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Sample records for efferent callosal connections

  1. Development of callosal connections in the sensorimotor cortex of the hamster.

    PubMed

    Norris, C R; Kalil, K

    1992-12-01

    To investigate the development of corpus callosal connectivity in the hamster sensorimotor cortex, we have used the sensitive axonal tracer 1,1 dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3', tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), which was injected either in vivo or in fixed brains of animals 3-6 days postnatal. First, to study changes in the overall distribution of developing callosal afferents we made large injections of DiI into the corpus callosal tract. We found that the anterogradely labeled callosal axons formed a patchy distribution in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex, which was similar to the pattern of adult connectivity described in earlier studies of the rodent corpus callosum. This result stands in contrast to previous retrograde studies of developing callosal connectivity which showed that the distribution of callosal neurons early in development is homogeneous and that the mature, patchy distribution arises later, primarily as a result of the retraction of exuberant axons. The initial patchy distribution of callosal axon growth into the sensorimotor cortex described in the present study suggests that exuberant axons destined to be eliminated do not enter the cortex. In addition, small injections of DiI into developing cortex resulted in homotopic patterns of callosal topography in which reciprocal regions of sensorimotor cortex are connected, as has been shown in the adult. Second, to study the radial growth of callosal afferents we followed the extension of individual callosal axons into the developing cortex. We found that callosal axons began to invade the contralateral cortex on about postnatal day 3, with little or no waiting period in the callosal tract. Callosal afferents then advanced steadily through the cortex, never actually invading the cortical plate but extending into layers on the first day that they could be distinguished from the cortical plate. The majority of callosal axons grew radially through the cortex and did not exhibit substantial

  2. Two rules for callosal connectivity in striate cortex of the rat.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Olavarria, J F

    1995-10-01

    In the rat, callosal cells occupy lateral as well as medial portions of striate cortex. In the region of the border between areas 17 and 18, which contains a representation of the vertical meridian of the visual field, cells projecting through the corpus callosum are concentrated throughout the depth of the cortex. In contrast, in medial portion of striate cortex, where peripheral portions of the visual field are represented, callosal cells are preferentially found in infragranular layers. These differences in topography and laminar distribution suggest that these callosal regions, referred to as medial and lateral callosal regions in the present study, subserve different functions. We explored this possibility by analyzing the patterns of callosal linkages in these two callosal regions. We charted the location of retrogradely labeled cells within striate cortex of one hemisphere after placing restricted injections of one or more fluorescent tracers into selected sites in the contralateral striate cortex. We found the medial and lateral callosal regions have distinctly different topographic organizations. Injections into medial striate cortex of one hemisphere produced labeled cells predominantly in mirror-symmetric loci in medial portions of contralateral striate cortex. The arrangement of these connections suggests that they mediate direct interactions between cortical regions representing visual fields located symmetrically on opposite sides of the vertical meridian of the visual field. In contrast, the mapping in the lateral callosal region is reversed: injections into the 17/18a border produced labeled fields located medial to the contralateral 17/18a border, while injections slightly medial to the 17/18a border produced labeled fields located at the contralateral 17/18a border.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8550874

  3. Investigating the functional role of callosal connections with dynamic causal models

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas E.; Penny, Will D.; Marshall, John C.; Fink, Gereon R.; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the corpus callosum has been described in considerable detail. Tracing studies in animals and human post-mortem experiments are currently complemented by diffusion-weighted imaging, which enables non-invasive investigations of callosal connectivity to be conducted. In contrast to the wealth of anatomical data, little is known about the principles by which inter-hemispheric integration is mediated by callosal connections. Most importantly, we lack insights into the mechanisms that determine the functional role of callosal connections in a context-dependent fashion. These mechanisms can now be disclosed by models of effective connectivity that explain neuroimaging data from paradigms which manipulate inter-hemispheric interactions. In this article, we demonstrate that Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM), in conjunction with Bayesian model selection (BMS), is a powerful approach to disentangling the various factors that determine the functional role of callosal connections. We first review the theoretical foundations of DCM and BMS before demonstrating the application of these techniques to empirical data from a single subject. PMID:16394145

  4. Connections of the corticomedial amygdala in the golden hamster. I. Efferents of the ''vomeronasal amygdala''

    SciTech Connect

    Kevetter, G.A.; Winans, S.S.

    1981-03-20

    The medial (M) an posteromedial cortical (C3) amygdaloid nuclei and the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (NAOT) are designated the ''vomeronasal amygdala'' because they are the only components of the amygdala to receive a direct projection from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The efferents of M and C3 were traced after injections of /sup 3/H-proline into the amygdala in male golden hamsters. Frozen sections of the brains were processed for autoradiography. The efferents of the ''vomeronasal amygdala'' are largely to areas which are primary and secondary terminal areas along the vomeronasal pathway, although the efferents from C3 and M terminate in different layers in these areas than do the projections from the vomeronasal nerve or the AOB. Specifically, C3 projects ipsilaterally to the internal granule cell layer of the AOB, the cellular layer of NAOT, and layer Ib of M. Additional fibers from C3 terminate in a retrocommissural component of the bed nucleus of the strain terminalis (BNST) bilaterally, and in the cellular layers of the contralateral C3. The medial nucleus projects to the cellular layer of the ipsilateral NAOT, layer Ib of C3, and bilaterally to the medial component of BNST. Projections from M to non-vomeronasal areas terminate in the medial preoptic area-anterior hypothalamic junction, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventral premammillary nucleus and possibly in the ventral subiculum. These results demonstrate reciprocal connections between primary and secondary vomeronasal areas between the secondary areas themselves. They suggest that M, but not C3, projects to areas outside this vomeronasal network. The medial amygdaloid nucleus is therefore an important link between the vomeronasal organ and areas of the brain not receiving direct vomeronasal input.

  5. Evolutionary Plasticity of Habenular Asymmetry with a Conserved Efferent Connectivity Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Néstor; Meynard, Margarita M.; Palma, Karina; Concha, Miguel L.

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate habenulae (Hb) is an evolutionary conserved dorsal diencephalic nuclear complex that relays information from limbic and striatal forebrain regions to the ventral midbrain. One key feature of this bilateral nucleus is the presence of left-right differences in size, cytoarchitecture, connectivity, neurochemistry and/or gene expression. In teleosts, habenular asymmetry has been associated with preferential innervation of left-right habenular efferents into dorso-ventral domains of the midbrain interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). However, the degree of conservation of this trait and its relation to the structural asymmetries of the Hb are currently unknown. To address these questions, we performed the first systematic comparative analysis of structural and connectional asymmetries of the Hb in teleosts. We found striking inter-species variability in the overall shape and cytoarchitecture of the Hb, and in the frequency, strength and to a lesser degree, laterality of habenular volume at the population level. Directional asymmetry of the Hb was either to the left in D. rerio, E. bicolor, O. latipes, P. reticulata, B. splendens, or to the right in F. gardneri females. In contrast, asymmetry was absent in P. scalare and F. gardneri males at the population level, although in these species the Hb displayed volumetric asymmetries at the individual level. Inter-species variability was more pronounced across orders than within a single order, and coexisted with an overall conserved laterotopic representation of left-right habenular efferents into dorso-ventral domains of the IPN. These results suggest that the circuit design involving the Hb of teleosts promotes structural flexibility depending on developmental, cognitive and/or behavioural pressures, without affecting the main midbrain connectivity output, thus unveiling a key conserved role of this connectivity trait in the function of the circuit. We propose that ontogenic plasticity in habenular morphogenesis

  6. Axonal Kainate Receptors Modulate the Strength of Efferent Connectivity by Regulating Presynaptic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sakha, Prasanna; Vesikansa, Aino; Orav, Ester; Heikkinen, Joonas; Kukko-Lukjanov, Tiina-Kaisa; Shintyapina, Alexandra; Franssila, Sami; Jokinen, Ville; Huttunen, Henri J.; Lauri, Sari E.

    2016-01-01

    Kainate type of glutamate receptors (KARs) are highly expressed during early brain development and may influence refinement of the circuitry, via modulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. KARs are also localized to axons, however, their exact roles in regulating presynaptic processes remain controversial. Here, we have used a microfluidic chamber system allowing specific manipulation of KARs in presynaptic neurons to study their functions in synaptic development and function in vitro. Silencing expression of endogenous KARs resulted in lower density of synaptophysin immunopositive puncta in microfluidically isolated axons. Various recombinant KAR subunits and pharmacological compounds were used to dissect the mechanisms behind this effect. The calcium permeable (Q) variants of the low-affinity (GluK1–3) subunits robustly increased synaptophysin puncta in axons in a manner that was dependent on receptor activity and PKA and PKC dependent signaling. Further, an associated increase in the mean active zone length was observed in electron micrographs. Selective presynaptic expression of these subunits resulted in higher success rate of evoked EPSCs consistent with higher probability of glutamate release. In contrast, the calcium-impermeable (R) variant of GluK1 or the high-affinity subunits (GluK4,5) had no effect on synaptic density or transmission efficacy. These data suggest that calcium permeable axonal KARs promote efferent connectivity by increasing the density of functional presynaptic release sites. PMID:26834558

  7. Subcortical connections of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. II. efferents.

    PubMed

    Agster, Kara L; Tomás Pereira, Inês; Saddoris, Michael P; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2016-09-01

    This is the second of two studies detailing the subcortical connections of the perirhinal (PER), the postrhinal (POR) and entorhinal (EC) cortices of the rat. In the present study, we analyzed the subcortical efferents of the rat PER areas 35 and 36, POR, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA). Anterograde tracers were injected into these five regions, and the resulting density of fiber labeling was quantified in an extensive set of subcortical structures. Density and topography of fiber labeling were quantitatively assessed in 36 subcortical areas, including olfactory structures, claustrum, amygdala nuclei, septal nuclei, basal ganglia, thalamic nuclei, and hypothalamic structures. In addition to reporting the density of labeled fibers, we incorporated a new method for quantifying the size of anterograde projections that takes into account the volume of the target subcortical structure as well as the density of fiber labeling. The PER, POR, and EC displayed unique patterns of projections to subcortical areas. Interestingly, all regions examined provided strong input to the basal ganglia, although the projections arising in the PER and LEA were stronger and more widespread. PER areas 35 and 36 exhibited similar pattern of projections with some differences. PER area 36 projects more heavily to the lateral amygdala and much more heavily to thalamic nuclei including the lateral posterior nucleus, the posterior complex, and the nucleus reuniens. Area 35 projects more heavily to olfactory structures. The LEA provides the strongest and most widespread projections to subcortical structures including all those targeted by the PER as well as the medial and posterior septal nuclei. POR shows fewer subcortical projections overall, but contributes substantial input to the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. The MEA projections are even weaker. Our results suggest that the PER and LEA have greater influence over olfactory, amygdala, and septal nuclei

  8. Connections of the corticomedial amygdala in the golden hamster. II. Efferents of the ''olfactory amygdala''

    SciTech Connect

    Kevetter, G.A.; Winans, S.S.

    1981-03-20

    The anterior cortical (C1) and posterolateral cortical (C2) nuclei of the amygdala are designated the ''olfactory amygdala'' because they each receive direct projections from the main olfactory bulb. The efferents of these nuclei were traced after stereotaxic placement of 1-5 muCi tritiated proline in the corticomedial amygdala of the male golden hamsters. Following survival times of 12, 24, or 48 hours, 20 micron frozen sections of the brains were processed for light microscopic autoradiography. Efferents from C2 terminate in layers II and III of the olfactory tubercle and in layer Ib of pars ventralis and pars medialis of the anterior olfactory nucleus. Fibers from this nucleus also project to layers I and II of the infralimbic cortex and to the molecular layer of the agranular insular cortex. More posteriorly, fibers from C2 terminate in layer I of the dorsolateral entorhinal cortex, and in the endopiriform nucleus. From C1, efferent fibers travel in the stria terminalis and terminate in the precommissural bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Efferents from C1 also innervate the molecular layer of C2, the amygdalo-hippocampal area, and the adjacent piriform cortex. Neurons in both C1 and C2 project to the molecular layer of the medial amygdaloid nucleus and the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala, the plexiform layer of the ventral subiculum, and the molecular layer of the lateral entorhinal cortex.

  9. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Connectivity Analyses Reveal Efference-Copy to Primary Somatosensory Area, BA2

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fang; Arnstein, Dan; Thomas, Rajat Mani; Maurits, Natasha M.; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Some theories of motor control suggest efference-copies of motor commands reach somatosensory cortices. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test these models. We varied the amount of efference-copy signal by making participants squeeze a soft material either actively or passively. We found electromyographical recordings, an efference-copy proxy, to predict activity in primary somatosensory regions, in particular Brodmann Area (BA) 2. Partial correlation analyses confirmed that brain activity in cortical structures associated with motor control (premotor and supplementary motor cortices, the parietal area PF and the cerebellum) predicts brain activity in BA2 without being entirely mediated by activity in early somatosensory (BA3b) cortex. Our study therefore provides valuable empirical evidence for efference-copy models of motor control, and shows that signals in BA2 can indeed reflect an input from motor cortices and suggests that we should interpret activations in BA2 as evidence for somatosensory-motor rather than somatosensory coding alone. PMID:24416222

  10. A new callose function

    PubMed Central

    Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    Callose in polypodiaceous ferns performs multiple roles during stomatal development and function. This highly dynamic (1→3)-β-D-glucan, in cooperation with the cytoskeleton, is involved in: (a) stomatal pore formation, (b) deposition of local GC wall thickenings and (c) the mechanism of stomatal pore opening and closure. This behavior of callose, among others, probably relies on the particular mechanical properties as well as on the ability to form and degrade rapidly, to create a scaffold or to serve as a matrix for deposition of other cell wall materials and to produce fibrillar deposits in the periclinal GC walls, radially arranged around the stomatal pore. The local callose deposition in closing stomata is an immediate response of the external periclinal GC walls experiencing strong mechanical forces induced by the neighboring cells. The radial callose fibrils transiently co-exist with radial cellulose microfibrils and, like the latter, seem to be oriented via cortical MTs. PMID:21045558

  11. An Arabidopsis callose synthase.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2002-08-01

    Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially complements a yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase mutant. AtGsl5 is developmentally expressed at highest levels in flowers, consistent with flowers having high beta-1,3-glucan synthase activities for deposition of callose in pollen. A role for AtGsl5 in callose synthesis is also indicated by AtGsl5 expression in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant. PMID:12081364

  12. Callosal Connections of Primary Visual Cortex Predict the Spatial Spreading of Binocular Rivalry Across the Visual Hemifields

    PubMed Central

    Genç, Erhan; Bergmann, Johanna; Tong, Frank; Blake, Randolph; Singer, Wolf; Kohler, Axel

    2011-01-01

    In binocular rivalry, presentation of different images to the separate eyes leads to conscious perception alternating between the two possible interpretations every few seconds. During perceptual transitions, a stimulus emerging into dominance can spread in a wave-like manner across the visual field. These traveling waves of rivalry dominance have been successfully related to the cortical magnification properties and functional activity of early visual areas, including the primary visual cortex (V1). Curiously however, these traveling waves undergo a delay when passing from one hemifield to another. In the current study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate whether the strength of interhemispheric connections between the left and right visual cortex might be related to the delay of traveling waves across hemifields. We measured the delay in traveling wave times (ΔTWT) in 19 participants and repeated this test 6 weeks later to evaluate the reliability of our behavioral measures. We found large interindividual variability but also good test–retest reliability for individual measures of ΔTWT. Using DTI in connection with fiber tractography, we identified parts of the corpus callosum connecting functionally defined visual areas V1–V3. We found that individual differences in ΔTWT was reliably predicted by the diffusion properties of transcallosal fibers connecting left and right V1, but observed no such effect for neighboring transcallosal visual fibers connecting V2 and V3. Our results demonstrate that the anatomical characteristics of topographically specific transcallosal connections predict the individual delay of interhemispheric traveling waves, providing further evidence that V1 is an important site for neural processes underlying binocular rivalry. PMID:22162968

  13. Evolutionarily conserved organization of the dopaminergic system in lamprey: SNc/VTA afferent and efferent connectivity and D2 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Suryanarayana, Shreyas M; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

    2014-12-01

    The dopaminergic system influences motor behavior, signals reward and novelty, and is an essential component of the basal ganglia in all vertebrates including the lamprey, one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates. The intrinsic organization and function of the lamprey basal ganglia is highly conserved. For instance, the direct and indirect pathways are modulated through dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in lamprey and in mammals. The nucleus of the tuberculum posterior, a homologue of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)/ventral tegmental area (VTA) is present in lamprey, but only scarce data exist about its connectivity. Likewise, the D2 receptor is expressed in the striatum, but little is known about its localization in other brain areas. We used in situ hybridization and tracer injections, both in combination with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry, to characterize the SNc/VTA efferent and afferent connectivity, and to relate its projection pattern with D2 receptor expression in particular. We show that most features of the dopaminergic system are highly conserved. As in mammals, the direct pallial (cortex in mammals) input and the basal ganglia connectivity with the SNc/VTA are present as part of the evaluation system, as well as input from the tectum as the evolutionary basis for salience/novelty detection. Moreover, the SNc/VTA receives sensory information from the olfactory bulbs, optic tectum, octavolateral area, and dorsal column nucleus, and it innervates, apart from the nigrostriatal pathway, several motor-related areas. This suggests that the dopaminergic system also contributes to the control of different motor centers at the brainstem level. PMID:24942187

  14. Electrophysiological Correlates of Morphological Neuroplasticity in Human Callosal Dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lazarev, Vladimir V.; de Carvalho Monteiro, Myriam; Vianna-Barbosa, Rodrigo; deAzevedo, Leonardo C.; Lent, Roberto; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    In search for the functional counterpart of the alternative Probst and sigmoid bundles, considered as morphological evidence of neuroplasticity in callosal dysgenesis, electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence analysis was combined with high resolution and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Data of two patients with callosal agenesis, plus two with typical partial dysgenesis with a remnant genu, and one atypical patient with a substantially reduced genu were compared to those of fifteen neurotypic controls. The interhemispheric EEG coherence between homologous nontemporal brain regions corresponded to absence or partial presence of callosal connections. A generalized coherence reduction was observed in complete acallosal patients, as well as coherence preservation in the anterior areas of the two patients with a remnant genu. jThe sigmoid bundles found in three patients with partial dysgenesis correlated with augmented EEG coherence between anterior regions of one hemisphere and posterior regions of the other. These heterologous (crossed) interhemispheric connections were asymmetric in both imaging and EEG patterns, with predominance of the right-anterior-to-left-posterior connections over the mirror ones. The Probst bundles correlated with higher intrahemispheric long-distance coherence in all patients. The significant correlations observed for the delta, theta and alpha bands indicate that these alternative pathways are functional, although the neuropsychological nature of this function is still unknown. PMID:27055255

  15. Multimodal efferent and recurrent neurons in the medial lobes of cockroach mushroom bodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Strausfeld, N J

    1999-07-12

    Previous electrophysiological studies of cockroach mushroom bodies demonstrated the sensitivity of efferent neurons to multimodal stimuli. The present account describes the morphology and physiology of several types of efferent neurons with dendrites in the medial lobes. In general, efferent neurons respond to a variety of modalities in a context-specific manner, responding to specific combinations or specific sequences of multimodal stimuli. Efferent neurons that show endogenous activity have dendritic specializations that extend to laminae of Kenyon cell axons equipped with many synaptic vesicles, termed "dark" laminae. Efferent neurons that are active only during stimulation have dendritic specializations that branch mainly among Kenyon cell axons having few vesicles and forming the "pale" laminae. A new category of "recurrent" efferent neuron has been identified that provides feedback or feedforward connections between different parts of the mushroom body. Some of these neurons are immunopositive to antibodies raised against the inhibitory transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Feedback pathways to the calyces arise from satellite neuropils adjacent to the medial lobes, which receive axon collaterals of efferent neurons. Efferent neurons are uniquely identifiable. Each morphological type occurs at the same location in the mushroom bodies of different individuals. Medial lobe efferent neurons terminate in the lateral protocerebrum among the endings of antennal lobe projection neurons. It is suggested that information about the sensory context of olfactory (or other) stimuli is relayed by efferent neurons to the lateral protocerebrum where it is integrated with information about odors relayed by antennal lobe projection neurons. PMID:10376745

  16. Efferent feedback slows cochlear aging.

    PubMed

    Liberman, M Charles; Liberman, Leslie D; Maison, Stéphane F

    2014-03-26

    The inner ear receives two types of efferent feedback from the brainstem: one pathway provides gain control on outer hair cells' contribution to cochlear amplification, and the other modulates the excitability of the cochlear nerve. Although efferent feedback can protect hair cells from acoustic injury and thereby minimize noise-induced permanent threshold shifts, most prior studies focused on high-intensity exposures (>100 dB SPL). Here, we show that efferents are essential for long-term maintenance of cochlear function in mice aged 1 year post-de-efferentation without purposeful acoustic overexposure. Cochlear de-efferentation was achieved by surgical lesion of efferent pathways in the brainstem and was assessed by quantitative analysis of immunostained efferent terminals in outer and inner hair cell areas. The resultant loss of efferent feedback accelerated the age-related amplitude reduction in cochlear neural responses, as seen in auditory brainstem responses, and increased the loss of synapses between hair cells and the terminals of cochlear nerve fibers, as seen in confocal analysis of the organ of Corti immunostained for presynaptic and postsynaptic markers. This type of neuropathy, also seen after moderate noise exposure, has been termed "hidden hearing loss", because it does not affect thresholds, but can be seen in the suprathreshold amplitudes of cochlear neural responses, and likely causes problems with hearing in a noisy environment, a classic symptom of age-related hearing loss in humans. Since efferent reflex strength varies among individuals and can be measured noninvasively, a weak reflex may be an important risk factor, and prognostic indicator, for age-related hearing impairment. PMID:24672005

  17. Tau Pathology Spread in PS19 Tau Transgenic Mice Following Locus Coeruleus (LC) Injections of Synthetic Tau Fibrils is Determined by the LC’s Afferent and Efferent Connections

    PubMed Central

    Iba, Michiyo; McBride, Jennifer D.; Guo, Jing L.; Zhang, Bin; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous tau inclusions are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative tauopathies. An increasing number of studies implicate the cell-to-cell propagation of tau pathology in the progression of tauopathies. We recently showed [25] that inoculation of preformed synthetic tau fibrils (tau PFFs) into the hippocampus of young transgenic (Tg) mice (PS19) overexpressing human P301S mutant tau induced robust tau pathology in anatomically connected brain regions including the locus coeruleus (LC). Since Braak and colleagues hypothesized that the LC is the first brain structure to develop tau lesions and since LC has widespread connections throughout the CNS, LC neurons could be the critical initiators of the stereotypical spreading of tau pathology through connectome-dependent transmission of pathological tau in AD. Here, we report that injections of tau PFFs into the LC of PS19 mice induced propagation of tau pathology to major afferents and efferents of the LC. Notably, tau pathology propagated along LC efferent projections was localized not only to axon terminals but also to neuronal perikarya, suggesting transneuronal transfer of templated tau pathology to neurons receiving LC projections. Further, brainstem neurons giving rise to major LC afferents also developed perikaryal tau pathology. Surprisingly, while tangle bearing neurons degenerated in the LC ipsilateral to the injection site starting 6 months post-injection, no neuron loss was seen in the contralateral LC wherein tangle bearing neurons gradually cleared tau pathology by 6–12 months post-injection. However, the spreading pattern of tau pathology observed in our LC-injected mice is different from that in AD brains since hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, which are affected in early stages of AD, were largely spared of tau inclusions in our model. Thus, while our study tested critical aspects of the Braak hypothesis of tau pathology spread, this novel mouse model provides unique

  18. Callose synthesis during reproductive development in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao; Han, Xiao; Lu, Tie-Gang

    2016-02-01

    Callose, a linear β-1,3-glucan molecule, plays important roles in a variety of processes in angiosperms, including development and the response to biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the importance of callose deposition, our understanding of the roles of callose in rice reproductive development and the regulation of callose biosynthesis is limited. GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE genes encode callose synthases (GSLs), which function in the production of callose at diverse sites in plants. Studies have shown that callose participated in plant reproductive development, and that the timely deposition and degradation of callose were essential for normal male gametophyte development. In this mini-review, we described conserved sequences found in GSL family proteins from monocotyledonous (Oryza sativa and Zea mays) and dicotyledonous (Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max) plants. We also describe the latest findings on callose biosynthesis and deposition during reproductive development and discuss future challenges in unraveling the mechanism of callose synthesis and deposition in higher plants. PMID:26451709

  19. Callose synthesis during reproductive development in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao; Han, Xiao; Lu, Tie-gang

    2016-01-01

    Callose, a linear β-1,3-glucan molecule, plays important roles in a variety of processes in angiosperms, including development and the response to biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the importance of callose deposition, our understanding of the roles of callose in rice reproductive development and the regulation of callose biosynthesis is limited. GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE genes encode callose synthases (GSLs), which function in the production of callose at diverse sites in plants. Studies have shown that callose participated in plant reproductive development, and that the timely deposition and degradation of callose were essential for normal male gametophyte development. In this mini-review, we described conserved sequences found in GSL family proteins from monocotyledonous (Oryza sativa and Zea mays) and dicotyledonous (Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max) plants. We also describe the latest findings on callose biosynthesis and deposition during reproductive development and discuss future challenges in unraveling the mechanism of callose synthesis and deposition in higher plants. PMID:26451709

  20. Expression of Arabidopsis callose synthase 5 results in callose accumulation and cell wall permeability alteration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Deng, Yunfei; Kanaoka, Masahiro M; Okada, Kiyotaka; Hong, Zonglie

    2012-02-01

    Callose is the major polysaccharide present in the callose wall of developing microspores and the growing pollen tube wall. It is also an essential component of other specialized cell walls and its synthesis can be induced by pathogen infection, wounding and environmental cues. Among the 12 callose synthase genes (CalS) present in the Arabidopsis genome, CalS5 plays the predominant role in the synthesis of the callose wall, callose plugs and pollen tube wall. When expressed as a GFP-tagged protein in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells, CalS5 was found to be present in the plasma membrane and the Golgi-related endomembranes. Unlike the cell plate-specific CalS1 isozyme, CalS5 was not concentrated to the cell plate at cytokinesis. Expression of CalS5 resulted in callose accumulation only in the cell wall of BY-2 cells. The fact that no callose was found in the endomembranes suggests that CalS5 is not functional in that compartment. These cells exhibited a decreased plasmolysis rate in hypotonic solutions and an increased cytolysis rate in hypertonic conditions. This study demonstrates that an artificial callose wall could be synthesized by expressing a callose synthase enzyme. PMID:22195570

  1. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved. PMID:16217620

  2. Efferent and afferent connections of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus determined by neural tracer analysis: implications for lordosis regulation in female rats.

    PubMed

    Shimogawa, Yuji; Sakuma, Yasuo; Yamanouchi, Korehito

    2015-02-01

    Neural connections of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) to and from forebrain and midbrain structures, which are involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction, were investigated. A retrograde (fluoro-gold [FG]) or an anterograde neural tracer (phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin [PHA-L]) was injected into the left side of the VMN in ovariectomized rats. Six days after injection with FG or 11 days after injection with PHA-L, brains were fixed and sectioned. After immunohistochemistry, digital images of FG-labeled neural cell bodies (FG-cells) or PHA-L-labeled fibers (PHA-L-fibers) were analyzed. Injection sites of FG and PHA-L were mainly in the ventrolateral VMN. Considerable numbers of FG-cells and PHA-L-fibers were present in the left side of the medial amygdala, ventral lateral septum, preoptic area, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, periventricular nucleus of thalamus, and midbrain central gray. The lateral dorsal raphe nuclei contained many PHA-L-fibers but few FG-cells. By contrast, both sides of the median raphe nucleus contained many FG-cells but few PHA-L-fibers. Reciprocal direct neural connection between the right and left side of the VMN were observed. The present results provide an anatomical basis for functional relationships between the VMN and these nuclei. PMID:25448544

  3. Commentary on: Efferent connections of the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. C.B. Saper and A.D. Loewy, Brain Research 197:291-317, 1980.

    PubMed

    Saper, Clifford B; Loewy, Arthur D

    2016-08-15

    By the late 1970׳s, the pathways had been identified from neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract that control visceral sensory inflow and from the paraventricular nucleus and lateral hypothalamus that directly innervate the autonomic preganglionic neurons, thereby controlling autonomic outflow. However, the connections between the two were not yet clear. This paper identified the parabrachial nucleus as a key intermediary, receiving the bulk of outflow from the nucleus of the solitary tract and distributing it to a set of brainstem and forebrain sites that constituted a central autonomic control network. This work also identified the insular cortex as a key visceral sensory cortical area. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. PMID:26790347

  4. Callosal Disconnection Syndrome Associated with Relapsing Polychondritis.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toru; Kanno, Shigenori; Shijo, Tomomi; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Iizuka, Osamu; Kamimura, Naoto; Ishii, Tomonori; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the cartilagenous structures, and it sometimes involves the central nervous system. Encephalitis associated with RP causes a wide variety of symptoms according to the affected sites. We herein report the first case of 72-year-old right-handed man who developed acute meningoencephalitis associated with RP involving the corpus callous. After immunosuppressive therapy, his symptoms dramatically improved, but difficulty in performing bimanual movements with occasional diagonistic dyspraxia in his right hand remained. Because callosal signs are easily missed, especially in acute settings, it would be useful to know that RP can sometimes cause callosal disconnection syndrome. PMID:27150878

  5. Vestibular efferent neurons project to the flocculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinder, M. E.; Purcell, I. M.; Kaufman, G. D.; Perachio, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    A bilateral projection from the vestibular efferent neurons, located dorsal to the genu of the facial nerve, to the cerebellar flocculus and ventral paraflocculus was demonstrated. Efferent neurons were double-labeled by the unilateral injections of separate retrograde tracers into the labyrinth and into the floccular and ventral parafloccular lobules. Efferent neurons were found with double retrograde tracer labeling both ipsilateral and contralateral to the sites of injection. No double labeling was found when using a fluorescent tracer with non-fluorescent tracers such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), but large percentages of efferent neurons were found to be double labeled when using two fluorescent substances including: fluorogold, microruby dextran amine, or rhodamine labeled latex beads. These data suggest a potential role for vestibular efferent neurons in modulating the dynamics of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during normal and adaptive conditions.

  6. Depletion of Inositol Polyphosphate 4-Phosphatase II Suppresses Callosal Axon Formation in the Developing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Liting; Kim, Nam-Ho; Huh, Sung-Oh; Rhee, Hae Jin

    2016-01-01

    The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and is essential for coordinated transmission of information between them. Disruption of early stages of callosal development can cause agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), including both complete and partial callosal absence, causing mild to severe cognitive impairment. Despite extensive studies, the etiology of AgCC remains to be clarified due to the complicated mechanism involved in generating AgCC. The biological function of PI3K signaling including phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is well established in diverse biochemical processes including axon and dendrite morphogenesis, but the function of the closely related phosphatidylinositol-3,4,-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) signaling, particularly in the nervous system, is largely unknown. Here, we provide the first report on the role of inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase II (INPP4B), a PI(3,4)P2 metabolizing 4-phosphatase in the regulation of callosal axon formation. Depleting INPP4B by in utero electroporation suppressed medially directed callosal axon formation. Moreover, depletion of INPP4B significantly attenuated formation of Satb2-positive pyramidal neurons and axon polarization in cortical neurons during cortical development. Taken together, these data suggest that INPP4B plays a role in the regulating callosal axon formation by controlling axon polarization and the Satb2-positive pyramidal neuron population. Dysregulation of INPP4B during cortical development may be implicated in the generation of partial AgCC. PMID:27109423

  7. Contractile properties of afferent and efferent arterioles.

    PubMed

    Ito, S; Abe, K

    1997-07-01

    1. The balance of vascular tone of the afferent and efferent arteriole is a crucial determinant of glomerular haemodynamics. Despite their intimate anatomical relationship in the juxtaglomerular apparatus, the mechanisms that regulate afferent and efferent arteriolar tone are different. 2. In the afferent arteriole, two intrinsic mechanisms, the myogenic response and macula densa-mediated tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) play a dominant role, maintaining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at a constant level over a wide range of renal perfusion pressure. Studies have shown that these two mechanisms are modulated by nitric oxide (NO). In addition, an interaction between TGF and angiotensin II (AngII) seems to be essential to maintaining GFR despite large variations in daily intake of salt and water. 3. In the efferent arteriole, neither myogenic response nor TGF seems to be important, while AngII is one major factor involved in the control of vascular resistance. In addition, recent studies have provided evidence that NO and prostaglandins produced by the glomerulus may control resistance of the downstream efferent arteriole. 4. As the early segment of the efferent arteriole resides within the glomerulus, various autacoid hormones produced by the glomerulus may reach and directly act on this segment, thereby controlling the glomerular capillary pressure. Thus, it would be important to understand the differences in the mechanisms operating at the afferent and efferent arteriole, as well as their alterations in various physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:9248673

  8. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  9. Medial Cochlear Efferent Function: A Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, David C.

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the cochlear efferent system, many hypotheses have been put forth for its function. These hypotheses for its function range from protecting the cochlea from over stimulation to improving the detection of sounds in noise. It is known that the medial efferent system innervates the outer hair cells and that stimulation of this system reduces basilar membrane and auditory nerve sensitivity which suggests that this system acts to decrease the gain of the cochlear amplifier. Here I present modeling results as well as analysis of published experimental data that suggest that the function of the medial efferent reflex is to decrease the cochlear amplifier gain by just the right amount so that the nonlinearity in the basilar membrane response lines up perfectly with the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process to produce a hair cell receptor potential that is proportional to the logarithm of the sound pressure level.

  10. Monitoring the excitability of neocortical efferent neurons to direct activation by extracellular current pulses.

    PubMed

    Swadlow, H A

    1992-08-01

    1. Extracellular action potentials were recorded from antidromically activated efferent neurons in visual, somatosensory, and motor cortex of the awake rabbit using low-impedance metal microelectrodes. Efferent neurons were also activated by current pulses delivered near the soma [juxtasomal current pulses (JSCPs)] through the recording microelectrode. Action potentials generated by JSCPs were not directly observed (because of the stimulus artifact), but were inferred with the use of a collision paradigm. Efferent populations studied include callosal neurons [CC (n = 80)], ipsilateral corticocortical neurons [C-IC (n = 21)], corticothalamic neurons of layer 6 [CF-6 (n = 57)], and descending corticofugal neurons of layer 5 [CF-5, corticotectal neurons of the visual cortex (n = 48)]. 2. Most CC neurons (45/46) and all C-IC (8/8) and CF-6 neurons (39/39) were directly activated by JSCPs at near-threshold intensities. Some CF-5 neurons (9/38), however, showed evidence of indirect activation. All efferent classes had similar current thresholds (means 1.85-2.10 microA) to direct activation by JSCPs, and thresholds were inversely related to extracellular spike amplitude. For each neuron, the range of JSCP intensities that generated response probabilities of between 0.2 and 0.8 was measured, and this "range of uncertainty" was significantly greater in CF-5 neurons (mean 32.7% of threshold) than in CC (mean 19.0%) or CF-6 (mean 20.4%) neurons. 3. Several factors indicate that the threshold of efferent neurons to JSCPs is very sensitive to excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Iontophoretic applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased the threshold to JSCPs, and glutamate reduced the threshold. Electrical stimulation of afferent pathways at intensities just below threshold for eliciting action potentials resulted in a dramatic decrease in JSCP threshold. This initial short-latency threshold decrease was specific to stimulation of particular afferent pathways

  11. Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula

    PubMed Central

    Quina, Lely A.; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas; Turner, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain GABAergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. Using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, and caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. PMID:25099741

  12. Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula.

    PubMed

    Quina, Lely A; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie A; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas C; Turner, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. By using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:32-60, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099741

  13. Callose homeostasis at plasmodesmata: molecular regulators and developmental relevance

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata are membrane-lined channels that are located in the plant cell wall and that physically interconnect the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of adjacent cells. Operating as controllable gates, plasmodesmata regulate the symplastic trafficking of micro- and macromolecules, such as endogenous proteins [transcription factors (TFs)] and RNA-based signals (mRNA, siRNA, etc.), hence mediating direct cell-to-cell communication and long distance signaling. Besides this physiological role, plasmodesmata also form gateways through which viral genomes can pass, largely facilitating the pernicious spread of viral infections. Plasmodesmatal trafficking is either passive (e.g., diffusion) or active and responses both to developmental and environmental stimuli. In general, plasmodesmatal conductivity is regulated by the controlled build-up of callose at the plasmodesmatal neck, largely mediated by the antagonistic action of callose synthases (CalSs) and β-1,3-glucanases. Here, in this theory and hypothesis paper, we outline the importance of callose metabolism in PD SEL control, and highlight the main molecular factors involved. In addition, we also review other proteins that regulate symplastic PD transport, both in a developmental and stress-responsive framework, and discuss on their putative role in the modulation of PD callose turn-over. Finally, we hypothesize on the role of structural sterols in the regulation of (PD) callose deposition and outline putative mechanisms by which this regulation may occur. PMID:24795733

  14. Callosally projecting neurons in the macaque monkey V1/V2 border are enriched in nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hof, P. R.; Ungerleider, L. G.; Adams, M. M.; Webster, M. J.; Gattass, R.; Blumberg, D. M.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Previous immunohistochemical studies combined with retrograde tracing in macaque monkeys have demonstrated that corticocortical projections can be differentiated by their content of neurofilament protein. The present study analyzed the distribution of nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein in callosally projecting neurons located at the V1/V2 border. All of the retrogradely labeled neurons were located in layer III at the V1/V2 border and at an immediately adjacent zone of area V2. A quantitative analysis showed that the vast majority (almost 95%) of these interhemispheric projection neurons contain neurofilament protein immunoreactivity. This observation differs from data obtained in other sets of callosal connections, including homotypical interhemispheric projections in the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal association cortices, that were found to contain uniformly low proportions of neurofilament protein-immunoreactive neurons. Comparably, highly variable proportions of neurofilament protein-containing neurons have been reported in intrahemispheric corticocortical pathways, including feedforward and feedback visual connections. These results indicate that neurofilament protein is a prominent neurochemical feature that identifies a particular population of interhemispheric projection neurons at the V1/V2 border and suggest that this biochemical attribute may be critical for the function of this subset of callosal neurons.

  15. Efferent feedback can explain many hearing phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, W. Harvey; Flax, Matthew R.

    2015-12-01

    The mixed mode cochlear amplifier (MMCA) model was presented at the last Mechanics of Hearing workshop [4]. The MMCA consists principally of a nonlinear feedback loop formed when an efferent-controlled outer hair cell (OHC) is combined with the cochlear mechanics and the rest of the relevant neurobiology. Essential elements of this model are efferent control of the OHC motility and a delay in the feedback to the OHC. The input to the MMCA is the passive travelling wave. In the MMCA amplification is localized where both the neural and tuned mechanical systems meet in the Organ of Corti (OoC). The simplest model based on this idea is a nonlinear delay line resonator (DLR), which is mathematically described by a nonlinear delay-differential equation (DDE). This model predicts possible Hopf bifurcations and exhibits its most interesting behaviour when operating near a bifurcation. This contribution presents some simulation results using the DLR model. These show that various observed hearing phenomena can be accounted for by this model, at least qualitatively, including compression effects, two-tone suppression and some forms of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs).

  16. Deposition of callose in young ovules of two Taraxacum species varying in the mode of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Musiał, Krystyna; Kościńska-Pająk, Maria; Antolec, Renata; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2015-01-01

    Although callose occurs during megasporogenesis in most flowering plants, the knowledge about its general function and the mechanisms by which the callose layer is formed in particular places is still not sufficient. The results of previous studies suggest a total lack of callose in the ovules of diplosporous plants in which meiosis is omitted or disturbed. This report is the first documentation of callose events in dandelions ovules. We demonstrated the pattern of callose deposition during the formation of megaspores through diplospory of Taraxacum type and during normal meiotic megasporogenesis in apomictic triploid Taraxacum atricapillum and amphimictic diploid Taraxacum linearisquameum. We found the presence of callose in the megasporocyte wall of both diplosporous and sexual dandelions. However, in a diplosporous dandelion, callose predominated at the micropylar pole of megaspore mother cell (MMC) which may be correlated with abnormal asynaptic meiosis and may indicate diplospory of the Taraxacum type. After meiotic division, callose is mainly deposited in the walls between megaspores in tetrads and in diplodyads. In subsequent stages, callose gradually disappears around the chalazal functional megaspore. However, some variations in the pattern of callose deposition within tetrad may reflect variable positioning of the functional megaspore (FM) observed in the ovules of T. linearisquameum. PMID:24938673

  17. Subthreshold receptive fields and baseline excitability of "silent" S1 callosal neurons in awake rabbits: contributions of AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Swadlow, H A; Hicks, T P

    1997-07-01

    The contribution of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors to excitatory subthreshold receptive fields was examined in callosal efferent neurons (CC neurons) in primary somatosensory cortex of the fully awake rabbit. Only neurons showing no traditional (suprathreshold) receptive fields were examined. Subthreshold responses were examined by monitoring the thresholds of efferent neurons to juxtasomal current pulses (JSCPs) delivered through the recording microelectrode. Changes in threshold following a peripheral conditioning stimulus signify a subthreshold response. Using this method, excitatory postsynaptic potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are manifested as decreases and increases in JSCP threshold, respectively. NMDA and non-NMDA agonists and antagonists were administered iontophoretically via a multibarrel micropipette assembly attached to the recording/stimulating microelectrode. Receptor-selective doses of both AMPA/kainate and NMDA antagonists decreased the excitability of CC neurons in the absence of any peripheral stimulation. Threshold to JSCPs rose by a mean of 20% for both classes of antagonist. Despite the similar effects of NMDA and non-NMDA antagonists on baseline excitability, these antagonists had dramatically different effects on the subthreshold excitatory response to activation of the receptive field. Whereas receptor-selective doses of AMPA/kainate antagonists either eliminated or severely attenuated the subthreshold excitatory responses to peripheral stimulation, NMDA antagonists had little or no effect on the subthreshold evoked response. PMID:9262195

  18. Diffusion Weighted Callosal Integrity Reflects Interhemispheric Communication Efficiency in Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlop, Nele P.; Achten, Eric; Debruyne, Jan; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relation between damage in the corpus callosum and the performance on an interhemispheric communication task in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Relative callosal lesion load defined as the ratio between callosal area and the total lesion load in the total corpus callosum, and the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)…

  19. Bilateral redundancy gain and callosal integrity in a man with callosal lipoma: a diffusion-tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Roser, Matthew E; Corballis, Michael C; Jansari, Ashok; Fulford, Jon; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Adams, William M

    2012-06-01

    We investigated whether abnormalities in the structural organization of the corpus callosum in the presence of curvilinear lipoma are associated with increased facilitation of response time to bilateral stimuli, an effect known as the redundancy gain (RG). A patient (A.J.) with a curvilinear lipoma of the corpus callosum, his genetically-identical twin, and age-matched control participants made speeded responses to luminant stimuli. Structural organization of callosal regions was assessed with diffusion-tensor imaging. A.J. was found to have reduced structural integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum and produced a large RG suggestive of neural summation. PMID:21787244

  20. Stimulation of callose synthesis in vivio correlates with changes in intracellular distribution of the callose synthase activator [beta]-Furfuryl-[beta]-Glucoside

    SciTech Connect

    Ohana, P.; Benziman, M.; Delmer, D.P. )

    1993-01-01

    [beta]-Furfuryl-[beta]-glucoside (FG) has been shown to be a specific endogenous activator of higher plant callose synthase. Because glycosides such as FG are usually sequestered in vacuoles, we have proposed that activation of callose synthesis in vivo may involve a change in the compartmentation on FG and Ca[sup 2+], resulting in a synergistic activation of callose synthase. The use of suspension-cultured barley (Hordeum bulbosum L.) cells provides evidence that FG is largely sequestered in the vacuole. Furthermore, conditions that lead to induction of callose synthesis in vivo correspondingly lead to elevation of the cytoplasmic concentration of FG. These conditions include the lowering of cytoplasmic pH or elevation of cytoplasmic Ca[sup 2+]. Oligogalacturonide elicitors have also been reported to cause similar changes in cytoplasmic pH and Ca[sup 2+] concentration, and such an elicitor also causes and elevation in cytoplasmic FG coupled with stimulation of callose synthesis. These results support the concept that a relative redistribution of FG between cytoplasm and vacuole may be one of the components of the signal transduction pathway for elicitation of callose synthase in vivo. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Callosal apraxia: a 34-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Falchook, Adam D; Watson, Robert T; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2016-06-01

    Loss of ability of the left upper limb (LUL) to correctly produce spatial and temporal components of skilled purposeful movements was reported 34 years ago in a woman with a callosal infarction. To learn about recovery, we recently reexamined this woman. This woman was tested for ideomotor apraxia by asking her to pantomime to command and to seeing pictures of tools. Whereas she performed normally with her right upper limb, her LUL remained severely apraxic, making many spatial (postural and movement) errors. Initially, she did not reveal loss of finger-hand deftness (limb-kinetic apraxia), and when tested again with the coin rotation task, her left hand performance was normal. Without vision, she could name objects placed in her left hand but not name numbers written in this hand. Since this woman had a callosal lesion, failure to recover cannot be accounted for by left hemisphere inhibition of her right hemisphere. Although failure for her LUL to improve may have been related to not using her LUL for skilled actions, her right hemisphere was able to observe transitive actions, and this failure of her LUL to produce skilled purposeful movements suggests her right hemisphere may have not had the capacity to learn these movement representations. Without vision, her ability to recognize objects with her left hand, but not numbers written on her left palm, suggests graphesthesia may require that her left hand did not have access to movement representations important for programming these numbers when writing. PMID:26928117

  2. Callosal lesions and behavior: history and modern concepts.

    PubMed

    Devinsky, Orrin; Laff, Rachel

    2003-12-01

    Callosotomy has played a unique role in the treatment of epilepsy and in the understanding of human brain function. The pioneering work of Dejerine and Liepmann presenting the first findings of callosal lesion pathology at the turn of the 20th century was accepted but then quickly forgotten. Two schools resurrected the phoenix of callosal syndromes: Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga leading in experimental neuroscience, and Norman Geschwind leading in clinical neurology. Callosotomy remains an effective technique to treat atonic, tonic, and tonic-clonic seizures, especially in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsies such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Neurologic, cognitive, and behavioral complications limit its use given that precise characterization of these complications as well as their frequency is difficult. The high frequencies of developmental delays, severe seizures, head injuries, antiepileptic drug burden, and other factors limit the ability to attribute a specific change to surgical intervention, since surgery can change multiple factors. For example, subtle behavioral changes in executive function and personality are difficult to delineate in a population with preexisting neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Despite this, a clearer picture of the effects of callosotomy, as defined by clinical neurology and neuropsychology as well as cognitive neuroscience, is emerging. PMID:14698693

  3. Efferent Modulation of Stimulus Frequency Otoacoustic Emission Fine Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Dewey, James B.; Boothalingam, Sriram; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2015-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions, sounds generated in the inner ear, have become a convenient non-invasive tool to examine the efferent modulation of cochlear mechanics. Activation of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents has been shown to alter the magnitude of these emissions. When the effects of efferent activation on the detailed spectral structures of these emissions have been examined, a shift of the spectral patterns toward higher frequencies has been reported for distortion product and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) have been proposed as the preferred emission type in the study of efferent modulation due to the simplicity of their production leading to the possibility of clearer interpretation of results. The effects of efferent activation on the complex spectral patterns of SFOAEs have not been examined to the best of our knowledge. We have examined the effects of activating the MOC efferents using broadband noise in normal-hearing humans. The detailed spectral structure of SFOAEs, known as fine structure, was recorded with and without contralateral acoustic stimulation. Results indicate that SFOAEs are reduced in magnitude and their fine structure pushed to higher frequencies by contralateral acoustic stimulation. These changes are similar to those observed in distortion product or spontaneous otoacoustic emissions and behavioral hearing thresholds. Taken together with observations made about magnitude and phase changes in otoacoustic emissions and hearing thresholds upon contralateral acoustic stimulation, all changes in otoacoustic emission and hearing threshold fine structure appear to be driven by a common set of mechanisms. Specifically, frequency shifts in fine structure patterns appear to be linked to changes in SFOAE phase due to contralateral acoustic stimulation. PMID:26696843

  4. Somatosensory cortical efferent neurons of the awake rabbit: latencies to activation via supra--and subthreshold receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Swadlow, H A; Hicks, T P

    1996-04-01

    1. Latencies to peripheral sensory stimulation were examined in four classes of antidromically identified efferent neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of awake rabbits. Both suprathreshold responses (action potentials) and subthreshold responses were examined. Subthreshold responses were examined by monitoring the thresholds of efferent neurons to juxtasomal current pulses (JSCPs) delivered through the recording microelectrode (usually 1-3 microA). Through the use of this method, excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were manifested as decreases and increases in threshold, respectively. Efferent populations examined included callosal (CC) neurons, ipsilateral corticocortical (C-IC) neurons, and descending corticofugal neurons of layer 5 (CF-5) and layer 6 (CF-6). Very brief air puffs (rise and fall times 0.6 ms) were delivered to the receptor periphery via a high-speed solenoid valve. 2. Whereas all CF-5 neurons had demonstrable suprathreshold excitatory and/or inhibitory responses to peripheral stimulation, most CC, C-IC, and CF-6 neurons did not. CC and CF-6 neurons that yielded no suprathreshold response to the stimulus had lower axonal conduction velocities than those that did respond (P < 0.0001 in both cases). However, subthreshold receptive fields could be demonstrated in many of the otherwise unresponsive CC (81%), C-IC (88%), and CF-6 (43%) neurons. The subthreshold responses usually consisted of an initial excitatory component (a decrease in the threshold to the JSCP) and a subsequent long-duration (> 80 ms) inhibitory component. A few neurons (1 CC, 1 C-IC, and 5 CF-6) showed an initial short latency inhibitory response in the absence of any excitatory component. 3. Some CC and C-IC neurons yielded supra- and/or subthreshold responses to peripheral stimulation at latencies of 6.1-7 ms. All such neurons were found at intermediate cortical depths (thought to correspond to deep layer 2

  5. Callose deposition is required for somatic embryogenesis in plasmolyzed Eleutherococcus senticosus zygotic embryos.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qiuyu; You, Xiangling

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic changes in callose content, which is deposited as a plant defense response to physiological changes, were analyzed during somatic embryogenesis in Eleutherococcus senticosus zygotic embryos plasmolyzed in 1.0 M mannitol. During plasmolysis, callose deposition was clearly observed inside the plasma membrane of zygotic embryo epidermal cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The callose content of zygotic embryos gradually increased between 0 and 12 h plasmolysis and remained stable after 24 h plasmolysis. During eight weeks induction of somatic embryogenesis, the callose content of explants plasmolyzed for 12 h was slightly higher than explants plasmolyzed for 6 or 24 h, with the largest differences observed after 6 weeks culture, which coincided with the maximum callose content and highest number of globular somatic embryos. The highest frequency of somatic embryo formation was observed in explants plasmolyzed for 12 h. The somatic embryo induction rate and number of somatic embryos per explant were markedly different in zygotic embryos pretreated with plasmolysis alone (78.0%, 43 embryos per explant) and those pretreated with plasmolysis and the callose synthase inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (11.5%, 8 embryos per explant). This study indicates that callose production is required for somatic embryogenesis in plasmolyzed explants. PMID:23203053

  6. A Specific Role for Efferent Information in Self-Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakiris, M.; Haggard, P.; Franck, N.; Mainy, N.; Sirigu, A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the specific contribution of efferent information in a self-recognition task. Subjects experienced a passive extension of the right index finger, either as an effect of moving their left hand via a lever ('self-generated action'), or imposed externally by the experimenter ('externally-generated action'). The visual feedback was…

  7. Callose is integral to the development of permanent tetrads in the liverwort Sphaerocarpos.

    PubMed

    Renzaglia, Karen S; Lopez, Renee A; Johnson, Eric E

    2015-03-01

    A striking feature of the liverwort Sphaerocarpos is that pairs of male and female spores remain united in permanent tetrads. To identify the nature of this phenomenon and to test the hypothesis that callose is involved, we examined spore wall development in Sphaerocarpos miche lii, with emphasis on the appearance, location and fate of callose vis-à-vis construction of the sculptoderm. All stages of sporogenesis were examined using differential interference contrast optics, and aniline blue fluorescence to locate callose. For precise localization, specimens were immunogold labeled with anti-callose antibody and observed in the transmission electron microscope. Callose plays a role in Sphaerocarpos spore wall development not described in any other plant, including other liverworts. A massive callose matrix forms outside of the sculptured sporocyte plasmalemma that predicts spore wall ornamentation. Consequently, layers of exine form across adjacent spores uniting them. Spore wall development occurs entirely within the callose and involves the production of six layers of prolamellae that give rise to single or stacked tripartite lamellae (TPL). Between spores, an anastomosing network of exine layers forms in lieu of intersporal septum development. As sporopollenin assembles on TPL, callose progressively disappears from the inside outward leaving layers of sporopollenin impregnated exine, the sculptoderm, overlying a thick fibrillar intine. This developmental mechanism provides a direct pathway from callose deposition to sculptured exine that does not involve the intermediary primexine found in pollen wall development. The resulting tetrad, encased in a single wall, provides a simple model for development of permanent dyads and tetrads in the earliest fossil plants. PMID:25408505

  8. Corpus callosal microstructure influences intermanual transfer in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new motor skill with one hand typically results in performance improvements in the alternate hand. The neural substrates involved with this skill acquisition are poorly understood. We combined behavioral testing and non-invasive brain imaging to study how the organization of the corpus callosum was related to intermanual transfer performance in chimpanzees. Fifty-three chimpanzees were tested for intermanual transfer of learning using a bent-wire task. Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images were collected from 39 of these subjects. The dominant hand showed greater performance benefits than the nondominant hand. Further, performance was associated with structural integrity of the motor and sensory regions of the CC. Subjects with better intermanual transfer of learning had lower fractional anisotropy values. The results are consistent with the callosal access model of motor programming. PMID:24427118

  9. Efferent projections of the ectostriatum in the pigeon (Columba livia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husband, S. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this

  10. The roles of callose, elicitors and ethylene in thigmomorphogenesis and gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    A correlation (both temporal and through the inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose) of callose deposition and ethylene evolution in mechanically perturbed (MP) bean or pine stems or in gravitationally stimulated corn shoots was demonstrated. It was suggested that the callose, which is deposited on the inside of the cell wall, and adjacent to the plasma membrane causes, in some way, the ethylene production. A hypothesis explaining the mechanism is discussed which states that there is a chemical activation of the enzyme system by the callose which is being deposited in apposition with it. Experimental data supporting the hypothesis are presented.

  11. Analysis of YFP(J16)-R6/2 reporter mice and postmortem brains reveals early pathology and increased vulnerability of callosal axons in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Rodolfo G; Chu, Yaping; Ye, Allen Q; Price, Steven D; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Buenaventura, Andrea; Brady, Scott T; Magin, Richard L; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Morfini, Gerardo A

    2015-09-15

    Cumulative evidence indicates that the onset and severity of Huntington's disease (HD) symptoms correlate with connectivity deficits involving specific neuronal populations within cortical and basal ganglia circuits. Brain imaging studies and pathological reports further associated these deficits with alterations in cerebral white matter structure and axonal pathology. However, whether axonopathy represents an early pathogenic event or an epiphenomenon in HD remains unknown, nor is clear the identity of specific neuronal populations affected. To directly evaluate early axonal abnormalities in the context of HD in vivo, we bred transgenic YFP(J16) with R6/2 mice, a widely used HD model. Diffusion tensor imaging and fluorescence microscopy studies revealed a marked degeneration of callosal axons long before the onset of motor symptoms. Accordingly, a significant fraction of YFP-positive cortical neurons in YFP(J16) mice cortex were identified as callosal projection neurons. Callosal axon pathology progressively worsened with age and was influenced by polyglutamine tract length in mutant huntingtin (mhtt). Degenerating axons were dissociated from microscopically visible mhtt aggregates and did not result from loss of cortical neurons. Interestingly, other axonal populations were mildly or not affected, suggesting differential vulnerability to mhtt toxicity. Validating these results, increased vulnerability of callosal axons was documented in the brains of HD patients. Observations here provide a structural basis for the alterations in cerebral white matter structure widely reported in HD patients. Collectively, our data demonstrate a dying-back pattern of degeneration for cortical projection neurons affected in HD, suggesting that axons represent an early and potentially critical target for mhtt toxicity. PMID:26123489

  12. Responses of efferent octopaminergic thoracic unpaired median neurons in the locust to visual and mechanosensory signals.

    PubMed

    Field, Laurence H; Duch, Carsten; Pflüger, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Insect thoracic ganglia contain efferent octopaminergic unpaired median neurons (UM neurons) located in the midline, projecting bilaterally and modulating neuromuscular transmission, muscle contraction kinetics, sensory sensitivity and muscle metabolism. In locusts, these neurons are located dorsally or ventrally (DUM- or VUM-neurons) and divided into functionally different sub-populations activated during different motor tasks. This study addresses the responsiveness of locust thoracic DUM neurons to various sensory stimuli. Two classes of sense organs, cuticular exteroreceptor mechanosensilla (tactile hairs and campaniform sensilla), and photoreceptors (compound eyes and ocelli) elicited excitatory reflex responses. Chordotonal organ joint receptors caused no responses. The tympanal organ (Müller's organ) elicited weak excitatory responses most likely via generally increased network activity due to increased arousal. Vibratory stimuli to the hind leg subgenual organ never elicited responses. Whereas DUM neurons innervating wing muscles are not very responsive to sensory stimulation, those innervating leg and other muscles are very responsive to stimulation of exteroreceptors and hardly responsive to stimulation of proprioceptors. After cutting both cervical connectives all mechanosensory excitation is lost, even for sensory inputs from the abdomen. This suggests that, in contrast to motor neurons, the sensory inputs to octopaminergic efferent neuromodulatory cells are pre-processed in the suboesophageal ganglion. PMID:18021797

  13. [Lymphatic afferents and efferents of lymph nodes of the Barety's space. Anatomic review in adults].

    PubMed

    Riquet, M; Debesse, B; Zouaoui, A; Hidden, G

    1990-06-01

    Lymph nodes of the Barety's space (LNLB) often involved in lung diseases are known under various names for a long time ago by pathologists. Our study involves 360 cadavers of adult subjects. The injection of a dye was performed by direct catheterization of a pulmonary segment. L.N.L.B. were directly or indirectly coloured (inter connected ganglionary network) more often from the lobes of the right lung, but from the lobes of the left lung too. From L.N.L.B. the lymphatic flow discharges in the venous confluent of the neck in the right side; in 1/4 of the cases a mediastinal efferent joints the left venous confluent too. From the lower lymph nodes of the space efferents can go to lymph nodes which are located right along the arch of the azygos vein (and then to the thoracic duct) and in the left side the group of left suprabronchial lymph nodes (then either to the thoracic duct in the mediastinum, or to the recurrent chain to the neck). At last, it seems that inside the lymph nodes themselves, lymphatic flows exist, the topography and the nature of which change according to the area interested by the injection. PMID:2289035

  14. Chitosan-Elicited Callose Synthesis in Soybean Cells as a Ca2+-Dependent Process 1

    PubMed Central

    Köhle, Harald; Jeblick, Wolfgang; Poten, Frauke; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Kauss, Heinrich

    1985-01-01

    A new method for the rapid and quantitative fluorometric determination of callose is described. In suspension-cultured cells of Glycine max, synthesis of callose starts within 20 minutes of treatment with chitosan and parallels over hours the accumulation of 1,3-linked glucose in the wall. Poly-l-lysine also elicits callose synthesis. The effect of chitosan is enhanced by Polymyxin B at low concentrations; this antibiotic alone at higher concentrations can also induce callose synthesis. Callose synthesis is immediately stopped when external Ca2+ is bound by ethylene glycolbis-(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N′-tetraacetate or cation exchange beads, and partly recovers upon restoration of 15 micromolar Ca2+. Callose synthesis is observed only when membrane perturbation causing electrolyte leakage from the cells is induced by one of the above treatments. It does not appear to be due to de novo synthesis or proteolytic activation of 1,3-β-d-glucan synthase. It is concluded that this Ca2+-dependent enzyme is directly activated by the influx of Ca2+ occurring concomitantly with the leakage of cell constituents. This suggestion is also discussed in conjunction with the chitosan-induced synthesis of phytoalexin in the same cells. Images Fig. 5 PMID:16664095

  15. SNAREs controlling vesicular release of BDNF and development of callosal axons

    PubMed Central

    Shimojo, Masafumi; Courchet, Julien; Pieraut, Simon; Torabi-Rander, Nina; Sando, Richard; Polleux, Franck; Maximov, Anton

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY At presynaptic active zones, exocytosis of neurotransmitter vesicles (SVs) is driven by SNARE complexes that recruit Syb2 and SNAP25. However, it remains unknown which SNAREs promote the secretion of neuronal proteins, including those essential for circuit development and experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that Syb2 and SNAP25 mediate the vesicular release of BDNF in axons and dendrites of cortical neurons, suggesting these SNAREs act in multiple spatially-segregated secretory pathways. Remarkably, axonal secretion of BDNF is also strongly regulated by SNAP47 which interacts with SNAP25 but appears to be dispensable for exocytosis of SVs. Cell-autonomous ablation of SNAP47 disrupts the layer-specific branching of callosal axons of projection cortical neurons in vivo, and this phenotype is recapitulated by ablation of BDNF or its receptor, TrkB. Our results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of protein secretion and define the functions of SNAREs in BDNF signaling and regulation of neuronal connectivity. PMID:25959820

  16. Inhibitory neurotransmission regulates vagal efferent activity and gastric motility.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Caitlin A; Travagli, R Alberto; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract receives extrinsic innervation from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which regulate and modulate the function of the intrinsic (enteric) nervous system. The stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract in particular are heavily influenced by the parasympathetic nervous system, supplied by the vagus nerve, and disruption of vagal sensory or motor functions results in disorganized motility patterns, disrupted receptive relaxation and accommodation, and delayed gastric emptying, amongst others. Studies from several laboratories have shown that the activity of vagal efferent motoneurons innervating the upper GI tract is inhibited tonically by GABAergic synaptic inputs from the adjacent nucleus tractus solitarius. Disruption of this influential central GABA input impacts vagal efferent output, hence gastric functions, significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe the development, physiology, and pathophysiology of this functionally dominant inhibitory synapse and its role in regulating vagally determined gastric functions. PMID:27302177

  17. The brain uses efference copy information to optimise spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C C; Burke, M R

    2013-01-01

    Does a motor response to a target improve the subsequent recall of the target position or can we simply use peripheral position information to guide an accurate response? We suggest that a motor plan of the hand can be enhanced with actual motor and efference copy feedback (GoGo trials), which is absent in the passive observation of a stimulus (NoGo trials). To investigate this effect during eye and hand coordination movements, we presented stimuli in two formats (memory guided or visually guided) under three modality conditions (eyes only, hands only (with eyes fixated), or eyes and hand together). We found that during coordinated movements, both the eye and hand response times were facilitated when efference feedback of the movement was provided. Furthermore, both eye and hand movements to remembered locations were significantly more accurate in the GoGo than in the NoGo trial types. These results reveal that an efference copy of a motor plan enhances memory for a location that is not only observed in eye movements, but also translated downstream into a hand movement. These results have significant implications on how we plan, code and guide behavioural responses, and how we can optimise accuracy and timing to a given target. PMID:23073714

  18. Callose deposition during gravitropism of Zea mays and Pisum sativum and its inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Leopold, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    In etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) and etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings, a gravitropic stimulation induces the deposition of callose. In the corn coleoptiles this occurs within 5 min of gravity stimulation, and prior to the beginning of curvature. Both gravitropic curvature and callose deposition reach their maxima by 12 h. Within the first 2 h more callose is deposited on the upper (concave) side, but after 2-3 h, this deposition pattern is reversed. An inhibitor of protein glycosylation, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG), inhibits callose production and considerably retards gravitropic bending in both species of plants. Mannose can relieve the inhibition of gravitropic bending by DDG. The pea mutant "Ageotropum", which does not respond to gravity when etiolated, also fails to produce callose in response to a gravitic stimulus. These correlations indicate that callose deposition may be a biochemical component of gravitropism in plant shoots.

  19. Associations between mobility, cognition and callosal integrity in people with parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fling, Brett W.; Dale, Marian L.; Curtze, Carolin; Smulders, Katrijn; Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

    2016-01-01

    Falls in people with parkinsonism are likely related to both motor and cognitive impairments. In addition to idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), some older adults have lower body parkinsonism (a frontal gait disorder), characterized by impaired lower extremity balance and gait as well as cognition, but without tremor or rigidity. Neuroimaging during virtual gait suggests that interhemispheric, prefrontal cortex communication may be involved in locomotion, but contributions of neuroanatomy connecting these regions to objective measures of gait in people with parkinsonism remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the integrity of fiber tracts connecting prefrontal and sensorimotor cortical regions via the corpus callosum in people with two types of parkinsonism and an age-matched control group and to relate integrity of these callosal fibers with clinical and objective measures of mobility and cognition. We recruited 10 patients with frontal gait disorders, 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched healthy control participants. Participants underwent cognitive and mobility testing as well as diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging to quantify white matter microstructural integrity of interhemispheric fiber tracts. People with frontal gait disorders displayed poorer cognitive performance and a slower, wider-based gait compared to subjects with PD and age-matched control subjects. Despite a widespread network of reduced white matter integrity in people with frontal gait disorders, gait and cognitive deficits were solely related to interhemispheric circuitry employing the genu of the corpus callosum. Current results highlight the importance of prefrontal interhemispheric communication for lower extremity control in neurological patients with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27104136

  20. Associations between mobility, cognition and callosal integrity in people with parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Fling, Brett W; Dale, Marian L; Curtze, Carolin; Smulders, Katrijn; Nutt, John G; Horak, Fay B

    2016-01-01

    Falls in people with parkinsonism are likely related to both motor and cognitive impairments. In addition to idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), some older adults have lower body parkinsonism (a frontal gait disorder), characterized by impaired lower extremity balance and gait as well as cognition, but without tremor or rigidity. Neuroimaging during virtual gait suggests that interhemispheric, prefrontal cortex communication may be involved in locomotion, but contributions of neuroanatomy connecting these regions to objective measures of gait in people with parkinsonism remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the integrity of fiber tracts connecting prefrontal and sensorimotor cortical regions via the corpus callosum in people with two types of parkinsonism and an age-matched control group and to relate integrity of these callosal fibers with clinical and objective measures of mobility and cognition. We recruited 10 patients with frontal gait disorders, 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched healthy control participants. Participants underwent cognitive and mobility testing as well as diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging to quantify white matter microstructural integrity of interhemispheric fiber tracts. People with frontal gait disorders displayed poorer cognitive performance and a slower, wider-based gait compared to subjects with PD and age-matched control subjects. Despite a widespread network of reduced white matter integrity in people with frontal gait disorders, gait and cognitive deficits were solely related to interhemispheric circuitry employing the genu of the corpus callosum. Current results highlight the importance of prefrontal interhemispheric communication for lower extremity control in neurological patients with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27104136

  1. The area centralis in the chicken retina contains efferent target amacrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Cynthia; Lindstrom, Sarah H.; De Grip, Willem J.; Wilson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The retinas of birds receive a substantial efferent, or centrifugal, input from a midbrain nucleus. The function of this input is presently unclear but previous work in the pigeon has shown that efferent input is excluded from the area centralis, suggesting that the functions of the area centralis and the efferent system are incompatible. Using an antibody specific to rods, we have identified the area centralis in another species, the chicken, and mapped the distribution of the unique amacrine cells that are the postsynaptic partners of efferent fibers. Efferent target amacrine cells are found within the chicken area centralis and their density is continuous across the border of the area centralis. In contrast to the pigeon retina then, we conclude that the chicken area centralis receives efferent input. We suggest that the difference between the 2 species is attributable to the presence of a fovea within the area centralis of the pigeon and its absence from that of the chicken. PMID:19296862

  2. Protooncogene Ski cooperates with the chromatin-remodeling factor Satb2 in specifying callosal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Baranek, Constanze; Dittrich, Manuela; Parthasarathy, Srinivas; Bonnon, Carine Gaiser; Britanova, Olga; Lanshakov, Dmitriy; Boukhtouche, Fatiha; Sommer, Julia E.; Colmenares, Clemencia; Tarabykin, Victor; Atanasoski, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    First insights into the molecular programs orchestrating the progression from neural stem cells to cortical projection neurons are emerging. Loss of the transcriptional regulator Ski has been linked to the human 1p36 deletion syndrome, which includes central nervous system defects. Here, we report critical roles for Ski in the maintenance of the neural stem cell pool and the specification of callosal neurons. Ski-deficient callosal neurons lose their identity and ectopically express the transcription factor Ctip2. The misspecified callosal neurons largely fail to form the corpus callosum and instead redirect their axons toward subcortical targets. We identify the chromatin-remodeling factor Satb2 as a partner of Ski, and show that both proteins are required for transcriptional repression of Ctip2 in callosal neurons. We propose a model in which Satb2 recruits Ski to the Ctip2 locus, and Ski attracts histone deacetylases, thereby enabling the formation of a functional nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase repressor complex. Our findings establish a central role for Ski–Satb2 interactions in regulating transcriptional mechanisms of callosal neuron specification. PMID:22334647

  3. Efferent innervation of turtle semicircular canal cristae: comparisons with bird and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Paivi M.; Fettis, Margaret; Holt, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    In the vestibular periphery of nearly every vertebrate, cholinergic vestibular efferent neurons give rise to numerous presynaptic varicosities that target hair cells and afferent processes in the sensory neuroepithelium. Although pharmacological studies have described the postsynaptic actions of vestibular efferent stimulation in several species, characterization of efferent innervation patterns and the relative distribution of efferent varicosities among hair cells and afferents are also integral to understanding how efferent synapses operate. Vestibular efferent markers, however, have not been well characterized in the turtle, one of the animal models utilized by our laboratory. Here, we sought to identify reliable efferent neuronal markers in the vestibular periphery of turtle, to utilize these markers to understand how efferent synapses are organized, and to compare efferent neuronal labeling patterns in turtle with two other amniotes using some of the same markers. Efferent fibers and varicosities were visualized in the semicircular canal of Red-Eared Turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata), and mice (Mus musculus) utilizing fluorescent immunohistochemistry with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Vestibular hair cells and afferents were counterstained using antibodies to myosin VIIa and calretinin. In all species, ChAT labeled a population of small diameter fibers giving rise to numerous spherical varicosities abutting type II hair cells and afferent processes. That these ChAT-positive varicosities represent presynaptic release sites were demonstrated by colabeling with antibodies against the synaptic vesicle proteins synapsin I, SV2, or syntaxin and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Comparisons of efferent innervation patterns among the three species are discussed. PMID:25560461

  4. Efferent innervation of turtle semicircular canal cristae: comparisons with bird and mouse.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Paivi M; Fettis, Margaret; Holt, Joseph C

    2015-06-01

    In the vestibular periphery of nearly every vertebrate, cholinergic vestibular efferent neurons give rise to numerous presynaptic varicosities that target hair cells and afferent processes in the sensory neuroepithelium. Although pharmacological studies have described the postsynaptic actions of vestibular efferent stimulation in several species, characterization of efferent innervation patterns and the relative distribution of efferent varicosities among hair cells and afferents are also integral to understanding how efferent synapses operate. Vestibular efferent markers, however, have not been well characterized in the turtle, one of the animal models used by our laboratory. Here we sought to identify reliable efferent neuronal markers in the vestibular periphery of turtle, to use these markers to understand how efferent synapses are organized, and to compare efferent neuronal labeling patterns in turtle with two other amniotes using some of the same markers. Efferent fibers and varicosities were visualized in the semicircular canal of red-eared turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), and mice (Mus musculus) utilizing fluorescent immunohistochemistry with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Vestibular hair cells and afferents were counterstained using antibodies to myosin VIIa and calretinin. In all species, ChAT labeled a population of small diameter fibers giving rise to numerous spherical varicosities abutting type II hair cells and afferent processes. That these ChAT-positive varicosities represent presynaptic release sites were demonstrated by colabeling with antibodies against the synaptic vesicle proteins synapsin I, SV2, or syntaxin and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide. Comparisons of efferent innervation patterns among the three species are discussed. PMID:25560461

  5. Interhemispheric Lipoma, Callosal Anomaly, and Malformations of Cortical Development: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tetsu; de Vries, Linda S; Manten, Gwendolyn T R; Lequin, Maarten; Cuppen, Inge; Shibasaki, Jun; Aida, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial lipomas are rare congenital malformations. The most common type of intracranial lipoma is the interhemispheric lipoma, which is frequently associated with callosal anomalies such as hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. In contrast, interhemispheric lipomas are less often accompanied with malformations of cortical development (MCD). We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of three infants with an interhemispheric lipoma, associated with a callosal anomaly, and MCD: two infants with nodular interhemispheric lipoma, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and polymicrogyria, and one infant with interhemispheric curvilinear lipoma, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and heterotopias. An association was suggested regarding the occurrence of these malformations. PMID:26808679

  6. Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Connectivity has dramatically changed the landscape of higher education IT. From "on-demand" services for net-gen students and advanced eLearning systems for faculty, to high-performance computing grid resources for researchers, IT now provides more networked services than ever to connect campus constituents to each other and to the world.…

  7. Cognitive Control and White Matter Callosal Microstructure in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects: A DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867

  8. Callose plug deposition patterns vary in pollen tubes of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and in tomato species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The pollen grain contains the male gametophyte that extends a pollen tube that grows through female tissues in order to deliver sperm to the embryo sac for double fertilization. Growing pollen tubes form periodic callose plugs that are thought to block off the older parts of the tube and ...

  9. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  10. Medial olivocochlear efferent reflex inhibition of human cochlear nerve responses.

    PubMed

    Lichtenhan, J T; Wilson, U S; Hancock, K E; Guinan, J J

    2016-03-01

    Inhibition of cochlear amplifier gain by the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system has several putative roles: aiding listening in noise, protection against damage from acoustic overexposure, and slowing age-induced hearing loss. The human MOC reflex has been studied almost exclusively by measuring changes in otoacoustic emissions. However, to help understand how the MOC system influences what we hear, it is important to have measurements of the MOC effect on the total output of the organ of Corti, i.e., on cochlear nerve responses that couple sounds to the brain. In this work we measured the inhibition produced by the MOC reflex on the amplitude of cochlear nerve compound action potentials (CAPs) in response to moderate level (52-60 dB peSPL) clicks from five, young, normal hearing, awake, alert, human adults. MOC activity was elicited by 65 dB SPL, contralateral broadband noise (CAS). Using tympanic membrane electrodes, approximately 10 h of data collection were needed from each subject to yield reliable measurements of the MOC reflex inhibition on CAP amplitudes from one click level. The CAS produced a 16% reduction of CAP amplitude, equivalent to a 1.98 dB effective attenuation (averaged over five subjects). Based on previous reports of efferent effects as functions of level and frequency, it is possible that much larger effective attenuations would be observed at lower sound levels or with clicks of higher frequency content. For a preliminary comparison, we also measured MOC reflex inhibition of DPOAEs evoked from the same ears with f2's near 4 kHz. The resulting effective attenuations on DPOAEs were, on average, less than half the effective attenuations on CAPs. PMID:26364824

  11. Localization and Quantification of Callose in the Streptophyte Green Algae Zygnema and Klebsormidium: Correlation with Desiccation Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Freshwater green algae started to colonize terrestrial habitats about 460 million years ago, giving rise to the evolution of land plants. Today, several streptophyte green algae occur in aero-terrestrial habitats with unpredictable fluctuations in water availability, serving as ideal models for investigating desiccation tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that callose, a β-d-1,3-glucan, is incorporated specifically in strained areas of the cell wall due to cellular water loss, implicating a contribution to desiccation tolerance. In the early diverging genus Klebsormidium, callose was drastically increased already after 30 min of desiccation stress. Localization studies demonstrated an increase in callose in the undulating cross cell walls during cellular water loss, allowing a regulated shrinkage and expansion after rehydration. This correlates with a high desiccation tolerance demonstrated by a full recovery of the photosynthetic yield visualized at the subcellular level by Imaging-PAM. Furthermore, abundant callose in terminal cell walls might facilitate cell detachment to release dispersal units. In contrast, in the late diverging Zygnema, the callose content did not change upon desiccation for up to 3.5 h and was primarily localized in the corners between individual cells and at terminal cells. While these callose deposits still imply reduction of mechanical damage, the photosynthetic yield did not recover fully in the investigated young cultures of Zygnema upon rehydration. The abundance and specific localization of callose correlates with the higher desiccation tolerance in Klebsormidium when compared with Zygnema. PMID:26412780

  12. The Plasmodesmal Protein PDLP1 Localises to Haustoria-Associated Membranes during Downy Mildew Infection and Regulates Callose Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Sklenar, Jan; Findlay, Kim; Piquerez, Sophie J. M.; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Robatzek, Silke; Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Faulkner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is a filamentous oomycete that invades plant cells via sophisticated but poorly understood structures called haustoria. Haustoria are separated from the host cell cytoplasm and surrounded by an extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) of unknown origin. In some interactions, including Hpa-Arabidopsis, haustoria are progressively encased by host-derived, callose-rich materials but the molecular mechanisms by which callose accumulates around haustoria remain unclear. Here, we report that PLASMODESMATA-LOCATED PROTEIN 1 (PDLP1) is expressed at high levels in Hpa infected cells. Unlike other plasma membrane proteins, which are often excluded from the EHM, PDLP1 is located at the EHM in Hpa-infected cells prior to encasement. The transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of PDLP1 are sufficient to convey this localization. PDLP1 also associates with the developing encasement but this association is lost when encasements are fully mature. We found that the pdlp1,2,3 triple mutant is more susceptible to Hpa while overexpression of PDLP1 enhances plant resistance, suggesting that PDLPs enhance basal immunity against Hpa. Haustorial encasements are depleted in callose in pdlp1,2,3 mutant plants whereas PDLP1 over-expression elevates callose deposition around haustoria and across the cell surface. These data indicate that PDLPs contribute to callose encasement of Hpa haustoria and suggests that the deposition of callose at haustoria may involve similar mechanisms to callose deposition at plasmodesmata. PMID:25393742

  13. Localization and Quantification of Callose in the Streptophyte Green Algae Zygnema and Klebsormidium: Correlation with Desiccation Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater green algae started to colonize terrestrial habitats about 460 million years ago, giving rise to the evolution of land plants. Today, several streptophyte green algae occur in aero-terrestrial habitats with unpredictable fluctuations in water availability, serving as ideal models for investigating desiccation tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that callose, a β-d-1,3-glucan, is incorporated specifically in strained areas of the cell wall due to cellular water loss, implicating a contribution to desiccation tolerance. In the early diverging genus Klebsormidium, callose was drastically increased already after 30 min of desiccation stress. Localization studies demonstrated an increase in callose in the undulating cross cell walls during cellular water loss, allowing a regulated shrinkage and expansion after rehydration. This correlates with a high desiccation tolerance demonstrated by a full recovery of the photosynthetic yield visualized at the subcellular level by Imaging-PAM. Furthermore, abundant callose in terminal cell walls might facilitate cell detachment to release dispersal units. In contrast, in the late diverging Zygnema, the callose content did not change upon desiccation for up to 3.5 h and was primarily localized in the corners between individual cells and at terminal cells. While these callose deposits still imply reduction of mechanical damage, the photosynthetic yield did not recover fully in the investigated young cultures of Zygnema upon rehydration. The abundance and specific localization of callose correlates with the higher desiccation tolerance in Klebsormidium when compared with Zygnema. PMID:26412780

  14. Callose Deposition Is Responsible for Apoplastic Semipermeability of the Endosperm Envelope of Muskmelon Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Kyu-Ock; Bradford, Kent J.

    1998-01-01

    Semipermeable cell walls or apoplastic “membranes” have been hypothesized to be present in various plant tissues. Although often associated with suberized or lignified walls, the wall component that confers osmotic semipermeability is not known. In muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seeds, a thin, membranous endosperm completely encloses the embryo, creating a semipermeable apoplastic envelope. When dead muskmelon seeds are allowed to imbibe, solutes leaking from the embryo are retained within the envelope, resulting in osmotic water uptake and swelling called osmotic distention (OD). The endosperm envelope of muskmelon seeds stained with aniline blue, which is specific for callose (β-1,3-glucan). Outside of the aniline-blue-stained layer was a Sudan III- and IV-staining (lipid-containing) layer. In young developing seeds 25 d after anthesis (DAA) that did not exhibit OD, the lipid layer was already present but callose had not been deposited. At 35 DAA, callose was detected as distinct vesicles or globules in the endosperm envelope. A thick callose layer was evident at 40 DAA, coinciding with development of the capacity for OD. Removal of the outer lipid layer by brief chloroform treatment resulted in more rapid water uptake by both viable and nonviable (boiled) seeds, but did not affect semipermeability of the endosperm envelope. The aniline-blue-staining layer was digested by β-1,3-glucanase, and these envelopes lost OD. Thus, apoplastic semipermeability of the muskmelon endosperm envelope is dependent on the deposition of a thick callose-containing layer outside of the endosperm cell walls. PMID:9733528

  15. Callose deposition is responsible for apoplastic semipermeability of the endosperm envelope of muskmelon seeds

    PubMed

    Yim; Bradford

    1998-09-01

    Semipermeable cell walls or apoplastic "membranes" have been hypothesized to be present in various plant tissues. Although often associated with suberized or lignified walls, the wall component that confers osmotic semipermeability is not known. In muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seeds, a thin, membranous endosperm completely encloses the embryo, creating a semipermeable apoplastic envelope. When dead muskmelon seeds are allowed to imbibe, solutes leaking from the embryo are retained within the envelope, resulting in osmotic water uptake and swelling called osmotic distention (OD). The endosperm envelope of muskmelon seeds stained with aniline blue, which is specific for callose (beta-1,3-glucan). Outside of the aniline-blue-stained layer was a Sudan III- and IV-staining (lipid-containing) layer. In young developing seeds 25 d after anthesis (DAA) that did not exhibit OD, the lipid layer was already present but callose had not been deposited. At 35 DAA, callose was detected as distinct vesicles or globules in the endosperm envelope. A thick callose layer was evident at 40 DAA, coinciding with development of the capacity for OD. Removal of the outer lipid layer by brief chloroform treatment resulted in more rapid water uptake by both viable and nonviable (boiled) seeds, but did not affect semipermeability of the endosperm envelope. The aniline-blue-staining layer was digested by beta-1,3-glucanase, and these envelopes lost OD. Thus, apoplastic semipermeability of the muskmelon endosperm envelope is dependent on the deposition of a thick callose-containing layer outside of the endosperm cell walls. PMID:9733528

  16. Altered callose deposition during embryo sac formation of multi-pistil mutant (mp1) in Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H C; Jin, L; Li, J; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    Whether callose deposition is the cause or result of ovule sterility in Medicago sativa remains controversial, because it is unclear when and where changes in callose deposition and dissolution occur during fertile and sterile embryo sac formation. Here, alfalfa spontaneous multi-pistil mutant (mp1) and wild-type plants were used to compare the dynamics of callose deposition during embryo sac formation using microscopy. The results showed that both mutant and wild-type plants experienced megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, and there was no significant difference during megasporogenesis. In contrast to the wild-type plants, in which the mature embryo sac was observed after three continuous cycles of mitosis, functional megaspores of mutant plants developed abnormally after the second round of mitosis, leading to degeneration of synergid, central, and antipodal cells. Callose deposition in both mutant and wild-type plants was first observed in the walls of megasporocytes, and then in the megaspore tetrad walls. After meiosis, the callose wall began to degrade as the functional megaspore underwent mitosis, and almost no callose was observed in the mature embryo sac in wild-type plants. However, callose deposition was observed in mp1 plants around the synergid, and increased with the development of the embryo sac, and was mainly deposited at the micropylar end. Our results indicate that synergid, central, and antipodal cells, which are surrounded by callose, may degrade owing to lack of nutrition. Callose accumulation around the synergid and at the micropylar end may hinder signals required for the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac, leading to abortion. PMID:27323128

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of vestibular efferent neurons innervating semicircular canals of the gerbil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, I. M.; Perachio, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Anterograde labeling techniques were used to examine peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular efferent neurons in the crista ampullares of the gerbil. Vestibular efferent neurons were labeled by extracellular injections of biocytin or biotinylated dextran amine into the contralateral or ipsilateral dorsal subgroup of efferent cell bodies (group e) located dorsolateral to the facial nerve genu. Anterogradely labeled efferent terminal field varicosities consist mainly of boutons en passant with fewer of the terminal type. The bouton swellings are located predominately in apposition to the basolateral borders of the afferent calyces and type II hair cells, but several boutons were identified close to the hair cell apical border on both types. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological analysis of the terminal fields from these cells located in the sensory neuroepithelium of the anterior, horizontal, and posterior cristae were performed. We show that efferent neurons densely innervate each end organ in widespread terminal fields. Subepithelial bifurcations of parent axons were minimal, with extensive collateralization occurring after the axons penetrated the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium. Axonal branching ranged between the 6th and 27th orders and terminal field collecting area far exceeds that of the peripheral terminals of primary afferent neurons. The terminal fields of the efferent neurons display three morphologically heterogeneous types: central, peripheral, and planum. All cell types possess terminal fields displaying a high degree of anisotropy with orientations typically parallel to or within +/-45 degrees of the longitudinal axis if the crista. Terminal fields of the central and planum zones predominately project medially toward the transverse axis from the more laterally located penetration of the basement membrane by the parent axon. Peripheral zone terminal fields extend predominately toward the planum semilunatum. The innervation

  18. Retrograde transport of (/sup 3/H)-D-aspartate label by cochlear and vestibular efferent neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, D.W.; Schwarz, I.E.

    1988-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)-D-aspartic acid was injected into the inner ear of rats. After a six hour survival time, labeled cells were found at all locations known to contain efferent cochlear or vestibular neurons. Most labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO), although both ventral nuclei of the trapezoid body (VTB), group E, and the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (CPR) just adjacent to the ascending limb of the facial nerve also contained labeled cells. Because not all efferent neurons in the rat could be previously shown to be cholinergic, aspartate and glutamate are efferent transmitter candidates.

  19. Reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis: a report with histology of ischial callosities in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David X.; Gilbert, Margaret H.; Wang, Xiaolei; Didier, Peter J.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Ischial callosities have received little attention in veterinary medicine even though they are distinguishing anatomic organs. The organs are characterized by a pair of hairless pads of thickened epidermis, located bilaterally in the gluteal region, which overlay the tuberosities of the ischia of all Old World monkeys, gibbons, and siamangs. The current report describes a case of reactive amyloidosis associated with ischial callosititis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Amyloid A (AA) protein was found in the liver, spleen, small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ischial callosities by histology, Congo red stain, and immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy showed that many cluster of differentiation (CD)68-positive macrophages within the ischial callosities contained intracellular AA protein, which suggests that CD68-positive macrophages have an important role in the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis in nonhuman primates. The normal histology of ischial callosities of rhesus macaques is also documented in this report. PMID:23104953

  20. Neurodegeneration of lateral habenula efferent fibers after intermittent cocaine administration: implications for deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lax, Elad; Friedman, Alexander; Croitoru, Ofri; Sudai, Einav; Ben-Moshe, Hila; Redlus, Lior; Sasson, Efrat; Blumenfeld-Katzir, Tamar; Assaf, Yaniv; Yadid, Gal

    2013-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging technique for effective, non-pharmacological intervention in the course of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Several brain targets have been suggested as suitable for DBS treatment of drug addiction. Previously, we showed that DBS of the lateral habenula (LHb) can reduce cocaine intake, facilitate extinction and attenuate drug-induced relapse in rats trained to self-administrate cocaine. Herein, we demonstrated that cocaine self-administration dose-dependently decreased connectivity between the LHb and midbrain, as shown by neurodegeneration of the main LHb efferent fiber, the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). FR degeneration, in turn, may have caused lack of response to LHb stimulation in rats trained to self-administer high-dose cocaine (1.5 mg/kg; i.v.). Furthermore, we show that the micro-structural changes caused by cocaine can be non-invasively detected using magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Detection of cocaine-induced alterations in FR anatomy can aid the selection of potential responders to LHb stimulation for treatment of drug addiction. PMID:23891640

  1. Elevated Early Callose Deposition Results in Complete Penetration Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Dorothea; Naumann, Marcel; Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Jamrow, Torsten; Manisseri, Chithra; Somerville, Shauna C.; Voigt, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    A common response by plants to fungal attack is deposition of callose, a (1,3)-β-glucan polymer, in the form of cell wall thickenings called papillae, at site of wall penetration. While it has been generally believed that the papillae provide a structural barrier to slow fungal penetration, this idea has been challenged in recent studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where fungal resistance was found to be independent of callose deposition. To the contrary, we show that callose can strongly support penetration resistance when deposited in elevated amounts at early time points of infection. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines that express POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT4 (PMR4), which encodes a stress-induced callose synthase, under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter. In these lines, we detected callose synthase activity that was four times higher than that in wild-type plants 6 h post inoculation with the virulent powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum. The callose synthase activity was correlated with enlarged callose deposits and the focal accumulation of green fluorescent protein-tagged PMR4 at sites of attempted fungal penetration. We observed similar results from infection studies with the nonadapted powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Haustoria formation was prevented in resistant transgenic lines during both types of powdery mildew infection, and neither the salicylic acid-dependent nor jasmonate-dependent pathways were induced. We present a schematic model that highlights the differences in callose deposition between the resistant transgenic lines and the susceptible wild-type plants during compatible and incompatible interactions between Arabidopsis and powdery mildew. PMID:23335625

  2. Maturation of lower extremity EMG responses to postural perturbations: relationship of response-latencies to development of fastest central and peripheral efferents.

    PubMed

    Müller, K; Hömberg, V; Coppenrath, P; Lenard, H G

    1991-01-01

    EMG responses to toe-up tilt perturbations on a movable platform system were analysed in 86 children between the age of 12 months and 13 years. To assess the relative contribution of peripheral and central nerve conduction properties, a concomitant recording of the fastest efferent pathways in the central and peripheral motor system was made using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor cortex and peripheral nerve roots. This allowed the determination of the fastest downstream efferent connection times from motor cortex to lumbar motor neuron pools and to measure the fastest efferent conduction from these motor neuron pools to effector muscles in the lower leg. The sequence observed for stance stabilizing EMG responses was similar to that obtained in earlier studies with short latency (SL) and middle latency (ML) companents occurring in the stretched triceps surae muscle and long latency (LL) responses occurring in the non-stretched tibialis anterior muscle. Homologous responses were also obtained in upper leg muscles, being recruited consistently later than those in lower leg muscles across all age groups. In the short latency range two different SL1- and SL2-responses were obtained in children of all age groups as well as in adult controls. Both the SL1- and the SL2-responses showed a flat developmental profile, reaching adult values between 20 and 30 months of age which correlated with that of the fastest efferents from lumbar motor neuron pools to leg muscles, i.e. the final motor path. ML-responses showed a steeper developmental profile.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2065752

  3. Evidence against a hypothesis of vestibular efferent function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Efferent stimulation and nicotinic agonists can either decrease or increase the frequency of occurrence of EPSPs recorded from VIIIth nerve afferents in the frog. It has been hypothesized that the distribution of hair cell resting membrane potentials overlaps the equilibrium potential dictated by the nicotinic-gated channels on the hair cells. Nicotinic mediated increases in EPSP frequency would then be due to depolarization of hair cells that were more hyperpolarized at rest, while decreases in EPSP frequency would be due to hyperpolarization of hair cells more depolarized at rest. In order to test this hypothesis, while recording from afferents which showed an increase in EPSP frequency due to bath application of the nicotinic agonist DMPP (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperizinium iodide), hair cells were depolarized with 10 mM K+ in the bath, and then the effects of DMPP on EPSP frequency were assessed. In this situation, DMPP still increased EPSP frequency, suggesting that the equilibrium potential for the nicotinic-gated channel was much more positive than the resting potentials of the hair cells. An alternative hypothesis then seems likely, that the nicotinic receptors on hair cells are able to activate different iontophores that result in either hair cell depolarization or hyperpolarization, dependent upon which iontophore predominates in the hair cells innervating a particular afferent.

  4. Metabolic activation of efferent pathways from the rat area postrema.

    PubMed

    Gross, P M; Wainman, D S; Shaver, S W; Wall, K M; Ferguson, A V

    1990-03-01

    We used the quantitative [14C]deoxyglucose method and autoradiography to evaluate metabolic activity in 47 individual cerebral structures or subregions that are part of neural pathways emanating from the brain stem circumventricular organ, area postrema. Electrical stimulation of the dorsocentral area postrema in halothane-ventilated rats produced hypotension and increased glucose metabolism by several structures within the ascending trajectories of efferent neural projections from the nucleus. Structures in the caudal medulla oblongata, including three subnuclei of the nucleus of the solitary tract, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, and nucleus ambiguus-A1 noradrenergic region, had increases of metabolism during stimulation of 32-62%. Pontine activation occurred specifically in the locus coeruleus and lateral parabrachial nuclei (increases of 24-36%). Magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei, and median eminence showed increases in metabolism of 22-34%. An 89% elevation of glucose metabolism by the pituitary neural lobe resulted. The findings are evidence for functional activation of specific structures within ascending neural pathways from area postrema to forebrain mechanisms regulating blood pressure and fluid balance. PMID:2316724

  5. Restricted loss of olivocochlear but not vestibular efferent neurons in the senescent gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Seeler, Sabine; Grothe, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of hearing and vertigo are symptoms of age-related auditory and vestibular disorders reflecting multifactorial changes in the peripheral and central nervous system whose interplay remains largely unknown. Originating bilaterally in the brain stem, vestibular and auditory efferent cholinergic projections exert feedback control on the peripheral sensory organs, and modulate sensory processing. We studied age-related changes in the auditory and vestibular efferent systems by evaluating number of cholinergic efferent neurons in young adult and aged gerbils, and in cholinergic trigeminal neurons serving as a control for efferents not related to the inner ear. We observed a significant loss of olivocochlear (OC) neurons in aged compared to young adult animals, whereas the overall number of lateral superior olive (LSO) cells was not reduced in aging. Although the loss of lateral and medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons was uniform and equal on both sides of the brain, there were frequency-related differences within the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) neurons, where the decline was larger in the medial limb of the superior olivary nucleus (high frequency representation) than in the lateral limb (middle-to-low frequency representation). In contrast, neither the number of vestibular efferent neurons, nor the population of motor trigeminal neurons were significantly reduced in the aged animals. These observations suggest differential effects of aging on the respective cholinergic efferent brainstem systems. PMID:25762929

  6. Induction of Embryogenesis in Brassica Napus Microspores Produces a Callosic Subintinal Layer and Abnormal Cell Walls with Altered Levels of Callose and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Rivas-Sendra, Alba; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The induction of microspore embryogenesis produces dramatic changes in different aspects of the cell physiology and structure. Changes at the cell wall level are among the most intriguing and poorly understood. In this work, we used high pressure freezing and freeze substitution, immunolocalization, confocal, and electron microscopy to analyze the structure and composition of the first cell walls formed during conventional Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis, and in cultures treated to alter the intracellular Ca2+ levels. Our results revealed that one of the first signs of embryogenic commitment is the formation of a callose-rich, cellulose-deficient layer beneath the intine (the subintinal layer), and of irregular, incomplete cell walls. In these events, Ca2+ may have a role. We propose that abnormal cell walls are due to a massive callose synthesis and deposition of excreted cytoplasmic material, and the parallel inhibition of cellulose synthesis. These features were absent in pollen-like structures and in microspore-derived embryos, few days after the end of the heat shock, where abnormal cell walls were no longer produced. Together, our results provide an explanation to a series of relevant aspects of microspore embryogenesis including the role of Ca2+ and the occurrence of abnormal cell walls. In addition, our discovery may be the explanation to why nuclear fusions take place during microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26635844

  7. Distribution of Callose Synthase, Cellulose Synthase, and Sucrose Synthase in Tobacco Pollen Tube Is Controlled in Dissimilar Ways by Actin Filaments and Microtubules1[W

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Giampiero; Faleri, Claudia; Del Casino, Cecilia; Emons, Anne Mie C.; Cresti, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Callose and cellulose are fundamental components of the cell wall of pollen tubes and are probably synthesized by distinct enzymes, callose synthase and cellulose synthase, respectively. We examined the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes in relation to the dynamics of actin filaments, microtubules, and the endomembrane system using specific antibodies to highly conserved peptide sequences. The role of the cytoskeleton and membrane flow was investigated using specific inhibitors (latrunculin B, 2,3-butanedione monoxime, taxol, oryzalin, and brefeldin A). Both enzymes are associated with the plasma membrane, but cellulose synthase is present along the entire length of pollen tubes (with a higher concentration at the apex) while callose synthase is located in the apex and in distal regions. In longer pollen tubes, callose synthase accumulates consistently around callose plugs, indicating its involvement in plug synthesis. Actin filaments and endomembrane dynamics are critical for the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase, showing that enzymes are transported through Golgi bodies and/or vesicles moving along actin filaments. Conversely, microtubules appear to be critical in the positioning of callose synthase in distal regions and around callose plugs. In contrast, cellulose synthases are only partially coaligned with cortical microtubules and unrelated to callose plugs. Callose synthase also comigrates with tubulin by Blue Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Membrane sucrose synthase, which expectedly provides UDP-glucose to callose synthase and cellulose synthase, binds to actin filaments depending on sucrose concentration; its distribution is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system but not on microtubules. PMID:21205616

  8. Right-ear advantage drives the link between olivocochlear efferent 'antimasking' and speech-in-noise listening benefits.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Bhagat, Shaum P

    2015-05-27

    The mammalian cochlea receives feedback from the brainstem medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents, whose putative 'antimasking' function is to adjust cochlear amplification and enhance peripheral signal detection in adverse listening environments. Human studies have been inconsistent in demonstrating a clear connection between this corticofugal system and behavioral speech-in-noise (SIN) listening skills. To elucidate the role of brainstem efferent activity in SIN perception, we measured ear-specific contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), a proxy measure of MOC activation linked to auditory learning in noisy environments. We show that suppression of cochlear emissions is stronger with a more basal cochlear bias in the right ear compared with the left ear. Moreover, a strong negative correlation was observed between behavioral SIN performance and right-ear OAE suppression magnitudes, such that lower speech reception thresholds in noise were predicted by larger amounts of MOC-related activity. This brain-behavioral relation was not observed for left ear SIN perception. The rightward bias in contralateral MOC suppression of OAEs, coupled with the stronger association between physiological and perceptual measures, is consistent with left-hemisphere cerebral dominance for speech-language processing. We posit that corticofugal feedback from the left cerebral cortex through descending MOC projections sensitizes the right cochlea to signal-in-noise detection, facilitating figure-ground contrast and improving degraded speech analysis. Our findings demonstrate that SIN listening is at least partly driven by subcortical brain mechanisms; primitive stages of cochlear processing and brainstem MOC modulation of (right) inner ear mechanics play a critical role in dictating SIN understanding. PMID:25919996

  9. Influence of medial olivocochlear efferents on the sharpness of cochlear tuning estimates in children.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dinger, Zoë

    2016-08-01

    The present study objectively quantified the efferent-induced changes in the sharpness of cochlear tuning estimates and compared these alterations in cochlear tuning between adults and children. Click evoked otoacoustic emissions with and without contralateral broadband noise were recorded from 15 young adults and 14 children aged between 5 and 10 yrs. Time-frequency distributions of click evoked otoacoustic emissions were obtained via the S-transform, and the otoacoustic emission latencies were used to estimate the sharpness of cochlear tuning. Contralateral acoustic stimulation caused a significant reduction in the sharpness of cochlear tuning estimates in the low to mid frequency region, but had no effect in the higher frequencies (3175 and 4000 Hz). The magnitude of efferent-induced changes in cochlear tuning estimates was similar between adults and children. The current evidence suggests that the stimulation of the medial olivocochlear efferent neurons causes similar alterations in cochlear frequency selectivity in adults and children. PMID:27586737

  10. Efferent vagal discharge and heart rate in response to methohexitone, althesin, ketamine and etomidate in cats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Arndt, J O

    1982-10-01

    The effects of methohexitone, Althesin, ketamine and etomidate on single fibre discharge of cardiac vagal efferents and on heart rate were studied in cats. Cardiac vagal efferents were inhibited markedly and regularly for equihypnotic doses of methohexitone (2.0 mg kg-1), Althesin (0.1 ml kg-1) and ketamine (5.0 mg kg-1), but not of etomidate (0.8 mg kg-1). These inhibitory effects were independent of arterial pressure and mirrored the increases of heart rate elicited by the first three agents. Etomidate did not consistently affect cardiac vagal discharge or heart rate. Thus methohexitone. Althesin and ketamine inhibit efferent cardiac vagal drive by their central action independently of baroreflex function. This central vagolysis is probably the cause of their positive chronotropic effects. PMID:7126403

  11. Dynamic Behavior Analysis of the Glomerulo-Tubular Balance Mediated by the Efferent Blood Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinel, Andrea; Rivadeneira, Pablo S.; Costanza, Vicente; Amorena, Carlos

    In this paper, a mathematical model of the dynamics of a single-nephron function relating glomerulo-tubular balance, tubule-glomerular feedback, and peritubular blood viscosity is developed. Based upon experimental data, the model shows that complex behaviors of the nephron can be modulated by changes in the efferent arteriole blood viscosity. The main hypothesis is that the reabsorbed mass flow is modulated by the hematocrit of the efferent arteriole, in addition to the Starling forces. From a mathematical perspective, these behaviors can be explained by a bifurcation diagram analysis where the efferent blood viscosity is taken as the bifurcation parameter. This analytical description allows to predict changes in proximal convoluted tubule reabsorption, following changes in peritubular capillary viscosity generated by periodic changes in the glomerular filtration rate. Thus, the model links the tubule-glomerular feedback with the glomerular tubular balance.

  12. Ninth Grade Students' Negotiation of Aesthetic, Efferent, and Critical Stances in Response to a Novel Set in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative, action research study was guided by two primary research questions. First, how do students negotiate aesthetic, efferent, and critical stances when reading a novel set in Afghanistan? Second, how do aesthetic and efferent stances contribute to or hinder the adoption of a critical stance? A large body of research exists that…

  13. Callose-mediated resistance to pathogenic intruders in plant defense-related papillae

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are exposed to a wide range of potential pathogens, which derive from diverse phyla. Therefore, plants have developed successful defense mechanisms during co-evolution with different pathogens. Besides many specialized defense mechanisms, the plant cell wall represents a first line of defense. It is actively reinforced through the deposition of cell wall appositions, so-called papillae, at sites of interaction with intruding microbial pathogens. The papilla is a complex structure that is formed between the plasma membrane and the inside of the plant cell wall. Even though the specific biochemical composition of papillae can vary between different plant species, some classes of compounds are commonly found which include phenolics, reactive oxygen species, cell wall proteins, and cell wall polymers. Among these polymers, the (1,3)-β-glucan callose is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous components. Whereas the function of most compounds could be directly linked with cell wall reinforcement or an anti-microbial effect, the role of callose has remained unclear. An evaluation of recent studies revealed that the timing of the different papilla-forming transport processes is a key factor for successful plant defense. PMID:24808903

  14. Callose Synthase Family Genes Involved in the Grapevine Defense Response to Downy Mildew Disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Jiao, Li; Fu, Shufang; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of callose is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant's innate immunity. In this study, eight grapevine callose synthase (CalS) genes were identified and characterized. To investigate biological function of CalS in grapevine against the infection of Plasmopara viticola, expression patterns of grapevine CalS family genes were analyzed among resistant/susceptible cultivars. After P. viticola infection, expression of CalS1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were significantly modified among the grapevine cultivars. For example, the expression of CalS1 and CalS10 were greatly increased in downy mildew (DM)-immune Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Carlos' and 'Noble'. Transient expression assay with promoters of the CalS1 and CalS10 genes confirmed that they were regulated by the oomycete pathogen P. viticola. CalS1 promoter activity was also significantly up-regulated by ABA in DM-immune M. rotundifolia 'Noble', but down-regulated in DM-susceptible Vitis vinifera 'Chardonnay'. The CalS1 promoter, however, was also down-regulated by GA in 'Chardonnay', but not affected in 'Noble'. The promoter activity of CalS10 was significantly up-regulated by GA in 'Chardonnay', but not regulated by ABA at all. It is proposed that CalS1 and CalS10 were involved in grapevine defense against DM disease. PMID:26474330

  15. Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, the authors dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor…

  16. Autoradiographic study of the efferent connections of the entorhinal cortex in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, J.M.

    1981-07-10

    The major findings can be summarized as follows. Whereas the projection of the lateral entorhinal area (LEA) to the dentate gyrus is broad in its longitudinal extent, the medial entorhinal area (MEA), and especially the ventral portion of this zone, projects in a more lamellar fashion. In the transverse plane the LEA preferentially projects to the inner (dorsal) blade of the dentate gyrus, while the MEA innervates both blades equally. Within the radial dimension, the entorhinal cortex projects to the dentate gyrus according to a medial to lateral gradient, with lateral portions of the LEA projecting along the pial surface and successively more medial portions of the entorhinal projecting closer to the granule cells. The commissural entorhinal to dentate projections are similar to the ipsilateral projections in location; however, they are considerably reduced in septotemporal extent and do not arise from cells in the ventral half of either LEA or the intermediate entorhinal area (IEA). The projection of the entorhinal cortex to Ammon's horn reflects the same longitudinal characteristics as the dentate projections. An alvear input which extends only to the pyramidal cells at the CA1-subicular junction was most noticeable at ventral hippocampal levels. The extrahippocampal projections arise predominantly from cells in the LEA and project forward along the angular bundle to the piriform and periamygdaloid cortices, as well as the endopiriform nucleus, the lateral, basolateral, and cortical amygdaloid nuclei, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the olfactory tubercle, the anterior olfactory nucleus, the taenia tecta, and the indusium griseum.

  17. The vomeronasal cortex - afferent and efferent projections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in mice.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Most mammals possess a vomeronasal system that detects predominantly chemical signals of biological relevance. Vomeronasal information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), whose unique cortical target is the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala. This cortical structure should therefore be considered the primary vomeronasal cortex. In the present work, we describe the afferent and efferent connections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in female mice, using anterograde (biotinylated dextranamines) and retrograde (Fluorogold) tracers, and zinc selenite as a tracer specific for zinc-enriched (putative glutamatergic) projections. The results show that the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala is strongly interconnected not only with the rest of the vomeronasal system (AOB and its target structures in the amygdala), but also with the olfactory system (piriform cortex, olfactory-recipient nuclei of the amygdala and entorhinal cortex). Therefore, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala probably integrates olfactory and vomeronasal information. In addition, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala shows moderate interconnections with the associative (basomedial) amygdala and with the ventral hippocampus, which may be involved in emotional and spatial learning (respectively) induced by chemical signals. Finally, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala gives rise to zinc-enriched projections to the ventrolateral septum and the ventromedial striatum (including the medial islands of Calleja). This pattern of intracortical connections (with the olfactory cortex and hippocampus, mainly) and cortico-striatal excitatory projections (with the olfactory tubercle and septum) is consistent with its proposed nature as the primary vomeronasal cortex. PMID:24188795

  18. Efferent Control of Hair Cell and Afferent Responses in the Semicircular Canals

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Richard; Rabbitt, Richard D.; Highstein, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The sensations of sound and motion generated by the inner ear are controlled by the brain through extensive centripetal innervation originating within the brain stem. In the semicircular canals, brain stem efferent neurons make synaptic contacts with mechanosensory hair cells and with the dendrites of afferent neurons. Here, we examine the relative contributions of efferent action on hair cells and afferents. Experiments were performed in vivo in the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau. The efferent system was activated via electrical pulses to the brain stem and sensory responses to motion stimuli were quantified by simultaneous voltage recording from afferents and intracellular current- and/or voltage-clamp recordings from hair cells. Results showed synaptic inputs to both afferents and hair cells leading to relatively long-latency intracellular signaling responses: excitatory in afferents and inhibitory in hair cells. Generally, the net effect of efferent action was an increase in afferent background discharge and a simultaneous decrease in gain to angular motion stimuli. Inhibition of hair cells was likely the result of a ligand-gated opening of a major basolateral conductance. The reversal potential of the efferent-evoked current was just below the hair cell resting potential, thus resulting in a small hyperpolarization. The onset latency averaged about 90 ms and latency to peak response was 150–400 ms. Hair cell inhibition often outlasted afferent excitation and, in some cases, latched hair cells in the “off” condition for >1 s following cessation of stimulus. These features endow the animal with a powerful means to adjust the sensitivity and dynamic range of motion sensation. PMID:19571186

  19. Semaphorin 3A activates the guanosine triphosphatase Rab5 to promote growth cone collapse and organize callosal axon projections.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kong-Yan; He, Miao; Hou, Qiong-Qiong; Sheng, Ai-Li; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Fei; Liu, Wen-Wen; Li, Guangpu; Jiang, Xing-Yu; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2014-01-01

    Axon guidance (pathfinding) wires the brain during development and is regulated by various attractive and repulsive cues. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a repulsive cue, inducing the collapse of axon growth cones. In the mammalian forebrain, the corpus callosum is the major commissure that transmits information flow between the two hemispheres, and contralateral axons assemble into well-defined tracts. We found that the patterning of callosal axon projections in rodent layer II and III (L2/3) cortical neurons in response to Sema3A was mediated by the activation of Rab5, a small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that mediates endocytosis, through the membrane fusion protein Rabaptin-5 and the Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Rabex-5. Rabaptin-5 bound directly to Plexin-A1 in the Sema3A receptor complex [an obligate heterodimer formed by Plexin-A1 and neuropilin 1 (NP1)]; Sema3A enhanced this interaction in cultured neurons. Rabaptin-5 bridged the interaction between Rab5 and Plexin-A1. Sema3A stimulated endocytosis from the cell surface of callosal axon growth cones. In utero electroporation to reduce Rab5 or Rabaptin-5 impaired axon fasciculation or caused mistargeting of L2/3 callosal projections in rats. Overexpression of Rabaptin-5 or Rab5 rescued the defective callosal axon fasciculation or mistargeting of callosal axons caused by the loss of Sema3A-Plexin-A1 signaling in rats expressing dominant-negative Plexin-A1 or in NP1-deficient mice. Thus, our findings suggest that Rab5, its effector Rabaptin-5, and its regulator Rabex-5 mediate Sema3A-induced axon guidance during brain development. PMID:25161316

  20. Semaphorin 3A activates the guanosine triphosphatase Rab5 to promote growth cone collapse and organize callosal axon projections

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kong-Yan; He, Miao; Hou, Qiong-Qiong; Sheng, Ai-Li; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Fei; Liu, Wen-Wen; Li, Guangpu; Jiang, Xing-Yu; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2015-01-01

    Axon guidance (pathfinding) wires the brain during development and is regulated by various attractive and repulsive cues. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a repulsive cue, inducing the collapse of axon growth cones. In the mammalian forebrain, the corpus callosum is the major commissure that transmits information flow between the two hemispheres, and contralateral axons assemble into well-defined tracts. We found that the patterning of callosal axon projections in rodent layer II and III (L2/3) cortical neurons in response to Sema3A was mediated by the activation of Rab5, a small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that mediates endocytosis, through the membrane fusion protein Rabaptin-5 and the Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Rabex-5. Rabaptin-5 bound directly to Plexin-A1 in the Sema3A receptor complex [an obligate heterodimer formed by Plexin-A1 and neuropilin 1 (NP1)]; Sema3A enhanced this interaction in cultured neurons. Rabaptin-5 bridged the interaction between Rab5 and Plexin-A1. Sema3A stimulated endocytosis from the cell surface of callosal axon growth cones. In utero electroporation to reduce Rab5 or Rabaptin-5 impaired axon fasciculation or caused mistargeting of L2/3 callosal projections in rats. Over-expression of Rabaptin-5 or Rab5 rescued the defective callosal axon fasciculation or mistargeting of callosal axons caused by the loss of Sema3A–Plexin-A1 signaling in rats expressing dominant-negative Plexin-A1 or in NP1-deficient mice. Thus, our findings suggest that Rab5, its effector Rabaptin-5, and its regulator Rabex-5 mediate Sema3A-induced axon guidance during brain development. PMID:25161316

  1. A new sign of callosal disconnection syndrome: agonistic dyspraxia. A case study.

    PubMed

    Lavados, Manuel; Carrasco, Ximena; Peña, Marcela; Zaidel, Eran; Zaidel, Dahlia; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    We report a patient with callosal haemorrhage and no extracallosal involvement who developed a unique form of intermanual conflict. In the acute phase the patient showed a mild speech disturbance and right hemiparesis, and in her right hand, a grasp reflex and compulsive manipulation of tools, all attributable to transient frontal involvement. In the chronic phase there was intermanual conflict occasionally associated with the sensation of a second left hand. The patient also presented a sign consisting of compulsive, automatic execution of orders by one hand (the left or the right) when the patient was specifically asked to perform the movement with the other hand (the right or the left, respectively). There was no left-right confusion in this patient. We call this condition agonistic dyspraxia. In contrast with diagonistic dyspraxia, this consists of the agonistic behaviour of the other hand under conditions in which the hand that has been instructed to respond cannot execute the request. PMID:12529456

  2. DSCAM and DSCAML1 regulate the radial migration and callosal projection in developing cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Huang, Ying; Chen, Jia-Yin; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Song, Ning-Ning

    2015-01-12

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) is essential for self-avoidance and tiling of dendritic development in sensory neurons in Drosophila. Recent studies also show that DSCAM together with its closely related protein DSCAML1 functions in dendritic self-avoidance of a certain types of interneuron in mammalian retina. However, the functions of these DSCAMs in developing mammalian cerebral cortex are not well understood. Here we reduced the expression of DSCAM or DSCAML1 in mouse cortical neurons by RNA interference both in vitro and in vivo. We found that knockdown of DSCAM or DSCAML1 increases the complexity of proximal dendritic branching, and impedes the axon growth in cultured neurons. In vivo knockdown experiments showed that both DSCAM and DSCAML1 contribute to normal radial migration and callosal projection during the postnatal development. Our results indicate an important role of DSCAM and DSCAML1 in the development of cortical neural network. PMID:25451118

  3. Callosal tissue loss in multiple system atrophy - a one year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Minnerop, M; Luders, E; Specht, K; Ruhlmann, J; Schimke, N; Thompson, PM; Chou, YY; Toga, AW; Abele, M; Wüllner, U; Klockgether, T

    2010-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease particularly affecting the basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, and intermediolateral cell columns of the spinal cord but also the cerebral cortex. Clinically, cerebellar (MSA-C) and parkinsonian variants of MSA (MSA-P) are distinguished. We investigated 14 MSA patients (10 MSA-C, 4 MSA-P, men/women: 7/7, age: 61.1±3.3 years) and 14 matched controls (men/women: 7/7, age 58.6±5.1 years) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze gray and white matter differences both at baseline and at follow-up, one year later. Baseline comparisons between patients and controls confirmed significantly less gray matter in MSA in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, and significantly less white matter in the cerebellar peduncles and brainstem. Comparisons of tissue-loss profiles (i.e., baseline versus follow-up) between patients and controls, revealed white matter reduction in MSA along the middle cerebellar peduncles, reflecting degeneration of the ponto-cerebellar tract as a particularly prominent and progressive morphological alteration in MSA. Comparisons between baseline and follow-up, separately performed in patients and controls, revealed additional white matter reduction in MSA along the corpus callosum at follow-up. This was replicated through additional shape-based analyses indicating a reduced callosal thickness in the anterior and posterior midbody, extending posteriorly into the isthmus. Callosal atrophy may reflect a possibly disease-specific pattern of neurodegeneration and cortical atrophy respectively, fitting well with the predominant impairment of motor functions in MSA patients. PMID:20623690

  4. Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review

    PubMed Central

    Zin, Thant; Maw, Myat; Pai, Dinker Ramananda; Paijan, Rosaini Binti; Kyi, Myo

    2012-01-01

    A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable) was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature. PMID:22624073

  5. The Distribution of Prostaglandins in Afferent and Efferent Lymph From Inflammatory Sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Miles G.; Hay, John B.; Movat, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Arachidonic acid labeled with 14C was injected directly into lymph nodes that had been stimulated at various times with Escherichia coli. The efferent lymph was collected, and labeled catabolites were extracted and analyzed chromatographically. The pimary conversion product recovered was Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), with the lesser products thromboxane, prostacyclin and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) also detected. When the efferent lymph was analyzed by radioimmunoassay after subcutaneous injectino of E coli into the hock, PGE and PGF levels rapidly increased, reached the highest levels in the first 10 hours, and then returned to normal by 24 hours. When the afferent lymph plasma draining inflammatory sites was compared directly with efferent lymph, PGF levels were similar, but the PGE level was always several times higher in the afferent lymph. To examine the catabolism of PG, either 3,H-PGF2ά of 3H-PGE2 was injected into the node, and the efferent lymph plasma was analyzed. No conversion of PGF2α to other products was found. In contrast, catabolic products of PGE2 were detected. With the use of equilibrium dialysis techniques, the binding of PGE2 and PGF2α to proteins in lymph and to bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA), and BSA stripped of its fatty acids was established. The binding to lymph proteins correlated with the albumin concentrations in the lymph. This albumin binging probably facilitated the retention and transport of PG in the lymph. PG appears in the lymph at a time corresponding to the uptake and processing of antigen by the node and near the time when lymphokines are detected in lymph and could modulate several steps in the immune response. The PGE detectable in the lymph draining an inflammatory site may play a role in the modulation of blood flow. PMID:6992593

  6. [The cervical somatosensory evoked potential in lesions of the cortical efferents].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1990-03-01

    Cervical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation were analysed in 20 patients with unilateral central paresis of the arm. Neither the configuration nor the latency and amplitude measures of the neck potential did reveal any association with pathological alterations of cortical efferents or with abnormal cortically evoked responses. Thus, also in this population the evaluation of cervical potentials can be done according to the known criteria. PMID:2110891

  7. Onset of cholinergic efferent synaptic function in sensory hair cells of the rat cochlea.

    PubMed

    Roux, Isabelle; Wersinger, Eric; McIntosh, J Michael; Fuchs, Paul A; Glowatzki, Elisabeth

    2011-10-19

    In the developing mammalian cochlea, the sensory hair cells receive efferent innervation originating in the superior olivary complex. This input is mediated by α9/α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and is inhibitory due to the subsequent activation of calcium-dependent SK2 potassium channels. We examined the acquisition of this cholinergic efferent input using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from inner hair cells (IHCs) in acutely excised apical turns of the rat cochlea from embryonic day 21 to postnatal day 8 (P8). Responses to 1 mm acetylcholine (ACh) were detected from P0 on in almost every IHC. The ACh-activated current amplitude increased with age and demonstrated the same pharmacology as α9-containing nAChRs. Interestingly, at P0, the ACh response was not coupled to SK2 channels, so that the initial cholinergic response was excitatory and could trigger action potentials in IHCs. Coupling to SK current was detected earliest at P1 in a subset of IHCs and by P3 in every IHC studied. Clustered nAChRs and SK2 channels were found on IHCs from P1 on using Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated α-bungarotoxin and SK2 immunohistochemistry. The number of nAChRs clusters increased with age to 16 per IHC at P8. Cholinergic efferent synaptic currents first appeared in a subset of IHCs at P1 and by P3 in every IHC studied, contemporaneously with ACh-evoked SK currents, suggesting that SK2 channels may be necessary at onset of synaptic function. An analogous pattern of development was observed for the efferent synapses that form later (P6-P8) on outer hair cells in the basal cochlea. PMID:22016543

  8. Sound-evoked efferent effects on cochlear mechanics of the mustached bat.

    PubMed

    Drexl, Markus; Kössl, Manfred

    2003-10-01

    The influence of the crossed medial efferent system on cochlear mechanics of the mustached bat was tested by measuring delayed evoked otoacoustic emissions (DEOAEs), cochlear microphonics, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions. Contralaterally delivered sinusoids, broadband noise and bat echolocation calls were used for acoustic stimulation of the efferent system. With all four measures we found a level-dependent suppression under stimulation with both broadband noise and echolocation calls. In addition, the sharply tuned cochlear resonance of the mustached bat which is involved in processing echolocation signals at 61 kHz shifted upward in frequency by several 100 Hz. Presentation of sinusoids did not have any significant effect. DEOAEs and DPOAEs were in some cases enhanced during contralateral presentation of the bat calls at moderate intensities. The most important function of the efferent system in the mustached bat might be the control of the extraordinarily fine-tuned resonator of this species, which is close to instability as evident from the very pronounced evoked otoacoustic emissions which sometimes convert into spontaneous otoacoustic emissions of high level. PMID:14553904

  9. The role of the renal afferent and efferent nerve fibers in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Lindsea C.; May, Clive N.; Yao, Song T.

    2015-01-01

    Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF. PMID:26483699

  10. Immature cortex lesions alter retinotopic maps and interhemispheric connections.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, C Ernesto; Manger, Paul R; Spenger, Christian; Innocenti, Giorgio M

    2003-07-01

    Unilateral lesions of the occipital visual areas performed on postnatal day 5 (P5) in the ferret are not compensated by the appearance, in the lesioned hemisphere, of visual responses at ectopic locations. Instead, when parts of the visual areas are spared, they show abnormal retinotopic organizations; furthermore, callosal connections are abnormally distributed in relation to the retinotopic maps. Lesions that completely eliminate the visual areas including the posterior parietal cortex cause the appearance of abnormal callosal connections from the primary somatosensory cortex on the lesion side to the contralateral, intact, posterior parietal cortex. The occipital visual areas (17, 18, 19, and 21) of the intact hemisphere show a normal retinotopy but lose callosal connections in territories homotopic to the lesions. These findings clarify the nature and limits of structural developmental plasticity in the visual cortex. Early in life, certain regions of cortex have been irreversibly allocated to the visual areas, but two properties defining the areas, that is, retinotopy and connections, remain modifiable. The findings might be relevant for understanding the consequences of early-onset visual cortical lesions in humans. PMID:12838520

  11. Callosal Sensitivity to Short-Range Stimulus Orientation and Long-Range Stimulus Context Orientation: Tachistoscopic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Braun, Claude M J; Achim, André; Roberge, Carl; Gauvin, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    To study local-global relationships in interhemispheric interactions, tachistoscopically presented pairs of lines (1.15 degrees) were compared for their relative orientation by 48 neurotypical adults. Orientations of line stimuli (local aspect of the task) were vertical, horizontal, forward slash or backslash, as were those of the interstimulus axes. The latter created a global context that could influence line discrimination. Stimulus pairs were presented within a field (not requiring callosal participation for line orientation comparison) or one on each side of the visual field meridian (requiring callosal participation). The primary purpose of the design was to determine whether local or global violations of stimulus "homotopy" across the meridian would impose costs of interhemispheric integration. The rationale for this expectation is that the fiber projection of the corpus callosum is highly symmetric across the midsagittal plane (i.e., homotopic). The expected "callosal homotopy" effect was significantly upheld as a whole but broke down or became extravagant in certain specific conditions, with specific costs of interhemispheric integration varying from null to a highly significant 20-ms as a function of interactions of interstimulus and stimulus orientations. The corpus callosum seems to be particularly sensitive to local stimulus orientation in interaction with long-range stimulus context orientation. PMID:26442342

  12. Development of the Corticospinal and Callosal Tracts from Extremely Premature Birth up to 2 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rodrigo M; Roze, Elise; Ball, Gareth; Merchant, Nazakat; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, David; Rueckert, Daniel; Counsell, Serena J

    2015-01-01

    White matter tracts mature asymmetrically during development, and this development can be studied using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The aims of this study were i. to generate dynamic population-averaged white matter registration templates covering in detail the period from 25 weeks gestational age to term, and extending to 2 years of age based on DTI and fractional anisotropy, ii. to produce tract-specific probability maps of the corticospinal tracts, forceps major and forceps minor using probabilistic tractography, and iii. to assess the development of these tracts throughout this critical period of neurodevelopment. We found evidence for asymmetric development across the fiber bundles studied, with the corticospinal tracts showing earlier maturation (as measured by fractional anisotropy) but slower volumetric growth compared to the callosal fibers. We also found evidence for an anterior to posterior gradient in white matter microstructure development (as measured by mean diffusivity) in the callosal fibers, with the posterior forceps major developing at a faster rate than the anterior forceps minor in this age range. Finally, we report a protocol for delineating callosal and corticospinal fibers in extremely premature cohorts, and make available population-averaged registration templates and a probabilistic tract atlas which we hope will be useful for future neonatal and infant white-matter imaging studies. PMID:25955638

  13. Disruption of estrogen receptor signaling and similar pathways in the efferent ductules and initial segment of the epididymis

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Seminiferous tubular atrophy may involve indirectly the disruption of estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) function in efferent ductules of the testis. ESR1 helps to maintain fluid resorption by the ductal epithelium and the inhibition or stimulation of this activity in rodent species will lead to fluid accumulation in the lumen. If not resolved, the abnormal buildup of fluid in the head of the epididymis and efferent ductules becomes a serious problem for the testis, as it leads to an increase in testis weight, tubular dilation and seminiferous epithelial degeneration, as well as testicular atrophy. The same sequence of pathogenesis occurs if the efferent ductule lumen becomes occluded. This review provides an introduction to the role of estrogen in the male reproductive tract but focuses on the various overlapping mechanisms that could induce efferent ductule dysfunction and fluid backpressure histopathology. Although efferent ductules are difficult to find, their inclusion in routine histological evaluations is recommended, as morphological images of these delicate tubules may be essential for understanding the mechanism of testicular injury, especially if dilations are observed in the rete testis and/or seminiferous tubules. Signature Lesion: The rete testis and efferent ductules can appear dilated, as if the lumens were greatly expanded with excess fluid or the accumulation of sperm. Because the efferent ductules resorb most of the fluid arriving from the rete testis lumen, one of two mechanisms is likely to be involved: a) reduced fluid uptake, which has been caused by the disruption in estrogen receptor signaling or associated pathways; or b) an increased rate of fluid resorption, which results in luminal occlusion. Both mechanisms can lead to a temporary increase in testicular weight, tubular dilation and atrophy of the seminiferous tubules. PMID:26413389

  14. Mid-callosal plane determination using preferred directions from diffusion tensor images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, André L.; Rittner, Letícia; Lotufo, Roberto A.; Appenzeller, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The corpus callosum is the major brain structure responsible for inter{hemispheric communication between neurons. Many studies seek to relate corpus callosum attributes to patient characteristics, cerebral diseases and psychological disorders. Most of those studies rely on 2D analysis of the corpus callosum in the mid-sagittal plane. However, it is common to find conflicting results among studies, once many ignore methodological issues and define the mid-sagittal plane based on precary or invalid criteria with respect to the corpus callosum. In this work we propose a novel method to determine the mid-callosal plane using the corpus callosum internal preferred diffusion directions obtained from diffusion tensor images. This plane is analogous to the mid-sagittal plane, but intended to serve exclusively as the corpus callosum reference. Our method elucidates the great potential the directional information of the corpus callosum fibers have to indicate its own referential. Results from experiments with five image pairs from distinct subjects, obtained under the same conditions, demonstrate the method effectiveness to find the corpus callosum symmetric axis relative to the axial plane.

  15. Paralinguistic processing in children with callosal agenesis: emergence of neurolinguistic deficits.

    PubMed

    Brown, Warren S; Symingtion, Melissa; VanLancker-Sidtis, Diana; Dietrich, Rosalind; Paul, Lynn K

    2005-05-01

    Recent research revealed impaired processing of both nonliteral meaning and affective prosody in adults with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and normal intelligence. Since normal children have incomplete myelination of the corpus callosum, it was hypothesized that paralanguage deficits in children with ACC would be less apparent relative to their peers. The Familiar and Novel Language Comprehension Test (FANL-C) and Prosody Test were given to 18 children with ACC and normal intelligence and 17 controls matched for age (7-13 years), education, and IQ (83-122). When controlling for age, children with ACC were significantly poorer in comprehension of the precise meaning of both literal and nonliteral items on the FANL-C. Adults with ACC had previously been shown to have difficulty only on nonliteral items. The effect size for nonliteral comprehension in children with ACC was smaller than that seen in adults. There was only a trend for the child ACC group to perform worse on the recognition of affective prosody. Thus, while deficits in paralinguistic processing were apparent, children with ACC were not as clearly different from age peers as adults, and were equally deficient at comprehending literal and nonliteral expressions. The differences in results between adults and children with ACC are thought to reflect incomplete callosal development in normal children, and the importance of the corpus callosum in the early stages of the development of the ability to process literal language. PMID:15781301

  16. Distinct roles of neuropilin 1 signaling for radial and tangential extension of callosal axons.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Fujisawa, Hajime; Murakami, Fujio; Masu, Masayuki

    2009-05-20

    Cortical excitatory neurons migrate from their origin in the ventricular zone (VZ) toward the pial surface. During migration, these neurons exhibit a stellate shape in the intermediate zone (IZ), transform into bipolar cells, and then initiate radial migration, extending a trailing process, which may lead to an axon. Here we examined the role of neuropilin 1 (NRP1) in these developmental events. Both NRP1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the IZ, where stellate-shaped cells were located. DiI labeling experiments showed that neuronal migration occurred normally in Nrp1 mutant mice up to embryonic day (E) 14.5, the latest day to which the mutant survives, with only subtle axonal defasciculation. However, interference with Nrp1 signaling at a later stage caused pathfinding errors: when a dominant negative form of Nrp1 was electroporated into the cortical VZ cells at E12.5 or E15.5 and examined perinatally, guidance errors were found in tangential axonal extension toward the midline. In contrast, no significant effect was noted on the migration of cortical excitatory neurons. These findings indicate that NRP1 plays an important role in the guidance of callosal axons originating from cortical excitatory neurons but does not support a role in their migration. Moreover, insofar as radial axonal extension within the cortical plate was unaffected, the present findings imply that molecular mechanisms for the axonal extension of excitatory neurons within the cortical plate are distinct from those in the white matter. PMID:19296474

  17. Efferent Vestibular Neurons Show Homogenous Discharge Output But Heterogeneous Synaptic Input Profile In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Miranda A.; Murray, Andrew; Wijesinghe, Rajiv; Cullen, Karen; Tung, Victoria W. K.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of our sense of balance we still know remarkably little about the central control of the peripheral balance system. While previous work has shown that activation of the efferent vestibular system results in modulation of afferent vestibular neuron discharge, the intrinsic and synaptic properties of efferent neurons themselves are largely unknown. Here we substantiate the location of the efferent vestibular nucleus (EVN) in the mouse, before characterizing the input and output properties of EVN neurons in vitro. We made transverse serial sections through the brainstem of 4-week-old mice, and performed immunohistochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), both expressed in the EVN of other species. We also injected fluorogold into the posterior canal and retrogradely labelled neurons in the EVN of ChAT:: tdTomato mice expressing tdTomato in all cholinergic neurons. As expected the EVN lies dorsolateral to the genu of the facial nerve (CNVII). We then made whole-cell current-, and voltage-clamp recordings from visually identified EVN neurons. In current-clamp, EVN neurons display a homogeneous discharge pattern. This is characterized by a high frequency burst of action potentials at the onset of a depolarizing stimulus and the offset of a hyperpolarizing stimulus that is mediated by T-type calcium channels. In voltage-clamp, EVN neurons receive either exclusively excitatory or inhibitory inputs, or a combination of both. Despite this heterogeneous mixture of inputs, we show that synaptic inputs onto EVN neurons are predominantly excitatory. Together these findings suggest that the inputs onto EVN neurons, and more specifically the origin of these inputs may underlie EVN neuron function. PMID:26422206

  18. The biological role of the medial olivocochlear efferents in hearing: separating evolved function from exaptation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Keil, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) are remarkable, mechanically-active receptors that determine the exquisite sensitivity and frequency selectivity characteristic of the mammalian auditory system. While there are three to four times as many OHCs compared with inner hair cells, OHCs lack a significant afferent innervation and, instead, receive a rich efferent innervation from medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent neurons. Activation of the MOC has been shown to exert a considerable suppressive effect over OHC activity. The precise function of these efferent tracts in auditory behavior, however, is the matter of considerable debate. The most frequent functions assigned to the MOC tracts are to protect the cochlea from traumatic damage associated with intense sound and to aid the detection of signals in noise. While considerable evidence shows that interruption of MOC activity exacerbates damage due to high-level sound exposure, the well characterized MOC physiology and evolutionary studies do not support such a role. Instead, a MOC protective effect is well explained as being a byproduct of the suppressive nature of MOC action on OHC mechanical behavior. A role in the enhancement of signals in noise backgrounds, on the other hand, is well supported by (1) an extensive physiological literature (2) examination of naturally occurring environmental acoustic conditions (3) recent data from multiple laboratories showing that the MOC plays a significant role in auditory selective attention by suppressing the response to unattended or ignored stimuli. This presentation will argue that, based on the extant literature combining the suppression of background noise through MOC-mediated rapid adaptation (RA) with the suppression of non-attended signals, in concert with the corticofugal pathways descending from the auditory cortex, the MOC system has one evolved function—to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, aiding in the detection of target signals. By contrast, the MOC system

  19. Determinants of renal microvascular response to ACh: afferent and efferent arteriolar actions of EDHF.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Loutzenhiser, Rodger

    2002-01-01

    The renal microvascular actions of ACh were investigated using the in vitro perfused hydronephrotic rat kidney. ACh reversed ANG II-induced vasoconstriction in the afferent and efferent arteriole by 106 +/- 2 and 75 +/- 5%, respectively. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase [NOS; 100 micromol/l N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] and cyclooxygenase (COX; 10 micromol/l ibuprofen) prevented the sustained response of the afferent arteriole but did not reduce the magnitude of the initial dilation (97 +/- 7%). However, NOS/COX inhibition abolished the response of the efferent arteriole. The underlying mechanisms mediating this endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like response were characterized using K channel blockers. Ba (100 micromol/l), tetraethylammonium (1 mmol/l), and ouabain (3 mmol/l) had no effect, arguing against a role of an inward rectifier K channel, large-conductance Ca-activated K channel, or Na,K-ATPase. Charybdotoxin (10 nmol/l) and apamin (1.0micromol/l) attenuated the response when administered alone (63 +/- 7% and 37 +/- 5%, respectively) and abolished the response when coadministered (0.1 +/- 1.0%). These findings indicate that, as in other vascular beds, the renal EDHF-like response to ACh involves K channels that are sensitive to a combination of apamin and charybdotoxin. Our finding that EDHF modulates preglomerular, but not postglomerular, tone is consistent with the evolving concept that vasomotor mechanisms in cortical efferent arterioles do not involve voltage-gated Ca entry. PMID:11739120

  20. Oculomotor learning revisited: a model of reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia incorporating an efference copy of motor actions

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Michale S.

    2012-01-01

    In its simplest formulation, reinforcement learning is based on the idea that if an action taken in a particular context is followed by a favorable outcome, then, in the same context, the tendency to produce that action should be strengthened, or reinforced. While reinforcement learning forms the basis of many current theories of basal ganglia (BG) function, these models do not incorporate distinct computational roles for signals that convey context, and those that convey what action an animal takes. Recent experiments in the songbird suggest that vocal-related BG circuitry receives two functionally distinct excitatory inputs. One input is from a cortical region that carries context information about the current “time” in the motor sequence. The other is an efference copy of motor commands from a separate cortical brain region that generates vocal variability during learning. Based on these findings, I propose here a general model of vertebrate BG function that combines context information with a distinct motor efference copy signal. The signals are integrated by a learning rule in which efference copy inputs gate the potentiation of context inputs (but not efference copy inputs) onto medium spiny neurons in response to a rewarded action. The hypothesis is described in terms of a circuit that implements the learning of visually guided saccades. The model makes testable predictions about the anatomical and functional properties of hypothesized context and efference copy inputs to the striatum from both thalamic and cortical sources. PMID:22754501

  1. Depression of lymphocyte traffic in sheep by anaesthesia and associated changes in efferent-lymph PGE2 and antibody levels.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, T C; Spruck, C H; Leduc, L E

    1988-01-01

    General anaesthesia of sheep with ketamine and xylazine has been found to produce a profound and prolonged depression in lymphocyte traffic through primary peripheral lymph nodes, as mirrored in the output of lymphocytes into efferent lymph. In this study, the depression has been found to be associated with a marked and sustained elevation in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in efferent lymph. The degree and duration of lymphocyte output depression was found to be modulated (diminished), both in degree and duration, by study-node drainage-area stimulation from prior surgery, inflammation or bacterial immunization. Even when the anaesthesia-associated lymphocyte-output depression was modulated by drainage-area inflammation, the period of lymphocyte-output depression was correlated still with elevated levels of PGE2 in efferent lymph. When drainage-area stimulation was produced by bacterial immunization (killed Salmonella muenchen), the anaesthesia-associated depression in lymphocyte output into efferent lymph (small as well as blast) was accompanied by a depression in antibody output into efferent lymph. PMID:3422221

  2. How can the auditory efferent system protect our ears from noise-induced hearing loss? Let us count the ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Lynne; Miller, Judi A. Lapsley

    2015-12-01

    It is a cause for some debate as to how the auditory olivocochlear (OC) efferent system could protect hearing from noise trauma. In this review, we examined physiological research to find mechanisms that could effectively attenuate the response to sound. For each purported mechanism, we indicate which part of the OC-efferent system is responsible for the function and the site of action. These mechanisms include basilar-membrane phase shifts at high stimulus levels; changes in outer-hair-cell stiffness and phase lag associated with efferent slow effects; small decreases in endocochlear potentials causing small decreases in outer- and inner-hair-cell output; low-spontaneous-rate and medium-spontaneous-rate fibers showing OC-induced decrements at high levels; auditory-nerve initial-peak reduction; OC effect increasing over minutes; cholinergic activation of anti-apoptotic pathways; and anti-excitotoxicity. There are clearly multiple opportunities for the OC-efferent system to protect the inner ear from noise trauma. From further exploration into the mechanisms outlined here, as well as to-be-discovered mechanisms, we will gain a greater understanding of the protective nature of the OC-efferent system. These findings could aid our ability to design better predictive tests for people at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.

  3. First evidence for differential and sequential efferent effects of stimulus relevance and goal conduciveness appraisal.

    PubMed

    Aue, Tatjana; Flykt, Anders; Scherer, Klaus R

    2007-03-01

    In the context of a memory task, participants were presented with pictures displaying biological and cultural threat stimuli or neutral stimuli (stimulus relevance manipulation) with superimposed symbols signaling monetary gains or losses (goal conduciveness manipulation). Results for heart rate and facial electromyogram show differential efferent effects of the respective appraisal outcomes and provide first evidence for sequential processing, as postulated by Scherer's component process model of emotion. Specifically, as predicted, muscle activity over the brow and cheek regions marking the process of relevance appraisal occurred significantly earlier than facial muscle activity markers of goal conduciveness appraisal. Heart rate, in contrast, was influenced by the stimulus relevance manipulation only. PMID:17052833

  4. The efferent innervation of the genital chamber by an identified serotonergic neuron in the female cricket Acheta domestica.

    PubMed

    Elekes, K; Hustert, R

    1988-05-01

    The serotonergic innervation of the genital chamber of the female cricket, Acheta domestica, has been investigated applying anti-serotonin (5-HT) immunocytochemistry at both light- and electron-microscopic levels as well as using conventional electron microscopy. Whole mount and pre-embedding chopper techniques of immunocytochemistry reveal a dense 5-HT-immunoreactive network of varicose fibers in the musculature of the genital chamber. All of these immunoreactive fibers originate from the efferent serotonergic neuron projecting through the nerve 8v to the genital chamber (Hustert and Topel 1986; Elekes et al. 1987). At the electron-microscopic level, 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve terminals, which contain small (50-60 nm) and large (approximately 100 nm) agranular vesicles as well as granular vesicles (approximately 100 nm), contact the muscle fibers or the sarcoplasmic processes without establishing specialized neuromuscular connections. In addition to the 5-HT-immunoreactive axons, two types of immunonegative axons can also be found in the musculature. By use of conventional electron microscopy, three ultrastructurally distinct types of axon processes can be observed, one of which resembles 5-HT-immunoreactive axons. While the majority of the varicosities do not synapse on the muscle fibers, terminals containing small (50-60 nm) agranular vesicles occasionally form specialized neuromuscular contacts. It is suggested that the 5-HTergic innervation plays a non-synaptic modulatory role in the regulation circular musculature in the genital chamber of the cricket, while the musculature as a whole may be influenced by both synaptic and modulatory mechanisms. PMID:3383221

  5. Small RNA Derived from the Virulence Modulating Region of the Potato spindle tuber viroid Silences callose synthase Genes of Tomato Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Brosseau, Chantal; Giguère, Tamara; Sano, Teruo; Moffett, Peter; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) callose synthase genes CalS11-like and CalS12-like encode proteins that are essential for the formation of callose, a major component of pollen mother cell walls; these enzymes also function in callose formation during pathogen infection. This article describes the targeting of these callose synthase mRNAs by a small RNA derived from the virulence modulating region of two Potato spindle tuber viroid variants. More specifically, viroid infection of tomato plants resulted in the suppression of the target mRNAs up to 1.5-fold, depending on the viroid variant used and the gene targeted. The targeting of these mRNAs by RNA silencing was validated by artificial microRNA experiments in a transient expression system and by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Viroid mutants incapable of targeting callose synthase mRNAs failed to induce typical infection phenotypes, whereas a chimeric viroid obtained by swapping the virulence modulating regions of a mild and a severe variant of Potato spindle tuber viroid greatly affected the accumulation of viroids and the severity of disease symptoms. These data provide evidence of the silencing of multiple genes by a single small RNA derived from a viroid. PMID:26290537

  6. Small RNA Derived from the Virulence Modulating Region of the Potato spindle tuber viroid Silences callose synthase Genes of Tomato Plants.

    PubMed

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Brosseau, Chantal; Giguère, Tamara; Sano, Teruo; Moffett, Peter; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) callose synthase genes CalS11-like and CalS12-like encode proteins that are essential for the formation of callose, a major component of pollen mother cell walls; these enzymes also function in callose formation during pathogen infection. This article describes the targeting of these callose synthase mRNAs by a small RNA derived from the virulence modulating region of two Potato spindle tuber viroid variants. More specifically, viroid infection of tomato plants resulted in the suppression of the target mRNAs up to 1.5-fold, depending on the viroid variant used and the gene targeted. The targeting of these mRNAs by RNA silencing was validated by artificial microRNA experiments in a transient expression system and by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Viroid mutants incapable of targeting callose synthase mRNAs failed to induce typical infection phenotypes, whereas a chimeric viroid obtained by swapping the virulence modulating regions of a mild and a severe variant of Potato spindle tuber viroid greatly affected the accumulation of viroids and the severity of disease symptoms. These data provide evidence of the silencing of multiple genes by a single small RNA derived from a viroid. PMID:26290537

  7. Language lateralization in individuals with callosal agenesis: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Isabelle; Paquette, Natacha; Lepore, Franco; Rouleau, Isabelle; Sauerwein, Catherine H; Rosa, Christine; Leroux, Jean-Maxime; Gravel, Pierre; Valois, Katja; Andermann, Frederick; Saint-Amour, Dave; Lassonde, Maryse

    2011-06-01

    Since the seminal work of Broca in 1861, it is well established that language is essentially processed in the left hemisphere. However, the origin of hemispheric specialization remains controversial. Some authors posit that language lateralization is genetically determined, while others have suggested that hemispheric specialization develops with age. Tenants of the latter view have further suggested that the adult pattern of left hemispheric specialization is achieved by means of callosal inhibition of homologous speech areas in the right hemisphere during ontogeny. According to this hypothesis, one would expect language to develop bilaterally in the acallosal brain. A recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in one patient with agenesis of the corpus callosum suggests that this might indeed be the case (Riecker et al., 2007). However, given the large anatomic and functional variability in the population of subjects with agenesis of the corpus callosum, this finding needs to be more extensively replicated. In the present study, we explored language lateralization in six individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum using an fMRI protocol which included a syntactic decision task and a sub-vocal verbal fluency task. Two neurologically intact control groups, one comparable to the acallosals in terms of IQ, age and education (n=6) and one group with a high IQ (n=5), performed the same tasks. No differences were found between language lateralization of the subjects with agenesis of the corpus callosum and the control groups in the receptive speech task. However, for expressive speech, the groups differed with respect to frontal activations, with the acallosal participants showing a more bilateral pattern of activation than the high-IQ participants only. No differences were found for temporal regions. Overall, these results indicate that the corpus callosum is not essential for the establishment of lateralized language functions. PMID:21447350

  8. Olivocochlear efferent function: issues regarding methods and the interpretation of results

    PubMed Central

    Guinan Jr., John J.

    2014-01-01

    As studies of the olivocochlear (OC) efferent system have matured, issues have been identified that need to be taken into account in the design of new studies and in the interpretation of existing work. The need for high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), multiple alternations of conditions, and avoiding middle-ear-muscle activation have been previously highlighted. Less well-known issues include: Contralateral medial OC (MOC) effects may not be good proxies for ipsilateral (ipsi) MOC effects; MOC-induced changes in otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) may not accurately show MOC-induced changes in auditory-nerve (AN) responses; measuring OAE differences from before to after psychophysical trials yields the transient OAE change but not tonic MOC activation; tonic MOC activation may be measurable by several techniques including by OAE differences in trials in which the subject’s judgment was correct vs. trials that were incorrect; SNRs can be preserved by Bootstrap statistical tests; differences in task difficulty may outweigh differences in subject attention; lateral efferent effects are little understood and may be tied to MOC effects; to assess whether MOC strength predicts protection from acoustic trauma, prospective tests in humans are needed. PMID:25161612

  9. Proportional myoelectric control of a virtual object to investigate human efferent control.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Keith E; Ferris, Daniel P

    2004-12-01

    We used proportional myoelectric control of a one-dimensional virtual object to investigate differences in efferent control between the proximal and distal muscles of the upper limbs. Eleven subjects placed one of their upper limbs in a brace that restricted movement while we recorded electromyography (EMG) signals from elbow flexors/extensors or wrist flexors/extensors during isometric contractions. By activating their muscles, subjects applied virtual forces to a virtual object using a real-time computer interface. The magnitudes of these forces were proportional to EMG amplitudes. Subjects used this proportional EMG control to move the virtual object through two tracking tasks, one with a static target and one with a moving target (i.show $132#e., a sine wave). We hypothesized that subjects would have better control over the virtual object using their distal muscles rather than using their proximal muscles because humans typically use more distal joints to perform fine motor tasks. The results indicated that there was no difference in subjects' ability to control virtual object movements when using either upper arm muscles or forearm muscles. These results suggest that differences in control accuracy between elbow joint movements and wrist joint movements are more likely to be a result of motor practice, proprioceptive feedback or joint mechanics rather than inherent differences in efferent control. PMID:15258714

  10. Functional role of efferents to the avian retina. II. Effects of reversible cooling of the isthmo-optic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, A L; Hughes, C P

    1976-03-01

    Efferents to the retina in the bird arise in the isthmo-optic nucleus of the caudal midbrain, and terminate on amacrine cells in the retina. The functional role of these efferents was studied by determining the receptive field properties of 107 optic tract fibers in the lightly anesthetized adult pigeon, and quantitating their responses to specific moving stimuli. While the recording from these fibers continued, the isthmo-optic nucleus was cooled by a thermoelectric cooling probe, and the response properties of the cells redetermined. Recording was maintained in half of the units long enough to observe recovery from cooling, and in several units the entire procedure was repeated. In 77 of the 107 units, responsiveness to all stimuli was decreased by removing efferent influences, whereas specific receptive field properties such as motion sensitivity or directionaltiy were not altered. All of the major receptive field types were affected in a similar fashion, irrespective of their position in the visual field. Responses to stimuli that did not involve the antagonistic surround were similarly affected by removal of the efferents, as were units were both weak and strong antagonistic surrounds. Efferents exert their influence on retinal ganglion cells by way of the amacrine cells on which they terminate. Data available on amacrines in Necturus indicates that they are inhibitory to ganglion cells. If amacrines have a similar role in the pigeon, then it may be stated that decreased activity in the centrifugal fibers leads to enhanced inhibition throughout the receptive fields of ganglion cells, and increased activity in the efferents produces disinhibition. PMID:1262546

  11. Laminar-dependent dendritic spine alterations in the motor cortex of adult rats following callosal transection and forced forelimb use.

    PubMed

    Adkins, DeAnna L; Bury, Scott D; Jones, Theresa A

    2002-07-01

    Previously, the authors found that partial denervation of the motor cortex in adult animals can enhance this region's neuronal growth response to relevant behavioral change. Rats with partial corpus callosum transections that were forced to rely on one forelimb for 18 days had increased dendritic arborization of layer V pyramidal neurons in the opposite motor cortex compared to controls. This was not found as a result of denervation alone or of forced forelimb use alone. However, it seemed possible that each independent manipulation (i.e., forced forelimb use alone and callosal transections alone) resulted in neural structural alterations that were simply not revealed in measurements of dendritic branch number and/or not inclusive of layer V dendrites. This possibility was assessed in the current study with a reexamination of the Golgi-Cox impregnated tissue generated in the previous study. Tissue was quantified from rats that received either partial transections of the rostral two-thirds of the corpus callosum (CCX) or sham operations (Sham) followed either by 18 days of forced use of one forelimb (Use) or unrestricted use of both forelimbs (Cont). Measurements of apical and basilar dendrites from pyramidal neurons of layer II/III and layer V were performed to detect spine addition resulting from either increased spine density or the addition of dendritic material. As hypothesized, significant spine addition was found following forced forelimb use alone (Sham+Use) and callosal transections alone (CCX+Cont). However, forced use primarily increased spines on layer II/III pyramidal neurons, whereas callosal transections primarily increased dendritic spines on layer V pyramidal neurons in comparison to Sham+Cont. A much more robust increase in layer V dendritic spines was found in animals with the combination of forced forelimb use and denervation (CCX+Use). In contrast to the effects of forced use alone, however, CCX+Use rats failed to show major net increases in

  12. The Syndrome of Frontonasal Dysplasia, Callosal Agenesis, Basal Encephalocele, and Eye Anomalies – Phenotypic and Aetiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We report ten sporadic cases of Brazilian patients with facial midline defects, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and ocular anomalies. This very rare cluster of anomalies has been well reported before. However, only until recently it is recognized as a syndrome belonging to frontonasal dysplasia spectrum. The ten cases confirm a distinct clinical entity and help to define the phenotype more precisely than previously. Up to now etiology remains unknown, although we conjecture that it is due to a mutation in TGIF gene. PMID:15912188

  13. Secreted Fungal Effector Lipase Releases Free Fatty Acids to Inhibit Innate Immunity-Related Callose Formation during Wheat Head Infection[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blümke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Björn; Bode, Rainer; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The deposition of the (1,3)-β-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant’s innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant Δfgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the Δfgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and α-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with Δfgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the Δfgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and α-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection. PMID:24686113

  14. Endosidin 7 Specifically Arrests Late Cytokinesis and Inhibits Callose Biosynthesis, Revealing Distinct Trafficking Events during Cell Plate Maturation1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunsook; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M.; Davis, Destiny J.; Wilkop, Thomas E.; Bulone, Vincent; Drakakaki, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Although cytokinesis is vital for plant growth and development, our mechanistic understanding of the highly regulated membrane and cargo transport mechanisms in relation to polysaccharide deposition during this process is limited. Here, we present an in-depth characterization of the small molecule endosidin 7 (ES7) inhibiting callose synthase activity and arresting late cytokinesis both in vitro and in vivo in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ES7 is a specific inhibitor for plant callose deposition during cytokinesis that does not affect endomembrane trafficking during interphase or cytoskeletal organization. The specificity of ES7 was demonstrated (1) by comparing its action with that of known inhibitors such as caffeine, flufenacet, and concanamycin A and (2) across kingdoms with a comparison in yeast. The interplay between cell plate-specific post-Golgi vesicle traffic and callose accumulation was analyzed using ES7, and it revealed unique and temporal contributions of secretory and endosomal vesicles in cell plate maturation. While RABA2A-labeled vesicles, which accumulate at the early stage of cell plate formation, were not affected by ES7, KNOLLE was differentially altered by the small molecule. In addition, the presence of clathrin-coated vesicles in cells containing elevated levels of callose and their reduction under ES7 treatment further support the role of endocytic membrane remodeling in the maturing cell plate while the plate is stabilized by callose. Taken together, these data show the essential role of callose during the late stages of cell plate maturation and establish the temporal relationship between vesicles and regulatory proteins at the cell plate assembly matrix during polysaccharide deposition. PMID:24858949

  15. Synaptic activation of efferent neuromodulatory neurones in the locust Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Baudoux, S; Burrows, M

    1998-12-01

    The segmental ganglia of the locust contain efferent neuromodulatory neurones with cell bodies at the dorsal midline and axons that supply muscles and other tissue on both sides of the body. These are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurones. Intracellular recordings were made from pairs of known metathoracic efferent DUM neurones in locusts in which all nerves were intact and in isolated metathoracic ganglia. The 19 metathoracic, efferent DUM neurones were identified according to the nerve roots through which their axons emerge from the ganglion. The synaptic potentials in these DUM neurones have been analysed to investigate how these neurones are activated and how their spikes are controlled. The degree of correlation between the synaptic potentials in particular pairs of neurones was quantified using a correlation analysis. This allowed the population of DUM neurones to be divided into three subsets that also map onto an anatomical grouping based on the distribution of their axons in the lateral nerves: (i) DUM1 neurones (DUMDL and DUM1b); (ii) DUM3 and DUM3,4 neurones; and (iii) DUM3,4,5, DUM5b neurones and DUMETi. Individual neurones within each subset showed strong correlations between their synaptic potentials, in both intact locusts and isolated ganglia, and tended to spike at the same time. Neurones in different subsets had few synaptic potentials in common and tended to spike independently. The persistence of common synaptic potentials in neurones of the three subsets in isolated ganglia indicates that they are derived from neurones within the metathoracic ganglion. The DUM neurones that had many common synaptic potentials in a quiescent locust responded in similar ways to mechanosensory stimulation of different parts of the body. DUM3,4, 5 and DUM5 neurones gave the clearest and most consistent responses to stimulation of mechanoreceptors on either hind leg. DUM3 and DUM3, 4 neurones responded variably, but usually with a hyperpolarisation. DUM1

  16. Physiological characterization of vestibular efferent brainstem neurons using a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Leijon, Sara; Magnusson, Anna K

    2014-01-01

    The functional role of efferent innervation of the vestibular end-organs in the inner ear remains elusive. This study provides the first physiological characterization of the cholinergic vestibular efferent (VE) neurons in the brainstem by utilizing a transgenic mouse model, expressing eGFP under a choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT)-locus spanning promoter in combination with targeted patch clamp recordings. The intrinsic electrical properties of the eGFP-positive VE neurons were compared to the properties of the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) brainstem neurons, which gives rise to efferent innervation of the cochlea. Both VE and the LOC neurons were marked by their negative resting membrane potential <-75 mV and their passive responses in the hyperpolarizing range. In contrast, the response properties of VE and LOC neurons differed significantly in the depolarizing range. When injected with positive currents, VE neurons fired action potentials faithfully to the onset of depolarization followed by sparse firing with long inter-spike intervals. This response gave rise to a low response gain. The LOC neurons, conversely, responded with a characteristic delayed tonic firing upon depolarizing stimuli, giving rise to higher response gain than the VE neurons. Depolarization triggered large TEA insensitive outward currents with fast inactivation kinetics, indicating A-type potassium currents, in both the inner ear-projecting neuronal types. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of Kv4.3 and 4.2 ion channel subunits in both the VE and LOC neurons. The difference in spiking responses to depolarization is related to a two-fold impact of these transient outward currents on somatic integration in the LOC neurons compared to in VE neurons. It is speculated that the physiological properties of the VE neurons might be compatible with a wide-spread control over motion and gravity sensation in the inner ear, providing likewise feed-back amplification of abrupt and strong phasic

  17. Activity-dependent serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons in the mouse prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Emily K.; Avesar, Daniel; Gulledge, Allan T.

    2014-01-01

    Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) in the mouse prefrontal cortex respond to serotonin (5-HT) according to their long-distance axonal projections; 5-HT1A (1A) receptors mediate inhibitory responses in corticopontine (CPn) L5PNs, while 5-HT2A (2A) receptors can enhance action potential (AP) output in callosal/commissural (COM) L5PNs, either directly (in “COM-excited” neurons), or following brief 1A-mediated inhibition (in “COM-biphasic” neurons). Here we compare the impact of 5-HT on the excitability of CPn and COM L5PNs experiencing variable excitatory drive produced by current injection (DC current or simulated synaptic current) or with exogenous glutamate. 5-HT delivered at resting membrane potentials, or paired with subthreshold depolarizing input, hyperpolarized CPn and COM-biphasic L5PNs and failed to promote AP generation in COM-excited L5PNs. Conversely, when paired with suprathreshold excitatory drive generating multiple APs, 5-HT suppressed AP output in CPn L5PNs, enhanced AP generation in COM-excited L5PNs, and generated variable responses in COM-biphasic L5PNs. While COM-excited neurons failed to respond to 5-HT in the presence of a 2A receptor antagonist, 32% of CPn neurons exhibited 2A-dependent excitation following blockade of 1A receptors. The presence of pharmacologically revealed 2A receptors in CPn L5PNs was correlated with the duration of 1A-mediated inhibition, yet biphasic excitatory responses to 5-HT were never observed, even when 5-HT was paired with strong excitatory drive. Our results suggest that 2A receptors selectively amplify the output of COM L5PNs experiencing suprathreshold excitatory drive, while shaping the duration of 1A-mediated inhibition in a subset of CPn L5PNs. Activity-dependent serotonergic excitation of COM L5PNs, combined with 1A-mediated inhibition of CPn and COM-biphasic L5PNs, may facilitate executive function by focusing network activity within cortical circuits subserving the most appropriate behavioral output

  18. The influence of tetrad shape and intersporal callose wall formation on pollen aperture pattern ontogeny in two eudicot species

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Béatrice; Nadot, Sophie; Dreyer, Leanne; Ressayre, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims In flowering plants, microsporogenesis is accompanied by various types of cytoplasmic partitioning (cytokinesis). Patterns of male cytokinesis are suspected to play a role in the diversity of aperture patterns found in pollen grains of angiosperms. The relationships between intersporal wall formation, tetrad shape and pollen aperture pattern ontogeny are studied. Methods A comparative analysis of meiosis and aperture distribution was performed within tetrads in two triporate eudicot species with contrasting aperture arrangements within their tetrads [Epilobium roseum (Onagraceae) and Paranomus reflexus (Proteaceae)]. Key Results and Conclusions Intersporal wall formation is a two-step process in both species. Cytokinesis is first achieved by the formation of naked centripetal cell plates. These naked cell plates are then covered by additional thick, localized callose deposits that differ in location between the two species. Apertures are finally formed in areas in which additional callose is deposited on the cell plates. The recorded variation in tetrad shape is correlated with variations in aperture pattern, demonstrating the role of cell partitioning in aperture pattern ontogeny. PMID:20685726

  19. Cell wall maturation of Arabidopsis trichomes is dependent on exocyst subunit EXO70H4 and involves callose deposition.

    PubMed

    Kulich, Ivan; Vojtíková, Zdeňka; Glanc, Matouš; Ortmannová, Jitka; Rasmann, Sergio; Žárský, Viktor

    2015-05-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf trichomes are single-cell structures with a well-studied development, but little is understood about their function. Developmental studies focused mainly on the early shaping stages, and little attention has been paid to the maturation stage. We focused on the EXO70H4 exocyst subunit, one of the most up-regulated genes in the mature trichome. We uncovered EXO70H4-dependent development of the secondary cell wall layer, highly autofluorescent and callose rich, deposited only in the upper part of the trichome. The boundary is formed between the apical and the basal parts of mature trichome by a callose ring that is also deposited in an EXO70H4-dependent manner. We call this structure the Ortmannian ring (OR). Both the secondary cell wall layer and the OR are absent in the exo70H4 mutants. Ecophysiological aspects of the trichome cell wall thickening include interference with antiherbivore defense and heavy metal accumulation. Ultraviolet B light induces EXO70H4 transcription in a CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1-dependent way, resulting in stimulation of trichome cell wall thickening and the OR biogenesis. EXO70H4-dependent trichome cell wall hardening is a unique phenomenon, which may be conserved among a variety of the land plants. Our analyses support a concept that Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model to study molecular mechanisms of secondary cell wall deposition. PMID:25767057

  20. Afferent and efferent immunological pathways of the brain. Anatomy, function and failure.

    PubMed

    Carare, R O; Hawkes, C A; Weller, R O

    2014-02-01

    Immunological privilege appears to be a product of unique lymphatic drainage systems for the brain and receptor-mediated entry of inflammatory cells through the blood-brain barrier. Most organs of the body have well-defined lymphatic vessels that carry extracellular fluid, antigen presenting cells, lymphocytes, neoplastic cells and even bacteria to regional lymph nodes. The brain has no such conventional lymphatics, but has perivascular pathways that drain interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space to cervical lymph nodes. ISF and solutes drain along narrow, ∼100 nm-thick basement membranes within the walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries to cervical lymph nodes; this pathway does not allow traffic of lymphocytes or antigen presenting cells from brain to lymph nodes. Although CSF drains into blood through arachnoid villi, CSF also drains from the subarachnoid space through channels in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone into nasal lymphatics and thence to cervical lymph nodes. This pathway does allow the traffic of lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from CSF to cervical lymph nodes. Efferent pathways by which lymphocytes enter the brain are regulated by selected integrins on lymphocytes and selective receptors on vascular endothelial cells. Here we review: (1) the structure and function of afferent lymphatic drainage of ISF and CSF, (2) mechanisms involved in the efferent pathways by which lymphocytes enter the brain and (3) the failure of lymphatic drainage of the brain parenchyma with age and the role of such failure in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24145049

  1. The Hyperactivity of Efferent Auditory System in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Suzaily; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi; Zakaria, Mohd. Normani

    2016-01-01

    Objective Electrophysiological studies, which are mostly focused on afferent pathway, have proven that auditory processing deficits exist in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, reports on the suppressive effect of efferent auditory pathway on cochlear outer hair cells among schizophrenia patients are limited. The present, case-control, study examined the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Participants were twenty-three healthy controls and sixteen schizophrenia patients with normal hearing, middle ear and cochlear outer hair cells function. Absolute non-linear and linear TEOAEs were measured in both ears by delivering clicks stimuli at 80 dB SPL and 60 dB SPL respectively. Subsequently, contralateral suppression was determined by subtracting the absolute TEOAEs response obtained at 60 dBpe SPL during the absence and presence of contralateral white noise delivered at 65 dB HL. No attention tasks were conducted during measurements. Results We found no significant difference in absolute TEOAEs responses at 80 dB SPL, in either diagnosis or ear groups (p>0.05). However, the overall contralateral suppression was significantly larger in schizophrenia patients (p<0.05). Specifically, patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significantly increased right ear contralateral suppression compared to healthy control (p<0.05). Conclusion The present findings suggest increased inhibitory effect of efferent auditory pathway especially on the right cochlear outer hair cells. Further studies to investigate increased suppressive effects are crucial to expand the current understanding of auditory hallucination mechanisms in schizophrenia patients. PMID:26766950

  2. An evaluation of retrograde tracing methods for the identification of chemically distinct cochlear efferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Vetter, D E; Mugnaini, E

    1990-07-01

    We have compared retrograde labelling of rat olivocochlear neurons after unilateral cochlear injections of wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and free HRP. After cochlear injection of WGA-HRP, labelling of nerve cell bodies in the brainstem can be explained not only as conventional retrograde labelling resulting from uptake by efferent nerve terminals synapsing on or near hair cells, but also as spurious labelling originating from tracer leakage, through the periotic duct and over the eighth nerve sheaths, into the cerebral-spinal fluid. Depending on the length of survival time, spurious labelling can involve small portions of the nucleus of the trapezoid body or the entire auditory brainstem and other non-auditory centers. On the contrary, moderate amounts of free HRP delivered to the cochlea do not lead to spurious labelling. With free HRP as the tracer of choice, we found that cochlear efferent cells were located not only in the ipsilateral LSO body and bilaterally within MVPO and RPO as already described by White and Warr, but also surrounding the ipsilateral LSO and in the ipsilateral LVPO. The allocation of these newly described olivocochlear neurons to the medial large cell or lateral small cell system is uncertain because they are located laterally in the brainstem and project ipsilaterally but are large spherical to fusiform or multipolar cells. A zinc salicylate-formol fixative and a metal intensified DAB reaction were found to be effective in visualizing retrogradely transported HRP in neurons and allowed immunocytochemical staining of the same sections with antisera to glutamic acid decarboxylase and choline acetyltransferase. This double label protocol can be used to produce a neurochemical map of the OC systems. PMID:1702612

  3. Dependence of auditory spatial updating on vestibular, proprioceptive, and efference copy signals.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz; MacNeilage, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    Humans localize sounds by comparing inputs across the two ears, resulting in a head-centered representation of sound-source position. When the head moves, information about head movement must be combined with the head-centered estimate to correctly update the world-centered sound-source position. Spatial updating has been extensively studied in the visual system, but less is known about how head movement signals interact with binaural information during auditory spatial updating. In the current experiments, listeners compared the world-centered azimuthal position of two sound sources presented before and after a head rotation that depended on condition. In the active condition, subjects rotated their head by ∼35° to the left or right, following a pretrained trajectory. In the passive condition, subjects were rotated along the same trajectory in a rotating chair. In the cancellation condition, subjects rotated their head as in the active condition, but the chair was counter-rotated on the basis of head-tracking data such that the head effectively remained fixed in space while the body rotated beneath it. Subjects updated most accurately in the passive condition but erred in the active and cancellation conditions. Performance is interpreted as reflecting the accuracy of perceived head rotation across conditions, which is modeled as a linear combination of proprioceptive/efference copy signals and vestibular signals. Resulting weights suggest that auditory updating is dominated by vestibular signals but with significant contributions from proprioception/efference copy. Overall, results shed light on the interplay of sensory and motor signals that determine the accuracy of auditory spatial updating. PMID:27169504

  4. Cognition and the corpus callosum: verbal fluency, visuospatial ability, and language lateralization related to midsagittal surface areas of callosal subregions.

    PubMed

    Hines, M; Chiu, L; McAdams, L A; Bentler, P M; Lipcamon, J

    1992-02-01

    Normal volunteers (28 women), 20-45 years old, completed tests of visuospatial ability, verbal fluency, and language lateralization, and the midsagittal surface areas of the splenium, isthmus, midregion, and genu of the corpus callosum were measured from inversion recovery magnetic resonance images. Multivariate statistics were used to analyze patterns of correlations. Verbal fluency correlated positively with the area of the splenium and with the area of a posterior callosal factor defined largely by the splenium. The posterior callosum, particularly the splenium, also correlated negatively with language lateralization. There were no other consistent brain-behavior relationships. These results are relevant to understanding factors involved in the development of cognitive characteristics that show sex differences and to understanding the neural basis of language lateralization and verbal abilities. PMID:1554435

  5. Lifelong strength training mitigates the age-related decline in efferent drive.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Runar; Nygård, Mona; van den Hoven, Lene T; Sidhu, Simranjit K; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    2016-08-01

    Recently, we documented age-related attenuation of efferent drive to contracting skeletal muscle. It remains elusive if this indication of reduced muscle strength is present with lifelong strength training. For this purpose, we examined evoked potentials in the calf muscles of 11 [71 ± 4 (SD) yr] strength-trained master athletes (MA) contrasted with 10 (71 ± 4 yr) sedentary (SO) and 11 (73 ± 6 yr) recreationally active (AO) old subjects, as well as 9 (22 ± 2 yr) young controls. As expected, MA had higher leg press maximal strength (MA, 185 ± 32 kg; AO, 128 ± 15 kg; SO, 106 ± 11 kg; young, 147 ± 22 kg, P < 0.01) and rate of force development (MA, 5,588 ± 2,488 N/s; AO, 2,156 ± 1,100 N/s; SO, 2,011 ± 825 N/s; young, 3,663 ± 1,140 N/s, P < 0.05) than the other groups. MA also exhibited higher musculus soleus normalized V waves during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) [maximal V wave amplitude/maximal M wave during MVC (Vsup/Msup); 0.28 ± 0.15] than AO (0.13 ± 0.06, P < 0.01) and SO (0.11 ± 0.05, P < 0.01), yet lower than young (0.45 ± 0.12, P < 0.01). No differences were apparent between the old groups in H reflex recorded at rest or during MVC [maximal H reflex amplitude/maximal M wave during rest (Hmax/Mmax); maximal H reflex amplitude during MVC/maximal M wave during MVC (Hsup/Msup)], and all were lower (P < 0.01) than young. MA (34.4 ± 2.1 ms) had shorter (P < 0.05) H reflex latency compared with AO (36.4 ± 3.7 ms) and SO (37.3 ± 3.2 ms), but longer (P < 0.01) than young (30.7 ± 2.0 ms). Using interpolated twitch analysis, MA (89 ± 7%) had plantar flexion voluntary activation similar to young (90 ± 6%), and this was higher (P < 0.05), or tended to be higher (P = 0.06-0.09), than SO (83 ± 10%) and AO (84 ± 5%). These observations suggest that lifelong strength training has a protective effect against age-related attenuation of efferent drive. In contrast, no beneficial effect seems to derive from habitual recreational activity, indicating

  6. Stronger efferent suppression of cochlear neural potentials by contralateral acoustic stimulation in awake than in anesthetized chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Cristian; Tapia, Eduardo; Pavez, Elizabeth; Elgueda, Diego; Delano, Paul H.; Robles, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There are two types of sensory cells in the mammalian cochlea, inner hair cells, which make synaptic contact with auditory-nerve afferent fibers, and outer hair cells that are innervated by crossed and uncrossed medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent fibers. Contralateral acoustic stimulation activates the uncrossed efferent MOC fibers reducing cochlear neural responses, thus modifying the input to the central auditory system. The chinchilla, among all studied mammals, displays the lowest percentage of uncrossed MOC fibers raising questions about the strength and frequency distribution of the contralateral-sound effect in this species. On the other hand, MOC effects on cochlear sensitivity have been mainly studied in anesthetized animals and since the MOC-neuron activity depends on the level of anesthesia, it is important to assess the influence of anesthesia in the strength of efferent effects. Seven adult chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) were chronically implanted with round-window electrodes in both cochleae. We compared the effect of contralateral sound in awake and anesthetized condition. Compound action potentials (CAP) and cochlear microphonics (CM) were measured in the ipsilateral cochlea in response to tones in absence and presence of contralateral sound. Control measurements performed after middle-ear muscles section in one animal discarded any possible middle-ear reflex activation. Contralateral sound produced CAP amplitude reductions in all chinchillas, with suppression effects greater by about 1–3 dB in awake than in anesthetized animals. In contrast, CM amplitude increases of up to 1.9 dB were found in only three awake chinchillas. In both conditions the strongest efferent effects were produced by contralateral tones at frequencies equal or close to those of ipsilateral tones. Contralateral CAP suppressions for 1–6 kHz ipsilateral tones corresponded to a span of uncrossed MOC fiber innervation reaching at least the central third of the chinchilla

  7. Stronger efferent suppression of cochlear neural potentials by contralateral acoustic stimulation in awake than in anesthetized chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Aedo, Cristian; Tapia, Eduardo; Pavez, Elizabeth; Elgueda, Diego; Delano, Paul H; Robles, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There are two types of sensory cells in the mammalian cochlea, inner hair cells, which make synaptic contact with auditory-nerve afferent fibers, and outer hair cells that are innervated by crossed and uncrossed medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent fibers. Contralateral acoustic stimulation activates the uncrossed efferent MOC fibers reducing cochlear neural responses, thus modifying the input to the central auditory system. The chinchilla, among all studied mammals, displays the lowest percentage of uncrossed MOC fibers raising questions about the strength and frequency distribution of the contralateral-sound effect in this species. On the other hand, MOC effects on cochlear sensitivity have been mainly studied in anesthetized animals and since the MOC-neuron activity depends on the level of anesthesia, it is important to assess the influence of anesthesia in the strength of efferent effects. Seven adult chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) were chronically implanted with round-window electrodes in both cochleae. We compared the effect of contralateral sound in awake and anesthetized condition. Compound action potentials (CAP) and cochlear microphonics (CM) were measured in the ipsilateral cochlea in response to tones in absence and presence of contralateral sound. Control measurements performed after middle-ear muscles section in one animal discarded any possible middle-ear reflex activation. Contralateral sound produced CAP amplitude reductions in all chinchillas, with suppression effects greater by about 1-3 dB in awake than in anesthetized animals. In contrast, CM amplitude increases of up to 1.9 dB were found in only three awake chinchillas. In both conditions the strongest efferent effects were produced by contralateral tones at frequencies equal or close to those of ipsilateral tones. Contralateral CAP suppressions for 1-6 kHz ipsilateral tones corresponded to a span of uncrossed MOC fiber innervation reaching at least the central third of the chinchilla cochlea

  8. Uroguanylin Action in the Brain Reduces Weight Gain in Obese Mice via Different Efferent Autonomic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Folgueira, Cintia; Beiroa, Daniel; Callon, Aurelie; Al-Massadi, Omar; Barja-Fernandez, Silvia; Senra, Ana; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Seoane, Luisa M; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2016-02-01

    The gut-brain axis is of great importance in the control of energy homeostasis. The identification of uroguanylin (UGN), a peptide released in the intestines that is regulated by nutritional status and anorectic actions, as the endogenous ligand for the guanylyl cyclase 2C receptor has revealed a new system in the regulation of energy balance. We show that chronic central infusion of UGN reduces weight gain and adiposity in diet-induced obese mice. These effects were independent of food intake and involved specific efferent autonomic pathways. On one hand, brain UGN induces brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, as well as browning and lipid mobilization in white adipose tissue through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. On the other hand, brain UGN augments fecal output through the vagus nerve. These findings are of relevance as they suggest that the beneficial metabolic actions of UGN through the sympathetic nervous system do not involve nondesirable gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as diarrhea. The present work provides mechanistic insights into how UGN influences energy homeostasis and suggests that UGN action in the brain represents a feasible pharmacological target in the treatment of obesity. PMID:26566631

  9. Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, we dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor commands. Method We investigated 11 stuttering and 11 nonstuttering adults’ kinesthetic sensitivity threshold and kinesthetic accuracy for passive jaw movements as well as their minimal displacement threshold and positioning accuracy for active jaw movements. We also investigated the correlation with an anatomical index of jaw size. Results The groups showed no statistically significant differences on sensory measures for passive jaw movements. Although some stuttering individuals performed more poorly than any nonstuttering participants on the active movement tasks, between-group differences for active movements were also not statistically significant. Unlike fluent speakers, however, the stuttering group showed a statistically significant correlation between mandibular size and performance in the active and passive near-threshold tasks. Conclusions Previously reported minimal movement differences were not replicated. Instead, stuttering individuals’ performance varied with anatomical properties. These correlational results are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering participants generate and perceive movements based on less accurate internal models of the involved neuromechanical systems. PMID:23816664

  10. Retinal afferents and efferents of an infrared sensitive snake, Crotalus viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The retinal afferents and efferents were examined in Crotalus viridis. Retinofugal fibers were traced by injecting horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or tritiated leucine into the eye, or by removing the eye and staining degenerating axons with silver methods. Terminations were seen contralaterally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei (extensive), the pretectal nuclei, including the nucleus posterodorsalis (a very heavy input), the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, nucleus geniculatus pretectalis, and nucleus pretectalis, the superficial layers of the optic tectum, including the stratum zonale, the stratum opticum, the stratum griseum et fibrosum centrale and the upper portion of stratum griseum centrale, and the basal optic nucleus. Ipsilateral input reaches the intermediate portion of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, a small portion of the pretectal nucleus and nucleus posterodorsalis, and the basal optic nucleus (very minimally). Retinopedal fibers were traced with the HRP method. The cell bodies lie in the ventral thalamus within the nucleus of the ventral supraoptic decussation. These neurons project primarily to the contralateral retina, but some more rostrally located neurons project to the ipsilateral retina.

  11. Uncovering diversity in the development of central noradrenergic neurons and their efferents.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sabrina D; Plummer, Nicholas W; Jensen, Patricia

    2016-06-15

    Uncovering the mechanisms that underlie central noradrenergic neuron heterogeneity is essential to understanding selective subtype vulnerability to disease and environmental insult. Using recombinase-based intersectional genetic fate mapping we have previously demonstrated that molecularly distinct progenitor populations give rise to mature noradrenergic neurons differing in their anatomical location, axon morphology and efferent projection pattern. Here we review the findings from our previous study and extend our analysis of the noradrenergic subpopulation defined by transient developmental expression of Hoxb1. Using a combination of intersectional genetic fate mapping and analysis of a targeted loss of function mutation in Hoxb1, we have now uncovered additional heterogeneity based on the requirement of some noradrenergic neurons for Hoxb1 expression. By comparing the distribution of noradrenergic neurons derived from the Hoxb1 expression domain in wild-type and mutant mice, we demonstrate that Hoxb1 expression is required by a subset of neurons in the pons. Additional fate mapping, using a Hoxb1 enhancer element that drives Cre recombinase expression exclusively in rhombomere 4 of the hindbrain, reveals the existence of a subpopulation of noradrenergic neurons in the pons with more restricted axonal targets than the full Hoxb1-derived subpopulation. The unique projection profile of this newly defined subpopulation suggests that it may be functionally distinct. These analyses shed new light on the molecular determinants of noradrenergic identity in the pons and the overall complexity of the central noradrenergic system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26612521

  12. Increased Efferent Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Defective Intrinsic Heart Rate Regulation in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thaung, H P Aye; Baldi, J Chris; Wang, Heng-Yu; Hughes, Gillian; Cook, Rosalind F; Bussey, Carol T; Sheard, Phil W; Bahn, Andrew; Jones, Peter P; Schwenke, Daryl O; Lamberts, Regis R

    2015-08-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) coupled with dysregulated β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) signaling is postulated as a major driving force for cardiac dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, cardiac SNA has never been assessed directly in diabetes. Our aim was to measure the sympathetic input to and the β-AR responsiveness of the heart in the type 2 diabetic heart. In vivo recording of SNA of the left efferent cardiac sympathetic branch of the stellate ganglion in Zucker diabetic fatty rats revealed an elevated resting cardiac SNA and doubled firing rate compared with nondiabetic rats. Ex vivo, in isolated denervated hearts, the intrinsic heart rate was markedly reduced. Contractile and relaxation responses to β-AR stimulation with dobutamine were compromised in externally paced diabetic hearts, but not in diabetic hearts allowed to regulate their own heart rate. Protein levels of left ventricular β1-AR and Gs (guanine nucleotide binding protein stimulatory) were reduced, whereas left ventricular and right atrial β2-AR and Gi (guanine nucleotide binding protein inhibitory regulatory) levels were increased. The elevated resting cardiac SNA in type 2 diabetes, combined with the reduced cardiac β-AR responsiveness, suggests that the maintenance of normal cardiovascular function requires elevated cardiac sympathetic input to compensate for changes in the intrinsic properties of the diabetic heart. PMID:25784543

  13. Chemical Topography of Efferent Projections from the Median Preoptic Nucleus to Pontine Monoaminergic Cell Groups in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1995-01-01

    This study examined efferent output from the median preoptic nucleus (MNPO) to pontine noradrenergic and serotonergic cell groups using an anterograde tracing technique (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) combined with glucose oxidase immunocytochemistry to serotonin (5-HT) or to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Injections of PHA-L into the ventral MNPO resulted in moderate axonal labeling within the region of the B7 and B8 serotonergic groups in the dorsal raphe. PHA-L labeled fibers and punctate processes were observed in close apposition to many of the 5-HT immunoreactive neurons in these regions. In contrast, sparse terminal labeling was found within the B5 group in the raphe pontis nucleus, and only trace fiber labeling observed in the B3 and B6 groups. Efferents from the MNPO also provided moderate innervation to the A6 and A7 noradrenergic groups. PHA-L labeled punctate processes were found most frequently in close apposition to DBH-immunoreactive neurons at mid- to caudal levels of the locus coeruleus. Some labeled axons were also present within the A7 and A5 groups. Additionally, a close apposition between labeled MNPO efferents and 5-HT fibers within the lateral parabrachial nucleus was observed. The results indicate the MNPO provides a topographic innervation of monoaminergic groups in the upper brainstem.

  14. Morphological and ultrastructural study of the efferent ductules in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad Yasir; Liu, Tengfei; Yang, Ping; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Lisi; Hong, Chen; Chen, Qiusheng

    2016-02-01

    Comparative study of the turtle excurrent duct system increases our understanding the evolution of sperm motility and fertility maintenance in higher vertebrates. Therefore, in this study we observed the histology and ultrastructure organization of efferent ductules in the Pelodiscus sinensis using light and transmission electron microscopy. The efferent ductules are extra- testicular and 22-28 in number originate from rete testis. The epithelium is entirely composed of two types of cells, the predominant non-ciliated and ciliated cells. The ciliated cells have long cilia that protrude into the lumen to form a meshwork. These cells associated with clusters of mitochondria in the supranuclear cytoplasm and possess coated vesicles, vacuole, intracellular spaces, and junction complexes. Ciliated cells in the proximal portion of the ductules contain an endocytic apparatus with coated pits and tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Interdigitations and lipid droplets are predominantly present around the nuclei of these cells. The non-ciliated cells have clusters of mitochondria present in both the supranuclear and perinuclear cytoplasm whereas, the nuclei of these cells are lightly stained. Moreover, the contour of the epithelium towards lumen is irregular as it has a deep indentation. The apical cytoplasm goes deep into the lumen to form cytoplasmic processes. This is the first study to describe the detailed features of efferent ductules in Pelodiscus sinensis with, special focus on the morphology of ciliated cells, as these cells are involved in the mixing of luminal fluid and transport of spermatozoa towards the distal region. PMID:26700193

  15. Chemical Topography of Efferent Projections from the Median Preoptic Nucleus to Pontine Monoaminergic Cell Groups in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1995-01-01

    This study examined efferent output from the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) to pontine noradrenergic and serotonergic cell groups using an anterograde tracing technique (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) combined with glucose oxidase immunocytochemistry to scrotonin (5-HT) or to dopamine-(beta)-hydroxylase (DBH). Injections of PHA-L into the ventral MNPO resulted in moderate axonal labeling within the region of the B7 and B8 serotonergic groups in the dorsal raphe. PHA-L labeled fibers and punctate processes were observed in close apposition to many of the 5-HT immunoreactive neurons in these regions, In contrast, sparse terminal labeling was found within the B5 group in the raphe pontis nucleus, and only trace fiber labeling observed in the B3 and B6 groups. Efferents from the MNPO also provided moderate innervation to the A6 and A7 noradrenergic groups. PHA-L labeled punctate processes were found most frequently in close apposition to DBH-immunorcactive neurons at mid- to caudal levels of the locus coeruleus. Some labeled axons were also present within the A7 and A5 groups. Additionally, a close apposition between labeled MNPO efferents and 5-HT fibers within the lateral parabrachial nucleus was observed, The results indicate the MNPO provides a topographic innerva- tion of monoaminergic groups in the upper brainstem.

  16. Subcortical connections of area V4 in the macaque

    PubMed Central

    Gattass, Ricardo; Galkin, Thelma W; Desimone, Robert; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2014-01-01

    Area V4 has numerous, topographically organized connections with multiple cortical areas, some of which are important for spatially organized visual processing, and others which seem important for spatial attention. Although the topographic organization of V4’s connections with other cortical areas has been established, the detailed topography of its connections with subcortical areas is unclear. We therefore injected retrograde and anterograde tracers in different topographical regions of V4 in nine macaques to determine the organization of its subcortical connections. The injection sites included representations ranging from the fovea to far peripheral eccentricities in both the upper and lower visual fields. The topographically organized connections of V4 included bidirectional connections with four subdivisions of the pulvinar, two subdivisions of the claustrum, and the interlaminar portions of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and efferent projections to the superficial and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, the thalamic reticular nucleus, and the caudate nucleus. All of these structures have a possible role in spatial attention. The nontopographic, or converging, connections included bidirectional connections with the lateral nucleus of the amygdala, afferent inputs from the dorsal raphe, median raphe, locus coeruleus, ventral tegmentum and nucleus basalis of Meynert, and efferent projections to the putamen. Any role of these structures in attention may be less spatially specific. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:1941–1965, 2014. PMID:24288173

  17. The efference cascade, consciousness, and its self: naturalizing the first person pivot of action control

    PubMed Central

    Merker, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    The 20 billion neurons of the neocortex have a mere hundred thousand motor neurons by which to express cortical contents in overt behavior. Implemented through a staggered cortical “efference cascade” originating in the descending axons of layer five pyramidal cells throughout the neocortical expanse, this steep convergence accomplishes final integration for action of cortical information through a system of interconnected subcortical way stations. Coherent and effective action control requires the inclusion of a continually updated joint “global best estimate” of current sensory, motivational, and motor circumstances in this process. I have previously proposed that this running best estimate is extracted from cortical probabilistic preliminaries by a subcortical neural “reality model” implementing our conscious sensory phenomenology. As such it must exhibit first person perspectival organization, suggested to derive from formating requirements of the brain's subsystem for gaze control, with the superior colliculus at its base. Gaze movements provide the leading edge of behavior by capturing targets of engagement prior to contact. The rotation-based geometry of directional gaze movements places their implicit origin inside the head, a location recoverable by cortical probabilistic source reconstruction from the rampant primary sensory variance generated by the incessant play of collicularly triggered gaze movements. At the interface between cortex and colliculus lies the dorsal pulvinar. Its unique long-range inhibitory circuitry may precipitate the brain's global best estimate of its momentary circumstances through multiple constraint satisfaction across its afferents from numerous cortical areas and colliculus. As phenomenal content of our sensory awareness, such a global best estimate would exhibit perspectival organization centered on a purely implicit first person origin, inherently incapable of appearing as a phenomenal content of the sensory

  18. Monocular distance estimation with optical flow maneuvers and efference copies: a stability-based strategy.

    PubMed

    de Croon, Guido C H E

    2016-02-01

    The visual cue of optical flow plays an important role in the navigation of flying insects, and is increasingly studied for use by small flying robots as well. A major problem is that successful optical flow control seems to require distance estimates, while optical flow is known to provide only the ratio of velocity to distance. In this article, a novel, stability-based strategy is proposed for monocular distance estimation, relying on optical flow maneuvers and knowledge of the control inputs (efference copies). It is shown analytically that given a fixed control gain, the stability of a constant divergence control loop only depends on the distance to the approached surface. At close distances, the control loop starts to exhibit self-induced oscillations. The robot can detect these oscillations and hence be aware of the distance to the surface. The proposed stability-based strategy for estimating distances has two main attractive characteristics. First, self-induced oscillations can be detected robustly by the robot and are hardly influenced by wind. Second, the distance can be estimated during a zero divergence maneuver, i.e., around hover. The stability-based strategy is implemented and tested both in simulation and on board a Parrot AR drone 2.0. It is shown that the strategy can be used to: (1) trigger a final approach response during a constant divergence landing with fixed gain, (2) estimate the distance in hover, and (3) estimate distances during an entire landing if the robot uses adaptive gain control to continuously stay on the 'edge of oscillation.' PMID:26740501

  19. Immunolocalization of Aquaporins 1 and 9 in the Ram Efferent Ducts and Epididymis.

    PubMed

    Schimming, B C; Pinheiro, Pff; de Matteis, R; Machado, C M; Domeniconi, R F

    2015-08-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential membrane protein channels for the transport of water across membranes. Fluid movement in the epididymis is important for modulation of the luminal environment, in which sperm mature and reside. This study was designed to understand the morphology and localization of AQPs in ram efferent ducts (ED) and epididymis. For this purpose, the epididymis of seven animals were removed for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. AQP1 immunoreactivity was observed in the apex of the ED, and AQP9 was found adjacent to the nuclei of the epithelial cells of the ED. The epithelial lining of ram epididymis is pseudostratified columnar and presents principal, basal, apical and narrow cells. In the initial segment (IS), a moderate reaction for AQP1 was observed in the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells. An intense reactivity for AQP1 was noted over the microvilli of principal cells and in spermatozoa in the caput. In the corpus and cauda, AQP1 was noted only over the endothelial cells of vascular channels located in intertubular spaces. A weak-to-moderate reaction for AQP9 was observed in the nuclei of epithelial cells in the IS, caput and corpus of the epididymis. In the cauda, an intense reaction to AQP9 was observed in the epithelial border. In the IS, caput and corpus, the reactivity for AQP9 differed from those observed in domestic animals. The cauda showed a pattern similar to that previously described. These results indicate that AQPs 1 and 9 have reversed locations and roles in rams, suggesting activity variations related with fluid and solute absorption throughout the epididymis. PMID:25976237

  20. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral, and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Novejarque, Amparo; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behavior in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (AOB), as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioral role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA), posterodorsal (MePD) and posteroventral (MePV) subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines. The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the AOB, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The Me (especially the MeA) has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex (Pir). The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus), although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviors [medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus], although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized. PMID:22933993

  1. Subset of early radial glial progenitors that contribute to the development of callosal neurons is absent from avian brain.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Fernando; Molnár, Zoltán

    2015-09-01

    The classical view of mammalian cortical development suggests that pyramidal neurons are generated in a temporal sequence, with all radial glial cells (RGCs) contributing to both lower and upper neocortical layers. A recent opposing proposal suggests there is a subgroup of fate-restricted RGCs in the early neocortex, which generates only upper-layer neurons. Little is known about the existence of fate restriction of homologous progenitors in other vertebrate species. We investigated the lineage of selected Emx2+ [vertebrate homeobox gene related to Drosophila empty spiracles (ems)] RGCs in mouse neocortex and chick forebrain and found evidence for both sequential and fate-restricted programs only in mouse, indicating that these complementary populations coexist in the developing mammalian but not avian brain. Among a large population of sequentially programmed RGCs in the mouse brain, a subset of self-renewing progenitors lack neurogenic potential during the earliest phase of corticogenesis. After a considerable delay, these progenitors generate callosal upper-layer neurons and glia. On the other hand, we found no homologous delayed population in any sectors of the chick forebrain. This finding suggests that neurogenic delay of selected RGCs may be unique to mammals and possibly associated with the evolution of the corpus callosum. PMID:26305942

  2. Subset of early radial glial progenitors that contribute to the development of callosal neurons is absent from avian brain

    PubMed Central

    García-Moreno, Fernando; Molnár, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of mammalian cortical development suggests that pyramidal neurons are generated in a temporal sequence, with all radial glial cells (RGCs) contributing to both lower and upper neocortical layers. A recent opposing proposal suggests there is a subgroup of fate-restricted RGCs in the early neocortex, which generates only upper-layer neurons. Little is known about the existence of fate restriction of homologous progenitors in other vertebrate species. We investigated the lineage of selected Emx2+ [vertebrate homeobox gene related to Drosophila empty spiracles (ems)] RGCs in mouse neocortex and chick forebrain and found evidence for both sequential and fate-restricted programs only in mouse, indicating that these complementary populations coexist in the developing mammalian but not avian brain. Among a large population of sequentially programmed RGCs in the mouse brain, a subset of self-renewing progenitors lack neurogenic potential during the earliest phase of corticogenesis. After a considerable delay, these progenitors generate callosal upper-layer neurons and glia. On the other hand, we found no homologous delayed population in any sectors of the chick forebrain. This finding suggests that neurogenic delay of selected RGCs may be unique to mammals and possibly associated with the evolution of the corpus callosum. PMID:26305942

  3. Effects of hexavalent chromium on microtubule organization, ER distribution and callose deposition in root tip cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Melissa, Pelagia

    2012-04-01

    The subcellular targets of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were examined in Allium cepa root tips with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cr(VI) exerted dose- and time-dependent negative effects on root growth rate, the mitotic index and microtubule (MT) organization during cell division cycle. Interphase MTs were more resistant than the mitotic ones, but when affected they were shorter, sparse and disoriented. The preprophase band of MTs became poorly organized, branched or with fragmented MTs, whilst neither a perinuclear array nor a prophase spindle was formed. Metaphase spindles converged to eccentric mini poles or consisted of dissimilar halves and were unable to correctly orient the chromosomes. Anaphase spindles were less disturbed, but chromatids failed to separate; neither did they move to the poles. At telophase, projecting, lagging or bridging chromosomes and micronuclei also occurred. Phragmoplasts were unilaterally developed, split, located at unexpected sites and frequently dissociated from the branched and misaligned cell plates. Chromosomal aberrations were directly correlated with MT disturbance. The morphology and distribution of endoplasmic reticulum was severely perturbed and presumably contributed to MT disassembly. Heavy callose apposition was also induced by Cr(VI), maybe in the context of a cellular defence reaction. Results indicate that MTs are one of the main subcellular targets of Cr(VI), MT impairment underlies chromosomal and mitotic aberrations, and MTs may constitute a reliable biomonitoring system for Cr(VI) toxicity in plants. PMID:21633932

  4. The renal response to electrical stimulation of renal efferent sympathetic nerves in the anaesthetized greyhound.

    PubMed

    Poucher, S M; Karim, F

    1991-03-01

    1. The effect of direct electrical stimulation of the renal efferent nerves upon renal haemodynamics and function was studied in greyhounds anaesthetized with chloralose and artificially ventilated. The left kidney was neurally and vascularly isolated, and perfused with blood from one of the femoral arteries at a constant pressure of 99 +/- 1 mmHg. Renal blood flow was measured with a cannulating electromagnetic flow probe placed in the perfusion circuit, glomerular filtration rate by creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion by flame photometry and solute excretion by osmometry. Beta-Adrenergic receptor activation was blocked by the infusion of dl-propranolol (17 micrograms kg-1 min-1). The peripheral ends of the ligated renal nerves were stimulated at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Hz. 2. At 0.5 Hz frequency only osmolar excretion was significantly reduced (10.3 +/- 3.2%, P less than 0.05, n = 6). Reductions in sodium excretion (53.6 +/- 8.5%, P less than 0.01, n = 6) and water excretion (26.9 +/- 8.0%, P less than 0.05, n = 6) and further reductions of osmolar excretion (20.7 +/- 3.7%, P less than 0.01, n = 6) were observed at 1.0 Hz; however, these were observed in the absence of significant changes in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Significant reductions were observed in glomerular filtration rate at 1.5 Hz (16.3 +/- 4.1%, P less than 0.02, n = 5) and in renal blood flow at 2.0 Hz (13.1 +/- 4.0%, P less than 0.05, n = 5). Further reductions in urine flow and sodium excretion were also observed at these higher frequencies. 3. These results clearly show that significant changes in renal tubular function can occur in the absence of changes in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate when the renal nerves are stimulated electrically from a zero baseline activity up to a frequency of 1.5 Hz. Higher frequencies caused significant changes in both renal haemodynamics and function. PMID:2023113

  5. Afferent and efferent components of the cardiovascular reflex responses to acute hypoxia in term fetal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Giussani, D A; Spencer, J A; Moore, P J; Bennet, L; Hanson, M A

    1993-01-01

    afferent limb of this reflex. The bradycardia is mediated through a muscarinic pathway, as it is blocked by atropine. The femoral vasoconstriction is mediated through an alpha-adrenergic mechanism, mediated both neurally by a carotid chemoreflex and via catecholamines released directly from the adrenal medulla. Both these components are blocked by phentolamine. 7. The differences in survival between intact and denervated fetuses during hypoxia after phentolamine suggest that the carotid chemoreflex response to hypoxia involves mechanisms in addition to vagal efferents to the heart and alpha-adrenergic actions at peripheral blood vessels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8350271

  6. Individual differences in cortical connections of somatosensory cortex are associated with parental rearing style in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Seelke, Adele M H; Perkeybile, Allison M; Grunewald, Rebecca; Bales, Karen L; Krubitzer, Leah A

    2016-02-15

    Early-life sensory experiences have a profound effect on brain organization, connectivity, and subsequent behavior. In most mammals, the earliest sensory inputs are delivered to the developing brain through tactile contact with the parents, especially the mother. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous and, like humans, are biparental. Within the normal prairie vole population, both the type and the amount of interactions, particularly tactile contact, that parents have with their offspring vary. The question is whether these early and pervasive differences in tactile stimulation and social experience between parent and offspring are manifest in differences in cortical organization and connectivity. To address this question, we examined the cortical and callosal connections of the primary somatosensory area (S1) in high-contact (HC) and low-contact (LC) offspring using neuroanatomical tracing techniques. Injection sites within S1 were matched so that direct comparisons between these two groups could be made. We observed several important differences between these groups. The first was that HC offspring had a greater density of intrinsic connections within S1 compared with LC offspring. Additionally, HC offspring had a more restricted pattern of ipsilateral connections, whereas LC offspring had dense connections with areas of parietal and frontal cortex that were more widespread. Finally, LC offspring had a broader distribution of callosal connections than HC offspring and a significantly higher percentage of labeled callosal neurons. This study is the first to examine individual differences in cortical connections and suggests that individual differences in cortical connections may be related to natural differences in parental rearing styles associated with tactile contact. PMID:26101098

  7. Afferent and efferent projections of the mesopallium in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Atoji, Yasuro; Wild, J Martin

    2012-03-01

    The mesopallium is a thick cell plate occupying a substantial portion of the avian dorsal pallium, but its hodology is incompletely known. In pigeons we examined fiber connections of the frontodorsal (MFD) and frontoventral mesopallium (MFV), the ventrolateral mesopallium (MVL), the lateral (MIVl) and medial (MIVm) parts of the intermediate ventral mesopallium, and the caudal mesopallium (MC). MFV, MIVl, and MC connect reciprocally with secondary centers of the trigeminal, tectofugal, and auditory systems, respectively. MVL forms reciprocal connections with both the entopallial core and belt. MFV, MIVl, MVL, and MC receive thalamic inputs different from those of primary sensory pallial regions and have reciprocal connections with the caudolateral nidopallium (NCL) or arcopallium. MIVm has a strong reciprocal connection with the intermediate medial nidopallium. It receives afferents from the visual Wulst, rostral MC, posterior dorsointermediate thalamic nucleus, and caudal part of the posterior dorsolateral thalamic nucleus, is connected reciprocally with the arcopallium, and projects to NCL. MFD has reciprocal connections with the medial frontal nidopallium, arcopallium, posterior pallial amygdala, dorsolateral corticoid area, and projects to the medial part of medial striatum and hypothalamus. These results indicate that six subdivisions of the mesopallium have strong connections with corresponding portions of the nidopallium. In particular, the sensory mesopallial components of MFV, MIVl, MVL, and MC form parallel pathways to the one-way sensory streams in the nidopallium and make either feedback or feedforward circuits to the secondary centers of the nidopallium. PMID:21935938

  8. Endoscopy-assisted transanal repair of afferent limb obstruction and long efferent limb with ileopexy after ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Kawamura, Mikio; Kondo, Satoru; Kobayashi, Minako; Ohi, Masaki; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2016-05-01

    Afferent limb obstruction can be a persistent complication after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We present a case of afferent limb obstruction complicated by a long efferent limb of the ileal pouch that we successfully treated with side-to-side anastomosis of the afferent and efferent limbs. The procedure involved using a transanal endoscopic stapling device assisted by transanal endoscopy with a thin intestinal video endoscope. This allowed reliable, safe visualization of the lesion from the tight pouch-anal anastomosis and facilitated repair with an endoscopic stapling device. Because the technique was performed without enterotomy, it reduced the risks of contamination and leakage from transabdominal small bowel anastomosis. Laparotomy view also prevented of injury to the pouch itself and entrapment of the mesentery of the afferent and efferent limbs of the pouch between the stapler anvils. PMID:27117971

  9. Use of stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions to investigate efferent and cochlear contributions to temporal overshoot1

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Schairer, Kim S.; Ellison, John C.; Fitzpatrick, Denis F.; Jesteadt, Walt

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral threshold for a tone burst presented in a long-duration noise masker decreases as the onset of the tone burst is delayed relative to masker onset. The threshold difference between detection of early- and late-onset tone bursts is called overshoot. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, one hypothesis is that overshoot occurs due to efferent suppression of cochlear nonlinearity [von Klitzing, R., and Kohlrausch, A. (1994). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2192–2201]. This hypothesis was tested by using overshoot conditions to elicit stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs), which provide a physiological measure of cochlear nonlinearity. SFOAE and behavioral thresholds were estimated using a modified maximum-likelihood yes-no procedure. The masker was a 400-ms “frozen” notched noise. The signal was a 20-ms, 4-kHz tone burst presented at 1 or 200 ms after the noise onset. Behavioral overshoot results replicated previous studies, but no overshoot was observed in SFOAE thresholds. This suggests that either efferent suppression of cochlear nonlinearity is not involved in overshoot, or a SFOAE threshold estimation procedure based on stimuli similar to those used to study behavioral overshoot is not sensitive enough to measure the effect. PMID:19275317

  10. Individual differences in cortical connections of somatosensory cortex are associated with parental rearing style in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Seelke, Adele M. H.; Perkeybile, Allison M.; Grunewald, Rebecca; Bales, Karen L.; Krubitzer, Leah A.

    2015-01-01

    Early life sensory experiences have a profound effect on brain organization, connectivity and subsequent behavior. In most mammals, the earliest sensory inputs are delivered to the developing brain through tactile contact with the parents, especially the mother. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous and, like humans, are biparental. Within the normal prairie vole population, both the type and amount of interactions, particularly tactile contact, that parents have with their offspring varies. The question is whether these early and pervasive differences in tactile stimulation and social experience between parent and offspring are manifest in differences in cortical organization and connectivity. To address this question we examined the cortical and callosal connections of the primary somatosensory area (S1) in high contact (HC) and low contact (LC) offspring using neuroanatomical tracing techniques. Injection sites within S1 were matched so that direct comparisons between these two groups could be made. We observed several important differences between these groups. The first was that HC offspring had a greater density of intrinsic connections within S1 compared to LC offspring. The HC offspring had a more restricted pattern of ipsilateral connections while LC offspring had dense connections with areas of parietal and frontal cortex that were more widespread. Finally, LC offspring had a broader distribution of callosal connections than HC offspring and a significantly higher percentage of callosal labeled neurons. To date, this is the first study that examines individual differences in cortical connections and suggests that they may be related to natural differences in parental rearing styles associated with tactile contact. PMID:26101098

  11. Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging Evaluation of Callosal Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Chuanjun; Liu, Mei; Wang, Lina; Tian, Hongjun; Tang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Widespread white matter (WM) abnormalities have been found in patients with schizophrenia. Corpus callosum (CC) is the key area that connects the left and right brain hemispheres. However, the results of studies considering different subregions of the CC as regions of interest in patients with schizophrenia have been inconsistent. To obtain a more consistent evaluation of the diffusion characteristics change of the corpus callosum (CC) related to schizophrenia. A meta-analysis involving fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the CC of 729 schizophrenic subjects and 682 healthy controls from 22 studies was conducted. Overall FA values in the CC of the schizophrenic group were less than that of the healthy control group [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.021,P< 0.001]. So were the FA values in the genus region (WMD = -0.019, P< 0.001) and the splenium region (WMD = -0.020, P< 0.001) of the CC respectively. The FA reduction was also significant in subjects with chronic schizophrenia (WMD = -0.032, P< 0.001) and first-episode schizophrenia (WMD = -0.014, P = 0.001). In present study, we demonstrated an overall FA decrease in the CC of schizophrenic patients. In the two subgroup analyses of the genu vs splenium region and chronic vs first-episode schizophrenia, the decrease of all groups was significant. Further studies with more homogenous populations and standardized DTI protocols are needed to confirm and extend these findings. PMID:27536773

  12. Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging Evaluation of Callosal Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Chuanjun; Liu, Mei; Wang, Lina; Tian, Hongjun; Tang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Widespread white matter (WM) abnormalities have been found in patients with schizophrenia. Corpus callosum (CC) is the key area that connects the left and right brain hemispheres. However, the results of studies considering different subregions of the CC as regions of interest in patients with schizophrenia have been inconsistent. To obtain a more consistent evaluation of the diffusion characteristics change of the corpus callosum (CC) related to schizophrenia. A meta-analysis involving fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the CC of 729 schizophrenic subjects and 682 healthy controls from 22 studies was conducted. Overall FA values in the CC of the schizophrenic group were less than that of the healthy control group [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.021,P< 0.001]. So were the FA values in the genus region (WMD = -0.019, P< 0.001) and the splenium region (WMD = -0.020, P< 0.001) of the CC respectively. The FA reduction was also significant in subjects with chronic schizophrenia (WMD = -0.032, P< 0.001) and first-episode schizophrenia (WMD = -0.014, P = 0.001). In present study, we demonstrated an overall FA decrease in the CC of schizophrenic patients. In the two subgroup analyses of the genu vs splenium region and chronic vs first-episode schizophrenia, the decrease of all groups was significant. Further studies with more homogenous populations and standardized DTI protocols are needed to confirm and extend these findings. PMID:27536773

  13. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  14. Sr36- and Sr5-Mediated Resistance Response to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Is Associated with Callose Deposition in Wheat Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; McCallum, B D; Fetch, T; Bakkeren, G; Saville, B J

    2015-06-01

    Race-specific resistance of wheat to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is primarily posthaustorial and often involves the induction of a hypersensitive response (HR). The aim of this study was to investigate host defense responses induced in interactions between P. graminis f. sp. tritici races and wheat lines carrying different race-specific stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. In incompatible interactions between wheat lines carrying Sr36 in three genetic backgrounds (LMPG, Prelude, or W2691) and avirulent P. graminis f. sp. tritici races MCCFC or RCCDM, callose accumulated within 24 h in wheat guard cells contacted by a P. graminis f. sp. tritici appressorium, and P. graminis f. sp. tritici ingress was inhibited following appressorium formation. Accordingly, the expression of transcripts encoding a callose synthase increased in the incompatible interaction between LMPG-Sr36 and avirulent P. graminis f. sp. tritici race MCCFC. Furthermore, the inhibition of callose synthesis through the infiltration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG) increased the ability of P. graminis f. sp. tritici race MCCFC to infect LMPG-Sr36. A similar induction of callose deposition in wheat guard cells was also observed within 24 h after inoculation (hai) with avirulent P. graminis f. sp. tritici race HKCJC on LMPG-Sr5 plants. In contrast, this defense response was not induced in incompatible interactions involving Sr6, Sr24, or Sr30. Instead, the induction of an HR and cellular lignification were noted. The manifestation of the HR and cellular lignification was induced earlier (24 hai) and was more extensive in the resistance response mediated by Sr6 compared with those mediated by Sr24 or Sr30. These results indicate that the resistance mediated by Sr36 is similar to that mediated by Sr5 but different from those triggered by Sr6, Sr24, or Sr30. Resistance responses mediated by Sr5 and Sr36 are prehaustorial, and are a result of very rapid recognition of molecules derived from avirulent isolates of

  15. The elusive concept of brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Barry

    2003-06-01

    Neurons and neural populations do not function as islands onto themselves. Rather, they interact with other such elements through their afferent and efferent connections in an orchestrated manner so as to enable different sensorimotor and cognitive tasks to be performed. The concept of functional connectivity and the allied notion of effective connectivity were introduced to designate the functional strengths of such interactions. Functional neuroimaging methods, especially PET and fMRI, have been used extensively to evaluate the functional connectivity between different brain regions. After providing a brief historical review of these notions of brain connectivity, I argue that the conceptual formulations of functional and effective connectivity are far from clear. Specifically, the terms functional and effective connectivity are applied to quantities computed on types of functional imaging data (e.g., PET, fMRI, EEG) that vary in spatial, temporal, and other features, using different definitions (even for data of the same modality) and employing different computational algorithms. Until it is understood what each definition means in terms of an underlying neural substrate, comparisons of functional and/or effective connectivity across studies may appear inconsistent and should be performed with great caution. PMID:12814595

  16. An abrupt developmental shift in callosal modulation of sleep-related spindle bursts coincides with the emergence of excitatory-inhibitory balance and a reduction of somatosensory cortical plasticity.

    PubMed

    Marcano-Reik, Amy Jo; Prasad, Tuhina; Weiner, Joshua A; Blumberg, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    Transecting the corpus callosum of postnatal day (P)1-6 rats disinhibits the production of spindle bursts (SBs) within primary somatosensory cortex (S1), most notably during periods of sleep-related myoclonic twitching. Here we investigated developmental changes in this callosally mediated disinhibition and its association with cortical plasticity. Recordings in P2-15 subjects revealed that callosotomy-induced disinhibition is a transient feature of early development that disappears abruptly after P6. This abrupt switch was accompanied by sharp decreases in myoclonic twitching and equally sharp increases in spontaneous SBs and in the number of GABAergic and glutamatergic presynaptic terminals in S1. Expression of the K+Cl- cotransporter 2 (KCC2) also increased across these ages. To determine whether these developmental changes are associated with alterations in cortical plasticity, pups were callosotomized at P1, P6, or P8, and tested over the subsequent week. Regardless of age, callosotomy immediately disrupted SBs evoked by forepaw stimulation. Over the next week, the P1 and P6 callosotomy groups exhibited full recovery of function; in contrast, the P8 group did not exhibit recovery of function, thus indicating an abrupt decrease in cortical plasticity between P6 and P8. Together, our data demonstrate that callosotomy-induced disinhibition is a transient phenomenon whose disappearance coincides with the onset of increased intrinsic connectivity, establishment of excitatory-inhibitory balance, and diminished plasticity in S1. Accordingly, our findings indicate that callosotomy-induced disinhibition of twitch-related SBs is a bioassay of somatosensory cortical plasticity and, in addition, support the hypothesis that myoclonic twitches, like retinal waves, actively contribute to cortical development and plasticity. PMID:20939660

  17. An abrupt developmental shift in callosal modulation of sleep-related spindle bursts coincides with the emergence of excitatory-inhibitory balance and a reduction of somatosensory cortical plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Marcano-Reik, Amy Jo; Prasad, Tuhina; Weiner, Joshua A.; Blumberg, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Transecting the corpus callosum of postnatal day (P)1–6 rats disinhibits the production of spindle bursts (SBs) within primary somatosensory cortex (S1), most notably during periods of sleep-related myoclonic twitching. Here we investigated developmental changes in this callosally mediated disinhibition and its association with cortical plasticity. Recordings in P2–15 subjects revealed that callosotomy-induced disinhibition is a transient feature of early development that disappears abruptly after P6. This abrupt switch was accompanied by sharp decreases in myoclonic twitching and equally sharp increases in spontaneous SBs and in the number of GABAergic and glutamatergic presynaptic terminals in S1. Expression of the K+Cl− co-transporter 2 (KCC2) also increased across these ages. To determine whether these abrupt developmental changes are associated with alterations in cortical plasticity, pups were callosotomized at P1, P6, or P8, and tested over the subsequent week. Regardless of age, callosotomy immediately disrupted SBs evoked by forepaw stimulation. Over the next week, the P1 and P6 callosotomy groups exhibited full recovery of function; in contrast, the P8 group did not exhibit recovery of function, thus indicating an abrupt decrease in cortical plasticity between P6 and P8. Together, our data demonstrate that callosotomy-induced disinhibition is a transient phenomenon whose disappearance coincides with the onset of increased intrinsic connectivity, establishment of excitatory-inhibitory balance, and diminished plasticity in S1. Accordingly, our findings indicate that callosotomy-induced disinhibition of twitch-related SBs is a bioassay of somatosensory cortical plasticity and, in addition, support the hypothesis that myoclonic twitches, like retinal waves, actively contribute to cortical development and plasticity. PMID:20939660

  18. Action potentials in parasympathetic and sympathetic efferent fibres to the trachea and lungs of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Widdicombe, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    1. Action potentials were recorded from seventy-four single and twenty-nine small multifibre nerve strands efferent to the trachea and lungs of cats and dogs. From the pathway (vagal or sympathetic), spontaneous activity, conduction velocity and responses to various interventions the efferent fibres were classified in the following way. 2. Group I, vagal. These had a mean conduction velocity of 9·7 m/sec, and had a respiratory but seldom a cardiac rhythm. Their discharge was inhibited during hypertension caused by injections of adrenaline and during inflation of the lungs, but was increased during tracheal occlusion, stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors and irritation of the larynx. The fibres are thought to be constrictor to the airways. 3. Group II, sympathetic. These had a mean conduction velocity of 0·85 m/sec and usually had inspiratory and cardiac rhythms. Their discharge usually responded qualitatively as that of group I fibres to the various interventions, but with clear quantitative differences. They are divided into three subgroups on the basis of their responses to injections of adrenaline and to asphyxial stimuli. 4. Group III, vagal and sympathetic. These had a mean conduction velocity of 9·0 m/sec, very slow discharge rates and often an expiratory and cardiac modulation. They were activated during hypertension due to adrenaline and often by tracheal occlusion, chemoreceptor stimulation, laryngeal irritation and lung inflation. Their motor action is unknown. 5. Group IV, vagal and sympathetic. These had conspicuous cardiac rhythms resembling those of vascular baroreceptors, but their discharge could not be correlated with arterial blood pressure. Their mean conduction velocity was 6·6 m/sec. Some were active after combined vagotomy and sympathectomy. Together with some unclassified fibres, those of group IV are thought to be aberrant afferent nerves or collateral afferent branches, and possibly to subserve local reflexes. 6. The results are

  19. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein Deletion in Efferent Olivocochlear Neurons Perturbs Afferent Synaptic Maturation and Reduces the Dynamic Range of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Tyler T.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Normal hearing requires proper differentiation of afferent ribbon synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that carry acoustic information to the brain. Within individual IHCs, presynaptic ribbons show a size gradient with larger ribbons on the modiolar face and smaller ribbons on the pillar face. This structural gradient is associated with a gradient of spontaneous rates and threshold sensitivity, which is essential for a wide dynamic range of hearing. Despite their importance for hearing, mechanisms that direct ribbon differentiation are poorly defined. We recently identified adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) as a key regulator of interneuronal synapse maturation. Here, we show that APC is required for ribbon size heterogeneity and normal cochlear function. Compared with wild-type littermates, APC conditional knock-out (cKO) mice exhibit decreased auditory brainstem responses. The IHC ribbon size gradient is also perturbed. Whereas the normal-developing IHCs display ribbon size gradients before hearing onset, ribbon sizes are aberrant in APC cKOs from neonatal ages on. Reporter expression studies show that the CaMKII-Cre used to delete the floxed APC gene is present in efferent olivocochlear (OC) neurons, not IHCs or SGNs. APC loss led to increased volumes and numbers of OC inhibitory dopaminergic boutons on neonatal SGN fibers. Our findings identify APC in efferent OC neurons as essential for regulating ribbon heterogeneity, dopaminergic terminal differentiation, and cochlear sensitivity. This APC effect on auditory epithelial cell synapses resembles interneuronal and nerve–muscle synapses, thereby defining a global role for APC in synaptic maturation in diverse cell types. Significance Statement This study identifies novel molecules and cellular interactions that are essential for the proper maturation of afferent ribbon synapses in sensory cells of the inner ear, and for normal hearing. PMID:26085645

  20. Complete lymph flow reconstruction: A free vascularized lymph node true perforator flap transfer with efferent lymphaticolymphatic anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Nana

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of primary lower extremity lymphedema (LEL) is challenging, and lymph node transfer (LNT) can be a choice of treatment for progressive LEL. However, LNT has a risk of donor site lymphedema and possible lymph node (LN) sclerosis due to efferent lymphatic vessel (ELV) obstruction. Here, we report the first case of complete lymph flow reconstruction with true perforator LNT with efferent lymphaticolymphatic anastomosis (ELLA) for a patient with primary LEL and severe lymphosclerosis. A 49-year-old female suffered from primary progressive unilateral left LEL refractory to conservative treatments with frequent episodes of cellulitis. A true perforator LN flap was selectively harvested from the left lateral thoracic region under indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography navigation and transferred to the left groin with perforator-to-perforator anastomosis. The ELV of the transplanted LN was supermicrosurgically anastomosed to the contralateral iliac lymphatic vessel that was subcutaneously transferred to the left groin. Postoperatively, the patient experienced no episode of cellulitis with reduced degree of compression treatment, and lymphedematous volume decreased from 306 to 264 in terms of LEL index. Postoperative ICG lymphography showed evidence of reconstructed lymph flow from the left foot to the left groin and to the right inguinal LN through the transplanted LN flap and the ELLA. There were no subjective or objective findings of donor site lymphedema of the left arm or the right back and the lower extremity. True perforator LN flap with ELLA is a safe and effective treatment and has the potential to be a useful therapeutic option for primary unilateral LEL. PMID:27449876

  1. Rice UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase1 Is Essential for Pollen Callose Deposition and Its Cosuppression Results in a New Type of Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterility[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongzhi; Zhao, Xiao; Shao, Zhe; Wei, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Lili; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Mengxiang; He, Ruifeng; He, Guangcun

    2007-01-01

    UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) catalyzes the reversible production of glucose-1-phosphate and UTP to UDP-glucose and pyrophosphate. The rice (Oryza sativa) genome contains two homologous UGPase genes, Ugp1 and Ugp2. We report a functional characterization of rice Ugp1, which is expressed throughout the plant, with highest expression in florets, especially in pollen during anther development. Ugp1 silencing by RNA interference or cosuppression results in male sterility. Expressing a double-stranded RNA interference construct in Ugp1-RI plants resulted in complete suppression of both Ugp1 and Ugp2, together with various pleiotropic developmental abnormalities, suggesting that UGPase plays critical roles in plant growth and development. More importantly, Ugp1-cosuppressing plants contained unprocessed intron-containing primary transcripts derived from transcription of the overexpression construct. These aberrant transcripts undergo temperature-sensitive splicing in florets, leading to a novel thermosensitive genic male sterility. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) of Ugp1-silenced plants appeared normal before meiosis, but during meiosis, normal callose deposition was disrupted. Consequently, the PMCs began to degenerate at the early meiosis stage, eventually resulting in complete pollen collapse. In addition, the degeneration of the tapetum and middle layer was inhibited. These results demonstrate that rice Ugp1 is required for callose deposition during PMC meiosis and bridges the apoplastic unloading pathway and pollen development. PMID:17400897

  2. Anterior callosal section is useful for the removal of large tumors invading the dorsal part of the anterior third ventricle: operative technique and results.

    PubMed

    Shiramizu, Hideki; Hori, Tomokatsu; Matsuo, Seigo; Niimura, Kaku; Yoshimoto, Haruko; Ishida, Atsushi; Asakuno, Keizoh; Yuzawa, Miki; Moriyama, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    Large tumors invading the dorsal part of the anterior third ventricle are difficult to manage. The anterior transcallosal approach is usually used to manage these tumors. In our clinic, anterior callosal section was combined with the anterior interhemispheric (AIH) translamina terminalis approach for these tumors with excellent results. The AIH approach is useful for removing tumors in and around the anterior part of the third ventricle. However, AIH alone is insufficient for large tumors invading the dorsal part of the anterior third ventricle. In such situations, simple anterior callosal section enables the neurosurgeon to extirpate the caudal part of the tumors deeply hidden from operative field, sparing the foramen of Monro, fornix, etc. We treated four large tumors (malignant teratoma, recurrent chordoid glioma, recurrent papillary tumor of pineal region occupying the third ventricle, and paraventricular meningioma) without major complications. The malignant teratoma case exhibited no recurrence with >10 years follow-up. The chordoid glioma and papillary tumor of pineal region were totally removed. The meningioma was subtotally removed except only a small tumor around the bilateral anterior cerebral artery. This simple technique is a new way to manage difficult large lesions in and around the third ventricle. PMID:23568695

  3. Tie-dyed2 Encodes a Callose Synthase That Functions in Vein Development and Affects Symplastic Trafficking within the Phloem of Maize Leaves12[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Slewinski, Thomas L.; Baker, R. Frank; Stubert, Adam; Braun, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The tie-dyed2 (tdy2) mutant of maize (Zea mays) displays variegated green and yellow leaves. Intriguingly, the yellow leaf tissues hyperaccumulate starch and sucrose, the soluble sugar transported long distance through the phloem of veins. To determine the molecular basis for Tdy2 function, we cloned the gene and found that Tdy2 encodes a callose synthase. RNA in situ hybridizations revealed that in developing leaves, Tdy2 was most highly expressed in the vascular tissue. Comparative expression analysis with the vascular marker maize PINFORMED1a-yellow fluorescent protein confirmed that Tdy2 was expressed in developing vein tissues. To ascertain whether the defect in tdy2 leaves affected the movement of sucrose into the phloem or its long-distance transport, we performed radiolabeled and fluorescent dye tracer assays. The results showed that tdy2 yellow leaf regions were defective in phloem export but competent in long-distance transport. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy of tdy2 yellow leaf regions showed incomplete vascular differentiation and implicated a defect in cell-to-cell solute movement between phloem companion cells and sieve elements. The disruption of sucrose movement in the phloem in tdy2 mutants provides evidence that the Tdy2 callose synthase functions in vascular maturation and that the vascular defects result in impaired symplastic trafficking into the phloem translocation stream. PMID:22932757

  4. Cell Wall Maturation of Arabidopsis Trichomes Is Dependent on Exocyst Subunit EXO70H4 and Involves Callose Deposition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kulich, Ivan; Vojtíková, Zdeňka; Glanc, Matouš; Ortmannová, Jitka; Rasmann, Sergio; Žárský, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf trichomes are single-cell structures with a well-studied development, but little is understood about their function. Developmental studies focused mainly on the early shaping stages, and little attention has been paid to the maturation stage. We focused on the EXO70H4 exocyst subunit, one of the most up-regulated genes in the mature trichome. We uncovered EXO70H4-dependent development of the secondary cell wall layer, highly autofluorescent and callose rich, deposited only in the upper part of the trichome. The boundary is formed between the apical and the basal parts of mature trichome by a callose ring that is also deposited in an EXO70H4-dependent manner. We call this structure the Ortmannian ring (OR). Both the secondary cell wall layer and the OR are absent in the exo70H4 mutants. Ecophysiological aspects of the trichome cell wall thickening include interference with antiherbivore defense and heavy metal accumulation. Ultraviolet B light induces EXO70H4 transcription in a CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1-dependent way, resulting in stimulation of trichome cell wall thickening and the OR biogenesis. EXO70H4-dependent trichome cell wall hardening is a unique phenomenon, which may be conserved among a variety of the land plants. Our analyses support a concept that Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model to study molecular mechanisms of secondary cell wall deposition. PMID:25767057

  5. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.; Bentley, G.; Trevino, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:8646101

  6. How do the medial olivocochlear efferents influence the biomechanics of the outer hair cells and thereby the cochlear amplifier? Simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saremi, Amin; Stenfelt, Stefan; Verhulst, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The bottom-up signal pathway, which starts from the outer ear and leads to the brain cortices, gives the classic image of the human sound perception. However, there have been growing evidences in the last six decades for existence of a functional descending network whereby the central auditory system can modulate the early auditory processing, in a top-down manner. The medial olivocochlear efferent fibers project from the superior olivary complex at the brainstem into the inner ear. They are linked to the basal poles of the hair cells by forming synaptic cisterns. This descending network can activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR) that increase the membrane conductance of the outer hair cells and thereby modify the magnitude of the active force generated inside the cochlea. The aim of the presented work is to quantitatively investigate how the changes in the biomechanics of the outer hair cells, caused by the efferent activation, manipulate the cochlear responses. This is done by means of a frequency-domain biophysical model of the cochlea [12] where the parameters of the model convey physiological interpretations of the human cochlear structures. The simulations manifest that a doubling of the outer hair cell conductance, due to efferent activation, leads to a frequency-dependent gain reduction along the cochlear duct with its highest effect at frequencies between 1 kHz and 3.5 kHz and a maximum of approximately 10 dB gain reduction at 2 kHz. This amount of the gain inhibition and its frequency dependence reasonably agrees with the experimental data recorded from guinea pig, cat and human cochleae where the medial olivococlear efferents had been elicited by broad-band stimuli. The simulations also indicate that the efferent-induced increase of the outer hair cell conductance increases the best frequency of the cochlear responses, in the basal region. The presented simulations quantitatively confirm that activation of the medial olivocochlear efferents can

  7. Assessment of the expression and role of the α1-nAChR subunit in efferent cholinergic function during the development of the mammalian cochlea.

    PubMed

    Roux, Isabelle; Wu, Jingjing Sherry; McIntosh, J Michael; Glowatzki, Elisabeth

    2016-08-01

    Hair cell (HC) activity in the mammalian cochlea is modulated by cholinergic efferent inputs from the brainstem. These inhibitory inputs are mediated by calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing α9- and α10-subunits and by subsequent activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. Intriguingly, mRNAs of α1- and γ-nAChRs, subunits of the "muscle-type" nAChR have also been found in developing HCs (Cai T, Jen HI, Kang H, Klisch TJ, Zoghbi HY, Groves AK. J Neurosci 35: 5870-5883, 2015; Scheffer D, Sage C, Plazas PV, Huang M, Wedemeyer C, Zhang DS, Chen ZY, Elgoyhen AB, Corey DP, Pingault V. J Neurochem 103: 2651-2664, 2007; Sinkkonen ST, Chai R, Jan TA, Hartman BH, Laske RD, Gahlen F, Sinkkonen W, Cheng AG, Oshima K, Heller S. Sci Rep 1: 26, 2011) prompting proposals that another type of nAChR is present and may be critical during early synaptic development. Mouse genetics, histochemistry, pharmacology, and whole cell recording approaches were combined to test the role of α1-nAChR subunit in HC efferent synapse formation and cholinergic function. The onset of α1-mRNA expression in mouse HCs was found to coincide with the onset of the ACh response and efferent synaptic function. However, in mouse inner hair cells (IHCs) no response to the muscle-type nAChR agonists (±)-anatoxin A, (±)-epibatidine, (-)-nicotine, or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) was detected, arguing against the presence of an independent functional α1-containing muscle-type nAChR in IHCs. In α1-deficient mice, no obvious change of IHC efferent innervation was detected at embryonic day 18, contrary to the hyperinnervation observed at the neuromuscular junction. Additionally, ACh response and efferent synaptic activity were detectable in α1-deficient IHCs, suggesting that α1 is not necessary for assembly and membrane targeting of nAChRs or for efferent synapse formation in IHCs. PMID:27098031

  8. Expression of Aquaporins in the Efferent Ductules, Sperm Counts, and Sperm Motility in Estrogen Receptor-α Deficient Mice Fed Lab Chow Versus Casein

    PubMed Central

    RUZ, RICARDO; GREGORY, MARY; SMITH, CHARLES E.; CYR, DANIEL G.; LUBAHN, DENNIS B.; HESS, REX A.; HERMO, LOUIS

    2006-01-01

    Estrogens play an important role in the male reproductive tract, and this is especially so for the efferent ductules, where α-estrogen receptors (ERα) have been localized. Mice deficient in ERα (αERKO mice) are infertile, and the effect appears to be due in part to retention of water at the level of the efferent ductules. In the present study, we examined the consequences of ERα deletion on the distribution of certain aquaporins (AQPs), water protein channels, in the efferent ductules and on sperm numbers and motility. In addition, the effects of feeding mice a regular lab chow diet, which contains phytoestrogens, known to affect male reproductive tract functions, and a casein diet, which lacks phytoestrogens, were also assessed. Light microscope immunolocalizations of AQP-1 and AQP-9 revealed dramatic reduction and patchier staining in αERKO mice with distal areas of the efferent ductules being more affected than proximal areas. No other changes in immunolocalizations were noted as a consequence of diet. Computer-assisted sperm analyses demonstrated a 62% reduction in cauda epididymal sperm/ml in αERKO mice fed lab chow, whereas 87% fewer sperm/ml were observed in αERKO mice fed casein, suggesting an enhanced role for sperm production and concentration in a diet containing phytoestrogens. All sperm motility parameters were altered to some degree in αERKO mice fed lab chow. Alterations in sperm motility parameters were also detected, but were less dramatic in αERKO mice fed casein. These data suggest that the decrease in AQP expression in the efferent ductules of αERKO mice contributes in part to water retention in this tissue, eventually leading to backflow of water into the testis, with subsequent decreases in sperm concentration and motility. The data also suggest that phytoestrogens, which are present in regular lab chow, can influence the male reproductive tract with and without the presence of ERα, promoting efferent ductule and epididymal

  9. Role of Efferent Sympathoadrenal Effects in Cooling-Induced Hemodynamic Perturbations in Rats: An Investigation by Spectrum Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Chen-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lee, Po-Lei; Tung, Che-Se

    2015-10-31

    Cold stress may produce hemodynamic perturbations but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Spectral analysis was used in this study to explore that sympathoadrenal activation could be involved in mechanisms of hemodynamic perturbations to cooling. Conscious rats after treatment with a control vehicle (saline) compared with withdrawal of sympathetic influences by ganglion blocker hexamethonium (HEX) or chemical sympathectomy guanethidine (GUA) were challenged by stressful cooling as acute immersing all four extremities in ice water (4 ± 2°C) for 10 min. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) and the appearance of Dichroitic notch (DN) were measured in comparison between treatment groups throughout the experimental course. Hemodynamic indices were telemetrically monitored, and variability of blood pressure and heart rate (BPV; HRV) were assessed over a range of frequencies: very-low frequency (VLF: 0.02-0.2 Hz), low frequency (LF: 0.2-0.6 Hz), high frequency (HF: 0.6-3 Hz), normalized (n)LF, nHF, ratio LF/HF of HRV (LF/HF(HRV)), and total power (TP: ≤3 Hz). Results showed that the concomitant reciprocal changes of spectral powers existed between frequencies of BPV and HRV to the stressful cooling (i.e. VLF(BPV) versus VLF(HRV), LF(BPV) versus LF(HRV), and nLF(BPV) versus nLF(HRV)) which contribute to the underlying mechanisms of sympathetic efferent influences and myogenic cardiovascular responsiveness. Furthermore, compared with the control vehicle in the stressful cooling, HEX restrained the increase of the pressor, tachycardia and VLF(BPV), except that VLF(HRV) was reduced. GUA abolished pressor, however, restrained the increase of the tachycardia, VLF(BPV) and LF(BPV). In addition, GUA reversed the downward tendency of nLF(BPV) into an upward tendency and attenuated both nLF(HRV) and LF/HF(HRV). DN was virtually undetectable after HEX management but was apparently noticeable after GUA management. Finally, the increase of plasma NO after cooling was diminished

  10. Atomic force microscopy and laser confocal scanning microscopy analysis of callose fibers developed from protoplasts of embryogenic cells of a conifer.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Noriko; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2005-12-01

    Efficiency of novel fiber formation was much improved in protoplast culture of embryogenic cells (ECs) of a conifer, Larix leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Gord., by pre-culturing ECs in a medium containing a high concentration of glutamine (13.7 mM). The fibrillar substructures of large and elongated fibers of protoplasts isolated from Larix ECs were investigated by laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) after Aniline Blue staining and atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a micromanipulator without any pre-treatment. Fibers were composed of bundles of fibrils and subfibrils, whose diameters were defined as 0.7 and 0.17 mum, respectively, by image analysis after LCSM and AFM. These fibers were proven to be composed of callose by using specific degrading enzymes for beta-1,4-glucan and beta-1,3-glucan. PMID:16034590

  11. A Mammalian Conserved Element Derived from SINE Displays Enhancer Properties Recapitulating Satb2 Expression in Early-Born Callosal Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Akiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yan, Kuo; Tarabykin, Victor; Vigier, Lisa; Sumiyama, Kenta; Hirakawa, Mika; Nishihara, Hidenori; Pierani, Alessandra; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered “junk DNA”. However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1−/NPY+) portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum, a eutherian

  12. Time-frequency analysis of stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions and their changes with efferent stimulation in guinea pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezina-Greene, Maria A.; Guinan, John J.

    2015-12-01

    To aid in understanding their origin, stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) were measured at a series of tone frequencies using the suppression method, both with and without stimulation of medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents, in anesthetized guinea pigs. Time-frequency analysis showed SFOAE energy peaks in 1-3 delay components throughout the measured frequency range (0.5-12 kHz). One component's delay usually coincided with the phase-gradient delay. When multiple delay components were present, they were usually near SFOAE dips. Below 2 kHz, SFOAE delays were shorter than predicted from mechanical measurements. With MOC stimulation, SFOAE amplitude was decreased at most frequencies, but was sometimes enhanced, and all SFOAE delay components were affected. The MOC effects and an analysis of model data suggest that the multiple SFOAE delay components arise at the edges of the traveling-wave peak, not far basal of the peak. Comparisons with published guinea-pig neural data suggest that the short latencies of low-frequency SFOAEs may arise from coherent reflection from an organ-of-Corti motion that has a shorter group delay than the traveling wave.

  13. Differential action for ethanol on baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate and sympathetic efferent discharge in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Z.; Abdel-Rahman, A.R.A.; Wooles, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The acute effects of ethanol (0.33, 0.66, or 1 g/kg) on baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) and sympathetic efferent discharge (SED) were investigated in rats. The two higher doses of ethanol caused a progressive and significant increase in baseline SED and a slight increase in HR. The findings suggest that the sensitivity of the reflex control of SED was preserved whereas that of HR was impaired after acute ethanol administration. Since these findings were obtained in the same animals, the data suggest that acute ethanol has a differential action on reflex control of SED and HR. Further, the significant increase in SED after moderate and high doses of ethanol suggests an increased central sympathetic tone as recordings were made from preganglionic nerve fibers (splanchnic nerve). The absence of an increase in baseline MAP, in spite of a significant increase in baseline SED following acute ethanol injection, could be explained, at least in part, by an ethanol-evoked reduction in pressor responsiveness to phenylephrine, an ..cap alpha..-adrenergic agonist.

  14. The centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus--I: Efferents in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Júnior, Edmilson D; Da Silva, André V; Da Silva, Kelly R T; Haemmerle, Carlos A S; Batagello, Daniella S; Da Silva, Joelcimar M; Lima, Leandro B; Da Silva, Renata J; Diniz, Giovanne B; Sita, Luciane V; Elias, Carol F; Bittencourt, Jackson C

    2015-10-01

    The oculomotor accessory nucleus, often referred to as the Edinger-Westphal nucleus [EW], was first identified in the 17th century. Although its most well known function is the control of pupil diameter, some controversy has arisen regarding the exact location of these preganglionic neurons. Currently, the EW is thought to consist of two different parts. The first part [termed the preganglionic EW-EWpg], which controls lens accommodation, choroidal blood flow and pupillary constriction, primarily consists of cholinergic cells that project to the ciliary ganglion. The second part [termed the centrally projecting EW-EWcp], which is involved in non-ocular functions such as feeding behavior, stress responses, addiction and pain, consists of peptidergic neurons that project to the brainstem, the spinal cord and prosencephalic regions. However, in the literature, we found few reports related to either ascending or descending projections from the EWcp that are compatible with its currently described functions. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to systematically investigate the ascending and descending projections of the EW in the rat brain. We injected the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into the EW or the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B into multiple EW targets as controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential EW-mediated innervation of neuronal populations with known neurochemical signatures, such as melanin-concentrating hormone in the lateral hypothalamic area [LHA] and corticotropin-releasing factor in the central nucleus of the amygdala [CeM]. We observed anterogradely labeled fibers in the LHA, the reuniens thalamic nucleus, the oval part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the medial part of the central nucleus of the amygdala, and the zona incerta. We confirmed our EW-LHA and EW-CeM connections using retrograde tracers. We also observed moderate EW-mediated innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the

  15. Role of retinal input on the development of striate-extrastriate patterns of connections in the rat.

    PubMed

    Laing, R J; Bock, A S; Lasiene, J; Olavarria, J F

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that retinal input plays an important role in the development of interhemispheric callosal connections, but little is known about the role retinal input plays on the development of ipsilateral striate-extrastriate connections and the interplay that might exist between developing ipsilateral and callosal pathways. We analyzed the effects of bilateral enucleation performed at different ages on both the distribution of extrastriate projections originating from restricted loci in medial, acallosal striate cortex, and the overall pattern of callosal connections revealed following multiple tracer injections. As in normal rats, striate-extrastriate projections in rats enucleated at birth consisted of multiple, well-defined fields that were largely confined to acallosal regions throughout extrastriate cortex. However, these projections were highly irregular and variable, and they tended to occupy correspondingly anomalous and variable acallosal regions. Moreover, area 17, but not area 18a, was smaller in enucleates compared to controls, resulting in an increase in the divergence of striate projections. Anomalies in patterns of striate-extrastriate projections were not observed in rats enucleated at postnatal day (P)6, although the size of area 17 was still reduced in these rats. These results indicate that the critical period during which the eyes influence the development of striate-extrastriate, but not the size of striate cortex, ends by P6. Finally, enucleation did not change the time course and definition of the initial invasion of axons into gray matter, suggesting that highly variable striate projections patterns do not result from anomalous pruning of exuberant distributions of 17-18a fibers in gray matter. PMID:22430936

  16. Central distribution of the efferent cells and the primary afferent fibers of the trigeminal nerve in Pleurodeles waltlii (Amphibia, Urodela).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A; Muñoz, M

    1988-04-22

    As part of a study on the organization of the brainstem in a primitive group of vertebrates, the efferent cells and primary afferent fibers of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltlii were examined by means of retrograde and anterograde axonal transport and anterograde degeneration. The trigeminal motor nucleus is located in the periventricular gray just medial to the sulcus limitans. Its rostral part is a band of pear-shaped cells lying parallel to the wall of the ventricle, whereas its caudal part is a round mass consisting of polygonal cells. In addition, a small group of scattered neurons is situated ventral to the rostral part of the nucleus. The primary afferent fibers enter the brainstem in the dorsal two-thirds of the trigeminal root. They diverge into a short ascending and a long descending tract. The former distributes its axons to the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, which is an ill-defined cell group located at the ventrolateral edge of the periventricular gray. In the descending tract, the fibers of the ophthalmic nerve are predominantly located ventromedially, and those of the maxillomandibular nerve dorsolaterally. A fascicle of the ophthalmic nerve leaves the descending tract and, apparently, makes contact with the accessory abducens nucleus. The descending tract extends caudally into the three upper cervical segments of the spinal cord. The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus consists of conspicuous large cells, which are scattered through the tectum of the mesencephalon. The cells with peripheral branches in the ophthalmic nerve are mainly located in the caudal half of the tectum, and those with peripheral branches in the maxillomandibular nerve in the rostral half. Collaterals of the central branches of the mesencephalic trigeminal system were traced to an area of the periventricular gray situated between the motor nucleus and the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminus. PMID:2836480

  17. White Matter Compromise of Callosal and Subcortical Fiber Tracts in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Lincoln, Alan J.; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly viewed as a disorder of functional networks, highlighting the importance of investigating white matter and interregional connectivity. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter integrity for the whole brain and for corpus callosum, internal capsule, and middle…

  18. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  19. Altered effective connectivity within default mode network in major depression disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Bai, Yuanhan; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Linchuan; Cui, Longbiao; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the neural basis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is important for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. The default mode network (DMN) is considered to be highly involved in the MDD. To find directed interaction between DMN regions associated with the development of MDD, the effective connectivity within the DMN of the MDD patients and matched healthy controls was estimated by using a recently developed spectral dynamic causal modeling. Sixteen patients with MDD and sixteen matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. While the control group underwent the resting state fMRI scan just once, all patients underwent resting state fMRI scans before and after two months' treatment. The spectral dynamic causal modeling was used to estimate directed connections between four DMN nodes. Statistical analysis on connection strengths indicated that efferent connections from the medial frontal cortex (MFC) to posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and to right parietal cortex (RPC) were significant higher in pretreatment MDD patients than those of the control group. After two-month treatment, the efferent connections from the MFC decreased significantly, while those from the left parietal cortex (LPC) to MFC, PCC and RPC showed a significant increase. These findings suggest that the MFC may play an important role for inhibitory conditioning of the DMN, which was disrupted in MDD patients. It also indicates that disrupted suppressive function of the MFC could be effectively restored after two-month treatment.

  20. Innervation of the cavernous body of the human efferent tear ducts and function in tear outflow mechanism

    PubMed Central

    PAULSEN, FRIEDRICH; HALLMANN, UTA; PAULSEN, JENS; THALE, ANDREAS

    2000-01-01

    The lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct are surrounded by a wide cavernous system of veins and arteries comparable to a cavernous body. The present study aimed to demonstrate the ultrastructure of the nervous tissue and the localisation of neuropeptides involved in the innervation of the cavernous body, a topic not previously investigated. Different S-100 protein antisera, neuronal markers (neuron-specific enolase, anti-200 kDa neurofilament), neuropeptides (substance P, neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) and the neuronal enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase were used to demonstrate the distribution pattern of the nervous tissue. The ultrastructure of the innervating nerve fibres was also examined by means of standard transmission electron microscopy. The cavernous body contained specialised arteries and veins known as barrier arteries, capacitance veins, and throttle veins. Perivascularly, the tissue was rich in myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres in a plexus-like network. Small seromucous glands found in the region of the fundus of the lacrimal sac were contacted by nerve fibres forming a plexus around their alveoli. Many nerve fibres were positive for S-100 protein (S 100), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), anti-200 kDa neurofilament (RT 97), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactivity was only demonstrated adjacent to the seromucous glands. Both the density of nerve fibres as well as the presence of various neuropeptides emphasises the neural control of the cavernous body of the human efferent tear ducts. By means of this innervation, the specialised blood vessels permit regulation of blood flow by opening and closing the lumen of the lacrimal passage as effected by the engorgement and subsidence of the cavernous body, at the same time regulating tear outflow. Related functions such as a role in the

  1. The PTI1-like kinase ZmPti1a from maize (Zea mays L.) co-localizes with callose at the plasma membrane of pollen and facilitates a competitive advantage to the male gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Markus M; Pinto, Sheena; Kluth, Jantjeline; Wienand, Udo; Lorbiecke, René

    2006-01-01

    Background The tomato kinase Pto confers resistance to bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a gene for gene manner. Upon recognition of specific avirulence factors the Pto kinase activates multiple signal transduction pathways culminating in induction of pathogen defense. The soluble cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase Pti1 is one target of Pto phosphorylation and is involved in the hypersensitive response (HR) reaction. However, a clear role of Pti1 in plant pathogen resistance is uncertain. So far, no Pti1 homologues from monocotyledonous species have been studied. Results Here we report the identification and molecular analysis of four Pti1-like kinases from maize (ZmPti1a, -b, -c, -d). These kinase genes showed tissue-specific expression and their corresponding proteins were targeted to different cellular compartments. Sequence similarity, expression pattern and cellular localization of ZmPti1b suggested that this gene is a putative orthologue of Pti1 from tomato. In contrast, ZmPti1a was specifically expressed in pollen and sequestered to the plasma membrane, evidently owing to N-terminal modification by myristoylation and/or S-acylation. The ZmPti1a:GFP fusion protein was not evenly distributed at the pollen plasma membrane but accumulated as an annulus-like structure which co-localized with callose (1,3-β-glucan) deposition. In addition, co-localization of ZmPti1a and callose was observed during stages of pollen mitosis I and pollen tube germination. Maize plants in which ZmPti1a expression was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) produced pollen with decreased competitive ability. Hence, our data provide evidence that ZmPti1a plays an important part in a signalling pathway that accelerates pollen performance and male fitness. Conclusion ZmPti1a from maize is involved in pollen-specific processes during the progamic phase of reproduction, probably in crucial signalling processes associated with regions of callose deposition

  2. Severe form of radiculo - myelo - neuropathy with meningo - encephalitis secondary to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection: unusual corpus callosal lesions and serial magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Ramakrishna, Anil; Dekumoy, Paron; Kumar, Raju Ravi; Pakdee, Wallop; Saini, Jitender; Hegde, Vinay S

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with the symptoms of recurrent lower abdominal pain, malaise and loss of appetite of 3-week duration, followed by acute onset of generalized paresthesias, fever and headache which progressed over few days to quadriparesis, altered sensorium, urinary and fecal incontinence. He had consumed raw tongue, liver, gall bladder and testicles of monitor lizard (Varanus bengalensis). Blood picture showed eosinophilia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed elevated protein and eosinophilia. Serum and CSF serology was positive for angiostrongyliasis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed focal hyperintense lesions in the corpus callosum and brainstem and an enhancing lesion in the cerebellum. Post-contrast T1-weighted axial images of spine showed evidence of cervical cord hyperintense lesions and root enhancement. Susceptibility weighted images/phase images showed unusual feature of multiple hemorrhagic lesions in the posterior fossa and supratentorial areas. Diffusion showed no restriction of corpus callosal lesions. Patient was treated with the high dose parenteral steroids with albendazole and at 6-month follow-up and had a remarkable recovery. PMID:24005735

  3. [Case of callosal disconnection syndrome with a chief complaint of right-hand disability, despite presence of left-hand diagonistic dyspraxia].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoko; Saida, Hisako; Yamamoto, Toru

    2009-04-01

    e report the case of 48-year-old right-handed male patient with an infarction affecting most part of the body and the splenium of the left half of the corpus callosum. Neuropsychological examination revealed typical signs of callosal disconnection including left-sided apraxia, diagonistic dyspraxia, left-sided agraphia, left-hand tactile anomia, left hemialexia, and right-sided constructional disability. Moreover, he complained of impairment in activities involving the right hand disability and agraphia. He could not stop behaving with his right hand when he had a vague idea. For example, he involuntarily picked up a tea bottle with his right hand when he had a desire to drink, although the action was not appropriate to that occasion. The imitation and utilization behavior did not imply this case, because his right hand behaviors were not exaggerated in response to external stimuli, such as the gestures of the examiner or the subjects in front of the patient. Unexpectedly, he complained about impairment of the activity of his right hand and was unaware of left hand apraxia or diagonistic dyspraxia; this trend continued for 6 months, at the time of this writing. We argue that the patient may have been subconsciouly aware of the symptoms of his left hand but had not verbalized them. PMID:19378819

  4. Disruption of subcellular Arc/Arg 3.1 mRNA expression in striatal efferent neurons following partial monoamine loss induced by methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Barker-Haliski, Melissa L.; Oldenburger, Katharina; Keefe, Kristen A.

    2012-01-01

    The immediate-early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) is provocative in the context of neuroplasticity because of its experience-dependent regulation and mRNA transport to and translation at activated synapses. Normal rats have more preproenkephalin-negative (ppe-neg; presumed striatonigral) neurons with cytoplasmic Arc mRNA than ppe-positive (ppe-pos; striatopallidal) neurons, despite equivalent numbers of these neurons showing novelty-induced transcriptional activation of Arc. Furthermore, rats with partial monoamine loss induced by methamphetamine (METH) show impaired Arc mRNA expression in both ppe-neg and ppe-pos neurons relative to normal animals following response-reversal learning. In this study, Arc expression induced by exposure to a novel environment was used to assess transcriptional activation and cytoplasmic localization of Arc mRNA in striatal efferent neuron subpopulations subsequent to METH-induced neurotoxicity. Partial monoamine depletion significantly altered Arc expression. Specifically, basal Arc expression was elevated, but novelty-induced transcriptional activation was abolished. Without novelty-induced Arc transcription, METH-pretreated rats also had fewer neurons with cytoplasmic Arc mRNA expression, with the effect being greater for ppe-neg neurons. Thus, METH-induced neurotoxicity substantially alters striatal efferent neuron function at the level of Arc transcription, suggesting a long-term shift in basal ganglia neuroplasticity processes subsequent to METH-induced neurotoxicity. Such changes potentially underlie striatally-based learning deficits associated with METH-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:22978492

  5. Experimental studies of gastric dysfunction in motion sickness: The effect of gastric and vestibular stimulation on the vagal and splanchnic gastric efferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niijima, A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of CuSO4 on the afferent activity in the gastric branch of the vagus nerve was investigated. Gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution (0.04 percent and 0.08 percent) provoked an increase in afferent activity. In the second part of the experiments, the reflex effects of gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution, repetitive stimulation of the gastric vagus nerve, and caloric stimulation of the right vestibular apparatus (5-18 C water) on gastric autonomic outflow were investigated. The results of these experiments showed that these three different types of stimulation caused an inhibition in efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve and a slight activation of the splanchnic gastric efferents. The summation of the effect of each stimulation was also observed. These results, therefore, provide evidence for a possible integrative inhibitory function of the vagal gastric center as well as an excitatory function of gastric sympathetic motoneurons in relation to motion sickness.

  6. The anatomy of the callosal and visual-association pathways in high-functioning autism: a DTI tractography study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Jung, Kwan-Jin; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that many of the core behavioral impairments that characterize autism potentially emerge from poor neural synchronization across nodes comprising dispersed cortical networks. A likely candidate for the source of this atypical functional connectivity in autism is an alteration in the structural integrity of intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter (WM) tracts that form large-scale cortical networks. To test this hypothesis, in a group of adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and matched control participants, we used diffusion tensor tractography to compare the structural integrity of three intra-hemispheric visual-association WM tracts, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), the inferior fronto-occipito fasciculus (IFOF) and the uncinate fasciculus (UF), with the integrity of three sub-portions of the major inter-hemispheric fiber tract, the corpus callosum. Compared with the control group, the HFA group evinced an increase in the volume of the intra-hemispheric fibers, particularly in the left hemisphere, and a reduction in the volume of the forceps minor (F-Mi) and body of the corpus callosum. The reduction in the volume of the F-Mi also correlated with an increase in repetitive and stereotypical behavior as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview. These findings suggest that the abnormalities in the integrity of key inter- and intra-hemispheric WM tracts may underlie the atypical information processing observed in these individuals. PMID:20832784

  7. Cortical connections of striate and extrastriate visual areas in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Lyon, D C; Jain, N; Kaas, J H

    1998-11-01

    The ipsilateral and contralateral cortical connections of visual cortex of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were investigated by placing restricted injections of fluorochrome tracers, wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase, or biotinylated dextran amine into area 17 (V1), area 18 (V2), or the adjoining temporal dorsal area (TD). As previously reported, V1 was characterized by a widespread, patchy pattern of intrinsic connections; ipsilateral connections with V2, TD, and to a lesser extent, other areas of the temporal cortex; and contralateral connections with V1, V2, and TD. A surface-view of the myelin pattern in V1 revealed a patchwork of light and dark module-like regions. The ipsilateral connections with V2 and TD were roughly topographic, whereas heterotopic locations in V1 were callosally connected. Injections in V2 labeled as much as one third of V2 in a patchy pattern, and portions of ipsilateral V1 and TD in roughly topographic patterns. In addition, connections with several other visual areas in the temporal lobe were revealed. Contralaterally, most of the label was in V2, with some in V1 and TD. Injections in TD demonstrated connections within the region, and with adjoining portions of the temporal cortex, V2, and V1. There were sparse connections with an oval of densely myelinated cortex, which we have termed the temporal inferior area (TI). Callosal connections were concentrated in TD, but also included V2. The results provide further evidence for modular organizations within V1 and V2, and reveal for the first time the complete patterns of cortical connections of V2 and TD. The results are consistent with the proposal that at least three visual areas, the temporal anterior area, TA, the temporal dorsal area, TD, and the temporal posterior area, TP, exist along the rostrolateral border of V2 in tree shrews; suggest visual involvement of at least three other areas, the temporal inferior area, TI, the temporal anterior lateral area, and the temporal

  8. Inhibition and Ultraviolet-Induced Chemical Modification of UDP-Glucose:(1,3)-β-Glucan (Callose) Synthase by Chlorpromazine 1

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, Robert W.; Shao, Ai-Ping; Wasserman, Bruce P.

    1992-01-01

    UDP-glucose:(1,3)-β-glucan (callose) synthase (CS) from storage tissue of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was strongly inhibited by the phenothiazine drug chlorpromazine (CPZ). In the absence of ultraviolet irradiation, CPZ was a noncompetitive inhibitor with 50% inhibitory concentration values for plasma membrane and solubilized CS of 100 and 90 μm, respectively. Both the Ca2+- and Mg2+- stimulated components of CS activity were affected. CPZ inhibition was partially alleviated at saturating levels of Ca2+, but not Mg2+, suggesting that CPZ interferes with the Ca2+-binding site of CS. Binding experiments with [14C]CPZ, however, showed strong non-specific partitioning of CPZ into the plasma membrane, providing evidence that perturbation of the membrane environment is probably the predominant mode of inhibition. Ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm markedly enhanced CPZ inhibition, with complete activity loss following exposure to 4 μm CPZ for 2 min. Inhibition followed a pseudo-first order mechanism with at least three CPZ binding sites per CS complex. Under these conditions, [3H]CPZ was covalently incorporated into plasma membrane preparations by a free radical mechanism; however, polypeptide labeling profiles showed labeling to be largely nonspecific, with many polypeptides labeled even at [3H]CPZ levels as low as 1 μm, and with boiled membranes. Although CPZ is one of the most potent known inhibitors of CS, its use as a photolabel will require a homogeneous CS complex or establishment of conditions that protect against the interaction of CPZ with specific binding sites located on various polypeptide components of the CS complex. PMID:16653219

  9. D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate retrograde labelling of callosal and association neurons of somatosensory areas I and II of cats

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaresi, P.; Fabri, M.; Conti, F.; Manzoni, T.

    1987-09-08

    Experiments were carried out on cats to ascertain whether corticocortical neurons of somatosensory areas I (SI) and II (SII) could be labelled by retrograde axonal transport of D-(/sup 3/H)aspartate (D-(/sup 3/H)Asp). This tritiated enantiomer of the amino acid aspartate is (1) taken up selectively by axon terminals of neurons releasing aspartate and/or glutamate as excitatory neurotransmitter, (2) retrogradely transported and accumulated in perikarya, (3) not metabolized, and (4) visualized by autoradiography. A solution of D-(/sup 3/H)Asp was injected in eight cats in the trunk and forelimb zones of SI (two cats) or in the forelimb zone of SII (six cats). In order to compare the labelling patterns obtained with D-(/sup 3/H)Asp with those resulting after injection of a nonselective neuronal tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was delivered mixed with the radioactive tracer in seven of the eight cats. Furthermore, six additional animals received HRP injections in SI (three cats; trunk and forelimb zones) or SII (three cats; forelimb zone). D-(/sup 3/H)Asp retrograde labelling of perikarya was absent from the ipsilateral thalamus of all cats injected with the radioactive tracer but a dense terminal plexus of anterogradely labelled corticothalamic fibers from SI and SII was observed, overlapping the distribution area of thalamocortical neurons retrogradely labelled with HRP from the same areas. D-(/sup 3/H)Asp-labelled neurones were present in ipsilateral SII (SII-SI association neurones) in cats injected in SI. In these animals a bundle of radioactive fibres was observed in the rostral portion of the corpus callosum entering the contralateral hemisphere. There, neurones retrogradely labelled with silver grains were present in SI (SI-SI callosal neurons).

  10. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to illustrate a process of making connections, not between mathematics and other activities, but within mathematics itself--between diverse parts of the subject. Novel connections are still possible in previously explored mathematics when the material happens to be unfamiliar, as may be the case for a learner at any career stage.…

  11. [A case of spastic paraparesis with mental deterioration and markedly thin corpus callosum--callosal dysfunction demonstrated by magnetic stimulation].

    PubMed

    Katayama, T; Sakamoto, N; Kuroda, K; Yahara, O; Ugawa, Y

    1998-05-01

    We have studied function of the corpus callosum in a patient with spastic paraparesis with mental deterioration and markedly thin corpus callosum using magnetic stimulation methods. In a 21-year-old woman with slowly progressive gait disturbance, neurological examination showed mental deterioration, euphoria, spastic paraparesis, bilateral Babinski's sign, and hyperesthesia caudal to the eighth thoracic level. No abnormalities were observed in electroencephalograms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the brain showed cerebral cortical atrophy, markedly thin corpus callosum, and dilated cavum septum pellucidum and cavum Vergae, but spinal cord MRIs showed no abnormalities. The lysosomal enzyme activities, whose reduction was known to cause leukodystrophy, were all normal. Very long chain fatty acid was not increased in her blood, which is against adrenoleukodystrophy. She had no anti-HTLV-1 virus antibody. Based on these clinical features and the results of biochemical analyses, we diagnosed this patient as having spastic paraplegia associated with hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (Nojima and Iwabuchi). We performed three studies on the central motor pathways in this patient. The latencies of responses recorded from upper or lower limb muscles were all within the normal range, despite that the thresholds were slightly increased. This suggests that axonal degeneration occurs in the central motor pathways, which is consistent with the autopsy findings of a patient with hereditary spastic paraplegia associated with hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Connection between the bilateral motor cortices was investigated by magnetic stimulation of both motor cortices. The suppression of the motor cortex evoked by stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex through the corpus callosum was absent in this patient. Intracortical inhibition within the motor cortex was demonstrated to be normal by a paired-magnetic stimulation technique. Based on the results of these

  12. About connections.

    PubMed

    Rockland, Kathleen S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the attention attracted by "connectomics", one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning "What are connections?" In the neuroimaging community, "structural" connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on "functional" or "effective" connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as "pairwise", point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z), or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as "nodes" or regions and the interconnecting "edges". This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis. PMID:26042001

  13. Comprehensive connectivity of the mouse main olfactory bulb: analysis and online digital atlas

    PubMed Central

    Hintiryan, Houri; Gou, Lin; Zingg, Brian; Yamashita, Seita; Lyden, Hannah M.; Song, Monica Y.; Grewal, Arleen K.; Zhang, Xinhai; Toga, Arthur W.; Dong, Hong-Wei

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the first open resource for mouse olfactory connectivity data produced as part of the Mouse Connectome Project (MCP) at UCLA. The MCP aims to assemble a whole-brain connectivity atlas for the C57Bl/6J mouse using a double coinjection tracing method. Each coinjection consists of one anterograde and one retrograde tracer, which affords the advantage of simultaneously identifying efferent and afferent pathways and directly identifying reciprocal connectivity of injection sites. The systematic application of double coinjections potentially reveals interaction stations between injections and allows for the study of connectivity at the network level. To facilitate use of the data, raw images are made publicly accessible through our online interactive visualization tool, the iConnectome, where users can view and annotate the high-resolution, multi-fluorescent connectivity data (www.MouseConnectome.org). Systematic double coinjections were made into different regions of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and data from 18 MOB cases (~72 pathways; 36 efferent/36 afferent) currently are available to view in iConnectome within their corresponding atlas level and their own bright-field cytoarchitectural background. Additional MOB injections and injections of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), and other olfactory cortical areas gradually will be made available. Analysis of connections from different regions of the MOB revealed a novel, topographically arranged MOB projection roadmap, demonstrated disparate MOB connectivity with anterior versus posterior piriform cortical area (PIR), and exposed some novel aspects of well-established cortical olfactory projections. PMID:22891053

  14. Activation of BK and SK channels by efferent synapses on outer hair cells in high-frequency regions of the rodent cochlea.

    PubMed

    Rohmann, Kevin N; Wersinger, Eric; Braude, Jeremy P; Pyott, Sonja J; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-02-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the brainstem olivary complex project to and inhibit outer hair cells (OHCs), refining acoustic sensitivity of the mammalian cochlea. In all vertebrate hair cells studied to date, cholinergic inhibition results from the combined action of ionotropic acetylcholine receptors and associated calcium-activated potassium channels. Although inhibition was thought to involve exclusively small conductance (SK potassium channels), recent findings have shown that BK channels also contribute to inhibition in basal, high-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing. Here we show that the waveform of randomly timed IPSCs (evoked by high extracellular potassium) in high-frequency OHCs is altered by blockade of either SK or BK channels, with BK channels supporting faster synaptic waveforms and SK channels supporting slower synaptic waveforms. Consistent with these findings, IPSCs recorded from high-frequency OHCs that express BK channels are briefer than IPSCs recorded from low-frequency (apical) OHCs that do not express BK channels and from immature high-frequency OHCs before the developmental onset of BK channel expression. Likewise, OHCs of BKα(-/-) mice lacking the pore-forming α-subunit of BK channels have longer IPSCs than do the OHCs of BKα(+/+) littermates. Furthermore, serial reconstruction of electron micrographs showed that postsynaptic cisterns of BKα(-/-) OHCs were smaller than those of BKα(+/+) OHCs, and immunofluorescent quantification showed that efferent presynaptic terminals of BKα(-/-) OHCs were smaller than those of BKα(+/+) OHCs. Together, these findings indicate that BK channels contribute to postsynaptic function, and influence the structural maturation of efferent-OHC synapses. PMID:25653344

  15. Immunolocalization of estrogen and androgen receptors in the caput epididymidis of the fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus): Effects of seasonal variations, castration and efferent duct ligation.

    PubMed

    Menad, Rafik; Smaï, Souaâd; Moudilou, Elara; Khammar, Farida; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie; Gernigon-Spychalowicz, Thérèse

    2014-05-01

    The fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus) is a model to study seasonal reproductive cycle changes and several metabolic disorders. In order to show a possible involvement of estrogens in the male reproductive functions, the expression of estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and androgen receptor (AR) were investigated in the caput epididymidis of fat sand rats during the breeding season, resting season, after castration, after castration followed by testosterone treatment, and after ligation of efferent ducts. In the breeding season, principal cells presented a strong immunostaining of AR in both nuclei and cytoplasm, a strong staining of ESR1, mainly in the apical zone, and a strong immunoexpression of ESR2, mainly in nuclei. In the resting season, a moderate immunostaining of AR in both cytoplasm and nuclei was observed. ESR1 staining showed a strong immunoreactivity in the nuclei. In contrast, the nuclei were negative for ESR2. After castration, a low and selective signal distribution was observed: the nuclei were moderately positive for AR and ESR2, and negative for ESR1. After castration and testosterone treatment, an androgen-dependence for AR and the restoration of ESR1 but not ESR2 immunoexpression were observed. After ligation of the efferent ducts, a considerable reduction of AR immunoreactivity was observed in contrast to ESR1 and ESR2, which gave a strong immunostaining signal. These results illustrate the complexity of the regulation of the androgen and estrogen receptor expression in the epididymis and argue for the coexistence of both androgenic and estrogenic pathways. PMID:24360974

  16. Excitatory cholinergic and purinergic signaling in bladder are equally susceptible to botulinum neurotoxin a consistent with co-release of transmitters from efferent fibers.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gary W; Aoki, K Roger; Dolly, J Oliver

    2010-09-01

    Mediators of neuromuscular transmission in rat bladder strips were dissected pharmacologically to examine their susceptibilities to inhibition by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and elucidate a basis for the clinical effectiveness of BoNT/A in alleviating smooth muscle spasms associated with overactive bladder. BoNT/A, BoNT/C1, or BoNT/E reduced peak and average force of muscle contractions induced by electric field stimulation (EFS) in dose-dependent manners by acting only on neurogenic, tetrodotoxin-sensitive responses. BoNTs that cleaved vesicle-associated membrane protein proved to be much less effective. Acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP were found to provide virtually all excitatory input, because EFS-evoked contractions were abolished by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, combined with either a desensitizing agonist of P2X(1) and P2X(3) or a nonselective ATP receptor antagonist. Both transmitters were released in the innervated muscle layer and, thus, persisted after removal of urothelium. Atropine or a desensitizer of the P2X(1) or P2X(3) receptors did not alter the rate at which muscle contractions were weakened by BoNT/A. Moreover, although cholinergic and purinergic signaling could be partially delineated by using high-frequency EFS (which intensified a transient, largely atropine-resistant spike in muscle contractions that was reduced after P2X receptor desensitization), they proved equally susceptible to BoNT/A. Thus, equi-potent blockade of ATP co-released with ACh from muscle efferents probably contributes to the effectiveness of BoNT/A in treating bladder overactivity, including nonresponders to anticholinergic drugs. Because purinergic receptors are known mediators of sensory afferent excitation, inhibition of efferent ATP release by BoNT/A could also help to ameliorate acute pain and urgency sensation reported by some recipients. PMID:20576797

  17. Connections of Auditory and Visual Cortex in the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster): Evidence for Multisensory Processing in Primary Sensory Areas

    PubMed Central

    Campi, Katharine L.; Bales, Karen L.; Grunewald, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In prairie voles, primary sensory areas are dominated by neurons that respond to one sensory modality, but some neurons also respond to stimulation of other modalities. To reveal the anatomical substrate for these multimodal responses, we examined the connections of the primary auditory area + the anterior auditory field (A1 + AAF), the temporal anterior area (TA), and the primary visual area (V1). A1 + AAF had intrinsic connections and connections with TA, multimodal cortex (MM), V1, and primary somatosensory area (S1). TA had intrinsic connections and connections with A1 + AAF, MM, and V2. Callosal connections were observed in homotopic locations in auditory cortex for both fields. A1 + AAF and TA receive thalamic input primarily from divisions of the medial geniculate nucleus but also from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd), the lateral posterior nucleus, and the ventral posterior nucleus (VP). V1 had dense intrinsic connections and connections with V2, MM, auditory cortex, pyriform cortex (Pyr), and, in some cases, somatosensory cortex. V1 had interhemispheric connections with V1, V2, MM, S1, and Pyr and received thalamic input from LGd and VP. Our results indicate that multisensory integration occurs in primary sensory areas of the prairie vole cortex, and this may be related to behavioral specializations associated with its niche. PMID:19395525

  18. Connections of auditory and visual cortex in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster): evidence for multisensory processing in primary sensory areas.

    PubMed

    Campi, Katharine L; Bales, Karen L; Grunewald, Rebecca; Krubitzer, Leah

    2010-01-01

    In prairie voles, primary sensory areas are dominated by neurons that respond to one sensory modality, but some neurons also respond to stimulation of other modalities. To reveal the anatomical substrate for these multimodal responses, we examined the connections of the primary auditory area + the anterior auditory field (A1 + AAF), the temporal anterior area (TA), and the primary visual area (V1). A1 + AAF had intrinsic connections and connections with TA, multimodal cortex (MM), V1, and primary somatosensory area (S1). TA had intrinsic connections and connections with A1 + AAF, MM, and V2. Callosal connections were observed in homotopic locations in auditory cortex for both fields. A1 + AAF and TA receive thalamic input primarily from divisions of the medial geniculate nucleus but also from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd), the lateral posterior nucleus, and the ventral posterior nucleus (VP). V1 had dense intrinsic connections and connections with V2, MM, auditory cortex, pyriform cortex (Pyr), and, in some cases, somatosensory cortex. V1 had interhemispheric connections with V1, V2, MM, S1, and Pyr and received thalamic input from LGd and VP. Our results indicate that multisensory integration occurs in primary sensory areas of the prairie vole cortex, and this may be related to behavioral specializations associated with its niche. PMID:19395525

  19. Observations on the connectivity of the parvicellular reticular formation with respect to a vomiting center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic and extrinsic connections of the parvicellular reticular formation (PCRF) that have been demonstrated by fiber degeneration studies and studied by more recently introduced horseradish peroxidase retrograde cell labeling are reviewed in an attempt to delimit the connectivity of the region in the PCRF where electrical stimulation produced emesis. Evidence is presented that certain specific functional subdivisions in PCRF such as the salivatory nuclei and the cells which give rise to the vestibular efferent projections can be delimited. An attempt is made to differentiate the sources of brain stem afferent connections with the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, the vagal nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus complex. The literature bearing on the histochemistry of the brain stem is reviewed in a search for clues to possible unique histo- or immunochemical cytological subdivisions in the parvicellular reticular formation.

  20. The Importance of Lateral Connections in the Parietal Cortex for Generating Motor Plans

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Derrik E.; Oros, Nicolas; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence has highlighted the significant role of associative brain areas, such as the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in transforming multimodal sensory information into motor plans. However, little is known about how different sensory information, which can have different delays or be absent, combines to produce a motor plan, such as executing a reaching movement. To address these issues, we constructed four biologically plausible network architectures to simulate PPC: 1) feedforward from sensory input to the PPC to a motor output area, 2) feedforward with the addition of an efference copy from the motor area, 3) feedforward with the addition of lateral or recurrent connectivity across PPC neurons, and 4) feedforward plus efference copy, and lateral connections. Using an evolutionary strategy, the connectivity of these network architectures was evolved to execute visually guided movements, where the target stimulus provided visual input for the entirety of each trial. The models were then tested on a memory guided motor task, where the visual target disappeared after a short duration. Sensory input to the neural networks had sensory delays consistent with results from monkey studies. We found that lateral connections within the PPC resulted in smoother movements and were necessary for accurate movements in the absence of visual input. The addition of lateral connections resulted in velocity profiles consistent with those observed in human and non-human primate visually guided studies of reaching, and allowed for smooth, rapid, and accurate movements under all conditions. In contrast, Feedforward or Feedback architectures were insufficient to overcome these challenges. Our results suggest that intrinsic lateral connections are critical for executing accurate, smooth motor plans. PMID:26252871

  1. Device Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have to take numerous factors/data into their therapeutic decisions in daily life. Connecting the devices they are using by feeding the data generated into a database/app is supposed to help patients to optimize their glycemic control. As this is not established in practice, the different roadblocks have to be discussed to open the road. That large telecommunication companies are now entering this market might be a big help in pushing this forward. Smartphones offer an ideal platform for connectivity solutions. PMID:25614015

  2. Learning Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Regina D.; Richards, Patricia O.

    2005-01-01

    In this edition of Learning Connections, the authors show how technology can enhance study of weather patterns, reading comprehension, real-world training, critical thinking, health education, and art criticism. The following sections are included: (1) Social Studies; (2) Language Arts; (3) Computer Science and ICT; (4) Art; and (5) Health.…

  3. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillen, Ian

    2014-01-01

    "We used to send out books that looked like this," says Barbara Dreyer, as she holds the 500-page volume from one of the first-ever courses offered online by Connections Academy. "You could look at this information online, but, frankly, a lot of people were doing this," she adds, thumbing through the book's pages. Dreyer,…

  4. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  5. Get Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Hagevik, Rita; Adkinson, Bennett; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Technology can be both a blessing and a curse in the classroom. Although technology can provide greater access to information and increase student engagement, if screen time replaces time spent outside, then students stand to lose awareness and connectivity to the surrounding natural environment. This article describes how Google Earth can foster…

  6. College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Scalzo, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Oakwood City School District's College Connection Study, which is now in its eighth year. The purpose of the study is to help the educators in the district learn how to effectively prepare students for success in the colleges of their choice. Teachers, administrators, and other staff members travel to colleges to conduct…

  7. The auditory cross-section (AXS) test battery: A new way to study afferent/efferent relations linking body periphery (ear, voice, heart) with brainstem and cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauter, Judith

    2002-05-01

    Several noninvasive methods are available for studying the neural bases of human sensory-motor function, but their cost is prohibitive for many researchers and clinicians. The auditory cross section (AXS) test battery utilizes relatively inexpensive methods, yet yields data that are at least equivalent, if not superior in some applications, to those generated by more expensive technologies. The acronym emphasizes access to axes-the battery makes it possible to assess dynamic physiological relations along all three body-brain axes: rostro-caudal (afferent/efferent), dorso-ventral, and right-left, on an individually-specific basis, extending from cortex to the periphery. For auditory studies, a three-level physiological ear-to-cortex profile is generated, utilizing (1) quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG); (2) the repeated evoked potentials version of the auditory brainstem response (REPs/ABR); and (3) otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Battery procedures will be explained, and sample data presented illustrating correlated multilevel changes in ear, voice, heart, brainstem, and cortex in response to circadian rhythms, and challenges with substances such as antihistamines and Ritalin. Potential applications for the battery include studies of central auditory processing, reading problems, hyperactivity, neural bases of voice and speech motor control, neurocardiology, individually-specific responses to medications, and the physiological bases of tinnitus, hyperacusis, and related treatments.

  8. The Responsive Amygdala: Treatment-induced Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Simons, LE; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-gender matched controls before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared to controls, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pre-treated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy controls from Time 1 to Time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity following an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  9. The responsive amygdala: treatment-induced alterations in functional connectivity in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simons, L E; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-09-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear, and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-sex matched control subjects before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared with control subjects, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pretreated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy control subjects from time 1 to time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores; and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity after an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  10. Aberrant structural and functional connectivity in the salience network and central executive network circuit in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Chen, Xingui; He, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Kai; Qiu, Bensheng

    2016-08-01

    Consistent structural and functional abnormities have been detected in the salience network (SN) and the central-executive network (CEN) in schizophrenia. SN, known for its critical role in switching CEN and default-mode network (DMN) during cognitively demanding tasks, is proved to show aberrant regulation on the interaction between DMN and CEN in schizophrenia. However, it has not been elucidated whether there is a direct alteration of structural and functional connectivity between SN and CEN. 22 schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in present study. The results show that schizophrenia patients had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in right inferior long fasciculus (ILF), left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and callosal body than healthy controls. Significantly reduced functional connectivity was also found between right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC). FA in right ILF was positively correlated with the functional connectivity of rFIC-rPPC. Therefore, we proposed a disruption of structural and functional connectivity and a positive anatomo-functional relationship in SN-CEN circuit, which might account for a core feature of schizophrenia. PMID:27233217

  11. Connections of the superior colliculus with the tegmentum and the cerebellum in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1997-06-01

    Different tracer substances were injected into the superior colliculus (CoS) in order to study its afferents and efferents with the meso-rhombencephalic tegmentum, the precerebellar nuclei and the cerebellum in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec. The overall pattern of tectal connectivity in tenrec was similar to that in other mammals, as, e.g. the efferents to the contralateral paramedian reticular formation. Similarly the origin of the cerebello-tectal projection in mainly the lateral portions of the tenrec's cerebellar nuclear complex corresponded to the findings in species with little binocular overlap. In comparison to other mammals, however, the tenrec showed a consistent projection to the ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus, in addition to the classical contralateral tecto-olivary projection. The tenrec's CoS also appeared to receive an unusually prominent monoaminergic input particularly from the substantia nigra, pars compacta. There was a reciprocal tecto-parabigeminal projection, a distinct nuclear aggregation of parabigeminal neurons, however, was difficult to identify. The dorsal lemniscal nucleus did not show perikaryal labeling in contrast to the paralemniscal region. Similar to the cat but unlike the rat there were a few neurons in the nucleus of the central acoustic tract. Unlike the cat, but similar to the rat there was a distinct, predominantly ipsilateral projection to the magnocellular reticular field known to project spinalward. PMID:9220470

  12. Age-related Decline in Kv3.1b Expression in the Mouse Auditory Brainstem Correlates with Functional Deficits in the Medial Olivocochlear Efferent System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; O’Neill, William E.; Frisina, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Kv3.1b channel protein is widely distributed in the mammalian auditory brainstem, but studies have focused mainly on regions critical for temporal processing, including the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). Because temporal processing declines with age, this study was undertaken to determine if the expression of Kv3.1b likewise declines, and if changes are specific to these nuclei. Immunocytochemistry using an anti-Kv3.1b antibody was performed, and the relative optical density of cells and neuropil was determined from CBA/CaJ mice of four age groups. Declines in expression in AVCN, MNTB, and lateral superior olive (35, 26, and 23%) were found, but changes were limited to neuropil. Interestingly, cellular optical density declines were found in superior paraolivary nucleus, ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, and lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (24, 29, and 26%), which comprise the medial olivocochlear (MOC) feedback system. All declines occurred by middle age (15 months old). No age-related changes were found in the remaining regions of cochlear nucleus or in the inferior colliculus. Contralateral suppression of distortion-product otoacoustic emission amplitudes of age-matched littermates also declined by middle age, suggesting a correlation between Kv3.1 expression and MOC function. In search of more direct evidence for such a correlation, Kv3.1b knockout mice were examined. Knockouts show poor MOC function as compared to +/+ and +/− genotypes. Thus, Kv3.1b expression declines in MOC neurons by middle age, and these changes appear to correlate with functional declines in efferent activity in both middle-aged CBA mice and Kv3.1b knockout mice. PMID:17453307

  13. Efferents from the lateral frontal cortex to spinomedullary target areas, trigeminal nuclei, and spinally projecting brainstem regions in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H; Lotter, G

    1996-08-12

    This study was done in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec, an insectivore with a very poorly differentiated neocortex. The cortical region, known to give rise to spinal projections, was injected with tracer, and the cortical efferents to brainstem and spinal cord were analyzed. Bulbar reticular fields, in addition, were identified according to their cells of origin and the laterality of their spinal projections after injection of tracer. Only few cortical fibers could be traced from the bulbar pyramid into the ipsilateral spinal cord, particularly to the lateral funiculus. The projections to the dorsal column nuclei and the classical spinally projecting brainstem regions were also weak. Faint projections were demonstrated to the nucleus of the posterior commissure and the nucleus of Darkschewitsch. In comparison to other mammals, there was no evidence that the contralateral cortico-bulbo-spinal pathway was strengthened, substituting for the almost non-existent contralateral corticospinal projection. Unlike the sensorimotor apparatus controlling limb and body movements, the brainstem regions controlling the head and neck received prominent cortical projections. Direct corticotrigeminal projections and indirect pathways were well represented. The projections to the trigeminal nuclei and the lateral reticular fields were clearly bilateral; those to the superior colliculus were predominantly ipsilateral. The corticobulbar fibers left the pyramid along its entire extent; the principal trigeminal nucleus and the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum were supplied by additional fibers of the corticotegmental tract. The lateral frontal cortex also projected densely to the dorsolateral hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and the adjacent mesencephalic tegmentum, components of the emotional motor system. PMID:8841923

  14. The mammalian efferent vestibular system plays a crucial role in the high-frequency response and short-term adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Patrick P; Khan, Serajul I; Migliaccio, Americo A

    2015-12-01

    Although anatomically well described, the functional role of the mammalian efferent vestibular system (EVS) remains unclear. Unlike in fish and reptiles, the mammalian EVS does not seem to play a role in modulation of primary afferent activity in anticipation of active head movements. However, it could play a role in modulating long-term mechanisms requiring plasticity such as vestibular adaptation. We measured the efficacy of vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) adaptation in α9-knockout mice. These mice carry a missense mutation of the gene encoding the α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit. The α9 nAChR subunit is expressed in the vestibular and auditory periphery, and its loss of function could compromise peripheral input from the predominantly cholinergic EVS. We measured the VOR gain (eye velocity/head velocity) in 26 α9-knockout mice and 27 cba129 control mice. Mice were randomly assigned to one of three groups: gain-increase adaptation (1.5×), gain-decrease adaptation (0.5×), or no adaptation (baseline, 1×). After adaptation training (horizontal rotations at 0.5 Hz with peak velocity 20°/s), we measured the sinusoidal (0.2-10 Hz, 20-100°/s) and transient (1,500-6,000°/s(2)) VOR in complete darkness. α9-Knockout mice had significantly lower baseline gains compared with control mice. This difference increased with stimulus frequency (∼ 5% <1 Hz to ∼ 25% >1 Hz). Moreover, vestibular adaptation (difference in VOR gain of gain-increase and gain-decrease adaptation groups as % of gain increase) was significantly reduced in α9-knockout mice (17%) compared with control mice (53%), a reduction of ∼ 70%. Our results show that the loss of α9 nAChRs moderately affects the VOR but severely affects VOR adaptation, suggesting that the EVS plays a crucial role in vestibular plasticity. PMID:26424577

  15. The Cortical Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex in the Monkey Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yeterian, Edward H.; Pandya, Deepak N.; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Petrides, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One dimension of understanding the functions of the prefrontal cortex is knowledge of cortical connectivity. We have surveyed three aspects of prefrontal cortical connections: local projections (within the frontal lobe), the termination patterns of long association (post-Rolandic) projections, and the trajectories of major fiber pathways. The local connections appear to be organized in relation to dorsal (hippocampal origin) and ventral (paleocortical origin) architectonic trends. According to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex, cortical areas can be traced as originating from archicortex (hippocampus) on the one hand, and paleocortex, on the other hand, in a stepwise manner (e.g., Sanides, 1969; Pandya and Yeterian, 1985). Prefrontal areas within each trend are connected with less architectonically differentiated areas, and, on the other hand, with more differentiated areas. Such organization may allow for the systematic exchange of information within each architectonic trend. The long connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions seem to be organized preferentially in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Prefrontal areas are connected with post-Rolandic auditory, visual and somatosensory association areas, and with multimodal and paralimbic regions. This long connectivity likely works in conjunction with local connections to serve prefrontal cortical functions. The afferent and efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions are conveyed by specific long association pathways. These pathways as well appear to be organized in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Finally, although prefrontal areas have preferential connections in relation to dual architectonic trends, it is clear that there are interconnections between and among areas in each trend, which may provide a substrate for the overall integrative function of the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal

  16. Overexpression of the transcription factor RAP2.6 leads to enhanced callose deposition in syncytia and enhanced resistance against the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is their source of nutrients throughout their life. A transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that gene expression in the syncytium is different from that of the root with thousands of genes upregulated or downregulated. Among the downregulated genes are many which code for defense-related proteins. One gene which is strongly downregulated codes for the ethylene response transcription factor RAP2.6. The genome of Arabidopsis contains 122 ERF transcription factor genes which are involved in a variety of developmental and stress responses. Results Expression of RAP2.6 was studied with RT-PCR and a promoter::GUS line. During normal growth conditions the gene was expressed especially in roots and stems. It was inducible by Pseudomonas syringae but downregulated in syncytia from a very early time point on. Overexpression of the gene enhanced the resistance against H. schachtii which was seen by a lower number of nematodes developing on these plants as well as smaller syncytia and smaller female nematodes. A T-DNA mutant had a reduced RAP2.6 transcript level but this did not further increase the susceptibility against H. schachtii. Neither overexpression lines nor mutants had an effect on P. syringae. Overexpression of RAP2.6 led to an elevated expression of JA-responsive genes during early time points after infection by H. schachtii. Syncytia developing on overexpression lines showed enhanced deposition of callose. Conclusions Our results showed that H. schachtii infection is accompanied by a downregulation of RAP2.6. It seems likely that the nematodes use effectors to actively downregulate the expression of this and other defense-related genes to avoid resistance responses of the host plant. Enhanced resistance of RAP2.6 overexpression lines seemed to be due to enhanced

  17. Adaptive algorithms to map how brain trauma affects anatomical connectivity in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Emily L.; Prasad, Gautam; Babikian, Talin; Kernan, Claudia; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in white matter (WM) integrity occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and often persist long after the visible scars have healed. Heterogeneity in injury types and locations can complicate analyses, making it harder to discover common biomarkers for tracking recovery. Here we apply a newly developed adaptive connectivity method, EPIC (evolving partitions to improve connectomics) to identify differences in structural connectivity that persist longitudinally. This data comes from a longitudinal study, in which we scanned participants (aged 8-19 years) with anatomical and diffusion MRI in both the post-acute and chronic phases (1-6 months and 13-19 months post-injury). To identify patterns of abnormal connectivity, we trained a model on data from 32 TBI patients in the post-acute phase and 45 well-matched healthy controls, reducing an initial 68x68 connectivity matrix to a 14x14 matrix. We then applied this reduced parcellation to the chronic data in participants who had returned for their chronic assessment (21 TBI and 26 healthy controls) and tested for group differences. We found significant differences in two connections, comprising callosal fibers and long anterior-posterior fibers, with the TBI group showing increased fiber density relative to controls. Longitudinal analysis revealed that these were connections that were decreasing over time in the healthy controls, as is a common developmental phenomenon, but they were increasing in the TBI group. While we cannot definitively tell why this may occur with our current data, this study provides targets for longitudinal tracking, and poses questions for future investigation.

  18. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  19. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... L. Goldstein, MD, MMSc (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  20. DISSECTING HABITAT CONNECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract

    Connectivity is increasingly recognized as an important element of a successful reserve design. Connectivity matters in reserve design to the extent that it promotes or hinders the viability of target populations. While conceptually straightforward, connectivity i...

  1. Cortical chemoarchitecture shapes macroscale effective functional connectivity patterns in macaque cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Turk, Elise; Scholtens, Lianne H; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian cortex is a complex system of-at the microscale level-interconnected neurons and-at the macroscale level-interconnected areas, forming the infrastructure for local and global neural processing and information integration. While the effects of regional chemoarchitecture on local cortical activity are well known, the effect of local neurotransmitter receptor organization on the emergence of large scale region-to-region functional interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we examined reports of effective functional connectivity-as measured by the action of strychnine administration acting on the chemical balance of cortical areas-in relation to underlying regional variation in microscale neurotransmitter receptor density levels in the macaque cortex. Linking cortical variation in microscale receptor density levels to collated information on macroscale functional connectivity of the macaque cortex, we show macroscale patterns of effective corticocortical functional interactions-and in particular, the strength of connectivity of efferent macroscale pathways-to be related to the ratio of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor densities of cortical areas. Our findings provide evidence for the microscale chemoarchitecture of cortical areas to have a direct stimulating influence on the emergence of macroscale functional connectivity patterns in the mammalian brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1856-1865, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970255

  2. The hippocampal continuation (indusium griseum): its connectivity in the hedgehog tenrec and its status within the hippocampal formation of higher vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    2004-06-01

    The indusium griseum and its precallosal extension are usually considered poorly differentiated portions of the hippocampus. The connections of this so-called 'hippocampal continuation' (HCt) have only been analyzed so far in rodents, which show one of the least-developed HCt among mammals. In this study we have investigated the relatively well differentiated HCt of the small Madagascan hedgehog tenrec (Afrotheria) using histochemical and axonal transport techniques. The tenrec's HCt shows associative and commissural connections. It receives laminar specific afferents from the entorhinal cortex (collaterals from neurons projecting to the dentate area), the anterior and posterior piriform cortices as well as the supramammillary region. A few fibers also originate in the olfactory bulb and the dentate hilus. Among these input areas only the dentate hilus receives a significant reciprocal projection from the HCt. Additional HCt efferents are directed to the subcallosal septum (presumed septohippocampal nucleus), the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja. With the exception of the supramammillary afferents and possible efferents to the supraoptic nucleus we failed, however, to demonstrate distinct thalamic and hypothalamic connections. A comparison of the connections of the HCt with those of the hippocampal subdivisions reveal some similarity between the HCt and the dentate area, but the overall pattern of connectivity does not permit a correlation of the HCt with the dentate area, let alone the cornu ammonis and the subiculum. This view is supported by histochemical findings in the tenrec (immunoreactivity to calcium binding proteins) as well as the rat (data taken from the literature). The HCt is therefore considered a region in its own right within the hippocampal formation. It may be tentatively correlated with the medial cortex of reptiles, while the dentate area and the cornu ammonis may have evolved de novo in mammals. PMID:15168114

  3. Two phenotypically distinct T cells are involved in ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid-induced suppression of the efferent delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.A.; Howie, S.E.; Norval, M.; Maingay, J.

    1987-09-01

    When UVB-irradiated urocanic acid, the putative photoreceptor/mediator for UVB suppression, is administered to mice it induces a dose-dependent suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), of similar magnitude to that induced by UV irradiation of mice. In this study, the efferent suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by UV-irradiated urocanic acid is demonstrated to be due to 2 phenotypically distinct T cells, (Thy1+, L3T4-, Ly2+) and (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-). The suppression is specific for HSV-1. This situation parallels the generation of 2 distinct T-suppressor cells for HSV-1 by UV irradiation of mice and provides further evidence for the involvement of urocanic acid in the generation of UVB suppression.

  4. Weakly connected neural nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1990-01-01

    A new neural network architecture is proposed based upon effects of non-Lipschitzian dynamics. The network is fully connected, but these connections are active only during vanishingly short time periods. The advantages of this architecture are discussed.

  5. A General Approach for Quantifying Nonlinear Connectivity in the Nervous System Based on Phase Coupling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Yao, Jun; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Schouten, Alfred C; van der Helm, Frans C T

    2016-02-01

    Interaction between distant neuronal populations is essential for communication within the nervous system and can occur as a highly nonlinear process. To better understand the functional role of neural interactions, it is important to quantify the nonlinear connectivity in the nervous system. We introduce a general approach to measure nonlinear connectivity through phase coupling: the multi-spectral phase coherence (MSPC). Using simulated data, we compare MSPC with existing phase coupling measures, namely n : m synchronization index and bi-phase locking value. MSPC provides a system description, including (i) the order of the nonlinearity, (ii) the direction of interaction, (iii) the time delay in the system, and both (iv) harmonic and (v) intermodulation coupling beyond the second order; which are only partly revealed by other methods. We apply MSPC to analyze data from a motor control experiment, where subjects performed isotonic wrist flexions while receiving movement perturbations. MSPC between the perturbation, EEG and EMG was calculated. Our results reveal directional nonlinear connectivity in the afferent and efferent pathways, as well as the time delay (43 ± 8 ms) between the perturbation and the brain response. In conclusion, MSPC is a novel approach capable to assess high-order nonlinear interaction and timing in the nervous system. PMID:26404514

  6. MedlinePlus Connect

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus Connect? MedlinePlus Connect links health IT systems, patient portals and electronic health record (EHR) systems to relevant, ... care providers when they need it via their patient portal or EHR. How does MedlinePlus Connect work? MedlinePlus ...

  7. Cortical brain connectivity evaluated by graph theory in dementia: a correlation study between functional and structural data.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Curcio, Giuseppe; Altavilla, Riccardo; Scrascia, Federica; Giambattistelli, Federica; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Bramanti, Placido; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2015-01-01

    A relatively new approach to brain function in neuroscience is the "functional connectivity", namely the synchrony in time of activity in anatomically-distinct but functionally-collaborating brain regions. On the other hand, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based technique with the capability to detect brain structural connection with fractional anisotropy (FA) identification. FA decrease has been observed in the corpus callosum of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, an AD prodromal stage). Corpus callosum splenium DTI abnormalities are thought to be associated with functional disconnections among cortical areas. This study aimed to investigate possible correlations between structural damage, measured by MRI-DTI, and functional abnormalities of brain integration, measured by characteristic path length detected in resting state EEG source activity (40 participants: 9 healthy controls, 10 MCI, 10 mild AD, 11 moderate AD). For each subject, undirected and weighted brain network was built to evaluate graph core measures. eLORETA lagged linear connectivity values were used as weight of the edges of the network. Results showed that callosal FA reduction is associated to a loss of brain interhemispheric functional connectivity characterized by increased delta and decreased alpha path length. These findings suggest that "global" (average network shortest path length representing an index of how efficient is the information transfer between two parts of the network) functional measure can reflect the reduction of fiber connecting the two hemispheres as revealed by DTI analysis and also anticipate in time this structural loss. PMID:25613102

  8. Chip connectivity verification program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Josh (Inventor); Patterson, George (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for testing electrical connectivity between conductive structures on a chip that is preferably layered with conductive and nonconductive layers. The method includes determining the layer on which each structure is located and defining the perimeter of each structure. Conductive layer connections between each of the layers are determined, and, for each structure, the points of intersection between the perimeter of that structure and the perimeter of each other structure on the chip are also determined. Finally, electrical connections between the structures are determined using the points of intersection and the conductive layer connections.

  9. 78 FR 55684 - ConnectED Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... policies and consider the most promising strategies for equipping K-12 schools for digital learning. The... devices to enrich the learning experience; as teachers increasingly integrate Web video and other digital... Program (BIP), Broadband Loan Program, Community Connect Program, and Distance Learning and...

  10. An update on the connections of the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex.

    PubMed

    Yetnikoff, L; Lavezzi, H N; Reichard, R A; Zahm, D S

    2014-12-12

    This review covers the intrinsic organization and afferent and efferent connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex, comprising the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and retrorubral field, which house, respectively, the A9, A10 and A8 groups of nigrostriatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons. In addition, A10dc (dorsal, caudal) and A10rv (rostroventral) extensions into, respectively, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and supramammillary nucleus are discussed. Associated intrinsic and extrinsic connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex that utilize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and neuropeptides and various co-expressed combinations of these compounds are considered in conjunction with the dopamine-containing systems. A framework is provided for understanding the organization of massive afferent systems descending and ascending to the midbrain dopaminergic complex from the telencephalon and brainstem, respectively. Within the context of this framework, the basal ganglia direct and indirect output pathways are treated in some detail. Findings from rodent brain are briefly compared with those from primates, including humans. Recent literature is emphasized, including traditional experimental neuroanatomical and modern gene transfer and optogenetic studies. An attempt was made to provide sufficient background and cite a representative sampling of earlier primary papers and reviews so that people new to the field may find this to be a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject. PMID:24735820