assays. It showed no sedative, anxiolytic, motor incoordination effects or inhibition of the gastrointestinal transit in mice at the doses tested. It evidenced antinociceptive activity on the acetic acid-induced nociception, hot plate and formalin tests (at 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). The results showed that the 5-HT2 receptor and the adrenoceptors seem unlikely to be involved in its antinociceptive effects. Naltrexone, a nonselective opioid receptors antagonist, totally blocked compound 31 antinociceptive effects on the hot plate test, but naltrindole (? opioid antagonist) and nor-binaltorphimine (? opioid antagonist) did not. These findings demonstrated that 3,3-dibromoflavanone (31), at doses that did not interfere with the motor performance, exerted clear dose dependent antinociception when assessed in the chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice and it seems that its action is related to the activation of the ? opioid receptor. PMID:23624290

Higgs, Josefina; Wasowski, Cristina; Loscalzo, Leonardo M; Marder, Mariel

2013-09-01

386

Acute and subacute effects of urban air pollution on cardiopulmonary emergencies and mortality: time series studies in Austrian cities.  

PubMed

Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years) were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover) on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death). Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic) and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards. PMID:24157504

Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Rabczenko, Daniel

2013-10-01

387

Experimental tests of the endowment effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endowment effect, which predicts undertrading and a willingness-to-accept greater than willingness-to-pay, is studied using responses that remove all reference to buying or selling and focuses only on choice tasks. The results significantly lower the willingness-to-pay\\/willingness-to accept discrepancy, but the latter is still significant. A high efficiency open display uniform price auction is used to exchange mugs for money. Since

Robert Franciosi; Praveen Kujal; Roland Michelitsch; Vernon Smith; Gang Deng

1996-01-01

388

Ionizing radiation effects on silicon test structures  

SciTech Connect

The effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation on MOSCAPS and special junction diode detectors have been studied. The capacitors were used to ellicit the charge accumulation and anneal in two types of thermally grown oxides representative of those used in routine detector processing. Ion implanted, oxide passivated junction detectors having 0.25 and 1 cm{sup 2} areas and perimeter to area ratios of 1 (a square), 2 and 5 were designed and constructed to amplify the ionizing effects expected to largely affect junction edges through changes in fixed oxide charges. Detectors were exposed to over 4 Mrad and showed clear increases in leakage current in proportion to the junction edge length. Annealing schedules were determined to provide a continuous response to incremental irradiations and subsequent room temperature anneals of leakage current. Besides an increase in gate threshold, little effect on the C(V) response was found. PISCES simulation of the edge fields using different fixed oxide charge revealed regions of very high lateral fields near the junction edges for fixed charges in the 2 {times} 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} range expected from the capacitor studies which could be responsible for the observed leakage currents.

Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Chen, W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dou, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

1993-12-01

389

Modeling the Effects of Weathering Processes on Uranium-series Comminution Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the ages of detrital sediments is important for understanding the geomorphic processes in which the sediment particles participate. The uranium-series comminution age method can be used to directly date fine-grained Quaternary detrital sediments to obtain the elapsed time since particle formation (termed the comminution age), which is the sum of sediment transport & storage times and the depositional age. The method is based on the time-dependent alpha recoil loss of 234U from detrital grains due to energetic decay of the 238U parent, resulting in a measurable (234U/238U) decrease relative to secular equilibrium after grains are reduced below a critical size of ~50 microns diameter. Based on the existing comminution age model of time-dependent changes in the (234U/238U) activity ratio due solely to alpha recoil from sediment grains with a constant recoil loss parameter f? (related to grain size and surface area), ideal sediments for comminution age dating are fresh sediments that have experienced minimal alteration subsequent to particle formation. However, many sediments and soils of potential geomorphic interest are composed of grains that have undergone chemical and/or physical weathering after reduction below the critical grain size threshold. We present models designed to understand how weathering-related processes alter the (234U/238U) ratio of detrital grains. The aim is to improve the accuracy of the comminution ages determined from measured sediment (234U/238U) ratios, and extend the applicability of the dating method to a broader range of sediment types. Weathering-related scenarios explored are: addition of secondary minerals to the primary detrital fraction, incorporating preferential aqueous leaching of 234U as a possible additional mechanism for 234U loss, dissolution of the primary mineral phases, and physical abrasion and fracturing of the grains.

Lee, V. E.; Huber, C.; Henderson, G. M.

2010-12-01

390

Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

Shrum, L. J.

1996-01-01

391

Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

Beatriz U Ramirez (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

2010-09-01

392

Effects of Reference Performance Testing During Aging Using Commercial Cells  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Technology Development Program, under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, is investigating lithium-ion batteries for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells are aged under various test conditions, including temperatures and states-of-charge. Life testing is interrupted at regular intervals to conduct reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to measure changes in the electrical performance of the cells and then to determine cell degradation as a function of test time. Although designed to be unobtrusive, data from the Advanced Technology Development Gen 2 cells indicated that RPTs actually contributed to cell degradation and failure. A study was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using commercially available lithium-ion cells to determine the impact of RPTs on life. A series of partial RPTs were performed at regular intervals during life testing and compared to a control group that was life tested without RPT interruption. It was determined that certain components of the RPT were detrimental, while others appeared to improve cell performance. Consequently, a new "mini" RPT was designed as an unobtrusive alternative. Initial testing with commercial cells indicates that the impact of the mini RPT is significantly less than the Gen 2 cell RPT.

Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; David Howell

2005-07-01

393

Effecting Change: Syllabus for IST 640. Education and Curriculum Series: Report Number 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The product of a graduate-level introductory course on the principles, approaches and techniques of effecting change, this syllabus provides instructors with a semi-organized collection of readings, exercises, lecture topics, films, student projects, and ...

J. Katzer

1977-01-01

394

Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects  

SciTech Connect

A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

1984-08-01

395

Relationship between pumping-test and slug-test parameters: Scale effect or artifact?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In most field investigations, information about hydraulic conductivity (K) is obtained through pumping or slug tests. A considerable body of data has been amassed that indicates that the K estimate from a pumping test is, on average, considerably larger than the estimate obtained from a series of slug tests in the same formation. Although these data could be interpreted as indicating a natural underlying scale dependence in K, an alternate explanation is that the slug-test K is artificially low as a result of incomplete well development and, to a much lesser extent, failure to account for vertical anisotropy. Incomplete well development will often result in only the most permeable zones being cleared of drilling debris, with much of the screened interval remaining undeveloped. More cursory development can leave a low-K skin along the entire screened interval. Failure to recognize such conditions can result in a K estimate from a slug test that is much lower than the average K of the formation in the vicinity of the well. By contrast, neither a skin nor vertical anisotropy will have a significant impact on K estimates from pumping tests when semi-log analyses and/or observation wells are used. However, a reasonable estimate of aquifer thickness is required to convert the transmissivity calculated from a pumping test Into an average K for the aquifer. Prior to invoking a natural scale dependence to explain the results of different types of hydraulic tests, head data should be closely examined and serious consideration given to alternate explanations.Pumping and slug tests are the primary means to obtain in situ estimates of the transmissive properties of a formation. Since the duration of most pumping tests is on the order of hours to days, the formation volume that is affected by the average pumping test is considerably larger than that affected by a slug test. These tests can yield different parameter estimates when performed at the same well. In this regard, the relationship between pumping test and slug test parameters is examined to provide an explanation to this observed difference. This difference is primarily attributed to incomplete well development and, to a lesser extent, uncertainty concerning aquifer thickness and vertical anisotropy.

Butler, Jr. , J. J.; Healey, J. M.

1998-01-01

396

Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge: Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to explain students' ability to transfer their knowledge about mathematical series to the problems that they encounter. The data of the study were obtained by using two different tests, namely "Problem Solving Test (PST)" and "Series Character Identification Test (SCT)" which were developed by the researchers. The study…

Akgun, Levent; Isik, Cemalettin; Tatar, Enver; Isleyen, Tevfik; Soylu, Yasin

2012-01-01

397

Effect of molecular size and particle shape on the terahertz absorption of a homologous series of tetraalkylammonium salts.  

PubMed

The absorption coefficient and refractive index have been measured for a homologous series of tetraalkylammonium bromides over the frequency range 0.3-5.5 THz. Spectral features are found to shift to lower frequencies as the molecular mass is increased, as expected. However, to understand the detailed structure of the observed spectral features, density functional perturbation theory calculations have been performed on the first four crystalline compounds in the series. From these calculations, we find that each spectrum is dominated by three translatory modes involving asymmetric motion of the ammonium cation and bromine counterion, although the overall number of active modes increases with increasing molecular size. The experimentally observed absorption is not completely described by the infrared active phonon modes alone. We show that it is also necessary to include the coupling of the phonon modes with the macroscopic field generated by the collective displacement of the vibrating ions, and we have applied an effective medium theory, which accounts for particle shape to allow for this effect in the calculation of the terahertz spectra. PMID:23865599

Burnett, Andrew D; Kendrick, John; Russell, Christopher; Christensen, Jeppe; Cunningham, John E; Pearson, Arwen R; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles

2013-08-20

398

Effectiveness of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) in anorexia nervosa: a case series.  

PubMed

We investigated whether cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is effective in improving cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa (AN). Twenty AN outpatients were consecutively recruited at the Eating Disorders Center of the Turin University. All participants completed 10 sessions of CRT. Neuropsychological performances improved with CRT. Data showed also a significant improvement of impulse regulation and interoceptive awareness (subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2). CRT was also associated with improvement of reflexive skills and awareness. These preliminary findings are promising, but further work is necessary to find ways of enhancing the effects of this treatment. PMID:22876988

Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Buzzichelli, Sara; Marzola, Enrica; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

2012-01-01

399

A Meta-Analysis of Testing Mode Effects in Grade K-12 Mathematics Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study conducted a meta-analysis of computer-based and paper-and-pencil administration mode effects on K-12 student mathematics tests. Both initial and final results based on fixed- and random-effects models are presented. The results based on the final selected studies with homogeneous effect sizes show that the administration mode had no…

Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; Young, Michael J.; Brooks, Thomas; Olson, John

2007-01-01

400

Effect of missing values in estimation of mean of auto-correlated measurement series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling and uncertainty of sampling are important tasks, when industrial processes are monitored. Missing values and unequal sources can cause problems in almost all industrial fields. One major problem is that during weekends samples may not be collected. On the other hand a composite sample may be collected during weekend. These systematically occurring missing values (gaps) will have an effect

Maaret Paakkunainen; Jarmo Kilpeläinen; Satu-Pia Reinikainen; Pentti Minkkinen

2007-01-01

401

Ending Social Promotion: The Effects of Retention. Charting Reform in Chicago Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central focus of this report is estimating whether retention had a positive impact in students' achievement growth. Evaluating the effect of retention means that the researchers have to find a comparison group of low-achieving students who might represent what would have happened if those students who failed to make the promotional cutoff had…

Nagaoka, Jenny; Roderick, Melissa

2004-01-01

402

The Effects of Spontaneous Strains at the Dhd-Drd Phase Transition in HAT Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous strain effects at the Dhd-Drd phase transition in HAT columnar liquid crystal systems are taken into account. The transition is then treated as a paraelasticferroelastic transition, which is known in some crystal systems, but has never been discussed in liquid crystal systems. The anomaly of the elastic compliance near the transition is discussed. The critical exponents remain the same

Y. F. Sun; J. Swift

1985-01-01

403

Engineering Design Handbook - Military Pyrotechnics Series. Part Four. Design of Ammunition for Pyrotechnic Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook embraces the areas to be considered in the design of pyrotechnic ammunition with emphasis on the engineering aspects of the terminal effects. Associated topics to be considered during the design--such as light, sound, heat, ignition, and bal...

1974-01-01

404

Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

405

The inflation Targeting effect on the inflation series: ANew Analysis Approach of evolutionary spectral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we study the inflation targeting effect on the inflation dynamics in the case of four industrial countries. Our objective is to check whether the inflation targeting policy (ITP) has a significant impact on the change of the inflation path. We use a non-parametric approach that doesn't require any previous modelling. This is the evolutionary spectral analysis, as

Essahbi Essaadi; Zied Ftiti

2008-01-01

406

The inflation Targeting effect on the inflation series: A New Analysis Approach of evolutionary spectral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we study the inflation targeting effect on the inflation dynamics in the case of four industrial countries. Our objective is to check whether the inflation targeting policy (ITP) has a significant impact on the change of the inflation path. We use a non-parametric approach that doesn’t require any previous modelling. This is the evolutionary spectral analysis, as

Essahbi Essaadi; Zied Ftiti

2008-01-01

407

Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components. ERIC/CASS Counseling Digest Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a collection of ERIC Digests on supervision, a topic of critical professional importance for counselors. Following an introductory article by the guest editor, L. DiAnne Borders, "Supervision: Exploring the Effective Components," 19 digests address a different facet of supervision. The 19 digests are: (1) "Models of Clinical…

Borders, L. DiAnne, Ed.

408

A test of the testing effect: acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples.  

PubMed

The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills, which is important to establish given the key role problem solving plays in, for instance, math and science education. Worked examples are an effective and efficient way of acquiring problem-solving skills. Forty students either only studied worked examples (SSSS) or engaged in testing after studying an example by solving an isomorphic problem (STST). Surprisingly, results showed equal performance in both conditions on an immediate retention test after 5 min, but the SSSS condition outperformed the STST condition on a delayed retention test after 1 week. These findings suggest the testing effect might not apply to acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples. PMID:23121446

van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth

2012-01-01

409

The origins of multifractality in financial time series and the effect of extreme events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of multifractal testing of two sets of financial data: daily data of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index and minutely data of the Euro Stoxx 50 index. Where multifractal scaling is found, the spectrum of scaling exponents is calculated via Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. In both cases, further investigations reveal that the temporal correlations in the data are a more significant source of the multifractal scaling than are the distributions of the returns. It is also shown that the extreme events which make up the heavy tails of the distribution of the Euro Stoxx 50 log returns distort the scaling in the data set. The most extreme events are inimical to the scaling regime. This result is in contrast to previous findings that extreme events contribute to multifractality.

Green, Elena; Hanan, William; Heffernan, Daniel

2014-06-01

410

A study of the effect of nonrandom sampling on the estimation of exposure variability using exposure-time series from the OSHA IMIS health inspection database  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nonrandom sampling over time may have on the estimation of variability, namely the geometric standard deviation, using time series of personal exposure data.

Martinez, L.T.

1997-05-01

411

Group Testing Regression Models with Fixed and Random Effects  

PubMed Central

Summary Group testing, where subjects are tested in pools rather than individually, has a long history of successful application in infectious disease screening. In this paper, we develop group testing regression models to include covariate effects which are best regarded as random. We present approaches to fit mixed effects models using maximum likelihood, investigate likelihood ratio and score tests for variance components, and evaluate small sample performance using simulation. We illustrate our methods using chlamydia and gonorrhea data collected by the state of Nebraska as part of the Infertility Prevention Project.

Chen, Peng; Tebbs, Joshua M.; Bilder, Christopher R.

2009-01-01

412

[Effect of cignolin and infrared irradiation on the patch test and lymphocyte transformation test].  

PubMed

In a study on the effect of anthralin and infrared irradiation (IR) on the allergic patch test in vivo and the lymphocyte transformation test in vitro, we observed that anthralin enhanced the local test reaction. Our findings suggest an additive reaction of toxic anthralin dermatitis and allergic test reaction. Immunohistology showed that additional treatment with anthralin resulted in elevated numbers of the OKT-6+ dendritic cells in the epidermis. Anthralin in concentrations of greater than or equal to 10(-5) M inhibited the lymphocyte transformation in vitro. IR irradiation-either before or during patch testing-did not significantly influence the allergic test reaction or the lymphocyte transformation, if the temperature was adjusted to 37 degrees C. In comparison to convective heat, we found no specific effect of IR irradiation. PMID:2264370

Eter, J; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G

1990-09-01

413

Effects of testing conditions on conceptual survey results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a pre-test is often administered either at or near the beginning of a course, while a post-test can be given either at or near the end of a course. Also, in conducting such tests there often is no norm as to whether incentives should be offered to students. Because these variations can significantly affect test results, it is important to study and document their impact. We analyzed five years of data that were collected at The Ohio State University from over 2100 students, who took both the pre-test and post-test of the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism under various timings and incentives. We observed that the actual time frame for giving a test has a marked effect on the test results and that incentive granting also has a significant influence on test outcomes. These results suggest that one should carefully monitor and document the conditions under which tests are administered.

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2008-09-22

414

OHMSETT (Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank) test series 77: Global Oil Recovery Skimmer, Veegarm Skimming Arm, Kebab 600, Wylie Skimmer and the Skim-Pak Cluster. Final report Jan 80-Jun 81  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the performance testing of five oil spill recovery devices at the Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank in Leonardo, New Jersey. The GOR Skimmer was tow tested in harbor chops, regular waves, and calm water at tow speeds through 2 knots to determine the effectiveness of modifications made to the device since it was last tested. The performance was consistently lower after the modifications in all conditions. The Hydrovac Veegarm was the most exhaustively tested skimmer in this program.

Borst, M.

1984-03-01

415

Experimental test results from an environmental protection agency test method for determination of vapor suppressant effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results obtained from laboratory experiments conducted using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subpart WWWW of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 63 (1)-test method are discussed in this article. The original test method was developed to measure the effectiveness of wax suppressants used to reduce hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from unsaturated polyester (UP)\\/vinyl ester resins. Wax additions of

Richard W. Tock; Daniel W. Ahern

2005-01-01

416

The Effect of Testing on Student Achievement, 1910-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes research on the effect of testing on student achievement as found in English-language sources, comprising several hundred studies conducted between 1910 and 2010. Among quantitative studies, mean effect sizes range from a moderate d [image omitted] 0.55 to a fairly large d [image omitted] 0.88, depending on the way effects…

Phelps, Richard P.

2012-01-01

417

An Evaluation of the PBF LOFT Lead Rod Test Results Concerning Surface Thermocouple Perturbation Effects  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Power Burst Facility Loss of Fluid Test (PBF LOFT) Lead Rod (LLR) Test program was to provide experimental data to characterize the mechanical behavior of LOFT type nuclear fuel rods under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, simulating the test conditions expected for the LOFT Power Ascension (L2) Test series. Although the LLR tests were not explicitly designed to evaluate cladding surface thermocouple perturbation effects, comparison of the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) data for rods instrumented with and without cladding thermocouples provided pertinent information concerning the effects of cladding thermocouples on the time to DNB and time to quench data. Documentation and review of this data is presented in the following report. It will be shown that most of the LLR data indicate that the cladding surface thermocouples did not enhance the rewetting characteristics of the rods they are attached to, even though other evidence shows that the surface clad thermocouples did quench early. Finally, in order to accurately interpret and understand the limitations of the LVDT instrumentation, upon which thermocouple perturbation effects were evaluated, an analysis of the LVDT data as well as a review of the atypical response events that occurred during the LLR tests are presented in appendices to this document.

M. L. Carboneau; E. L. Tolman

1980-02-08

418

Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1–NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified. We aimed to analyse the clinical and immunological features of patients with the disorder and examine the effects of antibodies against NMDA receptors in neuronal cultures. Methods We describe the clinical characteristics of 100 patients with encephalitis and NR1–NR2 antibodies. HEK293 cells ectopically expressing single or assembled NR1–NR2 subunits were used to determine the epitope targeted by the antibodies. Antibody titres were measured with ELISA. The effect of antibodies on neuronal cultures was determined by quantitative analysis of NMDA-receptor clusters. Findings Median age of patients was 23 years (range 5–76 years); 91 were women. All patients presented with psychiatric symptoms or memory problems; 76 had seizures, 88 unresponsiveness (decreased conciousness), 86 dyskinesias, 69 autonomic instability, and 66 hypoventilation. 58 (59%) of 98 patients for whom results of oncological assessments were available had tumours, most commonly ovarian teratoma. Patients who received early tumour treatment (usually with immunotherapy) had better outcome (p=0.004) and fewer neurological relapses (p=0.009) than the rest of the patients. 75 patients recovered or had mild deficits and 25 had severe deficits or died. Improvement was associated with a decrease of serum antibody titres. The main epitope targeted by the antibodies is in the extracellular N-terminal domain of the NR1 subunit. Patients’ antibodies decreased the numbers of cell-surface NMDA receptors and NMDA-receptor clusters in postsynaptic dendrites, an effect that could be reversed by antibody removal. Interpretation A well-defined set of clinical characteristics are associated with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. The pathogenesis of the disorder seems to be mediated by antibodies.

Dalmau, Josep; Gleichman, Amy J; Hughes, Ethan G; Rossi, Jeffrey E; Peng, Xiaoyu; Lai, Meizan; Dessain, Scott K; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lynch, David R

2008-01-01

419

The effectiveness testing of oil spill-treating agents  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory effectiveness tests have been developed for four classes of oil spill treating agents: solidifiers, demulsifying agents, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Several treating agent products in these four categories have been tested for effectiveness. The aquatic toxicity of these agents is an important factor and has been measured for many products. These results are presented. Solidifiers or gelling agents solidify oil. Test results show that solidifiers require between 16% and 200% of agent by weight compared to the oil. De-emulsifying agents or emulsion breakers prevent the formation of or break water-in-oil emulsions. Surfactant-containing materials are of two types, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Testing has shown that effectiveness is orthogonal for these two types of treating agents. Tests of surface washing agents show that only a few agents have effectiveness of 25 to 55%, where this is defined as the percentage of oil removed from a test surface. Dispersant effectiveness results using the swirling flask test are reported. Heavy oils show effectiveness values of about 1%, medium crudes of about 10%, light crude oils of about 30% and very light oils of about 90%.

Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.A.; Laroche, N.; Fieldhouse, B.; Sergy, G.; Stoodley, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1995-06-01

420

ULTRASTRUCTURAL BASIS OF BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS IN A SERIES OF LETHAL ALLELES IN THE MOUSE  

PubMed Central

The fine structure of newborn and fetal mouse liver and of newborn kidney cells homozygous for any of three albino alleles known to have multiple biochemical effects was investigated. Electron microscope studies of mutant cells revealed dilation and vesiculation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in parenchymal liver cells, as well as dilation and other anomalies of the Golgi apparatus. These abnormalities were observed in all newborn mutants but never in littermate controls. Although they were most pronounced in liver parenchymal cells, they were found also to a lesser degree in kidney cells, but they were absent altogether in other cell types of the mutant newborn. Homozygous fetuses showed similar anomalies in the liver at 19 days of gestational age. In one of the alleles studied, mutant liver parenchymal cells were found to be abnormal as early as the 18th day of gestation. There appears to be a striking parallelism between the biochemical defects and those of the cellular membranes in homozygous mutant newborn and fetuses. Although the specific nature of the mutational effect on membrane structure remains unknown, the results are compatible with the assumption that a mutationally caused defect in a membrane component interferes with a mechanism vital in the integration of morphological and biochemical differentiation.

Trigg, Monica J.; Gluecksohn-Waelsch, Salome

1973-01-01

421

Assiniboine Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of illustrated booklets presents 13 Indian stories in a bilingual format of English and Assiniboine, an Indian tribal language. Written on the first grade level, the stories have the following titles: (1) "Orange Tree in Lodgepole"; (2) "Pretty Flower"; (3) Inktomi and the Rock"; (4) "Inktomi and the Ducks"; (5) "Inktomi and the…

Allen, Minerva

422

Series Resistors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can easily see what series resistance means in this activity. Students are sometimes confused by the fact that all real resistors are the same size even when they have far different values. It is recommended that after this lab at home, students

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

423

Evaluation of three oil spill laboratory dispersant effectiveness tests  

SciTech Connect

EPA evaluated three laboratory methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and currently required by regulation) in the United States, the Swirling Flask Test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-Dilution Test (used in France and other European countries). Six test oils and three dispersants were evaluated; dispersants were applied to the oil at an average 1:10 ratio (dispersant to oil) for each of the three laboratory methods. A screening criterion was established that required a combination that gave at least 20 percent effectiveness results. The selected combination turned out to be Prudhoe Bay crude oil (an EPA-American Petroleum Institute Standard Reference Oil) and the dispersant Corexit 9527. EPA's evaluation concluded that the three tests give similar precision results, but that the Swirling Flask Test was fastest, cheapest, simplest, and required least operator skill.

Sullivan, D.; Farlow, J.; Sahatjian, K.A.

1993-01-01

424

Uterine Compression Sutures as an Effective Treatment for Postpartum Hemorrhage: Case Series  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the role of uterine compression sutures as a conservative treatment for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) after failed medical treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who delivered between 2003 and 2009 at a single tertiary care center and who underwent uterine compression sutures for PPH. Twelve women had uterine compression sutures for PPH. The mean age of the patients was 36.3 ± 5.2 years. The mean gestational age at delivery was 37.7 ± 2.0 weeks, and the average estimated blood loss was 2.1 ± 1.1 L. The mean procedure time to perform the uterine compression sutures was 9.3 ± 2.8 minutes. The success rate of compression sutures was 92% with only one failure resulting in a hysterectomy. Uterine compression sutures are an effective method for the treatment of PPH, thus avoiding hysterectomy and preserving potential fertility.

Al Riyami, Nihal; Hui, Dini; Herer, Elaine; Nevo, Ori

2011-01-01

425

Mechanical Impact Tests of Materials in Oxygen Effects of Contamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of contaminants on the mechanical impact sensitivity of Teflon, stainless steel, and aluminum in a high-pressure oxygen environment was investigated. Uncontaminated Teflon did not ignite under the test conditions. The liquid contaminants - cutt...

P. M. Ordin

1980-01-01

426

The CLEAN Workshop Series: Promoting Effective Pedagogy for Teaching Undergraduate Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prepare students to understand a changing climate, it is imperative that we equip educators with the best possible tools and methods for reaching their audience. As part of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) professional development efforts, two workshops for undergraduate faculty were held in 2012. These workshops used a variety of activities to help faculty learn about recent climate research, take part in demonstrations of successful activities for teaching climate topics, and collaborate to create new teaching materials. The workshops also facilitated professional networking among participants. Both workshops were held online, eliminating the need for travel, encouraging participants without travel funds to attend, and allowing international collaborations and presentations. To create an authentic experience, the workshop used several technologies such as the Blackboard Collaborate web conferencing platform, SERC's web-based collaboration tools and online discussion threads, and conference calls. The workshop Communicating Climate Science in the Classroom, held in April 2012, explored practices for communicating climate science and policy in the classroom and provided strategies to improve student understanding of this complex and sensitive topic. Workshop presentations featured public opinion research on Americans' perceptions of climate change, tactics for identifying and resolving student misconceptions, and methods to address various "backfire effects" that can result from attempts to correct misinformation. Demonstrations of teaching approaches included a role-playing simulation of emissions negotiations, Princeton's climate stabilization wedges game, and an activity that allows students to use scientific principles to tackle misinformation. The workshop Teaching Climate Complexity was held in May 2012. Teaching the complexities of climate science requires an understanding of many facets of the Earth system and a robust pedagogic approach that fosters systems thinking. Workshop participants heard presentations from top climate scientists about topics such as the role of carbon dioxide in regulating Earth's climate, the silicate-weathering thermostat hypothesis, effects of water vapor in the climate system, and albedo effects from the loss of Artic sea ice. Demonstrations of classroom techniques allowed participants to use a jigsaw approach to understand poleward heat transport, plot atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and use a mass balance model to explore the role of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. A hallmark of the CLEAN workshops is that participants are actively engaged in team projects to create new teaching materials. In the Communicating Climate workshop, John Cook led a demonstration of techniques featured in his Debunking Handbook and workshop participants created examples of how to respond to common climate myths in the classroom. In the Climate Complexities workshop, participants used existing elements within the CLEAN reviewed collection to create a comprehensive sequence of activities that can be used to teach elements of Earth's climate system. Activities from the workshop are archived on the CLEAN website, including screen cast recordings of all the presentations and materials created at each workshop. For more information, visit the workshop website at the URL below.

Kirk, K. B.; Bruckner, M. Z.; Manduca, C. A.; Buhr, S. M.

2012-12-01

427

Effects of State Testing. Assessment Brief. Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase in large-scale standardized testing in the nation's schools is one major result of demands for accountability. Such testing also impacts many aspects of school and family life and culture. For some, certain unintended impacts may be like side effects of medicines that need to be tolerated; for others they raise larger questions about…

Dietel, Ron

2004-01-01

428

Analysis of the vane test considering size and time effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the vane test using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation within a finite element framework is presented. This is suitable for soft clays for which the test is commonly used to measure in situ undrained shear strength. Constitutive laws are expressed in terms of shear stress-shear strain rates, and that permits the study of time effects in a natural

A. Pérez-Foguet; A. Ledesma; A. Huerta

1999-01-01

429

Effects of self-study for coachable test item types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted a study to provide further information on the susceptibility to special preparation of 3 Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) analytical item types, determine the efficacy of self-study test familiarization materials for these item types, and to ascertain the effects of several different components of special preparation. Various sets of test preparation materials were mailed to random samples of a total

Donald E. Powers; Spencer S. Swinton

1984-01-01

430

Bootstrap Tests for Distributional Treatment Effects in Instrumental Variable Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

the counterfactual cumulative distribution functions of the outcome with and without the treatment. This article shows how to estimate these distributions using instrumental variable methods and a simple bootstrap procedure is proposed to test distributional hypotheses, such as equality of distributions, é rst-order and second-order stochastic dominance. These tests and estimators are applied to the study of the effects of

Alberto Abadie

2002-01-01

431

Effectiveness of Group Interaction on Conceptual Standardized Test Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, the author analyzes the effectiveness of working in pairs on the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism test in a calculus-based introductory physics course. Students who collaborated with a peer showed significantly larger normalized gain on individual testing after the group work than those who did not collaborate. Peer collaboration also shows evidence for co-construction. We discuss the effect of pairing students with different individual achievements.

Singh, Chandralekha

2006-12-06

432

Effects of measurement resolution on the analysis of temperature time series for stream-aquifer flux estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From its inception in the mid-1960s, the use of temperature time series (thermographs) to estimate vertical fluxes has found increasing use in the hydrologic community. Beginning in 2000, researchers have examined the impacts of measurement and parameter uncertainty on the estimates of vertical fluxes. To date, the effects of temperature measurement discretization (resolution), a characteristic of all digital temperature loggers, on the determination of vertical fluxes has not been considered. In this technical note we expand the analysis of recently published work to include the effects of temperature measurement resolution on estimates of vertical fluxes using temperature amplitude and phase shift information. We show that errors in thermal front velocity estimation introduced by discretizing thermographs differ when amplitude or phase shift data are used to estimate vertical fluxes. We also show that under similar circumstances sensor resolution limits the range over which vertical velocities are accurately reproduced more than uncertainty in temperature measurements, uncertainty in sensor separation distance, and uncertainty in the thermal diffusivity combined. These effects represent the baseline error present and thus the best-case scenario when discrete temperature measurements are used to infer vertical fluxes. The errors associated with measurement resolution can be minimized by using the highest-resolution sensors available. But thoughtful experimental design could allow users to select the most cost-effective temperature sensors to fit their measurement needs.

Soto-López, Carlos D.; Meixner, Thomas; Ferré, Ty P. A.

2011-12-01

433

An experiment to test the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is examined in the weak-field approximation to general relativity. In analogy with the electromagnetic AB effect, we find that a gravitoelectromagnetic 4-vector potential gives rise to interference effects. A matter wave interferometry experiment, based on a modification of the gravity-induced quantum interference experiment of Colella, Overhauser and Werner (COW), is proposed to explicitly test the gravitoelectric version of the AB effect in a uniform gravitational field.

Ho, Vu B.; Morgan, Michael J.

434

Retrieval practice enhances new learning: the forward effect of testing  

PubMed Central

In the last couple of years, there has been a dramatic increase in laboratory research examining the benefits of recall testing on long-term learning and retention. This work was largely on the backward effect of testing, which shows that retrieval practice on previously studied information, compared to restudy of the same material, renders the information more likely to be remembered in the future. Going beyond this prominent work, more recent laboratory research provided evidence that there is also a forward effect of testing, which shows that recall testing of previously studied information can enhance learning of subsequently presented new information. Here, we provide a review of research on this forward effect of testing. The review shows that the effect is a well replicated phenomenon in laboratory studies that has been observed for both veridical information and misinformation. In particular, the review demonstrates that the effect may be applied to educational and clinical settings, enhancing learning in students and reducing memory deficits in clinical populations. The review discusses current theoretical explanations of the forward effect of testing and provides suggestions for future research directions.

Pastotter, Bernhard; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

2014-01-01

435

Theory Testing Using Quantitative Predictions of Effect Size  

PubMed Central

Traditional Null Hypothesis Testing procedures are poorly adapted to theory testing. The methodology can mislead researchers in several ways, including: (a) a lack of power can result in an erroneous rejection of the theory; (b) the focus on directionality (ordinal tests) rather than more precise quantitative predictions limits the information gained; and (c) the misuse of probability values to indicate effect size. An alternative approach is proposed which involves employing the theory to generate explicit effect size predictions that are compared to the effect size estimates and related confidence intervals to test the theoretical predictions. This procedure is illustrated employing the Transtheoretical Model. Data from a sample (N = 3,967) of smokers from a large New England HMO system were used to test the model. There were a total of 15 predictions evaluated, each involving the relation between Stage of Change and one of the other 15 Transtheoretical Model variables. For each variable, omega-squared and the related confidence interval were calculated and compared to the predicted effect sizes. Eleven of the 15 predictions were confirmed, providing support for the theoretical model. Quantitative predictions represent a much more direct, informative, and strong test of a theory than the traditional test of significance.

Velicer, Wayne F.; Cumming, Geoff; Fava, Joseph L.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Prochaska, James O.; Johnson, Janet

2012-01-01

436

Clinical trials in dementia: learning effects with repeated testing.  

PubMed Central

The possible confounding role of learning effects during multiple test administration in clinical trials in demented subjects remains uncertain. Seventeen mildly to severely affected patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 16 controls were evaluated with an extensive neuropsychological battery of manually administered and computerized tests. Subjects received 3 weekly sessions using alternate test forms, to mimic a baseline, placebo, and drug condition. Mean scores of AD patients as a group showed no stable improvement, but more subtle learning effects were suggested by an association of dementia severity and change scores in verbal and visual learning. Controls evidenced consistent learning in 3 of 9 tests. These results suggest that clinical trials data from AD patients, especially those with moderately severe impairment, are not contaminated by learning. Degree of cognitive impairment may be related to learning capacity, suggesting caution for learning effects in controls and possibly in patients with mild AD.

Claus, J J; Mohr, E; Chase, T N

1991-01-01

437

Geologic surface effects of underground nuclear testing, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a new Geographic Information System composite map of the geologic surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flat Physiographic Area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a continental location for testing nuclear devices (Allen and others, 1997, p.3). Originally known as the ''Nevada Proving Ground'', the NTS hosted a total of 928 nuclear detonations, of which 828 were conducted underground (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994). Three principal testing areas of the NTS were used: (1) Yucca Flat, (2) Pahute Mesa, and (3) Rainier Mesa including Aqueduct Mesa. Underground detonations at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa were typically emplaced in vertical drill holes, while others were tunnel emplacements. Of the three testing areas, Yucca Flat was the most extensively used, hosting 658 underground tests (747 detonations) located at 719 individual sites (Allen and others, 1997, p.3-4). Figure 1 shows the location of Yucca Flat and other testing areas of the NTS. Figure 2 shows the locations of underground nuclear detonation sites at Yucca Flat. Table 1 lists the number of underground nuclear detonations conducted, the number of borehole sites utilized, and the number of detonations mapped for surface effects at Yucca Flat by NTS Operational Area.

Grasso, D.N.

2000-05-31

438

Testing multiple variance components in linear mixed-effects models.  

PubMed

Testing zero variance components is one of the most challenging problems in the context of linear mixed-effects (LME) models. The usual asymptotic chi-square distribution of the likelihood ratio and score statistics under this null hypothesis is incorrect because the null is on the boundary of the parameter space. During the last two decades many tests have been proposed to overcome this difficulty, but these tests cannot be easily applied for testing multiple variance components, especially for testing a subset of them. We instead introduce a simple test statistic based on the variance least square estimator of variance components. With this comes a permutation procedure to approximate its finite sample distribution. The proposed test covers testing multiple variance components and any subset of them in LME models. Interestingly, our method does not depend on the distribution of the random effects and errors except for their mean and variance. We show, via simulations, that the proposed test has good operating characteristics with respect to Type I error and power. We conclude with an application of our process using real data from a study of the association of hyperglycemia and relative hyperinsulinemia. PMID:22930674

Drikvandi, Reza; Verbeke, Geert; Khodadadi, Ahmad; Partovi Nia, Vahid

2013-01-01

439

Spectral studies on a series of metal ion complexes derived from pyrimidine nucleus, TEM, biological and ?-irradiation effect.  

PubMed

A series of thiouracil complexes was prepared, all the prepared compounds are investigated by all possible tools. The ligand coordinates towards two central atoms as a neutral hexadentate mode. The octahedral structure was proposed with Ni(II), Pt(IV) and UO2(II) complexes. Square-pyramidal and square planar with VO(II) and Pd(II) complexes, respectively. VO(II) complex was irradiated by using Gamma radiation to through a light on the probability of geometry changes with the effect of radiation. The parameters calculated from ESR spectra before and after ?-irradiation reflect the rigidity of the complex towards the effect. Such may discuss the unaffected biological behavior before and after irradiation. XRD patterns were carried out to emphasis on the nature of the particles and the purity of products. The ligand, Pt(IV) and Pd(II) are found in nanometer range. TEM is a sensitive tool used to justify on the microstructure and surface morphology. All the investigated compounds are in nanorange. TG curves reflect a lower thermal stability of all investigated complexes due to the presence of water of crystallization. Finally, a toxic effect was observed with all investigated complexes towards Gram positive bacterium as well as a resistant behavior was observed with Gram negative bacteria. PMID:24956491

Al-Ashqer, Sawsan; Abou-Melha, Khlood S; Al-Hazmi, G A A; Saad, Fawaz A; El-Metwaly, Nashwa M

2014-11-11

440

Comparative tests of multivariate models of recruiting sources effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the prevailing explanations for why recruiting sources are differentially effective: realism and individual differences. Structural equations modeling analyses tested whether these psychological processes mediate source effects in a sample of 221 nurses. Results supported a model comprising both mediators, but showing that realism processes largely translate how recruiting sources influence job satisfaction, turnover, and absenteeism. However, the

Debra J. Cohen

1997-01-01

441

Comparative Tests of Multivariate Models of Recruiting Sources Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the prevailing explanations for why recruiting sources are differentially effective: realism and individual differences. Structural equations modeling analyses tested whether these psychological processes mediate source effects in a sample of 221 nurses. Results supported a model comprising both mediators, but showing that realism processes largely translate how recruiting sources influence job satisfaction, turnover, and absenteeism. However, the

Rodger W. Griffeth; Peter W. Hom; Lawrence S. Fink; Debra J. Cohen

1997-01-01

442

ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING TEST REPORTS FOR EVALUATING VOC CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report outlines the approach taken by EPA to review existing test reports for evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) control device effectiveness and identifying missing control device effectiveness information. A format is presented to provide guidance and serve as the b...

443

Effect of load introduction in compression testing of composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compression testing of composite materials is affected by the manner in which the compressive load is introduced. Two such effects are studied in this paper: (a) the constrained edge effect, in which transverse expansion of the edges is prevented while the axial load is introduced, and (b) nonuniform gripping, as manifested by inplane bending of the test specimen. The principle of minimum complementary energy is used to develop an analytical model that quantifies these two effects upon the measured elastic properties of laminated composites. Numerical results are presented for selected high-strength graphite/epoxy composites.

Reiss, R.; Clark, R. K.; Yao, T.-M.

1983-01-01

444

Fluid dynamics test method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

Gayman, W. H.

1974-01-01

445

Tank tests of three models of flying-boat hulls of the pointed-step type with different angles of dead rise - NACA model 35 series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of tank tests of three models of flying-boat hulls of the pointed-step type with different angles of dead rise are given in charts and are compared with results from tests of more conventional hulls. Increasing the angle of dead rise from 15 to 25 degrees: had little effect on the hump resistance; increased the resistance throughout the planning range; increased the best trim angle; reduced the maximum positive trimming moment required to obtain best trim angle; and had but a slight effect on the spray characteristics. For approximately the same angles of dead rise the resistance of the pointed-step hulls were considerably lower at high speeds than those of the more conventional hulls.

Dawson, John R

1936-01-01

446

Experimental test results from an environmental protection agency test method for determination of vapor suppressant effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results obtained from laboratory experiments conducted using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subpart WWWW of 40\\u000a Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 63 (1)-test method are discussed in this article. The original test method was developed\\u000a to measure the effectiveness of wax suppressants used to reduce hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from unsaturated polyester\\u000a (UP)\\/vinyl ester resins. Wax additions of

Richard W. Tock; Daniel W. Ahern

2005-01-01

447

Effect of Series Resistance on Field-Effect Mobility at Varying Channel Lengths and Investigation into the Enhancement of Source/Drain Metallized Thin-Film Transistor Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation in device performance due to parasitic resistance along the source and drain electrodes is a serious problem in thin-film transistor fabrication. The effect of this series resistance on the field-effect mobility has been discussed and solutions for the reduction of this unexpected resistance were studied in this work. From the derivation of the drain current, it was shown that the additional resistance had a greater influence on short-channel devices. The ratio of the series resistance to the channel resistance determined the amount of degradation to the field-effect mobility. A thin-film transistor using an aluminum-metallized source/drain was suggested; it showed an improvement in comparison with the conventional doped source/drain device, with a maximum mobility of 105 cm2 V-1 s-1. However, significant degradation of the mobility in the short-channel cases exposed the limitations of the structure. By employing doping for the source/drain metallized structure the maximum mobility reached a value of 150 cm2 V-1 s-1. The decrease in the mobility caused by the channel length decrease was also improved. This study clearly explained the problem of additional resistance on the field-effect mobility of thin-film transistors and the achievements of a device using a self-aligned fabrication process with metallized electrodes.

Duy, Nguyen Van; Baek, Kyunghyun; Son, Dang Ngoc; Lee, Wonbaek; Kim, Kwangryul; Choi, Byoungdeog; Chung, Hokyun; Yi, Junsin

2011-02-01

448

Radiation thermometer size-of-source effect testing using aperture  

SciTech Connect

Size-of-source effect is an important attribute of any radiation thermometer. The effects of this attribute may be quantified in a number of different ways to include field-of-view, distance ratio, or size-of-source effect. These parameters provide needed information for the user of a radiation thermometer, as they aid in determining whether the measured object is large enough for adequate radiation thermometry measurement. Just as important, these parameters provide needed information for calibration. This information helps to determine calibration geometry, and it is needed for calibration uncertainty determination. For determination of size-of-source effect, there are a limited number of test methods furnished by the standards available today. The test methods available may be cumbersome to perform due to the cost of the required equipment and the time needed to set-up and perform the test. Other methods have been proposed. This paper discusses one such method. This method uses a circular aperture such as that used in radiation thermometer calibration. It describes the method both theoretically and mechanically. It then discusses testing done to verify this method comparing the results to those obtained while performing steps in current standards. Finally, based on this testing, the basis for a new standard test method is presented.

Liebmann, F.; Kolat, T. [Fluke Corporation, 799 E Utah Valley Dr., American Fork, Utah, USA, 84003 (United States)] [Fluke Corporation, 799 E Utah Valley Dr., American Fork, Utah, USA, 84003 (United States)

2013-09-11

449

Effects of automatic item eliminations based on item test analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Item test analysis is an aid to identify items that need to be eliminated from an assessment. An automatic elimination procedure based on item statistics, therefore, could help to increase the quality of a test in an objective manner. This was investigated by studying the effect of a standardized elimination procedure on the test results of a second-year course over a period of 6 successive years in 1,624 candidates. Cohort effects on the item elimination were examined by determining the number of additional items that had to be eliminated from three different tests in 3 successive academic years in two cohorts. The items that were part of more than one test and had to be eliminated according to the procedure in at least one of the tests appeared to have to be retained according to the same procedure in most of the other tests. The procedure harmed the high scoring students relatively more often than the other students, and the number of eliminated items appeared to be cohort dependent. As a consequence, automatic elimination procedures obscure the transparency of the grading process unacceptably and transform valid tests into inadequate samples of the course content.

Jaap HJ Muntinga (University of Groningen Medical Physiology); Henk A Schuil (University of Groningen Medical Physiology)

2007-09-08

450

Assessment of the prozone effect in malaria rapid diagnostic tests  

PubMed Central

Background The prozone effect (or high doses-hook phenomenon) consists of false-negative or false-low results in immunological tests, due to an excess of either antigens or antibodies. Although frequently cited as a cause of false-negative results in malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially at high parasite densities of Plasmodium falciparum, it has been poorly documented. In this study, a panel of malaria RDTs was challenged with clinical samples with P. falciparum hyperparasitaemia (> 5% infected red blood cells). Methods Twenty-two RDT brands were tested with seven samples, both undiluted and upon 10 ×, 50 × and 100 × dilutions in NaCl 0.9%. The P. falciparum targets included histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2, n = 17) and P. falciparum-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pf-pLDH, n = 5). Test lines intensities were recorded in the following categories: negative, faint, weak, medium or strong. The prozone effect was defined as an increase in test line intensity of at least one category after dilution, if observed upon duplicate testing and by two readers. Results Sixteen of the 17 HRP-2 based RDTs were affected by prozone: the prozone effect was observed in at least one RDT sample/brand combination for 16/17 HRP-2 based RDTs in 6/7 samples, but not for any of the Pf-pLDH tests. The HRP-2 line intensities of the undiluted sample/brand combinations with prozone effect (n = 51) included a single negative (1.9%) and 29 faint and weak readings (56.9%). The other target lens (P. vivax-pLDH, pan-specific pLDH and aldolase) did not show a prozone effect. Conclusion This study confirms the prozone effect as a cause of false-negative HRP-2 RDTs in samples with hyperparasitaemia.

2009-01-01

451

Investigating tropospheric effects and seasonal position variations in GPS and DORIS time-series from the Nepal Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodetic time-series from continuous GPS (cGPS) and 1 DORIS stations across the Himalaya of central Nepal show strong seasonal fluctuations observed on the horizontal and vertical components. Because the fluctuations determined at the different stations have similar phase but different amplitudes, these observations would imply that the secular shortening across the range is modulated by a seasonal strain. Given the geographic and climatic setting, there is however a possibility that the GPS positions be biased by tropospheric effects. We process these data using two different software packages and two different analysis strategies. Our analysis shows evidence for 1-strong seasonal fluctuation of zenithal delays consistent with in situ meteorological data and two strong horizontal tropospheric gradients in particular in the EW direction, that is, parallel to the mountain front at Gumba, also detected in DORIS results. We show that the tropospheric effects cannot however be the source of the observed seasonality of horizontal strain. This study supports the view that the seasonal strain in the Himalaya is real and probably driven by seasonal surface load variations. Our study adds support to the view that seasonal variations of seismicity in the Himalaya reflects seasonal variations of geodetic strain.

Flouzat, Mireille; Bettinelli, Pierre; Willis, Pascal; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Héritier, Thierry; Gautam, Umesh

2009-09-01