Science.gov

Sample records for efficiency measures securing

  1. No Blanket Security Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisner, Hava

    2001-01-01

    Presents a discussion with Jefferson County, Colorado, Architect Jack Swanzy, who explains how security is implemented in his 148-school district in the aftermath of the Columbine tragedy. Discusses the use of key management, videotapes, on-site police, and staff emergency communications. (GR)

  2. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-03-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  3. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-07-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  4. Towards Efficient Collaboration in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Peter SY; Bruce, Joseph R.; Fink, Glenn A.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Best, Daniel M.; McGrath, Liam R.; Endert, Alexander

    2010-06-03

    Cyber security analysts in different geographical and organizational domains are often largely tasked with similar duties, albeit with domain-specific variations. These analysts necessarily perform much of the same work independently— for instance, analyzing the same list of security bulletins released by largely the same set of software vendors. As such, communication and collaboration between such analysts would be mutually beneficial to the analysts involved, potentially reducing redundancy and offering the opportunity to preemptively alert each other to high-severity security alerts in a more timely fashion. However, several barriers to practical and efficient collaboration exist, and as such, no such framework exists to support such efforts. In this paper, we discuss the inherent difficulties which make efficient collaboration between cyber security analysts a difficult goal to achieve. We discuss preliminary ideas and concepts towards a collaborative cyber-security framework currently under development, whose goal is to facilitate analyst collaboration across these boundaries. While still in its early stages, we describe work-in-progress towards achieving this goal, including motivation, functionality, concepts, and a high-level description of the proposed system architecture.

  5. Photoreceiver efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehr, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency and other related parameters of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's four laser receivers were measured at the observing stations by oscilloscope photography. If the efficiency is defined as the number of photoelectrons generated by the photomultiplier tube divided by the number of photons entering the aperture of the receiver, its measured value is about 1% for the laser wavelength of 694 nm. This value is consistent with the efficiency computed from the specified characteristics of the photoreceiver's optical components.

  6. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.265 Security measures for restricted areas. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.265 Security measures for restricted areas. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.265 Security measures for restricted areas. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.265 Security measures for restricted areas. (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.265 Security measures for restricted areas. (a)...

  11. A New Method for Creating Efficient Security Policies in Virtual Private Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad Mehdi Gilanian; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Pedram, Hossein; Deghan, Mehdi; Sabaei, Masoud

    One of the most important protocols for implementing tunnels in order to take action of secure virtual private network is IPsec protocol. IPsec policies are used widely in order to limit access to information in security gateways or firewalls. The security treatment, namely (Deny, Allow or Encrypt) is done for outbound as well as inbound traffic by security policies. It is so important that they adjust properly. The current methods for security policies creation as seen in given security requirements are not efficient enough i.e. there are much more created policies than requirements. In this paper, we define a new method to decrease adopted security policies for a specific set of security requirements without any undesirable effect. Our measurement shows that security policies creation will be improved efficiently, and their updating time will be decreased.

  12. 33 CFR 105.260 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for restricted... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.260 Security...) Protect sensitive security areas within the facility; (6) Protect security and surveillance equipment...

  13. 33 CFR 105.260 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for restricted... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.260 Security...) Protect sensitive security areas within the facility; (6) Protect security and surveillance equipment...

  14. 33 CFR 105.260 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for restricted... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.260 Security...) Protect sensitive security areas within the facility; (6) Protect security and surveillance equipment...

  15. 33 CFR 105.260 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for restricted... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.260 Security...) Protect sensitive security areas within the facility; (6) Protect security and surveillance equipment...

  16. Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2010-05-01

    This document provides the methods to secure routable control system communication in the electric sector. The approach of this document yields a long-term vision for a future of secure communication, while also providing near term steps and a roadmap. The requirements for the future secure control system environment were spelled out to provide a final target. Additionally a survey and evaluation of current protocols was used to determine if any existing technology could achieve this goal. In the end a four-step path was described that brought about increasing requirement completion and culminates in the realization of the long term vision.

  17. Portfolio analysis of layered security measures.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Hora, Stephen C; Rosoff, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Layered defenses are necessary for protecting the public from terrorist attacks. Designing a system of such defensive measures requires consideration of the interaction of these countermeasures. In this article, we present an analysis of a layered security system within the lower Manhattan area. It shows how portfolios of security measures can be evaluated through portfolio decision analysis. Consideration is given to the total benefits and costs of the system. Portfolio diagrams are created that help communicate alternatives among stakeholders who have differing views on the tradeoffs between security and economic activity. PMID:25487829

  18. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. PMID:25407084

  19. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for restricted... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.270 Security... on board; (3) Protect the vessel; (4) Protect sensitive security areas within the vessel; (5)...

  20. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for restricted... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.270 Security... on board; (3) Protect the vessel; (4) Protect sensitive security areas within the vessel; (5)...

  1. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for restricted... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.270 Security... on board; (3) Protect the vessel; (4) Protect sensitive security areas within the vessel; (5)...

  2. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for restricted... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.270 Security... on board; (3) Protect the vessel; (4) Protect sensitive security areas within the vessel; (5)...

  3. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  4. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  5. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  6. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  7. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.285 Security measures for monitoring. (a) General. (1) The vessel owner or operator must ensure the implementation of security...

  8. 33 CFR 105.260 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for restricted areas. 105.260 Section 105.260 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.260 Security measures for restricted areas. (a)...

  9. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  10. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  11. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  12. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  13. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  14. 33 CFR 105.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.275 Security measures... measures in this section and have the capability to continuously monitor, through a combination of...

  15. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  16. Energy efficient lighting and security; Are they compatible

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that properly applied, light sources and lighting systems not only enhance a building's attractiveness and usability, they also create a secure environment. An effectively lighted area can minimize pedestrian hazards and auto accidents. Good security lighting also eliminates the darkness that vandals, thieves, and felons thrive on. Unfortunately, lighting quality has sometimes been sacrificed for the sake of energy efficiency, and resulting savings offset by poor aesthetics and user dissatisfaction. However, trade-offs in quality and efficiency are not necessary, thanks to recent developments in light source technology.

  17. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijia; Hu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an efficient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable efficiency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model. PMID:24971471

  18. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy, NREL developed this tool to help users determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for improving energy efficiency of existing homes. Software developers who require residential retrofit performance and cost data for applications that evaluate residential efficiency measures are the primary audience for this database. In addition, home performance contractors and manufacturers of residential materials and equipment may find this information useful. The database offers the following types of retrofit measures: 1) Appliances, 2) Domestic Hot Water, 3) Enclosure, 4) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), 5) Lighting, 6) Miscellaneous.

  19. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  20. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  1. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  2. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  3. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  4. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a) General... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets...

  5. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a) General... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets...

  6. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a) General... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets...

  7. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a) General... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets...

  8. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.270 Security measures for delivery...

  9. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.270 Security measures for delivery...

  10. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.270 Security measures for delivery...

  11. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.270 Security measures for delivery...

  12. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.270 Security measures for delivery...

  13. A flexible framework for secure and efficient program obfuscation.

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, John Hector

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a modular framework for constructing a secure and efficient program obfuscation scheme. Our approach, inspired by the obfuscation with respect to oracle machines model of [4], retains an interactive online protocol with an oracle, but relaxes the original computational and storage restrictions. We argue this is reasonable given the computational resources of modern personal devices. Furthermore, we relax the information-theoretic security requirement for computational security to utilize established cryptographic primitives. With this additional flexibility we are free to explore different cryptographic buildingblocks. Our approach combines authenticated encryption with private information retrieval to construct a secure program obfuscation framework. We give a formal specification of our framework, based on desired functionality and security properties, and provide an example instantiation. In particular, we implement AES in Galois/Counter Mode for authenticated encryption and the Gentry-Ramzan [13]constant communication-rate private information retrieval scheme. We present our implementation results and show that non-trivial sized programs can be realized, but scalability is quickly limited by computational overhead. Finally, we include a discussion on security considerations when instantiating specific modules.

  14. GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  15. Efficient Authorization of Rich Presence Using Secure and Composed Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Chou, Wu

    This paper presents an extended Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model for efficient authorization of rich presence using secure web services composed with an abstract presence data model. Following the information symmetry principle, the standard RBAC model is extended to support context sensitive social relations and cascaded authority. In conjunction with the extended RBAC model, we introduce an extensible presence architecture prototype using WS-Security and WS-Eventing to secure rich presence information exchanges based on PKI certificates. Applications and performance measurements of our presence system are presented to show that the proposed RBAC framework for presence and collaboration is well suited for real-time communication and collaboration.

  16. A Secure and Efficient Threshold Group Signature Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yansheng; Wang, Xueming; Qiu, Gege

    The paper presents a secure and efficient threshold group signature scheme aiming at two problems of current threshold group signature schemes: conspiracy attack and inefficiency. Scheme proposed in this paper takes strategy of separating designed clerk who is responsible for collecting and authenticating each individual signature from group, the designed clerk don't participate in distribution of group secret key and has his own public key and private key, designed clerk needs to sign part information of threshold group signature after collecting signatures. Thus verifier has to verify signature of the group after validating signature of the designed clerk. This scheme is proved to be secure against conspiracy attack at last and is more efficient by comparing with other schemes.

  17. Efficient and provable secure pairing-free security-mediated identity-based identification schemes.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ji-Jian; Tan, Syh-Yuan; Heng, Swee-Huay; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2014-01-01

    Security-mediated cryptography was first introduced by Boneh et al. in 2001. The main motivation behind security-mediated cryptography was the capability to allow instant revocation of a user's secret key by necessitating the cooperation of a security mediator in any given transaction. Subsequently in 2003, Boneh et al. showed how to convert a RSA-based security-mediated encryption scheme from a traditional public key setting to an identity-based one, where certificates would no longer be required. Following these two pioneering papers, other cryptographic primitives that utilize a security-mediated approach began to surface. However, the security-mediated identity-based identification scheme (SM-IBI) was not introduced until Chin et al. in 2013 with a scheme built on bilinear pairings. In this paper, we improve on the efficiency results for SM-IBI schemes by proposing two schemes that are pairing-free and are based on well-studied complexity assumptions: the RSA and discrete logarithm assumptions. PMID:25207333

  18. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  19. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  20. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  1. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  2. 33 CFR 106.275 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for monitoring. 106.275 Section 106.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  3. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  4. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side. PMID:26729130

  5. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. Detecting measurement outliers: remeasure efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Albrecht

    2010-09-01

    Shrinking structures, advanced optical proximity correction (OPC) and complex measurement strategies continually challenge critical dimension (CD) metrology tools and recipe creation processes. One important quality ensuring task is the control of measurement outlier behavior. Outliers could trigger false positive alarm for specification violations impacting cycle time or potentially yield. Constant high level of outliers not only deteriorates cycle time but also puts unnecessary stress on tool operators leading eventually to human errors. At tool level the sources of outliers are natural variations (e.g. beam current etc.), drifts, contrast conditions, focus determination or pattern recognition issues, etc. Some of these can result from suboptimal or even wrong recipe settings, like focus position or measurement box size. Such outliers, created by an automatic recipe creation process faced with more complicated structures, would manifest itself rather as systematic variation of measurements than the one caused by 'pure' tool variation. I analyzed several statistical methods to detect outliers. These range from classical outlier tests for extrema, robust metrics like interquartile range (IQR) to methods evaluating the distribution of different populations of measurement sites, like the Cochran test. The latter suits especially the detection of systematic effects. The next level of outlier detection entwines additional information about the mask and the manufacturing process with the measurement results. The methods were reviewed for measured variations assumed to be normally distributed with zero mean but also for the presence of a statistically significant spatial process signature. I arrive at the conclusion that intelligent outlier detection can influence the efficiency and cycle time of CD metrology greatly. In combination with process information like target, typical platform variation and signature, one can tailor the detection to the needs of the photomask

  7. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  8. Efficient arbitrated quantum signature and its proof of security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Li, Chengqing; Long, Dongyang; Chan, Wai Hong; Wang, Changji

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient arbitrated quantum signature scheme is proposed by combining quantum cryptographic techniques and some ideas in classical cryptography. In the presented scheme, the signatory and the receiver can share a long-term secret key with the arbitrator by utilizing the key together with a random number. While in previous quantum signature schemes, the key shared between the signatory and the arbitrator or between the receiver and the arbitrator could be used only once, and thus each time when a signatory needs to sign, the signatory and the receiver have to obtain a new key shared with the arbitrator through a quantum key distribution protocol. Detailed theoretical analysis shows that the proposed scheme is efficient and provably secure.

  9. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  10. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  11. Planned Efficiency Measurements of STIRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Vladislav; McKenna, Casey; Yuan, Deqian; Gasparik, Jessica; Metcalf, Harold

    2015-05-01

    Our measurements of the absolute efficiency of using STIRAP to populate Rydberg states of He have been limited by the Doppler detuning associated with the divergence of the atomic beam that crosses perpendicular to our laser beams. The limitation is exacerbated when both laser beams co-propagate, compounding these Doppler shifts. We plan to have them counter-propagate and thereby ameliorate this effect. He 23S atoms in a LN2 temperature thermal beam are coupled to the 33P state by λ = 389 nm light (blue), and that state is coupled to Rydberg states by ~ 800 nm (red) light. The anti-parallel laser beams are arranged so that the atoms encounter the red light first (counter-intuitive order for STIRAP) partially overlapping with the blue. We have observed interference among the atomic transitions by varying the light polarization, and are planning further studies concerning these internal atomic interferometry phenomena. Supported by ONR and Dept. of Education GAANN.

  12. Energy security and end use: efficiency and fuel switching

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, W.; Carlsmith, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    In terms of vulnerability to an oil supply disruption or the probability of another sudden large increase in the price of oil, the United States is much more secure today than it has been in a decade. Two causes are the large improvement in the apparent efficiency of energy use (less energy use per unit of activity) and the switching from oil to other fuels. Most of the oil savings due to efficiency improvements were in the industrial and transportation sectors, whereas most of the oil savings due to fuel switching occurred in the electric utility and building sectors. Despite these remarkable changes much more is possible. Presently, we are far from the economically justifiable limits of fuel use efficiency. Similarly, additional oil savings can occur if the trend away from oil by electric utilities and in buildings continues. There appears to be a significant short-term fuel switching capability especially in the industrial and building sectors, but the amount is uncertain. Much of what has been accomplished to date has been the result of changes which did not require large capital investments. Future progress will be increasingly more expensive as these investments are made. Research to find additional technological options for efficiency improvements has a very large potential economic benefit to the US economy. Given the considerable potential for continued improvements in economically attractive efficiency improvements and fuel switching, the United States and other developed countries should be able to manage the demand side of the international oil market to minimize the chance of future oil shortages or large price fluctuations. The strategy for doing this is to complement market forces with appropriate government policies so that the margin between effective world oil production capacity and oil demand is kept at a stable, safe level.

  13. Defining and Computing a Value Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In past work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities\\; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  14. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  15. Measuring and Modeling Security and Privacy Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanosky, Sasha

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript presents empirical and analytical analysis and discussion of security and privacy laws. The introduction, together with the three substantive chapters each represent separate research papers written as partial fulfillment of my PhD dissertation in the Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University. Chapter 2 is an abbreviated version of…

  16. 49 CFR 1554.101 - Security Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... display area of an airport covered by an airport security program under 49 CFR part 1542 in the United... repair station who has successfully undergone a check as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section... history. The repair station obtains the employee's employment history for the most recent five year...

  17. Measuring Academic Efficiency at the School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Hutchins, C. L.

    In this paper, academic efficiency is operationally defined and a methodology for measuring it at the school level is described. Academic efficiency is defined as the extent to which a school utilizes its time for the academic development of all its students. The measure of academic efficiency must include three elements: time, students, and…

  18. Spectral measurements of photosynthetic efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The photosynthetic efficiency of plants was examined for plants in two very different canopies, a USDA cornfield having an instrumented flux tower in Beltsville, MD, USA and a coniferous forest in British Columbia, Canada, included in the tower network of the Canadian Carbon Program. Basic field st...

  19. Efficient and Secure Fingerprint Verification for Embedded Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shenglin; Sakiyama, Kazuo; Verbauwhede, Ingrid

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a secure and memory-efficient embedded fingerprint verification system. It shows how a fingerprint verification module originally developed to run on a workstation can be transformed and optimized in a systematic way to run real-time on an embedded device with limited memory and computation power. A complete fingerprint recognition module is a complex application that requires in the order of 1000 M unoptimized floating-point instruction cycles. The goal is to run both the minutiae extraction and the matching engines on a small embedded processor, in our case a 50 MHz LEON-2 softcore. It does require optimization and acceleration techniques at each design step. In order to speed up the fingerprint signal processing phase, we propose acceleration techniques at the algorithm level, at the software level to reduce the execution cycle number, and at the hardware level to distribute the system work load. Thirdly, a memory trace map-based memory reduction strategy is used for lowering the system memory requirement. Lastly, at the hardware level, it requires the development of specialized coprocessors. As results of these optimizations, we achieve a 65% reduction on the execution time and a 67% reduction on the memory storage requirement for the minutiae extraction process, compared against the reference implementation. The complete operation, that is, fingerprint capture, feature extraction, and matching, can be done in real-time of less than 4 seconds

  20. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, Jonathan T.; Silva, Austin Ray; Avina, Glory Emmanuel; Forsythe, James C.

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  1. Necessary detection efficiencies for secure quantum key distribution and bound randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acín, Antonio; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Passaro, Elsa; Pironio, Stefano; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several hacking attacks have broken the security of quantum cryptography implementations by exploiting the presence of losses and the ability of the eavesdropper to tune detection efficiencies. We present a simple attack of this form that applies to any protocol in which the key is constructed from the results of untrusted measurements performed on particles coming from an insecure source or channel. Because of its generality, the attack applies to a large class of protocols, from standard prepare-and-measure to device-independent schemes. Our attack gives bounds on the critical detection efficiencies necessary for secure quantum key distribution, which show that the implementation of most partly device-independent solutions is, from the point of view of detection efficiency, almost as demanding as fully device-independent ones. We also show how our attack implies the existence of a form of bound randomness, namely nonlocal correlations in which a nonsignalling eavesdropper can find out a posteriori the result of any implemented measurement.

  2. An Efficient Protocol for Secure Two-Party Computation in the Presence of Malicious Adversaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindell, Yehuda; Pinkas, Benny

    We show an efficient secure two-party protocol, based on Yao's construction, which provides security against malicious adversaries. Yao's original protocol is only secure in the presence of semi-honest adversaries. Security against malicious adversaries can be obtained by applying the compiler of Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson (the "GMW compiler"). However, this approach does not seem to be very practical as it requires using generic zero-knowledge proofs.

  3. 61 FR 25729 - Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-05-22

    ... Security Measures; Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece Summary The Secretary of Transportation has now determined that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, maintains and carries out... that Hellenikon International Airport, Athens, Greece, did not maintain and carry out...

  4. Measuring Transmission Efficiencies Of Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.

    1989-01-01

    Coincidence counts yield absolute efficiencies. System measures mass-dependent transmission efficiencies of mass spectrometers, using coincidence-counting techniques reminiscent of those used for many years in calibration of detectors for subatomic particles. Coincidences between detected ions and electrons producing them counted during operation of mass spectrometer. Under certain assumptions regarding inelastic scattering of electrons, electron/ion-coincidence count is direct measure of transmission efficiency of spectrometer. When fully developed, system compact, portable, and used routinely to calibrate mass spectrometers.

  5. 33 CFR 105.270 - Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. 105.270 Section 105.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.270 Security measures for...

  6. Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).

  7. Collection efficiency measurements for solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, H. L.; Olsen, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    A system was established for measuring absolute, spectral collection efficiency that is well suited to solar cell research and development. Determination of spectral collection efficiency involves measurements of the incident photon intensity, the device reflection coefficient, and the cell short circuit current. A monochromatic photon flux is obtained with a high intensity Bausch and Lomb monochromator, and an Epply thermopile detector is used to measure incident intensity. Normal incidence reflectivity measurements are achieved with a prism type beam splitter. The experimental approach is discussed, measurements of the reflectivity of evaporated silver films are considered. Collection efficiency measurements of silicon solar cells are presented, and collection efficiency studies of Cu20 solar cells are discussed.

  8. Transportation Security Administration Efficiency and Flexibility Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Wicker, Roger F. [R-MS

    2011-07-13

    07/13/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber Security Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In earlier works (Ben-Aissa et al. 2010; Abercrombie et al. 2008; Sheldon et al. 2009), we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  10. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  11. A Fast and Key-Efficient Reduction of Chosen-Ciphertext to Known-Plaintext Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Ueli; Sjödin, Johan

    Motivated by the quest for reducing assumptions in security proofs in cryptography, this paper is concerned with designing efficient symmetric encryption and authentication schemes based on any weak pseudorandom function (PRF) which can be much more efficiently implemented than PRFs. Damgård and Nielsen (CRYPTO '02) have shown how to construct an efficient symmetric encryption scheme based on any weak PRF that is provably secure against chosen-plaintext attacks. The main ingredient is a range-extension construction for weak PRFs. By using well-known techniques, they also showed how their scheme can be made secure against the stronger chosen-ciphertext attacks.

  12. Secure quantum weak oblivious transfer against individual measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-06-01

    In quantum weak oblivious transfer, Alice sends Bob two bits and Bob can learn one of the bits at his choice. It was found that the security of such a protocol is bounded by , where is the probability with which Alice can guess Bob's choice, and is the probability with which Bob can guess both of Alice's bits given that he learns one of the bits with certainty. Here we propose a protocol and show that as long as Alice is restricted to individual measurements, then both and can be made arbitrarily close to , so that maximal violation of the security bound can be reached. Even with some limited collective attacks, the security bound can still be violated. Therefore, although our protocol still cannot break the bound in principle when Alice has unlimited cheating power, it is sufficient for achieving secure quantum weak oblivious transfer in practice.

  13. Efficient Cryptography for the Next Generation Secure Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupcu, Alptekin

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, and client-server type storage and computation outsourcing constitute some of the major applications that the next generation cloud schemes will address. Since these applications are just emerging, it is the perfect time to design them with security and privacy in mind. Furthermore, considering the high-churn…

  14. Chapter 20: Data Center IT Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.; Masanet, E.

    2015-01-01

    Data centers use about 2% of the electricity in the United States; a typical data center has 100 to 200 times the energy use intensity of a commercial building. Data centers present tremendous opportunities--energy use can be reduced as much as 80% between inefficient and efficient data centers. Data center efficiency measures generally fall into the following categories: power infrastructure (e.g., more efficient uninterruptible power supplies, power distribution units); cooling (e.g., free cooling, variable-speed drives, temperature and humidity set points); airflow management (e.g., hot aisle/cold aisle, containment, grommets); and information technology efficiency (e.g., server virtualization, efficient servers, efficient data storage).

  15. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  16. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Pt. 105, App. A Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  17. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Pt. 105, App. A Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  18. Punishment in School: The Role of School Security Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Although investigation of school security measures and their relationships to various outcomes including school crime rates (Gottfredson, 2001), perpetuation of social inequality (Ferguson, 2001; Nolan, 2011; Welch & Payne, 2010), and the impact on childhood experiences has seen significant growth within the last 20 years (Newman, 2004;…

  19. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  20. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  1. Securing Biometric Templates Where Similarity Is Measured with Set Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socek, Daniel; Božović, Vladimir; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    A novel scheme for securing biometric templates of variable size and order is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on a new similarity measure approach, namely the set intersection, which strongly resembles the methodology used in most of the current state-of-the-art biometrics matching systems. The applicability of the new scheme is compared with that of the existing principal schemes, and it is shown that the new scheme has definite advantages over the existing approaches. The proposed scheme is analyzed both in terms of security and performance.

  2. A secure and efficiently searchable health information architecture.

    PubMed

    Yasnoff, William A

    2016-06-01

    Patient-centric repositories of health records are an important component of health information infrastructure. However, patient information in a single repository is potentially vulnerable to loss of the entire dataset from a single unauthorized intrusion. A new health record storage architecture, the personal grid, eliminates this risk by separately storing and encrypting each person's record. The tradeoff for this improved security is that a personal grid repository must be sequentially searched since each record must be individually accessed and decrypted. To allow reasonable search times for large numbers of records, parallel processing with hundreds (or even thousands) of on-demand virtual servers (now available in cloud computing environments) is used. Estimated search times for a 10 million record personal grid using 500 servers vary from 7 to 33min depending on the complexity of the query. Since extremely rapid searching is not a critical requirement of health information infrastructure, the personal grid may provide a practical and useful alternative architecture that eliminates the large-scale security vulnerabilities of traditional databases by sacrificing unnecessary searching speed. PMID:27109933

  3. Automated passage control for security, cost efficiency, and convenience

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new methods of passage control through automatic computer processes and electromechanical identity and surveillance devices. It is now possible for a person to be identified with objective certainty by computer without interaction of a guard or duty officer. In addition, the presence of just one person is also confirmed automatically BEFORE passage is allowed into a secured area. There can be no tailgating of intruders during a valid, authorized entry process. The advantage to the facility using this new equipment is improved security through elimination of the subjective decision process of guards who may be right on or who may be off that day. The objective decisions of the automated passage control computers determine a positive identity and passage authority, or else interdicts the passage attempt. There can be no indecision, argument, or waffling about authorization to enter. Each person's Logical Presence is known at all times, and a permanent audit trail is maintained. There is an almost immediate return on investment through the furloughing of expensive guards and inspectors at entry points.

  4. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature. PMID:25634700

  5. The Oil Security Metrics Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Prospective Oil Security Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy R&D Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome

    2006-05-01

    Energy technology R&D is a cornerstone of U.S. energy policy. Understanding the potential for energy technology R&D to solve the nation's energy problems is critical to formulating a successful R&D program. In light of this, the U.S. Congress requested the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake both retrospective and prospective assessments of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research programs (NRC, 2001; NRC, 2005). ("The Congress continued to express its interest in R&D benefits assessment by providing funds for the NRC to build on the retrospective methodology to develop a methodology for assessing prospective benefits." NRC, 2005, p. ES-2) In 2004, the NRC Committee on Prospective Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy R&D Programs published a report recommending a new framework and principles for prospective benefits assessment. The Committee explicitly deferred the issue of estimating security benefits to future work. Recognizing the need for a rigorous framework for assessing the energy security benefits of its R&D programs, the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) developed a framework and approach for defining energy security metrics for R&D programs to use in gauging the energy security benefits of their programs (Lee, 2005). This report describes methods for estimating the prospective oil security benefits of EERE's R&D programs that are consistent with the methodologies of the NRC (2005) Committee and that build on Lee's (2005) framework. Its objective is to define and implement a method that makes use of the NRC's typology of prospective benefits and methodological framework, satisfies the NRC's criteria for prospective benefits evaluation, and permits measurement of that portion of the prospective energy security benefits of EERE's R&D portfolio related to oil. While the Oil Security Metrics (OSM) methodology described in this report has been specifically developed to

  6. Managing Complex IT Security Processes with Value Based Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Current trends indicate that IT security measures will need to greatly expand to counter the ever increasingly sophisticated, well-funded and/or economically motivated threat space. Traditional risk management approaches provide an effective method for guiding courses of action for assessment, and mitigation investments. However, such approaches no matter how popular demand very detailed knowledge about the IT security domain and the enterprise/cyber architectural context. Typically, the critical nature and/or high stakes require careful consideration and adaptation of a balanced approach that provides reliable and consistent methods for rating vulnerabilities. As reported in earlier works, the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System provides a comprehensive measure of reliability, security and safety of a system that accounts for the criticality of each requirement as a function of one or more stakeholders interests in that requirement. This paper advocates a dependability measure that acknowledges the aggregate structure of complex system specifications, and accounts for variations by stakeholder, by specification components, and by verification and validation impact.

  7. Unconditionally secure bit commitment by transmitting measurement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-09-28

    We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol's security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling. PMID:23030073

  8. Securely Measuring the Overlap between Private Datasets with Cryptosets

    PubMed Central

    Swamidass, S. Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data—collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks—into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets—like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data—cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset’s contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach “information-theoretic” security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  9. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  10. Accurate Measurement of Organic Solar Cell Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Moriarty, T.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the measurement and analysis of current vs. voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic and dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells and modules. A brief discussion of the history of photovoltaic efficiency measurements and procedures will be presented. We discuss both the error sources in the measurements and the strategies to minimize their influence. These error sources include the sample area, spectral errors, temperature fluctuations, current and voltage response time, contacting, and degradation during testing. Information that can be extracted from light and dark I-V measurement includes peak power, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, series and shunt resistance, diode quality factor, dark current, and photo-current. The quantum efficiency provides information on photo-current nonlinearities, current generation, and recombination mechanisms.

  11. Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calandrini, Guilherme; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Revenga, Pedro; Lázaro, José L.; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. PMID:23778191

  12. Statistics of Measurements of Automobile Fuel Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2003-11-01

    In these days, with the growing need to worry about petroleum and the efficiency of our automobiles, there should be an increased interest, especially among physics students, in the miles per gallon (MPG) of cars. There should also be interest in the accuracy of single and multiple measurements of the MPG of a car. These topics are covered here in this report of a series of measurements that span 16 years.

  13. PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A journal article by: Ernst Worrell1, John A. Laitner, Michael Ruth, and Hodayah Finman Abstract: We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published dat...

  14. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees. (a... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is...

  15. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees. (a... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is...

  16. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees. (a... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is...

  17. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  18. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the mode ling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  19. An efficient forward-secure group certificate digital signature scheme to enhance EMR authentication process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yao-Chang; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2014-05-01

    The frequently used digital signature algorithms, such as RSA and the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), lack forward-secure function. The result is that, when private keys are renewed, trustworthiness is lost. In other words, electronic medical records (EMRs) signed by revoked private keys are no longer trusted. This significant security threat stands in the way of EMR adoption. This paper proposes an efficient forward-secure group certificate digital signature scheme that is based on Shamir's (t,n) threshold scheme and Schnorr's digital signature scheme to ensure trustworthiness is maintained when private keys are renewed and to increase the efficiency of EMRs' authentication processes in terms of number of certificates, number of keys, forward-secure ability and searching time. PMID:24652661

  20. [Planning a Health Residence for Prison Security Measures, Tuscany (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Porfido, Eugenio; Colombai, Renato; Scarpa, Franco; Totaro, Michele; Tani, Luca; Baldini, Claudio; Baggiani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Health Residences for Prison Security Measures are facilities hosting psychotic persons who have committed crimes and providing them with personalized rehabilitation and treatment plans to promote their reinstatement in society. The aim of this study was to describe the criteria for planning and designing a prison health residence in the Tuscany region (Italy), to be managed by the regional healthcare service, in line with current regulations, with dedicated staff for providing specific treatment plans and programmes. PMID:27510291

  1. Secure transmission of shipper/receiver confirmatory measurements. [Gillaroo Encrypted Secure Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Tisinger, R.M.; Brumfield, T.

    1988-01-01

    Shipper/receiver confirmatory measurements will be performed at Y-12 using equipment designed by Y-12 and the Safeguards Assay Group at Los Alamos. Equipment consists of three stationary NaI(Tl) gamma-ray counter arrays and a Digital Equipment Corporation Micro-11 processor for processing data. In the case of outgoing shipments, the counter data will be incorporated in a shipping file with other necessary documentation and transmitted to the intended recipient. In the case of incoming shipments, this station will receive a similar file from the sending organization. Protection of all data at the S/RD level is required. Transmission of the data files can be made point-to-point over telephone lines with proper encryption. Two commercial devices used in conjunction with a personal computer are being evaluated to provide secure communication endorsed by the National Security Agency (NSA). One device is the Gillaroo from P. E. Systems, Inc., and the other is the STU-III, which is available as a PC board or a standalone unit, whereas the STU-III is a Secure Telephone Unit with an RS-232 port for connection to a computer. In both cases, file encryption is performed in hardware using keys supplied by NSA. The prime advantage of this approach is a simplicity. Aside from key management, the whole operation can be automatically controlled by command files on the computer without involving additional interfaces with secure networks or mail systems. Additional benefits are rapid response, immediate confirmation of receipt of message, a communication channel independent of the shipment itself, and low cost.

  2. Efficient 41Ca measurements for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Schulze-König, T.; Synal, H.-A.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M. B.

    2015-10-01

    We present the performance of 41Ca measurements using low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the 500 kV facility TANDY at ETH Zurich. We optimized the measurement procedure for biomedical applications where reliability and high sample throughput is required. The main challenge for AMS measurements of 41Ca is the interfering stable isobar 41K. We use a simplified sample preparation procedure to produce calcium fluoride (CaF2) and extract calcium tri-fluoride ions (CaF3-) ions to suppress the stable isobar 41K. Although 41K is not completely suppressed we reach 41Ca/40Ca background level in the 10-12 range which is adequate for biomedical studies. With helium as a stripper gas we can use charge state 2+ at high transmission (∼50%). The new measurement procedure with the approximately 10 × improved efficiency and the higher accuracy due to 41K correction allowed us to measure more than 600 samples for a large biomedical study within only a few weeks of measurement time.

  3. Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

  4. An Efficient and Provable Secure Revocable Identity-Based Encryption Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changji; Li, Yuan; Xia, Xiaonan; Zheng, Kangjia

    2014-01-01

    Revocation functionality is necessary and crucial to identity-based cryptosystems. Revocable identity-based encryption (RIBE) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, many RIBE schemes have been proposed in the literature but shown to be either insecure or inefficient. In this paper, we propose a new scalable RIBE scheme with decryption key exposure resilience by combining Lewko and Waters’ identity-based encryption scheme and complete subtree method, and prove our RIBE scheme to be semantically secure using dual system encryption methodology. Compared to existing scalable and semantically secure RIBE schemes, our proposed RIBE scheme is more efficient in term of ciphertext size, public parameters size and decryption cost at price of a little looser security reduction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction of scalable and semantically secure RIBE scheme with constant size public system parameters. PMID:25238418

  5. Implementation and evaluation of an efficient secure computation system using ‘R’ for healthcare statistics

    PubMed Central

    Chida, Koji; Morohashi, Gembu; Fuji, Hitoshi; Magata, Fumihiko; Fujimura, Akiko; Hamada, Koki; Ikarashi, Dai; Yamamoto, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective While the secondary use of medical data has gained attention, its adoption has been constrained due to protection of patient privacy. Making medical data secure by de-identification can be problematic, especially when the data concerns rare diseases. We require rigorous security management measures. Materials and methods Using secure computation, an approach from cryptography, our system can compute various statistics over encrypted medical records without decrypting them. An issue of secure computation is that the amount of processing time required is immense. We implemented a system that securely computes healthcare statistics from the statistical computing software ‘R’ by effectively combining secret-sharing-based secure computation with original computation. Results Testing confirmed that our system could correctly complete computation of average and unbiased variance of approximately 50 000 records of dummy insurance claim data in a little over a second. Computation including conditional expressions and/or comparison of values, for example, t test and median, could also be correctly completed in several tens of seconds to a few minutes. Discussion If medical records are simply encrypted, the risk of leaks exists because decryption is usually required during statistical analysis. Our system possesses high-level security because medical records remain in encrypted state even during statistical analysis. Also, our system can securely compute some basic statistics with conditional expressions using ‘R’ that works interactively while secure computation protocols generally require a significant amount of processing time. Conclusions We propose a secure statistical analysis system using ‘R’ for medical data that effectively integrates secret-sharing-based secure computation and original computation. PMID:24763677

  6. A Secure and Efficient Audit Mechanism for Dynamic Shared Data in Cloud Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With popularization of cloud services, multiple users easily share and update their data through cloud storage. For data integrity and consistency in the cloud storage, the audit mechanisms were proposed. However, existing approaches have some security vulnerabilities and require a lot of computational overheads. This paper proposes a secure and efficient audit mechanism for dynamic shared data in cloud storage. The proposed scheme prevents a malicious cloud service provider from deceiving an auditor. Moreover, it devises a new index table management method and reduces the auditing cost by employing less complex operations. We prove the resistance against some attacks and show less computation cost and shorter time for auditing when compared with conventional approaches. The results present that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient for cloud storage services managing dynamic shared data. PMID:24959630

  7. A secure and efficient audit mechanism for dynamic shared data in cloud storage.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ohmin; Koo, Dongyoung; Shin, Yongjoo; Yoon, Hyunsoo

    2014-01-01

    With popularization of cloud services, multiple users easily share and update their data through cloud storage. For data integrity and consistency in the cloud storage, the audit mechanisms were proposed. However, existing approaches have some security vulnerabilities and require a lot of computational overheads. This paper proposes a secure and efficient audit mechanism for dynamic shared data in cloud storage. The proposed scheme prevents a malicious cloud service provider from deceiving an auditor. Moreover, it devises a new index table management method and reduces the auditing cost by employing less complex operations. We prove the resistance against some attacks and show less computation cost and shorter time for auditing when compared with conventional approaches. The results present that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient for cloud storage services managing dynamic shared data. PMID:24959630

  8. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer...

  9. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer...

  10. Visible School Security Measures and Student Academic Performance, Attendance, and Postsecondary Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Fisher, Benjamin W.

    2015-01-01

    Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance,…

  11. An efficient and secure attribute based signcryption scheme with LSSS access structure.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hanshu; Sun, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Attribute based encryption (ABE) and attribute based signature (ABS) provide flexible access control with authentication for data sharing between users, but realizing both functions will bring about too much computation burden. In this paper, we combine the advantages of CP-ABE with ABS and propose a ciphertext policy attribute based signcryption scheme. In our scheme, only legal receivers can decrypt the ciphertext and verify the signature signed by data owner. Furthermore, we use linear secret sharing scheme instead of tree structure to avoid the frequent calls of recursive algorithm. By security and performance analysis, we prove that our scheme is secure as well as gains higher efficiency. PMID:27330910

  12. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)-a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol-is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  13. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  14. Efficient Video Similarity Measurement and Search

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, S-C S

    2002-12-19

    The amount of information on the world wide web has grown enormously since its creation in 1990. Duplication of content is inevitable because there is no central management on the web. Studies have shown that many similar versions of the same text documents can be found throughout the web. This redundancy problem is more severe for multimedia content such as web video sequences, as they are often stored in multiple locations and different formats to facilitate downloading and streaming. Similar versions of the same video can also be found, unknown to content creators, when web users modify and republish original content using video editing tools. Identifying similar content can benefit many web applications and content owners. For example, it will reduce the number of similar answers to a web search and identify inappropriate use of copyright content. In this dissertation, they present a system architecture and corresponding algorithms to efficiently measure, search, and organize similar video sequences found on any large database such as the web.

  15. Efficient Anonymous Authentication Protocol Using Key-Insulated Signature Scheme for Secure VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngho; Sur, Chul; Jung, Chae Duk; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In this paper, we propose an efficient authentication protocol with conditional privacy preservation for secure vehicular communications. The proposed protocol follows the system model to issue on-the-fly anonymous public key certificates to vehicles by road-side units. In order to design an efficient message authentication protocol, we consider a key-insulated signature scheme for certifying anonymous public keys of vehicles to such a system model. We demonstrate experimental results to confirm that the proposed protocol has better performance than other protocols based on group signature schemes.

  16. Cost-Efficient and Multi-Functional Secure Aggregation in Large Scale Distributed Application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Sun, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Secure aggregation is an essential component of modern distributed applications and data mining platforms. Aggregated statistical results are typically adopted in constructing a data cube for data analysis at multiple abstraction levels in data warehouse platforms. Generating different types of statistical results efficiently at the same time (or referred to as enabling multi-functional support) is a fundamental requirement in practice. However, most of the existing schemes support a very limited number of statistics. Securely obtaining typical statistical results simultaneously in the distribution system, without recovering the original data, is still an open problem. In this paper, we present SEDAR, which is a SEcure Data Aggregation scheme under the Range segmentation model. Range segmentation model is proposed to reduce the communication cost by capturing the data characteristics, and different range uses different aggregation strategy. For raw data in the dominant range, SEDAR encodes them into well defined vectors to provide value-preservation and order-preservation, and thus provides the basis for multi-functional aggregation. A homomorphic encryption scheme is used to achieve data privacy. We also present two enhanced versions. The first one is a Random based SEDAR (REDAR), and the second is a Compression based SEDAR (CEDAR). Both of them can significantly reduce communication cost with the trade-off lower security and lower accuracy, respectively. Experimental evaluations, based on six different scenes of real data, show that all of them have an excellent performance on cost and accuracy. PMID:27551747

  17. Cost-Efficient and Multi-Functional Secure Aggregation in Large Scale Distributed Application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Sun, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Secure aggregation is an essential component of modern distributed applications and data mining platforms. Aggregated statistical results are typically adopted in constructing a data cube for data analysis at multiple abstraction levels in data warehouse platforms. Generating different types of statistical results efficiently at the same time (or referred to as enabling multi-functional support) is a fundamental requirement in practice. However, most of the existing schemes support a very limited number of statistics. Securely obtaining typical statistical results simultaneously in the distribution system, without recovering the original data, is still an open problem. In this paper, we present SEDAR, which is a SEcure Data Aggregation scheme under the Range segmentation model. Range segmentation model is proposed to reduce the communication cost by capturing the data characteristics, and different range uses different aggregation strategy. For raw data in the dominant range, SEDAR encodes them into well defined vectors to provide value-preservation and order-preservation, and thus provides the basis for multi-functional aggregation. A homomorphic encryption scheme is used to achieve data privacy. We also present two enhanced versions. The first one is a Random based SEDAR (REDAR), and the second is a Compression based SEDAR (CEDAR). Both of them can significantly reduce communication cost with the trade-off lower security and lower accuracy, respectively. Experimental evaluations, based on six different scenes of real data, show that all of them have an excellent performance on cost and accuracy. PMID:27551747

  18. Energy-Efficient and Secure S-Box circuit using Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinesh; Mohammad, Azhar; Singh, Vijay; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2016-01-01

    Differential Power Analysis (DPA) attack is considered to be a main threat while designing cryptographic processors. In cryptographic algorithms like DES and AES, S-Box is used to indeterminate the relationship between the keys and the cipher texts. However, S-box is prone to DPA attack due to its high power consumption. In this paper, we are implementing an energy-efficient 8-bit S-Box circuit using our proposed Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic (SPGAL). SPGAL is energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. SPGAL is energy-efficient due to reduction of non-adiabatic loss during the evaluate phase of the outputs. Further, the S-Box circuit implemented using SPGAL is resistant to DPA attacks. The results are verified through SPICE simulations in 180nm technology. SPICE simulations show that the SPGAL based S-Box circuit saves upto 92% and 67% of energy as compared to the conventional CMOS and Secured Quasi-Adiabatic Logic (SQAL) based S-Box circuit. From the simulation results, it is evident that the SPGAL based circuits are energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. In nutshell, SPGAL based gates can be used to build secure hardware for lowpower portable electronic devices and Internet-of-Things (IoT) based electronic devices.

  19. Novel efficient and secure medical data transmission on WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Basant; Singh, Harsh Vikram; Singh, S P; Mohan, Anand

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses an improved technique for bandwidth-efficient and secure transmission of medical records over simulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)/IEEE 802.16 physical layer. Medical data compaction along with security has been achieved by embedding electrocardiogram (ECG) data into Haar wavelet coefficients of an x-ray image that is transmitted over the channel. The compaction ratio and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) between the transmitted and received x-ray images for visual clinical performance have been evaluated. It is shown that 12.5% data compaction along with true reception of ECG signal can be achieved for channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >or= 9.6 dB while the achieved PSNR was 55.97 dB. The PSNR value is well above the minimum acceptable 35 dB level, making it potentially useful for secure and bandwidth-efficient transmission of clinical records. PMID:19119828

  20. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption. PMID:26131666

  1. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption. PMID:26131666

  2. Pitfalls and Security Measures for the Mobile EMR System in Medical Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Kiho; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Hwang, Hee; Baek, Rong Min

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this paper is to examine the security measures that should be reviewed by medical facilities that are trying to implement mobile Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems designed for hospitals. Methods The study of the security requirements for a mobile EMR system is divided into legal considerations and sectional security investigations. Legal considerations were examined with regard to remote medical services, patients' personal information and EMR, medical devices, the establishment of mobile systems, and mobile applications. For the 4 sectional security investigations, the mobile security level SL-3 from the Smartphone Security Standards of the National Intelligence Service (NIS) was used. Results From a compliance perspective, legal considerations for various laws and guidelines of mobile EMR were executed according to the model of the legal considerations. To correspond to the SL-3, separation of DMZ and wireless network is needed. Mobile access servers must be located in only the smartphone DMZ. Furthermore, security measures like 24-hour security control, WIPS, VPN, MDM, and ISMS for each section are needed to establish a secure mobile EMR system. Conclusions This paper suggested a direction for applying regulatory measures to strengthen the security of a mobile EMR system in accordance with the standard security requirements presented by the Smartphone Security Guideline of the NIS. A future study on the materialization of these suggestions after their application at actual medical facilities can be used as an illustrative case to determine the degree to which theory and reality correspond with one another. PMID:22844648

  3. An Efficient and Secure Certificateless Authentication Protocol for Healthcare System on Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks have opened up new opportunities in healthcare systems, which can transmit patient's condition to health professional's hand-held devices in time. The patient's physiological signals are very sensitive and the networks are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. It must be ensured that patient's privacy is not exposed to unauthorized entities. Therefore, the control of access to healthcare systems has become a crucial challenge. An efficient and secure authentication protocol will thus be needed in wireless medical sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless authentication scheme without bilinear pairing while providing patient anonymity. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed scheme needs less computation and communication cost and preserves stronger security. Our performance evaluations show that this protocol is more practical for healthcare system in wireless medical sensor networks. PMID:23710147

  4. An efficient and secure certificateless authentication protocol for healthcare system on wireless medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks have opened up new opportunities in healthcare systems, which can transmit patient's condition to health professional's hand-held devices in time. The patient's physiological signals are very sensitive and the networks are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. It must be ensured that patient's privacy is not exposed to unauthorized entities. Therefore, the control of access to healthcare systems has become a crucial challenge. An efficient and secure authentication protocol will thus be needed in wireless medical sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless authentication scheme without bilinear pairing while providing patient anonymity. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed scheme needs less computation and communication cost and preserves stronger security. Our performance evaluations show that this protocol is more practical for healthcare system in wireless medical sensor networks. PMID:23710147

  5. High power and efficiency quantum cascade laser systems for defense and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekoun, A.; Lyakh, A.; Maulini, R.; Lane, M.; Macdonald, T.; Go, R.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-05-01

    Leveraging Pranalytica's fundamental research into high power and high wallplug efficiency QCL devices and high performance/reliability QCL packaging technologies, we developed several models of turn-key QCL systems for security-related applications. Our tabletop high power system produces, at room temperature, more than 2W of nominally collimated continuous wave radiation at 4.6 μm. Our flashlight-size portable illuminator at 4.6 μm produces over 100 mW average power portable illuminator at 9.6 μm produces more than 20 mW, both with runtime of ~10 hrs. These systems are opening the window of QCL acceptance into real-world security and defense applications. At chip level, we have demonstrated 3W of CW power at room temperature from a single, high reflectivity coated chip.

  6. Measuring Charter School Efficiency: An Early Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Noller, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increased accountability and challenging times for public finance, charter schools built on decentralization, grassroots accountability, and market forces may provide, in the spirit of "educational laboratories," lessons for increasing student achievement more efficiently through diverse and innovative management, organization,…

  7. Measuring efficiency in wholesale electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Nicholas S.

    2009-06-15

    The mechanisms of the bid-based economic dispatch and market power mitigation algorithms which result in the market clearing price epitomize the complexity of the new regulatory regime. The augmented Lerner Index presented here offers a method to objectively assess the efficiency of the new structure. (author)

  8. Efficient Quantum Secure Direct Communication Using the Orbital Angular Momentum of Single Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Zhuo-Ru; Jin, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Tie-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is to transmit information directly through quantum channels without generating secret keys. The efficiencies of QSDC rely on the capacity of qubits. Exploiting orbital angular momentum of single photons, we proposed a high-capacity one-time pad QSDC protocol. The information is encoded on the Hermite-Gauss mode and transmitted directly on the Laguerre-Gauss mode of the photon pluses. The proposed system provides a high coding space, and the proposed protocol is robust against collective-dephasing channel noise.

  9. Assurance of energy efficiency and data security for ECG transmission in BASNs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Shrestha, Pradhumna Lal; Hempel, Michael; Peng, Dongming; Sharif, Hamid; Chen, Hsiao-Hwa

    2012-04-01

    With the technological advancement in body area sensor networks (BASNs), low cost high quality electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnosis systems have become important equipment for healthcare service providers. However, energy consumption and data security with ECG systems in BASNs are still two major challenges to tackle. In this study, we investigate the properties of compressed ECG data for energy saving as an effort to devise a selective encryption mechanism and a two-rate unequal error protection (UEP) scheme. The proposed selective encryption mechanism provides a simple and yet effective security solution for an ECG sensor-based communication platform, where only one percent of data is encrypted without compromising ECG data security. This part of the encrypted data is essential to ECG data quality due to its unequally important contribution to distortion reduction. The two-rate UEP scheme achieves a significant additional energy saving due to its unequal investment of communication energy to the outcomes of the selective encryption, and thus, it maintains a high ECG data transmission quality. Our results show the improvements in communication energy saving of about 40%, and demonstrate a higher transmission quality and security measured in terms of wavelet-based weighted percent root-mean-squared difference. PMID:22231147

  10. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  11. What are we assessing when we measure food security? A compendium and review of current metrics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Ngure, Francis M; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics. PMID:24038241

  12. A privacy preserving secure and efficient authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Raghavendra; Barnwal, Amit Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Telecare medical information system (TMIS) presents effective healthcare delivery services by employing information and communication technologies. The emerging privacy and security are always a matter of great concern in TMIS. Recently, Chen at al. presented a password based authentication schemes to address the privacy and security. Later on, it is proved insecure against various active and passive attacks. To erase the drawbacks of Chen et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme, several password based authentication schemes have been proposed using public key cryptosystem. However, most of them do not present pre-smart card authentication which leads to inefficient login and password change phases. To present an authentication scheme with pre-smart card authentication, we present an improved anonymous smart card based authentication scheme for TMIS. The proposed scheme protects user anonymity and satisfies all the desirable security attributes. Moreover, the proposed scheme presents efficient login and password change phases where incorrect input can be quickly detected and a user can freely change his password without server assistance. Moreover, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme by utilizing the widely-accepted BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic. The proposed scheme is also comparable in terms of computational overheads with relevant schemes. PMID:25750176

  13. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  14. Efficient Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements of Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with many crops, chlorophyll fluorescence emission is a promising tool for measuring responses of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) to biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll fluorescence can be easily measured using portable fluorometers. However, several factors should be considered in order to op...

  15. Parental Involvement in School and the Role of School Security Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the United States has experienced a significant increase in the use of security measures in public and private secondary schools. Measures including police officers, metal detectors, and security cameras are becoming more common in the hallways of American schools. Following this surge, a number of academics have…

  16. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  17. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  18. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  19. High accuracy radiation efficiency measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozakoff, D. J.; Schuchardt, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The relatively large antenna subarrays (tens of meters) to be used in the Solar Power Satellite, and the desire to accurately quantify antenna performance, dictate the requirement for specialized measurement techniques. The error contributors associated with both far-field and near-field antenna measurement concepts were quantified. As a result, instrumentation configurations with measurement accuracy potential were identified. In every case, advances in the state of the art of associated electronics were found to be required. Relative cost trade-offs between a candidate far-field elevated antenna range and near-field facility were also performed.

  20. Security Problems of Scan Design and Accompanying Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasizzo, Anton; Novak, Franc

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with the security problems of scan design and investigates currently proposed solutions. A solution based on data encryption to protect the data in scan chains is discussed and problems related to the block-based encoding are outlined. Next, security extension for IEEE Std. 1149.1 providing a locking mechanism is analysed. The mechanism prevents unauthorised users to interfere via test bus with the system normal operation. Possible attack scenario is considered and the probabilities of successful attack within a given time interval are calculated for different lengths of the Lock register. The paper concludes with the description of current work focused on improvements the security of the locking mechanism, in particular by using simplified public key infrastructure.

  1. 78 FR 46594 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey AGENCY... satisfaction of aviation security in an effort to more efficiently manage its security screening performance at.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance...

  2. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... persons seeking unescorted access to secure areas must present their TWIC for inspection before being allowed unescorted access, in accordance with § 101.514 of this subchapter. Inspection must include: (i)...

  3. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... persons seeking unescorted access to secure areas must present their TWIC for inspection before being allowed unescorted access, in accordance with § 101.514 of this subchapter. Inspection must include: (i)...

  4. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... persons seeking unescorted access to secure areas must present their TWIC for inspection before being allowed unescorted access, in accordance with § 101.514 of this subchapter. Inspection must include: (i)...

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2012: National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, which contains performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 energy retrofit measures. To date, it is used in four prominent DOE software packages to help optimize energy-efficiency recommendations.

  6. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.

  7. Examining School Security Measures as Moderators of the Association between Homophobic Victimization and School Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Benjamin W.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic victimization is a pervasive problem in U.S. schools that leads to negative outcomes for students. Those who experience homophobic victimization are at greater risk for avoiding particular spaces in school because they feel unsafe or afraid. Visible school security measures (e.g., security guards, metal detectors, and cameras) offer…

  8. Examining School Security Measures as Moderators of the Association between Homophobic Victimization and School Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Benjamin W.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Homophobic victimization is a pervasive problem in U.S. schools that leads to negative outcomes for students. Those who experience homophobic victimization are at greater risk for avoiding particular spaces in school because they feel unsafe or afraid. Visible school security measures (e.g., security guards, metal detectors, and cameras) offer…

  9. Efficient Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in Both Polarization and Spatial-Mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. L.; Ma, W. P.; Shen, D. S.; Wang, M. L.

    2015-10-01

    With single photos in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom,we present an efficient bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol is proposed. The participants' secret messages can be transmitted directly in a quantum channel through performing different local unitary operations, which are chosen by the two participants separately from the Pauli operations and Hadamard operations, on the polarization states and the spatial-mode states of single photons. Each single photon in two degrees of freedom can carry two bits of information. Thus the capacity of quantum communication of our protocol is improved. Moreover, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol comprehensively. It is showed that the proposed scheme not only can defend several outsider eavesdropper's attacks but also can remove the drawback of information leakage, which prevents the secret messages being leaked out to other people through the public information. In addition, our protocol is practical since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques.

  10. An Energy-Efficient Secure Routing and Key Management Scheme for Mobile Sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Deployment Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Le Xuan; Canh, Ngo Trong; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Heejo

    2008-01-01

    For many sensor network applications such as military or homeland security, it is essential for users (sinks) to access the sensor network while they are moving. Sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. Also, studies and experiences have shown that considering security during design time is the best way to provide security for sensor network routing. This paper presents an energy-efficient secure routing and key management for mobile sinks in sensor networks, called SCODEplus. It is a significant extension of our previous study in five aspects: (1) Key management scheme and routing protocol are considered during design time to increase security and efficiency; (2) The network topology is organized in a hexagonal plane which supports more efficiency than previous square-grid topology; (3) The key management scheme can eliminate the impacts of node compromise attacks on links between non-compromised nodes; (4) Sensor node deployment is based on Gaussian distribution which is more realistic than uniform distribution; (5) No GPS or like is required to provide sensor node location information. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can defend against common attacks in sensor networks including node compromise attacks, replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Both mathematical and simulation-based performance evaluation show that the SCODEplus significantly reduces the communication overhead, energy consumption, packet delivery latency while it always delivers more than 97 percent of packets successfully.

  11. Efficient and Secure Temporal Credential-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Using Extended Chaotic Maps for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2015-01-01

    A secure temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enables a user, a sensor node and a gateway node to realize mutual authentication using temporal credentials. The user and the sensor node then negotiate a common secret key with the help of the gateway node, and establish a secure and authenticated channel using this common secret key. To increase efficiency, recent temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement schemes for WSNs have been designed to involve few computational operations, such as hash and exclusive-or operations. However, these schemes cannot protect the privacy of users and withstand possible attacks. This work develops a novel temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for WSNs using extended chaotic maps, in which operations are more efficient than modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on an elliptic curve. The proposed scheme not only provides higher security and efficiency than related schemes, but also resolves their weaknesses. PMID:26121612

  12. A secure and efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    The integrated EPR information system supports convenient and rapid e-medicine services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed an efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and stolen verifier attacks. This investigation discusses these weaknesses and proposes a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system as alternative. Compared with related approaches, the proposed scheme not only retains a lower computational cost and does not require verifier tables for storing users' secrets, but also solves the security problems in previous schemes and withstands possible attacks. PMID:23553734

  13. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  14. A secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    PubMed

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-06-01

    Connected health care has several applications including telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring. In such applications, user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. In user authentication for such applications, only the legal user/patient himself/herself is allowed to access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data. Chang et al. proposed a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care (Chang et al., J Med Syst 37:9902, 2013). Their scheme uses the user's personal biometrics along with his/her password with the help of the smart card. The user's biometrics is verified using BioHashing. Their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function and exclusive-or (XOR) operations. In this paper, we show that though their scheme is very efficient, their scheme has several security weaknesses such as (1) it has design flaws in login and authentication phases, (2) it has design flaws in password change phase, (3) it fails to protect privileged insider attack, (4) it fails to protect the man-in-the middle attack, and (5) it fails to provide proper authentication. In order to remedy these security weaknesses in Chang et al.'s scheme, we propose an improvement of their scheme while retaining the original merit of their scheme. We show that our scheme is efficient as compared to Chang et al.'s scheme. Through the security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible attacks. Further, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, after successful authentication between the user and the server, they establish a secret session key shared between them for future secure communication. PMID

  15. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  16. Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.

  17. Visible School Security Measures and Student Academic Performance, Attendance, and Postsecondary Aspirations.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Fisher, Benjamin W

    2016-01-01

    Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance, and postsecondary educational aspirations. The data for this study came from two large national surveys--the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (N = 38,707 students; 51% male, 77% White, MAge = 14.72) and the School Survey on Crime and Safety (N = 10,340 schools; average student composition of 50% male, 57% White). The results provided no evidence that visible security measures had consistent beneficial effects on adolescents' academic outcomes; some security utilization patterns had modest detrimental effects on adolescents' academic outcomes, particularly the heavy surveillance patterns observed in a small subset of high schools serving predominantly low socioeconomic students. The findings of this study provide no evidence that visible security measures have any sizeable effects on academic performance, attendance, or postsecondary aspirations among U.S. middle and high school students. PMID:25722253

  18. 75 FR 29567 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey AGENCY... satisfaction of aviation security in an effort to more efficiently manage airport performance. DATES: Send your...; Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey. TSA, with OMB's...

  19. Thermoelectric properties and efficiency measurements under large temperature differences.

    PubMed

    Muto, A; Kraemer, D; Hao, Q; Ren, Z F; Chen, G

    2009-09-01

    The maximum efficiency of a thermoelectric generator is determined by the material's dimensionless figure of merit ZT. Real thermoelectric material properties are highly temperature dependent and are often measured individually using multiple measurement tools on different samples. As a result, reported ZT values have large uncertainties. In this work we present an experimental technique that eliminates some of these uncertainties. We measure the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity of a single element or leg, as well as the conversion efficiency, under a large temperature difference of 2-160 degrees C. The advantages of this technique include (1) the thermoelectric leg is mounted only once and all measurements are in the same direction and (2) the measured properties are corroborated by efficiency measurements. The directly measured power and efficiency are compared to the values calculated from the measured properties and agree within 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The realistic testing conditions of this technique make it ideal for material characterization prior to implementation in a real thermoelectric generator. PMID:19791947

  20. Atomic teleportation via cavity QED and position measurements: Efficiency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumminello, M.; Ciccarello, F.

    2008-07-01

    We have recently presented a novel protocol to teleport an unknown atomic state via cavity QED and position measurements. Here, after a brief review of our scheme, we provide a quantitative study of its efficiency. This is accomplished by an explicit description of the measurement process that allows us to derive the fidelity with respect to the atomic internal state to be teleported.

  1. A Security Proof of Measurement Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution: From the View of Information Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang-Yi; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Wen, Hao; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-07-01

    Although some ideal quantum key distribution protocols have been proved to be secure, there have been some demonstrations that practical quantum key distribution implementations were hacked due to some real-life imperfections. Among these attacks, detector side channel attacks may be the most serious. Recently, a measurement device independent quantum key distribution protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 130503] was proposed and all detector side channel attacks are removed in this scheme. Here a new security proof based on quantum information theory is given. The eavesdropper's information of the sifted key bits is bounded. Then with this bound, the final secure key bit rate can be obtained.

  2. Alternate measures of replacement rates for social security benefits and retirement income.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Andrew G; Springstead, Glenn R

    2008-01-01

    Discussions of retirement planning and Social Security policy often focus on replacement rates, which represent retirement income or Social Security benefits relative to preretirement earnings. Replacement rates are a rule of thumb designed to simplify the process of smoothing consumption over individuals' lifetimes. Despite their widespread use, however, there is no common means of measuring replacement rates. Various measures of preretirement earnings mean that the denominators used in replacement rate calculations are often inconsistent and can lead to confusion. Whether a given replacement rate represents an adequate retirement income depends on whether the denominator in the replacement rate calculation is an appropriate measure of preretirement earnings. This article illustrates replacement rates using four measures of preretirement earnings: final earnings; the constant income payable from the present value (PV) of lifetime earnings (PV payment); the wage-indexed average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits; and the inflation-adjusted average of all earnings prior to claiming Social Security benefits (consumer price index (CPI) average). The article then measures replacement rates against a sample of the Social Security beneficiary population using the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) microsimulation model. Replacement rates are shown based on Social Security benefits alone, to indicate the adequacy of the current benefit structure, as well as on total retirement income including defined benefit pensions and financial assets, to indicate total preparedness for retirement. The results show that replacement rates can vary considerably based on the definition of preretirement earnings used and whether replacement rates are measured on an individual or a shared basis. For current new retirees, replacement rates based on all sources of retirement income seem strong by most measures and are projected to

  3. Secure and efficient health data management through multiple watermarking on medical images.

    PubMed

    Giakoumaki, A; Pavlopoulos, S; Koutsouris, D

    2006-08-01

    The landscape of healthcare delivery and medical data management has significantly changed over the last years, as a result of the significant advancements in information and communication technologies. Complementary and/or alternative solutions are needed to meet the new challenges, especially regarding security of the widely distributed sensitive medical information. Digital watermarking is a recently established research area with many applications; nevertheless, the potential of this technology to contribute value-added services to medical information management systems has only recently started to be realized by the research community. The paper presents a review of research efforts in the area of medical-oriented watermarking and proposes a wavelet-based multiple watermarking scheme; this scheme aims to address critical health information management issues, including origin and data authentication, protection of sensitive data, and image archiving and retrieval. In accordance with the strict limitations applying to medical images, the scheme allows the definition of a region of interest (ROI) whose diagnostic value is protected, since the only additional information embedded therein aims at integrity control. The robustness of the method is enhanced through a form of hybrid coding, which includes repetitive embedding of BCH encoded watermarks. The experimental results on different medical imaging modalities demonstrate the efficiency and transparency of the watermarking scheme. PMID:16937204

  4. Information Leakage Problem in Efficient Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in Both Polarization and Spatial-Mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu; Liu, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    The information leakage problem in the efficient bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom is pointed out. Next, a way to revise this protocol to a truly secure one is given. We hope people pay more attention to the information leakage problem in order to design truly secure quantum communication protocols.

  5. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  6. Channel Efficiency with Security Enhancement for Remote Condition Monitoring of Multi Machine System Using Hybrid Huffman Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Jinia; Chowdhuri, Sumana; Bera, Jitendranath

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme of remote condition monitoring of multi machine system where a secured and coded data of induction machine with different parameters is communicated between a state-of-the-art dedicated hardware Units (DHU) installed at the machine terminal and a centralized PC based machine data management (MDM) software. The DHUs are built for acquisition of different parameters from the respective machines, and hence are placed at their nearby panels in order to acquire different parameters cost effectively during their running condition. The MDM software collects these data through a communication channel where all the DHUs are networked using RS485 protocol. Before transmitting, the parameter's related data is modified with the adoption of differential pulse coded modulation (DPCM) and Huffman coding technique. It is further encrypted with a private key where different keys are used for different DHUs. In this way a data security scheme is adopted during its passage through the communication channel in order to avoid any third party attack into the channel. The hybrid mode of DPCM and Huffman coding is chosen to reduce the data packet length. A MATLAB based simulation and its practical implementation using DHUs at three machine terminals (one healthy three phase, one healthy single phase and one faulty three phase machine) proves its efficacy and usefulness for condition based maintenance of multi machine system. The data at the central control room are decrypted and decoded using MDM software. In this work it is observed that Chanel efficiency with respect to different parameter measurements has been increased very much.

  7. 'Known Secure Sensor Measurements' for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Detecting Falsification of System State

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Annarita Giani

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a first investigation on a low cost and low false alarm, reliable mechanism for detecting manipulation of critical physical processes and falsification of system state. We call this novel mechanism Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM). The method moves beyond analysis of network traffic and host based state information, in fact it uses physical measurements of the process being controlled to detect falsification of state. KSSM is intended to be incorporated into the design of new, resilient, cost effective critical infrastructure control systems. It can also be included in incremental upgrades of already in- stalled systems for enhanced resilience. KSSM is based on known secure physical measurements for assessing the likelihood of an attack and will demonstrate a practical approach to creating, transmitting, and using the known secure measurements for detection.

  8. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... control. 105.255 Section 105.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... measures for access control. (a) General. The facility owner or operator must ensure the implementation...

  9. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... individual has reported the TWIC as lost, damaged, or stolen to TSA as required in 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii... control. 105.255 Section 105.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... measures for access control. (a) General. The facility owner or operator must ensure the implementation...

  10. ADAPTING FTIR MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY TO HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) sensors have numerous advantages for measuring chemical plumes over wide areas compared to point detection sensors. Extractive FTIR sensors have been used for industrial stack monitoring and are attractive for building ventilation sy...

  11. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  12. 75 FR 28672 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Lifting of Nonproliferation Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... January 8, 1999 (see 64 FR 2935). Dated: May 17, 2010. C.S. Eliot Kang, Acting Assistant Secretary of... of International Security and Nonproliferation; Lifting of Nonproliferation Measures Against Two... measures on two Russian entities. DATES: Effective Date: May 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  13. Infrared measurements of a scramjet exhaust. [to determine combustion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. A.; Slack, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Diagnostic 2 - 5 mm infrared spectra of a hydrogen burning scramjet exhaust were measured with an interferometer spectrometer. Exhaust gas temperatures and water vapor partial pressures were determined from the observed intensity and spectral profile of the H2O 2.7 mm infrared emission band. Overall engine combustion efficiencies were derived by combining these measurements with the known engine operating conditions. Efficiencies fall (70 - 50 percent) as fuel equivalence ratios rise (0.4 - 1.0). Data analysis techniques and sensitivity studies are also presented.

  14. Improved Methods for Identifying, Applying, and Verifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Andrew Chase

    Energy efficiency is the least expensive source of additional energy capacity for today's global energy expansion. Energy efficiency offers additional benefits of cost savings for consumers, reduced environmental impacts, and enhanced energy security. The challenges of energy efficiency include identifying potential efficiency measures, quantifying savings, determining cost effectiveness, and verifying savings of installed measures. This thesis presents three separate chapters which address these challenges. The first is a paper presented at the 2014 industrial energy technology conference (IETC) that details a compressed air system project using the systems approach to identify cost effective measures, energy intensity to project savings, and proper measurement and verification (M&V) practices to prove that the savings were achieved. The second is a discussion of proper M&V techniques, how these apply to international M&V protocols, and how M&V professionals can improve the accuracy and efficacy of their M&V activities. The third is an energy intensity analysis of a poultry processing facility at a unit operations level, which details the M&V practices used to determine the intensities at each unit operation and compares these to previous works.

  15. Improving crop productivity and resource use efficiency to ensure food security and environmental quality in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingsheng; Shen, Jianbo; Yuan, Lixing; Jiang, Rongfeng; Chen, Xinping; Davies, William J; Zhang, Fusuo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural growth in China has accelerated remarkably, but most of this growth has been driven by increased yield per unit area rather than by expansion of the cultivated area. Looking towards 2030, to meet the demand for grain and to feed a growing population on the available arable land, it is suggested that annual crop production should be increased to around 580 Mt and that yield should increase by at least 2% annually. Crop production will become more difficult with climate change, resource scarcity (e.g. land, water, energy, and nutrients) and environmental degradation (e.g. declining soil quality, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and surface water eutrophication). To pursue the fastest and most practical route to improved yield, the near-term strategy is application and extension of existing agricultural technologies. This would lead to substantial improvement in crop and soil management practices, which are currently suboptimal. Two pivotal components are required if we are to follow new trajectories. First, the disciplines of soil management and agronomy need to be given increased emphasis in research and teaching, as part of a grand food security challenge. Second, continued genetic improvement in crop varieties will be vital. However, our view is that the biggest gains from improved technology will come most immediately from combinations of improved crops and improved agronomical practices. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the historical trend of crop production in China and to examine the main constraints to the further increase of crop productivity. The paper provides a perspective on the challenge faced by science and technology in agriculture which must be met both in terms of increased crop productivity but also in increased resource use efficiency and the protection of environmental quality. PMID:21963614

  16. Measurements of light absorption efficiency in InSb nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Jurgilaitis, A.; Enquist, H.; Harb, M.; Dick, K. A.; Borg, B. M.; Nüske, R.; Wernersson, L.-E.; Larsson, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on measurements of the light absorption efficiency of InSb nanowires. The absorbed 70 fs light pulse generates carriers, which equilibrate with the lattice via electron-phonon coupling. The increase in lattice temperature is manifested as a strain that can be measured with X-ray diffraction. The diffracted X-ray signal from the excited sample was measured using a streak camera. The amount of absorbed light was deduced by comparing X-ray diffraction measurements with simulations. It was found that 3.0(6)% of the radiation incident on the sample was absorbed by the nanowires, which cover 2.5% of the sample. PMID:26913673

  17. Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-02-19

    The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions. PMID:26943520

  18. Controlled quantum secure direct communication by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian

    2016-05-01

    We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.

  19. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  20. Efficiency Measurement Using a Motor-Dynamo Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pun-hon; Wong, Siu-ling; Mak, Se-yuen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a simple method which can be used to measure the efficiency of a low power dc motor, a motor-converted dynamo and a coupled motor-dynamo module as a function of the speed of rotation. The result can also be used to verify Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. (Contains 1 table and 8 figures.)

  1. Measuring Information Technology Performance: Operational Efficiency and Operational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Annette G.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a practical approach for measuring operational efficiency and operational effectiveness for IT organizations introducing the ITIL process framework. The intent of the study was to assist Chief Information Officers (CIOs) in explaining the impact of introducing the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)…

  2. Using reflectance measurements to determine light use efficiency in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the ability of narrow band vegetation indexes to detect spectral changes associated with stress and relate them to light use efficiency (LUE) over the course of a day as well as through the growing season. In a corn field in Beltsville, MD, carbon flux measurements were made at a...

  3. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  4. Measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers using data envelopment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, Md. Azizul; Khan, Sahubar Ali Nadhar

    2015-12-01

    Self-sufficiency in rice production has been the main issue in Malaysia agriculture. It is significantly low and does not comply with the current average rice yield of 3.7 tons per ha per season. One of the best options and the most effective way to improve rice productivity is through more efficient utilization of paddy farmers. Getting farmers to grow rice is indeed a challenge when they could very well be making better money doing something else. This paper attempts to study the efficiency of rice growing farmers in Kubang Pasu using Data Envelopment Analysis model. For comparative analysis, three scenarios are considered in this study in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers. The first scenario considers only fertilizer factor as an input while for the second, the land size is added as another factor. The third scenario considers more details about the inputs such as the type of fertilizer, NPK and mixed and also land tenureship and size. In all scenarios, the outputs are rice yield (tons) and the profit (RM). As expected, the findings show that the third scenario establishes the highest number of efficient rice growing farmers. It reveals that the combination of outputs and inputs chosen has significant contribution in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers.

  5. Cryptographically secure hardware random number generator dedicated for distributed measurement and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernik, Pawel

    The chaotic signal generator based on the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems for applications in cryptographically secure distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources is presented. This system was implemented on the basis of the physical chaotic electronic vibration generator in which the resonant circuit is composed of two capacitors, two resistors, coil and transistor, called the Colpitts oscillator. The presented system was designed, programmed and thoroughly tested in the term of cryptographic security in our laboratory, what there is the most important part of this publication. True cryptographic security was tested based on the author's software and the software environment called RDieHarder. The obtained results will be here presented and analyzed in detail with particular reference to the specificity of distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources.

  6. The strategic measures for the industrial security of small and medium business.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of companies increasingly depends upon whether they possess the cutting-edge or core technology. The technology should be protected from industrial espionage or leakage. A special attention needs to be given to SMB (small and medium business), furthermore, because SMB occupies most of the companies but has serious problems in terms of industrial security. The technology leakages of SMB would account for more than 2/3 of total leakages during last five years. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to analyze the problems of SMB in terms of industrial security and suggest the strategic solutions for SMB in South Korea. The low security awareness and financial difficulties, however, make it difficult for SMB to build the effective security management system which would protect the company from industrial espionage and leakage of its technology. The growing dependence of SMB on network such as internet, in addition, puts the SMB at risk of leaking its technology through hacking or similar ways. It requires new measures to confront and control such a risk. Online security control services and technology deposit system are suggested for such measures. PMID:24955414

  7. Efficient visible through SWIR focal plane MTF measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Neil; Fierro, Josh; Troup, Richard; Willberger, Gary; Wyles, Jessica; Boe, Raymond; Dixon, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed an efficient method to measure MTF on Visible through MWIR small pixel FPAs. The measured data was obtained using an advanced but low cost test set with sub μm target projection on the FPA and real time display of the LSF as the slit is walked through focus. The test set is commercially procured, maintained and calibrated, provides target and filter holders and a light source. The analysis summary includes references from simplified MTF published analysis tools and a list of artifacts to be aware of when measuring MTF. The SWIR and MWIR detectors have a Mesa structure geometry for improved MTF performance and the Visible has state of the art crosstalk control to provide excellent MTF performance. The modeled data is compared to measured tilted slit MTF measured data and shows close agreement.

  8. Efficient measurement-device-independent detection of multipartite entanglement structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Witnessing entanglement is crucial in quantum information processing. With properly preparing ancillary states, it has been shown previously that genuine entanglement can be witnessed without trusting measurement devices. In this work we generalize the scenario and show that generic multipartite entanglement structures, including entanglement of subsystems and entanglement depth, can be witnessed via measurement-device-independent means. As the original measurement-device-independent entanglement witness scheme exploits only one out of four Bell measurement outcomes for each party, a direct generalization to multipartite quantum states will inevitably cause inefficiency in entanglement detection after taking account of statistical fluctuations. To resolve this problem, we also present a way to utilize all the measurement outcomes. The scheme is efficient for multipartite entanglement detection and can be realized with state-of-the-art technologies.

  9. 78 FR 9769 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures on Chinese and.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Government has determined that a number of Chinese and Iranian foreign... amended, the U.S. Government determined on December 21, 2012 that the following Chinese and...

  10. Preventing School Bullying: Should Schools Prioritize an Authoritative School Discipline Approach over Security Measures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…

  11. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-15

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150°C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow.

  12. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150°C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow. PMID:25933893

  13. Measurements of charge state breeding efficiency at BNL test EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.N.; Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pikin, A.; Savard, G.

    2011-04-02

    Charge breeding of singly charged ions is required to efficiently accelerate rare isotope ion beams for nuclear and astrophysics experiments, and to enhance the accuracy of low-energy Penning trap-assisted spectroscopy. An efficient charge breeder for the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the ANL Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility is being developed using the BNL Test Electron Beam Ion Source (Test EBIS) as a prototype. Parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder are similar to those of the BNL Test EBIS except the electron beam current will be adjustable in the range from 1 to 2 {angstrom}. The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than in existing operational charge state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The charge state breeding efficiency is expected to be about 25% for the isotope ions extracted from the CARIBU. For the success of our EBIS project, it is essential to demonstrate high breeding efficiency at the BNL Test EBIS tuned to the regime close to the parameters of the CARIBU EBIS at ANL. The breeding efficiency optimization and measurements have been successfully carried out using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for externally pulsed injection into the BNL Test EBIS. A Cs{sup +} ion beam with a total number of ions of 5 x 10{sup 8} and optimized pulse length of 70 {mu}s has been injected into the Test EBIS and charge-bred for 5.3 ms for two different electron beam currents 1 and 1.5 {angstrom}. In these experiments we have achieved 70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state 17%.

  14. Measuring technical efficiency of output quality in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Junoy, J P

    1997-01-01

    Presents some examples of the implications derived from imposing the objective of maximizing social welfare, subject to limited resources, on ethical care patients management in respect of quality performance of health services. Conventional knowledge of health economics points out that critically ill patients are responsible for increased use of technological resources and that they receive a high proportion of health care resources. Attempts to answer, from the point of view of microeconomics, the question: how do we measure comparative efficiency in the management of intensive care units? Analyses this question through data from an international empirical study using micro-economic measures of productive efficiency in public services (data envelopment analysis). Results show a 28.8 per cent level of technical inefficiency processing data from 25 intensive care units in the USA. PMID:10169231

  15. PACE: Pattern Accurate Computationally Efficient Bootstrapping for Timely Discovery of Cyber-Security Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Nikki C; Bridges, Robert A; Iannacone, Michael D; Czejdo, Bogdan; Perez, Nicolas E; Goodall, John R

    2013-01-01

    Public disclosure of important security information, such as knowledge of vulnerabilities or exploits, often occurs in blogs, tweets, mailing lists, and other online sources significantly before proper classification into structured databases. In order to facilitate timely discovery of such knowledge, we propose a novel semi-supervised learning algorithm, PACE, for identifying and classifying relevant entities in text sources. The main contribution of this paper is an enhancement of the traditional bootstrapping method for entity extraction by employing a time-memory trade-off that simultaneously circumvents a costly corpus search while strengthening pattern nomination, which should increase accuracy. An implementation in the cyber-security domain is discussed as well as challenges to Natural Language Processing imposed by the security domain.

  16. Intelligence and Neural Efficiency: Measures of Brain Activation versus Measures of Functional Connectivity in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Fink, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence suggests a more efficient use of the cortex (or even the brain) in brighter as compared to less intelligent individuals. This has been shown in a series of studies employing different neurophysiological measurement methods and a broad range of different cognitive task demands. However, most of the…

  17. Toward the Effective and Efficient Measurement of Implementation Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.; Chapman, Jason E.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation science in mental health is informed by other academic disciplines and industries. Conceptual and methodological territory charted in psychotherapy research is pertinent to two elements of the conceptual model of implementation posited by Aarons and colleagues (2010)—implementation fidelity and innovation feedback systems. Key characteristics of scientifically validated fidelity instruments, and of the feasibility of their use in routine care, are presented. The challenges of ensuring fidelity measurement methods are both effective (scientifically validated) and efficient (feasible and useful in routine care) are identified as are examples of implementation research attempting to balance these attributes of fidelity measurement. PMID:20957425

  18. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  19. Assessing methods to measure motor efficiency in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, J.; Wohlgemuth, C.; Wainwright, G.

    1997-07-01

    Managing electric motor systems is one of the most important aspects of improving reliability and increasing energy efficiency in the industrial environment. Unfortunately, unknown performance data for existing motors often frustrates good motor systems management intentions. Determining motor efficiency is not easy. Nonetheless, several existing methods and dedicated instruments estimated in-situ efficiency well enough to support economic decisions. The off-voltage conditions did not subvert results as much as the authors have expected. However, performance of the different methods varied by the motor under test, revealing that developers need to tune their designs for better accuracy with older, rewound, and/or damaged motors. For most methods, the best correlation with lab-determined efficiency was for the new energy efficient 300 HP motor. With the diverse veteran motors the methods diverged more, not only from lab efficiency, but also from each other. The most accurate methods were more invasive, requiring shutdown and uncoupling. However, with a structured motor systems management program, these procedures could be accomplished conveniently at different times with the results combined later to compute efficiency. For example, winding resistance could be measured and recorded at the receiving inspection of new and repaired motors. No-load power consumption could be accomplished either at the repair shop or during initial or post-repair installation. Performance under load could be recorded any time the motor is installed and operating at normal load. The authors believe that all methods can benefit from more validation studies with a diversity of typical veteran motors (i.e. other than new, efficient, and healthy motors). Where divergence occurs, case studies should pursue the causes of divergence. Several methods perform well enough that their adoption should be encouraged. However, the need to keep the techniques simple and user friendly for use in the

  20. Extrapolated HPGe efficiency estimates based on a single calibration measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1994-07-01

    Gamma spectroscopists often must analyze samples with geometries for which their detectors are not calibrated. The effort to experimentally recalibrate a detector for a new geometry can be quite time consuming, causing delay in reporting useful results. Such concerns have motivated development of a method for extrapolating HPGe efficiency estimates from an existing single measured efficiency. Overall, the method provides useful preliminary results for analyses that do not require exceptional accuracy, while reliably bracketing the credible range. The estimated efficiency {element_of} for a uniform sample in a geometry with volume V is extrapolated from the measured {element_of}{sub 0} of the base sample of volume V{sub 0}. Assuming all samples are centered atop the detector for maximum efficiency, {element_of} decreases monotonically as V increases about V{sub 0}, and vice versa. Extrapolation of high and low efficiency estimates {element_of}{sub h} and {element_of}{sub L} provides an average estimate of {element_of} = 1/2 [{element_of}{sub h} + {element_of}{sub L}] {plus_minus} 1/2 [{element_of}{sub h} {minus} {element_of}{sub L}] (general) where an uncertainty D{element_of} = 1/2 ({element_of}{sub h} {minus} {element_of}{sub L}] brackets limits for a maximum possible error. The {element_of}{sub h} and {element_of}{sub L} both diverge from {element_of}{sub 0} as V deviates from V{sub 0}, causing D{element_of} to increase accordingly. The above concepts guided development of both conservative and refined estimates for {element_of}.

  1. Two essays on efficiency in the electric power industry: Measurement of technical and allocative efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, John Corby

    The electric power industry market structure has changed over the last twenty years since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). These changes include the entry by unregulated generator plants and, more recently, the deregulation of entry and price in the retail generation market. Such changes have introduced and expanded competitive forces on the incumbent electric power plants. Proponents of this deregulation argued that the enhanced competition would lead to a more efficient allocation of resources. Previous studies of power plant technical and allocative efficiency have failed to measure technical and allocative efficiency at the plant level. In contrast, this study uses panel data on 35 power plants over 59 years to estimate technical and allocative efficiency of each plant. By using a flexible functional form, which is not constrained by the assumption that regulation is constant over the 59 years sampled, the estimation procedure accounts for changes in both state and national regulatory/energy policies that may have occurred over the sample period. The empirical evidence presented shows that most of the power plants examined have operated more efficiently since the passage of PURPA and the resultant increase of competitive forces. Chapter 2 extends the model used in Chapter 1 and clarifies some issues in the efficiency literature by addressing the case where homogeneity does not hold. A more general model is developed for estimating both input and output inefficiency simultaneously. This approach reveals more information about firm inefficiency than the single estimation approach that has previously been used in the literature. Using the more general model, estimates are provided on the type of inefficiency that occurs as well as the cost of inefficiency by type of inefficiency. In previous studies, the ranking of firms by inefficiency has been difficult because of the cardinal and ordinal differences between different types of

  2. Homeland security: safeguarding America's future with energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) presents this 10th annual report following the one-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. This event has had profound impacts on all segments of American society, not the least of which is this country’s energy sector. Long before September 11, a number of energy issues grabbed the nation’s attention, including opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and natural gas exploration, the power crisis in California, nationwide natural gas and gasoline price increases, and the administration’s May 2001 National Energy Policy. However, the events of September 11 refocused attention on the prominent role energy plays in the country’s homeland security. For the most part, the energy aspects of homeland security have focused on the physical security of critical energy emergency planning and energy infrastructure, such as power plants, refineries, and power and fuel transmission systems. While STEAB recognizes the importance of protecting our existing energy infrastructure, this should not be the sole focus of homeland security as it relates to energy.

  3. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

  4. Efficient security mechanisms for mHealth applications using wireless body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

  5. Comparison of measured efficiencies of nine turbine designs with efficiencies predicted by two empirical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Robert E; Cavicchi, Richard H

    1951-01-01

    Empirical methods of Ainley and Kochendorfer and Nettles were used to predict performances of nine turbine designs. Measured and predicted performances were compared. Appropriate values of blade-loss parameter were determined for the method of Kochendorfer and Nettles. The measured design-point efficiencies were lower than predicted by as much as 0.09 (Ainley and 0.07 (Kochendorfer and Nettles). For the method of Kochendorfer and Nettles, appropriate values of blade-loss parameter ranged from 0.63 to 0.87 and the off-design performance was accurately predicted.

  6. What Are We Assessing When We Measure Food Security? A Compendium and Review of Current Metrics12

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew D.; Ngure, Francis M.; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L.

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics. PMID:24038241

  7. Wolf Attack Probability: A Theoretical Security Measure in Biometric Authentication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Une, Masashi; Otsuka, Akira; Imai, Hideki

    This paper will propose a wolf attack probability (WAP) as a new measure for evaluating security of biometric authentication systems. The wolf attack is an attempt to impersonate a victim by feeding “wolves” into the system to be attacked. The “wolf” means an input value which can be falsely accepted as a match with multiple templates. WAP is defined as a maximum success probability of the wolf attack with one wolf sample. In this paper, we give a rigorous definition of the new security measure which gives strength estimation of an individual biometric authentication system against impersonation attacks. We show that if one reestimates using our WAP measure, a typical fingerprint algorithm turns out to be much weaker than theoretically estimated by Ratha et al. Moreover, we apply the wolf attack to a finger-vein-pattern based algorithm. Surprisingly, we show that there exists an extremely strong wolf which falsely matches all templates for any threshold value.

  8. Compact Efficient Lidar Receiver for Measuring Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gili, Christopher; De Young, Russell

    2006-01-01

    A small, light weight, and efficient aerosol lidar receiver was constructed and tested. Weight and space savings were realized by using rigid optic tubes and mounting cubes to package the steering optics and detectors in a compact assembly. The receiver had a 1064nm channel using an APD detector. The 532nm channel was split (90/10) into an analog channel (90%) and a photon counting channel (10%). The efficiency of the 1064nm channel with optical filter was 44.0%. The efficiency of the analog 532nm channel was 61.4% with the optical filter, and the efficiency of the 532nm photon counting channel was 7.6% with the optical filter. The results of the atmospheric tests show that the detectors were able to consistently return accurate results. The lidar receiver was able to detect distinct cloud layers, and the lidar returns also agreed across the different detectors. The use of a light weight fiber-coupled telescope reduced weight and allowed great latitude in detector assembly positioning due to the flexibility enabled by the use of fiber optics. The receiver is now ready to be deployed for aircraft or ground based aerosol lidar measurements.

  9. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of U.S. households compared to piecemeal remodeling efforts. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team examines the improvement of a home’s energy performance in an opportunistic way by examining what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for energy efficiency upgrades to occur at the same time as remodeling proejcts. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home’s energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  10. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  11. Resource-Efficient Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, E.; Martin, A.; Rosset, D.; Lim, C. C. W.; Thew, R. T.; Zbinden, H.

    2016-05-01

    Imperfections in experimental measurement schemes can lead to falsely identifying, or over estimating, entanglement in a quantum system. A recent solution to this is to define schemes that are robust to measurement imperfections—measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDI-EW). This approach can be adapted to witness all entangled qubit states for a wide range of physical systems and does not depend on detection efficiencies or classical communication between devices. Here we extend the theory to remove the necessity of prior knowledge about the two-qubit states to be witnessed. Moreover, we tested this model via a novel experimental implementation for MDI-EW that significantly reduces the experimental complexity. By applying it to a bipartite Werner state, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach against noise by witnessing entanglement down to an entangled state fraction close to 0.4.

  12. Resource-Efficient Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Witness.

    PubMed

    Verbanis, E; Martin, A; Rosset, D; Lim, C C W; Thew, R T; Zbinden, H

    2016-05-13

    Imperfections in experimental measurement schemes can lead to falsely identifying, or over estimating, entanglement in a quantum system. A recent solution to this is to define schemes that are robust to measurement imperfections-measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDI-EW). This approach can be adapted to witness all entangled qubit states for a wide range of physical systems and does not depend on detection efficiencies or classical communication between devices. Here we extend the theory to remove the necessity of prior knowledge about the two-qubit states to be witnessed. Moreover, we tested this model via a novel experimental implementation for MDI-EW that significantly reduces the experimental complexity. By applying it to a bipartite Werner state, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach against noise by witnessing entanglement down to an entangled state fraction close to 0.4. PMID:27232009

  13. Resource-Efficient Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Witness

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Verbanis, E.; Martin, A.; Rosset, D.; Lim, C. C. W.; Thew, R. T.; Zbinden, H.

    2016-05-09

    Imperfections in experimental measurement schemes can lead to falsely identifying, or over estimating, entanglement in a quantum system. A recent solution to this is to define schemes that are robust to measurement imperfections—measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDI-EW). This approach can be adapted to witness all entangled qubit states for a wide range of physical systems and does not depend on detection efficiencies or classical communication between devices. In this paper, we extend the theory to remove the necessity of prior knowledge about the two-qubit states to be witnessed. Moreover, we tested this model via a novel experimental implementation for MDI-EW thatmore » significantly reduces the experimental complexity. Finally, by applying it to a bipartite Werner state, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach against noise by witnessing entanglement down to an entangled state fraction close to 0.4.« less

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Mmmm... - Alternative Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... volatile portion of the coating and the efficiency of the capture system. The organic carbon content of the... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative Capture Efficiency and... Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures for Magnet...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Mmmm... - Alternative Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... volatile portion of the coating and the efficiency of the capture system. The organic carbon content of the... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Alternative Capture Efficiency and... Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures for Magnet...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Mmmm... - Alternative Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... volatile portion of the coating and the efficiency of the capture system. The organic carbon content of the... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative Capture Efficiency and... Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures for Magnet...

  17. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  18. TPV efficiency predictions and measurements for a closed cavity geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gethers, C.K.; Ballinger, C.T.; Postlethwait, M.A.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.

    1997-05-01

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) efficiency measurement, within a closed cavity, is an integrated test which incorporates four fundamental parameters of TPV direct energy conversion. These are: (1) the TPV devices, (2) spectral control, (3) a radiation/photon source, and (4) closed cavity geometry affects. The overall efficiency of the TPV device is controlled by the TPV cell performance, the spectral control characteristics, the radiator temperature and the geometric arrangement. Controlled efficiency measurements and predictions provide valuable feedback on all four. This paper describes and compares two computer codes developed to model 16, 1 cm{sup 2} TPV cells (in a 4x4 configuration) in a cavity geometry. The first code subdivides the infrared spectrum into several bands and then numerically integrates over the spectrum to provide absorbed heat flux and cell performance predictions (assuming infinite parallel plates). The second utilizes a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing code that tracks photons, from birth at the radiation source, until they either escape or are absorbed. Absorption depends upon energy dependent reflection probabilities assigned to every geometrical surface within the cavity. The model also has the capability of tallying above and below bandgap absorptions (as a function of location) and can support various radiator temperature profiles. The arrays are fabricated using 0.55 eV InGaAs cells with Si/SiO interference filters for spectral control and at steady state conditions, array efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the load matched power to its absorbed heat flux. Preliminary experimental results are also compared with predictions.

  19. TPV efficiency measurements and predictions for a closed cavity geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gethers, C.K.; Ballinger, C.T.; Postlethwait, M.A.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.

    1997-05-01

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) efficiency measurement, within a closed cavity, is an integrated test which incorporates four fundamental parameters of TPV direct energy conversion. These are: (1) the TPV devices, (2) spectral control, (3) a radiation/photon source, and (4) closed cavity geometry effects. The overall efficiency of the TPV device is controlled by the TP cell performance, the spectral control characteristics, the radiator temperature and the geometric arrangement. Controlled efficiency measurements and predictions provide valuable feedback on all four. This paper describes and compares two computer codes developed to model 16, 1 cm{sup 2} TPV cells (in a 4 x 4 configuration) in a cavity geometry. The first code, subdivides the infrared spectrum into several bands and then numerically integrates over the spectrum to provide absorbed heat flux and cell electrical output performance predictions (assuming infinite parallel plates). The second code, utilizes a Monte Carlo Photon Transport code that tracks photons, from birth at the radiation source, until they either escape or are absorbed. Absorption depends upon energy dependent reflection probabilities assigned to every geometrical surface within the cavity. The model also has the capability of tallying above and below bandgap absorptions (as a function of location) and can support various radiator temperature profiles. The arrays were fabricated using 0.55 eV InGaAs cells with Si/SiO interference filters for spectral control and at steady state conditions, array efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the load matched power to its absorbed heat flux. Preliminary experimental results are also compared with predictions.

  20. An efficient and secure dynamic ID-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Lo, Jung-Wen; Yeh, Chang-Kuo

    2012-12-01

    The rapidly increased availability of always-on broadband telecommunication environments and lower-cost vital signs monitoring devices bring the advantages of telemedicine directly into the patient's home. Hence, the control of access to remote medical servers' resources has become a crucial challenge. A secure authentication scheme between the medical server and remote users is therefore needed to safeguard data integrity, confidentiality and to ensure availability. Recently, many authentication schemes that use low-cost mobile devices have been proposed to meet these requirements. In contrast to previous schemes, Khan et al. proposed a dynamic ID-based remote user authentication scheme that reduces computational complexity and includes features such as a provision for the revocation of lost or stolen smart cards and a time expiry check for the authentication process. However, Khan et al.'s scheme has some security drawbacks. To remedy theses, this study proposes an enhanced authentication scheme that overcomes the weaknesses inherent in Khan et al.'s scheme and demonstrated this scheme is more secure and robust for use in a telecare medical information system. PMID:22673892

  1. Leveraging performance measurement and management: the quality and efficiency edge.

    PubMed

    Cerese, J

    2001-11-01

    The University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) is a mission-based, member driven alliance of academic health centers. UHC's objectives are to pool resources, create economies of scale, improve clinical and operating efficiencies, and influence the direction and delivery of health care. To assist our members in developing these strategies, UHC conducted concurrent clinical and operational cardiology benchmarking projects. The goals of the cardiology-benchmarking project were to: Identify successful organizational structures and operational processes used by members to provide cardiology service. Identify methods to maximize productivity, and manage supply and equipment costs. Share methods of measuring and reporting outcomes (report cards, databases). PMID:11761795

  2. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  3. Measuring Infant Attachment Security in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): Adaptation of the Attachment Q-set

    PubMed Central

    Warfield, James J.; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2010-01-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult’s availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant’s typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This paper reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. PMID:20853398

  4. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    PubMed

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. PMID:20853398

  5. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  6. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T. Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-07

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  7. Improving Campus Security with Increased Lighting Efficiency while Simultaneously Reducing Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Andrew; Miller, Dan; Martell, Eric

    2008-04-01

    Many outdoor lighting fixtures fail to enhance the security of the assets they were designed to protect; moreover, they simultaneously increase the levels of light pollution for astronomers. The problem is simple: most lighting fixtures do not properly aim the light they produce downward. In fact, up to fifty percent of the light rays escape upward, thus wasting a significant amount of energy and severely degrading the environment in which to do astronomy. To resolve these problems, I first created a scale model of Millikin University's campus and took time exposures and photometer readings from the replicas of the existing light fixtures. I then fastened improved fixtures to the scaled lamps and retook the camera exposures and photometer readings for comparison. With this information I was able to take my work full scale and physically change one of the light fixtures on campus. Finally to wrap up my project I took my findings to safety and security to show the improvement that these new fixtures represented to Millikin's safety and to its astronomy equipment.

  8. Energy-efficient key distribution using electrocardiograph biometric set for secure communications in wireless body healthcare networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinyang; Lam, Kwok-Yan; Gu, Ming; Li, Mingze; Chung, Siu-Leung

    2011-10-01

    Wireless body sensor network (WBSN) has gained significant interests as an important infrastructure for real-time biomedical healthcare systems, while the security of the sensitive health information becomes one of the main challenges. Due to the constraints of limited power, traditional cryptographic key distribution schemes are not suitable for WBSN. This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient approach, BodyKey, which can distribute the keys using the electrocardiograph biometrics. BodyKey represents the biometric features as ordered set, and deals with the biometric variations using set reconciliation. In this way, only limited necessary information needs to be communicated for key agreement, and the total energy consumption for key distribution can thus be reduced. Experiments on the PhysioBank Database show that BodyKey can perform an energy consumption rate of 0.01 mJ/bit with an equal accuracy rate of 97.28%, allowing the system to be used as an energy-efficient key distribution scheme for secure communications in WBSN. PMID:20703727

  9. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  10. Controlling Crime and Delinquency in the Schools: An Exploratory Study of Student Perceptions of School Security Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ben

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of data on school security measures which were obtained from a survey administered to a sample of 230 high school students. The majority of students indicated that the school police officers and security officers help keep the schools safe and that the drug-sniffing dogs help reduce drugs in the schools, but there…

  11. A sodium laser guide star coupling efficiency measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lu; Shen, Zhi-Xia; Xue, Suijian; Li, Yang-Peng; Jin, Kai; Otarola, Angel; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Bian, Qi; Wei, Kai; Hu, Jing-Yao

    2016-09-01

    A large telescope's adaptive optics (AO) system requires one or more bright artificial laser guide stars to improve its sky coverage. The recent advent of a high power sodium laser is perfect for such application. However, besides the output power, other parameters of the laser also have a significant impact on the brightness of the generated sodium laser guide star, mostly in non-linear relationships. When tuning and optimizing these parameters it is necessary to tune based on a laser guide star generation performance metric. Although return photon fluxis widely used, variability of the atmosphere and sodium layer makes it difficult to compare results from different sites or even within a short time period for the same site. A new metric, coupling efficiency, is adopted in our field tests. In this paper, we will introduce our method for measuring the coupling efficiency of a 20W class pulse sodium laser for AO application during field tests that were conducted during 2013–2015.

  12. Radiation pressure efficiency measurements of nanoparticle coated microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Y.; Taylor, Joseph D.; Ladouceur, Harold D.; Hart, Sean J.; Terray, Alex

    2013-12-01

    Experimental measurements of the radiation pressure efficiency (Qpr) for several microparticles have been compared to theoretical calculations extrapolated from the Bohren-Huffman code for Mie scattering of coated particles. An increased shift of the Qpr parameter was observed for 2 μm SiO2 core particles coated with nanoparticles of higher refractive indices. Coatings of 14 nm melamine particles were found to increase the Qpr parameter 135 times over similar coatings using SiO2 particles of the same size. While a coating of 100 nm polystyrene particles also showed a significant increase, they did not agree well with theoretical values. It is hypothesized that other factors such as increased scatter, drag, and finite coating coverage are no longer negligible for coatings using nanoparticles in this size regime.

  13. Radiation pressure efficiency measurements of nanoparticle coated microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Y.; Taylor, Joseph D.; Ladouceur, Harold D.; Hart, Sean J.; Terray, Alex

    2013-12-02

    Experimental measurements of the radiation pressure efficiency (Q{sub pr}) for several microparticles have been compared to theoretical calculations extrapolated from the Bohren-Huffman code for Mie scattering of coated particles. An increased shift of the Q{sub pr} parameter was observed for 2 μm SiO{sub 2} core particles coated with nanoparticles of higher refractive indices. Coatings of 14 nm melamine particles were found to increase the Q{sub pr} parameter 135 times over similar coatings using SiO{sub 2} particles of the same size. While a coating of 100 nm polystyrene particles also showed a significant increase, they did not agree well with theoretical values. It is hypothesized that other factors such as increased scatter, drag, and finite coating coverage are no longer negligible for coatings using nanoparticles in this size regime.

  14. Consumption, Retirement and Social Security: Evaluating the Efficiency of Reform that Encourages Longer Careers*

    PubMed Central

    Laitner, John; Silverman, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a Social Security reform in which individuals no longer face the OASI payroll tax after, say, age 54 or a career of 34 years, and their subsequent earnings have no bearing on their benefits. We first estimate parameters of a life–cycle model. Our specification includes non-separable preferences and possible disability. It predicts a consumption–expenditure change at retirement. We use the magnitude of the expenditure change, together with households’ retirement–age decisions, to identify key structural parameters. The estimated magnitude of the change in consumption–expenditure depends importantly on the treatment of consumption by adult children of the household. Simulations indicate that the reform could increase retirement ages one year or more, equivalent variations could average more than $4,000 per household, and income tax revenues per household could increase by more than $14,000. PMID:23729902

  15. Consumption, Retirement and Social Security: Evaluating the Efficiency of Reform that Encourages Longer Careers.

    PubMed

    Laitner, John; Silverman, Dan

    2012-08-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a Social Security reform in which individuals no longer face the OASI payroll tax after, say, age 54 or a career of 34 years, and their subsequent earnings have no bearing on their benefits. We first estimate parameters of a life-cycle model. Our specification includes non-separable preferences and possible disability. It predicts a consumption-expenditure change at retirement. We use the magnitude of the expenditure change, together with households' retirement-age decisions, to identify key structural parameters. The estimated magnitude of the change in consumption-expenditure depends importantly on the treatment of consumption by adult children of the household. Simulations indicate that the reform could increase retirement ages one year or more, equivalent variations could average more than $4,000 per household, and income tax revenues per household could increase by more than $14,000. PMID:23729902

  16. Measures of efficiency in healthcare: QALMs about QALYs?

    PubMed

    Schlander, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Comparative economic evaluations are concerned with the relative efficiency of alternative uses for scarce resources. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is grounded in economic welfare theory and attempts to identify alternatives with a net social benefit, measuring the created value in terms of individual willingness to pay (WTP). In applied health economics, cost-effectiveness evaluation (CEA) is more widely used than CBA, adopting a modified efficiency criterion, minimization of incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained ("cost-utility analysis," CUA). CBA has been greeted with skepticism in the health policy field, primarily owing to resistance to a monetary measure of benefit and owing to concerns that WTP may be unduly influenced by ability to pay. The move to CUA, however, has not been without problems. The framework deviates from economic theory in important aspects and rests on a set of highly restrictive assumptions, some of which must be considered as empirically falsified. Results of CUAs do not seem to be aligned with well-documented social preferences and the needs of healthcare policy makers acting on behalf of society. By implication, there is reason to assume that a context-independent value of a QALY does not exist, with potentially fatal consequences for any attempt to interpret CUAs in a normative way. Policy makers seem well advised to retain a pragmatic attitude towards the results of CUAs, while health economists should pay more attention to the further development of promising alternative evaluation paradigms as opposed to the application of algorithms grounded in poor theory. PMID:20608250

  17. Improving photosynthetic efficiency to address food security in the 21st century: Strategies for a more efficient crop canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLoocke, A. D.; Slattery, R.; Bernacchi, C.; Zhu, X.; Ort, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Global food production will need to increase by approximately 70% by mid-century to meet the caloric and nutritional demand of population and economic growth. Achieving this goal will require successfully implementing a wide range of strategies, spanning the social and physical sciences. Here we will present opportunities for improving crop production through increasing photosynthetic rates for a crop canopy that do not require additional agronomic inputs. We will focus on a specific strategy related optimizing the distribution of light within a crop canopy because it is a possible way to improve canopy photosynthesis in crops that form dense canopies, such as soybean, by increasing the transmission of light within a canopy via reduced chlorophyll content. We hypothesized that if decreasing chlorophyll content in soybean leaves will result in greater light penetration into the canopy then this will enhance canopy photosynthesis and improve yields. In addition, if current chlorophyll content in soybean results in excess light absorption, then decreasing chlorophyll content will result in decreased photoprotection that results in the suppression of upper canopy photosynthesis associated with super-optimal light. These hypotheses were tested in 2012 and 2013 in the field on the soybean cultivar 'Clark' (WT) and a nearly isogenic chlorophyll-b deficient mutant (Y11y11). Throughout the season, profiles of light sensors measured incident and reflected light intensity at the canopy surface as well as light levels at ten heights within the canopy. Analyses of these data indicated greater reflectivity, transmissivity and within-canopy light levels for the Y11y11 canopy relative to WT especially in the top half of the canopy. A Gas exchange method was used to determine photosynthetic capacity and suppression high light levels. Daily integrals of leaf-level photosynthesis in sun leaves were greater in Y11y11 compared to WT at several times during the growing season and

  18. Industrial Technologies Program - A Clean, Secure Energy Future via Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) leads the national effort to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the largest energy-using sector of the U.S. economy. ITP drives energy efficiency improvements and carbon dioxide reductions throughout the manufacturing supply chain, helping develop and deploy innovative technologies that transform the way industry uses energy.

  19. Data Envelopment Analysis: Measurement of Educational Efficiency in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lacy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of Texas public school districts through Data Envelopment Analysis. The Data Envelopment Analysis estimation method calculated and assigned efficiency scores to each of the 931 school districts considered in the study. The efficiency scores were utilized in two phases. First, the school…

  20. SelectAudit: A Secure and Efficient Audit Framework for Networked Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Tuan; Yao, Danfeng (Daphne)

    Networked virtual environments (NVE) refer to the category of distributed applications that allow a large number of distributed users to interact with one or more central servers in a virtual environment setting. Recent studies identify that malicious users may compromise the semantic integrity of NVE applications and violate the semantic rules of the virtual environments without being detected. In this paper, we propose an efficient audit protocol to detect violations of semantic integrity through a probabilistic checking mechanism done by a third-party audit server.

  1. Issues of Intruder Analytical Model Applicability for Evaluating an Efficiency of Security Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukovetskiy, Anton V.; Boyko, Vladimir I.; Kolpakov, Gennady N.; Poner, Michael V.

    2016-06-01

    Physical protection system (PPS) is created at a nuclear object to prevent unauthorized acts regarding to nuclear materials, nuclear installations, points of storage of nuclear materials and other items under physical protection. The ability of the PPS to prevent unauthorized actions of intruder was adopted as the main criterion for evaluating the efficiency of the physical protection system. The article considers the possibility of creation of the intruder analytical model to determine time indicators of overcoming boundaries of protection of nuclear object by an intruder with set features.

  2. Adaptive Measurement of Well-Being: Maximizing Efficiency and Optimizing User Experience during Individual Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kraatz, Miriam; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2016-08-01

    Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284-290). PMID:26674396

  3. Adaptive Measurement of Well-Being: Maximizing Efficiency and Optimizing User Experience during Individual Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kraatz, Miriam; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284–290) PMID:26674396

  4. Embedded Performance Validity Measures with Postdeployment Veterans: Cross-Validation and Efficiency with Multiple Measures.

    PubMed

    Shura, Robert D; Miskey, Holly M; Rowland, Jared A; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; Denning, John H

    2016-01-01

    Embedded validity measures support comprehensive assessment of performance validity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of individual embedded measures and to reduce them to the most efficient combination. The sample included 212 postdeployment veterans (average age = 35 years, average education = 14 years). Thirty embedded measures were initially identified as predictors of Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) and were derived from the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Conners' Continuous Performance Test-Second Edition (CPT-II), Trail Making Test, Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Letter-Number Sequencing, Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, and the Finger Tapping Test. Eight nonoverlapping measures with the highest area-under-the-curve (AUC) values were retained for entry into a logistic regression analysis. Embedded measure accuracy was also compared to cutoffs found in the existing literature. Twenty-one percent of the sample failed the WMT. Previously developed cutoffs for individual measures showed poor sensitivity (SN) in the current sample except for the CPT-II (Total Errors, SN = .41). The CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) showed the best overall accuracy (AUC = .80). After redundant measures were statistically eliminated, the model included the RCFT (Recognition True Positives), CPT-II (Total Errors), and CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) and increased overall accuracy compared with the CVLT-II alone (AUC = .87). The combination of just 3 measures from the CPT-II, CVLT-II, and RCFT was the most accurate/efficient in predicting WMT performance. PMID:26375185

  5. Update on NRF Measurements on ^237Np for National Security and Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. T.; Joshi, T.; Yee, R.; Swanberg, E.; Norman, E. B.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, G.; Hicks, C. L., Jr.; Korbly, S.; Klimenko, A.; Wilson, C.; Bray, T. H.; Copping, R.; Shuh, D. K.

    2010-11-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) uses γ rays to excite nuclear levels and measure their properties. This provides a unique isotopic signature, and can be used to identify and assay material. This is particularly important for applications that detect the smuggling of nuclear material or the diversion of fissile material for covert weapon programs, both of which present grave risks to world security. ^237Np presents significant safeguard challenges; it is fissile yet currently has fewer safeguard restrictions potentially making it an attractive material for covert weapon programs. This talk will present the final results of two measurements of NRF on ^237Np using a bremsstrahlung photon source. 15 NRF states have been identified between 1.5 and 2.5 MeV excitation energy.

  6. Measuring the operational efficiency of individual theme park attractions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhee; Kim, Soowook

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the operation efficiency of theme park attractions using the data envelopment analysis, utilizing actual data on 15 attractions at Samsung Everland located in Yongin-si, Republic of Korea. In particular, this study identifies crowding and waiting time as one of the main causes of visitor's satisfaction, and analyzes the efficiency of individual attractions in terms of waiting time. The installation area, installation cost, and annual repair cost are set as input factors and the number of annual users and customer satisfaction as output factors. The results show that the roller coaster-type attractions were less efficient than other types of attractions while rotating-type attractions were relatively more efficient. However, an importance performance analysis on individual attraction's efficiency and satisfaction showed that operational efficiency should not be the sole consideration in attraction installation. In addition, the projection points for input factors for efficient use of attractions and the appropriate reference set for benchmarking are provided as guideline for attraction efficiency management. PMID:27386283

  7. Integrating Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing and In-situ Measurements for Africa Drought Monitoring and Food Security Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X.; Qu, J. J.; Motha, R. P.; Stefanski, R.; Malherbe, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most complicated natural hazards, and causes serious environmental, economic and social consequences. Agricultural production systems, which are highly susceptible to weather and climate extremes, are often the first and most vulnerable sector to be affected by drought events. In Africa, crop yield potential and grazing quality are already nearing their limit of temperature sensitivity, and, rapid population growth and frequent drought episodes pose serious complications for food security. It is critical to promote sustainable agriculture development in Africa under conditions of climate extremes. Soil moisture is one of the most important indicators for agriculture drought, and is a fundamentally critical parameter for decision support in crop management, including planting, water use efficiency and irrigation. While very significant technological advances have been introduced for remote sensing of surface soil moisture from space, in-situ measurements are still critical for calibration and validation of soil moisture estimation algorithms. For operational applications, synergistic collaboration is needed to integrate measurements from different sensors at different spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, a collaborative effort is demonstrated for drought monitoring in Africa, supported and coordinated by WMO, including surface soil moisture and crop status monitoring. In-situ measurements of soil moisture, precipitation and temperature at selected sites are provided by local partners in Africa. Measurements from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are integrated with in-situ observations to derive surface soil moisture at high spatial resolution. Crop status is estimated through temporal analysis of current and historical MODIS measurements. Integrated analysis of soil moisture data and crop status provides both in-depth understanding of drought conditions and

  8. Integrating Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing and In-situ Measurements for Africa Drought Monitoring and Food Security Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X.; Qu, J. J.; Motha, R. P.; Stefanski, R.; Malherbe, J.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is one of the most complicated natural hazards, and causes serious environmental, economic and social consequences. Agricultural production systems, which are highly susceptible to weather and climate extremes, are often the first and most vulnerable sector to be affected by drought events. In Africa, crop yield potential and grazing quality are already nearing their limit of temperature sensitivity, and, rapid population growth and frequent drought episodes pose serious complications for food security. It is critical to promote sustainable agriculture development in Africa under conditions of climate extremes. Soil moisture is one of the most important indicators for agriculture drought, and is a fundamentally critical parameter for decision support in crop management, including planting, water use efficiency and irrigation. While very significant technological advances have been introduced for remote sensing of surface soil moisture from space, in-situ measurements are still critical for calibration and validation of soil moisture estimation algorithms. For operational applications, synergistic collaboration is needed to integrate measurements from different sensors at different spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, a collaborative effort is demonstrated for drought monitoring in Africa, supported and coordinated by WMO, including surface soil moisture and crop status monitoring. In-situ measurements of soil moisture, precipitation and temperature at selected sites are provided by local partners in Africa. Measurements from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are integrated with in-situ observations to derive surface soil moisture at high spatial resolution. Crop status is estimated through temporal analysis of current and historical MODIS measurements. Integrated analysis of soil moisture data and crop status provides both in-depth understanding of drought conditions and

  9. Entangled-state cryptographic protocol that remains secure even if nonlocal hidden variables exist and can be measured with arbitrary precision

    SciTech Connect

    Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; Pawlowski, Marcin

    2006-03-15

    Standard quantum cryptographic protocols are not secure if one assumes that nonlocal hidden variables exist and can be measured with arbitrary precision. The security can be restored if one of the communicating parties randomly switches between two standard protocols.

  10. Better Safe than Sorry: Panic Buttons as a Security Measure in an Academic Medical Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Karen D.; Kane, Laura Townsend

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of recent tragedies, campus security has become a hot issue nationwide. Campus libraries, as traditional meeting spots for varied groups of people, are particularly vulnerable to security issues. Safety and security problems that can occur at any library generally include theft, vandalism, arson, antisocial behavior, and assaults on…

  11. The Role of Earnings and Financial Risk in Distributional Analyses of Social Security Reform Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The Social Security Trustees project that the Social Security program faces longterm financing difficulties. Several proposals that have been offered to shore-up the finances of the Social Security program would create individual retirement accounts funded with part of the payroll tax. The authors of many of these proposals claim that future…

  12. Correlation of rheological characteristics of lubricants with transmission efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.; Hoeglund, E.

    1985-01-01

    The power efficiency of a helicopter transmission has been analyzed for 11 lubricants by looking at the Newtonian and non-Newtonian properties of the lubricants. A non-Newtonian property of the lubricants was the limiting shear strength proportionality constant. The tests were performed on a high-pressure, short-time shear strength analyzer. A power efficiency formula that was obtained by analyzing the Newtonian and non-Newtonian properties of the lubricants is presented in detail.

  13. Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements

    SciTech Connect

    ZAIDI,SALEEM H.

    2000-04-01

    Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to

  14. [Ultima ratio of the applied security measures in placing perpetrators in a psychiatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Hajdukiewicz, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    The meaning of articles on the main security measures concerned with placing the convict in a closed psychiatric unit is studied. Articles 93 & 94 section 1 of the penal code limit their application only as final measures--the ultima ratio. Art. 93 of the penal code pertains to the perpetrator of illegal actions in connection to their psychiatric illness, mental retardation, alcohol or other related substance addiction, along with a risk of the crime being committed once again, only when it will prevent the person from repeating the crime. The issues that need be considered are the following: psychic state of the perpetrator along with prediction of the risk of him repeating the act, but the liability evaluation and the degree of probability do not play any vital role. This is probably due to the fact that the measure described in art. 96 of the penal code has a limited time span (it cannot be any shorter than 3 months and longer than 2 years) and what is more; it can be applied instead of the punishment. Art. 94 section 1 of the penal code requires very precise evaluation of the risk of repetition in each case of a non-liable perpetrator guilty of conducting crime of serious social damage. This measure is not limited in time span, because it depends on the psychic state of the person under its influence. Henceforth it is considered as more restrictive. PMID:17068937

  15. Measuring hospital efficiency: a comparison of two approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Chirikos, T N; Sear, A M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of scoring hospital efficiency by means of two new types of frontier models, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier regression (SFR). STUDY SETTING: Financial records of Florida acute care hospitals in continuous operation over the period 1982-1993. STUDY DESIGN: Comparable DEA and SFR models are specified, and these models are then estimated to obtain the efficiency indexes yielded by each. The empirical results are subsequently examined to ascertain the extent to which they serve the needs of hospital policymakers. DATA COLLECTION: A longitudinal or panel data set is assembled, and a common set of output, input, and cost indicators is constructed to support the estimation of comparable DEA and SFR models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DEA and SFR models yield convergent evidence about hospital efficiency at the industry level, but divergent portraits of the individual characteristics of the most and least efficient facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital policymakers should not be indifferent to the choice of the frontier model used to score efficiency relationships. They may be well advised to wait until additional research clarifies reasons why DEA and SFR models yield divergent results before they introduce these methods into the policy process. PMID:10654837

  16. Measuring the efficiency of wastewater services through Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, A; Romano, G; Leardini, C; Martini, M

    2015-01-01

    Efficient water management is a priority in the European Union, since the operational efficiency of many water utilities is very low compared to best practice. Several countries are restructuring the water industry to save costs. Larger-scale operations and vertical integration are promoted to achieve scale and scope economies; however, the literature is not unanimous that such economies exist. There is also little evidence of the effect of customer density on costs. This article offers some insights into this matter, analysing the Danish water industry by a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis approach to investigate the effects of size, scope and density in the wastewater industry. The results show that the Danish wastewater industry is positively affected by vertical integration and higher population density: firms that serve more than 100 person per km of sewer and combine water and wastewater services achieve better efficiency. Size does not have any significant influence on global efficiency, although technical pure efficiency decreases statistically with firm size. PMID:26067505

  17. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR Part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  18. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.444 Section 431.444 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA,...

  19. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.444 Section 431.444 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA,...

  20. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  1. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.444 Section 431.444 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA,...

  2. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  3. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.444 Section 431.444 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA,...

  4. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.444 Section 431.444 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA,...

  5. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  6. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purposes of 10 CFR Part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...

  7. Measuring Efficiencies of Academic Departments within a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauer, Loren W.; Fried, Harold O.; Fry, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Technical and allocative efficiencies of 26 academic departments in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University are computed using Data Envelopment Analysis over 2004/05. Allocations of faculty time between teaching, research, and extension vary by department and are used as unique prices in calculating allocative…

  8. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, J. K.

    2012-02-01

    The thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The thermal efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain the thermal efficiency curve. This paper describes this approach and also makes the case that there are advantages to plotting collector efficiency versus the difference between the operating temperature and the ambient temperature at which the receiver heat loss was measured divided by radiation to a fractional power (on the order of 1/3 but obtained via data regression) - as opposed to the difference between operating and ambient temperatures divided by the radiation. The results are shown to be robust over wide ranges of ambient temperature, sky temperature, and wind speed.

  9. Comparison of measured and calculated collision efficiencies at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagare, B.; Marcolli, C.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions of atmospheric aerosols with clouds influence cloud properties and modify the aerosol life cycle. Aerosol particles act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles or become incorporated into cloud droplets by scavenging. For an accurate description of aerosol scavenging and ice nucleation in contact mode, collision efficiency between droplets and aerosol particles needs to be known. This study derives the collision rate from experimental contact freezing data obtained with the ETH CoLlision Ice Nucleation CHamber (CLINCH). Freely falling 80 μm diameter water droplets are exposed to an aerosol consisting of 200 and 400 nm diameter silver iodide particles of concentrations from 500 to 5000 and 500 to 2000 cm-3, respectively, which act as ice nucleating particles in contact mode. The experimental data used to derive collision efficiency are in a temperature range of 238-245 K, where each collision of silver iodide particles with droplets can be assumed to result in the freezing of the droplet. An upper and lower limit of collision efficiency is also estimated for 800 nm diameter kaolinite particles. The chamber is kept at ice saturation at a temperature range of 236 to 261 K, leading to the slow evaporation of water droplets giving rise to thermophoresis and diffusiophoresis. Droplets and particles bear charges inducing electrophoresis. The experimentally derived collision efficiency values of 0.13, 0.07 and 0.047-0.11 for 200, 400 and 800 nm particles are around 1 order of magnitude higher than theoretical formulations which include Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and electric forces. This discrepancy is most probably due to uncertainties and inaccuracies in the description of thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic processes acting together. This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first data set of collision efficiencies acquired below 273 K. More such experiments with different droplet and

  10. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  11. Measuring efficiency in modern gas turbine power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, J.; Gilmartin, D.

    1998-07-01

    The United Kingdom Government's decision to put the publicly-owned Electricity Supply Industry into the hands of private investors paved the way for the creation of a competitive electricity market, and encouraged the entry of Independent Power Producers (IPP). Competition in electricity generation has increased as new entrants have taken advantage of the latest Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) technology, which offers rapid build times, low construction cost, and high cycle efficiency, as well as lower environmental emissions. It is of paramount importance that suitable Guarantees are in place before investing in either new build or existing power plant projects. There will be Guarantees within all of the contracts that provide the framework for a viable power project, from the power purchase agreement (PPA), and fuel supply agreement (FSA), to the turnkey contract (Engineer, Procure and Construct). The Plant Performance Guarantees, especially on module power output and heat rate, have a major impact on a project's economic viability, and although they are included within the turnkey construction contract, they may also be passed through to the PPA and FSA. This paper details the Performance Guarantee Tests that are carried out jointly by the Owner-Operator and the Plant Constructor on a large CCGT plant in the UK, though the Tests are as valid for international sites. The methodology of the Performance Test is described, along with the applicable International Standards. On-line efficiency monitoring at one of National Power's CCGT plant is also briefly outlined. A set of typical power and heat rate correction curves is provided in Appendix 1 for reference, while Appendix 2 contains an example calculation of turbine inlet temperature as per DIN 4341. Appendix 3 is a flow diagram for an online efficiency calculation cycle, using the EfficiencyMap{trademark} Performance Monitoring system.

  12. Efficient measurement of amylose content in cereal grains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid and economical measurement of amylose content in barley is important for genetic study and breeding improvement of this trait. Seventeen genotypes with a wide range of amylose contents were used to compare the amylose measurement accuracy of the cost-effective iodine-potassium iodide (I:KI) me...

  13. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    DOEpatents

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  14. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements on ^237Np for Security and Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. T.; Joshi, T.; Yee, Ryan; Norman, E. B.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, G. A.; Korbly, S.; Klimenko, A.; Wilson, C.; Copping, R.; Shuh, D. K.

    2009-10-01

    The smuggling of nuclear material and the diversion of fissile material for covert weapon programs both present grave risks to world security. Methods are needed to detect nuclear material smuggled in cargo, and for proper material accountability in civilian fuel re-processing facilities. Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a technique that can address both needs. It is a non-destructive active interrogation method that provides isotope-specific information. It works by using a γ-ray beam to resonantly excite levels in a nucleus and observing the γ-rays emitted whose energy and intensity are characteristic of that isotope. ^237Np presents significant safeguard challenges; it is fissile yet currently has fewer safeguard restrictions. NRF measurements on ^237Np will expand the nuclear database and will permit designing interrogation and assay systems. Measurements were made using the bremsstrahlung beam at the HVRL at MIT on a 7 g target of ^237Np with two incident electron energies of 2.8 and 3.1 MeV. Results will be presented with discussion of the relevant nuclear structure necessary to predict levels in other actinides.

  15. Information Leakage in Efficient Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in Both Polarization and Spatial-Mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cai; Situ, Haozhen

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Wang et al. presented a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54(10): 3443-3453, 2015). They claimed that their protocol was efficient and removed the drawback of information leakage. However, we found that the information leakage actually exists in their protocol. In this paper, we analyze Wang et al.'s protocol in detail. In addition, we propose an improvement to avoid the information leakage. The security of the improved protocol has also been discussed.

  16. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Haglund, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  17. Sloan Digital Sky Survey observing time tracking and efficiency measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Eric H. Neilsen, Jr.; Richard G. Kron; William N. Boroski

    2002-10-16

    Accurate and consistent time tracking is essential for evaluating the efficiency of survey observing operations and identifying areas that need improvement. Off the shelf time tracking software, which requires users to enter activities by hand, proved tedious to use and insufficiently exible. In this paper, we present an alternate time tracking system developed specifically for Sloan Digital Sky Survey observing. This system uses an existing logging system, murmur, to log the beginning and ending times of tracked circumstances, including activities, weather, and problems which effect observing. Operations software automatically generates most entries for routine observing activities; in a night of routine observing, time tracking requires little or no attention from the observing staff. A graphical user interface allows observers to make entries marking time lost to weather and equipment, and to correct inaccurate entries made by the observing software. The last is necessary when the change in activity is not marked by a change in the state of the software or instruments, or when the time is used for engineering or other observing not part of routine survey data collection. A second utility generates reports of time usage from these logs. These reports include totals for the time spent for each observing task, time lost to weather and problems, efficiency statistics for comparison with the survey baseline, and a detailed listing of what activities and problems were present in any covered time period.

  18. Statistically efficient tomography of low rank states with incomplete measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Anirudh; Kypraios, Theodore; Guţă, Mădălin

    2016-04-01

    The construction of physically relevant low dimensional state models, and the design of appropriate measurements are key issues in tackling quantum state tomography for large dimensional systems. We consider the statistical problem of estimating low rank states in the set-up of multiple ions tomography, and investigate how the estimation error behaves with a reduction in the number of measurement settings, compared with the standard ion tomography setup. We present extensive simulation results showing that the error is robust with respect to the choice of states of a given rank, the random selection of settings, and that the number of settings can be significantly reduced with only a negligible increase in error. We present an argument to explain these findings based on a concentration inequality for the Fisher information matrix. In the more general setup of random basis measurements we use this argument to show that for certain rank r states it suffices to measure in O(r{log}d) bases to achieve the average Fisher information over all bases. We present numerical evidence for random states of up to eight atoms, which suggests that a similar behaviour holds in the case of Pauli bases measurements, for randomly chosen states. The relation to similar problems in compressed sensing is also discussed.

  19. Selected Private Higher Educational Institutions in Metro Manila: A DEA Efficiency Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Maria Corazon Gwendolyn N.; Cabana, Emilyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures the technical efficiency of 16 selected colleges and universities in Metro Manila, Philippines, using academic data for the SY 2001-2005. Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA), on average, schools posted 0.807 index score and need additional 19.3% efficiency growth to be efficient. Overall, there are top four efficient…

  20. Measurements of the transport efficiency of the fragment mass analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N.

    1995-08-01

    Extensive calculations of the transport of reaction products were carried out during the design phase of the instrument using the computer code GIOS. These show that the energy acceptance depends strongly on the angular deviation from the optical axis of the instrument. In order to reliably measure cross sections using this instrument it is therefore necessary to verify these calculations empirically.

  1. Heavy doping considerations and measurements in high-efficiency cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical work on heavily doped silicon was described. Heavily doped polysilicon was used as a back-surface passivant replacing the usual back-surface field (BSF). Very good first results were achieved and there is the promise of a simple, low temperature deposition process. Short-circuit current-decay measurement methods were also covered.

  2. Situational Awareness as a Measure of Performance in Cyber Security Collaborative Work

    SciTech Connect

    Malviya, Ashish; Fink, Glenn A.; Sego, Landon H.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2011-04-11

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge in turn could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. We conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the Pacific-rim Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (PRCCDC) and analyzed it to study the behavior of cyber defenders. We propose that situational awareness predicts performance of cyber security professionals, and in this paper we focus on our collection and analysis of competition data to determine whether it supports our hypothesis. In addition to normal cyber data, we collected situational awareness and workload data and compared it against the performance of cyber defenders as indicated by their competition score. We conclude that there is a weak correlation between our measure of situational awareness and performance that we hope to exploit in further studies.

  3. Efficient height measurement method of surveillance camera image.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong; Lee, Eung-Dae; Tark, Hyun-Oh; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-05-01

    As surveillance cameras are increasingly installed, their films are often submitted as evidence of crime, but very scant detailed information such as features and clothes is obtained due to the limited camera performance. Height, however, is relatively not significantly influenced by the camera performance. This paper studied the height measurement method using images from a CCTV. The information on the height was obtained via photogrammetry, including the reference points in the photographed area and the calculation of the relationship between a 3D space and a 2D image through linear and nonlinear calibration. Using this correlation, this paper suggested the height measurement method, which projects a 3D virtual ruler onto the image. This method has been proven to offer more stable values within the range of data convergence than those of other existing methods. PMID:18096339

  4. Confocal stereology: an efficient tool for measurement of microscopic structures.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative measurements of geometric forms or counting of objects in microscopic specimens is an essential tool in studies of microstructure. Confocal stereology represents a contemporary approach to the evaluation of microscopic structures by using a combination of stereological methods and confocal microscopy. 3-D images acquired by confocal microscopy can be used for the estimation of geometrical characteristics of microscopic structures by stereological methods, based on the evaluation of optical sections within a thick slice and using computer-generated virtual test probes. Such methods can be used for estimating volume, number, surface area and length using relevant spatial probes, which are generated by specific software. The interactions of the probes with the structure under study are interactively evaluated. An overview of the methods of confocal stereology developed during the past 30 years is presented. Their advantages and pitfalls in comparison with other methods for measurement of geometrical characteristics of microscopic structures are discussed. PMID:25743691

  5. Data Envelopment Analysis and Its Application to the Measurement of Efficiency in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnes, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of measuring efficiency in the context of higher education. The paper begins by exploring the advantages and drawbacks of the various methods for measuring efficiency in the higher education context. The ease with which data envelopment analysis (DEA) can handle multiple inputs and multiple…

  6. Measurement of the Detection Efficiency of the Kloe Calorimeter for Neutrons Between 20 and 174 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, P.; Anelli, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Curceanu, C.; de Zorzi, G.; di Domenico, A.; di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Prokofiev, A.; Sala, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sirghi, F.

    2008-06-01

    The detection efficiency of a KLOE calorimeter prototype to neutrons of kinetic energy of 21, 46 and 174 MeV has been measured by exposing it to the neutron beam of the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. The measurement of the neutron detection efficiency of a NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. At the lowest trigger threshold, the ratio between the calorimeter and scintillator efficiency ranges from 2.5 to 3.2.

  7. Efficiencies of intracoronary sodium nitroprusside on fractional flow reserve measurement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaosheng; Deng, Jie; Wang, Xiaozeng; Zhao, Xin; Han, Yaling

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has certain advantages of assessing functional severity of coronary stenosis. Adenosine(AD) is the most widely used agents in FFR measurement but has the disadvantages of higher rate of complications. Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) represents a valuable alternative. Methods and results: In 75 patients with 86 moderate coronary stenosis, FFR values, heart rate and blood pressure were measured at baseline, after 0.6 μg boluses of intracoronary (IC) SNP, and after 140 μg/kg /min of continuous intravenous (IV) AD. FFR values decreased significantly after administering IV AD and IC SNP compared with the baseline Pd/Pa values (P < 0.001). Mean FFR induced by IV AD was not significantly different from that by IC SNP (t = 0.577, P = 0.566). The mean kappa value in the evaluation of two methods was 0.973 for FFR. There was a significant correlation between the FFR values of IV AD and IC SNP (R = 0.911, P < 0.001). Significant decreases in the blood pressures were found after agents were given compared to the baseline. No significant difference was found between AD and SNP. In addition, immediate complications occurred in 60.5% patients of IV AD in contrast to no adverse events after IC SNP. Conclusion: SNP is a safe and effective agent and easy to use for the FFR measurement. Maximal hyperemia by IC SNP is equivalent to that by IV AD. IC SNP could be considered a potential alternative in patients with contraindications to AD administration. PMID:25932219

  8. Efficient entanglement criteria beyond Gaussian limits using Gaussian measurements.

    PubMed

    Nha, Hyunchul; Lee, Su-Yong; Ji, Se-Wan; Kim, M S

    2012-01-20

    We present a formalism to derive entanglement criteria beyond the Gaussian regime that can be readily tested by only homodyne detection. The measured observable is the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. Its arbitrary functional form enables us to detect non-Gaussian entanglement even when an entanglement test based on second-order moments fails. We illustrate the power of our experimentally friendly criteria for a broad class of non-Gaussian states under realistic conditions. We also show rigorously that quantum teleportation for continuous variables employs a specific functional form of EPR correlation. PMID:22400723

  9. Clinical comparison of the efficiency and security of balloon dilators versus fascial dilators in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lingbo; Lu, Shuaiqi; Han, Xingtao; Wei, Pengtao; Yang, Jinhui; Hao, Tongtong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficiency and security of the balloon dilators versus fascial dilators in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL), We compared the difference of intraoperative and postoperative parameters of patients using these two different methods of expansion and having no significant statistic differences in peroperative parameters. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 134 patients undergoing PCNL with upper urinary calculi from January 2012 to January 2014 in Luoyang Central Hospital affiliated to Zhengzhou University. These patients meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups: the group of balloon dilators (group A) and the group of fascial dilators (group B). Two groups were compared for success rate of first expansion, clearance of stone, duration of surgery, intraoperative hemorrhage, blood transfusion rate, postoperative hospitalization and the incidence of complications. Result: In Group A, a total of 91 patients (51 men and 40 women, mean age 51.22±8.96 years, ranged from 28 to 68 years, the calculi maximum diameter from 0.9 to 4.5cm, 28 cases with a history of gravel, mean Body mass index 24.20±2.34, 73 cases with hydronephrosis and 26 cases with underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and the like) undergoing PCNL were retrospectively reviewed. Similarly, In Group B, a total of 43 patients (28 men and 15 women, mean age 49.64±10.62 years, ranged from 15 to 70 years, the calculi maximum diameter from 1.1 to 5.2cm, 18 cases with a history of gravel, mean Body mass index 24.40±2.70, 38 cases with hydronephrosis and 14 cases with underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and the like) undergoing PCNL were retrospectively reviewed. Our results showed that there was a statistically significant better outcome in Group A than in Group B in terms of success rate of first exploration, duration of operation, intraoperative hemorrhage, postoperative hospitalization and the incidence of complications

  10. Airborne Dust Cloud Measurements at the INL National Security Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Norm Stanley; Larry Radke; Charles Smeltzer

    2007-09-01

    On July 11, 2007, a surface, high-explosive test (<20,000 lb TNT-equivalent) was carried out at the National Security Test Range (NSTR) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. Aircraft-mounted rapid response (1-sec) particulate monitors were used to measure airborne PM-10 concentrations directly in the dust cloud and to develop a PM-10 emission factor that could be used for subsequent tests at the NSTR. The blast produced a mushroom-like dust cloud that rose approximately 2,500–3,000 ft above ground level, which quickly dissipated (within 5 miles of the source). In general, the cloud was smaller and less persistence than expected, or that might occur in other areas, likely due to the coarse sand and subsurface conditions that characterize the immediate NSTR area. Maximum short time-averaged (1-sec) PM-10 concentrations at the center of the cloud immediately after the event reached 421 µg m-3 but were rapidly reduced (by atmospheric dispersion and fallout) to near background levels (~10 µg m-3) after about 15 minutes. This occurred well within the INL Site boundary, about 8 km (5 miles) from the NSTR source. These findings demonstrate that maximum concentrations in ambient air beyond the INL Site boundary (closest is 11.2 km from NSTR) from these types of tests would be well within the 150 µg m-3 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM-10. Aircraft measurements and geostatistical techniques were used to successfully quantify the initial volume (1.64E+9 m3 or 1.64 km3) and mass (250 kg) of the PM-10 dust cloud, and a PM-10 emission factor (20 kg m-3 crater soil volume) was developed for this specific type of event at NSTR. The 250 kg of PM-10 mass estimated from this experiment is almost seven-times higher than the 36 kg estimated for the environmental assessment (DOE-ID 2007) using available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1995) emission factors. This experiment demonstrated that advanced aircraft-mounted instruments operated by

  11. Measuring energy efficiency in the Department of Defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murrie, B.L.

    1984-02-01

    It is concluded that energy productivity ratios - overall or at lower, functional levels, e.g., for mobility operations - are usually infeasible. Even at the less highly aggregate levels, such as military airlift or aircraft depot maintenance, individual operational outputs are difficult to define and measure and impossible to combine. At the specific operational levels where outputs can be identified and defined, energy consumption, the denominator of the productivity ratio, is usually metered at too high a level to permit linkage with outputs. It is recommended that DoD abandon its attempts to develop energy-productivity ratios to evaluate energy consumption and that it adopt two other analytical methods. The first method is trend analysis of energy-intensity ratios - ratios of energy-consumption costs to total outlays at several levels of aggregation. Differentiating among activities according to their energy-intensity trends will allow management attention to be concentrated where potential energy savings are highest. Where they are, the authors recommends a second analytical method, quantitative relationships, by activity, between energy-consumption and the principal activities and factors (e.g., flying hours, base population) associated with it. Using these relationships DoD managers can obtain and understanding of energy consumption impacts. They will be able to determine whether changes in consumption are significant, and thus will have a basis for setting meaninful energy goals.

  12. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    ASTRACT The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system. PMID:26789552

  13. Microscopic oxygen imaging based on fluorescein bleaching efficiency measurements.

    PubMed

    Beutler, Martin; Heisterkamp, Ines M; Piltz, Bastian; Stief, Peter; De Beer, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    Photobleaching of the fluorophore fluorescein in an aqueous solution is dependent on the oxygen concentration. Therefore, the time-dependent bleaching behavior can be used to measure of dissolved oxygen concentrations. The method can be combined with epi-fluorescence microscopy. The molecular states of the fluorophore can be expressed by a three-state energy model. This leads to a set of differential equations which describe the photobleaching behavior of fluorescein. The numerical solution of these equations shows that in a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope, the fluorescence of fluorescein will fade out faster at low than at high oxygen concentration. Further simulation showed that a simple ratio function of different time-points during a fluorescence decay recorded during photobleaching could be used to describe oxygen concentrations in an aqueous solution. By careful choice of dye concentration and excitation light intensity the sensitivity in the oxygen concentration range of interest can be optimized. In the simulations, the estimation of oxygen concentration by the ratio function was very little affected by the pH value in the range of pH 6.5-8.5. Filming the fluorescence decay by a charge-coupled-device (ccd) camera mounted on a fluorescence microscope allowed a pixelwise estimation of the ratio function in a microscopic image. Use of a microsensor and oxygen-consuming bacteria in a sample chamber enabled the calibration of the system for quantification of absolute oxygen concentrations. The method was demonstrated on nitrifying biofilms growing on snail and mussel shells, showing clear effects of metabolic activity on oxygen concentrations. PMID:24610786

  14. Apparatus and method for measuring single cell and sub-cellular photosynthetic efficiency

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Singh, Seema; Wu, Huawen

    2013-07-09

    Devices for measuring single cell changes in photosynthetic efficiency in algal aquaculture are disclosed that include a combination of modulated LED trans-illumination of different intensities with synchronized through objective laser illumination and confocal detection. Synchronization and intensity modulation of a dual illumination scheme were provided using a custom microcontroller for a laser beam block and constant current LED driver. Therefore, single whole cell photosynthetic efficiency, and subcellular (diffraction limited) photosynthetic efficiency measurement modes are permitted. Wide field rapid light scanning actinic illumination is provided for both by an intensity modulated 470 nm LED. For the whole cell photosynthetic efficiency measurement, the same LED provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. For the subcellular photosynthetic efficiency measurement, a switched through objective 488 nm laser provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. A second near IR LED is employed to generate dark adapted states in the system under study.

  15. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I-V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I-V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the "balance sheets" of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  16. Use Conditions and Efficiency Measurements of DC Power Optimizers for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; MacAlpine, S.

    2013-10-01

    No consensus standard exists for estimating annual conversion efficiency of DC-DC converters or power optimizers in photovoltaic (PV) applications. The performance benefits of PV power electronics including per-panel DC-DC converters depend in large part on the operating conditions of the PV system, along with the performance characteristics of the power optimizer itself. This work presents acase study of three system configurations that take advantage of the capabilities of DC power optimizers. Measured conversion efficiencies of DC-DC converters are applied to these scenarios to determine the annual weighted operating efficiency. A simplified general method of reporting weighted efficiency is given, based on the California Energy Commission's CEC efficiency rating and severalinput / output voltage ratios. Efficiency measurements of commercial power optimizer products are presented using the new performance metric, along with a description of the limitations of the approach.

  17. Measured efficiency of a ZnO nanostructured diode piezoelectric energy harvesting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, J.; Bilotti, E.; Dunn, S.

    2012-08-01

    We used controlled bending of a ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) diode at known strain rates to measure the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency. The mechanical energy input into the nanostructured diode was measured as 330 ± 2 nJ cm-2. The electrical energy output was calculated by integrating the product of the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage over time. This gives a measured external efficiency of the device at a bending rate of 500 mm/min of 0.0067%. The efficiency increased exponentially with bending rate, though this increase must slow as the mechanical coupling efficiency is approached, which gives a maximum possible efficiency of 23% for ZnO.

  18. Detailed Measurements of ECCD Efficiency on DIII-D for Comparison with Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, C.C.; Prater, R.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Ellis,III, R.A., Harvey, R.W.; Kinsey, J.E.; Lao, L.L.; Makowski, M.A.

    2002-05-01

    Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have focused on determining the effect of trapped particles on the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency. Localized power deposition and current drive were observed for both L-mode and ELMing H-mode plasmas. The ECCD efficiency was measured for both co and counter injection. Overall, the experimental ECCD efficiency was in good agreement with the CQL3D Fokker-Planck model over a wide range of injection angles and plasma parameters.

  19. Transmission Efficiency Measurements and Correlations with Physical Characteristics of the Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.; Mitchell, A. M.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    Data from helicopter transmission efficiency tests were compared to physical properties of the eleven lubricants used in those tests. The tests were conducted with the OH-58 helicopter main rotor transmission. Efficiencies ranged from 98.3 to 98.8 percent. The data was examined for correlation of physical properties with efficiency. There was a reasonable correlation of efficiency with absolute viscosity if the viscosity was first corrected for temperature and pressure in the lubricated contact. Between lubricants, efficiency did not correlate well with viscosity at atmospheric pressure. Between lubricants, efficiency did not correlate well with calculated lubricant film forming capacity. Bench type sliding friction and wear measurements could not be correlated to transmission efficiency and component wear.

  20. Measurement of the neutron detection efficiency of a 80% absorber-20% scintillating fibers calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anelli, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Corradi, G.; Curceanu, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Lucà, A.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Sarra, I.; Sciascia, B.; Sirghi, F.; Tagnani, D.

    2011-01-01

    The neutron detection efficiency of a sampling calorimeter made of 1 mm diameter scintillating fibers embedded in a lead/bismuth structure has been measured at the neutron beam of The Svedberg Laboratory at Uppsala. A significant enhancement of the detection efficiency with respect to a bulk organic scintillator detector with the same thickness is observed.

  1. Field Measurements of Heating System Efficiency in Nine Electrically-Heated Manufactured Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Siegel, J.; Palmiter, L.; Baylon, D.

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on nine manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest. The testing procedure collects real-time data on heating system energy use and heating zone temperatures, allowing direct calculation of heating system efficiency.

  2. Lateral Spectrum Splitting Concentrator Photovoltaics: Direct Measurement of Component and Submodule Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoting, W.; Waite, N.; Murcia, P.; Emery, K.; Steiner, M.; Kiamilev, F.; Goossen, K.; Honsberg, C.; Barnett, A.

    2012-03-01

    To achieve high energy conversion efficiency, a solar module architecture called lateral spectrum splitting concentrator photovoltaics (LSSCPV) is being developed. LSSCPV can concentrate available sunlight and laterally split a single beam into bands with different spectra for absorption by different solar cells with band gaps matched to the split spectrum. Test assemblies of a sample LSSCPV architecture were constructed, each of which contains four p-n junctions and two optical pieces. Independent experiments or simulations had been implemented on the components but by using optimal assumptions. In order to examine the actual performances of all the components, which are dependent on each other and the light source, direct outdoor measurements were made. A set of self-consistent efficiency definitions was articulated and a test bed was developed to measure the parameters required by the efficiency calculation. By comparing the component efficiency items derived from the outdoor measurement and the expected values based on independent simulations, the potential opportunities for efficiency improvement are determined. In the outdoor measurement at the University of Delaware, the optical component demonstrated 89.1% efficiency. Additional assemblies were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. One assembly demonstrated 36.7% submodule efficiency, which compares favorably with the 32.6% previously reported verified submodule efficiency.

  3. Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

    1994-07-26

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

  4. An Efficient and Provably Secure Cross-Realm Client-to-Client Password-Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol with Smart Cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wenting; Xu, Jing

    Cross-realm client-to-client password-authenticated key agreement (C2C-PAKA) protocols provide an authenticated key exchange between two clients of different realms, who only share their passwords with their own servers. Recently, several such cross-realm C2C-PAKA protocols have been suggested in the private-key (symmetric) setting, but all of these protocols are found to be vulnerable to password-compromise impersonation attacks. In this paper, we propose our innovative C2C- PAKA-SC protocol in which smart cards are first utilized in the cross-realm setting so that it can resist all types of common attacks including password-compromise impersonation attacks and provide improved efficiency. Moveover, we modify the original formal security model to adapt our proposed protocol and present a corresponding security proof.

  5. Extracting the emitter orientation in organic light-emitting diodes from external quantum efficiency measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Tobias D. Reichardt, Lukas J.; Wehrmeister, Sebastian; Scholz, Bert J.; Mayr, Christian; Brütting, Wolfgang; Rausch, Andreas F.; Wehlus, Thomas; Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Ciarnáin, Rossá Mac; Danz, Norbert

    2014-07-28

    Emitter orientation will play a major role in future applications of organic light-emitting diodes due to its strong impact on the efficiency of the devices. Up to now, determining the orientation of transition dipole moments required elaborate angular-dependent measurements of the light emission pattern. In this paper, we present a simplified and straightforward method to extract the emitter orientation from external quantum efficiency measurements. We demonstrate the validity of the method on three different dye-doped emitting systems.

  6. Efficiency measurements of reflection gratings in the 100-300-A band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meekins, John F.; Kowalski, Michael P.; Cruddace, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    Zero-order and first-order efficiencies of plane diffraction grazings over the 100-300-A band have been measured using the NRL beamline facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Measurements were taken at grating angles of 5, 10, and 15 deg, and the incident radiation was polarized primarily in the transverse magnetic mode. Four (three laminar, one blazed) of the gratings were ion etched in high quality quartz blanks, overcoated with 200 A of gold. A fifth (blazed) grating was ruled in gold. The line densities are 1000, 2000, and 3600 grooves/mm for those with laminar profiles. Both blazed gratings have a blaze angle of 8 deg and line densities of 3600 grooves/mm. Measured first-order efficiencies up to 15 percent were obtained for the laminar gratings and up to 8 percent was obtained for the ion-etched blazed grating. Much lower efficiencies (not greater than 2 percent) were measured for the ruled grating. A computer program was written to calculate grating efficiencies using a full electromagnetic model. Measured efficiencies of the ion-etched gratings agree well with predicted values, but the measured first-order efficiency of the ruled grating is much lower than predicted.

  7. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies. Incentives, Measurement, and Interregional Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Boyd, Erin

    2015-08-28

    In this report, we examine and compare how tradable mass-based polices and tradable rate-based policies create different incentives for energy efficiency investments. Through a generalized demonstration and set of examples, we show that as a result of the output subsidy they create, traditional rate-based policies, those that do not credit energy savings from efficiency measures, reduce the incentive for investment in energy efficiency measures relative to an optimally designed mass-based policy or equivalent carbon tax. We then show that this reduced incentive can be partially addressed by modifying the rate-based policy such that electricity savings from energy efficiency measures are treated as a source of zero-carbon generation within the framework of the standard, or equivalently, by assigning avoided emissions credit to the electricity savings at the rate of the intensity target. These approaches result in an extension of the output subsidy to efficiency measures and eliminate the distortion between supply-side and demand-side options for GHG emissions reduction. However, these approaches do not address electricity price distortions resulting from the output subsidy that also impact the value of efficiency measures. Next, we assess alternative approaches for crediting energy efficiency savings within the framework of a rate-based policy. Finally, we identify a number of challenges that arise in implementing a rate-based policy with efficiency crediting, including the requirement to develop robust estimates of electricity savings in order to assess compliance, and the requirement to track the regionality of the generation impacts of efficiency measures to account for their interstate effects.

  8. Numerical analysis of a measured efficiency hysteresis on a bulb turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, S.; Carrier, A.; Buron, J. D.; Deschênes, C.

    2014-03-01

    Within the framework of the BulbT project, simulations were performed to understand the origin of a measured hysteresis on the efficiency hill chart of a bulb turbine model. This hysteresis is associated with a sharp drop of efficiency located at slightly higher discharge than the best efficiency operating condition. It appears as a variation in the turbine performance whether an operating condition located in the efficiency drop is reached from a lower or a higher discharge. This hysteresis was reproduced numerically using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulations. The paper presents the experimental results, the numerical methodology and a comprehensive analysis of the simulations to shed light on this interesting phenomenon.

  9. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Aimed at Reducing Risk for Residential Retrofit Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a publicly available database of energy retrofit measures containing performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 measures. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed the National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, a public database that characterizes the performance and costs of common residential energy efficiency measures. The data are available for use in software programs that evaluate cost-effective retrofit measures to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The database provides a single, consistent source of current data for DOE and private-sector energy audit and simulation software tools and the retrofit industry. The database will reduce risk for residential retrofit industry stakeholders by providing a central, publicly vetted source of up-to-date information.

  10. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats. PMID:24187744

  11. Measurements of Conversion Efficiency for a Flat Plate Thermophotovoltaic System Using a Photonic Cavity Test System

    SciTech Connect

    E.J. Brown; C.T. Ballinger; S.R. Burger; G.W. Charache; L.R. Danielson; D.M. DePoy; T.J. Donovan; M. LoCascio

    2000-05-30

    The performance of a 1 cm{sup 2} thermophotovoltaic (TPV) module was recently measured in a photonic cavity test system. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was measured at a radiator temperature of 1076 C and a module temperature of 29.9 C. This experiment achieved the highest direct measurement of efficiency for an integrated TPV system. Efficiency was calculated from the ratio of the peak (load matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. Measurements of these two parameters were made simultaneously to assure the validity of the measured efficiency value. This test was conducted in a photonic cavity which mimicked a typical flat-plate TPV system. The radiator was a large, flat graphite surface. The module was affixed to the top of a copper pedestal for heat absorption measurements. The heat absorption rate was proportional to the axial temperature gradient in the pedestal under steady-state conditions. The test was run in a vacuum to eliminate conductive and convective heat transfer mechanisms. The photonic cavity provides the optimal test environment for TPV efficiency measurements because it incorporates all important physical phenomena found in an integrated TPV system: high radiator emissivity and blackbody spectral shape, photon recycling, Lambertian distribution of incident radiation and complex geometric effects. Furthermore, the large aspect ratio between radiating surface area and radiator/module spacing produces a view factor approaching unity with minimal photon leakage.

  12. An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added.

  13. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. PMID:23548543

  14. Food security of older adults requesting Older Americans Act Nutrition Program in Georgia can be validly measured using a short form of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann; Brown, Arvine; Nord, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Food security is a newly recommended outcome measure for the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP); however, it is unknown how best to evaluate the need for this program and assess its impact on a large scale. Therefore, we measured food security in all new OAANP participants and waitlisted applicants in Georgia between July and early November, 2008 (n = 4731) with the self-administered mail survey method used in the ongoing Georgia Performance Outcomes Measures project. We used a modified 6-item U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) with a 30-d reference period and 2 reminder postcards. Approximately 33% of those identified completed the survey (n = 1594, mean age 74.6 ± 9.5 y, 68.6% female, 30.6% black). Most of the respondents (91%) completed all 6 food security questions, whereas 26 did not respond to any question. Infit and outfit statistics for each of the 6 questions were within an acceptable range. Psychometric properties observed in our food security data were generally similar to those in the nationally representative survey conducted by the Census Bureau and suggest that our food security statistics may be meaningfully compared with national food security statistics published by the USDA. Our findings suggest that food security can be reasonably measured by a short form of HFSSM in older adults requesting OAANP. Such methodology also can be used to estimate the extent of food insecurity and help guide program and policy decisions to meet the nutrition assistance needs of vulnerable older adults. PMID:21562242

  15. Quality of Protection Evaluation of Security Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol. PMID:25136683

  16. Quality of protection evaluation of security mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol. PMID:25136683

  17. A New Accountability Metric for a New Time: A Proposed Graduation Efficiency Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Howard; Ibrahim, Nabile

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose "graduation efficiency" as a metric that can show the success of universities in graduating students. They are not suggesting that the current measure of graduation rates be abandoned, but rather that they be supplemented with other measures that could round out the picture of how colleges and universities are…

  18. Precision, all-optical measurement of external quantum efficiency in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengao; Li, Chia-Yeh; Hasselbeck, Michael P.; Imangholi, Babak; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2011-05-01

    External quantum efficiency of semiconductor photonic devices is directly measured by wavelength-dependent laser-induced temperature change (scanning laser calorimetry) with very high accuracy. Maximum efficiency is attained at an optimum photo-excitation level that can be determined with an independent measurement of power-dependent temperature or power-dependent photoluminescence. Time-resolved photoluminescence lifetime and power-dependent photoluminescence measurements are used to evaluate unprocessed heterostructures for critical performance parameters. The crucial importance of parasitic background absorption is discussed.

  19. Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-01

    This document provides specific guidance to agencies on the implementation and follow-up of energy and water efficiency measures identified and undertaken per Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) (42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(4) and (5)) This guidance also provides context for how these activities fit into the comprehensive approach to facility energy and water management outlined by the statute and incorporates by reference previous DOE guidance released for Section 432 of EISA and other related documents. 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(7)(A) specifies that facility energy managers shall certify compliance for each covered facility with the 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(2)-(5) requirements via a web-based tracking system and make it publicly available. This document also describes the role of the tracking system that has been developed for the collection and reporting of data needed for the demonstration of compliance and progress toward meeting all energy and water efficiency requirements outlined in the statute.

  20. New security measures are proposed for N-plants: Insider Rule package is issued by NRC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    New rules proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will require background investigations and psychological assessments of new job candidates and continual monitoring of the behavior of all power plant workers with access to sensitive areas. Licensees will have to submit an ''access authorization'' program for approval describing how they will conduct these security activities. The employee checks will go back five years to examine credit, educational, and criminal histories. Implementation of the rules could involve the Edison Electric Institute as an intermediary to funnel criminal checks from the Justice Department and FBI. The NRC is also considering a clarification of areas designated as ''vital'' because current designations may be too strict.

  1. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Morteza; Nord, Mark; Sadeghizadeh, Atefeh; Entezari, Mohammad H

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries. PMID:19558676

  2. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is

  3. Physical and Cross-Layer Security Enhancement and Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…

  4. Improving the Accuracy and Efficiency of Respiratory Rate Measurements in Children Using Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Michelle; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Zhou, Guohai; Dumont, Guy A.; Ansermino, J. Mark

    2014-01-01

    The recommended method for measuring respiratory rate (RR) is counting breaths for 60 s using a timer. This method is not efficient in a busy clinical setting. There is an urgent need for a robust, low-cost method that can help front-line health care workers to measure RR quickly and accurately. Our aim was to develop a more efficient RR assessment method. RR was estimated by measuring the median time interval between breaths obtained from tapping on the touch screen of a mobile device. The estimation was continuously validated by measuring consistency (% deviation from the median) of each interval. Data from 30 subjects estimating RR from 10 standard videos with a mobile phone application were collected. A sensitivity analysis and an optimization experiment were performed to verify that a RR could be obtained in less than 60 s; that the accuracy improves when more taps are included into the calculation; and that accuracy improves when inconsistent taps are excluded. The sensitivity analysis showed that excluding inconsistent tapping and increasing the number of tap intervals improved the RR estimation. Efficiency (time to complete measurement) was significantly improved compared to traditional methods that require counting for 60 s. There was a trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. The most balanced optimization result provided a mean efficiency of 9.9 s and a normalized root mean square error of 5.6%, corresponding to 2.2 breaths/min at a respiratory rate of 40 breaths/min. The obtained 6-fold increase in mean efficiency combined with a clinically acceptable error makes this approach a viable solution for further clinical testing. The sensitivity analysis illustrating the trade-off between accuracy and efficiency will be a useful tool to define a target product profile for any novel RR estimation device. PMID:24919062

  5. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  6. Measure Guideline. Five Steps to Implement the Public Housing Authority Energy-Efficient Unit Turnover Checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, Christine

    2015-07-09

    Five Steps to Implementing the PHA Energy Efficient Unit Turnover Package (ARIES, 2014) is a guide to prepare for the installation of energy efficient measures during a typical public housing authority unit turnover. While a PHA is cleaning, painting and readying a unit for a new resident, there is an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to further improve the unit's performance. The measures on the list are simple enough to be implemented by in-house maintenance personnel, inexpensive enough to be folded into operating expenses without needing capital budget, and fast enough to implement without substantially changing the number of days between occupancies, a critical factor for organizations where the demand for dwelling units far outweighs the supply. The following guide lays out a five step plan to implement the EE Unit Turnover Package in your PHA, from an initial Self-Assessment through to Package Implementation.

  7. Household Food Security in the United States, 1999. Measuring Food Security in the United States. Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Margaret; Nord, Mark; Bickel, Gary; Carlson, Steven

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of U.S. households. Preliminary estimates indicate that 89.9% of U.S. households were food secure in 1999, up 0.6 percentage points from 1995. Some 31 million Americans were food insecure: they did not have assured access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. In 3%…

  8. High-efficiency tomographic reconstruction of quantum states by quantum nondemolition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J. S.; Wei, L. F.; Oh, C. H.

    2011-03-15

    We propose a high-efficiency scheme to tomographically reconstruct an unknown quantum state by using a series of quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements. The proposed QND measurements of the qubits are implemented by probing the stationary transmissions through a driven dispersively coupled resonator. It is shown that only one kind of QND measurement is sufficient to determine all the diagonal elements of the density matrix of the detected quantum state. The remaining nondiagonal elements can be similarly determined by transferring them to the diagonal locations after a series of unitary operations. Compared with the tomographic reconstructions based on the usual destructive projective measurements (wherein one such measurement can determine only one diagonal element of the density matrix), the present reconstructive approach exhibits significantly high efficiency. Specifically, our generic proposal is demonstrated by the experimental circuit quantum electrodynamics systems with a few Josephson charge qubits.

  9. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitarev, V. E. Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V.

    2014-12-15

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  10. A Methodology to Measure Synergy Among Energy-Efficiency Programs at the Program Participant Level

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    2003-11-14

    This paper presents a methodology designed to measure synergy among energy-efficiency programs at the program participant level (e.g., households, firms). Three different definitions of synergy are provided: strong, moderate, and weak. Data to measure synergy can be collected through simple survey questions. Straightforward mathematical techniques can be used to estimate the three types of synergy and explore relative synergistic impacts of different subsets of programs. Empirical research is needed to test the concepts and methods and to establish quantitative expectations about synergistic relationships among programs. The market for new energy-efficient motors is the context used to illustrate all the concepts and methods in this paper.

  11. Feedback from Outcome Measures and Treatment Effectiveness, Treatment Efficiency, and Collaborative Practice: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gondek, Dawid; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Fink, Elian; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda

    2016-05-01

    Due to recent increases in the use of feedback from outcome measures in mental health settings, we systematically reviewed evidence regarding the impact of feedback from outcome measures on treatment effectiveness, treatment efficiency, and collaborative practice. In over half of 32 studies reviewed, the feedback condition had significantly higher levels of treatment effectiveness on at least one treatment outcome variable. Feedback was particularly effective for not-on-track patients or when it was provided to both clinicians and patients. The findings for treatment efficiency and collaborative practice were less consistent. Given the heterogeneity of studies, more research is needed to determine when and for whom feedback is most effective. PMID:26744316

  12. Remote measurement of photosynthetic efficiency using laser induced fluorescence transient (LIFT) technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieruschka, R.; Rascher, U.; Klimov, D.; Kolber, Z. S.; Berry, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    An understanding of spatial and temporal diversity of photosynthetic processes, water and energy exchange of complex plant canopies is essential for carbon and climate models. Remote sensing from space or aircraft platforms provides the only practical way to characterize the vast extent of plant canopies around the globe, but the basis for relating physiological processes to remote sensing is still largely theoretical. Experiments that bridge this gap are needed. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements have been widely applied to quantify photosynthetic efficiency and non- photochemical energy dissipation non-destructively in photosynthetically active organisms. The most commonly used Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) technique provides a saturating light pulse and is not practical at the canopy scale. We report here on a recently developed technique, Laser Induced Fluorescence Transient (LIFT), capable of remote measurement of photosynthetic efficiency of selected leaves at a distance of up to 50 m and we present here continuous studies on plans growing under natural conditions during the beginning of the winter season and the onset of summer drought in this Mediterranean climate. i) Lichens showed a strong diurnal variation in photosynthetic efficiency which correlated with relative humidity; ii) Photosynthetic efficiency of annual grass decreased with progressing drought stress; iii) An oak canopy showed very little variation of quantum yield from leaf out in spring to summer; iv) The combined effect of low temperature and high light intensity during an early winter strongly reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of four different species in response to chilling stress. These measures with the LIFT correlated well with (more limited) sampling by PAM fluoromentry and gas exchange. The ability to make continuous, automatic and remote measurements of photosynthetic efficiency of leaves with the LIFT provides a new approach for studying the heterogeneity of

  13. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  14. Measurement and simulation of the neutron detection efficiency with a Pb-scintillating fiber calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anelli, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Curceanu, C.; DeZorzi, G.; Domenico, Adi; Di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Ngugen, F.; Paseri, A.; Prokfiev, A.; Sala, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sirghi, F.

    2009-04-01

    We have measured the overall detection efficiency of a small prototype of the KLOE PB-scintilation fiber calorimeter to neutrons with kinetic energy range [5,175] MeV. The measurement has been done in a dedicated test beam in the neutron beam facility of the Svedberg Laboratory, TSL Uppsala. The measurements of the neutron detection efficiency of a NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. At the lowest trigger threshold, the overall calorimeter efficiency ranges from 28% to 33%. This value largely exceeds the estimated ~8% expected if the response were proporetional only to the scintillator equivalent thickness. A detailed simulation of the calorimeter and of the TSL beam line has been performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The simulated response of the detector to neutrons is presented together with the first data to Monte Carlo comparison. The results show an overall neutron efficiency of about 35%. The reasons for such an efficiency enhancement, in comparison with the typical scintillator-based neutron counters, are explained, opening the road to a novel neutron detector.

  15. Compact and high-efficiency device for Raman scattering measurement using optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    We describe the design and development of a high-efficiency optical measurement device for operation within the small bore of a high-power magnet at low temperature. For the high-efficiency measurement of light emitted from this small region, we designed a compact confocal optics with lens focusing and tilting systems, and used a piezodriven translation stage that allows micron-scale focus control of the sample position. We designed a measurement device that uses 10 m-long optical fibers in order to avoid the influence of mechanical vibration and magnetic field leakage of high-power magnets, and we also describe a technique for minimizing the fluorescence signal of optical fibers. The operation of the device was confirmed by Raman scattering measurements of monolayer graphene on quartz glass with a high signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:25430102

  16. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  17. Experimental feasibility of the airborne measurement of absolute oil fluorescence spectral conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne lidar oil spill experiments carried out to determine the practicability of the AOFSCE (absolute oil fluorescence spectral conversion efficiency) computational model are described. The results reveal that the model is suitable over a considerable range of oil film thicknesses provided the fluorescence efficiency of the oil does not approach the minimum detection sensitivity limitations of the lidar system. Separate airborne lidar experiments to demonstrate measurement of the water column Raman conversion efficiency are also conducted to ascertain the ultimate feasibility of converting such relative oil fluorescence to absolute values. Whereas the AOFSCE model is seen as highly promising, further airborne water column Raman conversion efficiency experiments with improved temporal or depth-resolved waveform calibration and software deconvolution techniques are thought necessary for a final determination of suitability.

  18. Efficient formulations of the material identification problem using full-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Zerpa, Jorge M.; Canelas, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    The material identification problem addressed consists of determining the constitutive parameters distribution of a linear elastic solid using displacement measurements. This problem has been considered in important applications such as the design of methodologies for breast cancer diagnosis. Since the resolution of real life problems involves high computational costs, there is great interest in the development of efficient methods. In this paper two new efficient formulations of the problem are presented. The first formulation leads to a second-order cone optimization problem, and the second one leads to a quadratic optimization problem, both allowing the resolution of the problem with high efficiency and precision. Numerical examples are solved using synthetic input data with error. A regularization technique is applied using the Morozov criterion along with an automatic selection strategy of the regularization parameter. The proposed formulations present great advantages in terms of efficiency, when compared to other formulations that require the application of general nonlinear optimization algorithms.

  19. Efficient formulations of the material identification problem using full-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Zerpa, Jorge M.; Canelas, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The material identification problem addressed consists of determining the constitutive parameters distribution of a linear elastic solid using displacement measurements. This problem has been considered in important applications such as the design of methodologies for breast cancer diagnosis. Since the resolution of real life problems involves high computational costs, there is great interest in the development of efficient methods. In this paper two new efficient formulations of the problem are presented. The first formulation leads to a second-order cone optimization problem, and the second one leads to a quadratic optimization problem, both allowing the resolution of the problem with high efficiency and precision. Numerical examples are solved using synthetic input data with error. A regularization technique is applied using the Morozov criterion along with an automatic selection strategy of the regularization parameter. The proposed formulations present great advantages in terms of efficiency, when compared to other formulations that require the application of general nonlinear optimization algorithms.

  20. Where Are All The Earth Twins Hiding? Measuring the Detection Efficiency of the Kepler Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jessie; Clarke, Bruce; Burke, Christopher J.; Seader, Shawn; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Twicken, Joseph D.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Haas, Michael R.; Thompson, Susan E.; Campbell, Jennifer; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first measurement of the Kepler pipeline detection efficiency that explores the full Kepler observation baseline, the full field of view, and uses the same code as that used to generate the planet candidate catalogue. The full table of nearly 160,000 injections, including their parameters and recovery status, is publicly available at the NASA Exoplanet Archive; we demonstrate a worked example starting from the table to illustrate use cases. We find that there are significant differences in detection efficiency across transit period (lower efficiency at longer periods than expected from pure signal-to-noise estimates) and across stellar type (lower efficiency for giant stars than expected). The former highlights the difficulty in detecting Earth-like planets in the Kepler data; the latter the importance of starting from a well-characterised stellar sample.

  1. PREFACE: 2014 Joint IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Science Behind Safety and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, João A.; Ribeiro, Álvaro S.; Filipe, Eduarda

    2015-02-01

    The 2014 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium was organized by RELACRE - Portuguese Association of Accredited Laboratories and the Portuguese Society for Metrology, on 3-5 September 2014. The work of this symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the symposium includes the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees: - TC1 Education and Training in measurement and Instrumentation - TC7 Measurement Science - TC13 Measurements in Biology and Medicine The effort towards excellence of previous events, in this well established series, is maintained. There has been a special focus on measurement science behind safety and security, with the aim of highlighting the interdisciplinary character of measurement science and the importance of metrology in our daily lives. The discussion was introduced by keynote lectures on measurement challenges in biometrics, health monitoring and social sciences, to promote useful interactions with scientists from different disciplines. The Symposium was attended by experts working in these areas from 18 countries, including USA, Japan and China, and provided a useful forum for them to share and exchange their work and ideas. In total over fifty papers are included in the volume, organized according to the presentation sessions. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The Symposium was held in Funchal, capital of Madeira Islands, known as the Atlantic Pearl. This wonderful Atlantic archipelago, formed by Madeira and Porto Santo islands, discovered in the 14th century, was chosen to host the 2014 IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Joint Symposium ''Measurement Science behind Safety and Security''. It was the first territory discovered by the Portuguese sailors, when set out to discover a new world, in an epic journey where instrumentation and quality of measurement played a central role in the success of the enterprise, and gave an

  2. A new measurement of the neutron detection efficiency for the NaI Crystal Ball detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martemianov, M.; Kulikov, V.; Demissie, B. T.; Marinides, Z.; Akondi, C. S.; Annand, J. R. M.; Arends, H. J.; Beck, R.; Borisov, N.; Braghieri, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Cherepnya, S.; Collicott, C.; Costanza, S.; Downie, E. J.; Dieterle, M.; Ferretti Bondy, M. I.; Fil'kov, L. V.; Garni, S.; Glazier, D. I.; Glowa, D.; Gradl, W.; Gurevich, G.; Hornidge, D.; Huber, G. M.; Kaeser, A.; Kashevarov, V. L.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kondratiev, R.; Korolija, M.; Krusche, B.; Lazarev, A.; Linturi, J. M.; Lisin, V.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Manley, D. M.; Martel, P. P.; Middleton, D. G.; Miskimen, R.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Neganov, A.; Neiser, A.; Oberle, M.; Ostrick, M.; Ott, P.; Otte, P. B.; Oussena, B.; Pedroni, P.; Polonski, A.; Prakhov, S.; Ron, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Sarty, A.; Schott, D. M.; Schumann, S.; Sokhoyan, V.; Steffen, O.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strub, Th.; Supek, I.; Thiel, M.; Thomas, A.; Unverzagt, M.; Usov, Yu. A.; Wagner, S.; Watts, D. P.; Wettig, J.; Werthmüller, D.; Witthauer, L.; Wolfes, M.

    2015-04-01

    We report on a measurement of the neutron detection efficiency in NaI crystals in the Crystal Ball detector obtained from a study of single π0 photoproduction on deuterium using the tagged photon beam at the Mainz Microtron. The results were obtained up to a neutron energy of 400 MeV . They are compared to previous measurements made more than 15 years ago at the pion beam at the BNL AGS.

  3. Set Up For Filter And Mirror Efficiencies Measurements In The UV and VUV Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouey, M.; Malherbe, A.

    1986-10-01

    A vacuum reflectometer for the UV and VUV spectral range was developed for qualification of optical components below 400 nm. Typical performances, in the 120-320 nm spectral range, of filters and mirrors offered by MATRA will be presented. Fitted with various gratings and sources this device allows reflecting, transmitting power as well as scattered or diffracted flux measurements (gratings efficiency measurements) until 25 nm.

  4. Measurement and simulation of neutron detection efficiency in lead-scintillating fiber calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anelli, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Curceanu, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Prokofiev, A.; Sciascia, B.; Sirghi, F.

    2009-12-01

    The overall detection efficiency to neutrons of a small prototype of the KLOE lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter has been measured at the neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory, TSL, Uppsala, in the kinetic energy range [5-175] MeV. The measurement of the neutron detection efficiency of a NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. At the lowest trigger threshold, the overall calorimeter efficiency ranges from 30% to 50%. This value largely exceeds the estimated 8-15% expected if the response were proportional only to the scintillator equivalent thickness. A detailed simulation of the calorimeter and of the TSL beam line has been performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. First data-MC comparisons are encouraging and allow to disentangle a neutron halo component in the beam.

  5. An experiment to measure raindrop collection efficiencies: influence of rear capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quérel, A.; Lemaitre, P.; Monier, M.; Porcheron, E.; Flossmann, A. I.; Hervo, M.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of radioactive aerosol scavenged by rain after the Chernobyl accident highlights certain differences between the modelling studies and the environmental measurements. Part of these discrepancies can probably be attributed to uncertainties in the efficiencies used to calculate aerosol particle collection by raindrops, particularly drops with a diameter larger than one millimetre. In order to improve the issue of these uncertainties, an experimental study was performed to close the gaps still existing for this key microphysical parameter. In the present article, attention is first focused on the efficiency with which aerosol particles, in the accumulation mode are collected by raindrops with a diameter of 2 mm. The collections efficiencies measured for aerosol particle in the sub-micron range are quantitatively consistent with previous theoretical model developed by Beard (1974) and thus highlight the major role of rear capture in the submicron range.

  6. An efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor for the Gamma Knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Li, X. Allen; Yu, Cedric X.

    2000-03-01

    It is essential to have accurate measurements of the 4 mm helmet output factor in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia patients using the Gamma Knife. Because of the small collimator size and the sharp dose gradient at the beam focus, this measurement is generally tedious and difficult. We have developed an efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor using regular radiographic films. The helmet output factor was measured by exposing a single Kodak XV film in the standard Leksell spherical phantom using the 18 mm helmet with 30-40 of its plug collimators replaced by the 4 mm plug collimators. The 4 mm helmet output factor was measured to be 0.876 ± 0.009. This is in excellent agreement with our EGS4 Monte Carlo simulated value of 0.876 ± 0.005. This helmet output factor value also agrees with more tedious TLD, diode and radiochromic film measurements that were each obtained using two separate measurements with the 18 mm helmet and the 4 mm helmet respectively. The 4 mm helmet output factor measured by the diode was 0.884 ± 0.016, and the TLD measurement was 0.890 ± 0.020. The radiochromic film measured value was 0.870 ± 0.018. Because a single-exposure measurement was performed instead of a double-exposure measurement, most of the systematic errors that appeared in the double-exposure measurements due to experimental setup variations were cancelled out. Consequently, the 4 mm helmet output factor is more precisely determined by the single-exposure approach. Therefore, routine measurement and quality assurance of the 4 mm helmet output factor of the Gamma Knife could be efficiently carried out using the proposed single-exposure technique.

  7. Relationship of glucocorticoids and hematological measures with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of finishing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucocorticoids and markers for immune status in finishing beef steers and heifers with DMI, growth, and efficiency. Calves (n = 236) were individually fed a finishing ration for 84 d with BW measured every 21 d. Blood samples we...

  8. Tracking Our Success: How TAFE Institutes Measure Their Effectiveness and Efficiency--Case Studies. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie; Wynes, Sian Halliday

    2009-01-01

    This report is the support document to "Tracking Our Success: How TAFE Institutes Measure Their Effectiveness and Efficiency". It comprises reports on each of the nine technical and further education (TAFE) institutes that have taken part in the study. Information was collected via in-depth interviews with chief executive officers and their senior…

  9. Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measure of flight speed for cattle has been shown to be a predictive indicator of temperament and has also been associated with feed efficiency phenotypes, thus, genetic markers associated with both traits may assist with the selection of animals with calmer disposition and economic value. Chrom...

  10. Measuring Search Efficiency in Complex Visual Search Tasks: Global and Local Clutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Melissa R.; Lohrenz, Maura C.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Set size and crowding affect search efficiency by limiting attention for recognition and attention against competition; however, these factors can be difficult to quantify in complex search tasks. The current experiments use a quantitative measure of the amount and variability of visual information (i.e., clutter) in highly complex stimuli (i.e.,…

  11. Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility in Support of Global Security Mission Space

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Mayo, Douglas R.; Herrera, Gary D.; McLaughlin, Anastasia D.; Montoya, Charles M.; Quihuis, Becky A.; Trujillo, Julio B.; Van Pelt, Craig E.; Wenz, Tracy R.

    2012-07-13

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55 is one of a few nuclear facilities in the United States where Research & Development measurements can be performed on Safeguards Category-I (CAT-I) quantities of nuclear material. This capability allows us to incorporate measurements of CAT-IV through CAT-I materials as a component of detector characterization campaigns and training courses conducted at Los Alamos. A wider range of measurements can be supported. We will present an overview of recent measurements conducted in support of nuclear emergency response, nuclear counterterrorism, and international and domestic safeguards. This work was supported by the NNSA Office of Counterterrorism.

  12. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large commercial package air conditioning and... section contains test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy efficiency of any...

  13. 76 FR 76432 - Notice of Proposed Information for Public Comment for: Capture Energy Efficiency Measures for PIH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information for Public Comment for: Capture Energy Efficiency... public comments on the subject proposal. HUD is creating the Capture Energy Efficiency Measures for PIH... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Capture Energy Efficiency Measures for PIH...

  14. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large commercial package air conditioning and... section contains test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy efficiency of any...

  15. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large commercial package air conditioning and... section contains test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy efficiency of any...

  16. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  17. Efficiency of a bismuth-germanate scintillator: comparison of Monte Carlo calculations with measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H.H.; Dowdy, E.J.; Estes, G.P.; Lucas, M.C.; Mack, J.M.; Moss, C.E.; Hamm, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of a bismuth-germanate scintillator's efficiency agree closely with experimental measurements. For this comparison, we studied the absolute gamma-ray photopeak efficiency of a scintillator (7.62 cm long by 7.62 cm in diameter) at several gamma-ray energies from 166 to 2615 keV at distances from 0.5 to 152.4 cm. Computer calculations were done in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry with the Monte Carlo coupled photon-electron code CYLTRAN. For the experiment we measured 11 sources with simple spectra and precisely known strengths. The average deviation between the calculations and the measurements is 3%. Our calculated results also closely agree with recently published calculated results.

  18. Efficiency Calibration for Measuring the 12C(n, 2n)11C Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Thomas; Gula, August; Vincett, Laurel; Yuly, Mark; Padalino, Stephen; Russ, Megan; Bienstock, Mollie; Simone, Angela; Ellison, Drew; Desmitt, Holly; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean; Fitzgerald, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    One possible inertial confinement fusion diagnostic involves tertiary neutron activation via the 12C(n, 2n)11C reaction. A recent experiment to measure this reaction cross-section involved coincidence counting the annihilation gamma rays produced by the positron decay of 11C. This requires an accurate value for the full-peak coincidence efficiency of the NaI detector system. The GEANT 4 toolkit was used to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of the detector system which can be used to calculate the required efficiencies. For validation, simulation predictions have been compared with the results of two experiments. In the first, full-peak coincidence positron annihilation efficiencies were measured for 22Na decay positrons that annihilate in a small plastic scintillator. In the second, a NIST-calibrated 68Ge source was used. A comparison of calculated with measured efficiencies, as well as 12C(n, 2n)11C cross sections are presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  19. Comments on measuring the overall and the depressed collector efficiency in TWT's and klystron amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    Kosmahl and Ramins (1977), who reported results achieved with broadband, high-performance TWT's, augmented with multistage depressed collectors for higher overall efficiency, have pointed out the necessity for accurately measuring and correctly defining the various power terms involved. In view of the now wide-spread use of depressed collectors and reported results, the definitions of tube and collector efficiency are restated and comments are provided on the sensitivity of these terms to various sources of experimental and definitional errors in order to permit a uniform evaluation of collector performance.

  20. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  1. Predicted versus monitored performance of energy-efficiency measures in new commercial buildings from energy edge

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.; deBuen, O.; Diamond, R.

    1993-08-01

    Energy Edge is a research-oriented demonstration program involving 28 new commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. This paper discusses the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures for the first 12 buildings evaluated using simulation models calibrated with measured end-use data. Average energy savings per building from the simulated code baseline building was 19%, less than the 30% target. The most important factor for the lower savings is that many of the installed measures differ from the measures specified in the design predictions. Only one of the first 12 buildings met the project objective of reducing energy use by more than 30% at a cost below the target of 56 mills/kWh (in 1991 dollars). Based on results from the first 12 calibrated simulation models, 29 of the 66 energy-efficiency measures, or 44%, met the levelized cost criterion. Despite the lower energy savings from individual measures, the energy-use intensities of the buildings are lower than other regional comparison data for new buildings. The authors review factors that contribute to the uncertainty regarding measured savings and suggest methods to improve future evaluations.

  2. Consideration for high accuracy radiation efficiency measurements for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) subarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozakoff, D. J.; Schuchardt, J. M.; Ryan, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The transmit beam and radiation efficiency for 10 metersquare subarray panels were quantified. Measurement performance potential of far field elevated and ground reflection ranges and near field technique were evaluated. The state-of-the-art of critical components and/or unique facilities required was identified. Relative cost, complexity and performance tradeoffs were performed for techniques capable of achieving accuracy objectives. It is considered that because of the large electrical size of the SPS subarray panels and the requirement for high accuracy measurements, specialized measurement facilities are required. Most critical measurement error sources have been identified for both conventional far field and near field techniques. Although the adopted error budget requires advances in state-of-the-art of microwave instrumentation, the requirements appear feasible based on extrapolation from today's technology. Additional performance and cost tradeoffs need to be completed before the choice of the preferred measurement technique is finalized.

  3. Theory and measurement of the soliton self-frequency shift and efficiency in optical microcavities.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xu; Yang, Qi-Fan; Yang, Ki Youl; Vahala, Kerry

    2016-08-01

    Dissipative Kerr cavity solitons experience a so-called self-frequency shift (SFS) as a result of Raman interactions. The frequency shift has been observed in several microcavity systems. The Raman process has also been shown numerically to influence the soliton pumping efficiency. Here, a perturbed Lagrangian approach is used to derive simple analytical expressions for the SFS and the soliton efficiency. The predicted dependences of these quantities on soliton pulse width are compared with measurements in a high-Q silica microcavity. The Raman time constant in silica is also inferred. Analytical expressions for the Raman SFS and soliton efficiency greatly simplify the prediction of soliton behavior over a wide range of microcavity platforms. PMID:27472583

  4. GEANT4 calibration of gamma spectrometry efficiency for measurements of airborne radioactivity on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2014-11-01

    A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring airborne radioactivity collected on filter paper, was based on Monte Carlo simulations using the toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of an HPGe detector were calculated for a multi-gamma disk source. These efficiency values were compared to their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Such comparison revealed biases of 24, 10, 1, 3, 7, and 3% for the radionuclides (photon energies in keV) of Ce (166), Sn (392), Cs (662), Co (1,173), Co (1,333), and Y (1,836), respectively. The output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method. PMID:25271933

  5. Measuring Sustainability: Deriving Metrics From A Secure Human-Environment Relationship

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of individuals and institutions to take actions that would achieve sustainability is often lost in rhetoric about what it is or isn't and how to measure progress. Typically, sustainability is viewed as an objective and in this capacity efforts are made to identify i...

  6. Measuring eco-efficiency of contaminated soil management at the regional level.

    PubMed

    Kielenniva, Nea; Antikainen, Riina; Sorvari, Jaana

    2012-10-30

    Eco-efficiency and sustainable development are the key environmental topics and goals for today's society that we should strive for in all activities, including contaminated soil management (CSM). However, particularly at the regional level, CSM is studied to a lesser extent from this perspective and practical means to monitor and assess sustainability or eco-efficiency are not widely available. This study aims to fill this gap by developing indicators to measure and monitor the development of regional eco-efficiency of CSM. The indicators can be used to support decision-making at the regional level since many CSM decisions, such as prioritisation of sites and the number of soil treatment and storing facilities, are made regionally. To start with, we surveyed the methods available for determining eco-efficiency and suitable indicators to monitor and measure the development of CSM regionally. We used life cycle analysis (LCA) and material flow analysis (MFA) to identify factors that the environmental indicators should cover, and also involved economic indicators. We ended up with a selection of 28 indicators, which can be classed into three different categories: background indicators, environmental indicators and economic indicators. We further demonstrated the use of the indicators by applying data from three different regions in Finland, and evaluated their suitability. On the basis of the results we recommended 15 indicators for continuous follow-up and decision-making purposes. Even though these indicators are suitable for monitoring and measuring the eco-efficiency of CSM at the regional level, unfortunately we found several data gaps related to the actual remediation projects which impede their use in practice. The data collection practices therefore need to be regionally developed. PMID:22033066

  7. Ultra-Sensitive Measurements of 233U by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for National Security Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Tumey, S J; Brown, T A; Buchholz, B A; Hamilton, T F; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W

    2009-07-13

    By making modifications to our previously established measurement setup, we increased our abundance sensitivity for {sup 233}U by three orders of magnitude and can now measure {sup 233}U/{sup 238}U ratios as low as 10{sup -13}. Because {sup 233}U has separate production pathways than {sup 236}U, it can provide valuable information on the particular source of anthropogenic uranium in a sample. We demonstrated the utility of our improved capability by using {sup 233}U to distinguish separate sources of anthropogenic uranium in a set of samples collected from a contaminated site. In the future, we plan to apply our new capability to characterizing {sup 233}U in a wide range of uranium materials.

  8. K-alpha conversion efficiency measurments for x-ray scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Urry, M K; Robey, H; Niemann, C; Landen, O L; Morse, E; Glenzer, S H

    2006-11-21

    The conversion efficiency of ultra short-pulse laser radiation to K-{alpha} x-rays has been measured for various chlorine-containing targets to be used as x-ray scattering probes of dense plasmas. The spectral and temporal properties of these sources will allow spectrally-resolved x-ray scattering probing with picosecond temporal resolution required for measuring the plasma conditions in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Simulations of x-ray scattering spectra from these plasmas show that fuel capsule density, capsule ablator density, and shock timing information may be inferred.

  9. Effects of Spectral Error in Efficiency Measurements of GaInAs-Based Concentrator Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.; Wanlass, M. W.; Moriarty, T.; Steiner, M. A.; Emery, K. A.

    2014-03-01

    This technical report documents a particular error in efficiency measurements of triple-absorber concentrator solar cells caused by incorrect spectral irradiance -- specifically, one that occurs when the irradiance from unfiltered, pulsed xenon solar simulators into the GaInAs bottom subcell is too high. For cells designed so that the light-generated photocurrents in the three subcells are nearly equal, this condition can cause a large increase in the measured fill factor, which, in turn, causes a significant artificial increase in the efficiency. The error is readily apparent when the data under concentration are compared to measurements with correctly balanced photocurrents, and manifests itself as discontinuities in plots of fill factor and efficiency versus concentration ratio. In this work, we simulate the magnitudes and effects of this error with a device-level model of two concentrator cell designs, and demonstrate how a new Spectrolab, Inc., Model 460 Tunable-High Intensity Pulsed Solar Simulator (T-HIPSS) can mitigate the error.

  10. Techniques and tools for measuring energy efficiency of scientific software applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Niemi, Tapio; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Nyback, Filip; Pestana, Gonçalo; Ou, Zhonghong; Khan, Kashif

    2015-05-01

    The scale of scientific High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Throughput Computing (HTC) has increased significantly in recent years, and is becoming sensitive to total energy use and cost. Energy-efficiency has thus become an important concern in scientific fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP). There has been a growing interest in utilizing alternate architectures, such as low power ARM processors, to replace traditional Intel x86 architectures. Nevertheless, even though such solutions have been successfully used in mobile applications with low I/O and memory demands, it is unclear if they are suitable and more energy-efficient in the scientific computing environment. Furthermore, there is a lack of tools and experience to derive and compare power consumption between the architectures for various workloads, and eventually to support software optimizations for energy efficiency. To that end, we have performed several physical and software-based measurements of workloads from HEP applications running on ARM and Intel architectures, and compare their power consumption and performance. We leverage several profiling tools (both in hardware and software) to extract different characteristics of the power use. We report the results of these measurements and the experience gained in developing a set of measurement techniques and profiling tools to accurately assess the power consumption for scientific workloads.

  11. Utilizing Electroencephalography Measurements for Comparison of Task-Specific Neural Efficiencies: Spatial Intelligence Tasks.

    PubMed

    Call, Benjamin J; Goodridge, Wade; Villanueva, Idalis; Wan, Nicholas; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Spatial intelligence is often linked to success in engineering education and engineering professions. The use of electroencephalography enables comparative calculation of individuals' neural efficiency as they perform successive tasks requiring spatial ability to derive solutions. Neural efficiency here is defined as having less beta activation, and therefore expending fewer neural resources, to perform a task in comparison to other groups or other tasks. For inter-task comparisons of tasks with similar durations, these measurements may enable a comparison of task type difficulty. For intra-participant and inter-participant comparisons, these measurements provide potential insight into the participant's level of spatial ability and different engineering problem solving tasks. Performance on the selected tasks can be analyzed and correlated with beta activities. This work presents a detailed research protocol studying the neural efficiency of students engaged in the solving of typical spatial ability and Statics problems. Students completed problems specific to the Mental Cutting Test (MCT), Purdue Spatial Visualization test of Rotations (PSVT:R), and Statics. While engaged in solving these problems, participants' brain waves were measured with EEG allowing data to be collected regarding alpha and beta brain wave activation and use. The work looks to correlate functional performance on pure spatial tasks with spatially intensive engineering tasks to identify the pathways to successful performance in engineering and the resulting improvements in engineering education that may follow. PMID:27584838

  12. Measuring Physician Quality and Efficiency in an Era of Practice Transformation: PCMH as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandy, Lewis G.; Haltson, Heidi; Metfessel, Brent A.; Reese, Conway

    2015-01-01

    Practicing physicians face myriad challenges as health care undergoes considerable transformation, including advancing efforts to measure and report on physician quality and efficiency, as well as the growth of new care models such as Accountable Care Organizations and patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs). How do these transformational forces relate to one another? How should practicing physicians focus and prioritize their improvement efforts? This Special Report examines how physicians’ performance on quality and efficiency measures may interact with delivery reforms, focusing on the PCMH. We note that although the PCMH is a promising model, published evidence is mixed. Using data and experience from a large commercial insurer’s performance transparency and PCMH programs, we further report that longitudinal analysis of UnitedHealthcare’s PCMH program experience has shown favorable changes; however, cross-sectional analysis indicates that National Committee for Quality Assurance’s PCMH designation is positively associated with achieving program Quality benchmarks, but negatively associated with program Efficiency benchmarks. This example illustrates some key issues for physicians in the current environment, and we provide suggestions for physicians and other stakeholders on understanding and acting on information from physician performance measurement programs. PMID:25964406

  13. Real-time direct measurement of diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings in photopolymer recording materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Květoň, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Photopolymer recording systems have received a great deal of attention as a material for optical information storage and production of diffraction gratings. Before using these materials in such systems, it is important to characterize them and understand the processes which run during holographic recording, so that the recording itself can be optimized to obtain an efficient diffraction grating. In this contribution, we present a new method for real-time measurement of the diffraction response of reflection gratings during the recording process. Usually, the recording process in photopolymers is characterized by the real-time measurement of a transmission diffraction grating growth. This method does not allow measuring the growth of gratings with a very narrow spatial period in the reflection configuration. The new approach is based on the idea that the reflection grating is illuminated with white light at a different angle from the recording one and the diffraction efficiency is continuously measured with a spectrophotometer. Kogelnik's coupled wave theory is used as the theoretical background in this contribution. Experimentally, the photopolymer Bayfol HX has been tested in the reflection configuration and growth curves have been measured to show a good applicability of the detection method.

  14. Ventilation Measurements in Energy-Efficient Multifamily Dwelling Units in the Pacific Northwest Region.

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham Bradley

    1990-03-01

    A ventilation field measurement study was conducted during the 1986/1987 and 1987/1988 heating seasons in 39 energy-efficient multifamily dwelling units. Four buildings, two in eastern Washington and two in western Washington, were involved in the study. The purpose of the study was to determine the total and baseline (natural) air exchange rates in units representing energy-efficient construction in the multifamily sector of the Pacific Northwest. This information will be used to aid in the development of future construction codes and standards. The air exchange rate was measured a multiple perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technique. Most measurements were taken over a 2- to 4-week period, with a few measurements taken over a period of one to three consecutive months. The PFT technique allows one to determine the fresh air flow into any unit within a building as well as the air flow between adjacent units. In addition, the volumetric air flow and usage of the mechanical ventilation system installed in the units were measured. Temperature, weather, structure, and occupancy data were also collected. 12 refs., 19 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Considerations for high accuracy radiation efficiency measurements for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) subarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozakoff, D. J.; Schuchardt, J. M.; Ryan, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The relatively large apertures to be used in SPS, small half-power beamwidths, and the desire to accurately quantify antenna performance dictate the requirement for specialized measurements techniques. Objectives include the following: (1) For 10-meter square subarray panels, quantify considerations for measuring power in the transmit beam and radiation efficiency to + or - 1 percent (+ or - 0.04 dB) accuracy. (2) Evaluate measurement performance potential of far-field elevated and ground reflection ranges and near-field techniques. (3) Identify the state-of-the-art of critical components and/or unique facilities required. (4) Perform relative cost, complexity and performance tradeoffs for techniques capable of achieving accuracy objectives. the precision required by the techniques discussed below are not obtained by current methods which are capable of + or - 10 percent (+ or - dB) performance. In virtually every area associated with these planned measurements, advances in state-of-the-art are required.

  16. Methods of Measuring Energy Conversion Efficiency in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Naoki; Chiba, Yasuo; Han, Liyuan

    2005-06-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were measured and compared with those of crystalline silicon solar cells. It was found that the energy conversion efficiency of DSCs is dependent on voltage sweep direction and sampling delay time (Td). Measurement of the transient photocurrent revealed that this dependence is due to the longer time constant of DSCs. This dependence was also confirmed in a simulation of current-voltage curves based on an equivalent circuit model of DSCs. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of polymer-based bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHSCs) and simulated measurements showed that the longer time constant is due to slow movement of ions in the electrolyte. To improve accuracy, the I-V measurement should be carried out from short circuit to open circuit with Td of 100 ms or longer.

  17. Measured impacts of high efficiency domestic clothes washers in a community

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.; Rizy, T.

    1998-07-01

    The US market for domestic clothes washers is currently dominated by conventional vertical-axis washers that typically require approximately 40 gallons of water for each wash load. Although the current market for high efficiency clothes washers that use much less water and energy is quite small, it is growing slowly as manufacturers make machines based on tumble action, horizontal-axis designs available and as information about the performance and benefits of such machines is developed and made available to consumers. To help build awareness of these benefits and to accelerate markets for high efficiency washers, the Department of Energy (DOE), under its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Program and in cooperation with a major manufacturers of high efficiency washers, conducted a field evaluation of high efficiency washers using Bern, Kansas as a test bed. Baseline washing machine performance data as well as consumer washing behavior were obtained from data collected on the existing machines of more than 100 participants in this instrumented study. Following a 2-month initial study period, all conventional machines were replaced by high efficiency, tumble-action washers, and the study continued for 3 months. Based on measured data from over 20,000 loads of laundry, the impact of the washer replacement on (1) individual customers` energy and water consumption, (2) customers` laundry habits and perceptions, and (3) the community`s water supply and waste water systems were determined. The study, its findings, and how information from the experiment was used to improve national awareness of high efficiency clothes washer benefits are described in this paper.

  18. 7Be and hydrological model for more efficient implementation of erosion control measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Barri, Bashar; Bode, Samuel; Blake, William; Ryken, Nick; Cornelis, Wim; Boeckx, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Increased concern about the on-site and off-site impacts of soil erosion in agricultural and forested areas has endorsed interest in innovative methods to assess in an unbiased way spatial and temporal soil erosion rates and redistribution patterns. Hence, interest in precisely estimating the magnitude of the problem and therefore applying erosion control measures (ECM) more efficiently. The latest generation of physically-based hydrological models, which fully couple overland flow and subsurface flow in three dimensions, permit implementing ECM in small and large scales more effectively if coupled with a sediment transport algorithm. While many studies focused on integrating empirical or numerical models based on traditional erosion budget measurements into 3D hydrological models, few studies evaluated the efficiency of ECM on watershed scale and very little attention is given to the potentials of environmental Fallout Radio-Nuclides (FRNs) in such applications. The use of FRN tracer 7Be in soil erosion/deposition research proved to overcome many (if not all) of the problems associated with the conventional approaches providing reliable data for efficient land use management. This poster will underline the pros and cones of using conventional methods and 7Be tracers to evaluate the efficiency of coconuts dams installed as ECM in experimental field in Belgium. It will also outline the potentials of 7Be in providing valuable inputs for evolving the numerical sediment transport algorithm needed for the hydrological model on field scale leading to assess the possibility of using this short-lived tracer as a validation tool for the upgraded hydrological model on watershed scale in further steps. Keywords: FRN, erosion control measures, hydrological modes

  19. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  20. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Test Procedures § 431.324 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of...

  1. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  2. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  3. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  4. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  5. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  6. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  7. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  8. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  9. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  10. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  11. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  12. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  13. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  14. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  15. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  16. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  17. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  18. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  19. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  20. Influence of Different Temperature Sensors on Measuring Energy Efficiency and Heating-Up Time of Hobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beges, G.; Drnovsek, J.; Ogorevc, J.; Bojkovski, J.

    2015-03-01

    Measuring performance, mainly temperature dependence, for electric cooking ranges, hobs, ovens, and grills for household use is essential for producers as low power consumption of appliances represents a powerful selling point and also in terms of ecodesign requirements. It is also important from a consumer perspective, as these appliances are responsible for the significant share of households' electricity bills. The aim of the paper was to highlight and clearly define possible ambiguities and weaknesses of standardized procedures for measuring hob performance. Differences between measurement/test results of testing laboratories are possible due to lack of detailed information in the standard, and it is difficult to obtain technical accessories required in the standard. An energy consumption comparison of three different hobs is presented (standard iron electrical hob, radiant-glass ceramic, and induction hob). Various temperature sensors (different types of thermocouples and a platinum resistance thermometer) and technical accessories (e.g., different cookware) were used to research differences or influences on final result of hobs' energy efficiency. Results show that temperature measurements with different sensors have an influence on the time difference in critical points for determination of hob energy efficiency.

  1. Design of quantum efficiency measurement system for variable doping GaAs photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Kai; Liu, HongLin; Chang, Benkang

    2008-03-01

    To achieve high quantum efficiency and good stability has been a main direction to develop GaAs photocathode recently. Through early research, we proved that variable doping structure is executable and practical, and has great potential. In order to optimize variable doping GaAs photocathode preparation techniques and study the variable doping theory deeply, a real-time quantum efficiency measurement system for GaAs Photocathode has been designed. The system uses FPGA (Field-programmable gate array) device, and high speed A/D converter to design a high signal noise ratio and high speed data acquisition card. ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) core processor s3c2410 and real-time embedded system are used to obtain and show measurement results. The measurement precision of photocurrent could reach 1nA, and measurement range of spectral response curve is within 400~1000nm. GaAs photocathode preparation process can be real-time monitored by using this system. This system could easily be added other functions to show the physic variation of photocathode during the preparation process more roundly in the future.

  2. Measuring the environmental efficiency of countries: a directional distance function metafrontier approach.

    PubMed

    Yu-Ying Lin, Eugene; Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2013-04-15

    This paper measures environmental efficiency (EE) in 63 countries over the period 1981-2005 and analyzes whether the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol is accompanied by an increase in environmental efficiency during the same period. Differences in EE across countries under distinct country-specific production frontiers are measured using a directional distance function model, which incorporates a desirable output (GDP) and an undesirable output (CO2 emissions). It is further assumed that a stochastic meta-technology-frontier exists and represents potential outputs available to all countries given inputs. The metafrontier for four country groups, high income countries, upper-middle income countries, low-middle income countries, and low income countries, are estimated using balanced panel data for the sample countries over the study period. The overall results indicate that the four country groups operated under distinct stochastic production frontiers and therefore used different production technologies. It is found that high income countries achieved the highest progress in their average environmental efficiency relative to the metafrontier, while lower-middle income countries and low income countries recorded negative growth in their average EE relative to the metafrontier. PMID:23474337

  3. Effect of weld metal mismatch on joint efficiency and measured fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, R.; Malik, L.; Morrison, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fracture toughness tests of deep-notched and shallow-notched SENB specimens at various sub-zero temperatures were conducted to study the effect of weld metal mismatch on measured fracture toughness. Tensile tests of cross-weld tensile specimens were also conducted to study the effect of weld metal mismatch on joint efficiency. These specimens were machined from butt welds that were fabricated with the same welding consumable and welding procedure using HSLA 100 steel plates heat treated to different tensile strengths. No significant differences were found between the joint efficiencies and ductilities of the cross-weld tensile specimens with overmatching weld metal and those of specimens with up to 9% weld metal undermatch in terms of yield strength (3% in terms of ultimate tensile strength). Furthermore, 100% joint efficiency was still achieved in the cross-weld tensile specimens with intact reinforcements and 17% undermatching weld metal in terms of yield strength (9% in terms of ultimate tensile strength). No correlation was found between the degree of weld metal mismatch and the measured fracture toughness of the SENB specimens.

  4. An experiment to measure raindrop collection efficiencies: influence of rear capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quérel, A.; Lemaitre, P.; Monier, M.; Porcheron, E.; Flossmann, A. I.; Hervo, M.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of severe accident with loss of containment in a nuclear plant, radionuclides are released into the atmosphere in the form of both gases and aerosol particles (Baklanov and Sørensen, 2001). The analysis of radioactive aerosol scavenged by rain after the Chernobyl accident highlights certain differences between the modelling studies and the environmental measurements. Part of these discrepancies can probably be attributed to uncertainties in the efficiencies used to calculate aerosol particle collection by raindrops, particularly drops with a diameter larger than one millimetre. In order to address the issue of these uncertainties, an experimental study was performed to close the gaps still existing for this key microphysical parameter. In this paper, attention is first focused on the efficiency with which aerosol particles in the accumulation mode are collected by raindrops with a diameter of 2 mm. The collection efficiencies measured for aerosol particle in the sub-micron range are quantitatively consistent with previous theoretical model developed by Beard (1974) and thus highlight the major role of rear capture in the submicron range.

  5. Simplified photonic-assisted digitalized microwave frequency measurement with improved coding efficiency and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua; Yan, Lianshan; Luo, Bin; Liu, Xinkai; Li, Peixuan; Yan, Xianglei

    2016-08-01

    A simplified photonic approach to implement digitalized microwave frequency measurement with improved coding efficiency and receiving sensitivity is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed approach, an optical phase-shifted filter array and multiple optical filters with multiplied FSRs are designed to obtain digitalized results in the form of binary encoding. Thanks to the complementary outputs, an adaptive threshold decision implemented using balanced receivers is employed to perform binary encoding, instead of a fixed power ratio threshold of 0.5, leading to an improvement in the receiving sensitivity. Besides, a high coding efficiency and a fine measurement resolution are achieved with relaxed accuracy requirement on phase shifts of the optical filters. In particular, compared with the previous approaches, larger tolerances on the phase shifts of the optical phase-shifted filters are provided in the proposed approach having the same coding efficiency and resolution. Therefore, the proposed system is easy to be implemented and robust to noise. A proof-of-concept experiment is then performed. 6-bit binary digital results with a 5-bit effective number are obtained in the range from 10 GHz to 40 GHz. In addition, an integrated version of such a filter array is designed and analyzed in simulation.

  6. Investigation of security related fully polarimetric signatures of radiometer measurements at W band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Rudolf, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The actual and continuous threat by international terrorism and the increasing number of terroristic attacks raise the danger to the public and create a new and more complex dimension of threat. This evolution must and can only be combat by the application of new counter-measures like advanced imaging technologies for wide-area surveillance and the detection of concealed dangerous objects. Passive microwave remote sensing allows a daytime independent non-destructive observation and examination of the objects of interest under nearly all weather conditions without artificial exposure of persons and observation areas, hence fully avoiding health risks. Furthermore the acquisition of polarimetric object characteristics can increase the detection capability by gathering complementary object information. The recent development and construction of a fullypolarimetric receiver at W band allows the acquisition of a new dimension of information compared to former imaging capabilities. The new receiver can be part of various imaging systems used at DLR over the years. This paper will show some imaging results recorded recently from different sceneries.

  7. Effective efficiency measurement results conducted on a x-band thin film waveguide barretter mount developed at NPL, New Delhi

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, H.M.; Kothari, P.C.

    1994-12-31

    Effective efficiency measurements have been conducted at 10.0 GHz using a single load microcalorimetric technique on a thin film primary standard waveguide barretter mount designed and fabricated at National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi. The same mount was taken to three National Laboratories, namely NIST, USA; KRISS, Republic of Korea; PTB, Germany for an international comparison of effective efficiency measurements. This paper briefly describes the techniques employed for the measurement of effective efficiency of bolometer mounts by these countries. The results of effective efficiency are reported and intercomared.

  8. Atmospheric particulate mercury in the megacity Beijing: Efficiency of mitigation measures and assessment of health effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, N. J.; Schäfer, J.; Chen, Y.; Blanc, G.; Chen, Y.; Chai, F.; Cen, K.; Norra, S.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (HgP) was studied before, during, and after the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the emission control measures implemented by the Chinese Government. These source control measures comprised traffic reductions, increase in public transportation, planting of vegetation, establishment of parks, building freeze at construction sites, cleaner production techniques for industries and industry closures in Beijing and also in the surrounding areas. Strictest measures including the "odd-even ban" to halve the vehicle volume were enforced from the 20th of July to the 20th of September 2008. The Olympic period provided the unique opportunity to investigate the efficiency of these comprehensive actions implemented in order to reduce air pollution on a large scale. Therefore, the sampling period covered summer (August, September) and winter (December and January) samples over several years from December 2005 to September 2013. Average HgP concentrations in total suspended particulates (TSP) sampled in August 2008 were 81 ± 39 pg/m3 while TSP mass concentrations were 93 ± 49 μg/m3. This equals a reduction by about 63% for TSP mass and 65% for HgP, respectively, compared to the previous two years demonstrating the short-term success of the measures. However, after the Olympic Games, HgP concentrations increased again to pre-Olympic levels in August 2009 while values in August 2010 decreased again by 30%. Moreover, winter samples, which were 2- to 11-fold higher than corresponding August values, showed decreasing concentrations over the years indicating a long-term improvement of HgP pollution in Beijing. However, regarding adverse health effects, comparisons with soil guideline values and studies from other cities highlighted that HgP concentrations in TSP remained high in Beijing despite respective control measures. Consequently, future mitigation measures need to be tailored more

  9. Determination of TFTR far-field neutron detector efficiencies by local neutron flux spectrum measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassby, D. L.; Ascione, G.; Kugel, H. W.; Roquemore, A. L.; Barcelo, T. W.; Kumar, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron detectors have often been located on the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) test cell floor 3 m or more from the vacuum vessel for ease of detector access, to reduce radiation damage, minimize count saturation problems, and to avoid high magnetic fields. These detectors include Si surface-barrier diodes, fission chambers, natural diamond detectors, and T2 production in a moderated 3He cell. To evaluate the performance of these detectors during deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation, we determined the neutron flux spectrum incident on the principal detector enclosure using nuclide sample sets containing Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Zr, Nb, In, and Au activation foils. Foils were installed and then removed after ample exposure to TFTR D-T neutrons. High efficiency, high purity Ge detectors were used for gamma spectroscopy of the irradiated foils. The incident neutron fluence and spectral distribution were unfolded from the measured results, and used to derive absolute detector efficiencies.

  10. Measurement of the charge transfer efficiency of electrons clocked on superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Sabouret, G.; Lyon, S.A.

    2006-06-19

    Electrons floating on the surface of liquid helium are possible qubits for quantum information processing. Varying electric potentials do not modify spin states, which allows their transport on helium using a charge-coupled device (CCD)-like array of underlying gates. This scheme depends on an efficient intergate electron transfer and on the absence of electron traps. We will present a measurement of the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of electrons clocked back and forth above a short CCD-like structure. The CTE obtained at low clocking frequencies is 0.999 with an electron density of about 4 electrons/{mu}m{sup 2}. We find no evidence for deep electron trapping.

  11. Conversion of far ultraviolet to visible radiation: absolute measurements of the conversion efficiency of tetraphenyl butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, Robert E.; Coplan, Michael A.; Clark, Charles W.

    Far ultraviolet (FUV) scintillation of noble gases is used in dark matter and neutrino research and in neutron detection. Upon collisional excitation, noble gas atoms recombine into excimer molecules that decay by FUV emission. Direct detection of FUV is difficult. Another approach is to convert it to visible light using a wavelength-shifting medium. One such medium, tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) can be vapor-deposited on substrates. Thus the quality of thin TPB films can be tightly controlled. We have measured the absolute efficiency of FUV-to-visible conversion by 1 μm-thick TPB films vs. FUV wavelengths between 130 and 300 nm, with 1 nm resolution. The energy efficiency of FUV to visible conversion varies between 1% and 5%. We make comparisons with other recent results. Work performed at the NIST SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility,.

  12. Efficient quantum state-estimation and feedback on trapped ions using unsharp measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, Hermann; Burd, Shaun; Choudhary, Sujit; Goyal, Sandeep; Konrad, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Parameter estimation and closed-loop feedback control is ubiquitous in every branch of classical science and engineering. Similar control of quantum systems is usually impossible due to two difficulties. Firstly, quantum phenomena are often short lived due to decoherence, and secondly, attempts to estimate the state of a quantum system through projective measurement, strongly disrupt the dynamics. One alternative is to use unsharp measurements, which are less invasive, but lead to less information gain about the system. A sequence of unsharp measurements, however, carried out in the presence of stronger dynamics, promise real-time state monitoring and control via feedback. Such measurements can be realised by periodically entangling an auxiliary quantum system with the target quantum system, and then carrying out projective measurements on the auxiliary system only. In this talk we discuss an efficient method of estimating both the state of a two-level system and the strength of its coupling to a drive field using unsharp measurement. We then model closed loop feedback control of the two-level dynamics, and explore the level of control over the parameter regime of the model. Finally, we summarize the prospects for implementing the scheme using trapped ions. This work was partially funded by the South African National Research Foundation.

  13. Measurement of efficiency in calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser on pigs' jaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, Christian G.; Rechmann, Peter; Goldin, Dan S.; Hennig, Thomas

    2000-03-01

    Periodontal therapy aims in a most sufficient cleaning of tooth surfaces from supra- and subgingival calculus. As a standard dental procedure teeth are treated with ultrasonic devices. The competence of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for a highly effective and selective removal of calculus has been repeatedly proved. Aim of the study presented here was to determine the efficiency at simulated clinical conditions of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (laboratory prototype, q-switched, fiber guided, wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 1 microsecond, pulse repetition rate 70 Hz, water cooling) by quantifying it's calculus removing efficiency. The evaluated data were compared to those obtained with an ultrasonic calculus remover. In the first part of the study sample material consisted of 23 pigs' jaws. They were divided into two groups. The teeth of one group were cleaned on their buccal surfaces using an ultrasonic device (Sonosoft Lux, KaVo, Biberach, Germany; tip #9). Than hand-guided cleaning was performed until no further improvement in cleanness was visible. Cleaning time was measured. Photographic documentation was taken before and after the treatment. The teeth in the second group were cleaned engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser. Treatment time was measured and photographs were taken in the same way. In the second part of the study 21 surfaces of human teeth set up in an artificial pocket model were treated with both systems again. Measurements followed the same protocol. The results strongly support the use of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for calculus removal.

  14. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  15. Measuring the Effectiveness of Visual Analytics and Data Fusion Techniques on Situation Awareness in Cyber-Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…

  16. Measuring the Effectiveness of Information Security Training: A Comparative Analysis of Computer-Based Training and Instructor-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Financial institutions are increasingly finding difficulty defending against information security risks and threats, as they are often the number one target for information thieves. An effective information security training and awareness program can be a critical component of protecting an organization's information assets. Many financial…

  17. A compact and high efficiency GAGG well counter for radiocesium concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune

    2014-07-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, social concern about radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) contamination in food increased. However, highly efficient instruments that can measure low level radioactivity are quite expensive and heavy. A compact, lightweight, and reliable radiation detector that can inexpensively monitor low level radiocesium is highly desired. We developed a compact and highly efficient radiocesium detector to detect ~32 keV X-rays from radiocesium instead of high energy gamma photons. A 1-mm thick GAGG scintillator was selected to effectively detect ~32 keV X-rays from 137Cs to reduce the influence of ambient radiation. Four sets of 25 mm×25 mm×1 mm GAGG plates, each of which was optically coupled to a triangular-shaped light guide, were optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to form a square-shaped well counter. Another GAGG plate was directly optically coupled to the PMT to form its bottom detector. The energy resolution of the GAGG well counter was 22.3% FWHM for 122 keV gamma rays and 32% FWHM for ~32 keV X-rays. The counting efficiency for the X-rays from radiocesium (mixture of 137Cs and 134Cs) was 4.5%. In measurements of the low level radiocesium mixture, a photo-peak of ~32 keV X-rays can clearly be distinguished from the background. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) was estimated to be ~100 Bq/kg for 1000 s measurement. The results show that our developed GAGG well counter is promising for the detection of radiocesium in food.

  18. Operational Simulation of the GPM Constellation and Evaluation of its Efficiency in Measuring Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulos, F.; Bras, R. L.

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to simulate the operation of the GPM constellation and to evaluate its efficiency in measuring precipitation by comparing the actual precipitation recorded by ground instruments to the precipitation profile obtained by solely utilizing the snapshots taken by the satellites over an area. The GPM constellation consists of one mothership satellite and several drones. It is dynamic in its nature, so that one or more satellites can be added or subtracted from the constellation without significantly altering its functionality. For the time being, six satellites are considered to be part of the GPM constellation: DMSP-F13, DMSP-F14, DMSP-F15, ADEOS-II, AQUA (EOS-PM) and TRMM. The study area is the Rondonia basin in Amazon, Brazil. The ground data set used comes from the LBA experiment, conducted from November 1st 1998 to February 28th 1999. During most of this period, four rain gages networks and the SPOL radar were in operation. The rain gages record rainfall every hour while the SPOL radar takes several snapshots every hour. Due to the orbit characteristics of the satellites, the duration of each visit is small, practically less than a minute. Therefore, in order to obtain comparable measurements, the areal precipitation is estimated using GIS techniques, and then it is disaggregated into one-minute time intervals. The satellites collect one-minute snapshots of this areal precipitation, and after the end of the simulation the snapshots are aggregated in order to reproduce the measured areal precipitation. By comparing the measured areal precipitation with that recorded by the ground instruments, a measure of the constellation's efficiency is acquired.

  19. Secure Mass Measurements from Transit Timing: 10 Kepler Exoplanets between 3 and 8 M⊕ with Diverse Densities and Incident Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Van Laerhoven, Christa; Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine M.; Holczer, Tomer; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2016-03-01

    We infer dynamical masses in eight multiplanet systems using transit times measured from Kepler's complete data set, including short-cadence data where available. Of the 18 dynamical masses that we infer, 10 pass multiple tests for robustness. These are in systems Kepler-26 (KOI-250), Kepler-29 (KOI-738), Kepler-60 (KOI-2086), Kepler-105 (KOI-115), and Kepler-307 (KOI-1576). Kepler-105 c has a radius of 1.3 R⊕ and a density consistent with an Earth-like composition. Strong transit timing variation (TTV) signals were detected from additional planets, but their inferred masses were sensitive to outliers or consistent solutions could not be found with independently measured transit times, including planets orbiting Kepler-49 (KOI-248), Kepler-57 (KOI-1270), Kepler-105 (KOI-115), and Kepler-177 (KOI-523). Nonetheless, strong upper limits on the mass of Kepler-177 c imply an extremely low density of ˜0.1 g cm-3. In most cases, individual orbital eccentricities were poorly constrained owing to degeneracies in TTV inversion. For five planet pairs in our sample, strong secular interactions imply a moderate to high likelihood of apsidal alignment over a wide range of possible eccentricities. We also find solutions for the three planets known to orbit Kepler-60 in a Laplace-like resonance chain. However, nonlibrating solutions also match the transit timing data. For six systems, we calculate more precise stellar parameters than previously known, enabling useful constraints on planetary densities where we have secure mass measurements. Placing these exoplanets on the mass-radius diagram, we find that a wide range of densities is observed among sub-Neptune-mass planets and that the range in observed densities is anticorrelated with incident flux.

  20. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  1. Design and implementation of an efficient acoustically levitated drop reactor for in stillo measurements.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher R; Scheeline, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    We present the details necessary for building an efficient acoustic drop levitator with reduced electrical power consumption and greater drop stability compared to previous designs. The system is optimized so that the levitated drop may be used as a chemical reactor. By introducing a temperature, pressure, and relative humidity sensor for feedback control of a linear actuator for adjusting resonator length, we have built a completely automated system capable of continuous levitation for extended periods of time. The result is a system capable of portable operation and interfacing with a variety of detection instrumentation for in stillo (in drop) measurements. PMID:18163744

  2. Optimizing environmental measures for landscape multifunctionality: effectiveness, efficiency and recommendations for agri-environmental programs.

    PubMed

    Galler, Carolin; von Haaren, Christina; Albert, Christian

    2015-03-15

    Agri-environmental measures differ in their capacity to simultaneously enhance the provision of multiple ecosystem services. Multifunctional approaches are hampered by funding schemes that are usually administered by individual administrative sectors that each predominantly focus on one single environmental objective. Developing integrative management strategies that exploit synergies from implementing multifunctional measures is challenged by the need to quantify expected management effects on different ecosystem services. The objective of this paper is to compare uncoordinated versus coordinated management strategies in their contribution to multiple environmental objectives. We developed and applied a method for quantifying effectiveness, as well as spatial and cost efficiency with respect to four key landscape functions: erosion prevention, water quality conservation, climate change mitigation and safeguarding biodiversity. The case study area was the county of Verden, Germany. The following findings can be drawn: Measures for safeguarding biodiversity and climate change mitigation have generally high multifunctional effects, which makes them suitable for integrative management strategies. To make use of the added value of potential multifunctional measures, a spatially targeted allocation of agri-environmental measures is necessary. Compared to uncoordinated strategies, coordinated integrative management strategies either allow the optimization of the ratio of costs to environmental effects or an increase in the effects that can be achieved within an area unit. This is however, usually not simultaneous. Future research should seek to refine the assessment and valuation indicators. PMID:25577703

  3. Optimizing photon fluence measurements for the accurate determination of detective quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Molly; Zhang, Da; Rong, John; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2009-10-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the error contributed by photon fluence measurements to the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of an x-ray imaging system. The investigation consisted of separate error analyses for the exposure and spectrum measurements that determine the photon fluence. Methods were developed for each to determine the number of measurements required to achieve an acceptable error. A new method for calculating the magnification factor in the exposure measurements was presented and compared to the existing method. The new method not only produces much lower error at small source-to-image distances (SIDs) such as clinical systems, but is also independent of SID. The exposure and spectra results were combined to determine the photon fluence error contribution to the DQE of 4%. The error in this study is small because the measurements resulted from precisely controlled experimental procedures designed to minimize the error. However, these procedures are difficult to follow in clinical environments, and application of this method on clinical systems could therefore provide important insight into error reduction. This investigation was focused on the error in the photon fluence contribution to the DQE, but the error analysis method can easily be extended to a wide range of applications.

  4. Quantum efficiency characterization of back-illuminated CCDs Part2: reflectivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Bebek, Chris J.; Groom, Donald E.; Karcher, Armin; Roe, Natalie A.

    2006-01-19

    The usual quantum efficiency (QE) measurement heavily relies on a calibrated photodiode (PD) and the knowledge of the CCDs gain. Either can introduce significant systematic errors. But reflectivity can also be used to verify QE measurements. 1 - R > QE, where R is the reflectivity, and over a significant wavelength range, 1 - R = QE. An unconventional reflectometer has been developed to make this measurement. R is measured in two steps, using light from the lateral monochromator port via an optical fiber. The beam intensity is measured directly with aPD, then both the PD and CCD are moved so that the optical path length is unchanged and the light reflects once from the CCD; the PD current ratio gives R. Unlike traditional schemes this approach makes only one reflection from the CCD surface. Since the reflectivity of the LBNL CCDs might be as low as 2 percent this increases the signal to noise ratio dramatically. The goal is a 1 percent accuracy. We obtain good agreement between 1 - R and the direct QE results.

  5. Predicting Perceptions of Fear at School and Going to and from School for African American and White Students: The Effects of School Security Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Ronet; Randolph, Antonia; Brown, Bethany L.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses the School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to investigate the factors related to White and African American students' perceived levels of fear of harm, while at school and while commuting to and from school. Of particular interest were the effects of school security measures, including metal detectors,…

  6. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  7. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  8. SIU-based modification in Kelley's measure of skewness to achieve gains in efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibullah, Saleha Naghmi; Shan-E-Fatima, Syeda

    2015-02-01

    The importance of accurate modeling of life-lengths of components and systems cannot be over-emphasized. Some well-known distributions such as the Birnbaum Saunders distribution extensively used in Reliability Theory are known to fulfill the self-inversion property, the term `Self-Inverse at Unity' (`SIU') implying that, for a random variable X, the distribution of 1/ X is identical to the distribution of X. Very recently, it has been demonstrated the advantage that can be drawn from the SIU property by proposing a modification to the well-known formula of the empirical cumulative distribution function to obtain an estimator of the cumulative distribution function that is more efficient than the empirical cumulative distribution function in situations where the parent population can be assumed to be SIU. Subsequently, a number of papers have appeared proposing SIU-based modifications to the formulae of well-known estimators of central tendency, dispersion and kurtosis that are likely to yield gains in efficiency on account of an approach very similar to the one adopted for the modification of the formula of the empirical cumulative distribution function. In this paper, we propose SIU-based modification to Kelley's Measure of Skewness and, through a simulation study, demonstrate the potential of the proposed formula in improving the efficiency of the estimation process which, obviously, has important implications for accurate modeling of life-data encountered in various branches of engineering.

  9. Measurements of antenna polar diagrams and efficiencies using a phase-switched interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. A.; Candy, B.; Briggs, B. H.

    1986-01-01

    It is desirable to know antenna polar patterns and efficiencies accurately. In the past, calibration measurements have been made using balloons and aircraft and more recently satellites. These techniques are usually very expensive. It is shown that under certain circumstances it is possible to use a simpler and inexpensive technique by connecting together the antenna under test with another antenna to form a phase switched interferometer as first described by Ryle (1952). The technique does require a suitable radio source which gives measurable powers when using small antennas and since dipoles have broad patterns, radio sources with similar right ascensions but different declinations to the primary source can be a problem. These problems can partly be overcome by filtering the interference pattern.

  10. An efficient algorithm for measurement of retinal vessel diameter from fundus images based on directional filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuchu; Niu, Yanmin

    2011-02-01

    Automatic measurement of vessels from fundus images is a crucial step for assessing vessel anomalies in ophthalmological community, where the change in retinal vessel diameters is believed to be indicative of the risk level of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, a new retinal vessel diameter measurement method by combining vessel orientation estimation and filter response is proposed. Its interesting characteristics include: (1) different from the methods that only fit the vessel profiles, the proposed method extracts more stable and accurate vessel diameter by casting this problem as a maximal response problem of a variation of Gabor filter; (2) the proposed method can directly and efficiently estimate the vessel's orientation, which is usually captured by time-consuming multi-orientation fitting techniques in many existing methods. Experimental results shows that the proposed method both retains the computational simplicity and achieves stable and accurate estimation results.

  11. Boundaries for efficient use of electron vortex beams to measure magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Ján; Bhowmick, Somnath

    2013-09-01

    Development of experimental techniques for characterization of magnetic properties at high spatial resolution is essential for progress in miniaturization of magnetic devices, for example, in data storage media. Inelastic scattering of electron vortex beams (EVBs) was recently reported to contain atom-specific magnetic information. We develop a theoretical description of inelastic scattering of EVBs on crystals and perform simulations for EVBs of different diameters. We show that use of an EVB wider than an interatomic distance does not provide any advantage over an ordinary convergent beam without angular momentum. On the other hand, in the atomic-resolution limit, electron energy loss spectra measured by EVBs are strongly sensitive to the spin and orbital magnetic moments of studied matter, when channeling through or very close to the atomic columns. Our results demonstrate the boundaries for efficient use of EVBs in measurement of magnetic properties. PMID:25166681

  12. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs. PMID:24045354

  13. Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.

    SciTech Connect

    Laros, James H., III

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

  14. [Design and analysis of automatic measurement instrument for diffraction efficiency of plane reflection grating].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Qi, Xiang-Dong; Yu, Hong-Zhu; Yu, Hai-Li

    2009-02-01

    A new-style system that automatically measures the diffraction efficiency of plane reflection grating was designed. The continuous illuminant was adopted for illumination, the duplex grating spectrograph structure was applied, and the linear array NMOS was the receiving component. Wielding relevant principle of the grating spectrograph, theoretical analysis principle was carried out for the testing system. Integrating the aberration theory of geometrical optics, the image quality of this optics system was analyzed. Analysis indicated that the systematic device structure is compact, and electronics system is simplified. The system does not have the problem about wavelength sweep synchronization of the two grating spectrographs, and its wavelength repeatability is very good. So the precision is easy to guarantee. Compared with the former automated scheme, the production cost is reduced, moreover it is easy to operate, and the working efficiency is enhanced. The study showed that this automatic measurement instrument system features a spectral range of 190-1 100 nm and resolution is less than 3 nm, which entirely satisfies the design request. It is an economical and feasible plan. PMID:19445251

  15. Characterization of pixel crosstalk and impact of Bayer patterning by quantum efficiency measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillant, Jérôme; Mornet, Clémence; Decroux, Thomas; Hérault, Didier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Development of small pixels for high resolution image sensors implies a lot of challenges. A high level of performance should be guaranteed whereas the overall size must be reduced and so the degree of freedom in design and process. One key parameter of this constant improvement is the knowledge and the control of the crosstalk between pixels. In this paper, we present an advance in crosstalk characterization method based on the design of specific color patterns and the measurement of quantum efficiency. In a first part, we describe the color patterns designed to isolate one pixel or to simulate un-patterned colored pixels. These patterns have been implemented on test-chip and characterized. The second part deals with the characterization setup for quantum efficiency. Indeed, the use of spectral measurements allows us to discriminate pixels based on the color filter placed on top of them and to probe the crosstalk as a function of the depth in silicon, thanks to the photon absorption length variation with the wavelength. In the last part, results are presented showing the impact of color filters patterning, i.e. pixels in a Bayer pattern versus un-patterned pixels. The crosstalk directions and amplitudes are also analyzed in relation to pixel layout.

  16. Costs and benefits from utility-funded commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes the costs and savings of commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings. A total of 46 EEMs were commissioned for all 16 buildings and 73 deficiencies were corrected. On average, commissioning was marginally cost effective on energy savings alone, although the results were mixed among all 16 buildings. When considered as a stand-alone measure, the median simple payback time of 6.5 years under the low energy prices in the Pacific Northwest. Under national average prices the median payback time is about three years. In estimating the present value of the energy savings from commissioning we considered low and high lifetimes for the persistence of savings from deficiency corrections. Under the low- lifetime case the average present value of the energy savings ($0. 21/ft{sup 2}) were about equal to the average commissioning costs ($0. 23/ft{sup 2}). Under the high-lifetime case the savings ($0.51/ft{sup 2}) were about twice the costs. Again, the savings would be about twice as large under national average prices. The results are subject to significant uncertainty because of the small sample size and lack of metered data in the evaluation. However, the findings suggest that investments in commissioning pay off. Building owners want buildings that work as intended, and are comfortable, healthy, and efficient. It is likely that the non-energy benefits, which are difficult to quantify, are larger than the energy-savings benefits.

  17. Measuring sperm:egg interaction to assess breeding efficiency in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Wishart, G J; Staines, H J

    1999-03-01

    Systems used to measure fertility in poultry have themselves presented a major impediment to progress in maintaining or improving fertility. Generally, these systems have been time-consuming, quantitatively inadequate, or both. A simplistic illustration of the basis of the problem is that if six fertile eggs were laid by a turkey hen during 1 wk after insemination, then all we know is what happened to six sperm: they fertilized the eggs. If 100 million sperm were inseminated, then information on the other 999,999,994 is missing. A better approach for quantitating breeding efficiency is to estimate the numbers of sperm that interact with the egg in the infundibulum. These can be identified in laid eggs, as sperm in the outer perivitelline layer (OPVL sperm), or holes produced by sperm in the inner perivitelline layer (IPVL holes). Eggs can contain up to 250,000 OPVL sperm, so the scale improves on binary estimation of fertilization status. The number of spermatozoa interacting with the perivitelline layer is related to the artificial insemination (AI) dose, the number of oviducal sperm, and the probability of fertilization, not just for one egg, but for subsequent eggs laid by the same hen. Practical applications of sperm:egg interaction measurements include: replacement of fertility trials for evaluation of semen; general fertility evaluation; and monitoring breeding efficiency of commercial turkey and broiler breeders. Furthermore, studies of sperm transfer into eggs raise interesting questions about the efficiency of turkey hens' response to AI or mating frequency of broiler hens in commercial flocks. PMID:10090271

  18. Measuring the efficiency of ice formation in mixed-phase clouds over Europe with Cloudnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühl, Johannes; Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Patric, Seifert

    2016-04-01

    Mixed-phase clouds play an important role in current weather and climate research. The complex interaction between aerosols, clouds and dynamics taking place within these clouds is still not understood. The unknown impact of ice formation on cloud lifetime and precipitation evolution introduces large uncertainties into numeric weather prediction and climate projections. In the framework of the BACCHUS project, we have evaluated combined remote sensing data gathered at different European Cloudnet sites (Leipzig, Lindenberg, Potenza and Mace-Head) to study the relation between ice and liquid water in mixed-phase cloud layers. In this way, we can quantify the efficiency of ice production within these clouds. The study also allows contrasting marine (Potenza and Mace-Head) and continental sites (Leipzig and Lindenberg). We derive liquid and ice water content together with vertical motions of ice particles falling through cloud base. The ice mass flux is quantified by combining measurements of ice water content and particle fall velocity. The efficiency of heterogeneous ice formation and its impact on cloud lifetime is estimated for different cloud-top temperatures by relating the ice mass flux and the liquid water content at cloud top. Cloud radar measurements of polarization and fall velocity yield, that ice crystals formed in cloud layers with a geometrical thickness of less than 350 m are mostly pristine when they fall out of the cloud. A difference of four orders of magnitude in ice formation efficiency in mixed-phase cloud layers is found over the cloud-top-temperature range from -40 to 0 °C.

  19. Measurement of the detection efficiency of the KLOE calorimeter for neutrons between 22 and 174 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anelli, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Curceanu, C.; de Zorzi, G.; di Domenico, A.; di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Prokofiev, A.; Sala, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sirghi, F.; Klone Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    A prototype of the high-sampling lead-scintillating fiber KLOE calorimeter has been exposed to neutron beams of 21, 46 and 174 MeV, provided by the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala, to test its neutron detection efficiency. The measurement of the neutron detection efficiency of an NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. The measured efficiency is larger than what expected considering the scintillator thickness of the KLOE prototype only. This result proves the existence of a contribution from the passive material to neutron detection efficiency, in a high-sampling calorimeter configuration.

  20. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  1. Efficient classical simulation of matchgate circuits with generalized inputs and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brod, Daniel J.

    2016-06-01

    Matchgates are a restricted set of two-qubit gates known to be classically simulable under particular conditions. Specifically, if a circuit consists only of nearest-neighbor matchgates, an efficient classical simulation is possible if either (i) the input is a computational-basis state and the simulation requires computing probabilities of multiqubit outcomes (including also adaptive measurements) or (ii) if the input is an arbitrary product state, but the output of the circuit consists of a single qubit. In this paper we extend these results to show that matchgates are classically simulable even in the most general combination of these settings, namely, if the inputs are arbitrary product states, if the measurements are over arbitrarily many output qubits, and if adaptive measurements are allowed. This remains true even for arbitrary single-qubit measurements, albeit only in a weaker notion of classical simulation. These results make for an interesting contrast with other restricted models of computation, such as Clifford circuits or (bosonic) linear optics, where the complexity of simulation varies greatly under similar modifications.

  2. Measurements of LHCD current profile and efficiency for simulation validation on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumgaard, Robert T.

    2014-10-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an effective tool to significantly modify the magnetic equilibrium by driving off-axis, non-inductive current. On Alcator C-Mod, an upgraded Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic enables the current profile to be accurately reconstructed during plasmas with strong LHCD and a hard X-ray camera measures the fast electron Bremsstrahlung profile. LHCD is applied for >4 current relaxation times, producing fully-relaxed magnetic equilibria in plasmas with non-inductive current fraction up to unity at currents up to 1.0 MA. C-Mod has developed an extensive database of LHCD performance, spanning a wide range in plasma current, launched n||, LHCD power, Te and plasma density. This dataset provides a unique platform for validation of LHCD current drive simulations with the plasma shape, density, field and LH frequency range envisioned for ITER and future reactors. In these conditions the measured current drive efficiencies are similar to that assumed for ITER with values up to 0.4*1020A/Wm2 despite being in a weak single-pass absorption regime. The driven current is observed to be off-axis, broadening the current profile, raising q0 above 1, suppressing sawteeth, decreasing/reversing the magnetic shear and sometimes destabilizing MHD modes and/or triggering internal transport barriers. Measurements indicate increased efficiency at increased temperature and plasma current but with a complicated dependence on launched n||. The MSE-constrained reconstructions show a loss in current drive efficiency as the plasma density is increased above =1.0×1020 m-3 consistent with previous observations of a precipitous drop in hard x-ray emission. Additionally, the measured driven current profile moves radially outward as the density is increased. Ray tracing simulations using GENRAY-CQL3D qualitatively reproduce these trends showing the rays make many passes through the plasma at high density and predicting a narrower current and HXR profile

  3. An ounce of prevention vs. a pound of cure: How can we measure the value of IT security solutions?

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ashish; Hall, Dennis; Pinto, C. Ariel; Ramsey, Dwayne; Telang, Rahul

    2004-01-12

    This article discusses a framework to evaluate the costs and benefits of IT security solutions using a company's risk profile. This method uses an unconventional concept of benefit based on risk avoided rather than increased productivity.

  4. The strategic security officer.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of the strategic security officer, and the potential that it brings to the healthcare security operational environment. The author believes that training and development, along with strict hiring practices, can enable a security department to reach a new level of professionalism, proficiency and efficiency. The strategic officer for healthcare security is adapted from the "strategic corporal" concept of US Marine Corps General Charles C. Krulak which focuses on understanding the total force implications of the decisions made by the lowest level leaders within the Corps (Krulak, 1999). This article focuses on the strategic organizational implications of every security officer's decisions in the constantly changing and increasingly volatile operational environment of healthcare security. PMID:24707753

  5. 40 CFR 63.7533 - Can I use efficiency credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... generate efficiency credits: (i) Energy conservation measures implemented on or before January 1, 2008... documentation that the energy conservation measures implemented continue to generate the credit for use in... from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply with this subpart? 63.7533 Section...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7533 - Can I use efficiency credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... generate efficiency credits: (i) Energy conservation measures implemented on or before January 1, 2008... documentation that the energy conservation measures implemented continue to generate the credit for use in... from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply with this subpart? 63.7533 Section...

  7. Spectroscopic measurement of impurity transport coefficients and penetration efficiencies in Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, M. A.; Rice, J. E.; Terry, J. L.; Marmar, E. S.; Goetz, J. A.; McCracken, G. M.; Bombarda, F.; May, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Impurity transport coefficients and the penetration efficiencies of intrinsic and injected impurities through the separatrix of diverted Alcator C-Mod discharges have been measured using x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopic diagnostics. The dominant low Z intrinsic impurity in C-Mod is carbon which is found to be present in concentrations of less than 0.5%. Molybdenum, from the plasma facing components, is the dominant high Z impurity and is typically found in concentrations of about 0.02%. Trace amounts of medium and high Z nonrecycling impurities can be injected at the midplane using the laser blow-off technique and calibrated amounts of recycling, gaseous impurities can be introduced through fast valves either at the midplane or at various locations in the divertor chamber. A five chord crystal x-ray spectrometer array with high spectral resolution is used to provide spatial profiles of high charge state impurities. An absolutely calibrated, grazing incidence VUV spectrograph with high time resolution and a broad spectral range allows for the simultaneous measurement of many impurity lines. Various filtered soft x-ray diode arrays allow for spatial reconstructions of plasma emissivity. The observed brightnesses and emissivities from a number of impurity lines are used together with the mist transport code and a collisional-radiative atomic physics model to determine charge state density profiles and impurity transport coefficients. Comparisons of the deduced impurity content with the measured Zeff and total radiated power of the plasma are made.

  8. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeff Sweterlitsch

    2004-04-01

    Three test instruments are being evaluated to determine the feasibility of using photoacoustic technology for measuring unburned carbon in fly ash. The first test instrument is a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photoacoustic signals in an off-line configuration. A second off-line instrument was constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, but which also expands the capabilities of the first instrument. Improvements include a control loop to allow more constant microwave power output and an ability to operate over a range of microwave frequencies. The third instrument, the on-line version of the fly ash monitor, has been designed, constructed, and initial efficiency tests have been conducted on the monitor's electrical components. Photoacoustic measurements were collected using the off-line MEPA spectrometer with different microwave frequencies in order to develop photoacoustic microwave spectra of several fly ash samples. Microwaves from 500 MHz to 1800 MHz were used. Modifications to the on-line thermal elastic fly ash monitor include the improving the operation of the agitator for the bottom hopper, and installing a second diaphragm assembly in the freeboard section of the fly ash monitor. This second diaphragm assembly can be used with a second MEMS-based accelerometer and in conjunction with the primary accelerometer as a method of active noise control. Repeatability and linearity experiments have begun using the on-line fly ash monitor, with some results presented in this quarterly technical report.

  9. Identification of Inhibitor Concentrations to Efficiently Screen and Measure Inhibition Ki Values against Solute Carrier Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Polli, James

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to identify inhibitor concentrations to efficiently screen and measure inhibition Ki values of solute carrier (SLC) transporters. The intestinal bile acid transporter and its native substrate taurocholate were used as a model system. Inhibition experiments were conducted using 27 compounds. For each compound, the inhibition constant Ki was obtained from the comprehensive inhibition profile, and referred as the reference Ki. Ki values were also estimated from various partial profiles and were compared to the reference Ki. A screening Ki was estimated from one data point and also compared to the reference Ki. Results indicate that Ki can be accurately measured using an inhibitor concentration range of only 0-Ki via five different inhibitor concentrations. Additionally, a screening concentration of 10-fold the substrate affinity Kt for potent inhibitors (Ki < 20Kt) and 100-fold Kt for nonpotent inhibitors (Ki > 20Kt) provided an accurate Ki estimation. Results were validated through inhibition studies of two other SLC transporters. In conclusion, experimental conditions to screen and measure accurate transporter inhibition constant Ki are suggested where a low range of inhibitor concentrations can be used. This approach is advantageous in that minimal compound is needed to perform studies and accommodates compounds with low aqueous solubility. PMID:20553862

  10. High-efficiency silicon solar cells: Numerical modeling, transient measurements, efficiency goals, and v-shaped grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basore, P. A.

    1987-07-01

    This is the final report summarizing concentrator solar cell research activity at Iowa State University under contract to Sandia National Laboratories from March 1985 to September 1986. A new one-dimensional semiconductor device analysis program for personal computers, PC-1D, is presented with emphasis on its application to modeling solar cells. Two applications of this program are described: (1) the validation of a new fast-transient technique for determining the relative importance of recombination in the emitter and base regions of planar silicon solar cells; and (2) the estimation of practical efficiency goals for production solar cells both for concentrators and one-sun applications. A laboratory investigation into etching v-shaped grooves in (100)-oriented silicon is also described.

  11. Generation and efficient measurement of single photons from fixed-frequency superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindel, William F.; Schroer, M. D.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate and evaluate an on-demand source of single itinerant microwave photons. Photons are generated using a highly coherent, fixed-frequency qubit-cavity system, and a protocol where the microwave control field is far detuned from the photon emission frequency. By using a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA), we perform efficient single-quadrature detection of the state emerging from the cavity. We characterize the imperfections of the photon generation and detection, including detection inefficiency and state infidelity caused by measurement back-action over a range of JPA gains from 17 to 33 dB. We observe that both detection efficiency and undesirable back-action increase with JPA gain. We find that the density matrix has its maximum single-photon component ρ11=0.36 ±0.01 at 29 dB JPA gain. At this gain, back-action of the JPA creates cavity photon number fluctuations that we model as a thermal distribution with an average photon number n ¯=0.041 ±0.003 .

  12. Measuring the X-ray quantum efficiency of a hybrid CMOS detector with 55Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, S. D.; Falcone, A. D.; Prieskorn, Z.; Griffith, C.; Burrows, D. N.

    2015-06-01

    Charge coupled devices (CCDs) are currently the workhorse focal plane arrays operating aboard many orbiting astrophysics X-ray telescopes, e.g. Chandra, XMM-Newton, Swift, and Suzaku. In order to meet the count rate, power, and mission duration requirements defined by next-generation X-ray telescopes, future detectors will need to be read out faster, consume less power, and be more resistant to radiation and micrometeoroid damage than current-generation devices. The hybrid CMOS detector (HCD), a type of active pixel sensor, is currently being developed to meet these requirements. With a design architecture that involves bump bonding two semiconductor substrates together at the pixel level, these devices exhibit both the high read speed and low power consumption of CMOS readout circuitry and the high quantum efficiency (QE) of a deeply depleted silicon absorber. These devices are expected to exhibit the same excellent, high-energy quantum efficiency (QE) as deep-depletion CCDs (QE > 0.9 at 6 keV), while at the same time exhibiting superior readout flexibility, power consumption, and radiation hardness than CCDs. In this work we present a QE model for a Teledyne Imaging Sensors HyViSI HCD, which predicts QE=96% at 55Fe source energies (5.89 and 6.49 keV). We then present a QE measurement of the modeled device at the same energies, which shows QE=97±5% and is in good agreement with the model.

  13. Commissioning of energy-efficiency measures: Costs and benefits for 16 buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.; Greenberg, S.

    1995-04-01

    Building systems and energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) often don`t perform as well in practice as expected at the design stage. This fact has become clear to many organizations concerned with ensuring building performance. What to do about these problems is less clear. Several electric utilities around the U.S. have begun to take action to address the start-up, control, and operational problems that are found in nearly every building. One of the most beneficial periods to intervene in the building life cycle is during the start-up phase of a now building. Building commissioning during start up is such an intervention. Commissioning can be defined as: a set of procedures, responsibilities, and methods to advance a system from static installation to full working order in accordance with design intent. In broad terms, commissioning can extend from design reviews through operations and maintenance planning and training. With such a broad scope aimed at the entire building life cycle, commissioning is often likened to {open_quotes}Total Quality Management{close_quotes} Yet the heart of commissioning are the procedures developed and executed to ensure that all building systems function as intended. The incorporation of energy-efficiency criteria into building commissioning is a new development.

  14. Development of an efficient Ti:sapphire laser transmitter for atmospheric ozone lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Khaled Abdelsabour

    The impetus of this work was to develop an all solid-state Ti:sapphire laser transmitter to replace the current dye lasers that could provide a potentially compact, robust, and highly reliable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric ozone. Two compact, high-energy pulsed, and injection-seeded Ti:sapphire lasers operating at a pulse repetition frequency of 30 Hz and wavelengths of 867 nm and 900 nm, with M2 of 1.3, have been experimentally demonstrated and compared to model results. The Ti:sapphire lasers have shown the required output beam quality at maximum output pulse energy, 115 mJ at 867 nm and 105 mJ at 900 nm, with a slope efficiency of 40% and 32%, respectively, to achieve 30 mJ of ultraviolet laser output at 289 run and 300 nm with two LBO nonlinear crystals.

  15. Measurement of the Charge Collection Efficiency After Heavy Non-Uniform Irradiation in BABAR Silicon Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Calderini, G.; Forti, F.; Marchiori, G.; Rizzo, G.; Giorgi, M.A.; Bosisio, L.; Dittongo, S.; Campagnari, C.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the depletion voltage changes, leakage current increase and charge collection efficiency of a silicon microstrip detector identical to those used in the inner layers of the BABAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) after heavy nonuniform irradiation. A full SVT module with the front-end electronics connected has been irradiated with a 0.9 GeV electron beam up to a peak fluence of 3.5 x 10{sup 14} e{sup -}/cm{sup 2}, well beyond the level causing substrate type inversion. We have irradiated the silicon with a nonuniform profile having {sigma} = 1.4 mm that simulates the conditions encountered in the BABAR experiment by the modules intersecting the horizontal machine plane. The position dependence of the charge collection properties and the depletion voltage have been investigated in detail using a 1060 nm LED and an innovative measuring technique based only on the digital output of the chip.

  16. Indoor air-quality measurements in energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Pepper, J.H.; Young, R.

    1980-05-01

    The potential impact on indoor air quality of energy-conserving measures that reduce ventilation is being assessed in a field-monitoring program conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using a mobile laboratory, on-site monitoring of infiltration rate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, total aldehydes, and particulates was conducted in three houses designed to be energy-efficient. Preliminary results show that energy-conserving design features that reduce air-exchange rates compromise indoor air quality; specifically, indoor levels of several pollutants were found to exceed levels detected outdoors. Although the indoor levels of most pollutants are within limits established by present outdoor air-quality standards, considerable work remains to be accomplished before health-risk effects can be accurately assessed and broad-scale regulatory guidelines revised to comply with energy-conservation goals.

  17. Associations between feed efficiency, sexual maturity and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, A B P; Montanholi, Y R; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-01-01

    The beef industry has emphasized the improvement of feed utilization, as measured by modeling feed intake through performance traits to calculate residual feed intake (RFI). Evidence supports an inverse relationship between feed efficiency and reproductive function. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of reproductive assessments and RFI unadjusted (RFI(Koch)) or adjusted for body composition (RFI(us)) and the relationship among fertility-related parameters. In total, 34 crossbred bulls were housed together for 112 days of performance evaluation, followed by assessment of scrotum IR imaging, scrotal circumference, testes ultrasonography and semen quality parameters at 377±33.4 days of age. Bulls were slaughtered at 389±34.0 days of age, and analyses of carcass composition, biometrics and histomorphometry of the testis and epididymis were conducted. Bulls were grouped into two subpopulations based on divergence of RFI, and within each RFI model either by including 50% of the population (Halves, high and low RFI, n=17) or 20.6% extremes of the population (Tails, high and low RFI, n=7). The means of productive performance and fertility-related measures were compared through these categories. Pearson's correlation was calculated among fertility-related measures. In the Halves subpopulation of the RFI(us), sperm of low-RFI bulls had decreased progressive motility (47.30% v. 59.90%) and higher abundance of tail abnormalities (4.30% v. 1.80%) than that of high-RFI bulls. In the Tails subpopulation of the RFI(Koch), low RFI displayed less variation in the scrotum surface temperature (0.62°C v. 1.16°C), decreased testis echogenicity (175.50 v 198.00 pixels) and larger (60.90 v. 56.80 mm(2)) but less-developed seminiferous tubules than high-RFI bulls. The evaluation of fertility-related parameters indicated that a higher percentage of immature seminiferous tubules was correlated with occurrence of sperm with distal droplets (r=0.59), a larger

  18. A single user efficiency measure for evaluation of parallel or pipeline computer architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A precise statement of the relationship between sequential computation at one rate, parallel or pipeline computation at a much higher rate, the data movement rate between levels of memory, the fraction of inherently sequential operations or data that must be processed sequentially, the fraction of data to be moved that cannot be overlapped with computation, and the relative computational complexity of the algorithms for the two processes, scalar and vector, was developed. The relationship should be applied to the multirate processes that obtain in the employment of various new or proposed computer architectures for computational aerodynamics. The relationship, an efficiency measure that the single user of the computer system perceives, argues strongly in favor of separating scalar and vector processes, sometimes referred to as loosely coupled processes, to achieve optimum use of hardware.

  19. QED-1 device and measurements of gettering efficiency for a simulated divertor plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, D.K.; Yamada, M.

    1980-03-01

    The QED-1 device at PPL has provided gettering efficiency data for neutralized hydrogen plasma on titanium. The hollow-anode arcjet produces a plasma column 1 cm in diameter with 10/sup 12/ < n/sub e/ < 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ and T/sub i/ approx.< T/sub e/ = 3-10 eV, confined by an axial magnetic field of 1-6 kG. The gettering measurements are based on monitoring neutral gas density with respect to time in the divertor simulation chamber of QED-1. The present results indicate that the plasma particles lose their charge and most of their energy when they strike the neutralizer plate.

  20. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site. PMID:25982445

  1. Measuring water use efficiency of Eucalypt tress with chambers and micrometeorological techniques — comment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, A.; Cienciala, E.

    1995-07-01

    In a recent paper on water use efficiency (WUE) of Eucalypt trees, a large difference was found between WUE measured in a whole tree chamber and by micrometeorological methods, respectively. The former method gave up to 50% higher WUE on clear days. The authors attributed this to a changed radiation regime inside the chamber and concluded that chambers were unsuitable for such studies. In this paper we point out the importance of considering also the dependence of vapour pressure deficit on WUE. Because of WUE's sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit, as illustrated by examples from several species, it is practically meaningless to make comparisons without compensating for differences in vapour pressure deficit. In our opinion, chamber can still play an important role in water relation and productivity studies.

  2. The injection efficiency measurement and analysis for central region model cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongjuan; Li, Zhenguo; Ge, Tao; Wu, Longcheng; Guan, Fengping; Lv, Yinlong; Wang, Zhenhui; Liu, Gengshou; Zhang, Tianjue; Cai, Hongru

    2010-02-01

    At the China Institute of Atomic Energy, a central region model cyclotron has been constructed, which is dedicated for various experimental verifications to study beam properties. The design features of the ion source and injection line have already been described in other papers. We shall report here the results of the initial beam tests. A wire scanner is employed in the injection line to measure beam transverse sizes and these data can be used to fit the phase plane parameters after the ion source. Based on the beam tests results, the ion source built in 2003 has been improved recently. The improvement is mainly due to the repair of the multicusp field. From the ion source to the exit of the inflector, a transmission efficiency of 93% has been obtained for a continuous and low current input beam. It is also described here the experimental arrangement and the results. PMID:20192449

  3. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt....

  4. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt....

  5. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt....

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Mmmm... - Alternative Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... device is internal and integral to the oven so that it is difficult or infeasible to make gas measurements at the inlet to the control device. 1.2In newer gas fired magnet wire ovens with thermal control... combustion of solvents in the burner tube is the principal source of heat for the oven. 1.3In newer...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Mmmm... - Alternative Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... device is internal and integral to the oven so that it is difficult or infeasible to make gas measurements at the inlet to the control device. 1.2In newer gas fired magnet wire ovens with thermal control... combustion of solvents in the burner tube is the principal source of heat for the oven. 1.3In newer...

  8. Sensitivity, Efficiency, and Transaxial Resolution Measurements of a Prototype PET Module Incorporating Plastic Scintillating Fibers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Gregory Scott

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity, efficiency and transaxial resolutions of a prototype positron emission tomography module incorporating plastic scintillating fibers coupled to position sensitive photomultipliers were determined using three sets of detectors constructed from 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm diameter Kyowa/Kuraray plastic scintillating fibers with and without an extra mural absorber. Two detectors were assembled from 0.5 mm diameter fiber; one with an extra mural absorber and the other without an extra mural absorber. The third detector was assembled from 1.0 mm diameter fiber with an extra mural absorber. The positron source was a 0.5 mm diameter spherical pellet of ^{22}Na with an activity of 0.75 muCi. At nine different locations within the detector field of view, this source was positioned in air and in a 15 cm diameter water filled glass beaker. At these locations, the sensitivity, efficiency and transaxial resolutions of the source were measured for each of the three detectors. The sensitivity and efficiency of the detectors with the source at the center of the field of view in air, and a separation distance of 20 cm is 19 c.p.s./ muCi-1.9%, 29 c.p.s./mu Ci-2.7%, 5 c.p.s./mu-0.6% for the 1.0 mm detector with an extra mural absorber, 0.5 mm detector with no extra mural absorber, and 0.5 mm detector with an extra mural absorber, respectively. The resolution at the center of the field of view is 2.6 mm, 2.6 mm and 2.8 mm, respectively. With the source in a 15 cm diameter water cylinder the efficiency of the 1.0 mm detector and the 0.5 mm detector with no extra mural absorber is 0.6% and 1.0%, respectively. The center of field of view resolution is 2.5 mm and 2.8 mm, respectively. These resolutions are better than current commercial inorganic crystal PET systems, and comparable to some of the more sophisticated, expensive and exotic experimental systems.

  9. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  10. Relationship of glucocorticoids and hematological measures with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Hales, K E; Tait, R G; Berry, E D; Lents, C A; Wells, J E; Lindholm-Perry, A K; Freetly, H C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucocorticoids and markers for immune status in finishing beef steers and heifers with DMI, growth, and efficiency. Steers ( = 127) and heifers ( = 109) were individually fed a finishing ration for 84 d with BW measured every 21 d. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for metabolite (glucose and lactate) and cortisol analysis and rectal grab samples of feces were collected for corticosterone analysis on d 83 of the experiment. Plasma cortisol was not correlated to DMI ( = -0.08, > 0.05) or fractional DMI (g DMI/kg BW; = -0.03, > 0.05) but was negatively correlated with ADG ( = -0.17, < 0.01) and G:F ( = -0.20, < 0.01) and positively correlated to residual feed intake (RFI; = 0.14, < 0.05). Fecal corticosterone was positively correlated to fractional DMI ( = 0.15, < 0.05) and RFI ( = 0.23, < 0.01) and negatively correlated to G:F ( = -0.18, < 0.01). Using a mixed model analysis, none of the metabolites or hormones were associated with DMI ( > 0.05) but fecal corticosterone was positively associated with fractional DMI only in heifers ( = 0.04). Plasma lactate ( < 0.01) was and plasma cortisol ( < 0.10) tended to be negatively associated with ADG. Plasma cortisol ( < 0.05) and fecal corticosterone tended ( < 0.10) to be negatively associated with G:F. Fecal corticosterone was positively associated with RFI in heifers ( < 0.04). In a mixed model analysis, total leukocyte count was positively associated with ADG ( < 0.04) and tended to be positively associated with G:F ( < 0.06). Among leukocyte subtypes, neutrophil count was positively associated with ADG in steers ( < 0.02) and monocytes were positively associated with ADG in heifers ( < 0.03). Lymphocyte counts (LY) in steers were negatively associated with DMI ( = 0.03) and fractional DMI ( < 0.03). In heifers, LY tended to be positively associated with DMI ( < 0.09) and fractional DMI ( < 0.06). Lymphocyte count was also

  11. The efficiency of vaginal temperature measurement for detection of estrus in Japanese Black cows

    PubMed Central

    SAKATANI, Miki; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; TAKENOUCHI, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Recently, weak estrous behavior was assumed to be the cause of a decline in breeding efficiency in cattle. The present study investigated the effect of measuring the vaginal temperature on the detection of estrus in Japanese Black cows. First, the effect of hormone administration to cows with a functional corpus luteum on the vaginal temperature was evaluated by continuous measurement using a temperature data logger. After 24 h of cloprostenol (PG) treatment, the vaginal temperature was significantly lower than on day 7 after estrus, and the low values were maintained until the beginning of estrus (P < 0.05). The cows that received PG and exogenous progesterone (CIDR) did not show a temperature decrease until the CIDR was removed. This finding suggested that the vaginal temperature change reflected the progesterone concentration. The rate of detection of natural estrus was lower for a pedometer than for the vaginal temperature (P < 0.05); synchronization of estrus resulted in a high estrus detection rate regardless of the detection method. In a subsequent experiment, the effect of vaginal temperature measurement and the use of a pedometer on estrus detection was evaluated in the cool and hot seasons. The average activities during non-estrus and the activity increase ratio (estrus/non-estrus) changed according to season (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). However, the average vaginal temperatures during estrus and non-estrus were not affected by season. The estrus detection rate of the pedometer was lower in summer and lower than that obtained using the vaginal temperature. These results indicated that vaginal temperature measurement might be effective for detecting estrus regardless of estrous behavior. PMID:26853785

  12. Efficient mapping of agricultural soils using a novel electromagnetic measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, Immo; Pregesbauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    "Despite all our accomplishments, we owe our existence to a six-inch layer of topsoil and the fact that it rains." - Paul Harvey. Despite the fact, that a farmers most precious good is the soil that he or she cultivates, in most cases actually very little is known about the soils that are being farmed. Agricultural soils are under constant threat through erosion, depletion, pollution and other degrading processes, in particular when considering intensive industrial scale farming. The capability of soils to retain water and soil moisture is of vital importance for their agricultural potential. Detailed knowledge of the physical properties of soils, their types and texture, water content and the depth of the agricultural layer would be of great importance for resource-efficient tillage with sub-area dependent variable depth, and the targeted intelligent application of fertilizers or irrigation. Precision farming, which has seen increasing popularity in the USA as well as Australia, is still in its infancy in Europe. Traditional near-surface geophysical prospection systems for agricultural soil mapping have either been based on earth resistance measurements using electrode-disks that require soil contact, with inherent issues, or electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements conducted with EMI devices mounted in non-metallic sledges towed several metres behind survey vehicles across the fields. Every farmer passes over the fields several times during each growing season, working the soil and treating the crops. Therefore a novel user-friendly measurement system, the "Topsoil Mapper" (TSM) has been developed, which enables the farmer to simultaneously acquire soil conductivity information and derived soil parameters while anyway passing over the fields using different agricultural implements. The measurement principle of the TSM is electromagnetic induction using a multi-coil array to acquire conductivity information along a vertical profile down to approximately 1.1 m

  13. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA

  14. A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

    2012-06-28

    Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds. Several new sensing

  15. An "Inefficient Fin" Non-Dimensional Parameter to Measure Gas Temperatures Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Murray, William; Cooke, Terry; Gerhardt, James

    2012-01-01

    A gas containment vessel that is not in thermal equilibrium with the bulk gas can affect its temperature measurement. The physical nature of many gas dynamics experiments often makes the accurate measurement of temperature a challenge. The environment itself typically requires that the thermocouple be sheathed, both to protect the wires and hot junction of the instrument from their environment, and to provide a smooth, rigid surface for pressure sealing of the enclosure. However, that enclosure may also be much colder than the gas to be sensed, or vice-versa. Either way, the effect of such gradients is to potentially skew the temperature measurements themselves, since heat may then be conducted by the instrument. Thermocouple designers traditionally address this problem by insulating the sheath from the thermocouple leads and hot junction as much as possible. The thermocouple leads are typically packed in a ceramic powder inside the sheath, protecting them somewhat from temperature gradients along the sheath, but there is no effective mechanism to shield the sheath from the enclosure body itself. Standard practice dictates that thermocouples be used in installations that do not present large thermal gradients along the probe. If this conduction dominates heat transfer near the tip of the probe, then temperature measurements may be expected to be skewed. While the same problem may be experienced in the measurement of temperature at various points within a solid in a gradient, it tends to be aggravated in the measurements of gas temperature, since heat transfer dependent on convection is often less efficient than conduction along the thermocouple. The proposed solution is an inefficient fin thermocouple probe. Conventional wisdom suggests that in many experiments where gas flows through an enclosure (e.g., flow in pipe, manifold, nozzle, etc.), the thermocouple be introduced flush to the surface, so as not to interfere with the flow. In practice, however, many such

  16. An Innovative Modeling and Measurement Approach to Improve Rice Water Use Efficiency in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazar, A.; Little, C.; Rejmanek, H.; Tindula, G.; Snyder, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    California is amongst the top rice producing states in the USA, and more than 95 percent of California's rice is grown in the Sacramento Valley. Based on older literature, the rice water requirement (ETc), ranges between 914 and 1,100 mm. In this study, the actual rice water requirement was measured using the residual of the energy balance method over three paddy rice fields during 2011-2013 seasons in the Sacramento Valley. Net radiation and ground heat flux density were measured, and both eddy covariance (EC) and the surface renewal (SR) technique were employed to determine the sensible heat flux density. The surface renewal method uses high frequency temperature measurements from fine wire thermocouples above the canopy. Mean amplitude and duration of the ramps over half hour periods were determined using a structure function and the characteristics are employed to estimate the direction and magnitude of sensible heat flux using the ratio of the amplitude to the ramp duration as the change in temperature per unit time and the volumetric heat capacity of the air to estimate the magnitude of the heat flux. In the study, 76.2 mm diameter chromel-constantan thermocouples were used to measure high frequency temperature at 10 Hz. The results indicate that there is considerable variability in rice water use both spatially and temporally. The average three-year measured ET of the experimental fields located in Butte County was 734 and 725 mm; and in Colusa County was 771 mm. A typical crop coefficient (Kc) curve was derived from the measured ETc and reference ET (ETo) data. Spatial estimates of monthly climate data from the Sacramento Valley were used to calculate monthly mean ETo, and smooth curve fits of the monthly data gave estimates of typical daily ETo. The daily ETc was calculated as the product of ETo and Kc, and seasonal ETc was calculated by summing the daily ETc values. The results reveal that the seasonal rice ETc was less than earlier estimates. Surface

  17. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeff Sweterlitsch

    2004-07-01

    Three test instruments are being evaluated to determine the feasibility of using photoacoustic technology for measuring unburned carbon in fly ash. The first test instrument is a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photoacoustic signals in an off-line configuration. A second off-line instrument was constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, but which also expands the capabilities of the first instrument. Improvements include a control loop to allow more constant microwave power output and an ability to operate over a range of microwave frequencies. The third instrument, the on-line version of the fly ash monitor, has been designed, constructed, and initial efficiency tests have been conducted on the monitor's electrical components. This quarter focused on improving the signal strength of the accelerometer by increasing the power level of the microwaves that induced the thermo-elastic effect, and also to conduct repeatability experiments. Efforts this quarter were spent improving the coupling of the accelerometer with the diaphragm, detecting and eliminating microwave leakage, isolating stray electrical current within the laboratory, specifically within the ground, and replacing a faulty lock-in amplifier.

  18. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeff Sweterlitsch

    2004-10-01

    Three test instruments are being evaluated to determine the feasibility of using photoacoustic technology for measuring unburned carbon in fly ash. The first test instrument is a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photoacoustic signals in an off-line configuration. A second off-line instrument was constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, but which also expands the capabilities of the first instrument. Improvements include a control loop to allow more constant microwave power output and an ability to operate over a range of microwave frequencies. The third instrument, the on-line version of the fly ash monitor, has been designed, constructed, and initial efficiency tests have been conducted on the monitor's electrical components. Off-line photoacoustic microwave spectra of fly ash and coal were collected and analyzed, and the spectra demonstrated a linear correlation between the photoacoustic response and the carbon content in either fly ash or coal. Modifications were made to the on-line fly ash monitor to incorporate a dual-accelerometer system that would provide active noise control. Several experiments were conducted with flowing and non-flowing fly ash samples.

  19. Measure of the diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating created by two Gaussian beams.

    PubMed

    Leclere, P; Renotte, Y; Lion, Y

    1992-08-10

    We present a methodology for analyzing the characteristics of a photosensitive material for holography. When two Gaussian beams of equal intensities are exactly superimposed on the recording material, the modulation of the interference pattern is equal to unity. When they are no longer exactly superimposed, this modulation varies from one to zero depending on the analyzed point. On the other hand, the modulation is constant in a direction that is perpendicular to the incident plane. Therefore it is possible to consider a complete analysis (point by point) of only one holographic grating to measure the diffraction efficiency eta at a given modulation versus exposure or for varying modulation (or beam ratio K) for a given exposure. We present the results that are obtained with an experimental setup that was devised for that purpose. From these measurements it was possible to extract various parameters such as refractive-index modulation of the photosensitive support. The tested recording materials consist of film of dichromated gelatin and films of dichromate polyvinyl alcohol. PMID:20725484

  20. Shunt currents in vanadium flow batteries: Measurement, modelling and implications for efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, H.; Remy, M.

    2015-06-01

    Shunt currents are an important factor which must be considered when designing a stack for flow batteries. They lead to a reduction of the coulombic efficiency and can cause furthermore a critical warming of the electrolyte. Shunt currents inevitably appear at bypass connections of the hydraulic system between the single cells of a stack. In this work the shunt currents of a five-celled mini stack of a vanadium flow battery with external hydraulic system and their effects are investigated directly. The external hydraulic system allows the implementation of current sensors for direct measurement of the shunt currents; moreover, the single bypass channels can be interrupted by clamping the tube couplings and with it the shunt currents between the cells when the pumps are off. Thus the shares of losses by cross contamination and by shunt currents are quantified separately by charge conservation measurements. The experimentally gained data are compared to a shunt current model based on a equivalent circuit diagram and the linear equation system derived from it. Experiments and model data are in good agreement. The effects of shunt currents for different flow frame geometries and number of cells in a stack are simulated and presented in this work.