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Sample records for efficient chemoselective synthesis

  1. Efficient, chemoselective synthesis of immunomicelles using single-domain antibodies with a C-terminal thioester

    PubMed Central

    Reulen, Sanne WA; van Baal, Ingrid; Raats, Jos MH; Merkx, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    Background Classical bioconjugation strategies for generating antibody-functionalized nanoparticles are non-specific and typically result in heterogeneous compounds that can be compromised in activity. Expression systems based on self-cleavable intein domains allow the generation of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thioester, providing a unique handle for site-specific conjugation using native chemical ligation (NCL). However, current methods to generate antibody fragments with C-terminal thioesters require cumbersome refolding procedures, effectively preventing application of NCL for antibody-mediated targeting and molecular imaging. Results Targeting to the periplasm of E. coli allowed efficient production of correctly-folded single-domain antibody (sdAb)-intein fusions proteins. On column purification and 2-mercapthoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA)-induced cleavage yielded single-domain antibodies with a reactive C-terminal MESNA thioester in good yields. These thioester-functionalized single-domain antibodies allowed synthesis of immunomicelles via native chemical ligation in a single step. Conclusion A novel procedure was developed to obtain soluble, well-folded single-domain antibodies with reactive C-terminal thioesters in good yields. These proteins are promising building blocks for the chemoselective functionalization via NCL of a broad range of nanoparticle scaffolds, including micelles, liposomes and dendrimers. PMID:19619333

  2. An efficient synthesis of iminoquinones by a chemoselective domino ortho-hydroxylation/oxidation/imidation sequence of 2-aminoaryl ketones.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Selvaraj; Sekar, Govidasamy

    2016-03-21

    An efficient chemoselective domino oxidative homocoupling of 2-aminoaryl ketones in the presence of 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) for the synthesis of iminoquinone has been developed. The domino reaction proceeds via three consecutive steps, such as domino ortho-hydroxylation of 2-aminoaryl ketones, oxidation of a phenol derivative to benzoquinone and dimerization through imine formation to yield iminoquinone. Importantly, this reaction allows the recycling of the oxidant IBX by recovering the by-product iodosobenzoic acid (IBA) and oxidizing it back to IBX. A four step domino strategy for the synthesis of iminoquinone through in situ generation of 2-amino benzophenone from (2-amino phenyl)(phenyl)methanol was also developed. PMID:26891598

  3. Chemoselective intramolecular Wittig reactions for the synthesis of oxazoles and benzofurans.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Shiou; Das, Utpal; Hsiao, Ming-Yu; Liu, Meng-Hsien; Lin, Wenwei

    2014-12-01

    A chemoselective approach was developed for the synthesis of highly functionalized oxazoles and benzofurans using an intramolecular Wittig reaction as the key step. By choosing proper trapping reagent or method of addition of reagents, chemoselectivity can be controlled toward either oxazole or benzofuran derivatives. PMID:25405811

  4. A metal-organic framework-templated synthesis of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated in porous carbon for efficient and chemoselective hydrogenation of nitro compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhou, Yu-Xiao; Ma, Xiao; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2016-03-01

    The γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles well dispersed in porous carbon were fabricated via a Fe-based metal-organic framework-templated pyrolysis. The resultant product exhibits excellent catalytic activity, chemoselectivity and magnetic recyclability for the hydrogenation of diverse nitro compounds under mild conditions. PMID:26908070

  5. An efficient chemoselective reduction of furan series unsaturated dinitriles.

    PubMed

    Bobal, Pavel; Bobalova, Janette

    2013-01-01

    An efficient reduction of double bonds conjugated with nitrile groups and acid or base sensitive furan rings with 2-phenylbenzimidazoline generated in situ has been successfully accomplished with high yields and excellent selectivity. The employed reducing agent was prepared in one step from ordinary chemicals. The other advantages of the presented method include mild and convenient reaction conditions, a benign and cost effective reagent, simple work-up and separation of the products. As this process does neither affect cyano and nitro groups nor furan rings, it is a valuable alternative when metal-catalyzed hydrogenations or borohydride reductions have failed. PMID:23434871

  6. Synthesis and reactivities of monofluoro acylboronates in chemoselective amide bond forming ligation with hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Noda, Hidetoshi; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2015-12-15

    The development of chemoselective reactions is a cornerstone of bioorganic chemistry and chemical ligation. Our contributions in this area include the development of two mechanistically distinct amide bond forming reactions, the ?-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation for the chemical synthesis of proteins and the potassium acyltrifluoroborate (KAT) ligation for bioconjugation. The remarkable stability and unique reactivity of KATs with hydroxylamines prompted us to explore other acylborons as a ligation partner, which have been unappreciated in synthetic organic chemistry. A new convenient synthetic route was devised from KATs and suitable bidentate ligands, allowing for the preparation of a wide range of new acylboronates that retain one fluoride ligand on the boron. Our results established that a ligand on the boron is responsible for their reactivity and stability and provide a firm basis for further development of the acylboron-hydroxylamine amide bond forming ligation. PMID:26566143

  7. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-04-12

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  8. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-05-10

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  9. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-12-13

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  10. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-02-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g. on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  11. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2006-10-17

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  12. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn (Berkeley, CA)

    2003-05-27

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  13. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-11-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  14. Synthesis of Hydrophilic Aminooxy Linkers and Multivalent Cores for Chemoselective Aldehyde/Ketone Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    McReynolds, Katherine D.; Dimas, Dustin; Le, Hoang

    2014-01-01

    A series of three linear and two trivalent aminooxy-containing hydrophilic linkers and cores were synthesized. The five molecules contain from one to three aminooxy groups, and all but one contain an ether for enhanced aqueous solubility. These unique and versatile molecules can be utilized in the chemoselective conjugation of aldehyde/ketone-containing molecules, including reducing sugars, under mild aqueous conditions, and give rise to oxime-containing conjugates useful in a wide variety of applications and studies. The value of these aminooxy-based molecules and the ease and speed of preparation of both monovalent and multivalent oxime-linked molecules is demonstrated in two examples using the disaccharide cellobiose; one with a linear linker, and the second with a trivalent core. PMID:25382876

  15. Sulfonic acid-functionalized ordered nanoporous Na+-montmorillonite as an efficient, eco-benign, and water-tolerant nanoreactor for chemoselective oxathioacetalization of aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirini, Farhad; Atghia, Seyyed Vahid; Mamaghani, Manouchehr

    2013-01-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized ordered nanoporous sodium montmorillonite has been found to be a mild and efficient solid acid catalyst for the chemoselective protection of a variety of carbonyl compounds as oxathiolanes in good to excellent yields. The present method offers several advantages such as short reaction times, high yields, simple procedure and mild conditions. Also, the catalyst could be recycled and reused at least for five times without noticeably decreasing the catalytic activity.

  16. AN EFFICIENT AND CHEMOSELECTIVE CBZ-PROTECTION OF AMINES USING SILICA-SULFURIC ACID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, facile, and chemoselective N-benzyloxycarbonylation of amines using silica-sulfuric acid that proceeds under solvent-free conditions at room temperature has been achieved. These reactions are applicable to a wide variety of primary (aliphatic, cyclic) secondary amines, ...

  17. Synthesis of novel 2-deoxy-?-benzyl-C-glycosides by highly stereo- and chemoselective hydrogenation of exo-glycals.

    PubMed

    Daz, Gisela; Ponzinibbio, Agustn; Bravo, Rodolfo Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Novel 2-deoxy-?-benzyl-C-glycosides were prepared in good yields and excellent stereoselectivity by a route involving the Wittig reaction of glycosyl phosphonium salts and reduction of exo-glycals as key steps. Hydrogenation of benzyl protected enol ethers was performed with Pd/C(en) as an effective chemoselective catalyst to afford exclusively ? anomers. PMID:24887703

  18. Controllable Synthesis of Mesoporous Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Assemblies for Chemoselective Catalytic Reduction of Nitroarenes.

    PubMed

    Papadas, Ioannis T; Fountoulaki, Stella; Lykakis, Ioannis N; Armatas, Gerasimos S

    2016-03-18

    Iron(III) oxide is a low-cost material with applications ranging from electronics to magnetism, and catalysis. Recent efforts have targeted new nanostructured forms of Fe2 O3 with high surface area-to-volume ratio and large pore volume. Herein, the synthesis of 3D mesoporous networks consisting of 4-5 nm γ-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles by a polymer-assisted aggregating self-assembly method is reported. Iron oxide assemblies obtained from the hybrid networks after heat treatment have an open-pore structure with high surface area (up to 167 m(2)  g(-1) ) and uniform pores (ca. 6.3 nm). The constituent iron oxide nanocrystals can undergo controllable phase transition from γ-Fe2 O3 to α-Fe2 O3 and to Fe3 O4 under different annealing conditions while maintaining the 3D structure and open porosity. These new ensemble structures exhibit high catalytic activity and stability for the selective reduction of aryl and alkyl nitro compounds to the corresponding aryl amines and oximes, even in large-scale synthesis. PMID:26880681

  19. Halogen-Adjusted Chemoselective Synthesis of Fluorene Derivatives with Position-Controlled Substituents.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Sun, Wei; Li, Yali; Wei, Fuliang; Liu, Chao; Qian, Yan; Chen, Shufen

    2016-01-01

    Fluorenes have been synthesized through an efficient novel Pd-catalyzed tandem cross-coupling reaction; these substrates are fascinating building blocks found in organic photoelectric materials. The position of the substituent on fluorenes could be conveniently tuned by changing the halogen in the ortho-halobenzyl bromide substrates when coupled with various arylboronic acids. This newly developed synthetic approach could achieve the potential diversity in fluorene-based molecular architectures. PMID:26488213

  20. Chemoselective Hydroxyl Group Transformation: An Elusive Target

    PubMed Central

    Trader, Darci J.; Carlson, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    The selective reaction of one functional group in the presence of others is not a trivial task. A noteworthy amount of research has been dedicated to the chemoselective reaction of the hydroxyl moiety. This group is prevalent in many biologically important molecules including natural products and proteins. However, targeting the hydroxyl group is difficult for many reasons including its relatively low nucleophilicity in comparison to other ubiquitous functional groups such as amines and thiols. Additionally, many of the developed chemoselective reactions cannot be used in the presence of water. Despite these complications, chemoselective transformation of the hydroxyl moiety has been utilized in the synthesis of complex natural product derivatives, the reaction of tyrosine residues in proteins, the isolation of natural products and is the mechanism of action of myriad drugs. Here, methods for selective targeting of this group, as well as applications of several devised methods, are described. PMID:22695722

  1. Convenient Access to Fluorescent Probes by Chemoselective Acylation of Hydrazinopeptides: Application to the Synthesis of the First Far-Red Ligand for Apelin Receptor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Margathe, Jean-Franois; Iturrioz, Xavier; Regenass, Pierre; Karpenko, Iuliia A; Humbert, Nicolas; de Rocquigny, Hugues; Hibert, Marcel; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Bonnet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we develop a convenient method to facilitate the solution-phase fluorescent labelling of peptides based on the chemoselective acylation of ?-hydrazinopeptides. This approach combines the advantages of using commercially available amine-reactive dyes and very mild conditions, which are fully compatible with the chemical sensitivity of the dyes. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated by the labelling of apelin-13 peptide. Various fluorescent probes were readily synthesized, enabling the rapid optimization of their affinities for the apelin receptor. Thus, the first far-red fluorescent ligand with sub-nanomolar affinity for the apelin receptor was characterized and shown to track the receptor efficiently in living cells by fluorescence confocal microscopy. PMID:26682530

  2. Chemoselective Attachment of Biologically Active Proteins to Surfaces by Native Chemical Ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C L; de Yoreo, J J; Coleman, M; Camarero, J A

    2003-11-22

    The present work describes our ongoing efforts towards the creation of micro and nanoscaled ordered arrays of protein covalently attached to site-specific chemical linkers patterned by different microlithographic techniques. We present a new and efficient solid-phase approach for the synthesis of chemically modified long alkyl-thiols. These compounds can be used to introduce chemoselective reacting groups onto silicon-based surfaces. We show that these modified thiols can be used for creating nano- and micrometric chemical patterns by using different lithographic techniques. We show that these patterns can react chemoselectively with proteins which have been recombinantly modified to contain complementary chemical groups at specific positions thus resulting in the oriented attachment of the protein to the surface.

  3. One-Pot Synthesis of N-(?-Peroxy)Indole/Carbazole via Chemoselective Three-Component Condensation Reaction in Open Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbo; Pan, Yupeng; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-11-20

    A facile one-pot synthesis of N-(?-peroxy)indole and N-(?-peroxy)carbazole has been developed using metal-free, organo-acid-catalyzed three-component condensation reactions of indole/carbazole, aldehyde, and peroxide. Based on the reaction discovered, a new synthetic proposal for Fumitremorgin A and Verruculogen is introduced. Such a protocol could be easily handled and scaled up in an open atmosphere with a wide substrate scope, enabling the construction of a new molecule library. PMID:26541059

  4. Aminocyanation by the addition of N-CN bonds to arynes: chemoselective synthesis of 1,2-bifunctional aminobenzonitriles.

    PubMed

    Rao, Bin; Zeng, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    An efficient aminocyanation by the direct addition of aryl cyanamides to arynes is described, enabling incorporation of highly useful amino and cyano groups synchronously via cleavage of inert N-CN bonds, affording synthetically useful 1,2-bifunctional aminobenzonitriles. The postsynthetic functionalization of the aminocyanation products allows diverse formation of synthetically important derivatives such as drug molecule Ponstan and fused heterocycles. PMID:24325782

  5. A general and efficient method for the selective synthesis of beta-hydroxy sulfides and beta-hydroxy sulfoxides catalyzed by gallium(III) triflate.

    PubMed

    Su, Weike; Chen, Jiuxi; Wu, Huayue; Jin, Can

    2007-06-01

    Gallium(III) triflate-catalyzed ring opening of epoxides affords beta-hydroxy sulfides with high regioselectivity and chemoselectivity in high yields (84-97%) under solvent-free conditions. Additionally, a simple, efficient, and environmentally benign one-pot procedure for the synthesis of beta-hydroxy sulfoxides in sole water has been developed for the first time. The process, promoted by a H2O2-Ga(OTf)3 system, affords beta-hydroxy sulfoxides in high yields (81-94%) and high chemoselectivity without any detectable overoxidation to beta-hydroxy sulfones. The catalyst could be recovered easily after the reactions and reused without evident loss of activity. PMID:17489634

  6. Prebiotically plausible oligoribonucleotide ligation facilitated by chemoselective acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Frank R.; Chan, Christopher K. W.; Duffy, Colm D.; Gerland, Batrice; Islam, Saidul; Powner, Matthew W.; Sutherland, John D.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-05-01

    The recent synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleoside-2?,3?-cyclic phosphates under prebiotically plausible conditions has strengthened the case for the involvement of ribonucleic acid (RNA) at an early stage in the origin of life. However, a prebiotic conversion of these weakly activated monomers, and their purine counterparts, to the 3?,5?-linked RNA polymers of extant biochemistry has been lacking (previous attempts led only to short oligomers with mixed linkages). Here we show that the 2?-hydroxyl group of oligoribonucleotide-3?-phosphates can be chemoselectively acetylated in water under prebiotically credible conditions, which allows rapid and efficient template-directed ligation. The 2?-O-acetyl group at the ligation junction of the product RNA strand can be removed under conditions that leave the internucleotide bonds intact. Remarkably, acetylation of mixed oligomers that possess either 2?- or 3?-terminal phosphates is selective for the 2?-hydroxyl group of the latter. This newly discovered chemistry thus suggests a prebiotic route from ribonucleoside-2?,3?-cyclic phosphates to predominantly 3?,5?-linked RNA via partially 2?-O-acetylated RNA.

  7. Chemoselective Reactions of Citral: Green Syntheses of Natural Perfumes for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Anna D.; Ham, Eun Y.; Vosburg, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Chemoselectivity is a central concept in organic synthesis and may be readily appreciated in the context of the fragrant, polyfunctional natural product citral. We describe three single-step reactions students may perform on citral to synthesize other natural perfumes: citronellal, geraniol, nerol, or epoxycitral. Each of the reactions uses a

  8. Chemoselective Reactions of Citral: Green Syntheses of Natural Perfumes for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Anna D.; Ham, Eun Y.; Vosburg, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Chemoselectivity is a central concept in organic synthesis and may be readily appreciated in the context of the fragrant, polyfunctional natural product citral. We describe three single-step reactions students may perform on citral to synthesize other natural perfumes: citronellal, geraniol, nerol, or epoxycitral. Each of the reactions uses a…

  9. Iron-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cleavage of the C-C ?-bond using air as the oxidant: chemoselective synthesis of carbon chain-shortened aldehydes, ketones and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Xing, Qi; Lv, Hui; Xia, Chungu; Li, Fuwei

    2016-01-11

    A simple iron-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C-C ?-bond cleavage of ketones has been developed. Readily available and environmentally benign air is used as the oxidant. This reaction avoids the use of noble metal catalysts or specialized oxidants, chemoselectively yielding carbon chain-shortened aldehydes, ketones and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds without overoxidation. PMID:26529597

  10. Dearomatization Strategies in the Synthesis of Complex Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Stphane P.; Porco, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution in the field of the total synthesis of natural products has led to exciting developments over the last decade. Numerous chemo-selective and enantioselective methodologies have emerged from total syntheses, resulting in efficient access to many important natural product targets. This Review highlights recent developments concerning dearomatization, a powerful strategy for the total synthesis of architecturally complex natural products wherein planar, aromatic scaffolds are converted to three-dimensional molecular architectures. PMID:21506209

  11. Facile and Efficient Synthesis of Carbosiloxane Dendrimers via Orthogonal Click Chemistry Between Thiol and Ene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhida; Feng, Shengyu; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    A combination of a thiol-Michael addition reaction and a free radical mediated thiol-ene reaction is employed as a facile and efficient approach to carbosiloxane dendrimer synthesis. For the first time, carbosiloxane dendrimers are constructed rapidly by an orthogonal click strategy without protection/deprotection procedures. The chemoselectivity of these two thiol-ene click reactions leads to a design of a new monomer containing both electron-deficient carbon-carbon double bonds and unconjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. Siloxane bonds are introduced as the linker between these two kinds of carbon-carbon double bonds. Starting from a bifunctional thiol core, the dendrimers are constructed by iterative thiol-ene click reactions under different but both mild reaction conditions. After simple purification steps the fifth dendrimer with 54 peripheral functional groups is obtained with an excellent overall yield in a single day. Furthermore, a strong blue glow is observed when the dendrimer is excited by a UV lamp. PMID:26676283

  12. Efficient Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Pan, Jiang; Ma, Bao-Di; Xu, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    : Chiral chemicals are a group of important chiral synthons for the synthesis of a series of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and fine chemicals. In past decades, a number of biocatalytic approaches have been developed for the green and effective synthesis of various chiral chemicals. However, the practical application of these biocatalytic processes is still hindered by the lack of highly efficient and robust biocatalysts, which usually results in the low volumetric productivity and high cost of the bioprocesses. Further step forward of biocatalysis in industrial application strongly requires the development of versatile and highly efficient biocatalysts, aiming to increase the process efficiency and facilitate the downstream processing. Recently, the fast growth of genome sequences in the database in post-genomic era offers great opportunities for accessing numerous biocatalysts with practical application potential, and the so-called genome mining approach provides time-effective and highly specific strategy for the fast identification of target enzymes with desired properties and outperforms the traditional screening of soil samples for microbial enzyme producers of interest. A number of biocatalytic processes with industrial application potential were developed thereafter. Further development of protein engineering strategies, process optimization, and cooperative work between biologists, organic chemists, and engineers is expected to make biocatalysis technology the first choice approach for the eco-friendly, highly efficient, and cost-effective synthesis of chiral chemicals in the near future. PMID:25537446

  13. Elucidation of the regio- and chemoselectivity of enzymatic allylic oxidations with Pleurotus sapidus – conversion of selected spirocyclic terpenoids and computational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, Verena; Schaffrath, Mathias; Zorn, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Summary Allylic oxidations of olefins to enones allow the efficient synthesis of value-added products from simple olefinic precursors like terpenes or terpenoids. Biocatalytic variants have a large potential for industrial applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Herein we report efficient biocatalytic allylic oxidations of spirocyclic terpenoids by a lyophilisate of the edible fungus Pleurotus sapidus. This ‘’mushroom catalysis’’ is operationally simple and allows the conversion of various unsaturated spirocyclic terpenoids. A number of new spirocyclic enones have thus been obtained with good regio- and chemoselectivity and chiral separation protocols for enantiomeric mixtures have been developed. The oxidations follow a radical mechanism and the regioselectivity of the reaction is mainly determined by bond-dissociation energies of the available allylic CH-bonds and steric accessibility of the oxidation site. PMID:24204436

  14. Approximation concepts for efficient structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Miura, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that efficient structural synthesis capabilities can be created by using approximation concepts to mesh finite element structural analysis methods with nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The history of the application of mathematical programming techniques to structural design optimization problems is reviewed. Several rather general approximation concepts are described along with the technical foundations of the ACCESS 1 computer program, which implements several approximation concepts. A substantial collection of structural design problems involving truss and idealized wing structures is presented. It is concluded that since the basic ideas employed in creating the ACCESS 1 program are rather general, its successful development supports the contention that the introduction of approximation concepts will lead to the emergence of a new generation of practical and efficient, large scale, structural synthesis capabilities in which finite element analysis methods and mathematical programming algorithms will play a central role.

  15. Chemoselective hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds and acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Spasyuk, Denis; Vicent, Cristian; Gusev, Dmitry G

    2015-03-25

    OsHCl(CO)[?(3)-PyCH2NHC2H4NHPtBu2] is the first efficient catalyst for chemoselective reduction of challenging unsaturated esters to enols and for acceptorless coupling of amines with MeOH and EtOH affording formamides and acetamides. The NMR, ESI-MS, and DFT data indicate a mechanism proceeding in the metal coordination sphere and producing no free organic intermediates. PMID:25741992

  16. Mo(CO)6 catalysed chemoselective hydrosilylation of α,β-unsaturated amides for the formation of allylamines.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexey; Tinnis, Fredrik; Slagbrand, Tove; Pershagen, Ida; Adolfsson, Hans

    2014-12-01

    Molybdenum hexacarbonyl (Mo(CO)6) was used as an efficient catalyst for the chemoselective reduction of the amide functionality in α,β-unsaturated compounds, under hydrosilylation conditions using 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS) as the hydride source. PMID:25307061

  17. Efficient synthesis of benzamide riboside, a potential anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Bonnac, Laurent F; Gao, Guang-Yao; Chen, Liqiang; Patterson, Steven E; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N; Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W

    2007-01-01

    An efficient five step synthesis of benzamide riboside (BR) amenable for a large scale synthesis has been developed. It allows for extensive pre-clinical studies of BR as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:18066762

  18. Efficient Synthesis of Fluorescent Squaraine Rotaxane Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shuzhang; Fu, Na; Peckham, Kaitlin; Smith, Bradley D.

    2009-01-01

    A squaraine rotaxane scaffold with four alkynes groups is readily converted into a range of dendritic architectures using high yielding copper catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry. A convergent synthesis approach is more efficient than a divergent pathway. Dendritic squaraine rotaxanes with peripheral amine groups can be further functionalized to produce multivalent deep-red fluorescent derivatives that exhibit high brightness and outstanding chemical stability in biological solution. The surface groups on these functionalized fluorescent dendrimers include guanidinium, mannose, and phosphatidylcholine. PMID:19957971

  19. Chemoselective Deprotection of Triethylsilyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Tilak; Broderick, William E.; Broderick, Joan B.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and selective method was developed for the deprotection of triethylsilyl (TES) ethers using formic acid in methanol (510%) or in methylene chloride 25%) with excellent yields. TES ethers are selectively deprotected to the corresponding alcohols in high yields using formic acid in methanol under mild reaction conditions. Other hydroxyl protecting groups like t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) remain unaffected. PMID:20183570

  20. Chemoselective conversion of biologically sourced polyols into chiral synthons.

    PubMed

    Adduci, Laura L; Bender, Trandon A; Dabrowski, Jennifer A; Gagn, Michel R

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil currently provides much of the world's energy, but it is also the source of many feedstock chemicals. Methodology for the conversion of biomass into useful chemicals has often focused on either complete deoxygenation or the production of high-volume platform chemicals. Here, we describe the chemoselective partial reduction of silyl-protected C6O6-derived polyols to produce a diverse set of oxygen-functionalized chiral synthons. The combination of B(C6F5)3 and a tertiary silane efficiently generates a reactive equivalent of an electrophilic silylium ion (R3Si(+)) and a hydride (H(-)) reducing agent. The mechanism of oxygen loss does not involve a dehydrative elimination and thus avoids ablation of stereochemistry. Neighbouring group participation and the formation of cyclic intermediates is key to achieving selectivity in these reactions and, where both primary and secondary C-O bonds are present, the mechanism allows further control. The method provides--in one or two synthetic steps--highly improved syntheses of many C6On synthons as well as several previously undescribed products. PMID:26100806

  1. Chemoselective conversion of biologically sourced polyols into chiral synthons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adduci, Laura L.; Bender, Trandon A.; Dabrowski, Jennifer A.; Gagné, Michel R.

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil currently provides much of the world's energy, but it is also the source of many feedstock chemicals. Methodology for the conversion of biomass into useful chemicals has often focused on either complete deoxygenation or the production of high-volume platform chemicals. Here, we describe the chemoselective partial reduction of silyl-protected C6O6-derived polyols to produce a diverse set of oxygen-functionalized chiral synthons. The combination of B(C6F5)3 and a tertiary silane efficiently generates a reactive equivalent of an electrophilic silylium ion (R3Si+) and a hydride (H-) reducing agent. The mechanism of oxygen loss does not involve a dehydrative elimination and thus avoids ablation of stereochemistry. Neighbouring group participation and the formation of cyclic intermediates is key to achieving selectivity in these reactions and, where both primary and secondary C-O bonds are present, the mechanism allows further control. The method provides—in one or two synthetic steps—highly improved syntheses of many C6On synthons as well as several previously undescribed products.

  2. An efficient synthesis of loline alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmak, Mesut; Mayer, Peter; Trauner, Dirk

    2011-07-01

    Loline (1) is a small alkaloid that, in spite of its simple-looking structure, has posed surprising challenges to synthetic chemists. It has been known for more than a century and has been the subject of extensive biological investigations, but only two total syntheses have been achieved to date. Here, we report an asymmetric total synthesis of loline that, with less then ten steps, is remarkably short. Our synthesis incorporates a Sharpless epoxidation, a Grubbs olefin metathesis and an unprecedented transannular aminobromination, which converts an eight-membered cyclic carbamate into a bromopyrrolizidine. The synthesis is marked by a high degree of chemo- and stereoselectivity and gives access to several members of the loline alkaloid family. It delivers sufficient material to support a programme aimed at studying the complex interactions between plants, fungi, insects and bacteria brokered by loline alkaloids.

  3. Chemoselective silicification of synthetic peptides and polyamines.

    PubMed

    Abacilar, Maryna; Daus, Fabian; Geyer, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Biosilicification sets the standard for the localized in vitro precipitation of silica at low orthosilicate concentrations in aqueous environment under ambient conditions. Numerous parameters must be controlled for the development of new technologies in designing inventive nanosilica structures, which are able to challenge the biological templates. A long neglected requirement that came into focus in the recent years are the cellular techniques of preventing unintentional lithification of cellular structures since numerous cellular components such as membranes, DNA, and proteins are known to precipitate nanosilica. The diatom metabolism makes use of techniques that restrict silicification to an armor of silica around the cell wall while avoiding the petrifying gaze of Medusa, which turns the whole cell into stone. Step by step, biochemistry unveils the hierarchical interplay of an arsenal of low-molecular weight molecules, proteins, and the cytoskeletal architecture and it becomes clearer why the organisms invest much metabolic effort for an obviously simple chemical reaction like the precipitation of amorphous silica. The discrimination between different soluble components in the silicification process (chemoselective silicification) is not only vitally important for the diatom but poses an interesting challenge for in vitro experiments. Until now, silica precipitation studies were mainly focused on the amount, the morphology, and composition of the precipitate while disregarding a quantitative analysis of the remaining soluble components. Here, we turn the tables and quantify the soluble components by (1)H NMR in the progress of precipitation and present experiments which quantify the additivity, and potential cooperativity of long chain polyamines (LCPAs) and cationic peptides in the silicification process. PMID:25671155

  4. Regio- and chemoselective N-1 acylation of indoles: Pd-catalyzed domino cyclization to afford 1,2-fused tricyclic indole scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongxian; Huang, Yuanqiong; Song, Hongjian; Liu, Yuxiu; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-03-27

    A concise method for the synthesis of 1,2-fused tricyclic indole scaffolds by domino cyclization involving a Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling, indole cyclization, regio- and chemoselective N-1 acylation, and 1,4-Michael addition is reported. This method provides straightforward access to tetrahydro[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a]indole and hexahydro[1,5]diazocino[1,2-a]indole scaffolds. PMID:25704331

  5. Chemoselective Transformation of Diarylethanones to Arylmethanoic Acids and Diarylmethanones and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Chen, Rui-Xi; Wei, Zeng-Feng; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Tu, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The chemoselective transformation of diarylethanones via either aerobic oxidative cleavage to give arylmethanoic acids or tandem aerobic oxidation/benzilic acid rearrangement/decarboxylation to give diarylmethanones has been developed. The transformation is controllable and applicable to a broad spectrum of substrates and affords the desired products in good to excellent yields. Mechanistic insights with control reactions, (1)H NMR tracking, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveal a complex mechanistic network in which two common intermediates, ?-ketohydroperoxide and diarylethanedione, and three plausible pathways are proposed and verified. These pathways are interlinked and can be switched reasonably by changing the reaction conditions. This method enables scalable synthesis and access to a number of valuable compounds, including vitamin B3, diphenic acid, and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen. The present protocol represents a step forward in exploiting complex mechanistic networks to control reaction pathways, achieving divergent syntheses from the same class of starting materials. PMID:26618373

  6. A Pot-Economical Approach to the Total Synthesis of Sch-725674.

    PubMed

    Bodugam, Mahipal; Javed, Salim; Ganguly, Arghya; Torres, Jessica; Hanson, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    A pot-economical total synthesis of antifungal Sch-725674, 1, is reported. The approach takes advantage of a number of one-pot, sequential transformations, including a phosphate tether-mediated one-pot, sequential RCM/CM/chemoselective hydrogenation protocol, a one-pot tosylation/acrylation sequence, and a one-pot, sequential Finkelstein reaction/Boord olefination/acetonide deprotection procedure to streamline the synthesis route by reducing isolation and purification procedures, thus saving time. Overall, an asymmetric route has been developed that is efficiently accomplished in seven pots from phosphate (S,S)-triene and with minimal purification. PMID:26760683

  7. An efficient total synthesis of (+/-)-lycoramine.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chun-An; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Song, Zhen-Lei; Zhang, En; Shi, Lei; Wang, Min; Wang, Baomin; Zhang, Shu-Yu

    2004-12-01

    [reaction: see text] A short and unique approach to (+/-)-lycoramine as one of the galanthamine-type alkaloids has been efficiently developed. The alternative advantage lies in that three stereocenters, including a crucial quaternary carbon center, were constructed with high diasteroselectivity via a key one-step NBS-mediated semipinacol rearrangement of the allylic alcohol. PMID:15575662

  8. Chemoselective Intramolecular Carbonyl Ylide Formation through Electronically Differentiated Malonate Diesters.

    PubMed

    Nakhla, Mina C; Lee, Che-Wah; Wood, John L

    2015-12-01

    A method for chemoselective carbonyl ylide formation utilizing the Rh(II) catalyzed decomposition of electronically differentiated diazo malonates is disclosed. Treatment of ethyl, trifluoro ethyl diazo malonate with a Rh(II) catalyst selectively forms a carbonyl ylide from the relatively electron rich ethyl ester. This carbonyl ylide can be trapped by various alkynes giving highly functionalized oxabicyclic compounds in a chemo-, regio-, and diastereoselective fashion. PMID:26584509

  9. Noninvasive imaging of sialyltransferase activity in living cells by chemoselective recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Lei; Ding, Lin; Yang, Min; Ju, Huangxian

    2015-06-01

    To elucidate the biological and pathological functions of sialyltransferases (STs), intracellular ST activity evaluation is necessary. Focusing on the lack of noninvasive methods for obtaining the dynamic activity information, this work designs a sensing platform for in situ FRET imaging of intracellular ST activity and tracing of sialylation process. The system uses tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate labeled asialofetuin (TRITC-AF) as a ST substrate and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled 3-aminophenylboronic acid (FITC-APBA) as the chemoselective recognition probe of sialylation product, both of which are encapsulated in a liposome vesicle for cellular delivery. The recognition of FITC-APBA to sialylated TRITC-AF leads to the FRET signal that is analyzed by FRET efficiency images. This strategy has been used to evaluate the correlation of ST activity with malignancy and cell surface sialylation, and the sialylation inhibition activity of inhibitors. This work provides a powerful noninvasive tool for glycan biosynthesis mechanism research, cancer diagnostics and drug development.

  10. Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzyl, Amino, and Propargyl Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Mild Reaction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, C B Rajashekar; Reddy, Sabbasani Rajasekhara; Naidu, Shivaji

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation reactions often suffer from drawbacks such as low yields and poor selectivity. Particularly, selective oxidation of alcohols becomes more difficult when a compound contains more than one oxidizable functional group. In order to deliver a methodology that addresses these issues, herein we report an efficient, aerobic, chemoselective and simplified approach to oxidize a broad range of benzyl and propargyl alcohols containing diverse functional groups to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Optimal yields were obtained at room temperature using 1?mmol substrate, 10?mol?% copper(I) iodide, 10?mol?% 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), and 1?mol?% 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) in acetonitrile, under an oxygen balloon. The catalytic system can be applied even when sensitive and oxidizable groups such as alkynes, amines, and phenols are present; starting materials and products containing such groups were found to be stable under the developed conditions. PMID:25969806

  11. Homogeneous and heterogeneous photoredox-catalyzed hydroxymethylation of ketones and keto esters: catalyst screening, chemoselectivity and dilution effects

    PubMed Central

    Reckenthler, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Summary The homogeneous titanium- and dye-catalyzed as well as the heterogeneous semiconductor particle-catalyzed photohydroxymethylation of ketones by methanol were investigated in order to evaluate the most active photocatalyst system. Dialkoxytitanium dichlorides are the most efficient species for chemoselective hydroxymethylation of acetophenone as well as other aromatic and aliphatic ketones. Pinacol coupling is the dominant process for semiconductor catalysis and ketone reduction dominates the Ti(OiPr)4/methanol or isopropanol systems. Application of dilution effects on the TiO2 catalysis leads to an increase in hydroxymethylation at the expense of the pinacol coupling. PMID:24991265

  12. Evolution of the Total Synthesis of (-)-Okilactomycin Exploiting a Tandem Oxy-Cope Rearrangement/Oxidation, the Petasis-Ferrier Union/Rearrangement and Ring Closing Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amos B.; Bosanac, Todd; Basu, Kallol

    2009-01-01

    An effective, asymmetric total synthesis of the antitumor antibiotic (-)-okilactomycin (1) and assignment of the absolute configuration, has been achieved exploiting a convergent strategy. Highlights of the synthesis include: a diastereoselective oxy-Cope rearrangement/oxidation sequence to install the C(1) and C(13) stereogenic centers; a Petasis-Ferrier union/rearrangement to construct the highly functionalized tetrahydropyranone inscribed within the thirteen membered macrocycle ring, employing for the first time a sterically demanding acetal; an intramolecular chemoselective acylation to access an embedded bicyclic lactone; and an efficient ring closing metathesis (RCM) reaction to generate the macrocyclic ring. PMID:19170499

  13. Energy efficiency in nanoscale synthesis using nanosecond plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Pai, David Z.; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya; Kumar, Shailesh; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Levchenko, Igor; Laux, Christophe O.

    2013-01-01

    We report a nanoscale synthesis technique using nanosecond-duration plasma discharges. Voltage pulses 12.5?kV in amplitude and 40?ns in duration were applied repetitively at 30?kHz across molybdenum electrodes in open ambient air, generating a nanosecond spark discharge that synthesized well-defined MoO3 nanoscale architectures (i.e. flakes, dots, walls, porous networks) upon polyamide and copper substrates. No nitrides were formed. The energy cost was as low as 75?eV per atom incorporated into a nanostructure, suggesting a dramatic reduction compared to other techniques using atmospheric pressure plasmas. These findings show that highly efficient synthesis at atmospheric pressure without catalysts or external substrate heating can be achieved in a simple fashion using nanosecond discharges. PMID:23386976

  14. Efficient synthesis and reactions of 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes

    PubMed Central

    Tanui, Hillary K.; Hao, Erhong; Ihachi, Moses I.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Smith, Kevin M.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2011-01-01

    Various dipyrroles possess important motifs for construction of pyrrole-containing pigments. A series of 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes (4a–d) has been efficiently synthesized using an improved one-pot double Sonagashira coupling from trimethylsilylethyne and various 2-iodopyrroles. The resulting 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes were further transformed into novel indolyl-, ethenyl- and carboranyl-dipyrroles (5–7) using the Larock indole synthesis, stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation, or B10H14. Indolyl-dipyrroles were found to selectively bind fluoride ions using one pyrrolic and the indolyl NHs, whereas the carboranyl- and ethenyl-dipyrroles are potentially valuable precursors for the synthesis of porphyrin isomers and expanded pigments. PMID:21822371

  15. Diazo Groups Endure Metabolism and Enable Chemoselectivity in Cellulo

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a stabilized diazo group as a reporter for chemical biology. ManDiaz, which is a diazo derivative of N-acetylmannosamine, is found to endure cellular metabolism and label the surface of a mammalian cell. There its diazo group can undergo a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with a strained alkyne, providing a signal comparable to that from the azido congener, ManNAz. The chemoselectivity of diazo and alkynyl groups enables dual labeling of cells that is not possible with azido and alkynyl groups. Thus, the diazo group, which is approximately half the size of an azido group, provides unique opportunities for orthogonal labeling of cellular components. PMID:25658416

  16. Determinants of regioselectivity and chemoselectivity in fosfomycin resistance protein FosA from QM/MM calculations.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rong-Zhen; Thiel, Walter

    2013-02-01

    FosA is a manganese-dependent enzyme that utilizes a Mn(2+) ion to catalyze the inactivation of the fosfomycin antibiotic by glutathione (GSH) addition. We report a theoretical study on the catalytic mechanism and the factors governing the regioselectivity and chemoselectivity of FosA. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the uncatalyzed reaction give high barriers and almost no regioselectivity even when adding two water molecules to assist the proton transfer. According to quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations on the full solvated protein, the enzyme-catalyzed glutathione addition reaction involves two major chemical steps that both proceed in the sextet state: proton transfer from the GSH thiol group to the Tyr39 anion and nucleophilic attack by the GSH thiolate leading to epoxide ring-opening. The second step is rate-limiting and is facilitated by the presence of the high-spin Mn(2+) ion that functions as a Lewis acid and stabilizes the leaving oxyanion through direct coordination. The barrier for C1 attack is computed to be 8.9 kcal/mol lower than that for C2 attack, in agreement with the experimentally observed regioselectivity of the enzyme. Further QM/MM calculations on the alternative water attack predict a concerted mechanism for this reaction, where the deprotonation of water, nucleophilic attack, and epoxide ring-opening take place via the same transition state. The calculated barrier is 8.3 kcal/mol higher than that for GSH attack, in line with the observed chemoselectivity of the enzyme, which manages to catalyze the addition of GSH in the presence of water molecules around its active site. The catalytic efficiency, regioselectivity, and chemoselectivity of FosA are rationalized in terms of the influence of the active-site protein environment and the different stabilization of the distorted substrates in the relevant transition states. PMID:23320732

  17. A simple, universal, efficient PCR-based gene synthesis method: sequential OE-PCR gene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingping; Ding, Yingying; Liao, Wenting; Chen, Qiuli; Zhang, Huaqun; Qi, Peipei; He, Ting; Wang, Jinhong; Deng, Songhua; Pan, Tianyue; Ren, Hao; Pan, Wei

    2013-07-25

    Herein we present a simple, universal, efficient gene synthesis method based on sequential overlap extension polymerase chain reactions (OE-PCRs). This method involves four key steps: (i) the design of paired complementary 54-mer oligonucleotides with 18 bp overlaps, (ii) the utilisation of sequential OE-PCR to synthesise full-length genes, (iii) the cloning and sequencing of four positive T-clones of the synthesised genes and (iv) the resynthesis of target genes by OE-PCR with correct templates. Mispriming and secondary structure were found to be the principal obstacles preventing successful gene synthesis and were easily identified and solved in this method. Compensating for the disadvantages of being laborious and time-consuming, this method has many attractive advantages, such as the ability to guarantee successful gene synthesis in most cases and good allowance for Taq polymerase, oligonucleotides, PCR conditions and a high error rate. Thus, this method provides an alternative tool for individual gene synthesis without strict needs of the high-specialised experience. PMID:23597923

  18. Highly regioselective and chemoselective titanocene mediated Barbier-type allylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Sara P; Martnez-Peragn, ngela; Jakoby, Verena; Mota, Antonio J; Kube, Christian; Justicia, Jos; Cuerva, Juan M; Gansuer, Andreas

    2014-02-28

    Titanocene carboxylate 1 is an excellent chemoselective reagent for unprecedented ?-regioselective Barbier-type reactions. It constitutes the first titanocene(III) able to tolerate epoxides and readily reduced carbonyl compounds, such as aromatic and ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes. PMID:24435404

  19. Chemoselective reduction and oxidation of ketones in water through control of the electron transfer pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Min; Yoo, Ho Sung; Hosono, Hideo; Yang, Jung Woon; Kim, Sung Wng

    2015-01-01

    The selective synthesis of different products from the same starting materials in water, which is the most abundant solvent in nature, is a crucial issue as it maximizes the utilization of materials. Realizing such reactions for ketones is of considerable importance because numerous organic functionalities can be obtained via nucleophilic addition reactions. Herein, we report chemoselective reduction and oxidation reactions of 1,2-diketones in water, which initiates anionic electron transfer from the inorganic electride [Ca24Al28O64](4+)4e(-), through controlling the pathway of the electrons to substrates. The generation of different radical species for transient intermediates was the key process required to control the reaction selectivity, which was achieved by reacting the anionic electrons with either diketones or O2, leading to the formation of ketyl dianion and superoxide radicals in the reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively. This methodology that utilizes electrides may provide an alternative to the pulse radiolysis of water in synthetic chemistry. PMID:26020413

  20. Chemoselective reduction and oxidation of ketones in water through control of the electron transfer pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Min; Yoo, Ho Sung; Hosono, Hideo; Yang, Jung Woon; Kim, Sung Wng

    2015-01-01

    The selective synthesis of different products from the same starting materials in water, which is the most abundant solvent in nature, is a crucial issue as it maximizes the utilization of materials. Realizing such reactions for ketones is of considerable importance because numerous organic functionalities can be obtained via nucleophilic addition reactions. Herein, we report chemoselective reduction and oxidation reactions of 1,2-diketones in water, which initiates anionic electron transfer from the inorganic electride [Ca24Al28O64]4+·4e−, through controlling the pathway of the electrons to substrates. The generation of different radical species for transient intermediates was the key process required to control the reaction selectivity, which was achieved by reacting the anionic electrons with either diketones or O2, leading to the formation of ketyl dianion and superoxide radicals in the reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively. This methodology that utilizes electrides may provide an alternative to the pulse radiolysis of water in synthetic chemistry. PMID:26020413

  1. Donor Substrate Regeneration for Efficient Synthesis of Globotetraose and Isoglobotetraose

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jun; Zhang, Jianbo; Kowal, Przemyslaw; Wang, Peng George

    2002-01-01

    Here we describe the efficient synthesis of two oligosaccharide moieties of human glycosphingolipids, globotetraose (GalNAcβ1→3Galα1→4Galβ1→4Glc) and isoglobotetraose (GalNAcβ1→3Galα1→3Galβ1→4Glc), with in situ enzymatic regeneration of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc). We demonstrate that the recombinant β-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd can transfer N-acetylgalactosamine to a wide range of acceptor substrates with a terminal galactose residue. The donor substrate UDP-GalNAc can be regenerated by a six-enzyme reaction cycle consisting of phosphoglucosamine mutase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase, phosphate acetyltransferase, pyruvate kinase, and inorganic pyrophosphatase from Escherichia coli, as well as UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C4 epimerase from Plesiomonas shigelloides. All these enzymes were overexpressed in E. coli with six-histidine tags and were purified by one-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Multiple-enzyme synthesis of globotetraose or isoglobotetraose with the purified enzymes was achieved with relatively high yields. PMID:12406759

  2. Efficient synthesis and anti-enteroviral activity of 9-arylpurines.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Leire; Canela, Mara-Dolores; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Priego, Eva-Mara; Camarasa, Mara-Jos; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan; Prez-Prez, Mara-Jess

    2012-03-01

    To further explore the anti-enteroviral activity of 9-aryl-6-chloropurines, three different series of compounds with a dialkylamino, (alkyl)amido, or oxazolidinone substituent at the aryl ring have been synthesized, in most cases with the aid of microwave-assisted synthesis. The resulting compounds efficiently inhibit Coxsackie virus type B3 (CVB3) replication with EC(50) values varying from 3 to 15 ?M, and with no significant toxicity in Vero cells. The most potent compounds also selectively inhibit the replication of other enteroviruses including Coxsackie virus B4 and Echo virus 11. The cross-resistance studies performed with different 9-aryl-6-chloropurines indicate that they all belong to the same pharmacological family and differ from other CVB3 drugs such as enviroxime. PMID:22305341

  3. Efficient Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of ()-Yanglingmycin and Its Analogues.

    PubMed

    Dan, Wenjia; Geng, Huiling; Qiao, Jianwen; Guo, Rui; Wei, Shaopeng; Li, Longbo; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    An efficient synthetic route was developed for the large-scale preparation of ()-Yanglingmycin and its analogues. Three series of derivatives of ()-Yanglingmycin were synthesized and the structures of all compounds were elucidated by analyses of NMR and ESI-MS spectra data. Moreover, their antibacterial activities against seven species of bacteria were systematically evaluated by the micro-broth dilution method, most of which displayed considerable activity. It was worth noting that compounds 5b, 5c, 5d, 6g, and 7 were found to be the most promising leading candidates, with peak MIC values of 0.98 ?gmL(-1) for Bacillus subtilis, which is superior to positive controls (MIC = 3.91 ?gmL(-1)). The above results might lay the firm foundation for the design and synthesis of novel antibacterial drugs based on ()-Yanglingmycin. PMID:26784161

  4. Electrocarboxylation: towards sustainable and efficient synthesis of valuable carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Matthessen, Roman; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The near-unlimited availability of CO2 has stimulated a growing research effort in creating value-added products from this greenhouse gas. This paper presents the trends on the most important methods used in the electrochemical synthesis of carboxylic acids from carbon dioxide. An overview is given of different substrate groups which form carboxylic acids upon CO2 fixation, including mechanistic considerations. While most work focuses on the electrocarboxylation of substrates with sacrificial anodes, this review considers the possibilities and challenges of implementing other synthetic methodologies. In view of potential industrial application, the choice of reactor setup, electrode type and reaction pathway has a large influence on the sustainability and efficiency of the process. PMID:25383120

  5. Alkene Chemoselectivity in Ruthenium-Catalyzed Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Chelated ruthenium catalysts have achieved highly chemoselective olefin metathesis reactions. Terminal and internal Z olefins were selectively reacted in the presence of internal E olefins. Products were produced in good yield and high stereoselectivity for formation of a new Z olefin. No products of metathesis with the internal E olefin were observed. Chemoselectivity for terminal olefins was also observed over both sterically hindered and electronically deactivated alkenes. PMID:23832646

  6. Practical and efficient approach to the synthesis of guineensine.

    PubMed

    Shingala, Shailesh D; Reddy, G Venkateswar; Kumar, R Sateesh Chandra; Yadav, P Ashok; Babu, K Suresh

    2011-02-01

    A total synthesis of guineensine, a secondary metabolite of the Piperaceae family, has been executed in 12 steps with an overall yield of 27%. Key steps in the synthesis featured novel application of a Julia-Kocienski olefination reaction which effectively constructed alkenamide skeleton. This contributes a unique approach to the synthesis of the piperamide alkaloids. PMID:21279876

  7. Efficient synthesis of anacardic acid analogues and their antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Mamidyala, Sreeman K; Ramu, Soumya; Huang, Johnny X; Robertson, Avril A B; Cooper, Matthew A

    2013-03-15

    Anacardic acid derivatives exhibit a broad range of biological activities. In this report, an efficient method for the synthesis of anacardic acid derivatives was explored, and a small set of salicylic acid variants synthesised retaining a constant hydrophobic element (a naphthyl tail). The naphthyl side chain was introduced via Wittig reaction and the aldehyde installed using directed ortho-metalation reaction of the substituted o-anisic acids. The failure of ortho-metalation using unprotected carboxylic acid group compelled us to use directed ortho-metalation in which a tertiary amide was used as a strong ortho-directing group. In the initial route, tertiary amide cleavage during final step was challenging, but cleaving the tertiary amide before Wittig reaction was beneficial. The Wittig reaction with protected carboxylic group (methyl ester) resulted in side-products whereas using sodium salt resulted in higher yields. The novel compounds were screened for antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Although substitution on the salicylic head group enhanced antibacterial activities they also enhanced cytotoxicity. PMID:23416004

  8. General Chemoselective and Redox-Responsive Ligation and Release Strategy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a switchable redox click and cleave reaction strategy for conjugating and releasing a range of molecules on demand. This chemoselective redox-responsive ligation (CRRL) and release strategy is based on a redox switchable oxime linkage that is controlled by mild chemical or electrochemical redox signals and can be performed at physiological conditions without the use of a catalyst. Both conjugation and release reactions are kinetically well behaved and quantitative. The CRRL strategy is synthetically modular and easily monitored and characterized by routine analytical techniques. We demonstrate how the CRRL strategy can be used for the dynamic generation of cyclic peptides and the ligation of two different peptides that are stable but can be selectively cleaved upon changes in the redox environment. We also demonstrate a new redox based delivery of cargoes to live cells strategy via the CRRL methodology by synthesizing a FRET redox-responsive probe that is selectively activated within a cellular environment. We believe the ease of the CRRL strategy should find wide use in a range of applications in biology, tissue engineering, nanoscience, synthetic chemistry, and material science and will expand the suite of current conjugation and release strategies. PMID:24559434

  9. Hypervalent iodine reagents enable chemoselective deboronative/decarboxylative alkenylation by photoredox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hanchu; Jia, Kunfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2015-02-01

    Chemoselective C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) coupling reactions under mild reaction conditions are useful for synthesizing alkyl-substituted alkenes having sensitive functional groups. Reported here is a visible-light-induced chemoselective alkenylation through a deboronation/decarboxylation sequence under neutral aqueous reaction conditions at room temperature. This reaction represents the first hypervalent-iodine-enabled radical decarboxylative alkenylation reaction, and a novel benziodoxole-vinyl carboxylic acid reaction intermediate was isolated. This C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) coupling reaction leads to aryl-and acyl-substituted alkenes containing various sensitive functional groups. The excellent chemoselectivity, stable reactants, and neutral aqueous reaction conditions of the reaction suggest future biomolecule applications. PMID:25504966

  10. A new and efficient procedure for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Marcelo Isidoro P; Campos, Vincius R; Resende, Jackson A L C; Silva, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new and efficient method for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones in one step with high yields from the reaction of lawsone with 1,3,5-triazinanes was developed. PMID:26425181

  11. Synthesis of Normorphans through an Efficient Intramolecular Carbamoylation of Ketones.

    PubMed

    Diaba, Faza; Montiel, Juan A; Serban, Georgeta; Bonjoch, Josep

    2015-08-01

    An unexpected C-C bond cleavage was observed in trichloroacetamide-tethered ketones under amine treatment and exploited to develop a new synthesis of normophans from 4-amidocyclohexanones. The reaction involves an unprecedented intramolecular haloform-type reaction of trichloroacetamides promoted by enamines (generated in situ from ketones) as counter-reagents. The methodology was applied to the synthesis of compounds embodying the 6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane framework. PMID:26197207

  12. Development of a Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Chemoselective C(sp(3) )-H Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun; Zhu, Lei; Lan, Yu; Rao, Yu

    2015-10-12

    We report the first example of Rh(II) -catalyzed chemoselective double C(sp(3) )-H oxygenation, which can directly transform various toluene derivatives into highly valuable aromatic aldehydes with great chemoselectivity and practicality. The critical combination of catalyst Rh(OAc)2 , oxidant Selectfluor, and solvents of TFA/TFAA promises the successful delivery of the oxidation with satisfactory yields. A possible mechanism involving a unique carbene-Rh complex is proposed, and has been supported by both experiments and theoretical calculations. PMID:26311544

  13. Catalytic asymmetric chemoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of an azomethine ylide with isatin-derived imines: diastereo- and enantioselective construction of a spiro[imidazolidine-2,3'-oxindole] framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Li, Can; Fan, Tao; Shi, Feng

    2016-01-21

    A catalytic asymmetric chemoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (1,3-DC) of an azomethine ylide with imines has been established via a three-component reaction of isatin-derived imines, aldehydes and an amino-ester in the presence of chiral phosphoric acid, which efficiently constructed biologically important spiro[imidazolidine-2,3'-oxindole] frameworks in good yields, and with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to 76% yield, 97?:?3 er, all >95?:?5 dr). This reaction not only realized a catalytic asymmetric chemoselective 1,3-DC of an azomethine ylide, but also represented the first enantioselective construction of a spiro[imidazolidine-2,3'-oxindole] skeleton. PMID:26530257

  14. An efficient total synthesis of optically active tetrodotoxin from levoglucosenone.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Toshio; Isobe, Minoru

    2006-07-17

    Tetrodotoxin, a toxic principal of puffer-fish poisoning, is one of the most famous marine natural products, and has been known as a formidable synthetic target in synthesis owing to its multifunctional structure and unusual chemical properties. From the perspective of supplying tetrodotoxin derivatives such as labeled molecules for biochemical research, we have completed our second total synthesis of tetrodotoxin from a synthetic intermediate for 11-deoxytetrodotoxin, which was previously prepared from levoglucosenone as a chiral starting material in this laboratory. This paper discloses the details of the total synthesis with special reference to significant influences on the neighboring functional groups found in the installation of guanidine. The established route should allow us to prepare the tetrodotoxin-related compounds required for biochemical studies. PMID:17441047

  15. High-efficient synthesis and biological activities of allosamidins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gangliang; Peng, Daquan; Mei, Xinya; Chen, Xin; Xiao, Feng; Tang, Qilin

    2015-12-01

    The pseudo-trisaccharide allosamidin 1 is a potent inhibitor of all family-18 chitinases, and it is confirmed to have insecticidal and antifungal activities. But the synthesis of allosamidins is very difficult, and it is a challengeable subject. Allosamidins were synthesized in solid-liquid phase, total solid-phase and total liquid-phase, respectively. Solid-liquid phase method realizes the partial solid-phase synthesis of allosamidins. Total solid-phase method greatly simplifies the purification process. Total liquid-phase method shortens the synthetic steps of allosamidins. The insecticidal and antifungal activities of allosamidins were also reported herein. PMID:25486024

  16. MgI2 -mediated chemoselective cleavage of protecting groups: an alternative to conventional deprotection methodologies.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Matho; Davanier, Florian; Dujardin, Gilles; Martinez, Jean; Parrot, Isabelle

    2015-07-27

    The scope of MgI2 as a valuable tool for quantitative and mild chemoselective cleavage of protecting groups is described here. This novel synthetic approach expands the use of protecting groups, widens the concept of orthogonality in synthetic processes, and offers a facile opportunity to release compounds from solid supports. PMID:26121554

  17. Chemoselective C-benzylation of unprotected anilines with benzyl alcohols using Re2O7 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Nallagonda, Rajender; Rehan, Mohammad; Ghorai, Prasanta

    2014-04-01

    An unprecedented dehydrative C-C bond formation between unprotected anilines with benzyl alcohols is disclosed. Re2O7 catalyst (5 mol %) at elevated reaction temperature (80 °C) provided C-benzylanilines with high to excellent yields and with good chemoselectivities (over N-alkylation). A probable mechanism has been proposed based on mechanistic studies. PMID:24601671

  18. Efficient Synthesis of ESI-09, A Novel Non-cyclic Nucleotide EPAC Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Ding, Chunyong; Wild, Christopher; Liu, Huiling; Wang, Tianzhi; White, Mark A.; Cheng, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jia

    2013-01-01

    A concise and efficient synthetic approach to producing a novel non-cyclic nucleotide EPAC antagonist ESI-09 and its new analogs is reported. Key features of the synthesis include a mild and reliable one-pot procedure for an isoxazole synthon, as well as a modified one-pot protocol for the cyanomethyl ketone key intermediate. The synthesis requires inexpensive starting materials and only three linear steps for the completion in a total yield of 53%. PMID:23459418

  19. A new and efficient strategy for the synthesis of podophyllotoxin and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingming; Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Zhao, Jingfeng; Chen, Jingbo; Li, Liang

    2007-03-29

    [structure: see text]. An efficient and stereoselective strategy for the total synthesis of podophyllotoxin was developed. This route leads to podophyllotoxin 1 in only 12 steps with 29% overall yield. A notable feature of this synthetic strategy is the use of the cascade addition-alkylation to ensure the key C1-C2 stereochemistry that is pivotal for the synthesis of podophyllotoxin. PMID:17326644

  20. Tandem Reactions for Streamlining Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, MAHMUD M.; WALSH, PATRICK J.

    2009-01-01

    CONSPECTUS In 1980 Sharpless and Katsuki introduced the asymmetric epoxidation of prochiral allylic alcohols (the Sharpless-Katsuki Asymmetric Epoxidation), which enabled the rapid synthesis of highly enantioenriched epoxy alcohols. This reaction was a milestone in the development of asymmetric catalysis because it was the first highly enantioselective oxidation reaction. Furthermore, it provided access to enantioenriched allylic alcohols that are now standard starting materials in natural product synthesis. In 1981 Sharpless and coworkers made another seminal contribution by describing the kinetic resolution (KR) of racemic allylic alcohols. This work demonstrated that small-molecule catalysts could compete with enzymatic catalysts in KRs. For these pioneering works, Sharpless was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize with Knowles and Noyori. Despite these achievements, the Sharpless KR is not an efficient method to prepare epoxy alcohols with high enantiomeric excess (ee). First, the racemic allylic alcohol must be prepared and purified. KR of the racemic allylic alcohol must be stopped at low conversion, because the ee of the product epoxy alcohol decreases as the KR progresses. Thus, better methods to prepare epoxy alcohols containing stereogenic carbinol carbons are needed. This Account summarizes our efforts to develop one-pot methods for the synthesis of various epoxy alcohols and allylic epoxy alcohols with high enantio-, diastereo-, and chemoselectivity. Our laboratory developed titanium-based catalysts for use in the synthesis of epoxy alcohols with tertiary carbinols. The catalysts are involved in the first step, which is an asymmetric alkyl or allyl addition to enones. The resulting intermediates are then subjected to a titanium-directed diastereoselective epoxidation to provide tertiary epoxy alcohols. Similarly, the synthesis of acyclic epoxy alcohols begins with asymmetric additions to enals and subsequent epoxidation. The methods described here enable the synthesis of skeletally diverse epoxy alcohols. PMID:18710197

  1. Chemoselective per-O-trimethylsilylation and homogeneous N-functionalisation of amino sugars.

    PubMed

    Joseph, A Abragam; Dhurandhare, Vijay M; Chang, Chun-Wei; Verma, Ved Prakash; Mishra, Girija Prasad; Ku, Chiao-Chu; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2015-01-01

    A highly efficient CH3CN-promoted hexamethyldisilazane per-O-trimethylsilylation of amino sugars was developed. Its applications in homogenous N-functionalisation and a concise synthesis of glucosamine 6-phosphate are described. PMID:25384128

  2. Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles by Olefin Metathesis: A Chemoselective Approach for In Vivo Characterization of Atherosclerosis Plaque.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Beatriz; Ruiz-Cabello, Jess; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana V; Benito, Marina; Herranz, Fernando

    2015-07-13

    The use of click chemistry reactions for the functionalization of nanoparticles is particularly useful to modify the surface in a well-defined manner and to enhance the targeting properties, thus facilitating clinical translation. Here it is demonstrated that olefin metathesis can be used for the chemoselective functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with three different examples. This approach enables, in one step, the synthesis and functionalization of different water-stable magnetite-based particles from oleic acid-coated counterparts. The surface of the nanoparticles was completely characterized showing how the metathesis approach introduces a large number of hydrophilic molecules on their coating layer. As an example of the possible applications of these new nanocomposites, a focus was taken on atherosclerosis plaques. It is also demonstrated how the in vitro properties of one of the probes, particularly its Ca(2+) -binding properties, mediate their final in vivo use; that is, the selective accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. This opens promising new applications to detect possible microcalcifications associated with plaque vulnerability. The accumulation of the new imaging tracers is demonstrated by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of carotids and aorta in the ApoE(-/-) mouse model and the results were confirmed by histology. PMID:26096657

  3. Chemoselective O-acylation of hydroxyamino acids and amino alcohols under acidic reaction conditions: History, scope and applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amino acids, whether natural, semisynthetic or synthetic, are among the most important and useful chiral building blocks available for organic chemical synthesis. In principle, they can function as inexpensive, chiral and densely functionalized starting materials. On the other hand, the use of amino acid starting materials routinely necessitates protective group chemistry, and in reality, large-scale preparations of even the simplest side-chain derivatives of many amino acids often become annoyingly strenuous due to the necessity of employing protecting groups, on one or more of the amino acid functionalities, during the synthetic sequence. However, in the case of hydroxyamino acids such as hydroxyproline, serine, threonine, tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), many O-acyl side-chain derivatives are directly accessible via a particularly expedient and scalable method not commonly applied until recently. Direct acylation of unprotected hydroxyamino acids with acyl halides or carboxylic anhydrides under appropriately acidic reaction conditions renders possible chemoselective O-acylation, furnishing the corresponding side-chain esters directly, on multigram-scale, in a single step, and without chromatographic purification. Assuming a certain degree of stability under acidic reaction conditions, the method is also applicable for a number of related compounds, such as various amino alcohols and the thiol-functional amino acid cysteine. While the basic methodology underlying this approach has been known for decades, it has evolved through recent developments connected to amino acid-derived chiral organocatalysts to become a more widely recognized procedure for large-scale preparation of many useful side-chain derivatives of hydroxyamino acids and related compounds. Such derivatives are useful in peptide chemistry and drug development, as amino acid amphiphiles for asymmetric catalysis, and as amino acid acrylic precursors for preparation of catalytically active macromolecular networks in the form of soluble polymers, crosslinked polymer beads or nanoparticulate systems. The objective of the present review is to increase awareness of the existence and convenience of this methodology, assess its competitiveness compared to newer and more elaborate procedures for chemoselective O-acylation reactions, spur its further development, and finally to chronicle the informative, but poorly documented history of its development. PMID:25977719

  4. Assimilation efficiencies of chemical contaminants in aquatic invertebrates: A synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.X.; Fisher, N.S.

    1999-09-01

    Assimilation efficiencies of contaminants from ingested food are critical for understanding chemical accumulation and trophic transfer in aquatic invertebrates. Assimilation efficiency is a first-order physiological parameter that can be used to systematically compare the bioavailability of different contaminants from different foods. The various techniques used to measure contaminant assimilation efficiencies are reviewed. Pulse-chase feeding techniques and the application of gamma-emitting radiotracers have been invaluable in measuring metal assimilation efficiencies in aquatic animals. Uniform radiolabeling of food is required to measure assimilation, but this can be difficult when sediments are the food source. Biological factors that influence contaminant assimilation include food quantity and quality, partitioning of contaminants in the food particles, and digestive physiology of the animals. Other factors influencing assimilation include the behavior of the chemical within the animal's gut and its associations with different geochemical fractions of food particles. Assimilation efficiency is a critical parameter to determine (and to make predictions of) bioaccumulation of chemicals from dietary exposure. Robust estimates of assimilation efficiency coupled with estimates of aqueous uptake can be used to determine the relative importance of aqueous and dietary exposures. For bioaccumulation of metals from sediments, additional studies are required to test whether metals bound to the acid-volatile sulfide fraction of sediments can be available to benthic deposit-feeding inverterbrates. Most assimilation efficiency studies have focused on chemical transfer in organisms at the bottom of the food chain; additional studies are required to examine chemical transfer at higher trophic levels.

  5. Efficient enantiomeric synthesis of pyrrolidine and piperidine alkaloids from tobacco.

    PubMed

    Felpin, F X; Girard, S; Vo-Thanh, G; Robins, R J; Villiras, J; Lebreton, J

    2001-09-21

    An enantiomeric synthesis of six piperidine and pyrrolidine alkaloids, (S)-nornicotine 1, (S)-nicotine 2, (S)-anatabine 3, (S)-N-methylanatabine 4, (S)-anabasine 5, and (S)-N-methylanabasine 6, known as natural products in tobacco, was established from a common chiral homoallylic (S)-3-(1-azido-but-3-enyl)-pyridine 15. An intramolecular hydroboration-cycloalkylation of the homoallylic azide intermediate 15 served as the key step in the pyrrolidine ring formation. A ring closing metathesis reaction (RCM) of a diethylenic amine intermediate (S)-allyl-(1-pyridin-3-yl-but-3-enyl)-carbamic acid benzyl ester 20 served as the key step in the piperidine ring formation. From the commercially available 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 13, a short and convenient enantiomeric synthesis of tobacco alkaloids is described: (S)-nornicotine 1 (5 steps, with an overall yield of 70%), (S)-nicotine 2 (6 steps, 65%), (S)-anatabine 3 (8 steps, 30%), (S)-N-methylanatabine 4 (8 steps, 25%), (S)-anabasine 5 (8 steps, 35%), and (S)-N-methylanabasine 6 (8 steps, 25%). PMID:11559179

  6. Efficiency, error and yield in light-directed maskless synthesis of DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Light-directed in situ synthesis of DNA microarrays using computer-controlled projection from a digital micromirror device--maskless array synthesis (MAS)--has proved to be successful at both commercial and laboratory scales. The chemical synthetic cycle in MAS is quite similar to that of conventional solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleotides, but the complexity of microarrays and unique synthesis kinetics on the glass substrate require a careful tuning of parameters and unique modifications to the synthesis cycle to obtain optimal deprotection and phosphoramidite coupling. In addition, unintended deprotection due to scattering and diffraction introduce insertion errors that contribute significantly to the overall error rate. Results Stepwise phosphoramidite coupling yields have been greatly improved and are now comparable to those obtained in solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides. Extended chemical exposure in the synthesis of complex, long oligonucleotide arrays result in lower--but still high--final average yields which approach 99%. The new synthesis chemistry includes elimination of the standard oxidation until the final step, and improved coupling and light deprotection. Coupling Insertions due to stray light are the limiting factor in sequence quality for oligonucleotide synthesis for gene assembly. Diffraction and local flare are by far the largest contributors to loss of optical contrast. Conclusions Maskless array synthesis is an efficient and versatile method for synthesizing high density arrays of long oligonucleotides for hybridization- and other molecular binding-based experiments. For applications requiring high sequence purity, such as gene assembly, diffraction and flare remain significant obstacles, but can be significantly reduced with straightforward experimental strategies. PMID:22152062

  7. Improvement of efficiency in the enzymatic synthesis of lactulose palmitate.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Illanes, Andres; Wilson, Lorena

    2015-04-15

    Sugar esters are considered as surfactants due to its amphiphilic balance that can lower the surface tension in oil/water mixtures. Enzymatic syntheses of these compounds are interesting both from economic and environmental considerations. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of four solvents, temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst source, and immobilization methodology on the yield and specific productivity of lactulose palmitate monoester synthesis. Lipases from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PsL) and Alcaligenes sp. (AsL), immobilized in porous silica functionalized with octyl groups (adsorption immobilization, OS) and with glyoxyl-octyl groups (both adsorption and covalent immobilization, OGS), were used. The highest lactulose palmitate yields were obtained at 47 C in acetone, for all biocatalysts, while the best lactulose:palmitic acid molar ratio differed according to the immobilization methodology, being 1:1 for AsL-OGS biocatalyst (20.7 3%) and 1:3 for the others (30-50%). PMID:25797166

  8. Rapid and efficient synthesis of α(1-2)mannobiosides.

    PubMed

    Reina, José J; Di Maio, Antonio; Ramos-Soriano, Javier; Figueiredo, Rute C; Rojo, Javier

    2016-03-01

    α(1,2)mannobiosides with different substituents at the reducing end have been synthesized by a common strategy using benzoyls as the permanent protecting groups and an acetyl as the orthogonal protecting group at position C2 of the glycosyl acceptor. The new synthetic strategy has been performed remarkably reducing the number of purification steps, the time of synthesis (less than 72 hours) and improving the overall yield at least three times with respect to the best procedure described in the literature at the moment. Additionally, this protecting group strategy is compatible with the presence of azido groups and the use of Cu catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) also called "click chemistry" for conjugating the α(1-2)mannobiosides to different scaffolds for the preparation of mannosyl multivalent systems. PMID:26864274

  9. Sulfonamide bearing oligonucleotides: simple synthesis and efficient RNA recognition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Chandak, Navneet; Nielsen, Poul; Sharma, Pawan K

    2012-06-15

    Four pyrimidine nucleosides wherein a benzensulfonamide group is linked to the C-5 position of the uracil nucleobase through a triazolyl or an alkynyl linker were prepared by Cu(I)-assisted azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC) or Sonogashira reactions, respectively, and incorporated into oligonucleotides. Efficient ?-?-stacking between two or more phenyltriazoles in the major groove was found to increase the thermal stability of a DNA:RNA duplex significantly. On the other hand, the alkynyl group was not as efficient in stacking as the triazolyl group. No effect of positional orientation of the sulfonamide group on the stacking efficiency was observed, and the most stable DNA:RNA duplex contained four consecutive sulfonamide substituted phenyltriazole moieties in the major groove. PMID:22579616

  10. Total synthesis of the proposed structure of a polyketide from Phialomyces macrosporus.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hideki; Itaya, Satoko; Sasaki, Kei; Kobayashi, Toyoharu; Ito, Hisanaka

    2015-02-28

    Total synthesis of the proposed structure of a polyketide isolated from Phialomyces macrosporus is described. The synthesis involved chemoselective epoxidation, regioselective epoxide ring opening, chemo- and diastereoselective dihydroxylation, and vinylation of lactone accompanied by the formation of a furan ring. PMID:25634478

  11. Developing new synthetic methods for colloidal hybrid nanoparticles: Conversion chemistry and chemoselectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Matthew

    Colloidal hybrid nanoparticles contain multiple domains, and through their solidsolid interfaces, can facilitate synergistic relationships between domains, resulting in the incorporation of multiple functionalities as well as modification of the intrinsic properties of each domain. Although there is a growing number of materials and applications associated with these unique types of particles, new synthetic methods must be investigated in order to realize the full potential of this new class of particles. To address this need, we demonstrate that the concepts used in total synthesis of complex organic molecules, can be applied to the synthesis of colloidal hybrid nanoparticles. Site selective growth, conversion chemistry, condensation chemistry, and protection/deprotection reactions are examined as ways to add complexity to colloidal hybrid nanoparticles. First, we will discuss the synthesis of PtPb-Fe3O4 and Pt3Sn-Fe3O4 heterodimer particles via a solution mediated conversion chemistry process. These types of reactions are known to be useful for nanoparticle systems but had not been explored as a method for adding complexity to colloidal heterodimers. Pt-Fe3O 4 heterodimers react with Pb(acac)2 and Sn(acac)2 at 180-200°C in a mixture of benzyl ether, oleylamine, oleic acid, and tert-butylamine borane to form PtPb-Fe3O4 and Pt3Sn-Fe3O4 heterodimers, respectively. This chemical transformation reaction introduces intermetallic and alloy components into the heterodimers, proceeds with morphological retention, and preserves the solid-solid interface that characterizes these hybrid nanoparticle systems. In addition, the PtPb-Fe3O4 heterodimers spontaneously aggregate to form colloidally stable (PtPb-Fe3O4) n nanoflowers via a process that is conceptually analogous to a molecular condensation reaction. Next, we will discuss the methanol oxidation activity of PtPb-Fe 3O4 and Pt3Sn- Fe3O4 heterodimers as well as examine the role of ligand exchange in this process. Before ligand exchange was performed, surfactant molecules on the surface of the colloidal hybrid nanoparticles inhibited catalytic activity. We therefore used NOBF 4 to remove the surfactant molecules and found that once removed, Pt nanoparticles showed much higher activity than before the exchange took place. It was also observed that the solvent the ligand exchange reaction takes place in has an impact on the catalytic activity. Unfortunately, the colloidal hybrid nanoparticles did not show any catalytic activity after the exchange reaction. Finally, in an attempt to determine the driving forces behind site selective growth, we grew PbS, CuxSy, and CdS off of Pt-Au heterodimers. Pt-Au heterodimers are an interesting model system for studying chemoselectivity because Pt and Au have very similar lattice constants but different chemical preferences. First, we studied the thermal stability of Pt-Au heterodimers and determined that they begin to thermally degrade in solution around 210°C. We then grew the three metal sulfide domains off the Pt-Au heterodimers and synthesized Pt-Au-PbS heterotrimers, Pt-Au-CuxSy heterotrimers, and (Pt Au)-CdS heterostructures. We concluded that the strong nature of the Au-S bond was the primary driving force for chemoselectvity in these systems. We also studied the growth of Fe3O4 off of Pt-Au heterodimers, and Au off of Pt-CdS heterodimers, as well as developed a method for SnS based heterodimers with Au and Pt domains.

  12. ACCESS-2: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis, user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A user's guide is presented for the ACCESS-2 computer program. ACCESS-2 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure.

  13. Chemoselective Strategies to Peptide and Protein Bioprobes Immobilization on Microarray Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gori, Alessandro; Longhi, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Ordered and reproducible bioprobe immobilization onto sensor surfaces is a critical step in the development of reliable analytical devices. A growing awareness of the impact of the immobilization scheme on the consistency of the generated data is driving the demand for chemoselective approaches to immobilize biofunctional ligands, such as peptides, in a predetermined and uniform fashion. Herein, the most intriguing strategies to selective and oriented peptide immobilization are described and discussed. The aim of the current work is to provide the reader a general picture on recent advances made in this field, highlighting the potential associated with each chemoselective strategy. Case studies are described to provide illustrative examples, and cross-references to more topic-focused and exhaustive reviews are proposed throughout the text. PMID:26490473

  14. Efficient synthesis of probabilistic quantum circuits with fallback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, Alex; Roetteler, Martin; Svore, Krysta M.

    2015-05-01

    Repeat-until-success (RUS) circuits can approximate a given single-qubit unitary with an expected number of T gates of about 1/3 of what is required by optimal, deterministic, ancilla-free decompositions over the Clifford + T gate set. In this work, we introduce a more general and conceptually simpler circuit decomposition method that allows for synthesis into protocols that probabilistically implement quantum circuits over several universal gate sets including, but not restricted to, the Clifford + T gate set. The protocol, which we call probabilistic quantum circuits with fallback (PQF), implements a walk on a discrete Markov chain in which the target unitary is an absorbing state and in which transitions are induced by multiqubit unitaries followed by measurements. In contrast to RUS protocols, the presented PQF protocols are guaranteed to terminate after a finite number of steps. Specifically, we apply our method to the Clifford + T , Clifford + V , and Clifford + π /12 gate sets to achieve decompositions with expected gate counts of logb(1 /ɛ ) +O {ln[ln(1 /ɛ ) ] } , where b is a quantity related to the expansion property of the underlying universal gate set.

  15. An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, M. P.; Miller, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the purines, the routes that have been proposed for the prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidines from simple precursors give only low yields. Cytosine can be synthesized from cyanoacetylene and cyanate; the former precursor is produced from a spark discharge in a CH4/N2 mixture and is an abundant interstellar molecule. But this reaction requires relatively high concentrations of cyanate (> 0.1 M), which are unlikely to occur in aqueous media as cyanate is hydrolysed rapidly to CO2 and NH3. An alternative route that has been explored is the reaction of cyanoacetaldehyde (formed by hydrolysis of cyanoacetylene) with urea. But at low concentrations of urea, this reaction produces no detectable quantities of cytosine. Here we show that in concentrated urea solution--such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon or in pools on drying beaches on the early Earth--cyanoacetaldehyde reacts to form cytosine in yields of 30-50%, from which uracil can be formed by hydrolysis. These reactions provide a plausible route to the pyrimidine bases required in the RNA world.

  16. An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Michael P.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-06-01

    IN contrast to the purines1 3, the routes that have been proposed for the prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidines from simple precursors give only low yields. Cytosine can be synthesized from cyano-acetylene and cyanate4,5; the former precursor is produced from a spark discharge in a CH4/N2 mixture4,5 and is an abundant interstellar molecule6. But this reaction requires relatively high concentrations of cyanate (>0.1 M), which are unlikely to occur in aqueous media as cyanate is hydrolysed rapidly to CO2 and NH3. An alternative route that has been explored7 is the reaction of cyanoacetaldehyde (formed by hydrolysis of cyanoacetylene8) with urea. But at low concentrations of urea, this reaction produces no detectable quantities of cytosine7. Here we show that in concentrated urea solution-such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon or in pools on drying beaches on the early Earth-cyanoacetaldehyde reacts to form cytosine in yields of 30-50%, from which uracil can be formed by hydrolysis. These reactions provide a plausible route to the pyrimidine bases required in the RNA world9.

  17. A chemical approach to immunoprotein engineering: chemoselective functionalization of thioester proteins in their native state.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael A; Tully, Sarah E; Dodds, Alister W; Arnold, James N; Boldt, Grant E; Sim, Robert B; Offer, John; Wentworth, Paul

    2009-05-25

    Less than 6 feet under: Serum proteins C3, C4, and alpha(2)M each contain a thioester domain buried within a hydrophobic pocket, which is thought to shield the labile thioester from hydrolysis. Herein, we make use of the inherent reactivity of the hydrazide for thioester moieties to chemoselectively label these crucial serum regulators in their native conformation; this demonstrates that access to the thioester site is much greater than previously supposed. PMID:19402090

  18. Chemoselection of Allogeneic HSC After Murine Neonatal Transplantation Without Myeloablation or Post-transplant Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Falahati, Rustom; Zhang, Jianqing; Flebbe-Rehwaldt, Linda; Shi, Yimin; Gerson, Stanton L; Gaensler, Karin ML

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of allogeneic transplantation, without myeloablation or post-transplant immunosuppression, was tested using in vivo chemoselection of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after transduction with a novel tricistronic lentiviral vector (MGMTP140K-2A-GFP-IRES-TK (MAGIT)). This vector contains P140K-O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMTP140K), HSV-thymidine kinase (TKHSV), and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) enabling (i) in vivo chemoselection of HSC by conferring resistance to benzylguanine (BG), an inhibitor of endogenous MGMT, and to chloroethylating agents such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)nitrosourea (BCNU) and, (ii) depletion of proliferating cells such as malignant clones or transduced donor T cells mediating graft versus host disease (GVHD), by expression of the suicide gene TKHSV and Ganciclovir (GCV) administration. Non-myeloablative transplantation of transduced, syngeneic, lineage-depleted (Lin?) BM in neonates resulted in 0.67% GFP+ mononuclear cells in peripheral blood. BG/BCNU chemoselection, 4 and 8 weeks post-transplant, produced 50-fold donor cell enrichment. Transplantation and chemoselection of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched MAGIT-transduced Lin? BM also produced similar expansion for >40 weeks. The efficacy of this allotransplant approach was validated in Hbbth3 heterozygous mice by correction of ?-thalassemia intermedia, without toxicity or GVHD. Negative selection, by administration of GCV resulted in donor cell depletion without graft ablation, as re-expansion of donor cells was achieved with BG/BCNU treatment. These studies show promise for developing non-ablative allotransplant approaches using in vivo positive/negative selection. PMID:22871662

  19. Chemoselection of allogeneic HSC after murine neonatal transplantation without myeloablation or post-transplant immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Falahati, Rustom; Zhang, Jianqing; Flebbe-Rehwaldt, Linda; Shi, Yimin; Gerson, Stanton L; Gaensler, Karin Ml

    2012-11-01

    The feasibility of allogeneic transplantation, without myeloablation or post-transplant immunosuppression, was tested using in vivo chemoselection of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after transduction with a novel tricistronic lentiviral vector (MGMT(P140K)-2A-GFP-IRES-TK (MAGIT)). This vector contains P140K-O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT(P140K)), HSV-thymidine kinase (TK(HSV)), and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) enabling (i) in vivo chemoselection of HSC by conferring resistance to benzylguanine (BG), an inhibitor of endogenous MGMT, and to chloroethylating agents such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)nitrosourea (BCNU) and, (ii) depletion of proliferating cells such as malignant clones or transduced donor T cells mediating graft versus host disease (GVHD), by expression of the suicide gene TK(HSV) and Ganciclovir (GCV) administration. Non-myeloablative transplantation of transduced, syngeneic, lineage-depleted (Lin(-)) BM in neonates resulted in 0.67% GFP(+) mononuclear cells in peripheral blood. BG/BCNU chemoselection, 4 and 8 weeks post-transplant, produced 50-fold donor cell enrichment. Transplantation and chemoselection of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched MAGIT-transduced Lin(-) BM also produced similar expansion for >40 weeks. The efficacy of this allotransplant approach was validated in Hbb(th3) heterozygous mice by correction of ?-thalassemia intermedia, without toxicity or GVHD. Negative selection, by administration of GCV resulted in donor cell depletion without graft ablation, as re-expansion of donor cells was achieved with BG/BCNU treatment. These studies show promise for developing non-ablative allotransplant approaches using in vivo positive/negative selection. PMID:22871662

  20. A manganese catalyst for highly reactive yet chemoselective intramolecular C(sp(3))-H amination.

    PubMed

    Paradine, Shauna M; Griffin, Jennifer R; Zhao, Jinpeng; Petronico, Aaron L; Miller, Shannon M; Christina White, M

    2015-12-01

    C-H bond oxidation reactions underscore the existing paradigm wherein high reactivity and high selectivity are inversely correlated. The development of catalysts capable of oxidizing strong aliphatic C(sp(3))-H bonds while displaying chemoselectivity (that is, tolerance of more oxidizable functionality) remains an unsolved problem. Here, we describe a catalyst, manganese tert-butylphthalocyanine [Mn((t)BuPc)], that is an outlier to the reactivity-selectivity paradigm. It is unique in its capacity to functionalize all types of C(sp(3))-H bond intramolecularly, while displaying excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of ? functionality. Mechanistic studies indicate that [Mn((t)BuPc)] transfers bound nitrenes to C(sp(3))-H bonds via a pathway that lies between concerted C-H insertion, observed with reactive noble metals such as rhodium, and stepwise radical C-H abstraction/rebound, as observed with chemoselective base metals such as iron. Rather than achieving a blending of effects, [Mn((t)BuPc)] aminates even 1 aliphatic and propargylic C-H bonds, demonstrating reactivity and selectivity unusual for previously known catalysts. PMID:26587714

  1. Chemoselective tarantula toxins report voltage activation of wild-type ion channels in live cells.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Drew C; Eum, Kenneth S; Fletcher-Taylor, Sebastian; Austin, Daniel C; Dupr, Christophe; Patrn, Lilian A; Garcia, Rita L; Lam, Kit; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Cohen, Bruce E; Sack, Jon T

    2014-11-01

    Electrically excitable cells, such as neurons, exhibit tremendous diversity in their firing patterns, a consequence of the complex collection of ion channels present in any specific cell. Although numerous methods are capable of measuring cellular electrical signals, understanding which types of ion channels give rise to these signals remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe exogenous probes which use a novel mechanism to report activity of voltage-gated channels. We have synthesized chemoselective derivatives of the tarantula toxin guangxitoxin-1E (GxTX), an inhibitory cystine knot peptide that binds selectively to Kv2-type voltage gated potassium channels. We find that voltage activation of Kv2.1 channels triggers GxTX dissociation, and thus GxTX binding dynamically marks Kv2 activation. We identify GxTX residues that can be replaced by thiol- or alkyne-bearing amino acids, without disrupting toxin folding or activity, and chemoselectively ligate fluorophores or affinity probes to these sites. We find that GxTX-fluorophore conjugates colocalize with Kv2.1 clusters in live cells and are released from channels activated by voltage stimuli. Kv2.1 activation can be detected with concentrations of probe that have a trivial impact on cellular currents. Chemoselective GxTX mutants conjugated to dendrimeric beads likewise bind live cells expressing Kv2.1, and the beads are released by channel activation. These optical sensors of conformational change are prototype probes that can indicate when ion channels contribute to electrical signaling. PMID:25331865

  2. A manganese catalyst for highly reactive yet chemoselective intramolecular C(sp3)H amination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradine, Shauna M.; Griffin, Jennifer R.; Zhao, Jinpeng; Petronico, Aaron L.; Miller, Shannon M.; Christina White, M.

    2015-12-01

    CH bond oxidation reactions underscore the existing paradigm wherein high reactivity and high selectivity are inversely correlated. The development of catalysts capable of oxidizing strong aliphatic C(sp3)H bonds while displaying chemoselectivity (that is, tolerance of more oxidizable functionality) remains an unsolved problem. Here, we describe a catalyst, manganese tert-butylphthalocyanine [Mn(tBuPc)], that is an outlier to the reactivityselectivity paradigm. It is unique in its capacity to functionalize all types of C(sp3)H bond intramolecularly, while displaying excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of ? functionality. Mechanistic studies indicate that [Mn(tBuPc)] transfers bound nitrenes to C(sp3)H bonds via a pathway that lies between concerted CH insertion, observed with reactive noble metals such as rhodium, and stepwise radical CH abstraction/rebound, as observed with chemoselective base metals such as iron. Rather than achieving a blending of effects, [Mn(tBuPc)] aminates even 1 aliphatic and propargylic CH bonds, demonstrating reactivity and selectivity unusual for previously known catalysts.

  3. Chemoselective tarantula toxins report voltage activation of wild-type ion channels in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Drew C.; Eum, Kenneth S.; Fletcher-Taylor, Sebastian; Austin, Daniel C.; Dupr, Christophe; Patrn, Lilian A.; Garcia, Rita L.; Lam, Kit; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Cohen, Bruce E.; Sack, Jon T.

    2014-01-01

    Electrically excitable cells, such as neurons, exhibit tremendous diversity in their firing patterns, a consequence of the complex collection of ion channels present in any specific cell. Although numerous methods are capable of measuring cellular electrical signals, understanding which types of ion channels give rise to these signals remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe exogenous probes which use a novel mechanism to report activity of voltage-gated channels. We have synthesized chemoselective derivatives of the tarantula toxin guangxitoxin-1E (GxTX), an inhibitory cystine knot peptide that binds selectively to Kv2-type voltage gated potassium channels. We find that voltage activation of Kv2.1 channels triggers GxTX dissociation, and thus GxTX binding dynamically marks Kv2 activation. We identify GxTX residues that can be replaced by thiol- or alkyne-bearing amino acids, without disrupting toxin folding or activity, and chemoselectively ligate fluorophores or affinity probes to these sites. We find that GxTXfluorophore conjugates colocalize with Kv2.1 clusters in live cells and are released from channels activated by voltage stimuli. Kv2.1 activation can be detected with concentrations of probe that have a trivial impact on cellular currents. Chemoselective GxTX mutants conjugated to dendrimeric beads likewise bind live cells expressing Kv2.1, and the beads are released by channel activation. These optical sensors of conformational change are prototype probes that can indicate when ion channels contribute to electrical signaling. PMID:25331865

  4. An Efficient, Optimized Synthesis of Fentanyl and Related Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Leif, Roald N.; Mayer, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    The alternate and optimized syntheses of the parent opioid fentanyl and its analogs are described. The routes presented exhibit high-yielding transformations leading to these powerful analgesics after optimization studies were carried out for each synthetic step. The general three-step strategy produced a panel of four fentanyls in excellent yields (73–78%) along with their more commonly encountered hydrochloride and citric acid salts. The following strategy offers the opportunity for the gram-scale, efficient production of this interesting class of opioid alkaloids. PMID:25233364

  5. An efficient, optimized synthesis of fentanyl and related analogs.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carlos A; Leif, Roald N; Mayer, Brian P

    2014-01-01

    The alternate and optimized syntheses of the parent opioid fentanyl and its analogs are described. The routes presented exhibit high-yielding transformations leading to these powerful analgesics after optimization studies were carried out for each synthetic step. The general three-step strategy produced a panel of four fentanyls in excellent yields (73-78%) along with their more commonly encountered hydrochloride and citric acid salts. The following strategy offers the opportunity for the gram-scale, efficient production of this interesting class of opioid alkaloids. PMID:25233364

  6. Information and Efficiency in the Nervous SystemA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Biswa; Stemmler, Martin B.; Friston, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    In systems biology, questions concerning the molecular and cellular makeup of an organism are of utmost importance, especially when trying to understand how unreliable componentslike genetic circuits, biochemical cascades, and ion channels, among othersenable reliable and adaptive behaviour. The repertoire and speed of biological computations are limited by thermodynamic or metabolic constraints: an example can be found in neurons, where fluctuations in biophysical states limit the information they can encodewith almost 2060% of the total energy allocated for the brain used for signalling purposes, either via action potentials or by synaptic transmission. Here, we consider the imperatives for neurons to optimise computational and metabolic efficiency, wherein benefits and costs trade-off against each other in the context of self-organised and adaptive behaviour. In particular, we try to link information theoretic (variational) and thermodynamic (Helmholtz) free-energy formulations of neuronal processing and show how they are related in a fundamental way through a complexity minimisation lemma. PMID:23935475

  7. Information and efficiency in the nervous system--a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Biswa; Stemmler, Martin B; Friston, Karl J

    2013-01-01

    In systems biology, questions concerning the molecular and cellular makeup of an organism are of utmost importance, especially when trying to understand how unreliable components--like genetic circuits, biochemical cascades, and ion channels, among others--enable reliable and adaptive behaviour. The repertoire and speed of biological computations are limited by thermodynamic or metabolic constraints: an example can be found in neurons, where fluctuations in biophysical states limit the information they can encode--with almost 20-60% of the total energy allocated for the brain used for signalling purposes, either via action potentials or by synaptic transmission. Here, we consider the imperatives for neurons to optimise computational and metabolic efficiency, wherein benefits and costs trade-off against each other in the context of self-organised and adaptive behaviour. In particular, we try to link information theoretic (variational) and thermodynamic (Helmholtz) free-energy formulations of neuronal processing and show how they are related in a fundamental way through a complexity minimisation lemma. PMID:23935475

  8. Efficient synthesis of hexahydroindenopyridines and their potential as melatoninergic ligands.

    PubMed

    Prraga, Javier; Moreno, Laura; Diaz, Amelia; El Aouad, Noureddine; Galn, Abraham; Sanz, Mara Jess; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Figadre, Bruno; Cabedo, Nuria; Cortes, Diego

    2014-10-30

    Hexahydroindenopyridine (HHIP) is an interesting tricyclic piperidine nucleus that is structurally related to melatonin, a serotonin-derived neurohormone. Melatonin receptor ligands have applications in several cellular, neuroendocrine and neurophysiological disorders, including depression and/or insomnia. We report herein an efficient two-step method to prepare new HHIP via enamine C-alkylation-cyclization. The influence of substituents on the benzene ring and the nitrogen atom on melatoninergic receptors has been studied. Among the 25 synthesized HHIPs, some of them containing methylenedioxy (series 2) and 8-chloro-7-methoxy substituents (series 4) on the benzene ring revealed affinity for the MT1 and/or the MT2 receptors within the nanomolar range or low micromolar. Similar activities were also encountered for those presenting urea (4g), N-aryl (2e) and N-alkyl (2f) acetamide functions. Therefore, new synthesized compounds with a HHIP nucleus have emerged as new promising leads towards the discovery of melatoninergic ligands which could provide new therapeutic agents. PMID:25232966

  9. Stereo-, Regio-, and Chemoselective [3 + 2]-Cycloaddition of (2E,4E)-Ethyl 5-(Phenylsulfonyl)penta-2,4-dienoate with Various Azomethine Ylides, Nitrones, and Nitrile Oxides: Synthesis of Pyrrolidine, Isoxazolidine, and Isoxazoline Derivatives and a Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Ulaganathan; Surya Kumar, Ch Venkata; Subramanian, V; Balasubramanian, K K; Mahalakshimi, S

    2016-03-18

    One-pot chemo-, regio-, and stereoselective synthesis of series of heterocyclic and spiroheterocyclic compounds was accomplished through mono- and bis[3 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions of (2E,4E)-ethyl 5-(phenylsulfonyl)penta-2,4-dienoate as a dipolarophile with azomethine ylides, nitrones, and nitrile oxides in good yields. The structures of the products were established by spectroscopic techniques as well as by single-crystal XRD study, and DFT calculations were performed to further understand the mechanism of this [3 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction. PMID:26886393

  10. Efficient enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin by mutant Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase.

    PubMed

    Deng, Senwen; Su, Erzheng; Ma, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Shengli; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-04-10

    Semi-synthetic ?-lactam antibiotics (SSBAs) are one of the most important antibiotic families in the world market. Their enzymatic synthesis can be catalyzed by penicillin G acylases (PGAs). In this study, to improve enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin, site-saturating mutagenesis was performed on three conserved amino acid residues: ?F24, ?R146, and ?F147 of thermo-stable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (Af PGA). Four mutants ?F24G, ?F24A, ?F24S, and ?F24P were recovered by screening the mutant bank. Kinetic analysis of them showed up to 800-fold increased kcat/Km value for activated acyl donor D-phenylglycine methyl ester (D-PGME). When ?F24G was used for ampicillin synthesis under kinetic control at industrially relevant conditions, 95% of nucleophile 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) was converted to ampicillin in aqueous medium at room temperature while 12% process time is needed to reach maximum product accumulation at 25% enzyme concentration compared with the wild-type Af PGA. Consequently, process productivity of enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin catalyzed by Af PGA was improved by more than 130 times, which indicated an enzyme viable for efficient SSBAs synthesis. PMID:25681630

  11. Efficient ATP synthesis by thermophilic Bacillus FoF1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Soga, Naoki; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2011-08-01

    F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase (F(o)F(1)) synthesizes ATP in the F(1) portion when protons flow through F(o) to rotate the shaft common to F(1) and F(o). Rotary synthesis in isolated F(1) alone has been shown by applying external torque to F(1) of thermophilic origin. Proton-driven ATP synthesis by thermophilic Bacillus PS3 F(o)F(1) (TF(o)F(1)), however, has so far been poor in vitro, of the order of 1 s(-1) or less, hampering reliable characterization. Here, by using a mutant TF(o)F(1) lacking an inhibitory segment of the ?-subunit, we have developed highly reproducible, simple procedures for the preparation of active proteoliposomes and for kinetic analysis of ATP synthesis, which was driven by acid-base transition and K(+)-diffusion potential. The synthesis activity reached ? 16 s(-1) at 30 C with a Q(10) temperature coefficient of 3-4 between 10 and 30 C, suggesting a high level of activity at the physiological temperature of ? 60 C. The Michaelis-Menten constants for the substrates ADP and inorganic phosphate were 13 ?M and 0.55 mM, respectively, which are an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates and are suited to efficient ATP synthesis. PMID:21605343

  12. Efficient ATP synthesis by thermophilic Bacillus FoF1-ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Naoki; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase (FoF1) synthesizes ATP in the F1 portion when protons flow through Fo to rotate the shaft common to F1 and Fo. Rotary synthesis in isolated F1 alone has been shown by applying external torque to F1 of thermophilic origin. Proton-driven ATP synthesis by thermophilic Bacillus PS3 FoF1 (TFoF1), however, has so far been poor in vitro, of the order of 1 s−1 or less, hampering reliable characterization. Here, by using a mutant TFoF1 lacking an inhibitory segment of the ε-subunit, we have developed highly reproducible, simple procedures for the preparation of active proteoliposomes and for kinetic analysis of ATP synthesis, which was driven by acid–base transition and K+-diffusion potential. The synthesis activity reached ∼ 16 s−1 at 30 °C with a Q10 temperature coefficient of 3–4 between 10 and 30 °C, suggesting a high level of activity at the physiological temperature of ∼ 60 °C. The Michaelis–Menten constants for the substrates ADP and inorganic phosphate were 13 μm and 0.55 mm, respectively, which are an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates and are suited to efficient ATP synthesis. PMID:21605343

  13. An efficient method for the N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed synthesis of indolyl-nitroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Wei; Wang, Chun-Chao; Fang, Hu-Lin; Raju, B Rama; Kavala, Veerababurao; Habib, Pateliya Mujjamil; Yao, Ching-Fa

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and practical method for the synthesis of indolyl-nitroalkane derivatives catalyzed by N-bromosuccinimide is described. The generality of this method was demonstrated by synthesizing an array of diverse 3-substituted indole derivatives by the reaction of different beta-nitrostyrenes with various substituted indoles. Simple reaction conditions accompanied by good yields of indolyl-nitroalkanes are the merits of this methodology. PMID:19924041

  14. Rational design and synthesis of a porous, task-specific polycarbazole for efficient CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tian; Xiong, Yan; Zhu, Xiang; Tian, Ziqi; Tao, Duan-Jian; Hu, Jun; Jiang, De-En; Wang, Hualin; Liu, Honglai; Dai, Sheng

    2016-03-15

    We present a rational design and synthesis of a novel porous pyridine-functionalized polycarbazole for efficient CO2 capture based on the density functional theory calculations. The task-specific polymer, generated through a one-step FeCl3-catalyzed oxidative coupling reaction, exhibits a superior CO2 uptake at 1.0 bar and 273 K (5.57 mmol g(-1)). PMID:26864392

  15. Temporary Restraints to Overcome Steric Obstacles—Efficient Strategy for the Synthesis of Mycalamide B**

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, John C.; Rawal, Viresh H.

    2014-01-01

    Restrain and Release: An efficient synthesis of mycalamide B is reported. The synthetic route features (a) a one-pot Mukaiyama–Michael/epoxidation sequence to introduce three of the stereocenters found in the natural product, (b) an intramolecular isocyanate trapping to produce a rigid 10-membered cyclic carbamate, and (c) the selective opening of the cyclic carbamate to reveal the fully constructed natural product. PMID:20931583

  16. Silica-ZnCl2: An Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of 4-Methylcoumarins

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Bandita; Pasha, Mohamed Afzal

    2013-01-01

    Silica-ZnCl2 has been found to be an efficient and eco-friendly catalyst for the synthesis of substituted 4-methylcoumarins from ethyl acetoacetate and substituted phenols under neat conditions in an oil bath at 80C. The experimental procedure is simple, includes shorter reaction times (1565?min), compatible with sensitive functional groups, and results in excellent yield of the products. PMID:24455295

  17. ACCESS 1: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis program documentation and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The program documentation and user's guide for the ACCESS-1 computer program is presented. ACCESS-1 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure. Implementation of the computer program, preparation of input data and basic program structure are described, and three illustrative examples are given.

  18. Efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of fused pyridine derivatives in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhibin; Hu, Yu; Zhou, Yao; Shi, Daqing

    2011-01-10

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of fused pyridine derivatives (including pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine) by three-component reaction of aldehyde, acyl acetonitrile, and electron-rich amino heterocycles (including aminopyrazole and aminouracils) in ionic liquid is reported. This new protocol has the advantages of environmental friendliness, higher yields, shorter reaction times, and convenient operation. PMID:21247124

  19. Nano Clinoptilolite: Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of Chromene Derivatives Under Solvent-Free Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hallajian, Sara; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Tajbakhsh, Mahgol; Alipour, Eskandar; Safaei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    An efficient and selective synthesis of substituted chromene derivatives via three-component reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin or 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, activated acetylenic compounds and N-nucleophiles is described. The reaction was conducted under solvent-free conditions at 70C using potassium fluoride impregnated on natural zeolite as a cheap and available solid base. The procedure has several advantages involving selectivity, excellent yields and a convenient work-up method. PMID:25910084

  20. Efficient synthesis of [18F]trifluoromethane and its application in the synthesis of PET tracers.

    PubMed

    van der Born, Dion; Herscheid, J Koos D M; Orru, Romano V A; Vugts, Danielle J

    2013-05-11

    A new strategy towards [(18)F]trifluoromethyl-containing compounds is developed. [(18)F]trifluoromethane is synthesised in a fast and efficient manner and subsequently used in the reaction with aldehydes and ketones forming [(18)F]trifluoromethyl carbinols in good yields. PMID:23563284

  1. Chemoselective biocatalytic reduction of conjugated nitroalkenes: new application for an Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expression strain.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Predrag; Jeremic, Sanja; Djokic, Lidija; Savic, Vladimir; Radivojevic, Jelena; Maslak, Veselin; Ivkovic, Branka; Vasiljevic, Branka; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2014-06-10

    Chemoselective reduction of activated carbon-carbon double bond in conjugated nitroalkenes was achieved using Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) whole cells. Nine different substrates have been used furnishing the reduced products in moderate to good yields. 1-Nitro-4-phenyl-1,3-butadiene and (2-nitro-1-propenyl)benzene were successfully biotransformed with corresponding product yields of 54% and 45% respectively. Using this simple and environmentally friendly system 2-(2-nitropropyl)pyridine and 2-(2-nitropropyl)naphthalene were synthesized and characterized for the first time. High substrate conversion efficiency was coupled with low enantioselectivity, however 29% enantiomeric excess was detected in the case of 2-(2-nitropropyl)pyridine. It was shown that electronic properties of the aromatic ring, which affected polarity of the double bond, were not highly influential factors in the reduction process, but the presence of the nitro functionality was essential for the reaction to proceed. 1-Phenyl-4-nitro-1,3-butadiene could not be biotransformed by whole cells of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 or Bacillus subtilis 168 while it was successfully reduced by E. coli DH5? but with lower efficiency in comparison to E. coli BL21(DE3). Knockout mutant affected in nemA gene coding for N-ethylmaleimide reductase (BL21?nemA) could still catalyze bioreductions suggesting multiple active reductases within E. coli BL21(DE3) biocatalyst. The described biocatalytic reduction of substituted nitroalkenes provides an efficient route for the preparation of the corresponding nitroalkanes and introduces the new application of the strain traditionally utilized for recombinant protein expression. PMID:24835095

  2. Simplified Application of Material Efficiency Green Metrics to Synthesis Plans: Pedagogical Case Studies Selected from "Organic Syntheses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified approach for the application of material efficiency metrics to linear and convergent synthesis plans encountered in organic synthesis courses. Computations are facilitated and automated using intuitively designed Microsoft Excel spreadsheets without invoking abstract mathematical formulas. The merits of this

  3. Simplified Application of Material Efficiency Green Metrics to Synthesis Plans: Pedagogical Case Studies Selected from "Organic Syntheses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified approach for the application of material efficiency metrics to linear and convergent synthesis plans encountered in organic synthesis courses. Computations are facilitated and automated using intuitively designed Microsoft Excel spreadsheets without invoking abstract mathematical formulas. The merits of this…

  4. Capturing HBCy2 : Using N,O-Chelated Complexes of Rhodium(I) and Iridium(I) for Chemoselective Hydroboration.

    PubMed

    Drover, Marcus W; Schafer, Laurel L; Love, Jennifer A

    2016-02-01

    1,3-N,O-chelated complexes of Rh(I) and Ir(I) cooperatively and reversibly stabilized the B-H bond of HBCy2 to afford six-membered metallaheterocycles (M=Rh (7) or Ir (8)) having a δ-[M]⋅⋅⋅H-B agostic interaction. Treatment of these Shimoi-type borane adducts 7 or 8 with both an aldehyde and an alkene resulted in chemoselective aldehyde hydroboration and reformation of the 1,3-N,O-chelated starting material. The observed chemoselectivity is inverted from that of free HBCy2 , which is selective for alkene hydroboration. PMID:26847809

  5. Dendronylation: Residue-specific chemoselective attachment of oligoglycerol dendrimers on proteins with noncanonical amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Thota, Bala N S; Haag, Rainer; Budisa, Nediljko

    2015-11-15

    Polyglycerol dendrimers as an important class of polymeric materials especially attractive for covalent attachment to therapeutic proteins as a useful alternative to traditional PEGylation procedures. Herein, we combine in vivo noncanonical amino acid (ncAA) incorporation and chemoselective conjugation in vitro to produce novel hybrid protein-dendrimer conjugates with the defined architectures. We incorporated Azidohomoalanine (Aha) as methionine substitute in vivo into various protein scaffolds to allow non-invasive dendrimer conjugations (dendronylation). Our approach makes recombinant proteins accessible for the design of multivalent dendrimer conjugates since it enables the preparation of many sequences with various positions for regioselective dendronylation. PMID:26483199

  6. Controllable Chemoselectivity in Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Four Diverse Aerobic Radical Cascade Reactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfei; Ye, Xinyi; Bure, Filip; Liu, Hongjun; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-21

    Reported is the controllable selectivity syntheses of four distinct products from the same starting materials by visible-light photoredox catalysis. By employing a dicyanopyrazine-derived chromophore (DPZ) as photoredox catalyst, an aerobic radical mechanism has been developed, and allows the reactions of N-tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) with N-itaconimides to through four different pathways, including addition-cyclization, addition-elimination, addition-coupling, and addition-protonation, with satisfactory chemoselectivity. The current strategy provide straightforward access to four different but valuable N-heterocyclic adducts in moderate to excellent yields. PMID:26212794

  7. Metal-Free Chemoselective Oxidative Dehomologation or Direct Oxidation of Alcohols: Implication for Biomass Conversion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Min; Shin, Hun Yi; Kim, Dong Wan; Yang, Jung Woon

    2016-02-01

    A transition metal-free, chemoselective reaction was performed using the sodium tert-butoxide-oxygen (NaO(t) Bu-O2 ) system, resulting in either oxidative dehomologation or direct oxidation of alcohols. In particular, the newly developed protocol may be used to predict the major product formed, which depends on alkyl chain length of the alcohols and reaction conditions. The rational mechanism of this transformation was also demonstrated by performing an (18) O isotopic labelling experiment. This protocol presents a straightforward method for biomass conversion of a lignin model compound to phenol and benzoic acid. PMID:26682633

  8. Resonant infrared pulsed-laser deposition of a sorbent chemoselective polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubb, D. M.; Horwitz, J. S.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.; Papantonakis, M. R.; Haglund, R. F.; Toftmann, B.

    2001-10-01

    Fluoropolyol, a sorbent chemoselective polymer, has been deposited as a thin film by resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition using a free electron laser operating at 2.90 μm, a wavelength resonant with the hydroxl stretch. A comparison of the infrared absorbance of the deposited film and starting material shows no evidence of chemical decomposition in the film. Gel permeation chromatography shows that the film and starting material have nearly the same molar mass. The results are particularly applicable to the fabrication of chemical and biological sensors. The concept of resonant pulsed laser deposition using intrinsic vibrational modes may have wide applicability for organic materials.

  9. Chemoselective and stereoselective lithium carbenoid mediated cyclopropanation of acyclic allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Durn-Pea, M J; Flores-Giubi, M E; Botubol-Ares, J M; Harwood, L M; Collado, I G; Macas-Snchez, A J; Hernndez-Galn, R

    2016-02-24

    The reaction of geraniol with different lithium carbenoids generated from n-BuLi and the corresponding dihaloalkane has been evaluated. The reaction occurs in a chemo and stereoselective manner, which is consistent with a directing effect from the oxygen of the allylic moiety. Furthermore, a set of polyenes containing allylic hydroxyl or ether groups were chemoselectively and stereoselectively converted into the corresponding gem-dimethylcyclopropanes in one single step in moderate to good yields mediated by a lithium carbenoid generated in situ by the reaction of n-BuLi and 2,2-dibromopropane. PMID:26846582

  10. Efficient example-based painting and synthesis of 2D directional texture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Wenping; Yang, Huaiping; Sun, Jiaguang

    2004-01-01

    We present a new method for converting a photo or image to a synthesized painting following the painting style of an example painting. Treating painting styles of brush strokes as sample textures, we reduce the problem of learning an example painting to a texture synthesis problem. The proposed method uses a hierarchical patch-based approach to the synthesis of directional textures. The key features of our method are: 1) Painting styles are represented as one or more blocks of sample textures selected by the user from the example painting; 2) image segmentation and brush stroke directions defined by the medial axis are used to better represent and communicate shapes and objects present in the synthesized painting; 3) image masks and a hierarchy of texture patches are used to efficiently synthesize high-quality directional textures. The synthesis process is further accelerated through texture direction quantization and the use of Gaussian pyramids. Our method has the following advantages: First, the synthesized stroke textures can follow a direction field determined by the shapes of regions to be painted. Second, the method is very efficient; the generation time of a synthesized painting ranges from a few seconds to about one minute, rather than hours, as required by other existing methods, on a commodity PC. Furthermore, the technique presented here provides a new and efficient solution to the problem of synthesizing a 2D directional texture. We use a number of test examples to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method and the high quality of results produced by the method. PMID:18579958

  11. Efficient synthesis and in vitro cytostatic activity of 4-substituted triazolyl-nucleosides.

    PubMed

    El Akri, Khalid; Bougrin, Khalid; Balzarini, Jan; Faraj, Abdesslem; Benhida, Rachid

    2007-12-01

    We report herein an efficient synthesis of 4-substituted triazolyl-nucleosides and their in vitro cytostatic activity. The synthesis is based on a straightforward 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 1-azido-ribose 2 and terminal alkynes under a cooperative effect of microwave activation and copper (I) catalysis. All cycloadducts were obtained in nearly quantitative yield after a short reaction time (1 to 2min). After removal of acetyl protecting groups, the free nucleosides were evaluated against L1210, Molt4/C8, and CEM tumor cell lines. Structure-activity relationship study shows that the substituent on the triazole ring has a major effect since nucleosides 4c and 4g, containing, respectively, a long alkyl chain and an aryl donor group are the most active compounds in this series. PMID:17931862

  12. Efficient synthesis and in vitro cytostatic activity of 4-substituted triazolyl-nucleosides.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    El Akri K; Bougrin K; Balzarini J; Faraj A; Benhida R

    2007-12-01

    We report herein an efficient synthesis of 4-substituted triazolyl-nucleosides and their in vitro cytostatic activity. The synthesis is based on a straightforward 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 1-azido-ribose 2 and terminal alkynes under a cooperative effect of microwave activation and copper (I) catalysis. All cycloadducts were obtained in nearly quantitative yield after a short reaction time (1 to 2min). After removal of acetyl protecting groups, the free nucleosides were evaluated against L1210, Molt4/C8, and CEM tumor cell lines. Structure-activity relationship study shows that the substituent on the triazole ring has a major effect since nucleosides 4c and 4g, containing, respectively, a long alkyl chain and an aryl donor group are the most active compounds in this series.

  13. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage.

    PubMed

    Raja, K; Saravanakumar, A; Vijayakumar, R

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods. PMID:22835939

  14. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, K.; Saravanakumar, A.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods.

  15. On the synthesis of multiple frequency tone burst stimuli for efficient high frequency auditory brainstem response.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Roger M; Dille, Marilyn L; Leek, Marjorie R; Fausti, Stephen A

    2008-01-01

    The development and digital waveform synthesis of a multiple-frequency tone-burst (MFTB) stimulus is presented. The stimulus is designed to improve the efficiency of monitoring high-frequency auditory-brainstem-response (ABR) hearing thresholds. The pure-tone-based, fractional-octave-bandwidth MFTB supports frequency selective ABR audiometry with a bandwidth that falls between the conventional click and single-frequency tone-burst stimuli. The MFTB is being used to identify high frequency hearing threshold change due to ototoxic medication which most generally starts at the ultra-highest hearing frequencies and progresses downwards but could be useful in general limited-bandwidth testing applications. Included is a Mathcad implementation and analysis of our MFTB synthesis technique and sample performance measurements of the MFTB stimulus configuration used in a clinical research ABR system. PMID:19163628

  16. Tunable drug delivery using chemoselective functionalization of hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Emanuele; Rossi, Filippo; Sacchetti, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades interests on cleavable linkers are growing due to the need to develop controlled drug delivery systems in biochemical and therapeutic applications. The synthesis of hydrogels as devices capable to maintain the drug level within a desired range for a long and sustained period of time is a leading strategy for this aim. However with respect to the good results obtained with antibodies and peptides there are a lot of problems related to the quick and uncontrolled diffusion of small molecules through hydrogel pores. In this work, we propose the functionalization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains with two different pH-sensitive linkers, ester and hydrazone, and their application as building blocks of microwave-assisted hydrogels for controlled delivery of small hydrophilic drugs. As drug mimetic we used Rhodamine B, a harmless fluorophore with steric hindrance and reactive groups similar to many small hydrophilic drugs. At physiological and low basic conditions, the cleavability of ester and hydrazone spacer evidenced the possibility to delay the release of drugs from the scaffold compared to hydrogels where drug was entrapped within the network only due to its steric hindrance. The obtained release profiles were compared, underlining the opportunity to tune the release rate using the synthesized hydrogels. PMID:26838916

  17. Chemical synthesis approaches to the engineering of ion channels.

    PubMed

    Kochendoerfer, Gerd G; Clayton, Daniel; Becker, Christian

    2005-11-01

    Chemoselective ligation strategies have previously provided synthetic access to water-soluble proteins with novel properties, and more recently these strategies have been used to prepare ion channels. Examples of ion channels prepared by total chemical synthesis include bacterial mechanosensitive channels, and viral ion channels. Chemical protein synthesis allows for the generation of ion channel proteins with both native, and engineered structural or conductance properties. PMID:16305542

  18. Enzymes as Green Catalysts for Precision Macromolecular Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Shin-Ichiro; Uyama, Hiroshi; Kadokawa, Jun-Ichi; Kimura, Shunsaku; Kobayashi, Shiro

    2016-02-24

    The present article comprehensively reviews the macromolecular synthesis using enzymes as catalysts. Among the six main classes of enzymes, the three classes, oxidoreductases, transferases, and hydrolases, have been employed as catalysts for the in vitro macromolecular synthesis and modification reactions. Appropriate design of reaction including monomer and enzyme catalyst produces macromolecules with precisely controlled structure, similarly as in vivo enzymatic reactions. The reaction controls the product structure with respect to substrate selectivity, chemo-selectivity, regio-selectivity, stereoselectivity, and choro-selectivity. Oxidoreductases catalyze various oxidation polymerizations of aromatic compounds as well as vinyl polymerizations. Transferases are effective catalysts for producing polysaccharide having a variety of structure and polyesters. Hydrolases catalyzing the bond-cleaving of macromolecules in vivo, catalyze the reverse reaction for bond forming in vitro to give various polysaccharides and functionalized polyesters. The enzymatic polymerizations allowed the first in vitro synthesis of natural polysaccharides having complicated structures like cellulose, amylose, xylan, chitin, hyaluronan, and chondroitin. These polymerizations are "green" with several respects; nontoxicity of enzyme, high catalyst efficiency, selective reactions under mild conditions using green solvents and renewable starting materials, and producing minimal byproducts. Thus, the enzymatic polymerization is desirable for the environment and contributes to "green polymer chemistry" for maintaining sustainable society. PMID:26791937

  19. Adaptation for Protein Synthesis Efficiency in a Naturally Occurring Self-Regulating Operon

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Dorota; Thomas, Christopher M.; Stekel, Dov J.

    2012-01-01

    The korAB operon in RK2 plasmids is a beautiful natural example of a negatively and cooperatively self-regulating operon. It has been particularly well characterized both experimentally and with mathematical models. We have carried out a detailed investigation of the role of the regulatory mechanism using a biologically grounded mechanistic multi-scale stochastic model that includes plasmid gene regulation and replication in the context of host growth and cell division. We use the model to compare four hypotheses for the action of the regulatory mechanism: increased robustness to extrinsic factors, decreased protein fluctuations, faster response-time of the operon and reduced host burden through improved efficiency of protein production. We find that the strongest impact of all elements of the regulatory architecture is on improving the efficiency of protein synthesis by reduction in the number of mRNA molecules needed to be produced, leading to a greater than ten-fold reduction in host energy required to express these plasmid proteins. A smaller but still significant role is seen for speeding response times, but this is not materially improved by the cooperativity. The self-regulating mechanisms have the least impact on protein fluctuations and robustness. While reduction of host burden is evident in a plasmid context, negative self-regulation is a widely seen motif for chromosomal genes. We propose that an important evolutionary driver for negatively self-regulated genes is to improve the efficiency of protein synthesis. PMID:23185406

  20. ?-Fluoroallenoate Synthesis via N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Fluorination Reaction of Alkynals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Wu, Zijun; Wang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    The first catalytic ?-fluoroallenoate synthesis is described. With a suitable combination of N-heterocyclic carbene precatalyst, base, and fluorine reagent, the reaction proceeded smoothly to yield a wide range of ?-fluoroallenoates with excellent chemoselectivity. These substituted ?-fluorinated allenoates have been synthesized for the first time, and they are versatile synthetic intermediates toward other useful fluorine-containing building blocks. PMID:26771540

  1. Solid-phase synthesis with resin-bound triarylbismuthanes: traceless and multidirectional cleavage of unsymmetrical biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L Kyhn; Begtrup, Mikael; Ruhland, Thomas

    2006-02-01

    A multistep solid-phase organic synthesis with resin-bound bismuth linker is described. The flexibilities inherent in this system through novel chemoselective cross-coupling reactions, in conjunction with multidirectional and/or traceless cleavage methodologies, are exploited. PMID:16438542

  2. Unprecedented one-pot chemocontrolled entry to thioxoimidazolidinones and aminoimidazolones: synthesis of kinase inhibitor leucettamine B.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Manikandan; Sun, Chung-Ming

    2015-03-01

    A novel and highly chemoselective protocol for the construction of thioxoimidazolidinone and aminoimidazolone frameworks was explored, and the influence of the reaction conditions on product formation was studied to establish two distinct approaches for their selective formation. In this one-pot reaction, ambient temperature generally resulted in the formation of thioxoimidazolidinones, whereas microwave irradiation provided aminoimidazolones exclusively. An attempt to elucidate the observed chemoselectivity is described, and the products were confirmed by X-ray studies. One-pot synthesis toward Leucettamine B, a marine alkaloid, was achieved on the basis of this protocol. PMID:25569559

  3. ZnO Catalyzed Efficient Synthesis of Some New 2-Substituted-4,6-diarylpyrimidines

    PubMed Central

    Ameta, K. L.; Kumar, Biresh; Rathore, Nitu S.

    2012-01-01

    A simple and efficient protocol is developed for the synthesis of 2-substituted-4,6-diarylpyrimidines from one-pot three-component reaction of 4′-hydroxy-3′,5′-dinitro substituted chalcones, S-benzylthiouronium chloride (SBT), and heterocyclic secondary amines (morpholine/pyrrolidine/piperidine) in the presence of 15 mol% of ZnO as a heterogeneous catalyst. The present methodology offers several advantages such as being a simple procedure as well as providing excellent yields, and short reaction time. The catalyst is inexpensive, stable, and can be easily recycled and reused for several cycles with consistent activity. PMID:24052838

  4. A highly efficient green synthesis of 1, 8-dioxo-octahydroxanthenes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    SmCl3 (20 mol%) has been used as an efficient catalyst for reaction between aromatic aldehydes and 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione at 120C to give 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthene derivatives in high yield. The same reaction in water, at room temperature gave only the open chain analogue of 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthene. Use of eco-friendly green Lewis acid, readily available catalyst and easy isolation of the product makes this a convenient method for the synthesis of either of the products. PMID:22152051

  5. The role of carbon dioxide in chemoselective hydrogenation of halonitroaromatics over supported noble metal catalysts in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Shinichiro; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro; Ikariya, Takao

    2005-02-21

    Chemoselective hydrogenation of halogenated nitrobenzenes over Pt/C catalysts proceeds effectively in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) to produce halogenated anilines with excellent selectivity; the rate of the hydrogenation of nitro groups is markedly enhanced in scCO2 compared to the neat reaction, and the dehalogenation reaction is significantly suppressed. PMID:15700083

  6. Efficient Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 5'-GalNAc Conjugated Antisense Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    stergaard, Michael E; Yu, Jinghua; Kinberger, Garth A; Wan, W Brad; Migawa, Michael T; Vasquez, Guillermo; Schmidt, Karsten; Gaus, Hans J; Murray, Heather M; Low, Audrey; Swayze, Eric E; Prakash, Thazha P; Seth, Punit P

    2015-08-19

    Conjugation of triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) to oligonucleotide therapeutics results in marked improvement in potency for reducing gene targets expressed in hepatocytes. In this report we describe a robust and efficient solution-phase conjugation strategy to attach triantennary GalNAc clusters (mol. wt. ?2000) activated as PFP (pentafluorophenyl) esters onto 5'-hexylamino modified antisense oligonucleotides (5'-HA ASOs, mol. wt. ?8000 Da). The conjugation reaction is efficient and was used to prepare GalNAc conjugated ASOs from milligram to multigram scale. The solution phase method avoids loading of GalNAc clusters onto solid-support for automated synthesis and will facilitate evaluation of GalNAc clusters for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Furthermore, we show that transfer of the GalNAc cluster from the 3'-end of an ASO to the 5'-end results in improved potency in cells and animals. PMID:26011654

  7. Efficient Total Synthesis of Bongkrekic Acid and Apoptosis Inhibitory Activity of Its Analogues.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Suyama, Masaki; Fujita, Satoshi; Moriwaki, Takuya; Sato, Yukiko; Aso, Yoshifumi; Muroshita, Satoshi; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Monda, Keishi; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Abe, Masato; Fukunaga, Hiroyuki; Kano, Arihiro; Shindo, Mitsuru

    2015-08-01

    Bongkrekic acid (BKA), isolated from the bacterium Burkholderia cocovenenans, is an inhibitor of adenine nucleotide translocator, which inhibits apoptosis, and is thus an important tool for the mechanistic investigation of apoptosis. An efficient total synthesis of BKA has been achieved by employing a three-component convergent strategy based on Kocienski-Julia olefination and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. It is noteworthy that segment?B has been prepared as a new doubly functionalized coupling partner, which contributes to shortening of the number of steps. Torquoselective olefination with an ynolate has also been applied for the efficient construction of an unsaturated ester. Furthermore, it is revealed that 1-methyl-2-azaadamantane N-oxyl is an excellent reagent for final oxidation to afford BKA in high yield. Based on the total synthesis, several BKA analogues were prepared for structure-activity relationship studies, which indicated that the carboxylic acid moieties were essential for the apoptosis inhibitory activity of BKA. More easily available BKA analogues with potent apoptosis inhibitory activity were also developed. PMID:26126659

  8. Efficient Synthesis of Eriodictyol from l-Tyrosine in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Saijie; Wu, Junjun; Du, Guocheng

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of flavonoids for humans are increasingly attracting attention. Because the extraction of high-purity flavonoids from plants presents a major obstacle, interest has emerged in biosynthesizing them using microbial hosts. Eriodictyol is a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Its efficient synthesis has been hampered by two factors: the poor expression of cytochrome P450 and the low intracellular malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) concentration in Escherichia coli. To address these issues, a truncated plant P450 flavonoid, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (tF3′H), was functionally expressed as a fusion protein with a truncated P450 reductase (tCPR) in E. coli. This allowed the engineered E. coli to produce eriodictyol from l-tyrosine by simultaneously coexpressing the fusion protein with tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI). In addition, metabolic engineering was employed to enhance the availability of malonyl-CoA so as to achieve a new metabolic balance and rebalance the relative expression of genes to enhance eriodictyol accumulation. This approach made the production of eriodictyol 203% higher than that in the control strain. By using these strategies, the production of eriodictyol from l-tyrosine reached 107 mg/liter. The present work offers an approach to the efficient synthesis of other hydroxylated flavonoids from l-tyrosine or even glucose in E. coli. PMID:24610848

  9. Fungi as an efficient mycosystem for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles: progress and key aspects of research.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Alka; Kon, Kateryna; Kratosova, Gabriela; Duran, Nelson; Ingle, Avinash P; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging cutting-edge technology, which involves interdisciplinary subjects, such as physics, chemistry, biology, material science and medicine. Different methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been discussed here. Although physical and chemical methods have been successfully used to synthesize nanoparticles, the use of hazardous chemicals and synthesis at high temperature is a matter of concern. Hence, there is a necessity to develop eco-friendly techniques for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, lichen and viruses have been reported eco-friendly. Moreover, the fungal system has emerged as an efficient system for nanoparticle synthesis as fungi possess distinctive characters including high wall binding capacity, easy to culture and simpler biomass handling, etc. In this review, we have discussed fungi as an important tool for the fabrication of nanoparticles. In addition, methods and mechanism for synthesis of nanoparticles and its potential applications have also been discussed. PMID:26164702

  10. Efficient Enantio- and Diastereo-divergent Synthesis of Poison-frog Alkaloids 251O and trans-223B

    PubMed Central

    Toyooka, Naoki; Zhou, Dejun; Nemoto, Hideo; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Spande, Thomas F.; Daly, John W.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and flexible synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids 251O and trans-223B has been achieved using for both alkaloids an enantiodivergent process starting from the common lactam 1. The relative stereochemistry of 251O and trans-223B was determined to be 7 (R = n- C7H15, R’ = n-Pr) and 14 by the present enantioselective synthesis. PMID:19637860

  11. Sodium tetrachloroaurate(III) dihydrate-catalyzed efficient synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepine and quinoxaline derivatives*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ren-xin; Liu, Yun-kui; Xu, Zhen-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Both 1,5-benzodiazepine and quinoxaline derivatives are important heterocycles in pharmaceuticals. We describe an efficient and clean method for the synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepines from o-phenylenediamine and ketones catalyzed by sodium tetrachloroaurate(III) dihydrate under mild conditions. The catalyst was shown to be equally effective for the synthesis of quinoxalines from o-phenylenediamine and ?-bromo ketones under the similar reaction conditions. This method produced good yields. PMID:20104644

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of tetramethylguanidinium-polyethylenimine polymers as efficient gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Mahato, Manohar; Yadav, Santosh; Kumar, Pradeep; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that 6-(N,N,N',N'-tetramethylguanidinium chloride)-hexanoyl-polyethylenimine (THP) polymers exhibited significantly enhanced transfection efficiency and cell viability. Here, in the present study, we have synthesized a series of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylguanidinium-polyethylenimine (TP1-TP5) polymers via a single-step reaction involving peripheral primary amines of bPEI and varying amounts of 2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HBTU). These polymers were found to interact efficiently with negatively charged pDNA and formed stable complexes in the size range of ~240-450 nm. Acid-base titration profiles revealed improved buffering capacity of TP polymers as compared to bPEI. Transfection and cytotoxicity assays performed with TP/pDNA complexes on HEK293, CHO, and HeLa cells showed significantly higher transfection efficiency and cell viability with one of the complexes, TP2/pDNA complex, exhibited the highest transfection efficiency (~1.4-2.3-fold) outcompeting native bPEI and the commercially available transfection reagent, Lipofectamine 2000. Compared to previously reported THP polymers, the transfection efficiency of TP/pDNA complexes was found to be lower, as examined by flow cytometry. These results highlight the importance of the hydrophobic C-6 linker in THP polymers in forming compact nanostructures with pDNA, which might lead to efficient uptake and internalization of the complexes; however, the projected TP polymers offer an advantage of their rapid and economical one-step synthesis. PMID:24864245

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of Tetramethylguanidinium-Polyethylenimine Polymers as Efficient Gene Delivery Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Mahato, Manohar; Yadav, Santosh; Kumar, Pradeep; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that 6-(N,N,N?,N?-tetramethylguanidinium chloride)-hexanoyl-polyethylenimine (THP) polymers exhibited significantly enhanced transfection efficiency and cell viability. Here, in the present study, we have synthesized a series of N,N,N?,N?-tetramethylguanidinium-polyethylenimine (TP1-TP5) polymers via a single-step reaction involving peripheral primary amines of bPEI and varying amounts of 2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HBTU). These polymers were found to interact efficiently with negatively charged pDNA and formed stable complexes in the size range of ~240450?nm. Acid-base titration profiles revealed improved buffering capacity of TP polymers as compared to bPEI. Transfection and cytotoxicity assays performed with TP/pDNA complexes on HEK293, CHO, and HeLa cells showed significantly higher transfection efficiency and cell viability with one of the complexes, TP2/pDNA complex, exhibited the highest transfection efficiency (~1.42.3-fold) outcompeting native bPEI and the commercially available transfection reagent, Lipofectamine 2000. Compared to previously reported THP polymers, the transfection efficiency of TP/pDNA complexes was found to be lower, as examined by flow cytometry. These results highlight the importance of the hydrophobic C-6 linker in THP polymers in forming compact nanostructures with pDNA, which might lead to efficient uptake and internalization of the complexes; however, the projected TP polymers offer an advantage of their rapid and economical one-step synthesis. PMID:24864245

  14. Chemoselective synthesis and resolution of chiral [1,9]methanofullerene[70] derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yihan; Schuster, D.I.; Wilson, S.R.

    1996-08-09

    The authors report the chemical preparation of [1,9]methanofullerene[70] derivatives. The [1,9]methanofullerene[70]carboxylic acid was prepared and shown to be a useful reagent for further functionalization. Chiral amide stereoisomers were isolated using chiral HPLC. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Chemoselective Immobilization of Proteins by Microcontact Printing and Bioorthogonal Click Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Tolstyka, Zachary P.; Richardson, Wade; Bat, Erhan; Stevens, Caitlin J.; Parra, Dayanara P.; Dozier, Jonathan K.; Distefano, Mark D.; Dunn, Bruce; Maynard, Heather D.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, a combination of microcontact printing of functionalized alkanethiols and site-specific modification of proteins is utilized to chemoselectively immobilize proteins onto gold surfaces either by oxime or copper catalyzed alkyne-azide click chemistry. Two molecules capable of click reactions, an aminooxy-functionalized alkanethiol and an azide-functionalized alkanethiol, were synthesized, and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation on gold was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The alkanethiols were then individually patterned onto gold surfaces by microcontact printing. Site-specifically modified proteins, horse heart myoglobin (HHMb) containing an N-terminal α-oxoamide and a red-fluorescent protein (mCherry-CVIA) with a C-terminal alkyne, respectively were immobilized by incubation onto the stamped functionalized alkanethiol patterns. Pattern formation was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. PMID:24166802

  16. Chemoselective Boron-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Activation of Carboxylic Acids for Mannich-Type Reactions.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuya; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hideoki; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2015-06-10

    The carboxyl group (COOH) is an omnipresent functional group in organic molecules, and its direct catalytic activation represents an attractive synthetic method. Herein, we describe the first example of a direct catalytic nucleophilic activation of carboxylic acids with BH3SMe2, after which the acids are able to act as carbon nucleophiles, i.e. enolates, in Mannich-type reactions. This reaction proceeds with a mild organic base (DBU) and exhibits high levels of functional group tolerance. The boron catalyst is highly chemoselective toward the COOH group, even in the presence of other carbonyl moieties, such as amides, esters, or ketones. Furthermore, this catalytic method can be extended to highly enantioselective Mannich-type reactions by using a (R)-3,3'-I2-BINOL-substituted boron catalyst. PMID:26011419

  17. Chemoselective Tryptophan Labeling with Rhodium Carbenoids at Mild pH

    PubMed Central

    Antos, John M.; McFarland, Jesse M.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Francis, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a previously reported tryptophan modification method using rhodium carbenoids in aqueous solution, allowing the reaction to proceed at pH 67. This technique is based on the discovery that tert-butylhydroxyl amine promotes indole modification with rhodium carbenoids over a broad pH range (27). This methodology was demonstrated on peptide and protein substrates, generally yielding 4060% conversion with excellent tryptophan chemoselectivity. The solvent accessibility of the indole side chains was found to be a key factor in successful carbenoid addition, as demonstrated by conducting the reaction at temperatures high enough to cause thermal denaturation of the protein substrate. Progress toward the expression of proteins bearing solvent accessible tryptophan residues as reactive handles for modification with rhodium carbenoids is also reported. PMID:19366262

  18. Chemoselective hydrogenation of functionalized nitroarenes and imines by using carbon nanofiber-supported iridium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Masahiro; Desmira, Nelfa; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao; Nagashima, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of three types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs; platelet: CNF-P, tubular: CNF-T, herringbone: CNF-H) with Ir4(CO)12 in mesitylene at 165 °C provided the corresponding CNF-supported iridium nanoparticles, Ir/CNFs (Ir content=2.3-2.6 wt.%). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of these Ir/CNF samples revealed that size-controlled Ir nanoparticles (average particle size of 1.1-1.5 nm) existed on the CNFs. Among the three Ir/CNF samples, Ir/CNF-T showed an excellent catalytic activity and chemoselectivity towards hydrogenation of functionalized nitroarenes and imines; the corresponding aniline derivatives were obtained with high turnover numbers at ambient temperature under 10 tm of H2 , and the catalyst is reusable. Ir/CNF-T was also effective for the reductive N-alkylation of anilines with carbonyl compounds. PMID:24347068

  19. Palladium-catalyzed ?-arylation of silyl ketene acetals and application to the synthesis of benzo-fused ?-lactones.

    PubMed

    Aspin, Sam; Lpez-Surez, Laura; Larini, Paolo; Goutierre, Anne-Sophie; Jazzar, Rodolphe; Baudoin, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Silyl ketene acetals are shown to be competent nucleophiles in Pd-catalyzed migrative C(sp(3))-H arylations. Compared to the parent ester lithium enolates, they possess decreased reactivity but enhanced chemoselectivity. This behavior was exploited through the synthesis of valuable benzo-fused ?-lactones such as 1-isochromanones and dihydrocoumarins. PMID:24047333

  20. Design, modeling, expression, and chemoselective PEGylation of a new nanosize cysteine analog of erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin; Khanahmad, Hossein; Roohvand, Farzin; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mohammad Hossein; Barghi, Zahra; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Inanlou, Davoud Nouri; Norouzian, Dariush

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to be one of the most pivotal pharmaceutical drugs in the market because of its clinical application in the treatment of anemia-associated disorders worldwide. However, like other therapeutic proteins, it does not have suitable pharmacokinetic properties for it to be administrated at least two to three times per week. Chemoselective cysteine PEGylation, employing molecular dynamics and graphics in in silico studies, can be considered to overcome such a problem. Methods: A special kind of EPO analog was elicited based on a literature review, homology modeling, molecular dynamic simulation, and factors affecting the PEGylation reaction. Then, cDNA of the selected analog was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently cloned into the expression vector. The construct was transfected to Chinese hamster ovary/dhfr? cells, and highly expressed clones were selected via methotrexate amplification. Ion-immobilized affinity and size exclusion (SE) chromatography techniques were used to purify the expressed analog. Thereafter, chemoselective PEGylation was performed and a nanosize PEGylated EPO was obtained through dialysis. The in vitro biologic assay and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters were studied. Finally, E31C analog Fourier transform infrared, analytical SE-high-performance liquid chromatography, zeta potential, and size before and after PEGylation were characterized. Results: The findings indicate that a novel nanosize EPO31-PEG has a five-fold longer terminal half-life in rats with similar biologic activity compared with unmodified rhEPO in proliferation cell assay. The results also show that EPO31-PEG size and charge versus unmodified protein was increased in a nanospectrum, and this may be one criterion of EPO biologic potency enhancement. Discussion: This kind of novel engineered nanosize PEGylated EPO has remarkable advantages over rhEPO. PMID:21753873

  1. Efficient synthesis of functional isoprenoids from acetoacetate through metabolic pathway-engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hisashi; Yu, Fengnian; Okamoto, Sho; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Utsumi, Ryutaro; Misawa, Norihiko

    2009-01-01

    We show here an efficient synthesis system of isoprenoids from acetoacetate as the main substrate. We expressed in Escherichia coli a Streptomyces mevalonate pathway gene cluster starting from HMG-CoA synthase and including isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (idi) type 2 gene and the yeast idi type 1 and rat acetoacetate-CoA ligase (Aacl) genes. When the alpha-humulene synthase (ZSS1) gene of shampoo ginger was expressed in this transformant, the resultant E. coli produced 958 mug/mL culture of alpha-humulene with a lithium acetoacetate (LAA) supplement, which was a 13.6-fold increase compared with a control E. coli strain expressing only ZSS1. Next, we investigated if this E. coli strain engineered to utilize acetoacetate can synthesize carotenoids effectively. When the crtE, crtB, and crtI genes required for lycopene synthesis were expressed in the transformant, lycopene amounts reached 12.5 mg/g dry cell weight with addition of LAA, an 11.8-fold increase compared with a control expressing only the three crt genes. As for astaxanthin production with the E. coli transformant, in which the crtE, crtB, crtI, crtY, crtZ, and crtW genes were expressed, the total amount of carotenoids produced (astaxanthin, lycopene, and phytoene) was significantly increased to 7.5 times that of a control expressing only the six crt genes. PMID:18836713

  2. Efficient synthesis of ureas by direct palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of amines.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Bartolo; Salerno, Giuseppe; Mancuso, Raffaella; Costa, Mirco

    2004-07-01

    A general synthesis of symmetrically disubstituted ureas and trisubstituted ureas by direct Pd-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of primary amines or of a mixture of a primary and a secondary amine, respectively, with unprecedented catalytic efficiencies for this kind of process, is reported. Reactions are carried out at 90-100 degrees C in DME as the solvent in the presence of PdI(2) in conjunction with an excess of KI as the catalytic system and under 20 atm of a 4:1 mixture of CO and air. In some cases, working in the presence of an excess of CO(2) (40 atm) in addition to CO and air (60 atm total) had a beneficial effect on substrate reactivity and product yield. Cyclic five-membered and six-membered ureas were easily formed from primary diamines. The methodology has been successfully applied to the synthesis of pharmacologically active ureas, such as those deriving from alpha-amino esters or urea NPY5RA-972, a potent antagonist of the neuropeptide Y5 receptor. PMID:15230597

  3. Improving the time efficiency of the Fourier synthesis method for slice selection in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tahayori, B; Khaneja, N; Johnston, L A; Farrell, P M; Mareels, I M Y

    2016-01-01

    The design of slice selective pulses for magnetic resonance imaging can be cast as an optimal control problem. The Fourier synthesis method is an existing approach to solve these optimal control problems. In this method the gradient field as well as the excitation field are switched rapidly and their amplitudes are calculated based on a Fourier series expansion. Here, we provide a novel insight into the Fourier synthesis method via representing the Bloch equation in spherical coordinates. Based on the spherical Bloch equation, we propose an alternative sequence of pulses that can be used for slice selection which is more time efficient compared to the original method. Simulation results demonstrate that while the performance of both methods is approximately the same, the required time for the proposed sequence of pulses is half of the original sequence of pulses. Furthermore, the slice selectivity of both sequences of pulses changes with radio frequency field inhomogeneities in a similar way. We also introduce a measure, referred to as gradient complexity, to compare the performance of both sequences of pulses. This measure indicates that for a desired level of uniformity in the excited slice, the gradient complexity for the proposed sequence of pulses is less than the original sequence. PMID:26602859

  4. Design and Synthesis of Novel Block Copolymers for Efficient Opto-Electronic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yiqing; Taft, Charles; Haliburton, James; Maaref, Shahin

    2002-01-01

    It has been predicted that nano-phase separated block copolymer systems containing electron rich donor blocks and electron deficient acceptor blocks may facilitate the charge carrier separation and migration in organic photovoltaic devices due to improved morphology in comparison to polymer blend system. This paper presents preliminary data describing the design and synthesis of a novel Donor-Bridge-Acceptor (D-B-A) block copolymer system for potential high efficient organic optoelectronic applications. Specifically, the donor block contains an electron donating alkyloxy derivatized polyphenylenevinylene (PPV), the acceptor block contains an electron withdrawing alkyl-sulfone derivatized polyphenylenevinylene (PPV), and the bridge block contains an electronically neutral non-conjugated aliphatic hydrocarbon chain. The key synthetic strategy includes the synthesis of each individual block first, then couple the blocks together. While the donor block stabilizes and facilitates the transport of the holes, the acceptor block stabilizes and facilitates the transport of the electrons, the bridge block is designed to hinder the probability of electron-hole recombination. Thus, improved charge separation and stability are expected with this system. In addition, charge migration toward electrodes may also be facilitated due to the potential nano-phase separated and highly ordered block copolymer ultra-structure.

  5. Bi-template assisted synthesis of mesoporous manganese oxide nanostructures: Tuning properties for efficient CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mouni; Basak, Somjyoti; Naskar, Milan Kanti

    2016-02-10

    A simple soft bi-templating process was used for the synthesis of mesoporous manganese oxide nanostructures using KMnO4 as a precursor and polyethylene glycol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as templates in the presence of benzaldehyde as an organic additive in alkaline media, followed by calcination at 400 °C. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the calcined products confirmed the existence of stoichiometric (MnO2 and Mn5O8) and non-stoichiometric mixed phases (MnO2 + Mn5O8) of Mn oxides obtained by tuning the concentration of the additive and the synthesis time. The surface properties of the prepared Mn oxides were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mesoporosity of the samples was confirmed by N2 adsorption-desorption. Different synthetic conditions resulted in the formation of different morphologies of the Mn oxides (α-MnO2, Mn5O8, and α-MnO2 + Mn5O8), such as nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanowires. The synthesized mesoporous Mn oxide nanostructures were used for the catalytic oxidation of the harmful air pollutant carbon monoxide. The Mn5O8 nanoparticles with the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and the non-stoichiometric manganese oxide (α-MnO2 + Mn5O8) nanorods with a higher Mn(3+) concentration had the best catalytic efficiency. PMID:26815335

  6. Efficient catalytic synthesis of dendritic polymers having internal fluorescence labels for bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanghui; Felgner, Philip L; Guan, Zhibin

    2008-07-01

    Here we present an efficient synthesis of functional dendritic polymers carrying internal fluorescence labels for bioconjugation. Specifically, dendritic polymers having pyrene as fluorescence label in the core and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) functional groups at the periphery were synthesized by coupling heterobifunctional PEG to hydroxyl functionalized dendritic polyethylene core. The dendritic polyethylene cores containing one pyrene label per polymer molecule were prepared through a one-step transition-metal-catalyzed polymerization using a pyrene-labeled Pd(II)-alpha-diimine chain walking catalyst. A series of pyrene-labeled dendritic scaffolds were obtained with different molecular weights and sizes. NHS active end groups were introduced to the periphery of the dendritic scaffolds through end-group functionalization. Those NHS-functionalized dendritic scaffolds were successfully used to conjugate a model protein, ovalbumin, to yield protein-polymer conjugates carrying multiple copies of protein attached to each scaffold. PMID:18517245

  7. ACCESS 3. Approximation concepts code for efficient structural synthesis: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleury, C.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A user's guide is presented for ACCESS-3, a research oriented program which combines dual methods and a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and dual algorithms of mathematical programming are applied in the design optimization procedure. This program retains all of the ACCESS-2 capabilities and the data preparation formats are fully compatible. Four distinct optimizer options were added: interior point penalty function method (NEWSUMT); second order primal projection method (PRIMAL2); second order Newton-type dual method (DUAL2); and first order gradient projection-type dual method (DUAL1). A pure discrete and mixed continuous-discrete design variable capability, and zero order approximation of the stress constraints are also included.

  8. Phosphinoyl and thiophosphinoylcarbodithioates: synthesis, molecular structure, and application as new efficient mediators for RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Mazires, Stphane; Kulai, Ihor; Geagea, Roland; Ladeira, Sonia; Destarac, Mathias

    2015-01-19

    New phosphinoyl and thiophosphinoylcarbodithioates were synthesized in a one-pot reaction from the corresponding phosphinochalcogenides. Compounds of this new generation of thiocarbonylthio derivatives have been fully characterized by IR as well as (1)H, (31)P, and (13)C?NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. Their solid-state structures reveal that they are isostructural but crystallize in different space groups. These new compounds are highly efficient reversible chain-transfer agents for the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene (St) and n-butyl acrylate (nBA), with controlled number-average molecular weights (Mn) and narrow dispersity values (<1.3). The controlled character of the polymerization was further exemplified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and the synthesis of PSt-P(nBA) diblock copolymers. PMID:25476265

  9. Efficient synthesis of L-lactic acid from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its abundance and low-price, glycerol has become an attractive carbon source for the industrial production of value-added fuels and chemicals. This work reports the engineering of E. coli for the efficient conversion of glycerol into L-lactic acid (L-lactate). Results Escherichia coli strains have previously been metabolically engineered for the microaerobic production of D-lactic acid from glycerol in defined media by disrupting genes that minimize the synthesis of succinate, acetate, and ethanol, and also overexpressing the respiratory route of glycerol dissimilation (GlpK/GlpD). Here, further rounds of rationale design were performed on these strains for the homofermentative production of L-lactate, not normally produced in E. coli. Specifically, L-lactate production was enabled by: 1), replacing the native D-lactate specific dehydrogenase with Streptococcus bovis L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH), 2) blocking the methylglyoxal bypass pathways to avoid the synthesis of a racemic mixture of D- and L-lactate and prevent the accumulation of toxic intermediate, methylglyoxal, and 3) the native aerobic L-lactate dehydrogenase was blocked to prevent the undesired utilization of L-lactate. The engineered strain produced 50 g/L of L-lactate from 56 g/L of crude glycerol at a yield 93% of the theoretical maximum and with high optical (99.9%) and chemical (97%) purity. Conclusions This study demonstrates the efficient conversion of glycerol to L-lactate, a microbial process that had not been reported in the literature prior to our work. The engineered biocatalysts produced L-lactate from crude glycerol in defined minimal salts medium at high chemical and optical purity. PMID:23347598

  10. Amino acid assisted templating synthesis of hierarchical zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 for efficient arsenate removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Nan; Zhou, Meimei; Zhang, Bingru; Wu, Baozhen; Li, Jie; Qiao, Junlian; Guan, Xiaohong; Li, Fengting

    2013-12-01

    We report the strategy of using the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and amino acid l-histidine (His) as co-templates to produce hierarchical ZIF-8 in an aqueous system at room temperature. The hierarchical ZIF-8 had both meso- and microporous structure, resulting in a high mesopore volume as well as specific surface area which can be controlled by the synthesis conditions. We put forward the hypothesis for the formation of a mesoporous structure and the enhancement of the porosity of ZIF-8 that the histidine plays a key role on the stabilization of CTAB micelles and avoiding the production of unexpected by-products therefore promotes the fabrication of pure phase ZIF-8 containing the mesopores interconnected with micropores. The prepared hierarchical ZIF-8 exhibited an excellent performance as a new kind of porous absorbent for efficient removal of the toxic arsenate.We report the strategy of using the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and amino acid l-histidine (His) as co-templates to produce hierarchical ZIF-8 in an aqueous system at room temperature. The hierarchical ZIF-8 had both meso- and microporous structure, resulting in a high mesopore volume as well as specific surface area which can be controlled by the synthesis conditions. We put forward the hypothesis for the formation of a mesoporous structure and the enhancement of the porosity of ZIF-8 that the histidine plays a key role on the stabilization of CTAB micelles and avoiding the production of unexpected by-products therefore promotes the fabrication of pure phase ZIF-8 containing the mesopores interconnected with micropores. The prepared hierarchical ZIF-8 exhibited an excellent performance as a new kind of porous absorbent for efficient removal of the toxic arsenate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04390h

  11. Micelle-Template Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Graphene as an Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yufei; Ao, Zhimin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of mesoporous graphene materials by soft-template methods remains a great challenge, owing to the poor self-assembly capability of precursors and the severe agglomeration of graphene nanosheets. Herein, a micelle-template strategy to prepare porous graphene materials with controllable mesopores, high specific surface areas and large pore volumes is reported. By fine-tuning the synthesis parameters, the pore sizes of mesoporous graphene can be rationally controlled. Nitrogen heteroatom doping is found to remarkably render electrocatalytic properties towards hydrogen evolution reactions as a highly efficient metal-free catalyst. The synthesis strategy and the demonstration of highly efficient catalytic effect provide benchmarks for preparing well-defined mesoporous graphene materials for energy production applications. PMID:25523276

  12. Ligand-Enabled, Copper-Promoted Regio- and Chemoselective Hydroxylation of Arenes, Aryl Halides, and Aryl Methyl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijaya Kumar; Jana, Ranjan

    2016-02-01

    We report here a practical method for the ortho C-H hydroxylation of benzamides with inexpensive copper(II) acetate monohydrate and a pyridine ligand. An intra- and intermolecular ligand combination was explored to achieve regio- and chemoselective hydroxylation. Interestingly, typical regiochemical scrambling associated with the C-H activation was further resolved by introducing a ligand-directed ortho hydroxylation of haloarenes and aryl methyl ethers. PMID:26762789

  13. Mild and chemoselective lactone ring-opening with (TMS)ONa. Mechanistic studies and application to sweroside derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Hugues; Markovi?, Dean; Deguin, Brigitte

    2014-05-16

    Mild and chemoselective opening of lactones with sodium trimethylsilanolate in high yields and aprotic solvents is described. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the B(Ac)2 mechanistic pathway is followed. Nucleophilic attack of silanolate onto the carbonyl of the lactone moiety is the rate-determining step. NaOH present as an impurity accelerates the reaction. The method was further applied to the base-sensitive and stable lactones derived from highly functionalized iridoid derivatives. PMID:24738692

  14. Efficient synthesis of ?-tertiary ?-silylamines from aryl sulfonylimidates via one-pot, sequential C-Si/C-C bond formations.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Jun; Yao, Ming; Lu, Chong-Dao

    2012-06-01

    An efficient and flexible route for the synthesis of ?-tertiary (?,?-dibranched) ?-silylamines via sequential reactions of sulfonylimidates using readily available phenyldimethylsilyllithium and Grignard reagents is described. The procedure allows successive formation of C-Si/C-C bonds in a single flask. PMID:22621235

  15. Efficient synthesis of ?-quaternary ?-hydroxy-?-amino esters via silyl glyoxylate-mediated three-component reactions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiu-Long; Yao, Ming; Lu, Chong-Dao

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method has been developed for the enantioselective synthesis of fully protected ?-quaternary ?-hydroxy-?-amino esters via the coupling of three components: aryl Grignard reagents (or methyllithium), silyl glyoxylate, and N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines. This protocol enables successive formation of two C-C bonds and two adjacent chiral carbons with high stereocontrol in a one-pot operation. PMID:24308782

  16. Efficient Nazarov Cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangement Terminated by a Cu(II)-Promoted Oxidation: Synthesis of 4-Alkylidene Cyclopentenones

    PubMed Central

    Lebœuf, David; Theiste, Eric; Gandon, Vincent; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Neidig, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of a novel Nazarov cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement/oxidation sequence is described, which constitutes an efficient strategy for the synthesis of 4-alkylidene cyclopentenones. DFT computations and EPR experiments were conducted to gain further mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways. PMID:23436470

  17. Cyanuric Chloride as an Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,3-Unsaturated O-Glycosides by Ferrier Rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Li, Na

    2014-01-01

    Cyanuric chloride has been found to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 2,3-unsaturated O-glycosides from the reaction of 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal and a wide range of alcohols in dichloromethane at room temperature. The experimental procedure is simple, and the products are obtained in high yields. PMID:24574881

  18. AN EFFICIENT AND SIMPLE AQUEOUS N-HETEROCYCLIZATION OF ANILINE DERIVATIVES: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF N-ARYL AZACYCLOALKANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and clean synthesis of N-aryl azacycloalkanes from alkyl dihalides and aniline derivatives has been achieved using microwave irradiation in an aqueous potassium carbonate medium. The phase separation can simplify the product isolation and reduce usage of vol...

  19. Highly efficient one-pot three-component synthesis of naphthopyran derivatives in water catalyzed by hydroxyapatite

    EPA Science Inventory

    An expeditious and efficient protocol for the synthesis of naphthopyrans has been developed that proceeds via one-pot three-component sequential reaction in water catalyzed by hydroxyapatite or sodium-modified-hydroxyapatite. The title compounds have been obtained in high yield a...

  20. An efficient synthesis of novel fused cycloheptatrienes through Mn(II)-mediated formal intermolecular [2 + 2 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Shu, Wen-Ming; Ma, Jun-Rui; Yang, Yan; Wu, An-Xin

    2014-03-01

    A new method for manganous acetate tetrahydrate mediated formal intermolecular [2 + 2 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition was developed for the synthesis of fused cycloheptatriene derivatives from N-(acylmethyl)pyridinium iodides and naphthoquinone. This method provides an innovative route for the efficient and convenient construction of fused seven-membered carbocycles from simple starting materials. PMID:24564369

  1. Total synthesis of muricadienin, the putative key precursor in the solamin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Juliane; Stark, Christian B W

    2014-11-21

    The first total synthesis of muricadienin, the unsaturated putative precursor in the biosynthesis of trans- and cis-solamin is described. Key steps in the synthesis are a chemoselective hydroboration, a Z-selective Wittig reaction, and a Fries rearrangement for introducing the terminal ?-substituted butenolide. Thus, muricadienin can be synthesized in 11 steps from commercially available starting materials in 42% overall yield. PMID:25380309

  2. Efficient Catalytic Activity BiFeO3 Nanoparticles Prepared by Novel Microwave-Assisted Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Gong, Wanyun; Ma, Jinai; Li, Lu; Jiang, Jizhou

    2015-02-01

    A novel microwave-assisted sol-gel method was applied to the synthesis of the single-phase perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BFO NPs) with the mean diameter ca. 73.7 nm. The morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the rhombohedral phase with R3c space group. The weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature was affirmed by the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). According to the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-DSR), the band gap energy of BFO NPs was determined to be 2.18 eV. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by BFO NPs-chitosan-glassy carbon electrode (BFO-CS-GCE) sensor for detection of p-nitrophenol contaminants. The material showed an efficient oxidation catalytic activity by degrading methylene blue (MB). It was found that the degradation efficiency of 10 mg L-1 MB at pH 6.0 was above 90.9% after ultrasound- and microwave-combined-assisted (US-MW) irradiation for 15 min with BFO NPs as catalyst and H202 as oxidant. A possible reaction mechanism of degradation of MB was also proposed. PMID:26353647

  3. Identification of a critical determinant that enables efficient fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous fungi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiqin; Hao, Guangfei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hongchao; Gu, Zhennan; Liu, Liming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are valuable resources for lipid production. What makes one microbe but not the other able to efficiently synthesize and accumulate lipids is poorly understood. In the present study, global gene expression prior to and after the onset of lipogenesis was determined by transcriptomics using the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina as a model system. A core of 23 lipogenesis associated genes was identified and their expression patterns shared a high similarity among oleaginous microbes Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae but was dissimilar to the non-oleaginous Aspergillus nidulans. Unexpectedly, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) were found to be the NADPH producers responding to lipogenesis in the oleaginous microbes. Their role in lipogenesis was confirmed by a knockdown experiment. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the PPP plays a significant role during fungal lipogenesis. Up-regulation of NADPH production by the PPP, especially G6PD, may be one of the critical determinants that enables efficiently fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous microbes. PMID:26059272

  4. Efficient Synthesis of Peptide and Protein Functionalized Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides Using Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Brian M G; van Ommeren, Sven P F I; Merkx, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of DNA-based bionanotechnology requires efficient strategies to functionalize DNA nanostructures in a specific manner with other biomolecules, most importantly peptides and proteins. Common DNA-functionalization methods rely on laborious and covalent conjugation between DNA and proteins or peptides. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides, based on natural minor groove DNA-binding small molecules, can bind to DNA in a sequence specific fashion. In this study, we explore the use of Py-Im polyamides for addressing proteins and peptides to DNA in a sequence specific and non-covalent manner. A generic synthetic approach based on native chemical ligation was established that allows efficient conjugation of both peptides and recombinant proteins to Py-Im polyamides. The effect of Py-Im polyamide conjugation on DNA binding was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Although the synthesis of different protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates was successful, attenuation of DNA affinity was observed, in particular for the protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates. The practical use of protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates for addressing DNA structures in an orthogonal but non-covalent manner, therefore, remains to be established. PMID:26053396

  5. Efficient Synthesis of Peptide and Protein Functionalized Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides Using Native Chemical Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Brian M. G.; van Ommeren, Sven P. F. I.; Merkx, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of DNA-based bionanotechnology requires efficient strategies to functionalize DNA nanostructures in a specific manner with other biomolecules, most importantly peptides and proteins. Common DNA-functionalization methods rely on laborious and covalent conjugation between DNA and proteins or peptides. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py–Im) polyamides, based on natural minor groove DNA-binding small molecules, can bind to DNA in a sequence specific fashion. In this study, we explore the use of Py–Im polyamides for addressing proteins and peptides to DNA in a sequence specific and non-covalent manner. A generic synthetic approach based on native chemical ligation was established that allows efficient conjugation of both peptides and recombinant proteins to Py–Im polyamides. The effect of Py–Im polyamide conjugation on DNA binding was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Although the synthesis of different protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates was successful, attenuation of DNA affinity was observed, in particular for the protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates. The practical use of protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates for addressing DNA structures in an orthogonal but non-covalent manner, therefore, remains to be established. PMID:26053396

  6. Identification of a critical determinant that enables efficient fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiqin; Hao, Guangfei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hongchao; Gu, Zhennan; Liu, Liming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are valuable resources for lipid production. What makes one microbe but not the other able to efficiently synthesize and accumulate lipids is poorly understood. In the present study, global gene expression prior to and after the onset of lipogenesis was determined by transcriptomics using the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina as a model system. A core of 23 lipogenesis associated genes was identified and their expression patterns shared a high similarity among oleaginous microbes Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae but was dissimilar to the non-oleaginous Aspergillus nidulans. Unexpectedly, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) were found to be the NADPH producers responding to lipogenesis in the oleaginous microbes. Their role in lipogenesis was confirmed by a knockdown experiment. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the PPP plays a significant role during fungal lipogenesis. Up-regulation of NADPH production by the PPP, especially G6PD, may be one of the critical determinants that enables efficiently fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous microbes. PMID:26059272

  7. Efficient Rhodium-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reaction for the Synthesis of Novel Propargylamines.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Prez, Laura; Iglesias, Manuel; Munrriz, Julen; Polo, Victor; Prez-Torrente, Jess J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-12-01

    [{Rh(?-Cl)(H)2 (IPr)}2 ] (IPr = 1,3-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazole-2-ylidene) was found to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of novel propargylamines by a one-pot three-component reaction between primary arylamines, aliphatic aldehydes, and triisopropylsilylacetylene. This methodology offers an efficient synthetic pathway for the preparation of secondary propargylamines derived from aliphatic aldehydes. The reactivity of [{Rh(?-Cl)(H)2 (IPr)}2 ] with amines and aldehydes was studied, leading to the identification of complexes [RhCl(CO)IPr(MesNH2 )] (MesNH2 = 2,4,6-trimethylaniline) and [RhCl(CO)2 IPr]. The latter shows a very low catalytic activity while the former brought about reaction rates similar to those obtained with [{Rh(?-Cl)(H)2 (IPr)}2 ]. Besides, complex [RhCl(CO)IPr(MesNH2 )] reacts with an excess of amine and aldehyde to give [RhCl(CO)IPr{MesN?CHCH2 CH(CH3 )2 }], which was postulated as the active species. A mechanism that clarifies the scarcely studied catalytic cycle of A3 -coupling reactions is proposed based on reactivity studies and DFT calculations. PMID:26490447

  8. Nonlinear inverse synthesis for high spectral efficiency transmission in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Le, Son Thai; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2014-11-01

    In linear communication channels, spectral components (modes) defined by the Fourier transform of the signal propagate without interactions with each other. In certain nonlinear channels, such as the one modelled by the classical nonlinear Schrdinger equation, there are nonlinear modes (nonlinear signal spectrum) that also propagate without interacting with each other and without corresponding nonlinear cross talk, effectively, in a linear manner. Here, we describe in a constructive way how to introduce such nonlinear modes for a given input signal. We investigate the performance of the nonlinear inverse synthesis (NIS) method, in which the information is encoded directly onto the continuous part of the nonlinear signal spectrum. This transmission technique, combined with the appropriate distributed Raman amplification, can provide an effective eigenvalue division multiplexing with high spectral efficiency, thanks to highly suppressed channel cross talk. The proposed NIS approach can be integrated with any modulation formats. Here, we demonstrate numerically the feasibility of merging the NIS technique in a burst mode with high spectral efficiency methods, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and Nyquist pulse shaping with advanced modulation formats (e.g., QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM), showing a performance improvement up to 4.5 dB, which is comparable to results achievable with multi-step per span digital back propagation. PMID:25401821

  9. Efficient cascade synthesis of ampicillin from penicillin G potassium salt using wild and mutant penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Senwen; Ma, Xiaoqiang; Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-02-10

    To avoid isolation and purification of the intermediate 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), a two-enzyme two-step cascade synthesis of ampicillin from penicillin G was established. In purely aqueous medium, penicillin G hydrolysis and ampicillin synthesis were catalyzed by immobilized wild-type and mutagenized penicillin G acylases from Alcaligenes faecalis (Af PGA), respectively (Fig. 1). The ?F24 G mutant Af PGA (the 24th Phenylalanine of the ?-subunit was replaced by Glycine) was employed for its superior performance in enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin. By optimizing the reaction conditions, including enzyme loading, temperature, initial pH and d-PGME/6-APA ratio, the conversion of the second step of ampicillin synthesis reached approximately 90% in 240min and less than 1.7mole d-PGME were required to produce 1mole ampicillin. Overall, in a 285min continuous two-step procedure, an ampicillin yield of 87% was achieved, demonstrating the possibility of improving the cascade synthesis of ampicillin by mutagenized PGA, providing an economically efficient and environmentally benign procedure for semi-synthetic penicillins antibiotics synthesis. PMID:26732414

  10. Formal Synthesis of 7-Methoxymitosene and Synthesis of its Analog via a Key PtCl2-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lianzhu; Wang, Yanzhao

    2012-01-01

    A formal synthesis of 7-methoxymitosene is achieved via a key platinum-catalyzed cycloisomerization. The precursor for the Pt catalysis, a fully functionalized benzene intermediate, was prepared via a regioselective electrophilic bromination followed by a chemoselective Sonogashira cross-coupling. It underwent the PtCl2-catalyzed cycloisomerization smoothly albeit its hindered and highly electron-rich nature. Analogs of 7-methoxymitosene can be accessed in an expedient manner by following a similar synthetic sequence. PMID:22765272

  11. Can oriented-attachment be an efficient growth mechanism for the synthesis of 1D nanocrystals via atomic layer deposition?

    PubMed

    Wen, Kechun; He, Weidong

    2015-09-25

    One-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals, such as nanorods and nanowires, have received extensive attention in the nanomaterials field due to their large surface areas and 1D confined transport properties. Oriented attachment (OA) is now recognized as a major growth mechanism for efficiently synthesizing 1D nanocrystals. Recently, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been modified to be a powerful vapor-phase technique with which to synthesize 1D OA nanorods/nanowires with high efficiency and quality by increasing the temperature and purging time. In this invited mini-review, we look into the advantages of OA and high-temperature ALD, and investigate the potential of employing the OA growth mechanism for the synthesis of 1D nanocrystals via modified ALD, aiming to provide guidance to researchers in the fields of both OA and ALD for efficient synthesis of 1D nanocrystals. PMID:26334690

  12. Can oriented-attachment be an efficient growth mechanism for the synthesis of 1D nanocrystals via atomic layer deposition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Kechun; He, Weidong

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals, such as nanorods and nanowires, have received extensive attention in the nanomaterials field due to their large surface areas and 1D confined transport properties. Oriented attachment (OA) is now recognized as a major growth mechanism for efficiently synthesizing 1D nanocrystals. Recently, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been modified to be a powerful vapor-phase technique with which to synthesize 1D OA nanorods/nanowires with high efficiency and quality by increasing the temperature and purging time. In this invited mini-review, we look into the advantages of OA and high-temperature ALD, and investigate the potential of employing the OA growth mechanism for the synthesis of 1D nanocrystals via modified ALD, aiming to provide guidance to researchers in the fields of both OA and ALD for efficient synthesis of 1D nanocrystals.

  13. Efficient Synthesis of ?-Aryl-?-lactams and Their Resolution with (S)-Naproxen: Preparation of (R)- and (S)-Baclofen.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Balbs, Iris J; Valentn-Guevara, Berenice; Lpez-Mendoza, Estefana; Linzaga-Elizalde, Irma; Ordoez, Mario; Romn-Bravo, Perla

    2015-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of enantiomerically-pure ?-aryl-?-lactams is described. The principal feature of this synthesis is the practical resolution of ?-aryl-?-lactams with (S)-Naproxen. The procedure is based on the Michael addition of nitromethane to benzylidenemalonates, which was easily obtained, followed by the reduction of the ?-nitroester in the presence of Raney nickel and the subsequent saponification/decarboxylation reaction. The utility of this methodology was highlighted by the preparation of enantiomerically-pure (R)- and (S)-Baclofen hydrochloride. PMID:26690390

  14. Efficient microwave assisted synthesis of metal-organic framework UiO-66: optimization and scale up.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Marco; Dau, Phuong V; Cohen, Seth M; Ranocchiari, Marco; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Costantino, Ferdinando; Sabatini, Stefano; Vivani, Riccardo

    2015-08-21

    A highly efficient and scalable microwave assisted synthesis of zirconium-based metal-organic framework UiO-66 was developed. In order to identify the best conditions for optimizing the process, a wide range of parameters was investigated. The efficiency of the process was evaluated with the aid of four quantitative indicators. The properties of the materials prepared by microwave irradiation were compared with those synthesized by conventional heating, and no significant effects on morphology, crystal size, or defects were found from the use of microwave assisted heating. Scale up was performed maintaining the high efficiency of the process. PMID:26165508

  15. Simple and efficient synthesis of 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl triflate for high yield (18)fluoroethylation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Tanja; Vogg, Andreas; Oppel, Iris M; Schmaljohann, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The [(18)F]fluoroethyl moiety has been widely utilized in the synthesis of (18)F-labelled compounds. The aim of this work was the reliable synthesis of [(18)F]FEtOTf with a novel strategy to increase the reactivity of the commonly used [(18)F]FEB and [(18)F]FEtOTos. [(18)F]FEtOTf and the intermediate [(18)F]FEtOH were synthesized in high RCY (78% and 85%, respectively) and purified by SPE. The high potency of [(18)F]FEtOTf was shown by the efficient alkylation of the deactivated nucleophile aniline under mild conditions, as well as by the synthesis of [(18)F]FEC. PMID:25189703

  16. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, Co(x)Mn(3-x)O4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries. PMID:26040417

  17. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3-xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries.

  18. Biochemical Characterization of a First Fungal Esterase from Rhizomucor miehei Showing High Efficiency of Ester Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Xu, Haibo; Yan, Qiaojuan; Yang, Shaoqing; Duan, Xiaojie; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Esterases with excellent merits suitable for commercial use in ester production field are still insufficient. The aim of this research is to advance our understanding by seeking for more unusual esterases and revealing their characterizations for ester synthesis. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel esterase-encoding gene from Rhizomucor miehei (RmEstA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequence analysis revealed a 975-bp ORF encoding a 324-amino-acid polypeptide belonging to the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) family IV and showing highest similarity (44%) to the Paenibacillus mucilaginosus esterase/lipase. Recombinant RmEstA was purified to homogeneity: it was 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE and showed optimal pH and temperature of 6.5 and 45C, respectively. The enzyme was stable to 50C, under a broad pH range (5.010.6). RmEstA exhibited broad substrate specificity toward p-nitrophenol esters and short-acyl-chain triglycerols, with highest activities (1,480 U mg?1 and 228 U mg?1) for p-nitrophenyl hexanoate and tributyrin, respectively. RmEstA efficiently synthesized butyl butyrate (92% conversion yield) when immobilized on AOT-based organogel. Conclusion RmEstA has great potential for industrial applications. RmEstA is the first reported esterase from Rhizomucor miehei. PMID:24204998

  19. Towards efficient chemical synthesis via engineering enzyme catalysis in biomimetic nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Yang, Qihua; Li, Can

    2015-09-18

    Biocatalysis with immobilized enzymes as catalysts holds enormous promise in developing more efficient and sustainable processes for the synthesis of fine chemicals, chiral pharmaceuticals and biomass feedstocks. Despite the appealing potentials, nowadays the industrial-scale application of biocatalysts is still quite modest in comparison with that of traditional chemical catalysts. A critical issue is that the catalytic performance of enzymes, the sophisticated and vulnerable catalytic machineries, strongly depends on their intracellular working environment; however the working circumstances provided by the support matrix are radically different from those in cells. This often leads to various adverse consequences on enzyme conformation and dynamic properties, consequently decreasing the overall performance of immobilized enzymes with regard to their activity, selectivity and stability. Engineering enzyme catalysis in support nanopores by mimicking the physiological milieu of enzymes in vivo and investigating how the interior microenvironment of nanopores imposes an influence on enzyme behaviors in vitro are of paramount significance to modify and improve the catalytic functions of immobilized enzymes. In this feature article, we have summarized the recent advances in mimicking the working environment and working patterns of intracellular enzymes in nanopores of mesoporous silica-based supports. Especially, we have demonstrated that incorporation of polymers into silica nanopores could be a valuable approach to create the biomimetic microenvironment for enzymes in the immobilized state. PMID:26208044

  20. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3−xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation–precipitation and insertion–crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn–air and Li–air batteries. PMID:26040417

  1. Efficient synthesis of tension modulation in strings and membranes based on energy estimation.

    PubMed

    Avanzini, Federico; Marogna, Riccardo; Bank, Balzs

    2012-01-01

    String and membrane vibrations cannot be considered as linear above a certain amplitude due to the variation in string or membrane tension. A relevant special case is when the tension is spatially constant and varies in time only in dependence of the overall string length or membrane surface. The most apparent perceptual effect of this tension modulation phenomenon is the exponential decay of pitch in time. Pitch glides due to tension modulation are an important timbral characteristic of several musical instruments, including the electric guitar and tom-tom drum, and many ethnic instruments. This paper presents a unified formulation to the tension modulation problem for one-dimensional (1-D) (string) and two-dimensional (2-D) (membrane) cases. In addition, it shows that the short-time average of the tension variation, which is responsible for pitch glides, is approximately proportional to the system energy. This proportionality allows the efficient physics-based sound synthesis of pitch glides. The proposed models require only slightly more computational resources than linear models as opposed to earlier tension-modulated models of higher complexity. PMID:22280712

  2. Hyperspectral data processing for chemoselective multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of unknown samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohling, Christoph; Buckup, Tiago; Motzkus, Marcus

    2011-02-01

    Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (MCARS) provides labeling free and fast characterization of materials and biological samples in nonlinear microscopy. In spite of its success, remaining challenges regarding the data analysis for chemoselective imaging still have to be solved. In general, image contrast has been realized by using only one spectral feature directly taken from the unprocessed raw data. This procedure is limited to strong and well separated Raman resonances like the saturated CH-stretching vibration of lipids in the case of biological samples. In order to overcome this limitation, we present a new method of MCARS data processing that exploits the whole measured spectrum to disentangle overlapping contributions of different (bio-) chemical components. Our ``two-step'' approach is based on the combination of imaginary part extraction followed by global fitting of the hyperspectral data set. Previous knowledge about the sample, e.g., pure spectra of the individual components is no longer necessary. The result is a highly contrasted image, where the patterns and differences between the sample components can be represented in different colors. We successfully applied this method to complex structured polymer samples and biological tissues.

  3. Stereoselective, nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascades for the direct synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    Jakubec, Pavol; Cockfield, Dane M; Helliwell, Madeleine; Raftery, James

    2012-01-01

    Summary A versatile nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade for the direct stereoselective synthesis of heavily decorated 5-nitropiperidin-2-ones and related heterocycles has been developed. A highly enantioenriched substituted 5-nitropiperidin-2-one was synthesised in a four component one-pot reaction combining an enantioselective organocatalytic Michael addition with the diastereoselective nitro-Mannich/lactamisation cascade. Protodenitration and chemoselective reductive manipulation of the heterocycles was used to install contiguous and fully substituted stereocentres in the synthesis of substituted piperidines. PMID:22563355

  4. Reactivity and Chemoselectivity of Allenes in Rh(I)-Catalyzed Intermolecular (5 + 2) Cycloadditions with Vinylcyclopropanes: Allene-Mediated Rhodacycle Formation Can Poison Rh(I)-Catalyzed Cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Allenes are important 2? building blocks in organic synthesis and engage as 2-carbon components in many metal-catalyzed reactions. Wender and co-workers discovered that methyl substituents on the terminal allene double bond counterintuitively change the reactivities of allenes in [Rh(CO)2Cl]2-catalyzed intermolecular (5 + 2) cycloadditions with vinylcyclopropanes (VCPs). More sterically encumbered allenes afford higher cycloadduct yields, and such effects are also observed in other Rh(I)-catalyzed intermolecular cycloadditions. Through density functional theory calculations (B3LYP and M06) and experiment, we explored this enigmatic reactivity and selectivity of allenes in [Rh(CO)2Cl]2-catalyzed intermolecular (5 + 2) cycloadditions with VCPs. The apparent low reactivity of terminally unsubstituted allenes is associated with a competing allene dimerization that irreversibly sequesters rhodium. With terminally substituted allenes, steric repulsion between the terminal substituents significantly increases the barrier of allene dimerization while the barrier of the (5 + 2) cycloaddition is not affected, and thus the cycloaddition prevails. Computation has also revealed the origin of chemoselectivity in (5 + 2) cycloadditions with allene-ynes. Although simple allene and acetylene have similar reaction barriers, intermolecular (5 + 2) cycloadditions of allene-ynes occur exclusively at the terminal allene double bond. The terminal double bond is more reactive due to the enhanced d??* backdonation. At the same time, insertion of the internal double bond of an allene-yne has a higher barrier as it would break ? conjugation. Substituted alkynes are more difficult to insert compared with acetylene, because of the steric repulsion from the additional substituents. This leads to the greater reactivity of the allene double bond relative to the alkynyl group in allene-ynes. PMID:25379606

  5. Microscopic Investigation of Chemoselectivity in Ag-Pt-Fe3O4 Heterotrimer Formation: Mechanistic Insights and Implications for Controlling High-Order Hybrid Nanoparticle Morphology.

    PubMed

    Hodges, James M; Morse, James R; Williams, Mary Elizabeth; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-12-16

    Three-component hybrid nanoparticle heterotrimers, which are important multifunctional constructs that underpin diverse applications, are commonly synthesized by growing a third domain off of a two-component heterodimer seed. However, because heterodimer seeds expose two distinct surfaces that often can both support nucleation and growth, selectively targeting one particular surface is critical for exclusively accessing a desired configuration. Understanding and controlling nucleation and growth therefore enables the rational formation of high-order hybrid nanoparticles. Here, we report an in-depth microscopic investigation that probes the chemoselective addition of Ag to Pt-Fe3O4 heterodimer seeds to form Ag-Pt-Fe3O4 heterotrimers. We find that the formation of the Ag-Pt-Fe3O4 heterotrimers initiates with indiscriminate Ag nucleation onto both the Pt and Fe3O4 surfaces of Pt-Fe3O4, followed by surface diffusion and coalescence of Ag onto the Pt surface to form the Ag-Pt-Fe3O4 product. Control experiments reveal that the size of the Ag domain of Ag-Pt-Fe3O4 correlates with the overall surface area of the Pt-Fe3O4 seeds, which is consistent with the coalescence of Ag through a surface-mediated process and can also be exploited to tune the size of the Ag domain. Additionally, we observe that small iron oxide islands on the Pt surface of the Pt-Fe3O4 seeds, deposited during the formation of Pt-Fe3O4, define the morphology of the Ag domain, which in turn influences its optical properties. These results provide unprecedented microscopic insights into the pathway by which Ag-Pt-Fe3O4 heterotrimer nanoparticles form and uncover new design guidelines for the synthesis of high-order hybrid nanoparticles with precisely targeted morphologies and properties. PMID:26599998

  6. Time- and energy-efficient solution combustion synthesis of binary metal tungstate nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abegayl; Janáky, Csaba; Samu, Gergely F; Huda, Muhammad N; Sarker, Pranab; Liu, J Ping; van Nguyen, Vuong; Wang, Evelyn H; Schug, Kevin A; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2015-05-22

    In the search for stable and efficient photocatalysts beyond TiO2 , the tungsten-based oxide semiconductors silver tungstate (Ag2 WO4 ), copper tungstate (CuWO4 ), and zinc tungstate (ZnWO4 ) were prepared using solution combustion synthesis (SCS). The tungsten precursor's influence on the product was of particular relevance to this study, and the most significant effects are highlighted. Each sample's photocatalytic activity towards methyl orange degradation was studied and benchmarked against their respective commercial oxide sample obtained by solid-state ceramic synthesis. Based on the results herein, we conclude that SCS is a time- and energy-efficient method to synthesize crystalline binary tungstate nanomaterials even without additional excessive heat treatment. As many of these photocatalysts possess excellent photocatalytic activity, the discussed synthetic strategy may open sustainable materials chemistry avenues to solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. PMID:26018624

  7. An Efficient Solution-Phase Synthesis of 4,5,7-Trisubstituted Pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weihe; Liu, Jing; Stashko, Michael A.; Wang, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an efficient and robust route to synthesize 4,5,7-trisubstituted pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines as potent kinase inhibitors. This solution-phase synthesis features a SNAr substitution reaction, cross-coupling reaction, one-pot reduction/reductive amination and N-alkylation reaction. These reactions occur rapidly with high yields and have broad substrate scopes. A variety of groups can be selectively introduced into the N5 and C7 positions of 4,5,7-trisubstituted pyrrolopyrimidines at a late stage of the synthesis, thereby providing a highly efficient approach to explore the structure-activity relationships of pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives. Four synthetic analogs have been profiled against a panel of 48 kinases and a new and selective FLT3 inhibitor 9 is identified. PMID:23181516

  8. Efficient Synthesis of Poly(hydroxyethyl Methacrylate)-b-Poly(dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate) Block Copolymer by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2009-03-01

    Polymers containing hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) have found wide applications in areas such as bioseparation, tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery. The controlled synthesis of block copolymers of PDMAEMA-b-PHEMA from PDMAEMA macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), however, has not been successful due to the loss of chain end functionality during polymerization. We report an ATRP system that affords efficient chain extension from PDMAEMA to HEMA using Cu(0)/1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyltriethylenetetramine as the catalyst, 2-chloropropionitrile as the initiator in methanol at room temperature. A clear peak shift in the gel permeation chromatography trace towards shorter elution times indicates chain growth on HEMA addition. The chain end functionalities of PDMAEMA are thus retained and can be used to efficiently initiate chain extension reaction of HEMA. This new synthetic route opens new possibilities for the synthesis of pH- and temperature-responsive systems containing DMAEMA.

  9. A simple and efficient synthesis of substituted 2,2'-bithiophene and 2,2':5',2″-terthiophene.

    PubMed

    Kostyuchenko, Anastasia S; Averkov, Alexey M; Fisyuk, Alexander S

    2014-04-01

    A simple and efficient approach is developed for the synthesis of substituted 2,2'-bithiophene- and 2,2':5',2″-terthiophene-5-carboxylic acids and esters which is based on thiophene ring closure in the Fiesselmann reaction. Using this method, derivatives containing a long alkyl chain with or without an end functional group or an aryl substituent can be conveniently prepared. PMID:24624889

  10. An efficient total synthesis of a potent anti-inflammatory agent, benzocamphorin F, and its anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Ren; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liang, Jun-Weil; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2012-01-01

    A naturally occurring enynyl-benzenoid, benzocamphorin F (1), from the edible fungus Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) was characterized by comprehensive spectral analysis. It displays anti-inflammatory bioactivity and is valuable for further biological studies. The present study is the first total synthesis of benzocamphorin F and the developed strategy described is a more efficient procedure that allowe the large-scale production of benzocamphorin F for further research of the biological activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22949872

  11. Highly efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of cyano-substituted acrylate esters for synthesis of chiral ?-lactams and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kong, Duanyang; Li, Meina; Wang, Rui; Zi, Guofu; Hou, Guohua

    2016-01-28

    A highly efficient and enantioselective synthesis of ?-lactams and ?-amino acids by Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation has been developed. Using the Rh-(S,S)-f-spiroPhos complex, under mild conditions a wide range of 3-cyano acrylate esters including both E and Z-isomers and ?-cyano-?-aryl-?,?-unsaturated ketones were first hydrogenated with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee) and high turnover numbers (TON up to 10?000). PMID:26661067

  12. An approach to pancratistatins via ring-closing metathesis: efficient synthesis of novel 1-aryl-1-deoxyconduritols F. cv.

    PubMed

    Nadein, Oleg N; Kornienko, Alexander

    2004-03-01

    Structurally novel cyclitols, 1-aryl-1-deoxyconduritols F, were efficiently prepared from d-xylose, utilizing RCM as a key step. Various aromatic residues were incorporated in the cyclitol skeleton with total stereochemical control, utilizing a diastereoselective aryl cuprate addition to a gamma-alkoxy enoate. The synthetic route establishes a firm foundation for a practical synthesis of the antitumor alkaloid pancratistatin and its aryl analogues. [structure: see text] PMID:14986986

  13. An Efficient Total Synthesis of a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Benzocamphorin F, and Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yu-Ren; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liang, Jun-Weil; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2012-01-01

    A naturally occurring enynyl-benzenoid, benzocamphorin F (1), from the edible fungus Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) was characterized by comprehensive spectral analysis. It displays anti-inflammatory bioactivity and is valuable for further biological studies. The present study is the first total synthesis of benzocamphorin F and the developed strategy described is a more efficient procedure that allowe the large-scale production of benzocamphorin F for further research of the biological activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22949872

  14. Intramolecular carbolithiation of N-allyl-ynamides: an efficient entry to 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyridines application to a formal synthesis of sarizotan

    PubMed Central

    Gati, Wafa; Rammah, Mohamed M; Rammah, Mohamed B

    2012-01-01

    Summary We have developed a general synthesis of polysubstituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyridines based on a highly regioselective lithiation/6-endo-dig intramolecular carbolithiation from readily available N-allyl-ynamides. This reaction, which has been successfully applied to the formal synthesis of the anti-dyskinesia agent sarizotan, further extends the use of ynamides in organic synthesis and further demonstrates the synthetic efficiency of carbometallation reactions. PMID:23365632

  15. Efficient continuous synthesis of high purity deep eutectic solvents by twin screw extrusion.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D E; Wright, L A; James, S L; Abbott, A P

    2016-03-01

    Mechanochemical synthesis has been applied to the rapid synthesis of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), including Reline 200 (choline chloride?:?urea, 1?:?2), in a continuous flow methodology by Twin Screw Extrusion (TSE). This gave products in higher purity and with Space Time Yields (STYs), four orders of magnitude greater than for batch methods. PMID:26911554

  16. β-Cyclodextrin for design of alumina supported cobalt catalysts efficient in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jean-Marie, Alan; Griboval-Constant, Anne; Khodakov, Andrei Y; Monflier, Eric; Diehl, Fabrice

    2011-10-14

    Addition of β-cyclodextrin during catalyst preparation strongly affects the structure and catalytic performance of alumina supported cobalt catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Impregnation of the support with solutions containing β-cyclodextrin leads to higher metal dispersion and spectacularly enhances both reaction rate and heavy hydrocarbons productivity in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. PMID:21874176

  17. Synthesis of Colloidal Nanocrystal Heterostructures for High-Efficiency Light Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yifei

    Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, particularly those based on ZnCdS(Se), can be synthesized using well established chemical colloidal processes, and have been a subject of extensive research over the past decade. Their optical properties can be easily tuned through size and composition variations, making them very attractive for many optoelectronic applications including light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells. Incorporation of diverse internal heterostructures provides an additional means for tuning the optical and electronic properties of conventional ZnCdS(Se) nanocrystals. Extensive bandgap and strain engineering may be applied to the resultant nanocrystal heterostructures to achieve desirable properties and enhanced performance. Despite the high scientific and practical interests of this unique class of nanomaterials, limited efforts have been made to explore their synthesis and potential device applications. This thesis focuses on the synthesis, engineering, characterization, and device demonstration of two types of CdSe-based nanocrystal heterostructures: core/multishell quantum dots (QDs) and QD quantum wells (QDQWs). Their optical properties have been tuned by bandgap and strain engineering to achieve efficient photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL).Firstly, yellow light-emitting CdSe QDs with a strain-compensated ZnS/ZnCdS bilayer shell were synthesized using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique and the effects of the shell on the luminescent properties were investigated. The core/shell/shell QDs enjoyed the benefits of excellent exciton confinement by the ZnS intermediate shell and strain compensation by the ZnCdS outer shell, and exhibited 40% stronger PL and a smaller peak redshift upon shell growth compared to conventional CdSe/ZnCdS/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs with an intermediate lattice adaptor. CdSe/ZnS/ZnCdS QD-LEDs had a luminance of 558 cd/m2 at 20 mA/cm 2, 28% higher than that of CdSe/ZnCdS/ZnS QD-LEDs. Secondly, CdS/CdSe/ZnS QDQWs were synthesized and their luminescence was tuned in an effort to realize efficient blue light emission from CdSe nanocrystals. CdSe QWs with a well width of 1.05 nm emitted at 467 nm with a spectral full-width-at-half-maximum of ~30 nm. With a 3-monolayer ZnS cladding layer which also acts as a passivating and strain-compensating layer, the QDQWs acquired a ~35% PL quantum yield (QY). Blue and green EL was obtained from QDQW-LEDs with 3-4.5 monolayers (MLs) QWs. It was found that as the well width and peak wavelength decreased, the overall EL was increasingly dominated by defect state emission, suggesting the device performance is mainly limited by poor charge injection into the QDQWs.

  18. Direct formation of small Cu2O nanocubes, octahedra, and octapods for efficient synthesis of triazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ya-Huei; Chanda, Kaushik; Chu, Yi-Ting; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Huang, Michael H.

    2014-07-01

    In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge lengths of 37 and 67 nm, respectively. Novel Cu2O octapods with an edge length of 135 nm were also produced by mixing CuCl2 solution, SDS surfactant, NaOH solution, and NH2OH.HCl reductant solution. All of them are nearly the smallest Cu2O nanocrystals of the same shapes ever reported. These small cubes, octahedra, and octapods were employed as catalysts in the direct synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from the reaction of alkynes, organic halides, and NaN3 at 55 C. All of them displayed high product yields in short reaction times. The octahedra enclosed by the {111} facets are the best catalysts, and can catalyze this cycloaddition reaction with high yields in just 2 h when different alkynes were used to make diverse triazole products. Hence, the small Cu2O particles provide time-saving, energy-efficient, and high product yield benefits to organocatalysis.In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge lengths of 37 and 67 nm, respectively. Novel Cu2O octapods with an edge length of 135 nm were also produced by mixing CuCl2 solution, SDS surfactant, NaOH solution, and NH2OH.HCl reductant solution. All of them are nearly the smallest Cu2O nanocrystals of the same shapes ever reported. These small cubes, octahedra, and octapods were employed as catalysts in the direct synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from the reaction of alkynes, organic halides, and NaN3 at 55 C. All of them displayed high product yields in short reaction times. The octahedra enclosed by the {111} facets are the best catalysts, and can catalyze this cycloaddition reaction with high yields in just 2 h when different alkynes were used to make diverse triazole products. Hence, the small Cu2O particles provide time-saving, energy-efficient, and high product yield benefits to organocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of Cu2O nanocrystals with shape evolution, XRD patterns, calculations for the determination of volumes needed for the catalysis experiment, spectral characterization of the triazole products synthesized and their NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02076f

  19. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles for the efficient removal (degradation) of dye from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports the utilization of a common household waste material (fish scales of Labeo rohita) for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. The method so developed was found to be green, environment-friendly, and economic. The fish scale extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates, and solvents. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of nanoparticles have also been presented. The synthesized copper nanoparticles formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of nanoparticles in the range of 25-37nm. The copper nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc which was supported by both selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction pattern and showed surface plasmon resonance at 580nm. Moreover, the energy dispersive spectroscopy pattern also revealed the presence of only elemental copper in the copper nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were used for the remediation of a carcinogenic and noxious textile dye, Methylene blue, from aqueous solution. Approximately, 96% degradation of Methylene blue dye was observed within 135min using copper nanoparticles. The probable mechanism for the degradation of the dye has been presented, and the degraded intermediates have been identified using the liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The high efficiency of nanoparticles as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dye from industrial effluents contributing indirectly to environmental cleanup process. PMID:26300362

  20. Efficient synthesis of ?- and ?-carbolines by sequential Pd-catalyzed site-selective C-C and twofold C-N coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tran Quang; Dang, Tuan Thanh; Janke, Julia; Villinger, Alexander; Langer, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Two concise and efficient approaches were developed for the synthesis of ?- and ?-carboline derivatives. The success of the synthesis relies on site-selective Suzuki-Miyaura reactions of 1-chloro-2-bromopyridine or 2,3-dibromopyridine with 2-bromophenylboronic acid and subsequent cyclization with amines which proceeds by twofold Pd-catalyzed C-N coupling reactions. PMID:25464277

  1. Partially reduced iridium oxide clusters dispersed on titania as efficient catalysts for facile synthesis of dimethylformamide from CO2, H2 and dimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Bi, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Jian-Dong; Liu, Yong-Mei; Xie, Song-Hai; He, He-Yong; Cao, Yong

    2014-08-21

    A novel bifunctional catalyst based on partially reduced iridium oxide supported on TiO2 was found to be exceedingly efficient for the organic-solvent-free synthesis of dimethylformamide from CO2, H2 and dimethylamine. PMID:24990297

  2. Scalable Synthesis of Cortistatin A and Related Structures

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jun; Manolikakes, Georg; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Guerrero, Carlos A.; Shenvi, Ryan A.; Shigehisa, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Full details are provided for an improved synthesis of cortistatin A and related structures as well as the underlying logic and evolution of strategy. The highly functionalized cortistatin A-ring embedded with a key heteroadamantane was synthesized by a simple and scalable 5-step sequence. A chemoselective, tandem geminal dihalogenation of an unactivated methyl group, a reductive fragmentation/trapping/elimination of a bromocyclopropane, and a facile chemoselective etherification reaction afforded the cortistatin A core, dubbed cortistatinone. A selective ?16-alkene reduction with Raney Ni provided cortistatin A. With this scalable and practical route, copious quantities of cortistatinone, ?16-cortistatin A-the equipotent direct precursor to cortistatin A, and its related analogs were prepared for further biological studies. PMID:21539314

  3. Size Dependence of Atomically Precise Gold Nanoclusters in Chemoselective Hydrogenation and Active Site Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Gao; Jiang, Deen; Kumar, Santosh; Chen, Yuxiang; Jin, Rongchao

    2014-01-01

    We here investigate the catalytic properties of water-soluble Aun(SG)m nanocluster catalysts (H-SG = glutathione) of different sizes, including Au15(SG)13, Au18(SG)14, Au25(SG)18, Au38(SG)24, and captopril-capped Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters. These Aun(SR)m nanoclusters (-SR represents thiolate generally) are used as homogeneous catalysts (i.e., without supports) in the chemoselective hydrogenation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (4-NO2PhCHO) to 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol (4-NO2PhCH2OH) in water with H2 gas (20 bar) as the hydrogen source. These nanocluster catalysts, except Au18(SG)14, remain intact after the catalytic reaction, evidenced by UV-vis spectra which are characteristic of each sized nanoclusters and thus serve as spectroscopic fingerprints . We observe a drastic size-dependence and steric effect of protecting ligands on the gold nanocluster catalysts in the hydrogenation reaction. Density functional theory (DFT) modeling of the 4-nitrobenzaldehyde adsorption shows that both the CHO and NO2 groups are in close interact with the S-Au-S staples on the gold nanocluster surface; the adsorption of the 4-nitrobenzaldehyde molecule on the four different sized Aun(SR)m nanoclusters are moderately strong and similar in strength. The DFT results suggest that the catalytic activity of the Aun(SR)m nanoclusters is primarily determined by the surface area of the Au nanocluster, consistent with the observed trend of the conversion of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde versus the cluster size. Overall, this work offers the molecular insight into the hydrogenation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and the catalytically active site structure on gold nanocluster catalysts.

  4. I. Development of Metal-Mediated SPOT-Synthesis Methods for the Efficient Construction of Small-Molecule Macroarrays. II. Design and Synthesis of Novel Bacterial Biofilm Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Reto

    I. The use of small molecule probes to explore biological phenomena has become a valuable tool in chemical biology. As a result, methods that permit the rapid synthesis and biological evaluation of such compounds are highly sought-after. The small molecule macroarray represents one such approach for the synthesis and identification of novel bioactive agents. Macroarrays are readily constructed via the SPOT-synthesis technique on planar cellulose membranes, yielding spatially addressed libraries of ˜10-1000 unique compounds. We sought to expand the arsenal of chemical reactions compatible with this solid-phase platform, and developed highly efficient SPOT-synthesis protocols for the Mizoroki-Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura, and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. We demonstrated that these metal-mediated reactions can be implemented, either individually or sequentially, for the efficient construction of small molecules in high purity on rapid time scales. Utilizing these powerful C-C and C-N bond forming coupling reactions, we constructed a series of macroarrays based on novel stilbene, phenyl-naphthalene, and triazole scaliblds. Subsequent biological testing of the stilbene and phenyl-naphthalene libraries revealed several potent antagonists and agonists, respectively, of the quorum sensing (QS) receptor LuxR in Vibrio fischeri. II. Bacteria living within biofilms are notorious for their resistance to known antibiotic agents, and constitute a major human health threat. Methods to attenuate biofilm growth would have a significant impact on the management of bacterial infections. Despite intense research efforts, small molecules capable of either inhibiting or dispersing biolilms remain scarce. We utilized natural products with purported anti-biofilm or QS inhibitory activity as sources of structural insight to guide the synthesis of novel biofilm modulators with improved activities. These studies revealed 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives as highly potent biofilm inhibitors and dispersers in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Studies of second-generation 2-aminobenzimidazoles revealed important structure-activity relationships that guided the design of yet more potent analogs. These compounds are amongst the most potent inhibitors of biofilm formation in wild-type P. aeruginosa to be reported. Mechanistic studies of the most active compounds suggest that QS inhibition is one pathway by which 2-aminobenzimidazoles modulate biofilm growth.

  5. Sequential Infiltration Synthesis of Doped Polymer Films with Tunable Electrical Properties for Efficient Triboelectric Nanogenerator Development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanhao; Li, Zhaodong; Wang, Yunming; Gong, Shaoqin; Wang, Xudong

    2015-09-01

    Doping polymer with AlOx via sequential infiltration synthesis enables bulk modification of triboelectric polymers with tunable electric or dielectric properties, which broadens the material selection and achieves a durable performance gain of triboelectric nanogenerators. PMID:26177927

  6. Efficient, Traceless Semi-Synthesis of ?-Synuclein Labeled with a Fluorophore/Thioamide FRET Pair

    PubMed Central

    Wissner, Rebecca F.; Wagner, Anne M.; Warner, John B.; Petersson, E. James

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that thioamides can be incorporated into proteins through semi-synthesis and used as probes to monitor structural changes. To date, our methods have required the presence of a cysteine at the peptide ligation site, which may not be present in the native peptide sequence. Here, we present a strategy for the semi-synthesis of thioproteins using homocysteine as a ligation point with subsequent masking as methionine, making the ligation traceless.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Iron-Nitrogen-Doped Graphene/Core-Shell Catalysts: Efficient Oxidative Dehydrogenation of N-Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xinjiang; Li, Yuehui; Bachmann, Stephan; Scalone, Michelangelo; Surkus, Annette-Enrica; Junge, Kathrin; Topf, Christoph; Beller, Matthias

    2015-08-26

    An important goal for nanocatalysis is the development of flexible and efficient methods for preparing active and stable core-shell catalysts. In this respect, we present the synthesis and characterization of iron oxides surrounded by nitrogen-doped-graphene shells immobilized on carbon support (labeled FeOx@NGr-C). Active catalytic materials are obtained in a simple, scalable and two-step method via pyrolysis of iron acetate and phenanthroline and subsequent selective leaching. The optimized FeOx@NGr-C catalyst showed high activity in oxidative dehydrogenations of several N-heterocycles. The utility of this benign methodology is demonstrated by the synthesis of pharmaceutically relevant quinolines. In addition, mechanistic studies prove that the reaction progresses via superoxide radical anions (O2(-)). PMID:26230874

  8. One-Step Synthesis of Self-Supported Nickel Phosphide Nanosheet Array Cathodes for Efficient Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Bao, Xiao-Qing; Kovnir, Kirill; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-07-01

    Nickel phosphide is an emerging low-cost, earth-abundant catalyst that can efficiently reduce water to generate hydrogen. However, the synthesis of nickel phosphide catalysts usually involves multiple steps and is laborious. Herein, a convenient and straightforward approach to the synthesis of a three-dimensional (3D) self-supported biphasic Ni5 P4 -Ni2 P nanosheet (NS) array cathode is presented, which is obtained by direct phosphorization of commercially available nickel foam using phosphorus vapor. The synthesized 3D Ni5 P4 -Ni2 P-NS array cathode exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic medium. The fabrication procedure reported here is scalable, showing substantial promise for use in water electrolysis. More importantly, the approach can be readily extended to synthesize other self-supported transition metal phosphide HER cathodes. PMID:26032688

  9. An efficient stereoselective synthesis of penaresidin a from (e)-2-protected amino-3,4-unsaturated sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Sadagopan; Krishnaiah, V

    2010-02-01

    An efficient, modular, asymmetric synthesis of penaresidin A is disclosed. A beta-protected amino-gamma,delta-unsaturated sulfoxide was prepared by stereoselective addition of the lithio anion of (R)-methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide to an unsaturated sulfinylimine. The pendant sulfoxide group was used as an intramolecular nucleophile to functionalize an alkene regio- and stereoselectively to furnish a bromohydrin, which was employed as the key intermediate in the preparation of the azetidine subunit of penaresidin A. The stereogenic centers of the side chain were introduced by a regioselective opening of an epoxide. Julia-Kocienski olefination was used to couple the azetidine and side chain subunits. The methodology disclosed herein is also useful for the synthesis of ribo- and arabino-phytosphingosines and compounds possessing the amino alcohol moiety. PMID:20025264

  10. Protease-catalyzed peptide synthesis using inverse substrates: the influence of reaction conditions on the trypsin acyl transfer efficiency.

    PubMed

    Schellenberger, V; Jakubke, H D; Zapevalova, N P; Mitin, Y V

    1991-06-01

    Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-alanine p-guanidinophenyl ester behaves as a trypsin "inverse substrate," i.e., a cationic center is included in the leaving group instead of being in the acyl moiety. Using this substrate as an acyl donor, trypsin catalyzes the synthesis of peptide bonds that cannot be split by this enzyme. An optimal acyl transfer efficiency was achieved between pH 8 and 9 at 30 degrees C.The addition of as much as 50% cosolvent was shown to be of minor influence on the acyl transfer efficiency, whereas the reaction velocity decreases by more than one order of magnitude. The efficiency of H-Leu-NH(2) and H-Val-NH(2) in deacylation is almost the same for "inverse" and normal type substrates. PMID:18600704

  11. Asymmetric synthesis of (2S,3R)-(-)-epi-CP-99,994 using sulfinimine-derived anti-2,3-diamino esters

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Franklin A.; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2009-01-01

    A differentially protected C-3 N-sulfinyl, C-2 N,N-(diphenylmethylene) 2,3-diamino ester was employed in the synthesis of the amino piperidine (2S,3R)-(-)-epi-CP-99,994. Key steps in the synthesis included the chemoselective hydrolysis of the C-2 N,N-(diphenylmethylene) group and its reprotection as a dibenzylamino group PMID:20161386

  12. Structural control of chemoselectivity, stereoselectivity, and substrate specificity in membrane-bound fatty acid acetylenases and desaturases.

    PubMed

    Gagn, Steve J; Reed, Darwin W; Gray, Gordon R; Covello, Patrick S

    2009-12-29

    The FAD2-like desaturases comprise a group of membrane-bound oxygenases involved in the modification of fatty acyl groups in plants and fungi. This group includes typical oleate desaturases which introduce a Delta12 cis double bond and more unusual enzymes such as Crep1, an acetylenase from the plant Crepis alpina, which introduces a triple bond in linoleate at the Delta12 position. In this study, the structure-function relationship between FAD2-like acetylenases and desaturases was examined through site-directed mutagenesis and heterologous expression. Eleven amino acid positions were identified that show complete evolutionary conservation within acetylenases or desaturases but have different amino acids in the other class of enzyme. Point mutants in Crep1 were constructed and expressed in yeast to test the role in fatty acid modification of the amino acids at the 11 positions. Results indicate the importance of five amino acid positions within Crep1 with regard to desaturase and acetylenase chemoselectivity, stereoselectivity, and substrate recognition. For example, relative to wild-type Crep1, the Y150F, F259L, and H266Q mutations all favored desaturation over acetylenation. The data indicate that small changes in primary sequence, particularly in the vicinity of the active site, can have profound changes on chemoselectivity and other aspects of the function of membrane-bound desaturase-like enzymes. PMID:19950909

  13. Chemoselective Carbene insertion into the N-H Bond over O-H Bond Using a Well-Defined Single Site (P-P)Cu(I) Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Kankanala; Murali, Mani; Sivasankar, Chinnappan

    2015-08-01

    Phosphine-coordinated air-stable Cu(I) catalyst (1) has been synthesized and characterized. Catalyst 1 is found to be active toward highly chemoselective carbene insertion into the N-H bond over the O-H bond and also over the formation of olefins when numerous aminophenols were treated with a variety of ?-aryl diazoesters under normal experimental conditions. PMID:26218454

  14. A versatile and efficient synthesis of bithiophene-based dicarboxaldehydes from a common synthon.

    PubMed

    Bhuwalka, Achala; Mike, Jared F; Intemann, Jeremy J; Ellern, Arkady; Jeffries-El, Malika

    2015-09-28

    Bithiophene dicarboxaldehydes are promising electron-rich building blocks for the development of arylene vinylene-based organic semiconductors, but their use has been limited due to their synthetic inaccessibility. To facilitate the facile synthesis of these compounds we have prepared a novel functional bithiophene, namely 2,2'-(3,3'-dibromo-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5,5'-diyl)bis(5,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane) in two high yielding steps from 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromo-2,2'-bithiophene. This synthon is readily transformed into variety of bithiophene-based dicarboxaldehydes, also in high yields. The use of these functional molecules in the synthesis of arylene vinylene-linked donor-acceptor copolymers is demonstrated by the synthesis of two copolymers with electron deficient benzobisazoles. PMID:26248770

  15. Tailor Made Synthesis of T-Shaped and ?-STACKED Dimers in the Gas Phase: Concept for Efficient Drug Design and Material Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Das, Aloke

    2013-06-01

    Non-covalent interactions play a key role in governing the specific functional structures of biomolecules as well as materials. Thus molecular level understanding of these intermolecular interactions can help in efficient drug design and material synthesis. It has been found from X-ray crystallography that pure hydrocarbon solids (i.e. benzene, hexaflurobenzene) have mostly slanted T-shaped (herringbone) packing arrangement whereas mixed solid hydrocarbon crystals (i.e. solid formed from mixtures of benzene and hexafluorobenzene) exhibit preferentially parallel displaced (PD) ?-stacked arrangement. Gas phase spectroscopy of the dimeric complexes of the building blocks of solid pure benzene and mixed benzene-hexafluorobenzene adducts exhibit similar structural motifs observed in the corresponding crystal strcutures. In this talk, I will discuss about the jet-cooled dimeric complexes of indole with hexafluorobenzene and p-xylene in the gas phase using Resonant two photon ionzation and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy combined with quantum chemistry calculations. In stead of studying benzene...p-xylene and benzene...hexafluorobenzene dimers, we have studied corresponding indole complexes because N-H group is much more sensitive IR probe compared to C-H group. We have observed that indole...hexafluorobenzene dimer has parallel displaced (PD) ?-stacked structure whereas indole...p-xylene has slanted T-shaped structure. We have shown here selective switching of dimeric structure from T-shaped to ?-stacked by changing the substituent from electron donating (-CH3) to electron withdrawing group (fluorine) in one of the complexing partners. Thus, our results demonstrate that efficient engineering of the non-covalent interactions can lead to efficient drug design and material synthesis.

  16. Synthesis of conjugated polyenes via sequential condensation of sulfonylphosphonates and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Cichowicz, Nathan R; Nagorny, Pavel

    2012-02-17

    Selective metalation of sulfonylphosphonates results in sufficiently stable carbanions that undergo chemoselective Julia-Kocienski condensation with various aldehydes to provide (E)-allylic phosphonates in good yields and selectivities. The subsequent Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensation with aldehydes is used to synthesize various unsymmetrical trans-dienes, trienes, and tetraenes. This methodology is utilized for the concise synthesis of a naturally occurring fluorescent probe for membrane properties, ?-parinaric acid. PMID:22292860

  17. One-Step Synthesis of 2-Chloropyrimidin-4-ol Derivatives: An Unusual Reactivity of Thiophosgene.

    PubMed

    Callingham, Michael; Blum, Francesca; Pavé, Grégoire

    2015-10-01

    A novel, high-yielding, one-step synthesis of 2-chloroquinazolin-4-ols and analogous bicycles from 2-aminoamides using thiophosgene is described. The scope of the reaction includes aminothioamides, amino acids, and fused heterocycle derivatives, furnishing quinazolines, oxazinones, and substituted fused pyrimidine bicycles, respectively. On the basis of observed results with substituted analogues, a mechanism for this transformation is thought to occur via an isothiocyanate intermediate followed by an unexpected chemoselective reaction of thiophosgene on the thiol intermediate. PMID:26360817

  18. Concise Synthesis of the Tricyclic Core of Salimabromide.

    PubMed

    Schmalzbauer, Bjrn; Menche, Dirk

    2015-06-19

    A concise synthesis of the tricyclic core 2 of the structurally unique marine myxobacterial natural product salimabromide has been developed. Compound 2 contains the tetraline subunit including the two quaternary centers and the eight-membered ring of salimabromide. Major features for its synthesis include a Lewis base catalyzed Denmark-crotylation for stereoselective construction of the highly hindered quaternary stereocenter, an innovative iodine/selectfluor induced endo-carbocylization, and a unique chemoselective carbonylative lactonization of the eight-membered ring. PMID:26020357

  19. An organocatalytic highly efficient approach to the direct synthesis of substituted carbazoles in water.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Pradeep Kumar; Biswas, Soumen; Singh, Shivendra; Samanta, Sampak

    2013-12-28

    A simple, mild, green, catalytic and general procedure for the direct synthesis of highly functionalized 1-methoxycarbonyl-2-aryl/alkyl-3-nitro-9H-carbazoles has been achieved in water medium via a one-pot domino Michael-Henry/aromatization reaction of methyl 2-(3-formyl-1H-indol-2-yl)acetates with aryl/alky-substituted ?-nitroolefins under air using DABCO (30 mol%) as an organocatalyst. In addition, the bench scale synthesis can be performed without using toxic organic solvents and a biologically important new fused carbazole has been prepared. PMID:24189837

  20. Prins-Type Macrocyclizations as an Efficient Ring-Closing Strategy in Natural Product Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Erika A.; Scheidt, Karl A.

    2011-01-01

    Prins-type macrocyclizations have recently emerged as a successful strategy in the synthesis of polyketide-derived natural products. This reaction provides a concise and selective means to form tetrahydropyran-containing macrocyclic rings of varying size. A high degree of functionality within the macrocycle is tolerated and the yields for these transformations are typically good to excellent. Since the initial report of a Prins macrocyclization reaction in 1979, examples of this approach did not re-emerge until 2008. However, the use of this method in natural product synthesis has rapidly gained momentum in the synthetic community, with multiple examples of this macrocyclization tactic reported in the recent literature. PMID:20931580

  1. Synthesis and SAR of novel imidazoles as potent and selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonists with high binding efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jos H M; van der Neut, Martina A W; Wals, Henri C; Kuil, Gijs D; Borst, Alice J M; Mulder, Arie; den Hartog, Arnold P; Zilaout, Hicham; Goutier, Wouter; van Stuivenberg, Herman H; van Vliet, Bernard J

    2010-02-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of imidazoles are described. The target compounds 6-20 represent a novel chemotype of potent and CB(2)/CB(1) selective cannabinoid CB(2) receptor antagonists/inverse agonists with very high binding efficiencies in combination with favourable logP and calculated polar surface area values. Compound 12 exhibited the highest CB(2) receptor affinity (K(i)=1.03 nM) in this series, as well as the highest CB(2)/CB(1) subtype selectivity (>9708-fold). PMID:20031412

  2. Efficient and green synthesis of tetrasubstituted pyrroles promoted by task-specific basic ionic liquids as catalyst in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Issa; Kowsari, Elaheh

    2009-11-01

    Synthesis of tetrasubstituted pyrroles by the three-component condensation reaction of acid chlorides, dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates, and amino acids in the presence of various room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as catalysts in water is reported. Among the ionic liquids used, the basic functionalized ionic liquid, butyl methyl imidazolium hydroxide [bmim]OH, was the most effective catalyst. The influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, and amount of ionic liquid on the reaction was investigated. The [bmim]OH/H(2)O catalyst system could be reused for at least five recycles without appreciable loss of efficiency. PMID:19381850

  3. Exploiting Pseudo C2-Symmetry for an Efficient Synthesis of the F-Ring of the Spongistatins

    PubMed Central

    Tanis, Paul S.; Infantine, Joshua R.; Leighton, James L.

    2013-01-01

    A concise and efficient synthesis of the F-ring fragment of the potent anti-mitotic marine macrolide spongistatin 1 has been developed. The key sequence involves double cross-metathesis/Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reactions to establish four stereocenters in a pseudo C2-symmetric array, followed by a selective protection reaction that breaks the pseudo-symmetry, establishes a fifth stereocenter, and effectively differentiates the ester termini. Overall, the six contiguous stereocenters in the C(37)C(45) F-ring fragment are established in just seven steps. PMID:24111885

  4. Optimization of the 4-aryl group of 4-aryl-pyridine glucagon antagonists: development of an efficient, alternative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger A; Hertzog, Donald L; Osterhout, Martin H; Ladouceur, Gaetan H; Korpusik, Mary; Bobko, Mark A; Jones, J Howard; Phelan, Kathleen; Romero, Romulo H; Hundertmark, Thomas; MacDougall, Margit L; Livingston, James N; Schoen, William R

    2002-05-01

    A narrow structure-activity relationship was established for the 4-aryl group in 4-aryl-pyridine glucagon antagonists, with only small substituents being well-tolerated, and only at the 3'- and 4'-positions. However, substitution with a 2'-hydroxy group gave a ca. 3-fold increase in activity (e.g., 4'-fluoro-2'-hydroxy analogue 33, IC50=190 nM). For efficient preparation of 2'-substituted phenylpyridines, a novel synthesis via pyrones and 4-methoxy-pyridines was developed. PMID:11965376

  5. Efficient and more sustainable one-step continuous-flow multicomponent synthesis of chromene derivatives

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid one-step continuous-flow synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of chromene derivatives from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ?-cyanomethylene compounds and naphthols. In this contribution, a one-step continuous-flow protocol in a conti...

  6. An efficient and green synthesis of novel benzoxazole under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nikpassand, Mohammad; Fekri, Leila Zare; Farokhian, Pegah

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound as green process and an alternative energy source was investigated for the environmentally benign synthesis of novel benzoxazoles from different azo-linked salicylic acid derivatives and 2-amino-4-chlorophenol in short reaction time and high yield. These benzoxazole compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26384917

  7. Efficient synthesis of glycopeptide-?-thioesters with a high-mannose type oligosaccharide by means of tert-Boc-solid phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Makimura, Yutaka; Kiuchi, Tatsuto; Izumi, Masayuki; Dedola, Simone; Ito, Yukishige; Kajihara, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-15

    High-mannose type oligosaccharides consist of nine mannose and two N-acetylglucosamine residues (Man(9)GlcNAc(2):M9) and play an important role in protein folding processes in the endoplasmic reticulum. A highly efficient preparation method of this asparaginyl-M9-oligosaccharide from hen egg yolk was established by a two-step proteolysis with commercially available proteases and subsequent purification using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To avoid the hydrolysis of the desired M9-oligosaccharide during the proteolysis steps, several commercially available proteases were screened for their contamination with mannosidases. The ?-amino group of the resultant H(2)N-Asn-(M9-oligosaccharide)-OH was protected with 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group for convenient separation by HPLC. The structure of Fmoc-Asn-(M9-oligosaccharide)-OH thus obtained was confirmed by ESI-MS spectrometry and several NMR experiments. Using this Fmoc-Asn-(M9-oligosaccharide)-OH, the synthesis of the M9-glycopeptide-?-thioester was demonstrated by means of tert-Boc-solid phase peptide synthesis. These tert-Boc conditions afforded the M9-glycopeptide-?-thioester in moderate yield. PMID:23149340

  8. Controlled synthesis, growth mechanism and highly efficient solar photocatalysis of nitrogen-doped bismuth subcarbonate hierarchical nanosheets architectures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fan; Sun, Yanjuan; Ho, Wing-Kei; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2012-07-21

    The synthesis and self-assembly of hierarchical architectures from nanoscale building blocks with unique morphology, orientation and dimension have opened up new opportunities to enhance their functional performances and remain a great challenge. This work represents tunable synthesis of various types of 3D monodisperse in situ N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3) hierarchical architectures composed of 2D single-crystal nanosheets with dominant (001) facets by a one-pot template-free hydrothermal method from bismuth citrate and ammonia solution. Depending on the concentration of ammonia solution, the morphology of N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3), including dandelion-like, hydrangea-like and peony flower-like microspheres, can be selectively constructed due to different self-assembly patterns of nanosheets. It was revealed that the ammonia played dual roles in the formation of N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3) architectures. One is to hydrolyze bismuth citrate, and the other is to behave as a nitrogen doping source. The in situ doped nitrogen substituted for oxygen in (BiO)(2)CO(3) and subsequently narrowed the band gap, making N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3) visible light active. Due to the special nanosheets architectures, the prepared various N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3) materials exhibited especially efficient photocatalytic activity and high durability for the removal of NO in air under both visible and UV light irradiation. Based on the direct observation of the growth process with respect to phase structure, chemical composition and morphological structure, a novel growth mechanism is revealed, which involves a unique multistep pathway, including reaction-nucleation, aggregation, crystallization, dissolution-recrystallization, and Ostwald ripening. The facile synthesis approach and the proposed growth mechanism could provide new insights into the design and controlled synthesis of inorganic hierarchical materials with new or enhanced properties. PMID:22622668

  9. Applied reaction dynamics: Efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial oxidation of methane to CO on Rh(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, K. D.; Viste, M.; Sibener, S. J.

    2006-10-01

    Supersonic molecular beams have been used to determine the yield of CO from the partial oxidation of CH4 on a Rh(111) catalytic substrate, CH4+(1/2)O2?CO +2H2, as a function of beam kinetic energy. These experiments were done under ultrahigh vacuum conditions with concurrent molecular beams of O2 and CH4, ensuring that there was only a single collision for the CH4 to react with the surface. The fraction of CH4 converted is strongly dependent on the normal component of the incident beam's translational energy, and approaches unity for energies greater than 1.3eV. Comparison with a simplified model of the methane-Rh(111) reactive potential gives insight into the barrier for methane dissociation. These results demonstrate the efficient conversion of methane to synthesis gas, CO +2H2, are of interest in hydrogen generation, and have the optimal stoichiometry for subsequent utilization in synthetic fuel production (Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis). Moreover, under the reaction conditions explored, no CO2 was detected, i.e., the reaction proceeded with the production of very little, if any, unwanted greenhouse gas by-products. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of overcoming the limitations of purely thermal reaction mechanisms by coupling nonthermal mechanistic steps, leading to efficient C-H bond activation with subsequent thermal heterogeneous reactions.

  10. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Colloidal Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles for High-Refractive-Index Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Chen, Dustin; Chen, Yi; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-02-24

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for optical engineering, photocatalysis, and high-κ dielectrics. However, reported synthetic methods for the colloidal zirconium oxide nanoparticles use unstable alkoxide precursors and have various other drawbacks, limiting their wide application. Here, we report a facile one-pot method for the synthesis of colloidally stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Using a simple solution of zirconium trifluoroacetate in oleylamine, highly stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized with high yield, following a proposed amidization-assisted sol-gel mechanism. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in nonpolar solvents, forming a long-term stable transparent solution, which can be further used to fabricate high-refractive-index nanocomposites in both monolith and thin-film forms. In addition, the same method has also been extended to the synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles, demonstrating its general applicability to all group IVB metal oxide nanoparticles. PMID:26824518

  11. Guiding efficient microbial synthesis of non-natural chemicals by physicochemical properties of reactants.

    PubMed

    Willrodt, Christian; Karande, Rohan; Schmid, Andreas; Julsing, Mattijs K

    2015-12-01

    The recent progress in sustainable chemistry and in synthetic biology increased the interest of chemical and pharmaceutical industries to implement microbial processes for chemical synthesis. However, most organisms used in biotechnological applications are not evolved by Nature for the production of hydrophobic, non-charged, volatile, or toxic compounds. In order to overcome this discrepancy, bioprocess design should consist of an integrated approach addressing pathway, cellular, reaction, and process engineering. Highlighting selected examples, we show that surprisingly often Nature provides conceptual solutions to enable chemical synthesis. Complemented by established methods from (bio)chemical and metabolic engineering, these concepts offer potential strategies yet to be explored and translated into innovative technical solutions enabling sustainable microbial production of non-natural chemicals. PMID:25835779

  12. Efficient Synthesis of Primary Nitrocarbamates of Sugar Alcohols: From Food to Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Axthammer, Quirin J; Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of various new polyvalent nitrocarbamates derived from sugar alcohols was accomplished by an economically benign two-step synthesis. The precursor carbamates were synthesized with the reagent chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) and further nitrated using mixed acid. The starting materials, sugar alcohols, are renewable biomass, mainly used in food and cosmetic industry. The structures of one carbamate and one nitrocarbamate were exemplary described by single-crystal X-ray-analysis. The heat of formation is calculated by the use of isodesmic reactions and the energetic performance data were estimated. All compounds were fully characterized by elemental analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, (1) H, (13) C, and (14/15) N NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC). The nitrocarbamates exhibit good detonation performance and have significantly lower sensitivities compared to the commonly used nitrate ester explosive PETN. PMID:26633737

  13. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethyl thiolation--mild and efficient synthesis of trifluoromethyl thioethers.

    PubMed

    Rueping, Magnus; Tolstoluzhsky, Nikita; Nikolaienko, Pavlo

    2013-10-11

    Mild-mannered sulfur: A general method for the synthesis of vinyl trifluoromethyl thioethers starting from readily available di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted vinyl iodides was developed. A wide variety of substrates were applied in the reaction with CuSCF3 to give the corresponding products in high yields, within short reaction times, with retention of the initial E/Z isomer ratio. In addition, a copper-catalyzed trifluoromethyl thioether protocol has been also developed. PMID:24108595

  14. Efficient synthesis of the C7C20 subunit of amphidinolides C and F

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Subham

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of the C7C20 subunit of amphidinolides C and F has been accomplished utilizing a Me3Al-mediated ring opening of a vinyl iodide/allylic epoxide to establish the C12,13 anti stereochemistry, an organolithium coupling/olefination sequence to construct the C9C11 diene moiety and a sulfone alkylation/hydroxylation strategy to join the C7C14 and C15C20 fragments. PMID:19865690

  15. Ir-Cu nanoframes: one-pot synthesis and efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jiajing; Mao, Junjie; Liang, Xin; Chen, Chen; Peng, Qing; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2016-02-25

    Herein, we achieved successful synthesis of uniform Ir-Cu nanoframes with highly open structures by a facile one-pot strategy. The key to obtain alloy nanoframes was the careful control over the reduction and galvanic replacement reactions between different metals. The as-prepared Ir-Cu was proved to be an effective template for constructing trimetallic nanoframes. Furthermore, these highly open nanostructures exhibited excellent electrocatalytic performance toward oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media. PMID:26864283

  16. An efficient combustion process for synthesis of YBa2Cu3O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambabu, D.

    1990-03-01

    A novel combustion process which saves time and energy for the synthesis of YBa2Cu3O7 superconductor is reported. The process involves ignition of metal nitrates-urea mixture which results in an intimate mixture of partially reacted oxides. After another combustion with ammonium nitrate and urea and subsequent heat treatment and oxygenation, this gives single phase superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 powder.

  17. Silica: An efficient catalyst for one-pot regioselective synthesis of dithioethers

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Samir; Roy, Babli

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development of a silica-promoted highly selective synthesis of 1,2 or 1,3-dithioethers via solvent-free one-pot tandem reactions of an allyl bromide with excess thiol at room temperature is described. The choice of silica gel, either pre-calcined or moistened with water, exhibited notable regioselectivity in the formation of dithioethers. Plausible mechanistic routes were explored and postulated. PMID:24454561

  18. Simple enzymatic procedure for L-carnosine synthesis: whole-cell biocatalysis and efficient biocatalyst recycling.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Jan; Antweiler, Nicolai; Lutz, Jochen; Heck, Tobias; Geueke, Birgit; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Blank, Lars M; Schmid, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    ?-Peptides and their derivates are usually stable to proteolysis and have an increased half-life compared with ?-peptides. Recently, ?-aminopeptidases were described as a new enzyme class that enabled the enzymatic degradation and formation of ?-peptides. As an alternative to the existing chemical synthesis routes, the aim of the present work was to develop a whole-cell biocatalyst for the synthesis and production of ?-peptides using this enzymatic activity. For the optimization of the reaction system we chose the commercially relevant ?,?-dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanine-L-histidine) as model product. We were able to show that different recombinant yeast and bacteria strains, which overexpress a ?-peptidase, could be used directly as whole-cell biocatalysts for the synthesis of L-carnosine. By optimizing relevant reaction conditions for the best-performing recombinant Escherichia coli strain, such as pH and substrate concentrations, we obtained high l-carnosine yields of up to 71%. Long-time as well as biocatalyst recycling experiments indicated a high stability of the developed biocatalyst for at least five repeated batches. Application of the recombinant E. coli in a fed-batch process enabled the accumulation of l-carnosine to a concentration of 3.7 g l(-1). PMID:21255308

  19. Simple enzymatic procedure for l?carnosine synthesis: whole?cell biocatalysis and efficient biocatalyst recycling

    PubMed Central

    Heyland, Jan; Antweiler, Nicolai; Lutz, Jochen; Heck, Tobias; Geueke, Birgit; Kohler, Hans?Peter E.; Blank, Lars M.; Schmid, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Summary ??Peptides and their derivates are usually stable to proteolysis and have an increased half?life compared with ??peptides. Recently, ??aminopeptidases were described as a new enzyme class that enabled the enzymatic degradation and formation of ??peptides. As an alternative to the existing chemical synthesis routes, the aim of the present work was to develop a whole?cell biocatalyst for the synthesis and production of ??peptides using this enzymatic activity. For the optimization of the reaction system we chose the commercially relevant ?,??dipeptide l?carnosine (??alanine?l?histidine) as model product. We were able to show that different recombinant yeast and bacteria strains, which overexpress a ??peptidase, could be used directly as whole?cell biocatalysts for the synthesis of l?carnosine. By optimizing relevant reaction conditions for the best?performing recombinant Escherichia coli strain, such as pH and substrate concentrations, we obtained high l?carnosine yields of up to 71%. Long?time as well as biocatalyst recycling experiments indicated a high stability of the developed biocatalyst for at least five repeated batches. Application of the recombinant E. coli in a fed?batch process enabled the accumulation of l?carnosine to a concentration of 3.7?g?l?1. PMID:21255308

  20. Air- and moisture-stable amphoteric molecules: enabling reagents in synthesis.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi; Zajdlik, Adam; Yudin, Andrei K

    2014-04-15

    Researchers continue to develop chemoselective synthesis strategies with the goal of rapidly assembling complex molecules. As one appealing approach, chemists are searching for new building blocks that include multiple functional groups with orthogonal chemical reactivity. Amphoteric molecules that possess nucleophilic and electrophilic sites offer a versatile platform for the development of chemoselective transformations. As part of a program focused on new methods of synthesis, we have been developing this type of reagents. This Account highlights examples of amphoteric molecules developed by our lab since 2006. We have prepared and evaluated aziridine aldehydes, a class of stable unprotected ?-amino aldehydes. Structurally, aziridine aldehydes include both a nucleophilic amine nitrogen and an electrophilic aldehyde carbon over the span of three atoms. Under ambient conditions, these compounds exist as homochiral dimers with an aziridine-fused five-membered cyclic hemiaminal structure. We have investigated chemoselective reactions of aziridine aldehydes that involve both the aziridine and aldehyde functionalities. These transformations have produced a variety of densely functionalized nitrogen-containing compounds, including amino aldehydes, 1,2-diamines, reduced hydantoins, C-vinyl or alkynyl aziridines, and macrocyclic peptides. We have also developed air- and moisture-stable ?-boryl aldehydes, another class of molecules that are kinetically amphoteric. The ?-boryl aldehydes contain a tetracoordinated N-methyliminodiacetyl (MIDA) boryl substituent, which stabilizes the ?-metalloid carbonyl system and prevents isomerization to its O-bond enolate form. Primarily taking advantage of chemoselective transformations at the aldehyde functionality, these ?-boryl aldehydes have allowed us to synthesize a series of new functionalized boron-containing compounds that are difficult or impossible to prepare using established protocols, such as ?-borylcarboxylic acids, boryl alcohols, enol ethers, and enamides. Using ?-borylcarboxylic acids as starting materials, we have also prepared several new amphoteric borylated reagents, such as ?-boryl isocyanates, isocyanides, and acylboronates. These compounds are versatile building blocks in their own right, enabling the rapid synthesis of other boron-containing molecules. PMID:24495255

  1. Templated synthesis of nickel nanoparticles: Toward heterostructured nanocomposites for efficient hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Nicholas Cole

    The world is currently facing an energy and environmental crisis for which new technologies are needed. Development of cost-competitive materials for catalysis and hydrogen storage on-board motor vehicles is crucial to lead subsequent generations into a more sustainable and energy independent future. This thesis presents work toward the scalable synthesis of bimetallic heterostructures that can enable hydrogen to compete with carbonaceous fuels by meeting the necessary gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and by enhancing hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics near ambient temperatures and pressures. Utilizing the well-known phenomenon of hydrogen spillover, these bimetallic heterostructures could work by lowering the activation energy for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of metals. Herein, we report a novel method for the scalable synthesis of silica templated zero-valent nickel particles (Ni⊂SiO2) that hold promise for the synthesis of nickel nanorods for use in bimetallic heterostructures for hydrogen storage. Our synthesis proceeds by chemical reduction of a nickel-hydrazine complex with sodium borohydride followed by calcination under hydrogen gas to yield silica encapsulated nickel particles. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the general morphology of the resultant nanocapsules as well as the crystalline phases of the incorporated Ni0 nanocrystals. The structures display strong magnetic behavior at room temperature and preliminary data suggests nickel particle size can be controlled by varying the amount of nickel precursor used in the synthesis. Calcination under different environments and TEM analysis provides evidence for an atomic migration mechanism of particle formation. Ni⊂SiO2 nanocapsules were used as seeds to induce heterogeneous nucleation and subsequent growth within the nanocapsule via electroless nickel plating. Nickel nanoparticle growth occurs under high temperature alkaline conditions, however silica nanocapsule integrity is not maintained due to the incompatibility of silica with the growth conditions. Silica nanocapsule integrity is maintained under low temperature neutral conditions, but nickel particle growth is not observed. Through FTIR and UV/Vis analysis, we show the degree of crosslinking and condensation increases in calcined silica compared to as-synthesized silica. We propose the increased density of the silica nanocapsule hinders mass transfer of the bulky nickel precursor complex from solution and onto the surface of the "catalytic" zero-valent nickel seed within the nanocapsule cavity. Decreasing the density of the silica nanocapsule can be achieved through co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate with an alkyl functionalized silane followed by calcination to remove the organic component or by chemical etching in alkaline solution, but will not be addressed in this thesis.

  2. Templated synthesis of nickel nanoparticles: Toward heterostructured nanocomposites for efficient hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Nicholas Cole

    2013-05-07

    The world is currently facing an energy and environmental crisis for which new technologies are needed. Development of cost-competitive materials for catalysis and hydrogen storage on-board motor vehicles is crucial to lead subsequent generations into a more sustainable and energy independent future. This thesis presents work toward the scalable synthesis of bimetallic heterostructures that can enable hydrogen to compete with carbonaceous fuels by meeting the necessary gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and by enhancing hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics near ambient temperatures and pressures. Utilizing the well-known phenomenon of hydrogen spillover, these bimetallic heterostructures could work by lowering the activation energy for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of metals. Herein, we report a novel method for the scalable synthesis of silica templated zero-valent nickel particles (Ni⊂SiO{sub 2}) that hold promise for the synthesis of nickel nanorods for use in bimetallic heterostructures for hydrogen storage. Our synthesis proceeds by chemical reduction of a nickel-hydrazine complex with sodium borohydride followed by calcination under hydrogen gas to yield silica encapsulated nickel particles. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the general morphology of the resultant nanocapsules as well as the crystalline phases of the incorporated Ni{sup 0} nanocrystals. The structures display strong magnetic behavior at room temperature and preliminary data suggests nickel particle size can be controlled by varying the amount of nickel precursor used in the synthesis. Calcination under different environments and TEM analysis provides evidence for an atomic migration mechanism of particle formation. Ni⊂SiO{sub 2} nanocapsules were used as seeds to induce heterogeneous nucleation and subsequent growth within the nanocapsule via electroless nickel plating. Nickel nanoparticle growth occurs under high temperature alkaline conditions, however silica nanocapsule integrity is not maintained due to the incompatibility of silica with the growth conditions. Silica nanocapsule integrity is maintained under low temperature neutral conditions, but nickel particle growth is not observed. Through FTIR and UV/Vis analysis, we show the degree of crosslinking and condensation increases in calcined silica compared to as-synthesized silica. We propose the increased density of the silica nanocapsule hinders mass transfer of the bulky nickel precursor complex from solution and onto the surface of the “catalytic” zero-valent nickel seed within the nanocapsule cavity. Decreasing the density of the silica nanocapsule can be achieved through co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate with an alkyl functionalized silane followed by calcination to remove the organic component or by chemical etching in alkaline solution, but will not be addressed in this thesis.

  3. Surface-bound cytomimetic assembly based on chemoselective and biocompatible immobilization and further modification of intact liposome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong; Zhang, Hailong; Sun, Xue-Long

    2010-11-17

    A surface-bound cytomimetic assembly based on chemically selective and biocompatible immobilization and further modification of intact liposome is described. Liposomes carrying PEG-triphenylphosphine were chemoselectively immobilized onto azide-modified glass slides through Staudinger ligation, followed by modification with azide-modified lactose as a model biomolecule through Staudinger ligation to afford the surface-bound cytomimetic assembly. The intact liposome immobilized and modified and its protein binding activity were confirmed by fluorescence imaging, fluorescent dye releasing kinetics, and AFM techniques. The resultant surface-bound cytomimetic assembly showed sustained stability and fluorescent dye releasing kinetics and specific protein binding activity. The reported method provides a robust platform for preparation of a complex immobilized liposome system with multifunctional components, which mimics the cell surface in both geographical and content features and thus will find important biomedical applications. PMID:20939526

  4. Chemoselectivity and the Chan-Lam Coupling Reaction: Adding Amino Acids to Polymer-Coated Microelectrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Graaf, Matthew D; Moeller, Kevin D

    2016-02-19

    The placement of a peptide onto a microelectrode array is frequently complicated by the presence of multiple nucleophiles in the peptide. In the work reported here, we have found that the Chan-Lam coupling reactions used to site-selectively place thiol, alcohol, and amine nucleophiles onto diblock-copolymer-coated surfaces are chemoselective for the placement of thiol and alcohol nucleophiles on the arrays. This means that cysteine- and serine-containing peptides can be placed onto an array without any need to protect the N terminus of the peptide. Furthermore, it was found that placement of thiol groups onto an array with the Chan-Lam reaction using optimized reaction times leads to complete coverage of the electrodes. The extent of this coverage can be controlled by varying the reaction time in a manner that allows for the construction of arrays with a gradient of peptide concentrations. PMID:26765206

  5. Surface-Bound Cytomimetic Assembly Based on Chemoselective and Biocompatible Immobilization and Further Modification of Intact Liposome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong; Zhang, Hailong; Sun, Xue-Long

    2010-01-01

    A surface-bound cytomimetic assembly based on chemically selective and biocompatible immobilization and further modification of intact liposome is described. Liposome carrying PEG-triphenylphosphine was chemoselectively immobilized onto azide-modified glass slide through Staudinger ligation and followed by modification with azide-modified lactose as model biomolecule through Staudinger ligation to afford surface-bound cytomimetic assembly. The intact liposome immobilized and modified and its protein binding activity were confirmed by fluorescence imaging, fluorescent dye releasing kinetics and AFM techniques. The resultant surface-bound cytomimetic assembly showed sustained stability and fluorescent dye releasing kinetics and specific protein binding activity. The reported method provides a robust platform for preparation of complex immobilized liposome system with multifunctional components, which mimics cell surface in both geographical and content features and thus will find important biomedical applications PMID:20939526

  6. Chemoselective nitro group reduction and reductive dechlorination initiate degradation of 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol by Ralstonia eutropha JMP134

    SciTech Connect

    Schenzle, A.; Lenke, H.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Spain, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 utilizes 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol as a sole source of nitrogen, carbon, and energy. The initial steps for degradation of 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol are analogous to those of 3-nitrophenol degradation in R. eutropha JMP134, 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol is initially reduced to 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol, which is subject to an enzymatic Bamberger rearrangement yielding 2-amino-5-chlorohydroquinone. The chlorine of 2-amino-5-chlorohydroquinone is removed by a reductive mechanism, and aminohydroquinone is formed. 2-Chloro-5-nitrophenol and 3-nitrophenol induce the expression of 3-nitrophenol nitroreductase, of 3-hydroxylaminophenol mutase, and of the dechlorinating activity. 3-Nitrophenol nitroreductase catalyzes chemoselective reduction of aromatic nitro groups to hydroxylamino groups in the presence of NADPH. 3-Nitrophenol nitroreductase is active with a variety of mono-, di-, and trinitroaromatic compounds, demonstrating a relaxed substrate specificity of the enzyme. Nitrosobenzene serves as a substrate for the enzyme and is converted faster than nitrobenzene.

  7. Efficient synthesis of dithienogermole (DTG) derivatives via olefin cross-metathesis.

    PubMed

    Zong, Kyukwan; Deininger, James J; Reynolds, John R

    2013-03-01

    4,4'-Bis-(4-pentenyl)-dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]germole was synthesized as a functional building block for the efficient preparation of dithienogermole (DTG) derivatives with varying alkyl chain lengths and pendant functionalities in excellent yields. These derivatives were efficiently isolated via olefin cross-metathesis followed by hydrogenation. PMID:23421956

  8. Palladium-catalyzed direct coupling of 2-vinylanilines and isocyanides: an efficient synthesis of 2-aminoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijie; Ferguson, Jamie; Zeng, Fanlong

    2015-12-21

    Palladium-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 2-vinylanilines and isocyanides constitutes a direct, facile, and efficient approach to 2-aminoquinolines. The procedure, employing palladium acetate and silver carbonate, is attractive in terms of assembly efficiency, functional group tolerance, and operational simplicity. A variety of 2-aminoquinolines were prepared in good to excellent yields. PMID:26455948

  9. One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Amino-2,5-dihydro-1-benzoxepines: Access to Pharmacologically Active Heterocyclic Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Calder, Ewen D D; Sharif, Salaheddin A I; McGonagle, Fiona I; Sutherland, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    A one-pot multibond-forming process involving a thermally mediated Overman rearrangement and a ring closing metathesis reaction of allylic trichloroacetimidates bearing a 2-allyloxyaryl group has been developed for the synthesis of 5-amino-substituted 2,5-dihydro-1-benzoxepines. Chemoselective reduction and functionalization of these compounds allowed access to a range of pharmacologically active 5-amino-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1-benzoxepine scaffolds. PMID:25847814

  10. Efficient antibacterial agents: a review of the synthesis, biological evaluation and mechanism of pleuromutilin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ruofeng; Wang, Jiatu; Guo, Wenzhu; Liang, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Pleuromutilins were discovered as natural-product antibiotics in 1950. The modifications of pleuromutilin lead to the successful development of veterinary medicines such as tiamulin and valnemulin. Retapamulin became the first pleuromutilin approved for use in human skin infections. Recent advances have led to the synthesis of pleuromutilins that combine potent antibacterial activity with favorable pharmaceutical properties, and three new pleuromutilins, BC-3781, BC-3205 and BC-7013, have entered clinical trials. In this review, the key pleuromutilin derivatives, as well as related novel derivatives during 2009-2013, and its antibacterial activities, are presented. Moreover, the antibacterial and resistance mechanism are discussed. PMID:24200363

  11. Chemistry of polyhalogenated nitrobutadienes, 14: Efficient synthesis of functionalized (Z)-2-allylidenethiazolidin-4-ones

    PubMed Central

    Zapolskii, Viktor A; Namyslo, Jan C; Gjikaj, Mimoza

    2014-01-01

    Summary The reaction of mercaptoacetic acid esters with pentachloro-2-nitro-1,3-butadiene (1) provides an appropriate precursor for the synthesis of special thiazolidin-4-ones. Applying different anilines as the second constituent for the requisite cyclization step, a series of (Z)-2-allylidenethiazolidin-4-ones was obtained in yields up to 81%. Some subsequent reactions have been examined too, such as the formation of perfunctionalized 1H-pyrazoles upon treatment with hydrazine. Thiazolidinones are as well known for their physiological activities as for their application in optoelectronics. PMID:25161721

  12. Chemistry of polyhalogenated nitrobutadienes, 14: Efficient synthesis of functionalized (Z)-2-allylidenethiazolidin-4-ones.

    PubMed

    Zapol'skii, Viktor A; Namyslo, Jan C; Gjikaj, Mimoza; Kaufmann, Dieter E

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of mercaptoacetic acid esters with pentachloro-2-nitro-1,3-butadiene (1) provides an appropriate precursor for the synthesis of special thiazolidin-4-ones. Applying different anilines as the second constituent for the requisite cyclization step, a series of (Z)-2-allylidenethiazolidin-4-ones was obtained in yields up to 81%. Some subsequent reactions have been examined too, such as the formation of perfunctionalized 1H-pyrazoles upon treatment with hydrazine. Thiazolidinones are as well known for their physiological activities as for their application in optoelectronics. PMID:25161721

  13. Simple, general, and efficient synthesis of meso-substituted borondipyrromethenes from a single platform.

    PubMed

    Pea-Cabrera, Eduardo; Aguilar-Aguilar, Anglica; Gonzalez-Domnguez, Martha; Lager, Erik; Zamudio-Vazquez, Rub; Godoy-Vargas, Jazmn; Villanueva-Garca, Fabian

    2007-09-27

    An unprecedented synthesis of 8-substituted-borondipyrromethenes is described starting from 8-thiomethylbodipy 1. Aryl, heteroaryl, alkenyl, and organometallic boronic acids smoothly reacted with 1 in the presence of a catalytic amount of Pd(0) and a stoichiometric amount of Cu(I)-2-thienylcarboxylate under neutral conditions to give the corresponding Bodipy analogues in good to quantitative yields (20 examples). A remarkable reactivity was observed in some cases, e.g., ferrocenylboronic acid gave the product in 98% isolated yield after only 10 min at 55 degrees C. PMID:17764191

  14. An efficient synthesis of N-substituted 3-nitrothiophen-2-amines

    PubMed Central

    Vivek Kumar, Sundaravel; Muthusubramanian, Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel protocol for the synthesis of 3-nitro-N-aryl/alkylthiophen-2-amines in good yields from the reaction of α-nitroketene N,S-aryl/alkylaminoacetals and 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol in the presence of K2CO3 in refluxing ethanol is described. This transformation generates two C–C bonds in a single operation and presumably proceeds through a reaction sequence comprising 2-mercaptoacetaldehyde generation, nucleophilic carbonyl addition, annelation and elimination steps. PMID:26664589

  15. A novel and efficient samarium iodide-mediated synthesis of neoflavonoids (4-arycloumarins)

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ryohke, Hirosi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ito, Keiichi

    1995-12-31

    Bioactive 4-arylcoumarins (4-aryl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-ones) have been recently isolated from the plants belonging to the families like Leguminosae, Guttiferae, and Compositae, some of which are still used as the traditional folk medicine. Despite many methods reported so far, there appears to be of limited success or of no success in some cases (II{sub b-g}) and, therefore, a simpler and more reliable one remains to be highly desired. Thus, a new and sterling protocol is now presented for the synthesis of neoflavonoids, which involves the intramolecular Reformatsky-type reaction via a one electron transfer process with samarium diiodide as a key step.

  16. One pot, rapid and efficient synthesis of water dispersible gold nanoparticles using alpha-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangoo, Nishima; Kaur, Sarabjit; Bajaj, Manish; Jain, D. V. S.; Sharma, Rohit K.

    2014-10-01

    A detailed study on the synthesis of spherical and monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using all of the 20 naturally occurring ?-amino acids has been reported. The synthesized nanoparticles have been further characterized using various techniques such as absorbance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance. Size control of the nanoparticles has been achieved by varying the ratio of the gold ion to the amino acid. These monodispersed water soluble AuNPs synthesized using non-toxic, naturally occurring ?-amino acids as reducing and capping/stabilizing agents serve as a remarkable example of green chemistry.

  17. Design and Synthesis of Efficient Fluorescent Dyes for Incorporation into DNA Backbone and Biomolecule Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Alexander D. Q.

    2008-01-01

    We report here the design and synthesis of a series of ?-conjugated fluorescent dyes with D-A-D (D: donor; A: Acceptor), D-?-D, A-?-A, and D-?-A for applications as the signaling motif in biological-synthetic hybrid foldamers for DNA detection. Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and Knoevenagel condensation were demonstrated as the optimum ways for construction of long ?-conjugated systems. Such rod-like chromophores have distinct advantages, as their fluorescence properties are not quenched by the presence of DNA. To be incorporated into the backbone of DNA, the chromophores need to be reasonably soluble in organic solvent for solid-phase synthesis, and therefore a strategy of using flexible tetra(ethylene glycol) (TEG) linkers at either end of these rod-like dyes were developed. The presence of TEG facilitates the protection of the chain-growing hydroxyl group with DMTrCl (dimethoxy trityl chloride) as well as the activation of the coupling step with phosphoramidite chemistry on an automated DNA synthesizer. To form fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pairs, six synthetic chromophores with blue to red fluorescence have been developed and those with orthogonal fluorescent emission were chosen for incorporation into DNA-chromophore hybrid foldamers. PMID:17508711

  18. Facile aqueous synthesis of ?-AgI nanoplates as efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; An, Changhua; Liu, Junxue; Wang, Shutao; Zhao, Lianming; Guo, Wenyue; Liu, Jinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Owing to far-ranging industrial applications and theoretical researches, tailored synthesis of well-defined nanocrystals has attracted substantial research interest. Herein, ?-AgI nanoplates have been synthesized through a facile polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted-aqueous-solution (PAAS) method under mild conditions. The parametric studies on the effect of ratio of reactants, solvents and surfactants were performed, revealing that a molar ratio of I(-) to Ag(+) of 1.2 in deionized water and the presence of appropriate PVP as stabilizing agent can stimulate the preferred orientation growth of AgI nanoplates. The as-synthesized AgI nanoplates exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity and enhanced durability towards the degradation of organics, i.e., rhodamine B (RhB), under visible light illumination in comparison with corresponding bulk nanoparticles. A possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism was discussed, revealing O2?(-) and h(+) are main reactive species and free ?OH radicals in solution also contribute to the degradation reaction. The superior photocatalytic performance renders the as-achieved AgI nanoplates promising candidates for applications in the fields of environmental purification or water disinfection. The present work opens an avenue to the synthesis of other shaped silver halide nanophotocatalysts. PMID:24101116

  19. Spray-combustion synthesis: efficient solution route to high-performance oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinge; Smith, Jeremy; Zhou, Nanjia; Zeng, Li; Guo, Peijun; Xia, Yu; Alvarez, Ana; Aghion, Stefano; Lin, Hui; Yu, Junsheng; Chang, Robert P H; Bedzyk, Michael J; Ferragut, Rafael; Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio

    2015-03-17

    Metal-oxide (MO) semiconductors have emerged as enabling materials for next generation thin-film electronics owing to their high carrier mobilities, even in the amorphous state, large-area uniformity, low cost, and optical transparency, which are applicable to flat-panel displays, flexible circuitry, and photovoltaic cells. Impressive progress in solution-processed MO electronics has been achieved using methodologies such as sol gel, deep-UV irradiation, preformed nanostructures, and combustion synthesis. Nevertheless, because of incomplete lattice condensation and film densification, high-quality solution-processed MO films having technologically relevant thicknesses achievable in a single step have yet to be shown. Here, we report a low-temperature, thickness-controlled coating process to create high-performance, solution-processed MO electronics: spray-combustion synthesis (SCS). We also report for the first time, to our knowledge, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) transistors having densification, nanoporosity, electron mobility, trap densities, bias stability, and film transport approaching those of sputtered films and compatible with conventional fabrication (FAB) operations. PMID:25733848

  20. Spray-combustion synthesis: Efficient solution route to high-performance oxide transistors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinge; Smith, Jeremy; Zhou, Nanjia; Zeng, Li; Guo, Peijun; Xia, Yu; Alvarez, Ana; Aghion, Stefano; Lin, Hui; Yu, Junsheng; Chang, Robert P. H.; Bedzyk, Michael J.; Ferragut, Rafael; Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Metal-oxide (MO) semiconductors have emerged as enabling materials for next generation thin-film electronics owing to their high carrier mobilities, even in the amorphous state, large-area uniformity, low cost, and optical transparency, which are applicable to flat-panel displays, flexible circuitry, and photovoltaic cells. Impressive progress in solution-processed MO electronics has been achieved using methodologies such as sol gel, deep-UV irradiation, preformed nanostructures, and combustion synthesis. Nevertheless, because of incomplete lattice condensation and film densification, high-quality solution-processed MO films having technologically relevant thicknesses achievable in a single step have yet to be shown. Here, we report a low-temperature, thickness-controlled coating process to create high-performance, solution-processed MO electronics: spray-combustion synthesis (SCS). We also report for the first time, to our knowledge, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) transistors having densification, nanoporosity, electron mobility, trap densities, bias stability, and film transport approaching those of sputtered films and compatible with conventional fabrication (FAB) operations. PMID:25733848

  1. KF/Clinoptilolite: an efficient promoter for the synthesis of thioethers.

    PubMed

    Salmanpour, Sadegh; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Hosseini, Abolfazl

    2013-06-01

    Potassium fluoride impregnated on natural zeolite as a new solid base system effectively catalyzes the coupling of thiophenols with electron-deficient fluoro-, chloro- and bromo-arenes in DMSO. This versatile and efficient solid base has been demonstrated to afford the corresponding desired products in good to excellent yields. This procedure provides a convenient, efficient and practical method for the preparation of diaryl thioethers. PMID:23360209

  2. Rational Design and Synthesis of Freestanding Photoelectric Nanodevices as Highly Efficient Photocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yongquan; Liao, Lei; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Yue; Lin, Yung-chen; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Photocatalysts are of significant interest for solar energy harvesting and conversion into chemical energy. However, the photocatalysts available to date are limited by either poor efficiency in the visible light range or insufficient photoelectrochemical stability. Here we report the rational design of a new generation of freestanding photoelectric nanodevices as highly efficient and stable photocatalysts by integrating a nanoscale photodiode with two redox catalysts in a single nanowire heterostructure. We show that a platinum-silicon-silver nanowire heterostructure can be synthesized to integrate a nanoscale metal-semiconductor Schottky diode encased in a protective insulating shell with two exposed metal catalysts. We further demonstrated that the Schottky diodes exhibited pronounced photovoltaic effect with nearly unity internal quantum efficiency, and that the integrated nanowire heterostructures could be used as highly efficient photocatalysts for a wide range of thermodynamically downhill and uphill reactions including photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes, reduction of metal ions and carbon dioxide using visible light. Our studies for the first time demonstrated the integration of multiple distinct functional components into a single nanostructure to form a standalone active nanosystem, and for the first time successfully realized a photoelectric nanodevice that is both highly efficient and highly stable throughout the entire solar spectrum. It thus opens a rational avenue to design and synthesize a new generation of photoelectric nanosystems with unprecedented efficiency and stability, and will impact broadly in areas including environmental remediation and solar fuel production. PMID:20373781

  3. Scalable Synthesis of Efficient Water Oxidation Catalysts: Insights into the Activity of Flame-Made Manganese Oxide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanyu; Hall, Jeremy; Nasiri, Noushin; Gengenbach, Thomas; Spiccia, Leone; Cheah, Mun Hon; Tricoli, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Chemical energy storage by water splitting is a promising solution for the utilization of renewable energy in numerous currently impracticable needs, such as transportation and high temperature processing. Here, the synthesis of efficient ultra-fine Mn3 O4 water oxidation catalysts with tunable specific surface area is demonstrated by a scalable one-step flame-synthesis process. The water oxidation performance of these flame-made structures is compared with pure Mn2 O3 and Mn5 O8 , obtained by post-calcination of as-prepared Mn3 O4 (115?m(2) ?g(-1) ), and commercial iso-structural polymorphs, probing the effect of the manganese oxidation state and synthetic route. The structural properties of the manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated by XRD, FTIR, high-resolution TEM, and XPS. It is found that these flame-made nanostructures have substantially higher activity, reaching up to 350?% higher surface-specific turnover frequency (0.07??molO2 ?m(-2) ?s(-1) ) than commercial nanocrystals (0.02??molO2 ?m(-2) ?s(-1) ), and production of up to 0.33?mmolO2 ?molMn (-1) ?s(-1) . Electrochemical characterization confirmed the high water oxidation activity of these catalysts with an initial current density of 10?mA?cm(-2) achieved with overpotentials between 0.35 and 0.50?V in 1?m NaOH electrolyte. PMID:26601653

  4. Efficient synthesis of ammonia from N2 and H2 alone in a ferroelectric packed-bed DBD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ramírez, A.; Cotrino, J.; Lambert, R. M.; González-Elipe, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of ammonia synthesis from hydrogen and nitrogen in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was carried out. Electrical parameters were systematically varied, including applied voltage and frequency, electrode gap, and type of ferroelectric material (BaTiO3 versus PZT). For selected operating conditions, power consumption and plasma electron density were estimated from Lissajous diagrams and by application of the Bolsig  +  model, respectively. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of plasma species (\\text{N}{{\\text{H}}*},{{\\text{N}}*},~{N}2+~\\text{and} ~{N}2* ) as a function of applied voltage with both types of ferroelectric material. PZT gave both greater energy efficiency and higher ammonia yield than BaTiO3: 0.9 g NH3 kWh‑1 and 2.7% single pass N2 conversion, respectively. This performance is substantially superior to previously published findings on DBD synthesis of NH3 from N2 and H2 alone. The influence of electrical working parameters, the beneficial effect of PZT and the importance of controlling reactant residence time are rationalized in a reaction model that takes account of the principal process variables

  5. Synthesis of Macrocyclic Organo-Peptide Hybrids from Ribosomal Polypeptide Precursors via CuAAC-/hydrazide-mediated cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jessica M.; Fasan, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic peptides have attracted increasing attention as a potential new source of chemical probes and therapeutics. In particular, their conformationally restricted structure combined with a high degree of functional and stereochemical complexity make them promising scaffolds for targeting biomolecules with high affinity and selectivity. The exploration of this structural class rely on the availability of efficient and versatile methods for the generation of large and diversified libraries of macrocyclic peptide-based molecules. To this end, we have developed a methodology for the synthesis of hybrid organo-peptide macrocycles via the cyclization of ribosomally derived polypeptide sequences with non-peptidic organic linkers. This strategy relies on the chemoselective and bioorthogonal ligation of azide/hydrazide-based synthetic precursors with intein-fused polypeptides harboring a side-chain alkyne functionality. This macrocyclization approach was found to proceed with high efficiency across a range of different target peptide sequences spanning 4 to 12 residues as well as across multiple mono- and di-aryl-based synthetic precursors. This versatility combined with the possibility to integrate non-proteinogenic scaffolds into genetically encoded peptide sequences makes this methodology of particularly high value toward the creation and screening of highly diverse libraries of peptide-based macrocycles. PMID:25616323

  6. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gases in a gas-to-liquids process combined with CO2/steam-mixed reforming and Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chundong; Jun, Ki-Won; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Yun-Jo; Kang, Seok Chang

    2014-07-15

    Two process models for carbon dioxide utilized gas-to-liquids (GTL) process (CUGP) mainly producing light olefins and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthetic oils were developed by Aspen Plus software. Both models are mainly composed of a reforming unit, an F-T synthesis unit and a recycle unit, while the main difference is the feeding point of fresh CO2. In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. Meanwhile, CO2 hydrogenation is conducted via reverse water gas shift on the Fe-based catalysts in the F-T synthesis unit to produce hydrocarbons. After F-T synthesis, the unreacted syngas is recycled to F-T synthesis and reforming units to enhance process efficiency. From the simulation results, it was found that the carbon efficiencies of both CUGP options were successfully improved, and total CO2 emissions were significantly reduced, compared with the conventional GTL processes. The process efficiency was sensitive to recycle ratio and more recycle seemed to be beneficial for improving process efficiency and reducing CO2 emission. However, the process efficiency was rather insensitive to split ratio (recycle to reforming unit/total recycle), and the optimum split ratio was determined to be zero. PMID:24933030

  7. Polyoxometalate-mediated one-pot synthesis of Pd nanocrystals with controlled morphologies for efficient chemical and electrochemical catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongheun; Seog, Ji Hyun; Kim, Minjune; Yang, MinHo; Gillette, Eleanor; Lee, Sang Bok; Han, Sang Woo

    2015-03-27

    Polyoxometalates (POMs), as inorganic ligands, can endow metal nanocrystals (NCs) with unique reactivities on account of their characteristic redox properties. In the present work, we present a facile POM-mediated one-pot aqueous synthesis method for the production of single-crystalline Pd NCs with controlled shapes and sizes. The POMs could function as both reducing and stabilizing agents in the formation of NCs, and thus gave a fine control over the nucleation and growth kinetics of NCs. The prepared POM-stabilized Pd NCs exhibited excellent catalytic activity and stability for electrocatalytic (formic acid oxidation) and catalytic (Suzuki coupling) reactions compared to Pd NCs prepared without the POMs. This shows that the POMs play a pivotal role in determining the catalytic performance, as well as the growth, of NCs. We envision that the present approach can offer a convenient way to develop efficient NC-based catalyst systems. PMID:25684660

  8. Facile and efficient one-pot synthesis of 2-arylbenzoxazoles using hydrogen tetrachloroaurate as catalyst under oxygen atmosphere*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun-kui; Mao, Da-jie; Lou, Shao-jie; Qian, Jian-qiang; Xu, Zhen-yuan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we presented a novel method for the facile and efficient one-pot synthesis of 2-arylbenzoxazoles, which were directly synthesized from 2-aminophenol and aldehydes catalyzed by hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl44H2O) under an oxygen atmosphere with anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvent or in solvent-free condition. The results show that this method could bring excellent yields as high as 96%. THF was proven to be the best choice among several solvents screened and the reaction was tolerated with a variety of aromatic aldehydes possessing electron-donating or withdrawing groups. The advantages of the present method lie in catalytic process using economic and environmentally benign dioxygen as oxidant. PMID:19489113

  9. Modular solid-phase synthesis, catalytic application and efficient recycling of supported phosphine-phosphite ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Heutz, Frank J L; Kamer, Paul C J

    2016-02-01

    In spite of decades of research in the field of homogeneous asymmetric catalysis the discovery of new high performance catalysts still relies heavily on trial-and-error. There is still a lack of efficient combinatorial methods which enable the synthesis and screening of vast ligand libraries, especially for bidentate phosphorus ligands. Here we present a highly modular solid-phase synthetic approach which provides facile access to libraries of phosphine-phosphite ligands in quantitative yield requiring only minimal work-up. The obtained library of supported phosphine-phosphites was successfully applied in rhodium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation obtaining high enantioselectivities up to 98%. Also, these polymer supported ligands could be successfully recycled under batch conditions exhibiting only a small decline of activity and no loss of selectivity. PMID:26486695

  10. Development of a simple and efficient solution-phase parallel synthesis of flexible non-steroidal estradiol mimics.

    PubMed

    Djigoué, Guy B; Maltais, René; Poirier, Donald

    2014-01-01

    An efficient parallel synthesis was designed to provide libraries of estradiol mimics that can potentially interact with different biological targets associated with estradiol-related diseases. Two libraries of 75 members each were synthesized around a non-steroidal core by adding three levels of molecular diversity. Hydroxybenzaldehydes (1st level of diversity), protected as a methoxymethyl ether, first reacted with primary amines (2nd level of diversity) under reductive amination conditions. The resulting secondary amines next reacted with 4-bromo-1,2-epoxybutane to provide epoxide derivatives as precursors of the 3rd level of diversity. Various nucleophiles were then used to open each epoxide. Methyl isocyanate scavenger was finally used to trap out the excess amine and the protecting group was removed by hydrolysis to provide the final compounds. PMID:25230027

  11. Efficient synthesis of the intermediate of abacavir and carbovir using a novel (+)-γ-lactamase as a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuaihua; Zhu, Shaozhou; Huang, Rong; Lu, Yingxiu; Zheng, Guojun

    2015-09-15

    The enantiomers of 2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one (γ-lactam) are key chiral synthons in the synthesis of antiviral drugs such as carbovir and abacavir. (+)-γ-Lactamase can be used as a catalyst in the enzymatic preparation of optically pure (-)-γ-lactam. Here, a (+)-γ-lactamase discovered from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 6 by sequence-structure guided genome mining was cloned, purified and characterized. The enzyme possesses a significant catalytic activity towards γ-lactam. The active site of the (+)-γ-lactamase was studied by homologous modeling and molecular docking, and the accuracy of the prediction was confirmed by site-specific mutagenesis. The (+)-γ-lactamase reveals the great practical potential as an enzymatic method for the efficient production of carbocyclic nucleosides of pharmaceutical interest. PMID:26235952

  12. Chemoselective Switch in the Asymmetric Organocatalysis of 5H-Oxazol-4-ones and N-Itaconimides: Addition-Protonation or [4+2] Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Lee, Richmond; Li, Jiangtao; Ye, Xinyi; Hong, San-Ni; Qiu, Shuai; Coote, Michelle L; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    We report a synthetic strategy for a chemoselective switch and a diastereo-divergent approach for the asymmetric reaction of 5H-oxazol-4-ones and N-itaconimides catalyzed by l-tert-leucine-derived tertiary amine-urea compounds. The reaction was modulated to harness either tandem conjugate addition-protonation or [4+2] cycloaddition as major product with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities. Subjecting the enantio-enriched cycloaddition products to a basic silica gel reagent yields the diastereomer vis--vis the product directly obtained under conditions for addition-protonation, thus opening a diastereo-divergent route for creating 1,3-tertiary-hetero-quaternary stereocenters. Quantum chemical studies further provide stereochemical analysis for the [4+2] process and a plausible mechanism for this chemoselective switch is proposed. PMID:26662073

  13. CuFe2O4 magnetic heterogeneous nanocatalyst: Low power sonochemical-coprecipitation preparation and applications in synthesis of 4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Jaspreet Kaur; Arora, Priya; Kaur, Gagandeep; Kaur, Manpreet

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the synthesis and catalytic activity of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles. The CuFe2O4 nanoparticles have been prepared by sonochemical route under low power ultrasonic irradiation (UI) and using silent stirring at room temperature only (ST) along with co-precipitation method, without using any additive/capping agent. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were successfully used and compared for the synthesis of 4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives. The CuFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by sonochemical route exhibit higher catalytic activity because of small size (0.5-5 nm), high surface area (214.55 m(2)/g), high thermal stability up to 700C, recyclability and reusability due to its magnetic characteristics than CuFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by room temperature silent stirring. The synthesized CuFe2O4 nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, SEM-EDX, HR-TEM, XRD, TGA/DTA/DTG, BET, VSM techniques. The present method is of great interest due to its salient features such as environmentally compatible, efficient, short reaction time, chemoselectivity, high yield, cheap, moisture insensitive, green and recyclable catalyst which make it sustainable protocol. PMID:25649833

  14. An efficient green synthesis of 2-arylbenzothiazole analogues as potent antibacterial and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Mohit; Sinha, Sohini; Banerjee, Swagata; Paira, Priyankar

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated a novel and green approach for the synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazole analogues. A number of 2-aryl and heteroaryl benzothiazole scaffolds were synthesized using Amberlite IR-120 resin under microwave irradiation. The catalytic role and reusability of the resin was well established here. 2-Substituted benzothiazole analogues (3a-l) were also tested against several bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella) and cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and HeLa). The stability of compound 2-phenyl benzothiazole (3a) and 2-pyridin-2-yl-benzothiazole (3k) in GSH (0.01mM dissolved in DMSO) was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compound 3k also shows remarkable fluorescence in MeOH. PMID:26590102

  15. Efficient synthesis and biological activity of Psammaplin A and its analogues as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suckchang; Shin, Yoonho; Jung, Myunggi; Ha, Min Woo; Park, Yohan; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Ki Bong; Lee, Sang Kook; Park, Hyeung-geun

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new concise method for the synthesis of psammaplin A and its analogues, and antitumor activity of psammaplin A analogues. Psammaplin A was obtained with 41% yield in 5 steps from 3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzaldahyde and ethyl acetoacetate via Knoevenagel condensation and ?-nitrosation as key steps. Twenty eight analogues of psammaplin A were prepared employing the new synthetic approach. Structure-activity relationship study against cytotoxicity reveal that the free oxime group and disulfide functional group were responsible for high cytotoxicity. Also the bromotyrosine component was relatively tolerable and hydrophobic aromatic groups preserved the cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of aromatic group is dependent on the size and spatial geometry. Among them, five compounds showed comparable cytotoxicity to psammaplin A. Compound 30 exhibited potential HDAC inhibitory activity and in vivo antitumor activity. PMID:25884112

  16. Growth rate hypothesis and efficiency of protein synthesis under different sulphate concentrations in two green algae.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Mario; Palmucci, Matteo; Raven, John A

    2015-11-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) predicts a positive correlation between growth rate and RNA content because growth depends upon the protein synthesis machinery. The application of this hypothesis to photoautotrophic organisms has been questioned. We tested the GRH on one prasinophycean, Tetraselmis suecica, and one chlorophycean, Dunaliella salina, grown at three sulphate concentrations. Sulphate was chosen because its concentration in the oceans increased through geological time and apparently had a role in the evolutionary trajectories of phytoplankton. Cell protein content and P quota were positively related to the RNA content (r?=?0.62 and r?=?0.74, respectively). The correlation of the RNA content with growth rates (r?=?0.95) indicates that the GRH was valid for these species when growth rates were below 0.82?d(-1) . PMID:25851030

  17. Synthesis of homogeneous Pt-bimetallic nanoparticles as highly efficient electrocatalysts.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Chi, M.; Li, D.; van der Vliet, D.; Wang, G.; Lin, Q.; Mitchell, J.; More, K. L.; Markovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    Alloying has shown enormous potential for tailoring the atomic and electronic structures, and improving the performance of catalytic materials. Systematic studies of alloy catalysts are, however, often compromised by inhomogeneous distribution of alloying components. Here we introduce a general approach for the synthesis of monodispersed and highly homogeneous Pt-bimetallic alloy nanocatalysts. Pt{sub 3}M (where M = Fe, Ni, or Co) nanoparticles were prepared by an organic solvothermal method and then supported on high surface area carbon. These catalysts attained a homogeneous distribution of elements, as demonstrated by atomic-scale elemental analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy. They also exhibited high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), with improvement factors of 2-3 versus conventional Pt/carbon catalysts. The measured ORR catalytic activities for Pt{sub 3}M nanocatalysts validated the volcano curve established on extended surfaces, with Pt{sub 3}Co being the most active alloy.

  18. An Efficient and Facile Method for the Synthesis of Benzimidazoisoquinoline Derivatives via a Multicomponent Reaction.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-Li; Li, Shi-Qiang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Di; Xu, Chuan; Lan, Hai-Tao; Chen, Zhong-Zhu; Xu, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-11

    Two series of benzimidazoisoquinoline and fused benzimidazoisoquinoline-benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized using an efficient one-pot procedure. This process involves an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction and provides facile access to two series of complexes and potentially interesting biologically active scaffolds. PMID:26634875

  19. Efficient alkene synthesis on solid support using the Julia-Kocienski coupling.

    PubMed

    Boggin, Dora B; Mata, Ernesto G

    2010-11-01

    An efficient application of the Julia-Kocienski coupling for the olefination of aldehydes with resin-bound benzothiazol-2-yl and 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl sulfones is described. Olefins is generally obtained in high overall yield for the six-reaction steps. PMID:20401532

  20. Efficient utilization of crude glycerol as fermentation substrate in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One refined and 2 crude glycerol samples were utilized to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682. Fermentation conditions were determined to efficiently utilize glycerol while maintaining PHB yields. A batch culture protocol including 1% glycerol and an aerati...

  1. High Catalytic Activity and Chemoselectivity of Sub-nanometric Pd Clusters on Porous Nanorods of CeO2 for Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Chang, Chun-Ran; Huang, Zheng-Qing; Li, Jing; Wu, Zhemin; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiyun; Wang, Yong; Qu, Yongquan

    2016-03-01

    Sub-nanometric Pd clusters on porous nanorods of CeO2 (PN-CeO2) with a high Pd dispersion of 73.6% exhibit the highest catalytic activity and best chemoselectivity for hydrogenation of nitroarenes to date. For hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol, the catalysts yield a TOF of ∼44059 h(-1) and a chemoselectivity to 4-aminophenol of >99.9%. The superior catalytic performance can be attributed to a cooperative effect between the highly dispersed sub-nanometric Pd clusters for hydrogen activation and unique surface sites of PN-CeO2 with a high concentration of oxygen vacancy for an energetically and geometrically preferential adsorption of nitroarenes via nitro group. The high concentration of surface defects of PN-CeO2 and large Pd dispersion contribute to the enhanced catalytic activity for the hydrogenation reactions. The high chemoselectivity is mainly governed by the high Pd dispersion on the support. The catalysts also deliver high catalytic activity and selectivity for nitroaromatics with various reducible substituents into the corresponding aminoarenes. PMID:26828123

  2. Switching between reaction pathways by an alcohol cosolvent effect: SmI2-ethylene glycol vs SmI2-H2O mediated synthesis of uracils.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Michal; Spain, Malcolm; Sautier, Brice; Procter, David J

    2014-11-01

    A chemoselective switch between reaction pathways by an alcohol cosolvent effect in a general SmI2-mediated synthesis of uracil derivatives is described. The method relies on the use of coordinating solvents to increase the redox potential of Sm(II) and results in a chemoselective 1,2-reduction (SmI2-H2O) or 1,2-migration via in situ generated N-acyliminium ions (SmI2-ethylene glycol, EG). This work exploits the mild conditions of the SmI2-mediated monoreduction of barbituric acids and offers an attractive protocol for the synthesis of uracil derivatives with biological activity from readily accessible building blocks. PMID:25343692

  3. A green and efficient protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives via a one-pot, four component reaction by grinding method

    PubMed Central

    Ambethkar, Sethurajan; Padmini, Vediappen; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai

    2014-01-01

    An efficient grinding protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives from acetylene ester, hydrazine hydrate, aryl aldehydes and malononitrile under solvent free conditions has been achieved with excellent yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were deduced by spectroscopic techniques and the compounds were further evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. PMID:26644936

  4. A green and efficient protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives via a one-pot, four component reaction by grinding method.

    PubMed

    Ambethkar, Sethurajan; Padmini, Vediappen; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai

    2015-11-01

    An efficient grinding protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives from acetylene ester, hydrazine hydrate, aryl aldehydes and malononitrile under solvent free conditions has been achieved with excellent yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were deduced by spectroscopic techniques and the compounds were further evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. PMID:26644936

  5. Rapid and efficient synthesis of colloidal gold nanoparticles by arc discharge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Iraji Zad, Azam; Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ahadian, Mohammad Mahdi; Hormozi Nezhad, Mohammad Reza

    2009-08-01

    We report a simple, inexpensive and one-step synthesis route of colloidal gold nanoparticles using arc discharge between titanium electrodes in HAuCl4 solution achieving long-time stability. Gold nanoparticles of 8 nm diameter were formed during reduction of HAuCl4 in the plasma discharge zone. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical absorption spectroscopy of as prepared samples at 15 A arc current in HAuCl4 solution shows a surface plasmon resonance around 550 nm. It was found that sodium citrate acts as a stabilizer and surface capping agent of the colloidal nanoparticles. SEM images exhibit the increase of reduced nanoparticles in 4 minutes arc duration compared with 1 minute arc duration. A TEM image of the sample prepared at 4 minutes arc duration shows a narrow size distribution with 8 nm mean particle size. The plasmonic peak intensity of as prepared gold nanoparticles in 1 minute arc duration gradually increases due to seed mediation up to 6 hours.

  6. Highly efficient and regioselective synthesis of dihydromyricetin esters by immobilized lipase.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wu, Huan; Liu, Benguo; Hou, Xuedan; Wan, Duanji; Lou, Wenyong; Zhao, Jian

    2015-04-10

    Dihydromyricetin is the principle component of the Chinese herbal tea Teng-cha and a promising ingredient for functional food and nutraceuticals, but its low solubility limits its application potentials. This study explored enzymatic acylation of dihydromyricetin to improve its solubility in lipid systems. Acylation was achieved with several lipases with the synthesis of a major (>86%) product and a minor product. Isolation and purification of the products by preparative HPLC followed by LC-MS, (13)C NMR, (1)H NMR and 2 D-HSQC NMR analyses showed that the major product was a dihydromyricetin monoester with the acylation site at the 3-OH group of C ring. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the 3-OH had the lowest antioxidant activity, and therefore acylation at this site was expected to have minimum impact on the antioxidant activity. Several factors, including solvent, acyl donor, enzyme origin, molar ratio of substrates and reaction temperature and time, exhibited significant effects on the initial rate, conversion yield and regioselectivity of the reaction. Acylation occurred only with vinyl acetate as the acyl donor, and highest conversion yields were achieved with immobilized Penicillium expansum lipase and Novozyme 435 with DMSO and acetonitrile being the best solvents. In general, the acylation results were found to be superior to previous reports on acylation of aglycone flavonoids with respects to conversion yield and regioselectivity. PMID:25701177

  7. Facile mesoporous template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of ordered mesoporous magnesium silicate as an efficient adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshan; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Jingfeng; Lu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous materials with unique structure as well as special morphology have potential applications in pollutant adsorption. In this work, using mesoporous silica SBA-15 filled with carbon (C@SBA-15) as both silicon source and assisted template, the ordered mesoporous magnesium silicate (Mg3Si4O9(OH)4) has been fabricated at 140 °C by a novel and facile hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal process, the magnesium silicate grew along the silica walls at the expense of consuming silica and deposited on the carbon surface of the C@SBA-15. Meanwhile, the rigid carbon inside the pores of the SBA-15 supported the magnesium silicate as mesoporous walls under hydrothermal condition. The obtained magnesium silicate possessed ordered mesoporous structure, high specific surface area of 446 m2/g, large pore volume of 0.84 cm3/g, and hierarchical structure assembled with ultrathin nanosheets of 15 nm in thickness. These characteristics endow the ordered mesoporous magnesium silicate with the fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity of 382 mg/g for methylene blue. In addition, this synthesis method opens a new approach to fabricate other ordered mesoporous silicates.

  8. Efficient synthesis of core@shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Cristobal, Paulino; Laurenti, Marco; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Rubio-Retama, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles has received much attention due to promising applications in the biomedical field. In this work, we produced Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles by using a two-step solvothermal route that employed Fe3O4 nanoparticles as seeds for the Au deposition. Although this protocol leads to highly monodisperse and reproducible Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles it was necessary to perform a systematic study to have a better understanding, improve the yield and allow us to obtain a tunable result. We demonstrated that the Au:Fe3O4 ratio is a key parameter that, contrary to what could be expected, does not influence the Au shell thickness. However, this parameter should be optimized because it strongly influences the yield. When the Au:Fe3O4 ratio was low there were plenty of uncoated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, whereas when the Au:Fe3O4 ratio was high there could be some pure Au nanoparticles together with the desired Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles. Furthermore we demonstrated that the Au shell thickness can be tuned by varying the reaction temperature. This paper describes the influence of both parameters and proposes a mechanism of the synthetic process by studying parametrically the morphological and structural evolution of the nanoparticles by TEM, DLS, SQUID and UV-vis spectroscopy.

  9. Green synthesis of highly efficient CdSe quantum dots for quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Bing; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Mengya; Yuan, Shuanglong; Yang, Yunxia E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn; Chen, Guorong E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn; Zhang, Bo

    2014-05-21

    Green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for application in the quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is investigated in this work. The CdSe QDs were prepared with glycerol as the solvent, with sharp emission peak, full width at half maximum around 30 nm, and absorption peak from 475 nm to 510 nm. The reaction is environmental friendly and energy saving. What's more, the green synthesized CdSe QDs are coherence to the maximum remittance region of the solar spectrum and suitable as sensitizers to assemble onto TiO{sub 2} electrodes for cell devices application. What's more, the dynamic procedure of the carriers' excitation, transportation, and recombination in the QDSCs are discussed. Because the recombination of the electrons from the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}'s to the electrolyte affects the efficiency of the solar cells greatly, 3-Mercaptopropionic acid capped water-dispersible QDs were used to cover the surface of TiO{sub 2}. The resulting green synthesized CdSe QDSCs with Cu{sub 2}S as the electrode show a photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 3.39%.

  10. Synthesis of Bismuth-Nanoparticle-Enriched Nanoporous Carbon on Graphene for Efficient Electrochemical Analysis of Heavy-Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2015-08-01

    A BiNPs@NPCGS nanocomposite was designed for highly efficient detection of multiple heavy-metal ions by in situ synthesis of bismuth-nanoparticle (BiNP)-enriched nanoporous carbon (NPS) on graphene sheet (GS). The NPCGS was prepared by pyrolysis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanocrystals deposited on graphene oxide and displayed a high surface area of 1251?m(2) ?g(-1) and a pore size of 3.4?nm. BiNPs were deposited on NPCGS in situ by chemical reduction of Bi(3+) with NaBH4 . Due to the restrictive effect of the pore/surface structure of NPCGS, the BiNPs were uniform and well dispersed on the NPCGS. The BiNPs@NPCGS showed good conductivity and high effective area, and the presence of BiNPs allowed it to act as an efficient material for anodic-stripping voltammetric detection of heavy-metal ions. Under optimized conditions, the BiNPs@NPCGS-based sensor could simultaneously determine Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) with detection limits of 3.2 and 4.1?nM, respectively. Moreover, the proposed sensor could also differentiate Tl(+) from Pb(2+) and Cd(2+). Owing to its advantages of simple preparation, environmental friendliness, high surface area, and fast electron-transfer ability, BiNPs@NPCGS showed promise for practical application in sensing heavy-metal ions. PMID:26130217

  11. Efficient synthesis of Hsp90 inhibitor dimers as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Hironori; Muranaka, Kazuhiro; Osada, Akiko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Matsuda, Akira

    2010-08-01

    The PU-H58-dimers 13a-15b were efficiently synthesized and their biological properties were evaluated. The copper-catalyzed alkyne azide coupling was effective in simultaneously linking three components via a triazole formation to afford the target dimers. These synthesized dimers exhibited binding affinity to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90, cytotoxicity, and client degradation activity although these activities were comparative or weak comparable with that of the parent compound. PMID:20609590

  12. Hexachloroethane: a highly efficient reagent for the synthesis of chlorosilanes from hydrosilanes.

    PubMed

    Pongkittiphan, Veerachai; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2009-09-01

    A new and efficient chlorination protocol is presented for the preparation of chlorosilanes from hydrosilanes. A variety of chlorinating agents in combination with palladium(II) chloride as the catalyst are examined. Among them, hexachloroethane is found to be the best choice, furnishing the desired product in good to quantitative yields under mild conditions. Various hydrosilanes are used as starting materials to explore the scope of this reaction. PMID:20360997

  13. Hexachloroethane: a highly efficient reagent for the synthesis of chlorosilanes from hydrosilanes

    PubMed Central

    Pongkittiphan, Veerachai; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2010-01-01

    A new and efficient chlorination protocol is presented for the preparation of chlorosilanes from hydrosilanes. A variety of chlorinating agents in combination with palladium(II) chloride as the catalyst are examined. Among them, hexachloroethane is found to be the best choice, furnishing the desired product in good to quantitative yields under mild conditions. Various hydrosilanes are used as starting materials to explore the scope of this reaction. PMID:20360997

  14. The Synthesis of Organic Molecules of Intrinsic Microporosity Designed to Frustrate Efficient Molecular Packing.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rupert G D; Bezzu, C Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Msayib, Kadhum J; Walker, Jonathan; Short, Rhys; Kariuki, Benson M; McKeown, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    Efficient reactions between fluorine-functionalised biphenyl and terphenyl derivatives with catechol-functionalised terminal groups provide a route to large, discrete organic molecules of intrinsic microporosity (OMIMs) that provide porous solids solely by their inefficient packing. By altering the size and substituent bulk of the terminal groups, a number of soluble compounds with apparent BET surface areas in excess of 600?m(2) ?g(-1) are produced. The efficiency of OMIM structural units for generating microporosity is in the order: propellane>triptycene>hexaphenylbenzene>spirobifluorene>naphthyl=phenyl. The introduction of bulky hydrocarbon substituents significantly enhances microporosity by further reducing packing efficiency. These results are consistent with findings from previously reported packing simulation studies. The introduction of methyl groups at the bridgehead position of triptycene units reduces intrinsic microporosity. This is presumably due to their internal position within the OMIM structure so that they occupy space, but unlike peripheral substituents they do not contribute to the generation of free volume by inefficient packing. PMID:26751824

  15. Dispersion-precipitation synthesis of nanosized magnetic iron oxide for efficient removal of arsenite in water.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yajie; Wu, Feng; Xu, Xiuyan; Li, Jinjun

    2015-05-01

    Nanosized magnetic iron oxide was facilely synthesized by a dispersion-precipitation method, which involved acetone-promoted precipitation of colloidal hydrous iron oxide nanoparticles and subsequent calcination of the precipitate at 250C. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption, and vibrating-sample magnetometry revealed that the material was a composite of ?-Fe2O3 and ?-Fe2O3 with primary particle size of 15-25 nm and specific surface area of 121 m(2)/g, as well as superparamagnetic property. The material was used as adsorbent for the removal of arsenite in water. Batch experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms at pH 3.0-11.0 fit the Langmuir equation and the adsorption obeys pseudo-second-order kinetics. Its maximum sorption capability for arsenite is 46.5 mg/g at pH 7.0. Coexisting nitrate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride have no significant effect on the removal efficiency of arsenite, while phosphate and silicate reduce the removal efficiency to some extent. The As(III) removal mechanism is chemisorption through forming inner-sphere surface complexes. The efficiency of arsenic removal is still maintained after five cycles of regeneration-reuse. PMID:25612934

  16. Cobalt(II) Porphyrin-Catalyzed Intramolecular Cyclopropanation of N-Alkyl Indoles/Pyrroles with Alkylcarbene: Efficient Synthesis of Polycyclic N-Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Annapureddy Rajasekar; Hao, Fei; Wu, Kai; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    A protocol on chemoselective cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of N-alkyl indoles/pyrroles with alkylcarbenes has been developed. The reaction enables the rapid construction of a range of nitrogen-containing polycyclic compounds in moderate to high yields from readily accessible materials. These N-containing polycyclic compounds can be converted into a variety of N-heterocycles with potential synthetic and biological interest. Compared to their N-tosylhydrazone counterparts, the use of bulky N-2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl hydrazones as carbene precursors allows cyclopropanation to occur under milder reaction conditions. PMID:26691692

  17. Efficient enzymatic systems for synthesis of novel ?-mangostin glycosides exhibiting antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Le, Tuoi Thi; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Gurung, Rit Bahadur; Dhakal, Dipesh; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Two enzymatic systems were developed for the efficient synthesis of glycoside products of ?-mangostin, a natural xanthonoid exhibiting anti-oxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In these systems, one-pot reactions for the synthesis of UDP-?-D-glucose and UDP-?-D-2-deoxyglucose were modified and combined with a glycosyltransferase (GT) from Bacillus licheniformis DSM-13 to afford C-3 and C-6 position modified glucose and 2-deoxyglucose conjugated novel ?-mangostin derivatives. ?-Mangostin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 6-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 3,6-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 3-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 6-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, and ?-mangostin 3,6-di-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside were successfully produced in practical quantities and characterized by high-resolution quadruple time-of-flight electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-QTOF ESI/MS), (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. In excess of the substrate, the maximum productions of three ?-mangostin glucopyranosides (4.8 mg/mL, 86.5 % overall conversion of ?-mangostin) and three ?-mangostin 2-deoxyglucopyronosides (4.0 mg/mL, 79 % overall conversion of ?-mangostin) were achieved at 4-h incubation period. All the ?-mangostin glycosides exhibited improved water solubility, and their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus was drastically enhanced by the glucosylation at C-3 position. In this study, diverse glycosylated ?-mangostin were produced in significant quantities by using inexpensive starting materials and recycling co-factors within a reaction vessel without use of expensive NDP-sugars in the glycosylation reactions. PMID:25038930

  18. A High Performance Platform Based on cDNA Display for Efficient Synthesis of Protein Fusions and Accelerated Directed Evolution.

    PubMed

    Naimuddin, Mohammed; Kubo, Tai

    2016-02-01

    We describe a high performance platform based on cDNA display technology by developing a new modified puromycin linker-oligonucleotide. The linker consists of four major characteristics: a "ligation site" for hybridization and ligation of mRNA by T4 RNA ligase, a "puromycin arm" for covalent linkage of the protein, a "polyadenosine site" for a longer puromycin arm and purification of protein fusions (optional) using oligo-dT matrices, and a "reverse transcription site" for the formation of stable cDNA protein fusions whose cDNA is covalently linked to its encoded protein. The linker was synthesized by a novel branching strategy and provided >8-fold higher yield than previous linkers. This linker enables rapid and highly efficient ligation of mRNA (>90%) and synthesis of protein fusions (∼50-95%) in various cell-free expression systems. Overall, this new cDNA display method provides 10-200 fold higher end-usage fusions than previous methods and benefits higher diversity libraries crucial for directed protein/peptide evolution. With the increased efficiency, this system was able to reduce the time for one selection cycle to <8 h and is potentially amenable to high-throughput systems. We demonstrate the efficiency of this system for higher throughput selections of various biomolecular interactions and achieved 30-40-fold enrichment per selection cycle. Furthermore, a 4-fold higher enrichment of Flag-tag was obtained from a doped mixture compared with that of the previous cDNA display method. A three-finger protein library was evolved to isolate superior nanomolar range binding candidates for vascular endothelial growth factor. This method is expected to provide a beneficial impact to accelerated drug discovery and proteome analysis. PMID:26812183

  19. Efficient synthesis and reaction kinetics of readily water soluble esters containing sulfonic groups.

    PubMed

    Idzik, Krzysztof R; Ndler, Karsten; Maier, Friedrich; Licha, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    A series of various readily water soluble esters were synthesized by a very efficient procedure. These compounds can be useful as thermosensitive tracers for studying the cooling progress in a low enthalpy georeservoir exploitable by double flash geothermal power plant systems. The kinetics of their hydrolysis was investigated. Acylation of primary alcohols or phenols was carried out by a method based on a single-phase solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate acting as an organic solvent and triethylamine acting as a catalyst. Products were characterized by 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. PMID:25517341

  20. Design and synthesis of molecular donors for solution-processed high-efficiency organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Jessica E; Henson, Zachary B; Welch, Gregory C; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2014-01-21

    Organic semiconductors incorporated into solar cells using a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) construction show promise as a cleaner answer to increasing energy needs throughout the world. Organic solar cells based on the BHJ architecture have steadily increased in their device performance over the past two decades, with power conversion efficiencies reaching 10%. Much of this success has come with conjugated polymer/fullerene combinations, where optimized polymer design strategies, synthetic protocols, device fabrication procedures, and characterization methods have provided significant advancements in the technology. More recently, chemists have been paying particular attention to well-defined molecular donor systems due to their ease of functionalization, amenability to standard organic purification and characterization methods, and reduced batch-to-batch variability compared to polymer counterparts. There are several critical properties for efficient small molecule donors. First, broad optical absorption needs to extend towards the near-IR region to achieve spectral overlap with the solar spectrum. Second, the low lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels need to be between -5.2 and -5.5 eV to ensure acceptable device open circuit voltages. Third, the structures need to be relatively planar to ensure close intermolecular contacts and high charge carrier mobilities. And last, the small molecule donors need to be sufficiently soluble in organic solvents (≥10 mg/mL) to facilitate solution deposition of thin films of appropriate uniformity and thickness. Ideally, these molecules should be constructed from cost-effective, sustainable building blocks using established, high yielding reactions in as few steps as possible. The structures should also be easy to functionalize to maximize tunability for desired properties. In this Account, we present a chronological description of our thought process and design strategies used in the development of highly efficient molecular donors that achieve power conversion efficiencies greater than 7%. The molecules are based on a modular D(1)-A-D(2)-A-D(1) architecture, where A is an asymmetric electron deficient heterocycle, which allowed us to quickly access a library of compounds and develop structure-property-performance relationships. Modifications to the D1 and D2 units enable spectral coverage throughout the entire visible region and control of HOMO energy levels, while adjustments to the pendant alkyl substituents dictate molecular solubility, thermal transition temperatures, and solid-state organizational tendencies. Additionally, we discuss regiochemical considerations that highlight how individual atom placements can significantly influence molecular and subsequently device characteristics. Our results demonstrate the utility of this architecture for generating promising materials to be integrated into organic photovoltaic devices, call attention to areas for improvement, and provide guiding principles to sustain the steady increases necessary to move this technology forward. PMID:23984626

  1. meso-2'-Linked porphyrin-BODIPY hybrids: synthesis and efficient excitation energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin-Qin; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Zhang, Shao-Chun; Tong, Yu-Zhang; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2015-09-21

    Three meso-2'-linked porphyrin-BODIPY hybrids which contain one, two, and four BODIPY units (, , and ), respectively, were synthesized. Their photophysical properties were investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, as well as by theoretical calculations. The electronic properties of the constituent chromophores were found to be largely retained in these hybrids. Meanwhile, efficient and rapid energy transfers from (1)* to were evaluated to be 1.2 × 10(11), 1.5 × 10(11), and 1.1 × 10(11) s(-1), respectively. PMID:26238501

  2. Manganese powder promoted highly efficient and selective synthesis of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Si, Weili; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Shirong; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asao, Naoki; Han, Liyuan; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2015-01-01

    Discovery of an efficient, practical, and flexible synthetic method to produce various important electron acceptors for low-cost organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is highly desirable. Although the most commonly used acceptor materials, such as PC61BM, PC71BM, IC60BA, bisPC61BM have been proved to be promising for the OPVs, they are still very expensive mainly due to their low production yields and limited synthetic methods. Herein, we report an unprecedented and innovative synthetic method of a variety of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts by using manganese powder as a promotor. The reaction of fullerenes with various dibromides proceeds efficiently and selectively under very mild conditions to give the corresponding cycloadducts in good to excellent yields. The combination of manganese power with DMSO additive is crucial for the successful implementation of the present cycloaddition. Notably, the standard OPV acceptors, such as PCBMs, have been obtained in extraordinarily high yields, which cannot be achieved under the previously reported methods. PMID:26349427

  3. Synthesis and characterization of VO2-based thermochromic thin films for energy-efficient windows.

    PubMed

    Batista, Carlos; Ribeiro, Ricardo M; Teixeira, Vasco

    2011-01-01

    Thermochromic VO2 thin films have successfully been grown on SiO2-coated float glass by reactive DC and pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering. The influence of substitutional doping of V by higher valence cations, such as W, Mo, and Nb, and respective contents on the crystal structure of VO2 is evaluated. Moreover, the effectiveness of each dopant element on the reduction of the intrinsic transition temperature and infrared modulation efficiency of VO2 is discussed. In summary, all the dopant elements--regardless of the concentration, within the studied range-- formed a solid solution with VO2, which was the only compound observed by X-ray diffractometry. Nb showed a clear detrimental effect on the crystal structure of VO2. The undoped films presented a marked thermochromic behavior, specially the one prepared by pulsed-DC sputtering. The dopants effectively decreased the transition of VO2 to the proximity of room temperature. However, the IR modulation efficiency is markedly affected as a consequence of the increased metallic character of the semiconducting phase. Tungsten proved to be the most effective element on the reduction of the semiconducting-metal transition temperature, while Mo and Nb showed similar results with the latter being detrimental to the thermochromism. PMID:21711813

  4. Synthesis and characterization of VO2-based thermochromic thin films for energy-efficient windows

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Thermochromic VO2 thin films have successfully been grown on SiO2-coated float glass by reactive DC and pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering. The influence of substitutional doping of V by higher valence cations, such as W, Mo, and Nb, and respective contents on the crystal structure of VO2 is evaluated. Moreover, the effectiveness of each dopant element on the reduction of the intrinsic transition temperature and infrared modulation efficiency of VO2 is discussed. In summary, all the dopant elements--regardless of the concentration, within the studied range-- formed a solid solution with VO2, which was the only compound observed by X-ray diffractometry. Nb showed a clear detrimental effect on the crystal structure of VO2. The undoped films presented a marked thermochromic behavior, specially the one prepared by pulsed-DC sputtering. The dopants effectively decreased the transition of VO2 to the proximity of room temperature. However, the IR modulation efficiency is markedly affected as a consequence of the increased metallic character of the semiconducting phase. Tungsten proved to be the most effective element on the reduction of the semiconducting-metal transition temperature, while Mo and Nb showed similar results with the latter being detrimental to the thermochromism. PMID:21711813

  5. Efficient Synthesis and Photosensitizer Performance of Nonplanar Organic Donor-Acceptor Molecules.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuping; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Norifusa; Ashizawa, Minoru; Han, Liyuan

    2015-08-01

    Nonplanar organic donor-acceptor molecules bearing a carboxylic acid group were synthesized by the formal [2+2] cycloaddition-retroelectrocyclization reaction between aniline-substituted alkynes and tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) or 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). This reaction offers an atom-economic one-step approach to donor-acceptor chromophores in satisfactory high yields. The resulting donor-acceptor molecules were characterized by conventional analytical techniques. In addition, the nonplanarity and intermolecular interactions were investigated by X-ray crystallography. The energy levels and intramolecular charge-transfer (CT), evaluated by UV-Vis-near IR spectroscopy and electrochemistry, suggested that there is a linear correlation between the optical and electrochemical band gaps. Based on these structural and electronic analyses, the photosensitizer performances of the donor-acceptor molecules in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were initially investigated using TiO2 or SnO2 electrodes. Although the power conversion efficiencies were limited, the incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra indicated a better photocurrent generation for the devices on SnO2 as compared to those on TiO2. PMID:26369162

  6. Manganese powder promoted highly efficient and selective synthesis of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Si, Weili; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Shirong; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asao, Naoki; Han, Liyuan; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2015-01-01

    Discovery of an efficient, practical, and flexible synthetic method to produce various important electron acceptors for low-cost organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is highly desirable. Although the most commonly used acceptor materials, such as PC61BM, PC71BM, IC60BA, bisPC61BM have been proved to be promising for the OPVs, they are still very expensive mainly due to their low production yields and limited synthetic methods. Herein, we report an unprecedented and innovative synthetic method of a variety of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts by using manganese powder as a promotor. The reaction of fullerenes with various dibromides proceeds efficiently and selectively under very mild conditions to give the corresponding cycloadducts in good to excellent yields. The combination of manganese power with DMSO additive is crucial for the successful implementation of the present cycloaddition. Notably, the standard OPV acceptors, such as PCBMs, have been obtained in extraordinarily high yields, which cannot be achieved under the previously reported methods. PMID:26349427

  7. Manganese powder promoted highly efficient and selective synthesis of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Weili; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Shirong; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asao, Naoki; Han, Liyuan; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2015-09-01

    Discovery of an efficient, practical, and flexible synthetic method to produce various important electron acceptors for low-cost organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is highly desirable. Although the most commonly used acceptor materials, such as PC61BM, PC71BM, IC60BA, bisPC61BM have been proved to be promising for the OPVs, they are still very expensive mainly due to their low production yields and limited synthetic methods. Herein, we report an unprecedented and innovative synthetic method of a variety of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts by using manganese powder as a promotor. The reaction of fullerenes with various dibromides proceeds efficiently and selectively under very mild conditions to give the corresponding cycloadducts in good to excellent yields. The combination of manganese power with DMSO additive is crucial for the successful implementation of the present cycloaddition. Notably, the standard OPV acceptors, such as PCBMs, have been obtained in extraordinarily high yields, which cannot be achieved under the previously reported methods.

  8. Chemoselective Multicomponent One-Pot Assembly of Purine Precursors in Water

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of a sequential, high-yielding route to activated pyrimidine nucleotides, under conditions thought to be prebiotic, is an encouraging step toward the greater goal of a plausible prebiotic pathway to RNA and the potential for an RNA world. However, this synthesis has led to a disparity in the methodology available for stepwise construction of the canonical pyrimidine and purine nucleotides. To address this problem, and further explore prebiotically accessible chemical systems, we have developed a high-yielding, aqueous, one-pot, multicomponent reaction that tethers masked-sugar moieties to prebiotically plausible purine precursors. A pH-dependent three-component reaction system has been discovered that utilizes key nucleotide synthons 2-aminooxazole and 5-aminoimidazoles, which allows the first divergent purine/pyrimidine synthesis to be proposed. Due to regiospecific aminoimidazole tethering, the pathway allows N9 purination only, thus suggesting the first prebiotically plausible mechanism for regiospecific N9 purination. PMID:21043502

  9. Chemoselective cyclization of unprotected linear peptides by ?-ketoacid-hydroxylamine amide-ligation.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Takeo; Ju, Lei; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-14

    Cyclic peptides are important synthetic targets due to their constrained conformation, enhanced metabolic stability and improved bioavailability, which combine to make them promising lead compounds for drug candidates. They are typically synthesized by a multi-step sequence of carefully orchestrated protecting group manipulations and cyclization of side-chain protected linear precursors. In the present manuscript we disclose an alternative approach to the synthesis of peptide macrocycles by the ?-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation. This reaction allows readily prepared linear peptides to be cyclized without reagents or side-chain protecting groups and delivers a native backbone amide bond at the ligation site. The precursors are prepared with Fmoc-based solid phase peptide synthesis using reagents that we have previously disclosed. No post-cyclization manipulations or deprotections other than purification are required. This protocol was applied to five different cyclic peptide natural products of varying ring sizes and side chain functionalities. PMID:22426859

  10. Chemoselective multicomponent one-pot assembly of purine precursors in water.

    PubMed

    Powner, Matthew W; Sutherland, John D; Szostak, Jack W

    2010-11-24

    The recent development of a sequential, high-yielding route to activated pyrimidine nucleotides, under conditions thought to be prebiotic, is an encouraging step toward the greater goal of a plausible prebiotic pathway to RNA and the potential for an RNA world. However, this synthesis has led to a disparity in the methodology available for stepwise construction of the canonical pyrimidine and purine nucleotides. To address this problem, and further explore prebiotically accessible chemical systems, we have developed a high-yielding, aqueous, one-pot, multicomponent reaction that tethers masked-sugar moieties to prebiotically plausible purine precursors. A pH-dependent three-component reaction system has been discovered that utilizes key nucleotide synthons 2-aminooxazole and 5-aminoimidazoles, which allows the first divergent purine/pyrimidine synthesis to be proposed. Due to regiospecific aminoimidazole tethering, the pathway allows N9 purination only, thus suggesting the first prebiotically plausible mechanism for regiospecific N9 purination. PMID:21043502

  11. Efficient chemoenzymatic oligosaccharide synthesis by reverse phosphorolysis using cellobiose phosphorylase and cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Hachem, Maher Abou; Petersen, Bent O; Westphal, Yvonne; Mannerstedt, Karin; Baumann, Martin J; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Schols, Henk A; Duus, Jens ; Svensson, Birte

    2010-12-01

    Inverting cellobiose phosphorylase (CtCBP) and cellodextrin phosphorylase (CtCDP) from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 of glycoside hydrolase family 94 catalysed reverse phosphorolysis to produce cellobiose and cellodextrins in 57% and 48% yield from ?-d-glucose 1-phosphate as donor with glucose and cellobiose as acceptor, respectively. Use of ?-d-glucosyl 1-fluoride as donor increased product yields to 98% for CtCBP and 68% for CtCDP. CtCBP showed broad acceptor specificity forming ?-glucosyl disaccharides with ?-(1?4)- regioselectivity from five monosaccharides as well as branched ?-glucosyl trisaccharides with ?-(1?4)-regioselectivity from three (1?6)-linked disaccharides. CtCDP showed strict ?-(1?4)-regioselectivity and catalysed linear chain extension of the three ?-linked glucosyl disaccharides, cellobiose, sophorose, and laminaribiose, whereas 12 tested monosaccharides were not acceptors. Structure analysis by NMR and ESI-MS confirmed two ?-glucosyl oligosaccharide product series to represent novel compounds, i.e. ?-D-glucopyranosyl-[(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranosyl](n)-(1?2)-D-glucopyranose, and ?-D-glucopyranosyl-[(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranosyl](n)-(1?3)-D-glucopyranose (n = 1-7). Multiple sequence alignment together with a modelled CtCBP structure, obtained using the crystal structure of Cellvibrio gilvus CBP in complex with glucose as a template, indicated differences in the subsite +1 region that elicit the distinct acceptor specificities of CtCBP and CtCDP. Thus Glu636 of CtCBP recognized the C1 hydroxyl of ?-glucose at subsite +1, while in CtCDP the presence of Ala800 conferred more space, which allowed accommodation of C1 substituted disaccharide acceptors at the corresponding subsites +1 and +2. Furthermore, CtCBP has a short Glu496-Thr500 loop that permitted the C6 hydroxyl of glucose at subsite +1 to be exposed to solvent, whereas the corresponding longer loop Thr637-Lys648 in CtCDP blocks binding of C6-linked disaccharides as acceptors at subsite +1. High yields in chemoenzymatic synthesis, a novel regioselectivity, and novel oligosaccharides including products of CtCDP catalysed oligosaccharide oligomerisation using ?-d-glucosyl 1-fluoride, all together contribute to the formation of an excellent basis for rational engineering of CBP and CDP to produce desired oligosaccharides. PMID:20678539

  12. ?-Conjugated [2]Catenanes Based on Oligothiophenes and Phenanthrolines: Efficient Synthesis and Electronic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gtz, Gnther; Zhu, Xiaozhang; Mishra, Amaresh; Segura, Jose-Luis; Mena-Osteritz, Elena; Buerle, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Novel ?-conjugated topologies based on oligothiophenes and phenanthroline have been assembled by combining their outstanding electronic and structural benefits with the specific properties of the topological structure. Macrocycles and catenanes are prepared by using an optimized protocol of transition metal-templated macrocyclization followed by efficient Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction steps. By using this method, [2]catenanes comprising two interlocked ?-conjugated macrocycles with different ring sizes have been synthesized. The structures of the [2]catenanes and corresponding macrocycles are confirmed by detailed (1) H?NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of the quaterthiophene-diyne macrocycle affords important insight into the packing features and intermolecular interaction of the new systems. The fully conjugated interlocked [2]catenanes are fully characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements. PMID:25820180

  13. Pullulan-protamine as efficient haemocompatible gene delivery vector: synthesis and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Priya, S S; Rekha, M R; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-02-15

    Biodegradable non-viral vectors with good transfection efficiency is essential for successful gene delivery. The purpose of this study was to design a non-viral vector by conjugating protamine to pullulan and elucidate the potential use of pullulan protamine conjugate (PPA) as an effective, non toxic and haemocompatible gene delivery system. The particle size and surface charge were measured using Nanosizer. Derivatization was confirmed by NMR, FTIR and DSC analyses. Acid base titration revealed the buffering behaviour of the conjugate. The protection of DNA from nuclease enzyme and interaction of plasma components on the stability of nanoplexes were also analysed. The uptake studies confirmed the plasmid delivery into the nucleus and the inhibitor studies determined the uptake mechanism. Transfection experiments revealed the capability of PPA to cellular uptake in C6 cells and facilitate high gene expression. Thus, PPA proves to be a promising non-viral vector. PMID:24507274

  14. Synthesis of mesoporous NH2-SBA-15 by a simple and efficient strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Long; Yuan, Fang; Ma, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Amine modified SBA-15 (NH2-SBA-15) was synthesized by a simple and efficient strategy, that is, activation at first and followed by amination. The samples were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis, and nitrogen adsorption. Results show that the as-prepared NH2-SBA-15 possessed a large surface area, stable skeleton structure, and high amino contents. Moreover, the CO2 temperature programmed desorption (CO2-TPD) experiments of the as-prepared NH2-SBA-15 were studied, and the results show that the introduction of amino groups results in the increase of the basic sites of SBA-15, which is beneficial to the adsorption of CO2.

  15. Renewable rigid diamines: efficient, stereospecific synthesis of high purity isohexide diamines.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Gootjes, Linda; Vogelzang, Willem; van Haveren, Jacco; Lutz, Martin; van Es, Daan S

    2011-12-16

    We report an efficient three-step strategy for synthesizing rigid, chiral isohexide diamines derived from 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols. These biobased chiral building blocks are presently the subject of several investigations (in our and several other groups) because of their application in high-performance biobased polymers, such as polyamides and polyurethanes. Among the three possible stereo-isomers, dideoxy-diamino isoidide and dideoxy-diamino isosorbide can be synthesized from isomannide and isosorbide respectively in high yield with absolute stereo control. Furthermore, by using this methodology dideoxy-amino isomannide-a tricyclic adduct-was obtained starting from isoidide in high yield. Our improved synthetic route is a valuable advance towards meeting scale and purity demands for evaluating the properties of new biobased performance materials, which will benefit the development of these plastics. PMID:22121062

  16. Efficient synthesis and host-guest properties of a new class of calix[6]azacryptands.

    PubMed

    Gac, Stphane Le; Zeng, Xianshun; Girardot, Camille; Jabin, Ivan

    2006-11-24

    Two members of a new class of calix[6]azacryptands, namely, calix[6]tampo and calix[6]tamb, have been synthesized through an efficient [1 + 1] macrocyclization reaction--reduction sequence. One of them has been obtained in a remarkably high overall yield from the known X(6)H(3)Me(3). In comparison to all the other calix[6]azacryptands, they possess unique conformational properties since they present a rigidified cone conformation with a partial filling of the cavity by the methoxy groups. In contrast to calix[6]tampo, the fully protonated derivative of calix[6]tamb behaves as a remarkable molecular receptor toward polar neutral guests. NMR studies have shown that the intracavity binding process is governed by a conformational flip of the aromatic walls of the calixarene core. PMID:17109555

  17. Design and synthesis of iridium bis(carbene) complexes for efficient blue electrophosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Han; Wu, Fang-Iy; Fan, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Min-Jie; Lu, Kun-Yi; Chou, Pei-Yu; Yang, Yu-Han Ou; Wu, Shih-Hsiang; Chen, I-Chia; Chou, Shu-Hua; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Cheng, Chien-Hong

    2011-08-01

    Five iridium bis(carbene) complexes, [Ir(pmi)(2)(pypz)] (1), [Ir(mpmi)(2)(pypz)] (2), [Ir(fpmi)(2)(pypz)] (3), [Ir(fpmi)(2)(pyim)] (4), and [Ir(fpmi)(2)(tfpypz)] (5) (pmi=1-phenyl-3-methylimdazolin-2-ylidene-C,C(2'); fpmi=1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methylimdazolin-2-ylidene-C,C(2'); mpmi=1-(4-methyl-phenyl)-3-methylimdazolin-2-ylidene-C,C(2'); pypz=2-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridinato; pyim=2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridinato; and tfpypz=2-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridinato), were synthesized and their structures were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These complexes showed phosphorescent emission with the emission maxima between 453 and 490 nm. Various spectrophotometric measurements, cyclic voltammetric studies, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that, unlike most of the phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium complexes, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the emissive state of these iridium complexes are mainly controlled by the N,N'-heteroaromatic (N^N) ligand. Despite the fact that the LUMO levels of these complexes are mainly on the N^N ligands, the efficiencies of the electroluminescent (EL) devices are very high. For example, the EL devices using [Ir(mpmi)(2)(pypz)], [Ir(fpmi)(2)(pypz)], and [Ir(fpmi)(2)(tfpypz)] as the dopant emitters exhibited light- to deep-blue electrophosphorescence with external quantum efficiencies of 15.2, 14.1, and 7.6% and Commission Internationale d'nclairage (x,y) coordinates (CIE(x,y)) of (0.14, 0.27), (0.14, 0.18) and (0.14, 0.10), respectively. PMID:21732435

  18. Dhvar5 antimicrobial peptide (AMP) chemoselective covalent immobilization results on higher antiadherence effect than simple physical adsorption.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabola M T A; Maia, Slvia R; Gomes, Paula A C; Martins, M Cristina L

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial colonization and subsequent biofilm formation is still one of the major problems associated with medical devices. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) immobilization onto biomaterials surface is a promising strategy to avoid bacterial colonization. However, a correct peptide orientation and exposure from the surface is essential to maintain AMP antimicrobial activity. This work aims to evaluate the effect of the immobilization on antibacterial activity of Dhvar5 (LLLFLLKKRKKRKY), an AMP with a head-to-tail amphipathicity. Dhvar5 was linked to thin chitosan coatings in i) a controlled orientation and exposure, testing covalent immobilization of its N- or C-terminus and using spacers with different lengths and flexibilities or in ii) a random orientation by physical adsorption. Chitosan coating was chosen due to its antimicrobial properties and readiness to be functionalized. Surface characterization demonstrated the chemoselective immobilization of the peptide with different spacers in a similar concentration (?2 ng/cm2). Efficacy assays demonstrated that covalent immobilization of Dhvar5 exposing its cationic end, improves the chitosan coating antimicrobial effect by decreasing Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. This effect was enhanced when longer spacers were used independently of their flexibility. In opposite, immobilized Dhvar5 exposing its hydrophobic end has no effect on bacterial adhesion to chitosan, and when adsorbed in a random orientation even induces bacterial adhesion to chitosan coating. PMID:25818458

  19. Design synthesis and optimization of permanent magnet synchronous machines based on computationally-efficient finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Gennadi Y.

    In this dissertation, a model-based multi-objective optimal design of permanent magnet ac machines, supplied by sine-wave current regulated drives, is developed and implemented. The design procedure uses an efficient electromagnetic finite element-based solver to accurately model nonlinear material properties and complex geometric shapes associated with magnetic circuit design. Application of an electromagnetic finite element-based solver allows for accurate computation of intricate performance parameters and characteristics. The first contribution of this dissertation is the development of a rapid computational method that allows accurate and efficient exploration of large multi-dimensional design spaces in search of optimum design(s). The computationally efficient finite element-based approach developed in this work provides a framework of tools that allow rapid analysis of synchronous electric machines operating under steady-state conditions. In the developed modeling approach, major steady-state performance parameters such as, winding flux linkages and voltages, average, cogging and ripple torques, stator core flux densities, core losses, efficiencies and saturated machine winding inductances, are calculated with minimum computational effort. In addition, the method includes means for rapid estimation of distributed stator forces and three-dimensional effects of stator and/or rotor skew on the performance of the machine. The second contribution of this dissertation is the development of the design synthesis and optimization method based on a differential evolution algorithm. The approach relies on the developed finite element-based modeling method for electromagnetic analysis and is able to tackle large-scale multi-objective design problems using modest computational resources. Overall, computational time savings of up to two orders of magnitude are achievable, when compared to current and prevalent state-of-the-art methods. These computational savings allow one to expand the optimization problem to achieve more complex and comprehensive design objectives. The method is used in the design process of several interior permanent magnet industrial motors. The presented case studies demonstrate that the developed finite element-based approach practically eliminates the need for using less accurate analytical and lumped parameter equivalent circuit models for electric machine design optimization. The design process and experimental validation of the case-study machines are detailed in the dissertation.

  20. Synthesis of magnetic biocomposite for efficient adsorption of azo dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sivashankar, R; Sathya, A B; Krishnakumar, Uma; Sivasubramanian, V

    2015-11-01

    A novel magnetic biocomposite was synthesized using metal chlorides and aquatic macrophytes by co-precipitation method. The resulting product, magnetic biocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption performance of the magnetic biocomposite was tested with removal of Metanil Yellow dye from aqueous solution. The effect of influencing parameters such as initial dye concentration, solution pH and agitation were investigated. The equilibrium isotherm was well described by the Langmuir model with the with maximum adsorption capacity of 90.91mg/g. Adsorption kinetics experiments were carried out and the data were well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation. The results revealed that the magnetic biocomposite could efficiently adsorb the azo dyes from aqueous solution, and the spent adsorbents could be recovered completely by magnetic separation process. Therefore, the prepared magnetic biocomposite could thus be used as promising adsorbent for the removal of azo dyes from polluted water. PMID:25957848

  1. Synthesis, spectral, SHG efficiency and computational studies of some newly synthesized unsymmetrical azines of 4-biphenylcarboxaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Arulmani, R; Sankaran, K R

    2014-08-14

    A series of novel unsymmetrical azines 2-8 are prepared and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, Mass and UV spectral studies. The Gaussian-03 B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) calculations on these azines are used to evaluate the heat of formation of the different conformers, identify the stable conformation, to determine dipole moment (?), polarizability (?0), first hyperpolarizability (?tot), selected geometrical parameters, MEP surface, frontier molecular orbital energies (HOMO-LUMO) and their energy gap. The ?, ?0, ?tot values clearly depict that the unsymmetrical azine 8 is found to have a good NLO property compared to other azines 1-7. The SHG measurement of unsymmetrical azine 8 was performed by Kurtz and Perry powder method and the results indicated that the azine 8 is having comparable efficiency as that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the unsymmetrical azines 2-8 are also made using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set. PMID:24755639

  2. Group?2 Catalysis for the Atom-Efficient Synthesis of Imidazolidine and Thiazolidine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Arrowsmith, Merle; Hill, Michael S; Kociok-Khn, Gabriele

    2015-07-13

    A wide variety of functionalised imidazolidine-2-ones and -thiones, 2-imino-imidazolidines and thiazolidine-2-thiones have been synthesised under very mild reaction conditions by using simple and cost-effective alkaline earth bis(amide) precatalysts, [Ae{N(SiMe3 )2 }2 (THF)2 ] (Ae=Mg, Ca, Sr). The reactions ensue with 100?% atom efficiency as one-pot cascades from simple, commercially available terminal alkyne and heterocumulene reagents. The reactions take place through the initial assembly of propargylamidines, which are utilised in subsequent cyclisation reactions through addition of the isocyanate, isothiocyanate and, in one case, carbon disulfide reagents. This reactivity is deduced to take place through a well-defined sequence of heterocumulene hydroacetylenation and alkyne hydroamidation steps, which are all mediated at the alkaline earth centre. The rate and regioselectivity of the cyclisation reactions are, thus, found to be heavily dependent upon the identity of the catalytic alkaline earth centre employed. Similarly, the selectivity of the reactions was observed to be profoundly affected by stereoelectronic variations in the individual substrates, albeit by a similar Group?2-centred reaction mechanism in all cases studied. PMID:26094593

  3. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52 m2 g−1), excellent magnetic response (14.89 emu g−1), and large mesopore volume (0.09 cm3 g−1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting π–π stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84 mg MB g−1 at an initial MB concentration of 30 mg L−1, which increased to 245 mg g−1 when the initial MB concentration was 300 mg L−1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles. PMID:26149818

  4. Synthesis, structural characterisation, bio-potential efficiency and DNA cleavage applications of nicotinamide metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surendra Dilip, C.; Siva Kumar, V.; John Venison, S.; Vetha potheher, I.; Rajalaxmi (a) Subahashini, D.

    2013-05-01

    Mixed ligand complexes were synthesised using nicotinamide as the primary ligand and nitrite as the secondary ligand were characterised by FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, TG-DTA-DTG, X-ray powder diffraction and physical analytical studies. From the molar conductance, magnetic moment and electronic spectral data of the synthesised complexes a general formula of [M(ONO)2(NA)2] where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) and [Cr2(ONO)6(NA)2] with a distorted octahedral structure were proposed. Thermal analyses show that the complexes lose molecules of hydration initially and subsequently expel anionic and organic ligands in continuous steps. The kinetic parameter values, such as, E*, ?H*, ?S* and ?G* illustrate the spontaneous association of the metal and ligands in the formation of the complexes. The antimicrobial efficacy of the ligand and its complexes were examined by in vitro method against various pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. The metal complexes were found to posses efficient antimicrobial properties compared to nicotinamide and a few of these complexes could turn out to be excellent models for the design of effective antibiotic drug substances. The intercalating interaction of Cu(II) complex with CT-DNA was inspected by absorption spectral and viscosity studies, thermal denaturation and electro-analytical experiments.

  5. Synthesis, spectral, SHG efficiency and computational studies of some newly synthesized unsymmetrical azines of 4-biphenylcarboxaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulmani, R.; Sankaran, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    A series of novel unsymmetrical azines 2-8 are prepared and characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR, Mass and UV spectral studies. The Gaussian-03 B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) calculations on these azines are used to evaluate the heat of formation of the different conformers, identify the stable conformation, to determine dipole moment (?), polarizability (?0), first hyperpolarizability (?tot), selected geometrical parameters, MEP surface, frontier molecular orbital energies (HOMO-LUMO) and their energy gap. The ?, ?0, ?tot values clearly depict that the unsymmetrical azine 8 is found to have a good NLO property compared to other azines 1-7. The SHG measurement of unsymmetrical azine 8 was performed by Kurtz and Perry powder method and the results indicated that the azine 8 is having comparable efficiency as that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the unsymmetrical azines 2-8 are also made using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set.

  6. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-07-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52?m2 g-1), excellent magnetic response (14.89?emu g-1), and large mesopore volume (0.09?cm3 g-1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting ?-? stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84?mg MB g-1 at an initial MB concentration of 30?mg L-1, which increased to 245?mg g-1 when the initial MB concentration was 300?mg L-1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles.

  7. The synthesis of n-caproate from lactate: a new efficient process for medium-chain carboxylates production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Liang, Cheng; Li, Xiangzhen; Wei, Na; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Yanfei; Bo, Tao

    2015-01-01

    A unique microbiome that metabolizes lactate rather than ethanol for n-caproate production was obtained from a fermentation pit used for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL). The microbiome was able to produce n-caproate at concentrations as high as 23.41 g/L at a maximum rate of 2.97 g/L/d in batch trials without in-line extraction. Compared with previous work using ethanol as the electron donor, the n-caproate concentration increased by 82.89%. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that the microbiome was dominated by a Clostridium cluster IV, which accounted for 79.07% of total reads. A new process for n-caproate production was proposed, lactate oxidation coupled to chain elongation, which revealed new insight into the well-studied lactate conversion and carbon chain elongation. In addition, these findings indicated a new synthesis mechanism of n-caproate in CSFL. We believe that this efficient process will provide a promising opportunity for the innovation of waste recovery as well as for n-caproate biosynthesis. PMID:26403516

  8. Highly efficient solvent-free synthesis of 1,3-diacylglycerols by lipase immobilised on nano-sized magnetite particles.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao; Xu, Gang; Zhou, Qin-Li; Wu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Li-Rong

    2014-01-15

    Recently, 1,3-DAGs (1,3-diacylglycerols) have attracted considerable attention as healthy components of food, oil and pharmaceutical intermediates. Generally, 1,3-DAG is prepared by lipase-mediated catalysis in a solvent free system. However, the system's high reaction temperature (required to reach the reactants' melting point), high substrate concentration and high viscosity severely reduce the lipase's activity, selectivity and recycling efficiency. In this report, MjL (Mucor javanicus lipase) was found to have the best performance in the solvent-free synthesis of 1,3-DAGs of several common commercial lipases. By covalent binding to amino-group-activated NSM (nano-sized magnetite) particles and cross-linking to form an enzyme aggregate coat, MjL's specific activity increased 10-fold, and was able to be reused for 10 cycles with 90% residual activity at 55C. 1,3-DAGs of lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid were prepared using the resulting immobilised enzyme, all with yields greater than 90%, and the reaction time was also greatly reduced. PMID:24054246

  9. Synthesis of Porous ?-MnO2 Submicron Tubes as Highly Efficient Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Sun, Dongfei; He, Mu; Lang, Junwei; Xu, Shan; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-06-01

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) batteries are receiving intense interest because of their high energy density. A new tubular ?-MnO2 material prepared by a simple hydrothermal synthesis is an efficient electrocatalyst for Li-O2 batteries. The synthesized ?-MnO2 exhibits a unique tubular structure, in which the porous walls are composed of highly dispersed ultrathin ?-MnO2 nanosheets. Such a unique structure and its intrinsic catalytic activity provide the right electrocatalyst characteristics for high-performance Li-O2 batteries. As a consequence, suppressed overpotentials-especially the oxygen evolution reaction overpotential-superior rate capability, and desirable cycle life are achieved with these submicron ?-MnO2 tubes as the electrocatalyst. Remarkably, the discharge product Li2 O2 of the Li-O2 battery exhibits a uniform nanosheet-like morphology, which indicates the critical role of the ?-MnO2 in the electrochemical process, and a mechanism is proposed to analyze the catalysis of ?-MnO2 . PMID:25944388

  10. SnS Thin Film Prepared by Pyrolytic Synthesis as an Efficient Counter Electrode in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Yanru; Liu, Feng; Fang, Xiaqin; Zhu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The SnS thin films were successfully prepared by pyrolysis procedure for the counter electrodes in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) using the methanol solution containing stannous chloride dihydrate (0.40 mol x L(-1)) and thiourea (0.40 mol x L(-1)) as precursor solution at 300 degrees C in the air atmosphere. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the SnS thin films prepared by pyrolytic synthesis for the redox couple of S(2-)/S(2-) was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The result revealed that the charge transfer resistance of the as-prepared SnS thin film with the dipping-heating cycles of 5 was 106.4 ? and the corresponded QDSCs gave a short circuit photocurrent density of 8.69 mA x cm(-2), open circuit voltage of 0.42 V, and fill factor of 0.43, yielding the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.57%, under the illumination of simulated AM 1.5 sunlight (100 mWx cm(-2)). PMID:26716249

  11. Facile Synthesis of a Furan-Arylamine Hole-Transporting Material for High-Efficiency, Mesoscopic Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Anurag; Sabba, Dharani; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Boix, Pablo P; Gao, Yang; Dewi, Herlina A; Gurzadyan, Gagik G; Soci, Cesare; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Grimsdale, Andrew C

    2015-10-19

    A novel hole-transporting molecule (F101) based on a furan core has been synthesized by means of a short, high-yielding route. When used as the hole-transporting material (HTM) in mesoporous methylammonium lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) it produced better device performance than the current state-of-the-art HTM 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). The F101-HTM-based device exhibited both slightly higher Jsc (19.63 vs. 18.41?mA?cm(-2) ) and Voc (1.1 vs. 1.05?V) resulting in a marginally higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) (13.1 vs. 13?%). The steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence show that F101 has significant charge extraction ability. The simple molecular structure, short synthesis route with high yield and better performance in devices makes F101 an excellent candidate for replacing the expensive spiro-OMeTAD as HTM in PSCs. PMID:26333387

  12. Solution-Phase Perfluoroalkylation of C60 Leads to Efficient and Selective Synthesis of Bis-Perfluoroalkylated Fullerenes

    PubMed Central

    Kuvychko, Igor V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.

    2012-01-01

    A solution-phase perfluoroalkylation of C60 with a series of RFI reagents was studied. The effects of molar ratio of the reagents, reaction time, and presence of copper metal promoter on fullerene conversion and product composition were evaluated. Ten aliphatic and aromatic RFI reagents were investigated (CF3I, C2F5I, n-C3F7I, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, (CF3)(C2F5)CFI, n-C8F17I, C6F5CF2I, C6F5I, and 1,3-(CF3)2C6F3I) and eight of them (except for C6F5I and 1,3-(CF3)2C6F3I) were found to add the respective RF groups to C60 in solution. Efficient and selective synthesis of C60(RF)2 derivatives was developed. PMID:25843973

  13. Efficient Synthesis and Anti-Tubercular Activity of a Series of Spirocycles: An Exercise in Open Science

    PubMed Central

    Badiola, Katrina A.; Quan, Diana H.; Triccas, James A.; Todd, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis afflicts an estimated 2 billion people worldwide and causes 1.3 million deaths annually. Chemotherapeutic solutions rely on drugs developed many years ago, with only one new therapeutic having been approved in the last 40 years. Given the rise of drug-resistant strains, there is an urgent need for the development of a more robust drug development pipeline. GlaxoSmithKline recently placed the structures and activities of 177 novel anti-tubercular leads in the public domain, as well as the results of ongoing optimisation of some of the series. Since many of the compounds arose from screening campaigns, their provenance was unclear and synthetic routes were in many cases not reported. Here we present the efficient synthesis of several novel analogues of one family of the GSK compoundstermed Spirosusing an oxa-PictetSpengler reaction. The new compounds are attractive from a medicinal chemistry standpoint and some were potent against the virulent strain, suggesting this class is worthy of further study. The research was carried out using open source methodology, providing the community with full access to all raw experimental data in real time. PMID:25493550

  14. Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nad, Shreya; Gu, Yajun; Asmussen, Jes

    2015-07-01

    The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (?) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100-260 Torr pressure range and 1.5-2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve ? > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (?coup) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance.

  15. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-Gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (?80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. PMID:26652661

  16. Graphene oxide based Pt-TiO2 photocatalyst: ultrasound assisted synthesis, characterization and catalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw; Bruno, Andrea; Bianchi, Claudia L; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted method was used for synthesizing nanosized Pt-graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 photocatalyst. The Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by diffused reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 BET adsorption-desorption measurements, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of a commonly used anionic surfactant, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS), in aqueous solution was carried out using Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles in order to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. For comparison purpose, sonolytic degradation of DBS was carried out. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst degraded DBS at a higher rate than P-25 (TiO2), prepared TiO2 or GO-TiO2 photocatalysts. The mineralization of DBS was enhanced by a factor of 3 using Pt-GO-TiO2 compared to the P-25 (TiO2). In the presence of GO, an enhanced rate of DBS oxidation was observed and, when doped with platinum, mineralization of DBS was further enhanced. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst also showed a considerable amount of degradation of DBS under visible light irradiation. The initial solution pH had an effect on the rate of photocatalytic oxidation of DBS, whereas no such effect of initial pH was observed in the sonochemical or sonophotocatalytic oxidation of DBS. The intermediate products formed during the degradation of DBS were monitored using electrospray mass spectrometry. The ability of GO to serve as a solid support to anchor platinum particles on GO-TiO2 is useful in developing new photocatalysts. PMID:21684791

  17. Human DNA Polymerase ? Catalyzes Correct and Incorrect DNA Synthesis with High Catalytic Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gowda, A S Prakasha; Moldovan, George-Lucian; Spratt, Thomas E

    2015-06-26

    DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) is a low fidelity A-family polymerase with a putative role in interstrand cross-link repair and homologous recombination. We carried out pre-steady-state kinetic analysis to elucidate the kinetic mechanism of this enzyme. We found that the mechanism consists of seven steps, similar that of other A-family polymerases. pol ? binds to DNA with a Kd for DNA of 9.2 nm, with an off-rate constant of 0.013 s(-1)and an on-rate constant of 14 ?m(-1) s(-1). dNTP binding is rapid with Kd values of 20 and 476 ?m for the correct and incorrect dNTP, respectively. Pyrophosphorylation occurs with a Kd value for PPi of 3.7 mm and a maximal rate constant of 11 s(-1). Pre-steady-state kinetics, examination of the elemental effect using dNTP?S, and pulse-chase experiments indicate that a rapid phosphodiester bond formation step is flanked by slow conformational changes for both correct and incorrect base pair formation. These experiments in combination with computer simulations indicate that the first conformational change occurs with rate constants of 75 and 20 s(-1); rapid phosphodiester bond formation occurs with a Keq of 2.2 and 1.7, and the second conformational change occurs with rate constants of 2.1 and 0.5 s(-1), for correct and incorrect base pair formation, respectively. The presence of a mispair does not induce the polymerase to adopt a low catalytic conformation. pol ? catalyzes both correct and mispair formation with high catalytic efficiency. PMID:25963146

  18. Amino acid building blocks for efficient Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of peptides adenylylated at serine or threonine.

    PubMed

    Albers, Michael F; van Vliet, Bart; Hedberg, Christian

    2011-11-18

    The first straightforward building block based (non-interassembly) synthesis of peptides containing adenylylated serine and threonine residues is described. Key features include final global acidolytic protective group removal as well as full compatibility with standard Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The described Thr-AMP SPPS-building block has been employed in the synthesis of the Thr-adenylylated sequence of human GTPase CDC42 (Ac-SEYVP-T(AMP)-VFDNYGC-NH(2)). Further, we demonstrate proof-of-concept for the synthesis of an Ser-adenylylated peptide (Ac-GSGA-S(AMP)-AGSGC-NH(2)) from the corresponding adenylylated serine building block. PMID:22029258

  19. One-pot, highly efficient, asymmetric synthesis of ring-fused piperidine derivatives bearing N,O- or N,N-acetal moieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Yao; Li, Zhi-Long; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Yan-Kai; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui

    2016-02-16

    We successfully expand the application of lactols or cyclic hemiaminals as nucleophiles for the asymmetric synthesis of both N,O- and N,N-acetal moieties contained in the structure of ring-fused piperidine derivatives. This efficient one-pot protocol involves an organocatalyzed asymmetric aza-Diels-Alder reaction and iminium ion induced cyclization sequence to ultimately deliver heterocyclic compounds with excellent stereoselectivity in high yield, containing three continuous stereogenic centers. PMID:26810888

  20. Efficient Pd-catalyzed domino synthesis of 1-phenyl-1H-indol-2-amine and 5-amino-indolo[1,2-a]quinazoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Xiang, Haoyue; Zhu, Fangxia; Xu, Xing; Deng, Lianfu; Yang, Chunhao

    2015-10-28

    An efficient and practical one-pot domino synthesis of 1-phenyl-1H-indol-2-amine and 5-amino-indolo[1,2-a]quinazoline derivatives from readily available 2-(2-bromophenyl)acetonitriles was developed. The overall protocol involves a Buchwald-Hartwig type coupling and a base-promoted intramolecular nucleophilic reaction. The reaction scope, advantages and limitations are discussed. PMID:26377704

  1. A novel and efficient one step synthesis of 2-amino-5-cyano-6-hydroxy-4-aryl pyrimidines and their anti-bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, M B; Salunkhe, S M; Patil, D R; Anbhule, P V

    2009-06-01

    The first simple and efficient approach towards one step synthesis of 2-amino-5-cyano-6-hydroxy-4-aryl pyrimidines has been developed by three component condensation of aromatic aldehydes, ethyl cyanoacetate and guanidine hydrochloride in alkaline ethanol. The synthesized compounds evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The some of the compounds showed excellent zone of inhibition against tested bacteria. PMID:19036478

  2. Witting Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Traci J.; Mclntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M.

    2004-01-01

    An instructive experiment for the synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, a pleasant smelling ester used in perfumery and flavoring by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stable ylid triphenylphosphorane is described. The synthesis, workup and characterization of trans-cinnamate may be accomplished in a single laboratory session with commonly

  3. Witting Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Traci J.; Mclntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M.

    2004-01-01

    An instructive experiment for the synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, a pleasant smelling ester used in perfumery and flavoring by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stable ylid triphenylphosphorane is described. The synthesis, workup and characterization of trans-cinnamate may be accomplished in a single laboratory session with commonly…

  4. Total Synthesis of (+)-11,11'-Dideoxyverticillin A

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Justin; Ashenhurst, James A.; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The fungal metabolite (+)-11,11'-dideoxyverticillin A, a cytotoxic alkaloid isolated from a marine Penicillium sp., belongs to a fascinating family of densely functionalized, stereochemically complex, and intricate dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazine natural products. Although the dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazines have been known for nearly four decades, none has succumbed to total synthesis. We report a concise enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-11,11'-dideoxyverticillin A via a strategy inspired by our biosynthetic hypothesis for this alkaloid. Highly stereo- and chemoselective advanced stage tetrahydroxylation and tetrathiolation reactions, as well as a mild strategy for the introduction of the epidithiodiketopiperazine core in the final step were developed to address this highly sensitive substructure. Our rapid functionalization of the advanced molecular framework aims to mimic plausible biosynthetic steps and offers an effective strategy for the chemical synthesis of other members of this family of alkaloids. PMID:19359584

  5. Silver(I)-catalyzed deprotection of p-methoxybenzyl ethers: a mild and chemoselective method.

    PubMed

    Kern, Nicolas; Dombray, Thomas; Blanc, Aurlien; Weibel, Jean-Marc; Pale, Patrick

    2012-10-19

    The p-methoxybenzyl protecting group (PMB) on various alcohols and an acid was efficiently and selectively cleaved by the action of a catalytic amount of silver(I) hexafluoroantimonate combined with 0.5 equiv of 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene in dichloromethane at 40 C. PMID:23002789

  6. Combining Chemoselective Ligation with Polyhistidine-Driven Self-Assembly for the Modular Display of Biomolecules on Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Prasuhn, Duane E.; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Vora, Gary J.; Delehanty, James B.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Mei, Bing C.; Dawson, Philip E.; Medintz, Igor L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the principle hurdles to wider incorporation of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in biology is the lack of facile linkage chemistries to create different types of functional QD-bioconjugates. A two-step modular strategy for the presentation of biomolecules on CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs is described here which utilizes a chemoselective, aniline-catalyzed hydrazone coupling chemistry to append hexahistidine sequences onto peptides and DNA. This specifically provides them the ability to ratiometrically self-assemble to hydrophilic QDs. The versatility of this labeling approach was highlighted by ligating proteolytic substrate peptides, an oligoarginine cell-penetrating peptide, or a DNA-probe to cognate hexahistidine peptidyl sequences. The modularity allowed subsequently self-assembled QD constructs to engage in different types of targeted bioassays. The self-assembly and photophysical properties of individual QD conjugates were first confirmed by gel electrophoresis and Frster resonance energy transfer analysis. QD-dye-labeled peptide conjugates were then used as biosensors to quantitatively monitor the proteolytic activity of caspase-3 or elastase enzymes from different species. These sensors allowed the determination of the corresponding kinetic parameters, including the Michaelis constant (KM) and the maximum proteolytic activity (Vmax). QDs decorated with cell-penetrating peptides were shown to be successfully internalized by HEK 293T/17 cells, while nanocrystals displaying peptide-DNA conjugates were utilized as fluorescent probes in hybridization microarray assays. This modular approach for displaying peptides or DNA on QDs may be extended to other more complex biomolecules such as proteins or utilized with different types of nanoparticle materials. PMID:20099912

  7. Water-soluble aminocurdlan derivatives by chemoselective azide reduction using NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruoran; Edgar, Kevin J

    2015-05-20

    Water-solubility can often enhance the utility of polysaccharide derivatives, for example in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Synthesis of water-soluble aminopolysaccharides, particularly those bearing other sensitive functional groups, can be a challenging endeavor. Curdlan is a bioactive β-1,3-glucan with considerable promise for biomedical applications. Aminocurdlans are intriguing target molecules for study of, for example, their interactions with the proteins that form tight junctions between enterocytes. Herein we report the preparation of two water-soluble 6-aminocurdlans starting from 6-bromo-6-deoxycurdlan. The 6-bromide was first displaced by nucleophilic substitution with sodium azide in dimethyl sulfoxide. The O-2 groups were acylated with hydrophilic oligo (ethylene oxide) esters, so as to enhance aqueous solubility. The resultant 6-azido-6-deoxy-2,4-di-O-trioxadecanoylcurdlan was then treated with excess sodium borohydride to reduce the azide; unexpectedly, the water-soluble product proved to be the amide, 6-trioxadecanamido-6-deoxycurdlan. Regioselectivity and degree of substitution (DS) of those derivatives were characterized by means of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FTIR-spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and titration. Alternatively, direct borohydride reduction of the parent 6-azido-6-deoxycurdlan afforded 6-amino-6-deoxycurdlan that was also water-soluble. PMID:25817646

  8. Near-Infrared Light Manipulated Chemoselective Reductions Enabled by an Upconversional Supersandwich Nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-en; Wang, Jie; Li, Yan; Hu, Xiaoxia; Yin, Junwen; Peng, Yeqing; Li, Zhihao; Li, Yawen; Li, Baomin; Yuan, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Core-satellite is one of the most powerful superstructures since it leads to enhanced or completely new properties through compatible combination of each component. Here we create a novel ceria-based core-shell-satellite supersandwich structure with near-infrared (NIR) light manipulated catalytic activity by integrating the upconversion luminescent and catalytic functionality of CeO2 nanoparticles. Specifically, lanthanide-doped octahedral CeO2 nanoparticles (o-CeO2) are coated with silica layer (o-CeO2@SiO2) to enhance their luminescence intensity. The pH-dependent catalytic active cubic CeO2 nanoparticles (c-CeO2) are then assembled on the surface of o-CeO2@SiO2 to form the supersandwich structure (o-CeO2@SiO2@c-CeO2) following a classic chemical reaction. The upconversion quantum yield of o-CeO2 in this nanostructure can be nearly doubled. Furthermore, under NIR light irradiation, the o-CeO2@SiO2@c-CeO2 supersandwich structure based composite catalyst displays superior catalytic activity in selective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds to corresponding azo compounds, and the composite photocatalyst can be easily recycled for several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. This strategy may serve as a universal method for the construction of multifunctional nanostructures and shed light on the green chemistry for chemical synthesis. PMID:26270621

  9. Heating RNA before cell-free translation is essential for the efficient and reproducible synthesis of several peroxisomal proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, R M; Rachubinski, R A; Fujiki, Y; Lazarow, P B

    1984-01-01

    Total RNA, extracted with guanidinium thiocyanate from liver of clofibrate-treated rats, was translated in vitro. Heating the RNA at 60 degrees C for 5 min before translation increased the synthesis of three peroxisomal polypeptides 10-100-fold. Preproalbumin synthesis increased 10-fold. Total incorporation of [35S]methionine into proteins merely doubled. Heating is essential for reproducible and adequate translation of mRNAs coding for peroxisomal and some other proteins. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6208896

  10. Efficient Solid-Phase Synthesis of 3-Substituted-5-Oxo-5H-Thiazolo[2,3-b]Quinazoline-8-Carboxamide under Mild Conditions with Two Diversity Positions

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Isabelle; Krchňák, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    Highly efficient solid-phase synthesis of thiazolo[2,3,b]quinazolines under mild conditions was developed using resin-bound 2-amino-terephthalamic acid, Fmoc-NCS, and bromoketones. Primary amines immobilized to an acid-cleavable backbone amide linker were acylated with 1-methyl-2-aminoterephtalate. Following cleavage of the methyl ester, Fmoc-NCS was used to form a resin-bound thiourea. Bromoketones were subsequently added to form an aminothiazole ring and the cyclization was performed using DIC/HOBt to afford thiazolo[2,3,b]quinazolines. Highly efficient solid-phase synthesis is amenable to high throughput/combinatorial synthesis. PMID:17907790

  11. One-step synthesis of NiCo2S4 ultrathin nanosheets on conductive substrates as advanced electrodes for high-efficient energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Gan; Jin, Dandan; Zhou, Rui; Shen, Chao; Xie, Keyu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-02-01

    A simple one-step and low-temperature synthesis approach has been developed to grow hierarchical NiCo2S4 ultrathin nanosheets (2-3 nm in thickness) on Ni foam. Owing to the unique nanoarchitecture, the NiCo2S4 nanosheets not only offer abundant electro-active sites for energy storage, but also have good electrical and mechanical connections to the conductive Ni foam for enhancing reaction kinetics and improving electrode integrity. When used as anodes for Li-ion batteries, the NiCo2S4 nanosheets demonstrate exceptional energy storage performance in terms of high specific capacity, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability. The mild-solution synthesis of NiCo2S4 nanostructures and the outstanding electrochemical performance enable the novel electrodes to hold great potential for high-efficient energy storage systems.

  12. Further studies on ethyl 5-hydroxy-indole-3-carboxylate scaffold: design, synthesis and evaluation of 2-phenylthiomethyl-indole derivatives as efficient inhibitors of human 5-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Peduto, Antonella; Bruno, Ferdinando; Dehm, Friedrike; Krauth, Verena; de Caprariis, Paolo; Weinigel, Christina; Barz, Dagmar; Massa, Antonio; De Rosa, Mario; Werz, Oliver; Filosa, Rosanna

    2014-06-23

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO), an enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes, is an attractive drug target for the pharmacotherapy of inflammatory and allergic diseases. Here, we present the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel series of ethyl 5-hydroxyindole-3-carboxylate derivatives that efficiently inhibit human 5-LO. SAR analysis revealed that the potency of compounds is closely related to the positioning of the substituents at the phenylthiomethyl ring. The introduction of methyl or chlorine groups in ortho- and ortho/para-position of thiophenol represent the most favorable modifications. Among all tested compounds, ethyl 5-hydroxy-2-(mesitylthiomethyl)-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (19) is the most potent derivative which blocks 5-LO activity in cell-free assays with IC50=0.7?M, and suppressed 5-LO product synthesis in polymorphonuclear leukocytes with IC50=0.23?M. PMID:24871899

  13. ZnO Nanoparticles as an Efficient, Heterogeneous, Reusable, and Ecofriendly Catalyst for Four-Component One-Pot Green Synthesis of Pyranopyrazole Derivatives in Water

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Harshita; Saroj, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    An extremely efficient catalytic protocol for the synthesis of a series of pyranopyrazole derivatives developed in a one-pot four-component approach in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles as heterogeneous catalyst using water as a green solvent is reported. Greenness of the process is well instituted as water is exploited both as reaction media and medium for synthesis of catalyst. The ZnO nanoparticles exhibited excellent catalytic activity, and the proposed methodology is capable of providing the desired products in good yield (8590%) and short reaction time. After reaction course, ZnO nanoparticles can be recycled and reused without any apparent loss of activity which makes this process cost effective and hence ecofriendly. All the synthesized compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectral studies. PMID:24282386

  14. Efficient Synthesis of the Cyclopentanone Fragrances (Z)-3-(2-oxopropyl)-2-(pent-2-en-1-yl)cyclopentanone and Magnolione

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guojun; Williams, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the selective syntheses of two cis-isomer enriched cyclopentanone fragrances: (Z)-3-(2-oxopropyl)-2-(pent-2-en-1-yl)cyclopentanone (4 steps, 62% overall yield, 67% cis) and Magnolione (5 steps, 60% overall yield, 55% cis). In addition, the asymmetric synthesis of (3aR,7aS)-5-methyl-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-inden-1-one as well as (3a'R,7a'S)-5'-methyl-2',3',3a',4',7',7a'-hexahydrospiro[[1,3]dioxolane-2,1'-indene]) has been realized by an efficient kinetic resolution, which enables the selective synthesis of the 2S,3R-isomer-enriched 3 and 4. PMID:24729640

  15. Substituent-Controlled Chemoselective Cleavage of C═C or Csp(2)-C(CO) Bond in α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds with H-Phosphonates Leading to β-Ketophosphonates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao; Rao, Changqing; Mai, Shaoyu; Song, Qiuling

    2016-03-01

    An unprecedented substituent-controlled chemoselective cleavage of C═C double bond or C(sp(2))-C(CO) bond along with aerobic phosphorylation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with H-phosphonates through a radical process has been disclosed. The current strategy provides an access to β-ketophosphonates under mild conditions with a wide substrate scope. PMID:26829969

  16. Synthesis and characterization of low molecular weight polyethyleneimine-terminated Poly(?-amino ester) for highly efficient gene delivery of minicircle DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Lei; Huang, Ping; Wang, ZhiYong; Tan, Yan; Liu, Hong; Pan, JiaJia; He, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Zhi-Ying

    2016-02-01

    Gene therapy has held great promise for treating specific acquired and inherited diseases. However, the lack of safe and efficient gene delivery systems remains as the major challenge. Poly(?-amino ester)s (PBAEs) have attracted much attention due to their outstanding properties in biosafety, DNA delivery efficiency and convenience in synthesis. In this paper, we reported the further enhancement of the PBAE functions by increasing its positive charge through conjugating with low molecular weight polyethylenimine (LPEI). The resulted LPEI-PBAE polymer was able to condense minicircle DNA (mcDNA) forming nanoparticles with a diameter of 50-200nm. Furthermore, as compared to parental PBAE and a commercial transfection reagent very common in laboratory application, the LPEI-PBAE demonstrated significantly higher transfection efficiency with little cytotoxicity. These results suggested LPEI-PBAEs are worthy of further optimization for gene therapy applications. PMID:26520815

  17. Rational design and synthesis of efficient Carbon and/or Silica functional nanomaterials for electrocatalysis and nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Rafael

    In nanomaterials there is a strong correlation between structure and properties. Thus, the design and synthesis of nanomaterials with well-defined structures and morphology is essential in order to produce materials with not only unique but also tailorable properties. The unique properties of nanomaterials in turn can be taken advantage of to create materials and nanoscale devices that can help address important societal issues, such as meeting renewable energy sources and efficient therapeutic and diagnostic methods to cure a range of diseases. In this thesis, the different synthetic approaches I have developed to produce functional nanomaterials composed of earth-abundant elements (mainly carbon and silica) at low cost in a very sustainable manner are discussed. In Chapter 1, the fundamental properties of nanomaterials and their properties and potential applications in many areas are introduced. In chapter 2, a novel synthetic method that allows polymerization of polyaniline (PANI), a conducting polymer, inside cylindrical channel pores of nanoporous silica (SBA-15) is discussed. In addition, the properties of the III resulting conducting polymer in the confined nanochannel spaces of SBA-15, and more importantly, experimental demonstration of the use of the resulting hybrid material (PANI/SBA-15 material) as electocatalyst for electrooxidation reactions with good overpotential, close to zero, are detailed. In chapter 3, the synthetic approach discussed in Chapter 2 is further extended to afford nitrogen- and oxygen-doped mesoporous carbons. This is possible by pyrolysis of the PANI/SBA-15 composite materials under inert atmosphere, followed by etching away their silica framework. The high catalytic activity of resulting carbon-based materials towards oxygen reduction reaction despite they do not possess any metal dopants is also included. The potential uses of nanomaterials in areas such as nanomedicine need deep understanding of the biocompatibility/ toxicity of the materials. In Chapter 4, comparative in vitro and in vivo assessments of the biological properties and murine lung toxicity (biocompatibility) of the carbon-based nanomaterials synthesized above and in core-shell architectures containing carbon, silica and cobalt is presented. The results indicate that silica shell is essential for biocompatibility. Furthermore, cobalt oxide is the preferred phase over the zero valent Co(0) phase to impart biocompatibility to cobalt-based nanoparticles. This study is a result of collaboration between Asefa's research group at Rutgers University and Souid's research group at United Arab Emirates University. In Chapter 5, a new synthetic method to carbon nanoneedles (or a new class of carbon nanomaterials with high aspect ratios) is presented. In the work, cellulose nanocrystals are prepared and used as precursor for carbon nanostructures. Unlike other types of carbon nanomaterials, carbon IV nanoneedles possess high surface area and large proportion of edge planes, which have outstanding charge transfer and catalytic properties. The resulting metal-free, carbon nanoneedles are shown to serve as effective electrocatalysts for oxidation of hydrazine. In Chapter 6, the synthesis of amorphous carbon nanoneedles containing cobalt and their catalytic activities for oxygen reduction reaction is discussed. Even though the activity of the materials is lower than the one discussed in Chapter 3 for polyaniline-derived mesoporous carbons, the result and discussion in this chapter provides new insights on the effects and advantages of carbon nanoneedles on the electrocatalytic activity of the materials. In addition, the effects of cobalt content and nanoneedles' structures on the catalytic activity of the materials are described. In chapter 7, the synthesis of very small Au nanoparticles within SBA-15 mesoporous silica host materials by galvanic exchange reactions is described. The resulting Au/SBA-15 materials with different size Au nanoparticles are shown to have very interesting surface plasmon resonance (SPR) activity as a result of the confinement of large numbers of Au nanoparticles side-to-side in a row within the cylindrical channel pores of SBA-15 and the many SPR hot spots they formed. The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) property of the materials in form of powder, showing reasonably high SERS enhancement factor for analytes is discussed. Finally in Chapter 8, Conclusions and Future Prospects are discussed.

  18. Efficient routes to carbon-silicon bond formation for the synthesis of silicon-containing peptides and azasilaheterocycles.

    PubMed

    Min, Geanna K; Hernndez, Dcil; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2013-02-19

    Silasubstitution, where silicon is substituted for carbon at specific sites of the substrate, has become a growing practice in medicinal chemistry. Introducing silicon into bioactive compounds provides slight physical and electronic alterations to the parent compound, which in certain instances could make the substrate a more viable candidate for a drug target. One application is in the field of protease inhibition. Various silane diol isosteres can act as potent inhibitors of aspartic and metalloproteases because of their ability to mimic the high-energy tetrahedral intermediate in peptide bond hydrolysis. In particular, since 1998, the Sieburth group has prepared a number of functionalized peptide silane diol isosteres. In a seminal study, they demonstrated that these molecules can bind to the active site of the enzymes. Inspired by these results, we initiated a study to develop a concise and straightforward route to access highly functionalized silicon diol based peptidomimetic analogs, which we describe in this Account. The synthesis of such analogs is challenging because the dipeptide mimics require the formation of two carbon-silicon bonds as well as two chiral carbon centers. Our first strategy was to assemble the two C-Si bonds from diphenylsilane through an initial regioselective hydrosilylation step of a terminal alkene, followed by lithiation of the formed alkyldiphenylsilane by a simple lithium metal reduction. Subsequent diastereoselective addition of this silyllithium species to a tert-butylsulfinimine provided a rapid method to assemble the dipeptide mimic with stereochemical control at the new chiral carbon center adjacent to the silicon. This strategy worked with a wide range of functional groups. However, there were some limitations with the more elaborate targets. In particular, we needed to exchange the phenyl groups of the diphenylsilane with aryl groups that were more labile under acidic conditions in order to introduce Si-O bonds in the end product. We demonstrated that a variety of Ar(2)SiH(2) compounds with methyl substituents on the aromatic core could effectively undergo hydrosilylation and reductive lithiation with a soluble reducing agent, lithium naphthalenide. The electron-rich aromatic groups were more acid labile and, depending on the conditions, could produce either the silane diol or the silanol. In an alternative strategy, we used a highly regioselective Rh-catalyzed sequential double hydrosilylation to form the two C-Si bonds with a single catalyst. This approach is a more efficient, atom economical way to synthesize a wider range of highly functionalized organosilanes with the added possibility of extending this method into an asymmetric protocol. By this method, various functional groups that were not previously tolerated in the lithiation protocol, including OBn, OAc, furyl, and thiophenes, could now be incorporated. Hydrosilylation of a terminal olefin and a peptide functionalized with an enamide at the C-terminus achieved the desired silane in high yields in a one pot reaction without compromising the stereochemical integrity of the peptide. As an extension of this work, we used these methods to efficiently generate a variety of chiral azasilaheterocycles, including silapiperidines and silaindolizidines. PMID:23214467

  19. Synthesis of (-)-pseudotabersonine, (-)-pseudovincadifformine, and (+)-coronaridine enabled by photoredox catalysis in flow.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Joel W; Stephenson, Corey R J

    2014-07-23

    Natural product modification with photoredox catalysis allows for mild, chemoselective access to a wide array of related structures in complex areas of chemical space, providing the possibility for novel structural motifs as well as useful quantities of less abundant congeners. While amine additives have been used extensively as stoichiometric electron donors for photocatalysis, the controlled modification of amine substrates through single-electron oxidation is ideal for the synthesis and modification of alkaloids. Here, we report the conversion of the amine (+)-catharanthine into the natural products (-)-pseudotabersonine, (-)-pseudovincadifformine, and (+)-coronaridine utilizing visible light photoredox catalysis. PMID:25003992

  20. Synthesis of (−)-Pseudotabersonine, (−)-Pseudovincadifformine, and (+)-Coronaridine Enabled by Photoredox Catalysis in Flow

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Natural product modification with photoredox catalysis allows for mild, chemoselective access to a wide array of related structures in complex areas of chemical space, providing the possibility for novel structural motifs as well as useful quantities of less abundant congeners. While amine additives have been used extensively as stoichiometric electron donors for photocatalysis, the controlled modification of amine substrates through single-electron oxidation is ideal for the synthesis and modification of alkaloids. Here, we report the conversion of the amine (+)-catharanthine into the natural products (−)-pseudotabersonine, (−)-pseudovincadifformine, and (+)-coronaridine utilizing visible light photoredox catalysis. PMID:25003992

  1. An efficient method for solution-phase parallel synthesis of 2-quinoxalinol salen Schiff-base ligands.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianghong; Gorden, Anne E V

    2007-01-01

    A solution-phase parallel method for the synthesis of 2-quinoxalinol salen ligands was designed and optimized. The synthesis begins with commercially available 1,5-difluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DFDNB) and employs a sequence of five straightforward and high-yielding reaction steps. Simple laboratory techniques with low sensitivity to water or air for solution-phase parallel reactions were coupled with convenient workup and purification procedures to give high-purity and yield a small ligand library of 20 compounds. The final step, a Schiff-base condensation of an aldehyde with the diaminoquinoxaline results in a new category of ligands for metal coordination or of potential bioactivity, based on the skeleton 2,2'-(1E,1'E)-(quinoxaline-6,7-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)diphenol. The approach described here is easily adaptable for parallel synthesis of a larger library. PMID:17497932

  2. Simple and efficient biomimetic synthesis of Mn3O4 hierarchical structures and their application in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Biotemplate synthesis of functional materials is interesting owing to low cost, high yield and easy way of preparation. Recently, we have developed a simple and cost effective biomimetic synthesis of hierarchical network like nanostructures of manganese oxide (Mn3O4). Readily available eggshell membrane with nucleating and capping sites were used as a template in our synthesis. The prepared material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The surface area was calculated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory, and pore size distribution was obtained by Barrett-Joyner-Helenda (BJH) method. The prepared Mn3O4 showed good ability to remove organic pollutants from water and expected to be useful in effluent treatment in textile industry. PMID:22524029

  3. Controllable synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres and Fe-N/carbon nanospheres as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Xinyi; Simon, George P.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Sanping; Wang, Huanting

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), especially with diameters below 200 nm remains a great challenge due to weak interactions between the carbon precursors and soft templates, as well as the uncontrollable cross-linking rate of carbon precursors. Herein, we demonstrate a simple acid-assisted, hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesizing such uniform MCNs with well controlled diameters ranging from 20 to 150 nm under highly acidic conditions (2 M HCl). Both the carbon precursor and the template are partly protonated under such conditions and show additional Coulombic interactions with chloride ions (acts as mediators). This kind of enhanced interaction is similar to that of the ``I+X-S+'' mechanism in the synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide, which can effectively retard the cross-linking rate of resol molecules and avoid macroscopic phase separation during the hydrothermal synthesis. Due to their uniform spherical morphology, small diameter, and high surface areas, MCNs can be modified with Fe and N species via impregnation of cheap precursors (ferric nitrate and dicyandiamide), which are further converted into nonprecious electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting Fe-N/MCNs exhibit high catalytic activities, long-term stability and improved methanol tolerance under alkaline conditions, which can be potentially used in direct methanol fuel cells and metal-air batteries.The synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), especially with diameters below 200 nm remains a great challenge due to weak interactions between the carbon precursors and soft templates, as well as the uncontrollable cross-linking rate of carbon precursors. Herein, we demonstrate a simple acid-assisted, hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesizing such uniform MCNs with well controlled diameters ranging from 20 to 150 nm under highly acidic conditions (2 M HCl). Both the carbon precursor and the template are partly protonated under such conditions and show additional Coulombic interactions with chloride ions (acts as mediators). This kind of enhanced interaction is similar to that of the ``I+X-S+'' mechanism in the synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide, which can effectively retard the cross-linking rate of resol molecules and avoid macroscopic phase separation during the hydrothermal synthesis. Due to their uniform spherical morphology, small diameter, and high surface areas, MCNs can be modified with Fe and N species via impregnation of cheap precursors (ferric nitrate and dicyandiamide), which are further converted into nonprecious electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting Fe-N/MCNs exhibit high catalytic activities, long-term stability and improved methanol tolerance under alkaline conditions, which can be potentially used in direct methanol fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00331h

  4. p-Sulfonic Acid Calix[4]arene as an Efficient Catalyst for One-Pot Synthesis of Pharmaceutically Significant Coumarin Derivatives under Solvent-Free Condition

    PubMed Central

    Tashakkorian, Hamed; Lakouraj, Moslem Mansour; Rouhi, Mona

    2015-01-01

    One-pot and efficient protocol for preparation of some potent pharmaceutically valuable coumarin derivatives under solvent-free condition via direct coupling using biologically nontoxic organocatalyst, calix[4]arene tetrasulfonic acid (CSA), was introduced. Calix[4]arene sulfonic acid has been incorporated lately as a magnificent and recyclable organocatalyst for the synthesis of some organic compounds. Nontoxicity, solvent-free conditions, good-to-excellent yields for pharmaceutically significant structures, and especially ease of catalyst recovery make this procedure valuable and environmentally benign. PMID:26798517

  5. An efficient synthesis of an exo-enone analogue of LL-Z1640-2 and evaluation of its protein kinase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Stephanie Q; Goh, Shermin S; Chai, Christina L L; Chen, Anqi

    2015-12-23

    An efficient synthesis of an exo-enone analogue () of resorcylic acid lactone (RAL), natural product LL-Z1640-2 (), has been achieved using a Ni-catalysed regioselective reductive coupling macrocyclisation of an alkyne-aldehyde as a key step. The synthetic route is significantly shorter than those for the natural product and avoids the isomerisation problem of the cis-double bond in the molecule. The preliminary biological evaluation showed that the exo-enone analogue is a potent inhibitor of several important kinases relevant to cancer drug development. PMID:26541872

  6. An efficient procedure for traceless solid-phase synthesis of N,N'-substituted thioureas by thermolytic cleavage of resin-bound dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Gomez, L; Gellibert, F; Wagner, A; Mioskowski, C

    2000-01-01

    A novel and efficient procedure which is compatible with high-throughput process for the traceless solid-phase synthesis of thioureas is described. In the presence of carbon disulfide, Merrifield resin reacts with an amine to give a resin-bound dithiocarbamate moiety. Heating this supported dithiocarbamate in the presence of a second amine at 60 degrees C for 12 h led to the formation of the thiourea with the release of benzylthiol bound to the resin. This process allows the preparation of N,N'-di- and trisubstituted thioureas in good yields and with satisfactory purity. Furthermore, the mild reaction conditions involved are compatible with many functional groups. PMID:10750487

  7. Efficient synthesis of Empagliflozin, an inhibitor of SGLT-2, utilizing an AlCl3-promoted silane reduction of a ?-glycopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Li; Byrne, Denis; Nummy, Larry; Weber, Dirk; Krishnamurthy, Dhileep; Yee, Nathan; Senanayake, Chris H

    2014-08-15

    An efficient production synthesis of the SGLT-2 inhibitor Empagliflozin (5) from acid 1 is described. The key tactical stage involves I/Mg exchange of aryl iodide 2 followed by addition to glucono lactone 3 in THF. Subsequent in situ treatment of the resulting lactol with HCl in MeOH produces ?-anomeric methyl glycopyranoside 4 which is, without isolation, directly reduced with Et3SiH mediated by AlCl3 as a Lewis acid in CH2Cl2/MeCN to afford 5 in 50% overall yield. The process was implemented for production on a metric ton scale for commercial launch. PMID:25061799

  8. Regioselective Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazoles Catalyzed Over ZnO Supported Copper Oxide Nanocatalyst as a New and Efficient Recyclable Catalyst in Water.

    PubMed

    Albadi, Jalal; Alihosseinzadeh, Amir; Mansournezhad, Azam

    2015-01-01

    The CuO/ZnO nanocatalysts are reported as efficient and recyclable catalysts for the regioselective synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from benzyl halides and terminal alkynes in water. The catalysts are synthesized by a co-precipitation method and characterized by BET surface area, XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS analysis. The effect of CuO loading, catalyst amount and solvent was investigated. The catalyst can be recovered by a simple filtration and applied in consecutive runs with no loss of activity. PMID:26454596

  9. Copper ferrite nanoparticles: an efficient and reusable nanocatalyst for a green one-pot, three-component synthesis of spirooxindoles in water.

    PubMed

    Bazgir, Ayoob; Hosseini, Ghaffar; Ghahremanzadeh, Ramin

    2013-10-14

    A green reaction of isatins, active cyanomethanes, and cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl derivatives for the efficient and simple one-pot three-component synthesis of spirooxindole fused heterocycles in refluxing water by use of magnetically recoverable and reusable catalyst is reported. The features of this procedure are, the use of magnetically recoverable and reusable catalyst, mild reaction conditions, high to excellent product yields, operational simplicity, and easy workup procedures. Most importantly of all, easy magnetic separation of the catalyst eliminates the requirement of catalyst filtration after completion of the reaction. Furthermore, the catalyst remained highly active even after 5 repeated uses. PMID:24050156

  10. Ultrasonic activated efficient synthesis of chromenes using amino-silane modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles: A versatile integration of high catalytic activity and facile recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Javad; Zarnegar, Zohre

    2014-08-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2-amino-4H-chromenes is achieved by one pot three component coupling reaction of aldehyde, malononitrile, and resorcinol using amino-silane modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs-NH2) heterogeneous nanocatalyst under sonic condition. The attractive advantages of the present process are mild reaction conditions, short reaction times, easy isolation of products, good yields and simple operational procedures. Combination of the advantages of ultrasonic irradiation and magnetic nanoparticles provides important methodology to carry out catalytic transformations.

  11. Schwertmannite Synthesis through Ferrous Ion Chemical Oxidation under Different H2O2 Supply Rates and Its Removal Efficiency for Arsenic from Contaminated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan; Zhou, Lixiang; Fan, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Schwertmannite-mediated removal of arsenic from contaminated water has attracted increasing attention. However, schwertmannite chemical synthesis behavior under different H2O2 supply rates for ferrous ions oxidation is unclear. This study investigated pH, ferrous ions oxidation efficiency, and total iron precipitation efficiency during schwertmannite synthesis by adding H2O2 into FeSO47H2O solution at different supply rates. Specific surface area and arsenic (III) removal capacity of schwertmannite have also been studied. Results showed that pH decreased from ~3.48 to ~1.96, ~2.06, ~2.12, ~2.14, or ~2.17 after 60 h reaction when the ferrous ions solution received the following corresponding amounts of H2O2: 1.80 mL at 2 h (treatment 1); 0.90 mL at 2 h and 14 h (treatment 2); 0.60 mL at 2, 14, and 26 h (treatment 3); 0.45 mL at 2, 14, 26, and 38 h (treatment 4), or 0.36 mL at 2, 14, 26, 38, and 50 h (treatment 5). Slow H2O2 supply significantly inhibited the total iron precipitation efficiency but improved the specific surface area or arsenic (III) removal capacity of schwertmannite. For the initial 50.0 ?g/L arsenic (III)-contaminated water under pH ~7.0 and using 0.25 g/L schwertmannite as an adsorbent, the total iron precipitation efficiency, specific surface area of the harvested schwertmannite, and schwertmannite arsenic(III) removal efficiency were 29.3%, 2.06 m2/g, and 81.1%, respectively, in treatment 1. However, the above parameters correspondingly changed to 17.3%, 16.30 m2/g, and 96.5%, respectively, in treatment 5. PMID:26398214

  12. An efficient and more sustainable one-step continuous-flow multicomponent synthesis approach to chromene derivatives

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid one-step continuous-flow synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of chromene derivatives from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes, α-cyanomethylene compounds and naphthols. In this contribution, a one-step continuous-flow protocol in a continuous ...

  13. Nano-particulate Aluminium Nitride/Al: An Efficient and Versatile Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of Biginelli Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekale, S. U.; Tekale, A. B.; Kanhe, N. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Pawar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    Nano-particulate aluminium nitride/Al (7:1) is reported as a new heterogeneous solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of 3, 4-dihydroxypyrimidi-2-(1H)-ones and their sulphur analogues using the Biginelli reaction. This method involves short reaction time, easy separation, high yields and purity of products.

  14. An efficient and more sustainable one-step continuous-flow multicomponent synthesis approach to chromene derivatives

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid one-step continuous-flow synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of chromene derivatives from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ?-cyanomethylene compounds and naphthols. In this contribution, a one-step continuous-flow protocol in a continuous ...

  15. Key Building Blocks via Enzyme-Mediated Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jrg

    Biocatalytic approaches to valuable building blocks in organic synthesis have emerged as an important tool in the last few years. While first applications were mainly based on hydrolases, other enzyme classes such as oxidoreductases or lyases moved into the focus of research. Nowadays, a vast number of biotransformations can be found in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries delivering fine chemicals or drugs. The mild reaction conditions, high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselectivities, and the often shortened reaction pathways lead to economical and ecological advantages of enzymatic conversions. Due to the enormous number of enzyme-mediated syntheses, the present chapter is not meant to be a complete review, but to deliver comprehensive insights into well established enzymatic systems and recent advances in the application of enzymes in natural product synthesis. Furthermore, it is focused on the most frequently used enzymes or enzyme classes not covered elsewhere in the present volume.

  16. Diastereoselective Synthesis and Conformational Analysis of (2R)- and (2S)-Fluorostatines: An Approach Based on Organocatalytic Fluorination of a Chiral Aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Guo; Lawer, Aggie; Peterson, Matthew B; Iranmanesh, Hasti; Ball, Graham E; Hunter, Luke

    2016-02-19

    Stereoselectively fluorinated analogues of the amino acid statine have been efficiently synthesized. The key step is an organocatalytic electrophilic fluorination of a chiral β-oxygenated aldehyde, which provided a test of both diastereoselectivity and chemoselectivity. The target statine analogues were found to adopt unique conformations influenced by the fluorine gauche effect, rendering them potentially valuable building blocks for incorporation into bioactive peptides. PMID:26863092

  17. DDQ-Mediated Oxidative Radical Cycloisomerization of 1,5-Diynols: Regioselective Synthesis of Benzo[b]fluorenones under Metal-Free Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Chen, Zhiyuan

    2016-02-01

    A regio- and chemoselective oxidative cycloisomerization reaction of acyclic 1,5-diynols has been developed. The reaction proceeds under metal-free reaction conditions with high efficiency and broad functional group tolerance, which offers a general and straightforward access to benzo[b]fluorenones under metal-free conditions. The preliminary mechanistic studies revealed the possible involvement of a Meyer-Schuster rearrangement combined with an oxidative radical cyclization. PMID:26815082

  18. Efficient biocatalyst for large-scale synthesis of cephalosporins, obtained by combining immobilization and site-directed mutagenesis of penicillin acylase.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Davide A; Pavesi, Roberto; Sanna, Sara; Daly, Simona; Xaiz, Roberto; Pregnolato, Massimo; Terreni, Marco

    2012-09-01

    We describe the rational design of a new efficient biocatalyst and the development of a sustainable green process for the synthesis of cephalosporins bearing a NH? group on the acyl side chain. The new biocatalyst was developed starting from the WT penicillin acylase (PA) from Escherichia coli by combining enzyme mutagenesis, in position ?146 and ?24 (?F24A/?F146Y), and immobilization on an appropriate modified industrial support, glyoxyl Eupergit C250L. The obtained derivative was used in the kinetically controlled synthesis of cephalexin, cefprozil and cefaclor and compared to the WT-PA and an already described mutant, PA-?F24A, with improved properties. The new biocatalyst posses a very high ratio between the rates of the synthesis and two undesired hydrolyses (acylating ester and the amidic product). In particular, a very low amidase activity was observed with PA-?F24A/?F146Y and, consequently, the hydrolysis of the produced antibiotic was avoided during the process. Taking advantage of this property, higher conversions in the synthesis of cephalexin (99% versus 76%), cefaclor (99% versus 65%) and cefprozil (99% versus 60%) were obtained compared to the WT enzyme. Furthermore, the new mutant also show a higher synthetic activity compared to PA-?F24A immobilized on the same support, allowing the maximum yields to be achieved in very short reaction times. The production of cephalexin with the immobilized ?F24A/?F146Y acylase has been developed on a pre-industrial scale (30 l). After 20 cycles, the average yield was 93%. The biocatalyst showed good stability properties and no significant decrease in performance. PMID:22228258

  19. Silver-catalyzed oxidative coupling of aniline and ene carbonyl/acetylenic carbonyl compounds: an efficient route for the synthesis of quinolines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xu, Xuefeng

    2014-11-01

    An efficient silver-mediated coupling of aniline with ene carbonyl/acetylenic carbonyl compounds for the synthesis of quinolines is reported. The transformation is effective for a broad range of substrates, thus enabling the expansion of substituent architectures on the heterocyclic framework. The electronic properties of the substituents on the amine have been investigated. It was found that molecules with both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents were suitable substrates for this transformation, and the expected products were obtained in moderate to excellent yields. The use of a single catalytic system to mediate chemical transformations in a synthetic operation is important for the development of new atom-economic strategies and this strategy is efficient in building complex structures from simple starting materials in an environmentally benign fashion. PMID:25195503

  20. Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Fluorination of C(sp3)-H Bonds: Synthesis of ?-Fluorinated Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qihua; Ji, Dezhong; Liang, Tingting; Wang, Xueyan; Xu, Yungen

    2015-08-01

    A novel and facile process for direct fluorination of unactivated C(sp3)-H bonds at the ? position of carboxylic acids was accomplished by a palladium(II)-catalyzed C-H activation. The addition of Ag2O and pivalic acid was found to be crucial for the success of this transformation. This reaction provides a versatile strategy for the synthesis of ?-fluorinated carboxylic acids. PMID:26172446

  1. A metalloenzyme-like catalytic system for the chemoselective oxidative cross-coupling of primary amines to imines under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Largeron, Martine; Fleury, Maurice-Bernard

    2015-02-23

    The direct oxidative cross-coupling of primary amines is a challenging transformation as homocoupling is usually preferred. We report herein the chemoselective preparation of cross-coupled imines through the synergistic combination of low loadings of Cu(II) metal-catalyst and o-iminoquinone organocatalyst under ambient conditions. This homogeneous cooperative catalytic system has been inspired by the reaction of copper amine oxidases, a family of metalloenzymes with quinone organic cofactors that mediate the selective oxidation of primary amines to aldehydes. After optimization, the desired cross-coupled imines are obtained in high yields with broad substrate scope through a transamination process that leads to the homocoupled imine intermediate, followed by dynamic transimination. The ability to carry out the reactions at room temperature and with ambient air, rather than molecular oxygen as the oxidant, and equimolar amounts of each coupling partner is particularly attractive from an environmentally viewpoint. PMID:25643811

  2. Efficient solar-driven synthesis, carbon capture, and desalinization, STEP: solar thermal electrochemical production of fuels, metals, bleach.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Licht S

    2011-12-15

    STEP (solar thermal electrochemical production) theory is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants occuring at a voltage below that of the room temperature energy stored in the products. One example is CO(2) , which is reduced to either fuels or storable carbon at a solar efficiency of over 50% due to a synergy of efficient solar thermal absorption and electrochemical conversion at high temperature and reactant concentration. CO(2) -free production of iron by STEP, from iron ore, occurs via Fe(III) in molten carbonate. Water is efficiently split to hydrogen by molten hydroxide electrolysis, and chlorine, sodium, and magnesium from molten chlorides. A pathway is provided for the STEP decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to pre-industial age levels in 10 years.

  3. Functionalization of hyaluronic acid with chemoselective groups via a disulfide-based protection strategy for in situ formation of mechanically stable hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ossipov, Dmitri A; Piskounova, Sonya; Varghese, Oommen P; Hilborn, Jns

    2010-09-13

    Functionalization of hyaluronic acid (HA) with chemoselective groups enables in situ (in vivo) formation of HA-based materials in minimally invasive injectable manner. Current methods of HA modification with such groups primarily rely on the use of a large excess of a reagent to introduce a unique reactive handle into HA and, therefore, are difficult to control. We have developed the new protective group strategy based on initial mild cleavage of a disulfide bond followed by elimination of the generated 2-thioethoxycarbonyl moiety ultimately affording free amine-type functionality, such as hydrazide, aminooxy, and carbazate. Specifically, new modifying homobifunctional reagents have been synthesized that contain a new divalent disulfide-based protecting group. Amidation of HA with these reagents gives rise to either one-end coupling product or to intra/intermolecular cross-linking of the HA chains. However, after subsequent treatment of the amidation reaction mixture with dithiothreitol (DTT), these cross-linkages are cleaved, ultimately exposing free amine-type groups. The same methodology was applied to graft serine residues to the HA backbone, which were subsequently oxidized into aldehyde groups. The strategy therefore encompasses a new approach for mild and highly controlled functionalization of HA with both nucleophilic and electrophilic chemoselective functionalities with the emphasis for the subsequent conjugation and in situ cross-linking. A series of new hydrogel materials were prepared by mixing the new HA-aldehyde derivative with different HA-nucleophile counterparts. Rheological properties of the formed hydrogels were determined and related to the structural characteristics of the gel networks. Human dermal fibroblasts remained viable while cultured with the hydrogels for 3 days, with no sign of cytotoxicity, suggesting that the gels described in this study are candidates for use as growth factors delivery vehicles for tissue engineering applications. PMID:20704177

  4. Organocatalysis in heterocyclic synthesis: DABCO as a mild and efficient catalytic system for the synthesis of a novel class of quinazoline, thiazolo [3,2-a]quinazoline and thiazolo[2,3-b] quinazoline derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are only limited publications devoted to the synthesis of especially thiazolo[3,2-a]quinazoline which involved reaction of 2-mercaptopropargyl quinazolin-4-one with various aryl iodides catalyzed by Pd-Cu or by condensation of 2-mercapto-4-oxoquinazoline with chloroacetic acid, inspite of this procedure was also reported in the literature to afford the thiazolo [2,3-b] quinazoline. So the multistep synthesis of the thiazolo[3,2-a]- quinazoline suffered from some flaws and in this study we have synthesized a novel class of thiazoloquinazolines by a simple and convenient method involving catalysis by 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO). Results A new and convenient one-pot synthesis of a novel class of 2-arylidene-2H-thiazolo[3,2-a]quinazoline-1,5-diones 9a-i was established through the reaction between methyl-2-(2-thio-cyanatoacetamido)benzoate (4) and a variety of arylidene malononitriles 8a-i in the presence of DABCO as a mild and efficient catalytic system via a Michael type addition reaction and a mechanism for formation of the products observed is proposed. Moreover 4 was converted to ethyl-2-[(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)thio]acetate (10) upon reflux in ethanol containing DABCO as catalyst. The latter was reacted with aromatic aldehydes and dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) to afford a mixture of two regioselectively products with identical percentage yield, these two products were identified as thiazolo[3,2-a]quinazoline 9,13 and thiazolo[2,3-b]quinazoline 11,12 derivatives respectively. The structure of the compounds prepared in this study was elucidated by different spectroscopic tools of analyses also the X-ray single crystal technique was employed in this study for structure elucidation, Z/E potential isomerism configuration determination and to determine the regioselectivity of the reactions. Conclusion A simple and efficient one-pot synthesis of a novel class of 2-arylidene-2H-thiazolo[3,2-a]quinazoline-1,5-diones 9a-i was established through DABCO catalyzed Michael type addition reaction. In addition many fused quinazoline and quinazoline derivatives were synthesized which appeared as valuable precursors in synthetic and medicinal chemistry. PMID:23651877

  5. Iron-catalyzed cross coupling of P-H/C-O bonds: efficient synthesis of ?-alkoxyphosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Chen, Tieqiao; Saga, Yuta; Han, Li-Biao

    2016-02-01

    An efficient P-C bond-formation through iron-catalyzed cross coupling of P-H/C-O bonds is developed for the first time. This reaction proceeds efficiently to produce the corresponding valuable ?-alkoxyphosphorus compounds under mild conditions with a wide generality. PMID:26313255

  6. Efficient and accurate high-degree spherical harmonic synthesis of gravity field functionals at the Earth's surface using the gradient approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Christian

    2012-09-01

    Spherical harmonic synthesis (SHS) of gravity field functionals at the Earth's surface requires the use of heights. The present study investigates the gradient approach as an efficient yet accurate strategy to incorporate height information in SHS at densely spaced multiple points. Taylor series expansions of commonly used functionals quasigeoid heights, gravity disturbances and vertical deflections are formulated, and expressions of their radial derivatives are presented to arbitrary order. Numerical tests show that first-order gradients, as introduced by Rapp (J Geod 71(5):282-289, 1997) for degree 360 models, produce cm- to dm-level RMS approximation errors over rugged terrain when applied with EGM2008 to degree 2190. Instead, higher-order Taylor expansions are recommended that are capable of reducing approximation errors to insignificance for practical applications. Because the height information is separated from the actual synthesis, the gradient approach can be applied along with existing highly efficient SHS routines to compute surface functionals at arbitrarily dense grid points. This confers considerable computational savings (above or well above one order of magnitude) over conventional point-by-point SHS. As an application example, an ultra-high resolution model of surface gravity functionals (EurAlpGM2011) is constructed over the entire European Alps that incorporates height information in the SHS at 12,000,000 surface points. Based on EGM2008 and residual topography data, quasigeoid heights, gravity disturbances and vertical deflections are estimated at ~200m resolution. As a conclusion, the gradient approach is efficient and accurate for high-degree SHS at multiple points at the Earth's surface.

  7. Phosphatidylethanolamine Synthesis in the Parasite Mitochondrion Is Required for Efficient Growth but Dispensable for Survival of Toxoplasma gondii*

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anne; Hellmund, Maria; Lucius, Richard; Voelker, Dennis R.; Gupta, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which also includes other parasites of clinical and/or veterinary importance, such as Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, and Eimeria. Acute infection by Toxoplasma is hallmarked by rapid proliferation in its host cells and requires a significant synthesis of parasite membranes. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) is the second major phospholipid class in T. gondii. Here, we reveal that PtdEtn is produced in the parasite mitochondrion and parasitophorous vacuole by decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and in the endoplasmic reticulum by fusion of CDP-ethanolamine and diacylglycerol. PtdEtn in the mitochondrion is synthesized by a phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (TgPSD1mt) of the type I class. TgPSD1mt harbors a targeting peptide at its N terminus that is required for the mitochondrial localization but not for the catalytic activity. Ablation of TgPSD1mt expression caused up to 45% growth impairment in the parasite mutant. The PtdEtn content of the mutant was unaffected, however, suggesting the presence of compensatory mechanisms. Indeed, metabolic labeling revealed an increased usage of ethanolamine for PtdEtn synthesis by the mutant. Likewise, depletion of nutrients exacerbated the growth defect (?56%), which was partially restored by ethanolamine. Besides, the survival and residual growth of the TgPSD1mt mutant in the nutrient-depleted medium also indicated additional routes of PtdEtn biogenesis, such as acquisition of host-derived lipid. Collectively, the work demonstrates a metabolic cooperativity between the parasite organelles, which ensures a sustained lipid synthesis, survival and growth of T. gondii in varying nutritional milieus. PMID:24429285

  8. Synthesis and applications of novel, highly efficient HPLC chiral stationary phases: a chiral dimension in drug research analysis.

    PubMed

    Cancelliere; D'Acquarica; Gasparrini; Misiti; Villani

    1999-12-01

    This review provides an overview of the synthesis and application of stable and versatile HPLC chiral stationary phases (CSPs), with emphasis placed on the binding strategies developed to anchor several structurally different chiral selectors to silica-gel microparticles. In addition, selected applications relating to the use of these CSPs for the direct resolution of racemates of biological and pharmaceutical relevance will be described. This review discusses enantioselective molecular recognition and dynamic stereochemistry of stereolabile compounds with reference to receptor-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and dynamic HPLC on CSPs, respectively. PMID:10603466

  9. Efficient FeCl3/SiO2 as heterogeneous nanocatalysis for the synthesis of benzimidazoles under mild conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, Mohammad Ali; Karami, Changiz; Arabi, Mehdi Sheikh; Ahmadian, Hossein; Karami, Yasaman

    2015-11-01

    Iron(III) supported on nano silica as a new catalyst has been synthesized. Structural properties of this complex have been studied by TEM, SEM and EDX. The average crystalline size of Iron(III) supported on nano silica is 30-50 nm. Catalytic activity of this catalyst has been investigated by synthesis of benzimidazoles from 1, 2-diaminobenzene and aromatic aldehydes, and also the other variables investigated such as the amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and the effect of various solvents are also studied. The present procedure offers several advantages such as short reaction time, simple workup, recovery and reusability of the catalyst.

  10. Synthesis of an Amphiphilic Brush Copolymer by a Highly Efficient "Grafting onto" Approach via CO2 Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Li, Yang; Zhou, Xian-Jing; Zhang, Xing-Hong; Du, Bin-Yang; Fan, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-05-01

    A novel and robust route for the synthesis of a new amphiphilic brush copolymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-graft-polyethylene glycol (PGMA-g-PEG), with high grafting densities of 97%-98% through a "grafting onto" method via carbon dioxide chemistry is reported. PGMA-g-PEG can self-assemble and form stable spherical core-shell micelles in aqueous solution. Besides, the obtained PGMA-g-PEG polymer contains hydroxyurethane structures as the junction sites between the PGMA backbone and PEG side chain, which can be used for further modification. PMID:25823716

  11. The role of ?6-desaturase acyl-carrier specificity in the efficient synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, Olga; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A

    2012-02-01

    The role of acyl-CoA-dependent ?6-desaturation in the heterologous synthesis of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was systematically evaluated in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana. The acyl-CoA ?6-desaturase from the picoalga Ostreococcus tauri and orthologous activities from mouse (Mus musculus) and salmon (Salmo salar) were shown to generate substantial levels of ?6-desaturated acyl-CoAs, in contrast to the phospholipid-dependent ?6-desaturases from higher plants that failed to modify this metabolic pool. Transgenic plants expressing the acyl-CoA ?6-desaturases from either O.tauri or salmon, in conjunction with the two additional activities required for the synthesis of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, contained higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid compared with plants expressing the borage phospholipid-dependent ?6-desaturase. The use of acyl-CoA-dependent ?6-desaturases almost completely abolished the accumulation of unwanted biosynthetic intermediates such as ?-linolenic acid in total seed lipids. Expression of acyl-CoA ?6-desaturases resulted in increased distribution of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the polar lipids of transgenic plants, reflecting the larger substrate pool available for acylation by enzymes of the Kennedy pathway. Expression of the O.tauri?6-desaturase in transgenic Camelina sativa plants also resulted in the accumulation of high levels of ?6-desaturated fatty acids. This study provides evidence for the efficacy of using acyl-CoA-dependent ?6-desaturases in the efficient metabolic engineering of transgenic plants with high value traits such as the synthesis of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. PMID:21902798

  12. Efficient Total Chemical Synthesis of (13) C=(18) O Isotopomers of Human Insulin for Isotope-Edited FTIR.

    PubMed

    Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Fitzpatrick, Ann; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Whittaker, Jonathan; Weiss, Michael A; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Kent, Stephen B H

    2016-03-01

    Isotope-edited two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (2 D FTIR) can potentially provide a unique probe of protein structure and dynamics. However, general methods for the site-specific incorporation of stable (13) C=(18) O labels into the polypeptide backbone of the protein molecule have not yet been established. Here we describe, as a prototype for the incorporation of specific arrays of isotope labels, the total chemical synthesis-via a key ester insulin intermediate-of 97 % enriched [(1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) ] human insulin: stable-isotope labeled at a single backbone amide carbonyl. The amino acid sequence as well as the positions of the disulfide bonds and the correctly folded structure were unambiguously confirmed by the X-ray crystal structure of the synthetic protein molecule. In vitro assays of the isotope labeled [(1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) ] human insulin showed that it had full insulin receptor binding activity. Linear and 2 D IR spectra revealed a distinct red-shifted amide I carbonyl band peak at 1595 cm(-1) resulting from the (1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) backbone label. This work illustrates the utility of chemical synthesis to enable the application of advanced physical methods for the elucidation of the molecular basis of protein function. PMID:26715336

  13. Methanobactin-Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Supported over Al2O3 toward an Efficient Catalyst for Glucose Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jia-Ying; Lin, Kai; Wang, Yan; Xia, Chun-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and reduce Au(III) to Au(0). In this paper, Au/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by a novel incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method were used for glucose oxidation. The catalysts were characterized, and the analysis revealed that very small gold nanoparticles with a particle size <4 nm were prepared by the incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method, even at 1.0% Au loading (w/w). The influence of Au loading, calcination temperature and calcination time on the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts was systematically investigated. Experimental results showed that decomposing the Mb molecules properly by calcinations can enhance the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts, though they acted as reductant and protective agents during the catalyst preparation. Au/Al2O3 catalysts synthesized by the method exhibited optimum specific activity under operational synthesis conditions of Au loading of 1.0 wt % and calcined at 450 °C for 2 h. The catalysts were reused eight times, without a significant decrease in specific activity. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at the preparation of Au/Al2O3 catalysts by Mb-mediated in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles. PMID:25429424

  14. Methanobactin-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles supported over Al2O3 toward an efficient catalyst for glucose oxidation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jia-Ying; Lin, Kai; Wang, Yan; Xia, Chun-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and reduce Au(III) to Au(0). In this paper, Au/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by a novel incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method were used for glucose oxidation. The catalysts were characterized, and the analysis revealed that very small gold nanoparticles with a particle size <4 nm were prepared by the incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method, even at 1.0% Au loading (w/w). The influence of Au loading, calcination temperature and calcination time on the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts was systematically investigated. Experimental results showed that decomposing the Mb molecules properly by calcinations can enhance the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts, though they acted as reductant and protective agents during the catalyst preparation. Au/Al2O3 catalysts synthesized by the method exhibited optimum specific activity under operational synthesis conditions of Au loading of 1.0 wt % and calcined at 450 °C for 2 h. The catalysts were reused eight times, without a significant decrease in specific activity. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at the preparation of Au/Al2O3 catalysts by Mb-mediated in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles. PMID:25429424

  15. Efficient solar-driven synthesis, carbon capture, and desalinization, STEP: solar thermal electrochemical production of fuels, metals, bleach.

    PubMed

    Licht, S

    2011-12-15

    STEP (solar thermal electrochemical production) theory is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants occuring at a voltage below that of the room temperature energy stored in the products. One example is CO(2) , which is reduced to either fuels or storable carbon at a solar efficiency of over 50% due to a synergy of efficient solar thermal absorption and electrochemical conversion at high temperature and reactant concentration. CO(2) -free production of iron by STEP, from iron ore, occurs via Fe(III) in molten carbonate. Water is efficiently split to hydrogen by molten hydroxide electrolysis, and chlorine, sodium, and magnesium from molten chlorides. A pathway is provided for the STEP decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to pre-industial age levels in 10 years. PMID:22025216

  16. Fast and efficient synthesis of Zorro-LNA type 3'-5'-5'-3' oligonucleotide conjugates via parallel in situ stepwise conjugation.

    PubMed

    Gissberg, O I; Jezowska, M; Zaghloul, E M; Bungsu, N I; Strömberg, R; Smith, C I E; Lundin, K E; Honcharenko, M

    2016-04-14

    Zorro-LNA is a new class of therapeutic anti-gene oligonucleotides (ONs) capable of invading supercoiled DNA. The synthesis of single stranded Zorro-LNA is typically complex and laborious, requiring reverse phosphoramidites and a chemical linker connecting the two separate ON arms. Here, a simplified synthesis strategy based on 'click chemistry' is presented with a high potential for screening Zorro-LNA ONs directed against new anti-gene targets. Four different Zorro type 3'-5' 5'-3' constructs were synthesized via parallel in situ Cu(i) [3 + 2] catalysed cycloaddition. They were prepared from commercially obtained ONs functionalized on solid support (one ON with the azide and the other ON with the activated triple bond linker N-propynoylamino)-p-toluic acid (PATA)) and after cleavage from resin, they were conjugated in solution. Our report shows the benefit of combining different approaches when developing anti-gene ONs, (1) the ability for rapid and robust screening of potential targets and (2) refining the hits with more anti-gene optimized constructs. We present as well the first report showing double-strand invasion (DSI) efficiency of two combined Zorro-LNAs. PMID:26975344

  17. Efficient Synthesis and In Vivo Incorporation of Acridon-2-ylalanine, a Fluorescent Amino Acid for Lifetime and FRET/LRET Studies

    PubMed Central

    Speight, Lee C.; Muthusamy, Anand K.; Goldberg, Jacob M.; Warner, John B.; Wissner, Rebecca F.; Willi, Taylor S.; Woodman, Bradley F.; Mehl, Ryan A.; Petersson, E. James

    2014-01-01

    The amino acid acridon-2-ylalanine (Acd) can be a valuable probe of protein conformational change because it is a long lifetime, visible wavelength fluorophore that is small enough to be incorporated during ribosomal biosynthesis. Incorporation of Acd into proteins expressed in E. coli requires efficient chemical synthesis to produce large quantities of the amino acid and the generation of a mutant aminoacyl tRNA synthetase that can selectively charge the amino acid onto a tRNA. Here, we report the synthesis of Acd in 87 % yield over five steps from Tyr, and the identification of an Acd synthetase by screening candidate enzymes previously evolved from M. janaschii Tyr synthetase for unnatural amino acid incorporation. Furthermore, we characterize the photophysical properties of Acd, including quenching interactions with select natural amino acids and Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) interactions with common fluorophores such as methoxycoumarin (Mcm). Finally, we demonstrate the value of incorporation of Acd into proteins, using changes in Acd fluorescence lifetimes, Mcm/Acd FRET, or energy transfer to Eu3+ to monitor protein folding and binding interactions. PMID:24303933

  18. Alkyne ElementometalationPd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling. Towards Synthesis of Various Types of Acyclic Alkenes in High Yields, Efficiently, Selectively, Economically, and SafelyGreen Way

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangwei; Rao, Honghua; Xu, Zhaoqing

    2010-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, especially those involving Zn, Al, Zr (Negishi coupling) and B (Suzuki coupling), collectively have brought about revolutionary changes in organic synthesis. Thus, two regio- and stereodefined carbon groups generated as R1M (M = Zn, Al, B, Cu, Zr, etc.) and R2X (X = I, Br, OTs, etc.) may now be cross-coupled to give R1R2 with essentially full retention of all structural features. For alkene syntheses, alkyne elementometalation reactions including hydrometalation (B, Al, Zr, etc.), carbometalation (Cu, AlZr, etc.), and haloboration (BX3 where X is Cl, Br, and I) have proven to be critically important. Some representative examples of highly efficient and selective (?98%) syntheses of di-, tri- and oligoenes containing regio- and stereodefined di- and trisubstituted alkenes of all conceivable types will be discussed with emphasis on those of natural products. Some interesting but undesirable cases involving loss of the initial structural identities of the alkenyl groups are attributable to the formation of allylpalladium species, which must be either tamed or avoided. Some such examples involving the synthesis of 1,3-, 1,4-, and 1,5-dienes will also be discussed. PMID:20465291

  19. Uninterrupted galvanic reaction for scalable and rapid synthesis of metallic and bimetallic sponges/dendrites as efficient catalysts for 4-nitrophenol reduction.

    PubMed

    Barman, Barun Kumar; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2015-03-01

    Here, we demonstrate an uninterrupted galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) for the synthesis of metallic (Ag, Cu and Sn) and bimetallic (Cu-M, M=Ag, Au, Pt and Pd) sponges/dendrites by sacrificing the low reduction potential metals (Mg in our case) in acidic medium. The acidic medium prevents the oxide formation on Mg surface and facilitates the uninterrupted reaction. The morphology of dendritic/spongy structures is controlled by the volume of acid used for this reaction. The growth mechanism of the spongy/dendritic microstructures is explained by diffusion-limited aggregate model (DLA), which is also largely affected by the volume of acid. The significance of this method is that the yield can be easily predicted, which is a major challenge for the commercialization of the products. Furthermore, the synthesis is complete in 1-2 minutes at room temperature. We show that the sponges/dendrites efficiently act as catalysts to reduce 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) using NaBH4-a widely studied conversion process. PMID:25628256

  20. Efficient synthesis and in vivo incorporation of acridon-2-ylalanine, a fluorescent amino acid for lifetime and Frster resonance energy transfer/luminescence resonance energy transfer studies.

    PubMed

    Speight, Lee C; Muthusamy, Anand K; Goldberg, Jacob M; Warner, John B; Wissner, Rebecca F; Willi, Taylor S; Woodman, Bradley F; Mehl, Ryan A; Petersson, E James

    2013-12-18

    The amino acid acridon-2-ylalanine (Acd) can be a valuable probe of protein conformational change because it is a long lifetime, visible wavelength fluorophore that is small enough to be incorporated during ribosomal biosynthesis. Incorporation of Acd into proteins expressed in Escherichia coli requires efficient chemical synthesis to produce large quantities of the amino acid and the generation of a mutant aminoacyl tRNA synthetase that can selectively charge the amino acid onto a tRNA. Here, we report the synthesis of Acd in 87% yield over five steps from Tyr and the identification of an Acd synthetase by screening candidate enzymes previously evolved from Methanococcus janaschii Tyr synthetase for unnatural amino acid incorporation. Furthermore, we characterize the photophysical properties of Acd, including quenching interactions with select natural amino acids and Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) interactions with common fluorophores such as methoxycoumarin (Mcm). Finally, we demonstrate the value of incorporation of Acd into proteins, using changes in Acd fluorescence lifetimes, Mcm/Acd FRET, or energy transfer to Eu(3+) to monitor protein folding and binding interactions. PMID:24303933

  1. Ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel synthesis of samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced sonocatalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    In this work, pure TiO2 and samarium, cerium mono-doped and co-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method and their sonocatalytic efficiency studied toward removal of Methyl Orange as a model organic pollutant from the textile industry. The relationship of structure and sonocatalytic performance of catalysts was established by using various techniques, such as XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, DRS, and PL. A comparison on the removal efficiency of sonolysis alone and sonocatalytic processes was performed. The results showed that the samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 catalyst with narrower band gap energy and smaller particle size leads to a rapid removal of pollutant. It was believed that Sm(3+) and Ce(4+) ions can serve as superficial trapping for electrons at conduction band of TiO2 and prolonged the lifetime of electron-hole pairs. Finally, the effect of synthesis and operational variables on the sonocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied and optimized using response surface methodology as a statistical technique. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency (96.33%) was achieved at the optimum conditions: samarium content of 0.6 wt%, cerium content of 0.82 wt%, initial pollutant concentration of 4.31 mg L(-1), catalyst dosage of 0.84 mg L(-1), ultrasonic irradiation power of 700 W, and irradiation time of 50 min. PMID:25682738

  2. High-Efficiency Synthesis of Human ?-Endorphin and Magainin in the Erythrocytes of Transgenic Mice: A Production System for Therapeutic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ajay; Khoury-Christianson, Anastasia M.; White, Steven P.; Dhanjal, Nirpal K.; Huang, Wen; Paulhiac, Clara; Friedman, Eric J.; Manjula, Belur N.; Kumar, Ramesh

    1994-09-01

    Chemical synthesis of peptides, though feasible, is hindered by considerations of cost, purity, and efficiency of synthesizing longer chains. Here we describe a transgenic system for producing peptides of therapeutic interest as fusion proteins at low cost and high purity. Transgenic hemoglobin expression technology using the locus control region was employed to produce fusion hemoglobins in the erythrocytes of mice. The fusion hemoglobin contains the desired peptide as an extension at the C end of human ?-globin. A protein cleavage site is inserted between the C end of the ?-globin chain and the N-terminal residue of the desired peptide. The peptide is recovered after cleavage of the fusion protein with enzymes that recognize this cleavage signal as their substrate. Due to the selective compartmentalization of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes, purification of the fusion hemoglobin is easy and efficient. Because of its compact and highly ordered structure, the internal sites of hemoglobin are resistant to protease digestion and the desired peptide is efficiently released and recovered. The applicability of this approach was established by producing a 16-mer ?-endorphin peptide and a 26-mer magainin peptide in transgenic mice. Transgenic animals and their progeny expressing these fusion proteins remain healthy, even when the fusion protein is expressed at >25% of the total hemoglobin in the erythrocytes. Additional applications and potential improvements of this methodology are discussed.

  3. Efficient Synthesis of Amides and Esters from Alcohols under Aerobic Ambient Conditions Catalyzed by a Au/Mesoporous Al2 O3 Nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Chng, Leng Leng; Yang, Jinhua; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-06-01

    An efficient heterogeneous Au/mesoporous alumina nanocatalyst has been successfully developed for the synthesis of amides and esters from simple building blocks of readily available alcohols and amines. The processes were simple and were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure of O2 to form the desired products with up to 97?% isolated yield. The ability of Au/mesoporous alumina to catalyze these reactions under ambient conditions further enhances the sustainability of these chemical processes. Furthermore, the nanocatalyst was stable to air and water and could be recovered and reused easily. The enhanced catalytic activity of Au/mesoporous alumina might be attributed to the presence of negatively charged Au nanoparticles that could promote oxidation processes as well as the stability of the mesoporous alumina support calcined at a high temperature of 800?C. PMID:25925279

  4. Translation of microwave methodology to continuous flow for the efficient synthesis of diaryl ethers via a base-mediated SNAr reaction

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whilst microwave heating has been widely demonstrated as a synthetically useful tool for rapid reaction screening, a microwave-absorbing solvent is often required in order to achieve efficient reactant heating. In comparison, microreactors can be readily heated and pressurised in order to “super-heat” the reaction mixture, meaning that microwave-transparent solvents can also be employed. To demonstrate the advantages associated with microreaction technology a series of SNAr reactions were performed under continuous flow by following previously developed microwave protocols as a starting point for the investigation. By this approach, an automated microreaction platform (Labtrix® S1) was employed for the continuous flow synthesis of diaryl ethers at 195 °C and 25 bar, affording a reduction in reaction time from tens of minutes to 60 s when compared with a stopped-flow microwave reactor. PMID:22043247

  5. [11C]PR04.MZ, a promising DAT ligand for low concentration imaging: synthesis, efficient 11C-0-methylation and initial small animal PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Riss, P.J.; Hooker, J.; Alexoff, D.; Kim, Sung-Won; Fowler, J.S.; Roesch, F.

    2009-05-01

    PR04.MZ was designed as a highly selective dopamine transporter inhibitor, derived from natural cocaine. Its binding profile indicates that [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ may be suited as a PET radioligand for the non-invasive exploration of striatal and extrastriatal DAT populations. As a key feature, its structural design facilitates both, labelling with fluorine-18 at its terminally fluorinated butynyl moiety and carbon-11 at its methyl ester function. The present report concerns the efficient [{sup 11}C]MeI mediated synthesis of [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ from an O-desmethyl precursor trifluoroacetic acid salt with Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in DMF in up to 95 {+-} 5% labelling yield. A preliminary {mu}PET-experiment demonstrates the reversible, highly specific binding of [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ in the brain of a male Sprague-Dawley rat.

  6. Simple Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Benzimidazoles Using Sodium Hexafluroaluminate, Na 3 AlF 6 , as an Efficient Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Mobinikhaledi, Akbar; Hamta, Ahmad; Kalhor, Mehdi; Shariatzadeh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on the synthesis of benzimidazoles due to having a broad spectrum of biological activities such as anti-parasitic, fungicidal, anti-thelemintic and anti-inflammatory activities. As a part of our research work in this area, a series of benzimidasole derivatives (3a-n) were synthesized in good to high yields by reaction of o-phenylenediamine and different aromatic aldehydes in the presence of sodium hexafluroaluminate, Na3AlF6, as an efficient catalyst at 50 ?C. This environmentally benign and practical method offers several advantages, such as high yields, use of available catalyst, mild reaction conditions and easy workup. The antibacterial activity of these benzimidasoles was also evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus (mm) and Escherichia coli (mm) bacterial strain. All synthesized materials were characterized using IR and NMR spectroscopy as well as microanalyses data. PMID:24734060

  7. Aqueous SDS micelle-promoted acid-catalyzed domino ABB' imino Diels-Alder reaction: a mild and efficient synthesis of privileged 2-methyl-tetrahydroquinoline scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Merchn Arenas, Diego R; Martnez Bonilla, Carlos A; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V

    2013-06-14

    A new green protocol for the efficient synthesis of pharmacologically relevant 4-amidyl-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines (THQs) through the domino type ABB' imino Diels-Alder reaction in acidified water in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactant was developed for the first time. The influence of the SDS micelles and their different concentrations (5.0, 8.2 and 12.0 mM) on reactivity of the imino Diels-Alder reaction was studied. It was found that the best THQ yields (70-99%) are achieved above the critical micellar concentration (12 mM) using pH 1.0-2.5. This procedure resulted in a general and clean environmentally benign protocol to obtain the privileged diastereospecific cis 2,4-disubstituted THQ molecules of highest biological interest. PMID:23615634

  8. Synthesis of POSS-based ionic conductors with low glass transition temperatures for efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Replacing liquid-state electrolytes with solid-state electrolytes has been proven to be an effective way to improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We report herein the synthesis of amorphous ionic conductors based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with low glass transition temperatures for solid-state DSSCs. As the ionic conductor is amorphous and in the elastomeric state at the operating temperature of DSSCs, good pore filling in the TiO2 film and good interfacial contact between the solid-state electrolyte and the TiO2 film can be guaranteed. When the POSS-based ionic conductor containing an allyl group is doped with only iodine as the solid-state electrolyte without any other additives, power conversion efficiency of 6.29% has been achieved with good long-term stability under one-sun soaking for 1000 h. PMID:24933357

  9. Efficient one-pot synthesis of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines catalyzed by nanocrystalline MgO in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Amaneh Mossafaii; Mokhtary, Masoud

    2015-04-01

    The direct three-component condensation of 6-aminouracil, 6-amino-2-thiouracil or 6-amino-1,3-dimethyluracil, with arylaldehydes and malononitrile to generate a series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives has been carried out over nanocrystalline MgO with high efficiency in water as a green solvent at 80 C. The morphology and structure of the nanocrystalline MgO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results confirmed the nanocrystalline MgO particle size is approximately 50 nm. This methodology offers significant improvements for the synthesis of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives with regard to the yield of products, simplicity in operation, and green aspects by avoiding toxic catalysts and solvents.

  10. Mannich Bases as Enone Precursors for Water-Mediated Efficient Synthesis of 2,3,6-Trisubstituted Pyridines and 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Hanashalshahaby, Essam Hamied Ahmed; Unaleroglu, Canan

    2015-06-01

    A highly efficient, regioselective, and environmentally friendly method has been developed for water-mediated synthesis of 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines. The introduced method allows easy preparation of various polysubstituted pyridines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines via domino reaction of an enolizable ketone, ammonia and enones derived from different Mannich bases in mild reaction conditions. Montmorillonite K-10 promoted this one-pot three-component reaction and gave both new and known 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines in good yields. The reaction protocol provides a wide array of functionality in construction of polysubstituted pyridines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines from commercially available starting materials in easily applicable and environmentally friendly conditions. PMID:25961906

  11. Synthesis of carbon embedded MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Zn and Co) nanoparticles as efficient hydrogenation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nandan, Devaki; Sreenivasulu, Peta; Viswanadham, Nagabhatla; Chiang, Ken; Newnham, Jarrod

    2014-08-21

    Successful synthesis of stable MFe2O4 nanoparticles@C has been realized by applying the novel concept of using levulinic acid possessing carboxyl and carbonyl groups to facilitate the interaction with metal ions (M(2+) and Fe(3+)) and the carbon source (phloroglucinol) in the sol-gel polymerization method. All the samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TEM, HRTEM, ICP-AES, CHNS, and N2 adsorption-desorption, and were studied for their performance towards hydrogenation reaction of styrene. Out of three samples NiFe2O4 gave excellent selective hydrogenation activity of styrene to ethyl benzene (100% conversion and 100% selectivity). Optimal production of ethyl benzene over NiFe2O4 nanoparticles@C has been established at 80 C reaction temperature after 24 h reaction time under 40 bar hydrogen pressure. PMID:24983775

  12. Gold Nanoparticles Supported on a Layered Double Hydroxide as Efficient Catalysts for the One-Pot Synthesis of Flavones.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Takafumi; Jin, Xiongjie; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2015-11-01

    Flavones are a class of natural products with diverse biological activities and have frequently been synthesized by step-by-step procedures using stoichiometric amounts of reagents. Herein, a catalytic one-pot procedure for the synthesis of flavone and its derivatives is developed. In the presence of gold nanoparticles supported on a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Au/LDH), various kinds of flavones can be synthesized starting from 2'-hydroxyacetophenones and benzaldehydes (or benzyl alcohols). The present one-pot procedure consists of a sequence of several reactions, and Au/LDH can catalyze all these different types of reactions. The catalysis is shown to be truly heterogeneous, and Au/LDH can be readily recovered and reused. PMID:26367015

  13. A Herpesvirus Specific Motif of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Is Required for the Efficient Lytic Genome Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yohei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kawashima, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kanda, Teru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Murata, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To overcome such disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV replication is important. The EBV DNA polymerase (Pol) is one of the essential factors for viral lytic DNA replication. Although it is well known that its C-terminal half, possessing DNA polymerase and 3’-5’ exonuclease activity, is highly conserved among Family B Pols, the NH2-terminal half has yet to be characterized in detail. In this study, we show that a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of EBV Pol plays important role. In addition, we could identify the most essential residue for replication in the motif. These findings will shed light on molecular mechanisms of viral DNA synthesis and will help to develop new herpesviruses treatments. PMID:26123572

  14. Controlled self-assembly of metal-organic frameworks on metal nanoparticles for efficient synthesis of hybrid nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Nawafune, Hidemi; Akamatsu, Kensuke

    2011-10-01

    We report a novel approach for synthesizing inorganic nanoparticle/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) heterostructured nanocomposites by self-assembly of MOFs on nanoparticles. This approach involves the synthesis of Au nanoparticles and preferential growth of [Cu(3)(btc)(2)](n) frameworks consisting of Cu(2+) ions and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (btc) on nanoparticles. Aggregates consisting of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)-stabilized Au nanoparticles linked by Cu(2+) ions were necessary for preferential self-assembly of [Cu(3)(btc)(2)](n) frameworks on the aggregates, resulting in the formation of Au nanoparticles/[Cu(3)(btc)(2)](n) nanocomposites. The present approach was confirmed to be applicable for other hybrids consisting of Au nanoparticles and tetragonal [Cu(2)(ndc)(2)(dabco)](n) frameworks. PMID:21919504

  15. Efficient synthesis of frutinone?A and its derivatives through palladium-catalyzed C - H activation/carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yongje; Yoo, Changho; Moon, Youngtaek; Lee, Yunho; Hong, Sungwoo

    2015-04-01

    Frutinone?A, a biologically active ingredient of an antimicrobial herbal extract, demonstrates potent inhibitory activity towards the CYP1A2 enzyme. A three-step total synthesis of frutinone?A with an overall yield of 44?% is presented. The construction of the chromone-annelated coumarin core was achieved through palladium-catalyzed C?H carbonylation of 2-phenolchromones. The straightforward synthetic route allowed facile substitutions around the frutinone?A core and thus rapid exploration of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) profile of the derivatives. The inhibitory activity of the synthesized frutinone?A derivatives were determined for CYP1A2, and ten compounds exhibited one-to-two digit nanomolar inhibitory activity towards the CYP1A2 enzyme. PMID:25252104

  16. Synthesis of ?-Ga2O3 microstructures with efficient photocatalytic activity by annealing of GaSe single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippo, Emanuela; Tepore, Marco; Baldassarre, Francesca; Siciliano, Tiziana; Micocci, Goacchino; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio; Tepore, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis of new ?-Ga2O3 microstructures was achieved through rapid annealing of GaSe single crystal at 850 C in oxygen-ammonia co-flow for 30-120 min duration. The obtained micro-flowers and micro-leaves were carefully characterized through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. SEM images demonstrated that the product consisted of flower-shaped microstructures, which as time elapsed evolved into leaves-like dendritic microstructures. These microstructures started off directly from oxidized single crystal. A possible growth mechanism was also proposed. Experimental results evidenced that synthesized microstructures exhibited good photocatalytic activity, better than commercial TiO2 powder (Degussa P25).

  17. One-pot synthesis of gold-palladium@palladium core-shell nanoflowers as efficient electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiaoyu; Dai, Yuxuan; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong; Wei, Shaohua; Chen, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a simple polyallylamine-assisted water-based synthesis is successfully used to synthesize high-quality gold-palladium@palladium (Au-Pd@Pd) core-shell nanoflowers. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, element mapping, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques are used to characterize the morphology, structure and composition of Au-Pd@Pd core-shell nanoflowers. The as-prepared Au-Pd@Pd core-shell nanoflowers exhibit significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in basic medium compared with commercial Pd black. In addition, Au-Pd@Pd core-shell nanoflowers also show higher durability for the EOR than commercial Pd black.

  18. Template-free synthesis of hollow nitrogen-doped carbon as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui; Chen, Siguo; Zhang, Yuanliang; Wang, Yao; Ding, Wei; Li, Li; Qi, Xueqiang; Shen, Xiu; Wei, Zidong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report a template-free method to fabricate hollow nitrogen-doped carbon (HNC) by pyrolysis of hollow polyaniline microspheres, which were synthesized by suspension polymerization method. The entire synthesis is simple, environmentally benign, and economic. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of the as-prepared HNC catalyst is close to that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst in alkaline media with four electron pathway. Moreover, the HNC shows much better fuel crossover resistance and long-term durability than the commercial Pt/C in alkaline medium. All these features make HNC a potentially promising and suitable substitute for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells.

  19. A Herpesvirus Specific Motif of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Is Required for the Efficient Lytic Genome Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yohei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kawashima, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kanda, Teru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Murata, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To overcome such disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV replication is important. The EBV DNA polymerase (Pol) is one of the essential factors for viral lytic DNA replication. Although it is well known that its C-terminal half, possessing DNA polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is highly conserved among Family B Pols, the NH2-terminal half has yet to be characterized in detail. In this study, we show that a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of EBV Pol plays important role. In addition, we could identify the most essential residue for replication in the motif. These findings will shed light on molecular mechanisms of viral DNA synthesis and will help to develop new herpesviruses treatments. PMID:26123572

  20. Facile Synthesis of DendriMac Polymers via the Combination of Living Anionic Polymerization and Highly Efficient Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongwei; Wang, Qiuyun; Sang, Wei; Han, Li; Liu, Pibo; Sheng, Heyu; Wang, Yurong; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Two DendriMac polymers (Dendri-hydr and Dendri-click) are efficiently and conveniently synthesized via the combination of living anionic polymerization (LAP) and hydrosilylation/click chemistry. Based on the end-capping of DPE derivatives (DPE-SiH and DPE-DA) toward polymeric anions, the polymeric core and arms are effectively synthesized, and the base polymers can be regarded as polymeric bricks. Hydrosilylation and click chemistry are used as coupling reactions to construct the DendriMac polymers with high efficiency and convenience. The numbers of branched arms are calculated by SEC as 5.84 and 6.08 for Dendri-hydr and Dendri-click, respectively, which indicate that the DendriMac architectures exhibit high structural integrity. Because of its independence, high efficiency, and convenience, the whole construction can be regarded as the "building of polymeric bricks." PMID:26501193

  1. Modeling, synthesis and study of highly efficient solar cells based on III-nitride nanowire arrays grown on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozharov, A. M.; Bolshakov, A. D.; Kudryashov, D. A.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Cirlin, G. E.; Mukhin, I. S.; Harmand, J. C.; Tchernysheva, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this letter we investigate photovoltaic properties of GaN nanowires (NWs) Si substrate heterostructure obtained by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Antireflection properties of the NW array were studied theoretically and experimentally to show an order of magnitude enhancement in antireflection comparing to the pure Si surface (2.5% vs. 33.8%). In order to determine optimal morphology and doping levels of the structure with maximum possible efficiency we simulated it's properties using a finite difference method. The carried out simulation showed that a maximum efficiency should be 20%.

  2. An efficient synthesis of novel carbocyclic nucleosides with use of ring-closing metathesis from D-lactose.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joon Hee; Shim, Myung Jung; Ro, Bong Oh; Ko, Ok Hyun

    2002-09-20

    This paper describes an efficient synthetic route for various types of novel carbocyclic nucleosides. The required stereochemistry of the targeted nucleosides was successfully obtained with use of Grubbs cyclization and Trost allylic alkylation from the carbohydrate chiral template "D-lactose". PMID:12227822

  3. AN EFFICIENT AQUEOUS N-HETEROCYCLIZATION OF ANILINE DERIVATIVES: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF N-ARYL AZACYCLOALKANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-aryl azacycloalkanes, an important class of building blocks in natural product and pharmaceuticals, are synthesized via an efficient and simple eco-friendly protocol that involves double N-alkylation of aniline derivatives. The reaction is accelerated by exposure to microwaves ...

  4. An Eco-Friendly Improved Protocol for the Synthesis of Bis(3-indolyl)methanes Using Poly(4-vinylpyridinium)hydrogen Sulfate as Efficient, Heterogeneous, and Recyclable Solid Acid Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Banothu, Janardhan; Gali, Rajitha; Velpula, Ravibabu; Bavantula, Rajitha; Crooks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Highly efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bis(3-indolyl)methanes by the electrophilic substitution reaction of indole with aldehydes catalyzed by poly(4-vinylpyridinium)hydrogen sulfate was described. Excellent yields, shorter reaction times, simple work-up procedure, avoiding hazardous organic solvents, and reusability of the catalyst are the most obvious advantages of this method. PMID:24052864

  5. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mahmood, Arshad

    2014-04-21

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects in ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.

  6. One-pot synthesis of ultrathin manganese dioxide nanosheets and their efficient oxidative degradation of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hang; Xu, Kongliang; Huang, Majia; Shang, Yinxing; She, Ping; Yin, Shengyan; Liu, Zhenning

    2015-12-01

    Ultrathin manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheets have been synthesized in aqueous solution by a facile one-step method. MnO2 nanosheets show a typical 2D lamellar morphology, possessing an average lateral dimension of 100-300 nm, and a typical thickness of 3.1-7.5 nm, corresponding to 4-10 layers of δ-MnO2. The resultant MnO2 nanosheets have been demonstrated to possess superior oxidative degradation ability to Rhodamine B (RhB) by investigating the decomposition rate and comparing the results with the commercial MnO2 powder. Typically, ultrathin MnO2 nanosheets have shown a high oxidation degradation performance of RhB solution (97.9% removed within 30 min) in acid solution (pH 2.0), which can be attributed to special lamellar morphology and the large surface area of the layered MnO2 nanosheets. It is believed that such a convenient approach for the cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis of ultrathin MnO2 nanosheets holds great promise for the degradation of complex and various dye wastewater in practical application.

  7. Facile synthesis of unique NiO nanostructures for efficiently catalytic conversion of CH4 at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yucheng; Zhao, Yanting; Ni, Liuliu; Jiang, Kedan; Tong, Guoxiu; Zhao, Yuling; Teng, Botao

    2016-01-01

    A simple one-pot thermal decomposition approach to the selective synthesis of NiO nanomaterials was developed. The morphologies of the NiO nanomaterials were nanoparticle-based sheets, octahedra, nanosheet-built agglomerates, and nanoparticle-based microspheres. The samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption analyses. The morphology, crystal size, and texture properties of the products can be easily modulated by selecting various decomposition temperatures and precursors. Samples with high specific surface area and small crystal size were found to easily form at low sintering temperatures and when basic nickel carbonate and nickel oxalate dihydrate were used as precursors. Reduction property and CH4 conversion, as functions of decomposition temperature and precursor type, were systematically investigated. When NiCO32Ni(OH)24H2O and NiC2O42H2O were used as precursors, the as-obtained nanosheet-built agglomerates and nanoparticle-based sheets presented a high CH4 conversion rate because of the small crystal size and large specific surface area.

  8. Template synthesis of Ag/AgCl microrods and their efficient visible light-driven photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hua; Xiao, Liang; Huang, Jianhua

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Preparation ofAg/AgCl microrods by reaction of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} microrods with NaCl solution. • Generation of metallic Ag is induced by the ambient light in the synthesis process. • Ag/AgCl shows excellent visible light-driven photodegradation of organic dyes. - Abstract: Ag/AgCl microrods, aggregated by nanoparticles with a diameter ranging from 100 nm to 2 μm, were prepared by an ion-exchange reaction at 80 °C between Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} template and NaCl solution. The existence of metallic Ag species was confirmed by XRD, DRS and XPS measurements. Ag/AgCl microrods showed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B and methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The degradation rate constants of rhodamine B and methylene blue are 0.176 and 0.114 min{sup −1}, respectively. The cycling photodegradation experiments suggest that Ag/AgCl microds could be employed as stable plasmonic photocatalysts for the degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation.

  9. Efficient phyto-synthesis and structural characterization of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles using Annona squamosa peel extract.

    PubMed

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, A; Prabhakarn, A; Rahuman, A Abdul; Velayutham, K; Rajakumar, G; Padmaja, R D; Lekshmi, Mohan; Madhumitha, G

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the biosynthesis of rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) was achieved by a novel, biodegradable and convenient procedure using fruit peel Annona squamosa aqueous extract. This is the first report on the new, simple, rapid, eco-friendly and cheaper methods for the synthesis of rutile TiO(2) NPs at lower temperature using agricultural waste. Rutile TiO(2) NPs were characterized by UV, XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS studies. The UV-Vis spectrophotometer results were promising and showed a rapid production of TiO(2) NPs with a surface plasmon resonance occurring at 284 nm. The formation of the TiO(2) NPs as observed from the XRD spectrum is confirmed to be TiO(2) particles in the rutile form as evidenced by the peaks at 2?=27.42, 36.10, 41.30 and 54.33 when compared with the literature. The TEM images showed polydisperse nanoparticles with spherical shapes and size 232 nm ranges. PMID:22983203

  10. Synthesis and application of a bromomethyl substituted scaffold to be used for efficient optimization of anti-virulence activity

    PubMed Central

    Chorell, Erik; Bengtsson, Christoffer; Banchelin, Thomas Sainte-Luce; Das, Pralay; Uvell, Hanna; Sinha, Arun K.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Pilicides are a class of compounds that attenuate virulence in Gram negative bacteria by blocking the chaperone/usher pathway in Escherichia coli. It has also been shown that compounds derived from the peptidomimetic scaffold that the pilicides are based on can prevent both Aβ aggregation and curli formation. To facilitate optimizations towards the different targets, a new synthetic platform has been developed that enables fast and simple introduction of various substituents in position C-7 on the peptidomimetic scaffold. Importantly, this strategy also enables introduction of previously unattainable heteroatoms in this position. Pivotal to the synthetic strategy is the synthesis of a C-7 bromomethyl substituted derivative of the ring-fused dihydrothiazolo 2-pyridone pilicide scaffold. From this versatile and reactive intermediate various heteroatom-linked substituents could be introduced on the scaffold including amines, ethers, amides and sulfonamides. In addition, carbon-carbon bonds could be introduced to the sp3-hybridized bromomethyl substituted scaffold by Suzuki–Miyaura cross couplings. Evaluation of the 24 C-7 substituted compounds in whole-bacterial assays provided important structure–activity data and resulted in the identification of a number of new pilicides with activity as good or better than those developed previously. PMID:21316127

  11. High surface area zincosilicates as efficient catalysts for the synthesis of ethyl lactate: an in-depth structural investigation.

    PubMed

    Collard, Xavier; Louette, Pierre; Fiorilli, Sonia; Aprile, Carmela

    2015-10-28

    Novel Zn-MCM-41 mesoporous materials with particle diameters ranging from 20 to 120 nm were successfully prepared following a straightforward synthesis route. The structural and textural properties of the solids were characterized by N2-physisorption, X-ray diffraction, (29)Si MAS-NMR, TEM and EDX. These results allow evidencing the presence of an ordered mesoporous structure with a very high specific surface area. The insertion of zinc as single site species within the silica framework was investigated using XPS via the Auger parameter in a Wagner plot representation. This is the first time that an in-depth investigation of these types of solids using XPS techniques was performed. The presence of Brnsted and Lewis acidity was elucidated by following in the IR the interaction with ammonia and carbon monoxide. The materials were tested for the conversion of dihydroxyacetone into ethyl lactate with good results both in terms of yield and selectivity and the catalytic activity resulted in excellent agreement with IR and XPS analysis. PMID:26394539

  12. Efficient phyto-synthesis and structural characterization of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles using Annona squamosa peel extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, A.; Prabhakarn, A.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Velayutham, K.; Rajakumar, G.; Padmaja, R. D.; Lekshmi, Mohan; Madhumitha, G.

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the biosynthesis of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) was achieved by a novel, biodegradable and convenient procedure using fruit peel Annona squamosa aqueous extract. This is the first report on the new, simple, rapid, eco-friendly and cheaper methods for the synthesis of rutile TiO2 NPs at lower temperature using agricultural waste. Rutile TiO2 NPs were characterized by UV, XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS studies. The UV-Vis spectrophotometer results were promising and showed a rapid production of TiO2 NPs with a surface plasmon resonance occurring at 284 nm. The formation of the TiO2 NPs as observed from the XRD spectrum is confirmed to be TiO2 particles in the rutile form as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ = 27.42°, 36.10°, 41.30° and 54.33° when compared with the literature. The TEM images showed polydisperse nanoparticles with spherical shapes and size 23 ± 2 nm ranges.

  13. Metal-organic gel templated synthesis of magnetic porous carbon for highly efficient removal of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luhuan; Ke, Fei; Zhu, Junfa

    2016-03-21

    Magnetic porous carbon composites are promising materials in various applications, such as adsorbents, supercapacitors and catalyst supports, due to their high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and easy separation. However, despite the increasing number of reports of magnetic porous carbon composites, the preparation of these materials with environmentally friendly procedures still remains a great challenge. Herein, we report a facile method to prepare a magnetic porous carbon composite with high surface area from a Fe-based metal-organic gel (MOG) template, an extended structure of a metal-organic framework (MOF). The obtained magnetic porous carbon composite was applied to remove organic dyes from an aqueous solution by selecting methyl orange (MO) as a model molecule. It exhibits excellent adsorption capacity (182.82 mg g(-1)), fast adsorption kinetics (8.13 × 10(-3) g mg(-1) min(-1)), and a perfect magnetic separation performance for the MO removal. This study demonstrates a new way to achieve clean synthesis of magnetic porous carbon materials, and opens a new door for the application of MOGs in organic dye removal. PMID:26842305

  14. Highly efficient synthesis of exopolysaccharides by Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 during growth in hydrolyzed wheat flour agar.

    PubMed

    Minervini, F; De Angelis, M; Surico, R F; Di Cagno, R; Gänzle, M; Gobbetti, M

    2010-06-30

    The aim of this study was to optimize the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by sourdough Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 for industrial application. The effects of pH, temperature, planktonic or attached cells and of some food matrices as substrates were studied. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), reconstituted skimmed milk (RSM) and whey milk were supplemented with fresh yeast extract, mineral salts, and/or molasses. Non-controlled pH, starting from 5.6 to 3.5, was the optimal condition for L. curvatus DPPMA10. Temperature of 30 degrees C was also found to be optimal. Solid surfaces (agar culture media) stimulated attached bacteria to synthesize EPS (> or = of two-fold, P<0.05) with respect to planktonic cells (broth media). The highest production of EPS (ca. 46-50 g/kg of wet medium) was found during growth as attached cells in WFH agar supplemented with glucose, sucrose or molasses, mineral salts and fresh yeast extract at 30 degrees C for 48 h. As shown by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, glucose was the only hydrolysis end-product for EPS synthesized during 48 h of incubation. The EPS synthesized by L. curvatus DPPMA10 improved the quality of bread and was utilized as carbon course by intestinal strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The synthesis of EPS by L. curvatus DPPMA10 under the conditions of this study may open new perspectives for their industrial applications. PMID:20398955

  15. Highly efficient, quick and green synthesis of biarlys with chitosan supported catalyst using microwave irradiation in the absence of solvent.

    PubMed

    Baran, Talat; Açıksöz, Eda; Menteş, Ayfer

    2016-05-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a quick reaction that had high activity with a small amount of catalyst, which could be an eco-friendly alternative technique for the synthesis of biarlys in Suzuki coupling reactions. First, a novel chitosan Schiff base supported Pd(II) catalyst was synthesized, and its structure was illuminated with FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, TG/DTG, SEM/EDAX, XRD, ICP-OES, UV-vis, magnetic moment, and molar conductivity techniques. Subsequently, the catalytic activity of the catalyst was tested in Suzuki CC reactions under microwave irradiation using a solvent-free reaction condition. The catalytic tests showed an excellent activity with a small load of the catalyst (0.02mol%) in 4min. The catalyst showed seven runs without loss of activity, and high values of turnover numbers (TON) and turnover frequency (TOF) were obtained. The novel biopolymer supported Pd(II) catalyst provided much faster reaction times, higher yields, and reusability under microwave heating compared to classic heating methods. PMID:26917390

  16. Rapid Synthesis and Efficient Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction/Evolution Reaction of CoMn2O4 Nanodots Supported on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Chen, Chengcheng; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Transition-metal oxides have attracted extensive interest as oxygen-reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) catalyst alternatives to precious Pt-based materials but generally exhibit limited electrocatalytic performance due to their large overpotential and low specific activity. We here report a rapid synthesis of spinel-type CoMn2O4 nanodots (NDs, below 3 nm) monodispersed on graphene for highly efficient electrocatalytic ORR/OER in 0.1 M KOH solution. The preparation of the composite involves the reaction of manganese and cobalt salts in mixed surfactant-solvent-water solution at mild temperature (120 C) and air. CoMn2O4 NDs homogeneously distributed on carbonaceous substrates show strong coupling and facile charge transfer. Remarkably, graphene-supported CoMn2O4 NDs showed 20 mV higher ORR half-wave potential, twice the kinetic current, and better catalytic durability compared to the benchmark carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C). Moreover, CoMn2O4/reduced graphene oxide afforded electrocatalytic OER with a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at a low potential of 1.54 V and a small Tafel slope of ?56 mV/dec. This indicates that the composite of CoMn2O4 nanodots monodispersed on graphene is promising as highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts of ORR and OER that can be used in the areas of fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:25989252

  17. Graphite oxide-mediated synthesis of porous CeO{sub 2} quadrangular prisms and their high-efficiency adsorptive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ling; Wang, Fengxian; Xie, Dong; Zhang, Jun; Du, Gaohui

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous CeO{sub 2} quadrangular prisms have been prepared via graphite oxide-mediated synthesis. • Dual-pore hierarchical systems are formed with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. • Porous CeO{sub 2} exhibits a rapid adsorption to Rhodamine B with a removal efficiency of ∼99%. • Porous CeO{sub 2} retains the same performances in different pH solutions. - Abstract: We report a graphite oxide-mediated approach for synthesizing porous CeO{sub 2} through a facile hydrothermal process followed by thermal annealing in air. The phase structure, morphology, microstructure and porosity of the products have been revealed by a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption. The as-prepared CeO{sub 2} products show well-defined quadrangular prism morphology, and they are composed of interconnected nanoparticles with diameters around 30–100 nm. In particular, the dual-pore hierarchical systems are created in the CeO{sub 2} quadrangular prisms with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. The dye sorption capacity of the porous CeO{sub 2} is investigated, which exhibits a rapid adsorption to rhodamine B with a high removal efficiency of ∼99%. Moreover, the CeO{sub 2} absorbent retains the same performances in different pH solutions.

  18. A novel acylase from Streptomyces mobaraensis that efficiently catalyzes hydrolysis/synthesis of capsaicins as well as N-acyl-L-amino acids and N-acyl-peptides.

    PubMed

    Koreishi, Mayuko; Zhang, Demin; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi; Adachi, Shuji; Matsuno, Ryuichi; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-11

    A novel enzyme that catalyzes efficient hydrolysis of capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces mobaraensis. The enzyme consisted of two dissimilar subunits with molecular masses of 61 and 19 kDa. The enzyme was activated and stabilized in the presence of Co2+. It showed a pH optimum of about 8 and was stable at temperatures of up to 55 degrees C for 1 h at pH 7.8. The specific activity of the enzyme for the hydrolysis of capsaicin was 10(2)-10(4) times higher than those for the enzymes reported to date. In an aqueous/n-hexane biphasic system, capsaicin analogues such as octanoyl, decanoyl, and lauroyl vanillylamides were synthesized from the corresponding fatty acids and vanillylamine at yields of 50% or greater. In addition, the enzyme catalyzed the deacylation of N-lauroyl-L-amino acids and N-lauroyl-L-dipeptides and the efficient synthesis of Nalpha-lauroyl-L-lysine, Nepsilon-lauroyl-L-lysine, and various N-lauroyl-peptides in aqueous solution in both the absence and the presence of glycerol. PMID:16390180

  19. Synthesis of butterfly-like ZnO nanostructures and study of their self-reducing ability toward Au(3+) ions for enhanced photocatalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueling; Liu, Yumeng; Zheng, Yan; Ding, Kun; Nie, Shijie; Yang, Ping

    2016-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures with diverse morphologies were successfully fabricated via a simple one-step hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent calcination. The formation of butterfly-like ZnO was mainly ascribed to a typical nucleation-growth-assembly process as a result of electrostatic interactions between the nanoparticles and the reconstructed sheets. Au nanoparticles (NPs) created from Au(3+) ions were deposited on the butterfly-like ZnO without the use of any reducing agents by simply stirring the solution at room temperature. Tartaric acid was present in the ZnO calcined at a low temperature (300 °C), which resulted in the self-reducing ability of ZnO toward the Au(3+) ions. The Au NPs were closely connected with the ZnO matrix. This close connection resulted in hierarchical ZnO-Au composites with efficient photocatalytic activity for use in environmental remediation. Compared with the pure ZnO sample calcined at 300 °C, the hierarchical ZnO-Au composites showed an enhanced photocatalytic performance toward rhodamine B. The results of photodegradation indicated that the incorporation of the Au NPs drastically increased the photocatalytic efficiency by promoting the separation of the electron-hole pairs created by the absorption of photons. PMID:26795699

  20. Efficient lipase-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation: utilization of biocatalytic promiscuity for synthesis of benzylidene-indolin-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Xiang, Xinran; Gu, Mengjie; Xu, Haoran; Huang, He; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Based on the screening of biocatalysts and reaction conditions including solvent, water content, temperature, enzyme loading, and reaction time, lipase from porcine pancreas (PPL) showed the prominent promiscuity for the Knoevenagel condensation between 1,3-dihydroindol-2-one heterocycle and aromatic aldehydes. Under the optimized procedure, both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituent of aldehydes substrates could react efficiently, and benzylidene-indolin-2-ones were obtained in excellent yields (75.0-96.6%). Benzylidene-indolin-2-ones derivatives were efficiently synthesized by the Knoevenagel condensation between various aromatic aldehydes and 1,3-dihydroindol-2-one catalyzed by lipase from porcine pancreas with excellent yields obtained. PMID:26546230

  1. Bioinspired synthesis of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped graphene as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Xiangqian; He, Guangli; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Bao, Shujuan; Hu, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    Efficient electrocatalyst of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for a variety of renewable energy applications and heteroatom-doped carbon materials have demonstrated promising catalytic performance towards ORR. In this paper we report a bioinspired method to synthesize nitrogen/sulfur (N/S) co-doped graphene as an efficient ORR electrocatalyst via self-polymerization of polydopamine (PDA) thin layer on graphene oxide sheets, followed by reacting with cysteine and finally thermal annealing in Argon (Ar) atmosphere. As-prepared N/S co-doped graphene exhibits significantly enhanced ORR catalytic activity in alkaline solution compared with pristine graphene or N-doped graphene. It also displays long-term operation stability and strong tolerance to methanol poison effect, indicating it a promising ORR electrocatalyst.

  2. Continuous Flow Polymer Synthesis toward Reproducible Large-Scale Production for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Pirotte, Geert; Kesters, Jurgen; Verstappen, Pieter; Govaerts, Sanne; Manca, Jean; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Maes, Wouter

    2015-10-12

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) have attracted great interest as a solar cell technology with appealing mechanical, aesthetical, and economies-of-scale features. To drive OPV toward economic viability, low-cost, large-scale module production has to be realized in combination with increased top-quality material availability and minimal batch-to-batch variation. To this extent, continuous flow chemistry can serve as a powerful tool. In this contribution, a flow protocol is optimized for the high performance benzodithiophene-thienopyrroledione copolymer PBDTTPD and the material quality is probed through systematic solar-cell evaluation. A stepwise approach is adopted to turn the batch process into a reproducible and scalable continuous flow procedure. Solar cell devices fabricated using the obtained polymer batches deliver an average power conversion efficiency of 7.2 %. Upon incorporation of an ionic polythiophene-based cathodic interlayer, the photovoltaic performance could be enhanced to a maximum efficiency of 9.1 %. PMID:26388210

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a porous and hydrophobic cellulose-based composite for efficient and fast oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangyun; Xu, Shimei; Tan, Yun; Du, Juan; Wang, Jide

    2016-04-20

    Oily wastewater is generated in diverse industrial processes, and its treatment has become crucial due to increasing environmental concerns. Herein, silanized cellulose was prepared by sol-gel reaction between microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS) using for oil-water separation. The silanized cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). A higher mass ratio of HDTMS to MCC made silanized cellulose become looser, and showed lower water absorbency. The silanized cellulose exhibited specific separation performance towards vegetable oil-water mixture (not for mineral oil-water mixture) with separation efficiency of 99.93%. Moreover, the separation was fast with a water flux of 4628.5Lm(-2)h(-1). The separation efficiency still remained at 99.77% even after recycling for 10 times. PMID:26876843

  4. Highly efficient enzymatic synthesis of tert-butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate with a mutant alcohol dehydrogenase of Lactobacillus kefir.

    PubMed

    He, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Shao-Yun; Wu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Li-Rong; Xu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    tert-Butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((S)-CHOH) is a valuable chiral synthon, which is used for the synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. To date, only the alcohol dehydrogenases from Lactobacillus brevis (LbADH) and Lactobacillus kefir (LkADH) have demonstrated catalytic activity toward the asymmetric reduction of tert-butyl 6-chloro-3,5-dioxohexanoate (CDOH) to (S)-CHOH. Herein, a tetrad mutant of LkADH (LkTADH), A94T/F147L/L199H/A202L, was screened to be more efficient in this bioreduction process, exhibiting a 3.7- and 42-fold improvement in specific activity toward CDOH (1.27 U/mg) over LbADH (0.34 U/mg) and wild-type LkADH (0.03 U/mg), respectively. The molecular basis for the improved catalytic activity of LkTADH toward CDOH was investigated using homology modeling and docking analysis. Two major issues had a significant impact on the biocatalytic efficiency of this process, including (i) the poor aqueous stability of the substrate and (ii) partial substrate inhibition. A fed-batch strategy was successfully developed to address these issues and maintain a suitably low substrate concentration throughout the entire process. Several other parameters were also optimized, including the pH, temperature, NADP(+) concentration and cell loading. A final CDOH concentration of 427 mM (100 g/L) gave (S)-CHOH in 94 % yield and 99.5 % e.e. after a reaction time of 38 h with whole cells expressing LkTADH. The space-time yield and turnover number of NADP(+) in this process were 10.6 mmol/L/h and 16,060 mol/mol, respectively, which were the highest values ever reported. This new approach therefore represents a promising alternative for the efficient synthesis of (S)-CHOH. PMID:26004803

  5. Amyloid-? Deposits Target Efficient Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes: Synthesis, in Vitro Evaluation, and in Vivo Imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hualong; Tu, Peiyu; Zhao, Liu; Dai, Jiapei; Liu, Boli; Cui, Mengchao

    2016-02-01

    The formation of extracellular amyloid-? (A?) plaques is a common molecular change that underlies several debilitating human conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the existing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes for the in vivo detection of A? plaques are limited by undesirable fluorescent properties and poor brain kinetics. In this work, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated a new family of efficient NIR probes that target A? plaques by incorporating hydroxyethyl groups into the ligand structure. Among these probes, DANIR 8c showed excellent fluorescent properties with an emission maximum above 670 nm upon binding to A? aggregates and also displayed a high sensitivity (a 629-fold increase in fluorescence intensity) and affinity (Kd = 14.5 nM). Because of the improved hydrophilicity that was induced by hydroxyls, 8c displayed increased initial brain uptake and a fast washout from the brain, as well as an acceptable biostability in the brain. In vivo NIR fluorescent imaging revealed that 8c could efficiently distinguish between AD transgenic model mice and normal controls. Overall, 8c is an efficient and veritable NIR fluorescent probe for the in vivo detection of A? plaques in the brain. PMID:26717442

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-PEIs as efficient vectors for nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sushil K; Yadav, Santosh; Gupta, Kailash C; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-04-01

    Branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25 kDa) has been widely used as an efficient delivery vector for nucleic acids in vitro. However, its charge-associated toxicity has limited its in vivo applications. In an attempt to control its toxicity, it was reacted with varying amounts of glycidol (2,3-epoxy-1-propanol) to obtain a small series of hydrophilic polymers, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl-grafted-polyethylenimines (DHP-g-P). The resulting polymers were characterized by (1)H-NMR and subjected to interaction with negatively charged pDNA, which yielded complexes in the size range of ~171-190 nm with a zeta potential of ?+33-39 mV. Acid-base titration revealed no effect of substitution on the buffering capacity of the modified polymers. Grafting of 2,3-dihydroxypropyl groups on bPEI significantly improved the cell viability (i.e. almost non-toxic) as well as the DNA release properties of these modified polymers compared to native bPEI. Formation of a relatively loose DHP-g-P25/pDNA complex (the best working system in terms of transfection efficiency) resulted in the efficient nuclear release of pDNA for transcription, a prerequisite for efficient transfection. Subsequently, upon evaluation of their ability to transfer nucleic acids in vitro, the DHP-g-P/pDNA complexes exhibited higher gene transfection efficiency with one of the formulations, DHP-g-P25/DNA complex, displaying ~2.7 folds higher GFP expression than bPEI and ~2.3-3.5 folds higher than the selected commercial transfection reagents used in this study. Further to quantify the extent of GFP positive cells, FACS analysis was performed, which revealed DHP-g-P25/DNA mediated gene expression in ~51% cells outcompeting bPEI, Superfect, Fugene and Lipofectamine. Sequential delivery of GFP-specific siRNA resulted in ~78% suppression of the target gene compared to ~49% achieved by Fugene. All these results demonstrate the potential of these polymers for in vivo gene delivery. PMID:22419101

  7. Native Chemical Ligation Strategy to Overcome Side Reactions during Fmoc-Based Synthesis of C-Terminal Cysteine-Containing Peptides.

    PubMed

    Lelivre, Dominique; Terrier, Victor P; Delmas, Agns F; Aucagne, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The Fmoc-based solid phase synthesis of C-terminal cysteine-containing peptides is problematic, due to side reactions provoked by the pronounced acidity of the C? proton of cysteine esters. We herein describe a general strategy consisting of the postsynthetic introduction of the C-terminal Cys through a key chemoselective native chemical ligation reaction with N-Hnb-Cys peptide crypto-thioesters. This method was successfully applied to the demanding peptide sequences of two natural products of biological interest, giving remarkably high overall yields compared to that of a state of the art strategy. PMID:26878883

  8. A novel method of synthesis of small band gap SnS nanorods and its efficient photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipika; Dutta, Raj Kumar

    2015-11-01

    A facile one pot method has been developed for synthesis of stable (?=-37.5 mV), orthorhombic structured SnS nanorods capped with mercaptoacetic acid by precipitation method. The SnS nanorods were measured to be about 45 nm long with a diameter of 20 nm, as studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The band gap of the MAA capped SnS nanorods was 1.81 eV, measured by diffused reflectance spectroscopy and was larger than the bulk SnS. The relative positions of highest valence band and lowest conduction band were determined from theoretical band structure calculation as 1.58 eV and -0.23 eV, respectively. The UV-Visible-NIR fluorescence emission spectrum of the SnS nanorods revealed intense emission peak at 1000 nm (1.239 eV) and weaker peaks at 935 nm, 1080 nm, 1160 nm which is likely to be due to Sn(2+) vacancies. The as-synthesized SnS nanorods exhibited more than 95% sunlight induced photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue in 4 h, following first order kinetics with high rate of degradation (k) (0.0124 min(-1)). The observed dye degradation is attributable to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), confirmed from terephthalic acid assay. The ROS generation has been explained on the basis of interaction between photoexcited electrons from conduction band with molecular oxygen adhered to the surface of nanorods owing to favourable redox potentials of O2/O2(-) (-0.20 eV) in normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) scale. PMID:26196717

  9. A practical and benign synthesis of primary amines through ruthenium-catalyzed reduction of nitriles.

    PubMed

    Enthaler, Stephan; Junge, Kathrin; Addis, Daniele; Erre, Giulia; Beller, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of nitriles represents an atom-economic and valuable route to amines. In the present study, the ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenation of various organic nitriles to give primary amines has been examined in detail. Straightforward ruthenium complexes modified by cheap and widely available triphenylphosphine allow for the efficient and general reduction of various aryl, alkyl, and heterocyclic nitriles. By using a practical in situ catalyst composed of [Ru(cod)(methylallyl(2))] and PPh(3), excellent yields and chemoselectivity were achieved. Moreover, the catalyst system displays broad functional group tolerance. PMID:19034895

  10. An efficient and practical synthesis of [2-11C]indole via superfast nucleophilic [11C]cyanation and RANEY® Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization

    SciTech Connect

    So Jeong Lee; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David; Schueller, Michael; Kim, Dohyun; Nauth, Alexander; Weber, Carina; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ma, Ling; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-09-21

    We developed a rapid method for the synthesis of carbon-11 radiolabeled indole using a sub-nanomolar quantity of no-carrier-added [11C]cyanide as radio-precursor. Based upon a reported synthesis of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile (2), a highly reactive substrate 2-nitrobenzyl bromide (1) was evaluated for nucleophilic [11C]cyanation. Additionally, related reaction conditions were explored with the goal of obtaining of highly reactive 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-11C]acetonitrile ([11C]-2) while inhibiting its rapid conversion to 2,3-bis(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-11C]propanenitrile ([11C]-3). Next, a Raney Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization method was utilized for synthesizing the desired [2-11C]indole with hydrazinium monoformate as the active reducing agent. Extensive and iterative screening of basicity, temperature and stoichiometry was required to overcome the large stoichiometry bias that favored 2-nitrobenzylbromide (1) over [11C]cyanide, which both caused further alkylation of the desired nitrile and poisoned the Raney Nickel catalyst. The result is an efficient two-step, streamlined method to reliably synthesize [2-11C]indole with an entire radiochemical yield of 21 ± 2.2% (n = 5, ranging from 18 – 24%). The radiochemical purity of the final product was > 98% and specific activity was 176 ± 24.8 GBq/μmol (n = 5, ranging from 141 – 204 GBq/μmol). The total radiosynthesis time including product purification by semi-preparative HPLC was 50 – 55 min from end of cyclotron bombardment.

  11. An efficient and practical synthesis of [2-11C]indole via superfast nucleophilic [11C]cyanation and RANEY® Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    So Jeong Lee; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David; Schueller, Michael; Kim, Dohyun; Nauth, Alexander; Weber, Carina; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ma, Ling; et al

    2015-09-21

    We developed a rapid method for the synthesis of carbon-11 radiolabeled indole using a sub-nanomolar quantity of no-carrier-added [11C]cyanide as radio-precursor. Based upon a reported synthesis of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile (2), a highly reactive substrate 2-nitrobenzyl bromide (1) was evaluated for nucleophilic [11C]cyanation. Additionally, related reaction conditions were explored with the goal of obtaining of highly reactive 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-11C]acetonitrile ([11C]-2) while inhibiting its rapid conversion to 2,3-bis(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-11C]propanenitrile ([11C]-3). Next, a Raney Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization method was utilized for synthesizing the desired [2-11C]indole with hydrazinium monoformate as the active reducing agent. Extensive and iterative screening of basicity, temperature and stoichiometry was required tomore » overcome the large stoichiometry bias that favored 2-nitrobenzylbromide (1) over [11C]cyanide, which both caused further alkylation of the desired nitrile and poisoned the Raney Nickel catalyst. The result is an efficient two-step, streamlined method to reliably synthesize [2-11C]indole with an entire radiochemical yield of 21 ± 2.2% (n = 5, ranging from 18 – 24%). The radiochemical purity of the final product was > 98% and specific activity was 176 ± 24.8 GBq/μmol (n = 5, ranging from 141 – 204 GBq/μmol). The total radiosynthesis time including product purification by semi-preparative HPLC was 50 – 55 min from end of cyclotron bombardment.« less

  12. An efficient and practical synthesis of [2-(11)C]indole via superfast nucleophilic [(11)C]cyanation and RANEY Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Jeong; Fowler, Joanna S; Alexoff, David; Schueller, Michael; Kim, Dohyun; Nauth, Alexander; Weber, Carina; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M; Ma, Ling; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-12-14

    A rapid method for the synthesis of carbon-11 radiolabeled indole was developed using a sub-nanomolar quantity of no-carrier-added [(11)C]cyanide as radio-precursor. Based upon a reported synthesis of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile (), a highly reactive substrate 2-nitrobenzyl bromide () was evaluated for nucleophilic [(11)C]cyanation. Additionally, related reaction conditions were explored with the goal of obtaining of highly reactive 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-(11)C]acetonitrile () while inhibiting its rapid conversion to 2,3-bis(2-nitrophenyl)-[1-(11)C]propanenitrile (). Next, a RANEY Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization method was utilized for synthesizing the desired [2-(11)C]indole with hydrazinium monoformate as the active reducing agent. Extensive and iterative screening of basicity, temperature and stoichiometry was required to overcome the large stoichiometry bias that favored 2-nitrobenzylbromide () over [(11)C]cyanide, which both caused further alkylation of the desired nitrile and poisoned the RANEY Nickel catalyst. The result is an efficient two-step, streamlined method to reliably synthesize [2-(11)C]indole with an entire radiochemical yield of 21 2.2% (n = 5, ranging from 18-24%). The radiochemical purity of the final product was >98% and specific activity was 176 24.8 GBq ?mol(-1) (n = 5, ranging from 141-204 GBq ?mol(-1)). The total radiosynthesis time including product purification by semi-preparative HPLC was 50-55 min from end of cyclotron bombardment. PMID:26411301

  13. Synthesis of hierarchical porous ?-MnO2 nanoboxes as an efficient catalyst for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Luan, Yanping; Lyu, Zhiyang; Wang, Liangjun; Xu, Leilei; Yuan, Kaidi; Pan, Feng; Lai, Min; Liu, Zhaolin; Chen, Wei

    2015-09-01

    A rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery with a remarkably high theoretical energy storage capacity has attracted enormous research attention. However, the poor oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction (ORR and OER) activities in discharge and charge processes cause low energy efficiency, poor electrolyte stability and short cycle life. This requires the development of efficient cathode catalysts to dramatically improve the Li-O2 battery performances. MnO2-based materials are recognized as efficient and low-cost catalysts for a Li-O2 battery cathode. Here, we report a controllable approach to synthesize hierarchical porous ?-MnO2 nanoboxes by using Prussian blue analogues as the precursors. The obtained products possess hierarchical pore size and an extremely large surface area (249.3 m2 g-1), which would favour oxygen transportation and provide more catalytically active sites to promote ORR and OER as the Li-O2 battery cathode. The battery shows enhanced discharge capacity (4368 mA h g-1@0.08 mA cm-2), reduced overpotential (270 mV), improved rate performance and excellent cycle stability (248 cycles@500 mA h g-1 and 112 cycles@1000 mA h g-1), in comparison with the battery with a VX-72 carbon cathode. The superb performance of the hierarchical porous ?-MnO2 nanoboxes, together with a convenient fabrication method, presents an alternative to develop advanced cathode catalysts for the Li-O2 battery.A rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery with a remarkably high theoretical energy storage capacity has attracted enormous research attention. However, the poor oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction (ORR and OER) activities in discharge and charge processes cause low energy efficiency, poor electrolyte stability and short cycle life. This requires the development of efficient cathode catalysts to dramatically improve the Li-O2 battery performances. MnO2-based materials are recognized as efficient and low-cost catalysts for a Li-O2 battery cathode. Here, we report a controllable approach to synthesize hierarchical porous ?-MnO2 nanoboxes by using Prussian blue analogues as the precursors. The obtained products possess hierarchical pore size and an extremely large surface area (249.3 m2 g-1), which would favour oxygen transportation and provide more catalytically active sites to promote ORR and OER as the Li-O2 battery cathode. The battery shows enhanced discharge capacity (4368 mA h g-1@0.08 mA cm-2), reduced overpotential (270 mV), improved rate performance and excellent cycle stability (248 cycles@500 mA h g-1 and 112 cycles@1000 mA h g-1), in comparison with the battery with a VX-72 carbon cathode. The superb performance of the hierarchical porous ?-MnO2 nanoboxes, together with a convenient fabrication method, presents an alternative to develop advanced cathode catalysts for the Li-O2 battery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02983j

  14. Synthesis of hierarchical porous ?-MnO2 nanoboxes as an efficient catalyst for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Luan, Yanping; Lyu, Zhiyang; Wang, Liangjun; Xu, Leilei; Yuan, Kaidi; Pan, Feng; Lai, Min; Liu, Zhaolin; Chen, Wei

    2015-09-28

    A rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery with a remarkably high theoretical energy storage capacity has attracted enormous research attention. However, the poor oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction (ORR and OER) activities in discharge and charge processes cause low energy efficiency, poor electrolyte stability and short cycle life. This requires the development of efficient cathode catalysts to dramatically improve the Li-O2 battery performances. MnO2-based materials are recognized as efficient and low-cost catalysts for a Li-O2 battery cathode. Here, we report a controllable approach to synthesize hierarchical porous ?-MnO2 nanoboxes by using Prussian blue analogues as the precursors. The obtained products possess hierarchical pore size and an extremely large surface area (249.3 m(2) g(-1)), which would favour oxygen transportation and provide more catalytically active sites to promote ORR and OER as the Li-O2 battery cathode. The battery shows enhanced discharge capacity (4368 mA h g(-1)@0.08 mA cm(-2)), reduced overpotential (270 mV), improved rate performance and excellent cycle stability (248 cycles@500 mA h g(-1) and 112 cycles@1000 mA h g(-1)), in comparison with the battery with a VX-72 carbon cathode. The superb performance of the hierarchical porous ?-MnO2 nanoboxes, together with a convenient fabrication method, presents an alternative to develop advanced cathode catalysts for the Li-O2 battery. PMID:26290962

  15. An emulsifier-free RAFT-mediated process for the efficient synthesis of cerium oxide/polymer hybrid latexes.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Jrme; Warnant, Jrme; Lacroix-Desmazes, Patrick; Dufils, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vinas, Jrme; Vanderveken, Yves; van Herk, Alex M

    2012-08-28

    Hybrid latexes based on cerium oxide nanoparticles are synthesized via an emulsifier-free process of emulsion polymerization employing amphiphatic macro-RAFT agents. Poly(butyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) random oligomers of various compositions and chain lengths are first obtained by RAFT copolymerization in the presence of a trithiocarbonate as controlling agent. In a second step, the seeded emulsion copolymerization of styrene and methyl acrylate is carried out in the presence of nanoceria with macro-RAFT agents adsorbed at their surface, resulting in a high incorporation efficiency of cerium oxide nanoparticles in the final hybrid latexes, as evidenced by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. PMID:22605563

  16. Efficient synthesis of glycosylated phenazine natural products and analogs with DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Jane B; Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud J; Nielsen, John

    2003-09-21

    Inspired by the occurrence and function of phenazines in natural products, new glycosylated analogs were designed and synthesized. DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors were used in an efficient and easily-handled glycosylation protocol compatible with combinatorial chemistry. Benzoylated D-glucose, D-galactose and L-quinovose DISAL glycosyl donors were synthesized in high yields and used under mild conditions to glycosylate methyl saphenate and 2-hydroxyphenazine. The glycosides were screened for biological activity and one compound showed inhibitory activity towards topoisomerase II. PMID:14527145

  17. Effect of post-synthesis acid activation of TiO2 nanofilms on the photocatalytic efficiency under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambolova, I.; Blaskov, V.; Shipochka, M.; Eliyas, A.; Vassilev, S.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosized TiO2 films were deposited by spray pyrolysis and thermally treated at 400oC. Then the films were dipped in 1M aqueous solution of HCl. The activated samples were divided into two parts - one part was dried (A) and another was annealed (AT) in air. The photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black (RB5) textile dye under visible light was tested. The following instrumental methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for the phase and surface characterization of obtained samples. According to Raman and XRD analyses all films are anatase. The XRD showed that activated films are better crystallized than non activated TiO2 film. The presence of chlorine at 200.3 eV was registered for acid activated samples by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The acidic activated films exhibited higher rate of dye photodegradation than that of the reference TiO2 sample. The photocatalytic efficiency decreases in the order A > AT> non activated TiO2 films. The degradation rate constant for acid activated films is two times higher than those of the reference film. The hydroxyl content in TiO2 acidic activated films is greater than that of the non- activated films, which results in significant increase in the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the presence of chlorine may also lead to enhancement in efficiency.

  18. Facile synthesis of TiO2/trititanate heterostructure with enhanced photoelectric efficiency for an improved photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feitai; Li, Youji; Liu, Zhi; Fang, Pengfei

    2015-06-01

    TiO2/trititanate photocatalyst was prepared by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of TiO2, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman etc. The photocatalytic activities of catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB). It is found that the heterostructure can be directly formed via the conversion of surface TiO2 into trititanate. The coupled nanostructure possesses enhanced adsorption ability for RhB as compared with the raw TiO2, owing to the formation of an increased amount of hydroxyl groups on the prepared catalyst surface. Besides, the generated trititanate can successfully introduce a shallow energy level in the coupled composite, which results in the improvement of separation efficiency of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. In the degradation experiments, TiO2/trititanate exhibits much higher photocatalytic activity than the bare TiO2. These advantages of the coupled nanostructure in adsorption capacity and photoelectric efficiency may make it a wider application for the removal of organic pollutants.

  19. Metal-organic framework-templated synthesis of magnetic nanoporous carbon as an efficient absorbent for enrichment of phenylurea herbicides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingli; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-04-22

    Nanoporous carbon with a high specific surface area and unique porous structure represents an attractive material as an adsorbent in analytical chemistry. In this study, a magnetic nanoporous carbon (MNC) was fabricated by direct carbonization of Co-based metal-organic framework in nitrogen atmosphere without using any additional carbon precursors. The MNC was used as an effective magnetic adsorbent for the extraction and enrichment of some phenylurea herbicides (monuron, isoproturon, diuron and buturon) in grape and bitter gourd samples prior to their determination by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Several important experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 1.0-100.0 ng g(-1) for monuron, diuron and buturon and 1.5-100.0 ng g(-1) for isoproturon with the correlation coefficients (r) larger than 0.9964. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method were in the range from 0.17 to 0.46 ng g(-1). The results indicated that the MNC material was stable and efficient adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of phenylurea herbicides and would have a great application potential for the extraction and preconcentration of more organic pollutants from real samples. PMID:25819788

  20. Pd(OAc)2/DABCO as an efficient and phosphine-free catalytic system for the synthesis of single and double Weinreb amides by the aminocarbonylation of aryl iodides.

    PubMed

    Gadge, Sandip T; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2014-08-14

    This work reports a mild, stable and efficient Pd(OAc)2/DABCO catalysed protocol for the synthesis of single and double Weinreb amides. Double Weinreb amides, having 1,4-phenylene- and biphenylene-linkers - important backbones for the synthesis of biologically active symmetrical resorcylate oligomer units - were synthesized by the double carbonylation of aryl diiodides. Notably, the reaction does not require any expensive or air/moisture sensitive phosphine ligands. DABCO was found to be an inexpensive and stable ligand for the Pd(OAc)2 catalysed carbonylation of aryl iodides under an atmospheric pressure of carbon monoxide, and offered excellent yields of the single and double Weinreb amides. PMID:24967832

  1. Efficient synthesis of spironaphthopyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidine-5,3'-indolines under solvent-free conditions catalyzed by SBA-Pr-SO3H as a nanoporous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi; Lashgari, Negar; Faramarzi, Sakineh; Badiei, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    A green, simple one-pot synthesis of spironaphthopyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5,3'-indoline derivatives by a three-component reaction of isatins, 2-naphthol, and barbituric acids under solvent-free conditions in the presence of SBA-Pr-SO(3)H has been accomplished. Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO(3)H) as a heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst was found to be an efficient and recyclable acid catalyst in this synthesis. PMID:25286212

  2. Integrated lipase production and in situ biodiesel synthesis in a recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast: an efficient dual biocatalytic system composed of cell free enzymes and whole cell catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipase-catalyzed biotransformation of acylglycerides or fatty acids into biodiesel via immobilized enzymes or whole cell catalysts has been considered as one of the most promising methods to produce renewable and environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuels, thus being extensively studied so far. In all previously pursued approaches, however, lipase enzymes are prepared in an independent process separated from enzymatic biodiesel production, which would unavoidably increase the cost and energy consumption during industrial manufacture of this cost-sensitive energy product. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel cost-effective biocatalysts and biocatalytic processes with genuine industrial feasibility. Result Inspired by the consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulose to generate bioethanol, an integrated process with coupled lipase production and in situ biodiesel synthesis in a recombinant P. pastoris yeast was developed in this study. The novel and efficient dual biocatalytic system based on Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase took advantage of both cell free enzymes and whole cell catalysts. The extracellular and intracellular lipases of growing yeast cells were simultaneously utilized to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oils in situ and in one pot. This integrated system effectively achieved 58% and 72% biodiesel yield via concurrent esterified-transesterified methanolysis and stepwise hydrolysis-esterification at 3:1 molar ratio between methanol and waste cooking oils, respectively. Further increasing the molar ratio of methanol to waste cooking oils to 6:1 led to an 87% biodiesel yield using the stepwise strategy. Both water tolerance and methanol tolerance of this novel system were found to be significantly improved compared to previous non-integrated biodiesel production processes using separately prepared immobilized enzymes or whole cell catalysts. Conclusion We have proposed a new concept of integrated biodiesel production. This integrated system couples lipase production to lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis in one pot. The proof-of-concept was established through construction of a recombinant P. pastoris yeast strain that was able to grow, overexpress T. lanuginosus lipase, and efficiently catalyze biodiesel production from fed waste cooking oils and methanol simultaneously. This simplified single-step process represents a significant advance toward achieving economical production of biodiesel at industrial scale via a green biocatalytic route. PMID:24713071

  3. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Englerin A through Catalytic Diastereo- and Enantioselective Carbonyl Ylide Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Hanari, Taiki; Shimada, Naoyuki; Kurosaki, Yasunobu; Thrimurtulu, Neetipalli; Nambu, Hisanori; Anada, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Shunichi

    2015-08-10

    An asymmetric total synthesis of the guaiane sesquiterpene (-)-englerin A, a potent and selective inhibitor of the growth of renal cancer cell lines, was accomplished. The basis of the approach is a highly diastereo- and enantioselective carbonyl ylide cycloaddition with an ethyl vinyl ether dipolarophile under catalysis by dirhodium(II) tetrakis[N-tetrachlorophthaloyl-(S)-tert-leucinate], [Rh2 (S-TCPTTL)4 ], to construct the oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane framework with concomitant introduction of the oxygen substituent at C9 on the exo-face. Another notable feature of the synthesis is ruthenium tetraoxide-catalyzed chemoselective oxidative conversion of C9 ethyl ether to C9 acetate. PMID:26179743

  4. An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene-ruthenium complex: application towards the synthesis of polyesters and polyamides.

    PubMed

    Malineni, Jagadeesh; Keul, Helmut; Möller, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The ruthenium benzimidazolylidene-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex 4 catalyzes the direct dehydrogenative condensation of primary alcohols into esters and primary alcohols in the presence of amines to the corresponding amides in high yields. This efficient new catalytic system shows a high selectivity towards the conversion of diols to polyesters and of a mixture of diols and diamines to polyamides. The only side product formed in this reaction is molecular hydrogen. Remarkable is the conversion of hydroxytelechelic polytetrahydrofuran (Mn = 1000 g mol(-1))--a polydispers starting material--into a hydrolytically degradable polyether with ester linkages (Mn = 32 600 g mol(-1)) and, in the presence of aliphatic diamines, into a polyether with amide linkages in the back bone (Mn = 16 000 g mol(-1) ). PMID:25653190

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Phenothiazine-Based Platinum(II)-Acetylide Photosensitizers for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Siu, Chi-Ho; Lee, Lawrence Tien Lin; Yiu, Sze-Chun; Ho, Po-Yu; Zhou, Panwang; Ho, Cheuk-Lam; Chen, Tao; Liu, Jianyong; Han, Keli; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-03-01

    Three new unsymmetrical phenothiazine-based platinum(II) bis(acetylide) complexes PT1-PT3 with different electron-donating arylacetylide ligands were synthesized and characterized. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties have been fully investigated and the density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out. Under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm(-2) ), the PT1-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device exhibited an attractive power conversion efficiency (η) up to 5.78 %, with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc ) of 10.98 mA cm(-2) , an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc ) of 0.738 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 0.713. These findings provide strong evidence that platinum-acetylide complexes have great potential as promising photosensitizers in DSSC applications. PMID:26660631

  6. Synthesis of Hierarchical (BiO)2CO3 Nanosheets Microspheres toward Efficient Photocatalystic Reduction of CO2 into CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huohai; Bai, Yang; Chen, Ting; Shi, Xian; Zhu, Yu-chuan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hierarchical (BiO)2CO3 nanosheets microspheres were synthesized with dry ice as carbon source, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic results showed that (BiO)2CO3 display much higher photocatalytic activity than BiOCl and TiO2 for photocatalystic reduction of CO2 under UV-visible light. The photocatalytic mechanism study revealled that (BiO)2CO3 display better separation efficiency of photoinduced charge carriers due to the large interlayer spacing (1.3675 nm).

  7. SiO2/H2SO4: An Efficient Catalytic System for Solvent-free 1, 5-benzodiazepines Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Shushizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Dalband, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Background 1, 5-Benzodiazepines have been investigated extensively by organic chemists due to their medicinal and pharmacological properties. These compounds are synthesized by condensation of o-phenylenediamines with carbonyl compounds in the presence of acid catalysts. Objectives During our studies on the application of silica resin with acid functional moieties, we found that SiO2/H2SO4 mixture is a simple and efficient catalyst for this method under microwave irradiation. Materials and Methods The reaction was carried out simply by grinding SiO2/H2SO4 mixture with o-phenylenediamine, and ketone in the mortar; then the mixture was poured out into a sealed flask. Subsequently, it was irradiated in a microwave oven. Results In this method a series of cyclic and acyclic ketones underwent above conversion to form corresponding 1, 5-benzodiazepines. Conclusions In conclusion, this method is a simple, rapid, and high yielding reaction (7895%). PMID:24624156

  8. Controlled synthesis of CuInS2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Bo; Zuo, Xueqin; Li, Guang; Feng, Ali; Tang, Huaibao; Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Mingzai; Ma, Yongqing; Jin, Shaowei; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2014-12-01

    A nanocomposite comprised CuInS2 and reduced graphene oxide have been successfully synthesized via a facile two-step hydrothermal route using graphene oxide, thiourea, Indium chloride tetrahydrate and cuprous chloride as the raw materials, and L-Ascorbic acid as the reductant. Compared with pristine CuInS2, CuInS2 and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites exploited as counter electrodes have exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide and excellent chemical stability due to the introduction of reduced graphene oxide. The characterization measurements indicate that the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated with CuInS2 and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites counter electrode achieves 6.96%, which is higher than that of device using pristine CuInS2 counter electrode (5.49%), and comparable to the conventional platinum counter electrode (6.92%) under the same test conditions.

  9. Efficient chemoselective carboxylation of aromatics to arylcarboxylic acids with a superelectrophilically activated carbon dioxide-Al(2)Cl(6)/Al system.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Trk, Bla; Joschek, Jens P; Bucsi, Imre; Esteves, Pierre M; Rasul, Golam; Surya Prakash, G K

    2002-09-25

    Aromatic carboxylic acids are obtained in good to excellent yield essentially free of diaryl ketones by carboxylation of aromatics with a carbon dioxide-Al(2)Cl(6)/Al system at moderate temperatures (20-80 degrees C). To optimize reaction conditions and study the reaction mechanism, experimental variables including temperature, amount of Al(2)Cl(6)/Al, various Lewis acids, role of metal additive, carbon dioxide pressure, etc. were studied. The carboxylation reaction was found to be stoichiometric rather than catalytic, with aluminum chloride forming a dichloroaluminate of carboxylic acids. Although the carboxylation takes place using AlCl(3) itself, the presence of metal additives, especially Al, increased the yield and selectivity of carboxylic acids. Because it was not possible to distinguish between two possible mechanistic pathways of the reaction on the basis of the experimental results, theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) were also carried out. One possible pathway involves an initial complex between benzene and Al(2)Cl(6), with subsequent formation of organoaluminum intermediates (PhAlCl(2) and PhAl(2)Cl(5)). The other proceeds through the formation of various complexes of CO(2) with aluminum chloride (AlCl(3))(n), n = 1-4. The calculations have shown that the organometallic pathway, leading eventually through the formation of phenylaluminum dichloride, is endothermic by 33 kcal/mol. In contrast, the preferred CO(2)-AlCl(3) complex forms in an exothermic reaction (-6.0 kcal/mol) as does CO(2)AlCl(2)(+). On the basis of both experimental and calculational findings, the most feasible reaction mechanism proposed involves superelectrophilic aluminum chloride activated carbon dioxide reacting with the aromatics in a typical electrophilic substitution. PMID:12236753

  10. Two-dimensional mesoporous carbon nanosheets and their derived graphene nanosheets: synthesis and efficient lithium ion storage.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yin; Lv, Yingying; Che, Renchao; Wu, Haoyu; Zhang, Xuehua; Gu, Dong; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2013-01-30

    We report a new solution deposition method to synthesize an unprecedented type of two-dimensional ordered mesoporous carbon nanosheets via a controlled low-concentration monomicelle close-packing assembly approach. These obtained carbon nanosheets possess only one layer of ordered mesopores on the surface of a substrate, typically the inner walls of anodic aluminum oxide pore channels, and can be further converted into mesoporous graphene nanosheets by carbonization. The atomically flat graphene layers with mesopores provide high surface area for lithium ion adsorption and intercalation, while the ordered mesopores perpendicular to the graphene layer enable efficient ion transport as well as volume expansion flexibility, thus representing a unique orthogonal architecture for excellent lithium ion storage capacity and cycling performance. Lithium ion battery anodes made of the mesoporous graphene nanosheets have exhibited an excellent reversible capacity of 1040 mAh/g at 100 mA/g, and they can retain at 833 mAh/g even after numerous cycles at varied current densities. Even at a large current density of 5 A/g, the reversible capacity is retained around 255 mAh/g, larger than for most other porous carbon-based anodes previously reported, suggesting a remarkably promising candidate for energy storage. PMID:23282081

  11. Synthesis of ?-Cyclodextrin-Based Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Highly Efficient Adsorption and Separation of Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Wang, Yong; Li, Xiang; Sun, Bolun; Wang, Ce

    2015-12-01

    Water-insoluble ?-cyclodextrin-based fibers were synthesized by electrospinining followed by thermal cross-linking. The fibers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM) and Fourier transformed infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The highly insoluble fraction obtained from different pH values (3-11) indicates successful cross-linking reactions and their usability in aqueous solution. After the cross-linking reaction, the fibers' tensile strength increases significantly and the BET surface area is 19.49 m(2)/g. The cross-linked fibers exhibited high adsorption capacity for cationic dye methylene blue (MB) with good recyclability. The adsorption performance can be fitted well with pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity is 826.45 mg/g according to Langmuir fitting. Due to electrostatic repulsion, the fibers show weak adsorption toward negatively charged anionic dye methyl orange (MO). On the basis of the selective adsorption, the fiber membrane can separate the MB/MO mixture solution by dynamic filtration at a high flow rate of 150 mL/min. The fibers can maintain good fibrous morphology and high separation efficiency even after five filtration-regeneration cycles. The obtained results suggested potential applications of ?-cyclodextrin-based electrospun fibers in the dye wastewater treatment field. PMID:26572223

  12. Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas for use as efficient dye adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Deka, Juti Rani; Liu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-08-15

    Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved π-π stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles. PMID:25010459

  13. Surface modified magnetic nanoparticles as efficient and green sorbents: Synthesis, characterization, and application for the removal of anionic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, Hamid Reza; Arjmand, Hooman; Hoseini, S. Jafar; Nasrabadi, Hasan

    2015-11-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the removal efficiency of sunset yellow (SY) anionic dye from aqueous solutions by using new surface modified iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Pure Fe3O4 MNPs were synthesized and then functionalized by aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), through a chemical precipitation method. Characterization of the prepared MNP adsorbents was performed by furrier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to XRD and TEM results, average size of the magnetic Fe3O4/APTES NPs was estimated to be around 12 nm. The prepared magnetic adsorbent can be well dispersed in the water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. In the adsorption process, the effect of main experimental parameters such as pH of dye solution, initial concentration of SY dye, reaction time, and amount of MNP adsorbent on the removal of SY were studied and optimized. The small amount of this adsorbent (10 mg) is applicable for the removal of high concentrations of SY dye in reasonable time (17 min), at pH 3.1. Additionally, the adsorption studies show that the Langmuir model is a suitable model to explain the experimental data with high correlation coefficient.

  14. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of Ce doped cubic-hexagonal ZnTiO3 with highly efficient sonocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Tavakoli, Amirrasoul; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Ce doped ZnTiO3 as a novel catalyst with highly efficient and stable sonocatalytic activity was synthesized via an ultrasound-assisted sol-gel method using non-ionic surfactant Pluronic F127 as structure directing agent. Synthesized samples were characterized by using various techniques, such as XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, ?XRF, BET, DRS, and PL, and their sonocatalytic activity studied toward degradation of p-Nitrophenol as a model organic compound. The synthesized mesoporous Ce/ZnTiO3 had mixed cubic-hexagonal phase with large surface area (118.2 m(2) g(-1)) and narrow pore size distribution (4.9 nm). The effects of cerium concentration, calcination temperature, and calcination time on the structure and the sonocatalytic activity of Ce/ZnTiO3 were studied in detail. XRD results were suggested that the relation between the phase structure and the catalytic activity is considerable. Significant decrease in band-gap and PL intensity was observed with increasing the cerium concentration in the ZnTiO3. It became clear that the Ce/ZnTiO3 (0.81 mol%) shows high sonocatalytic activity compared with pure ZnTiO3 and other Ce/ZnTiO3 samples as well as commercial TiO2-P25. The possible mechanism for the enhanced sonocatalytic activity of Ce/ZnTiO3 was discussed in details. The electrical energy consumption was also considered during sonocatalytic experiments. PMID:26585006

  15. Organic Carbonates: Efficient Extraction Solvents for the Synthesis of HMF in Aqueous Media with Cerium Phosphates as Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Dibenedetto, Angela; Aresta, Michele; di Bitonto, Luigi; Pastore, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We describe a process for the selective conversion of C6 -polyols into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in biphasic systems of organic carbonate/water (OC/W), with cerium(IV) phosphates as catalysts. Different reaction parameters such as the OC/W ratio, catalyst loading, reaction time, and temperature, were investigated for the dehydration of fructose. Under the best reaction conditions, a yield of 67.7?% with a selectivity of 93.2?% was achieved at 423?K after 6?h of reaction using [(Ce(PO4 )1.5 (H2 O)(H3 O)0.5 (H2 O)0.5 )] as the catalyst. A maximum yield of 70?% with the same selectivity was achieved after 12?h. At the end of the reaction, the catalyst was removed by centrifugation, the organic phase was separated from water and evaporated in vacuo (with solvent recovery), and solid 5-HMF was isolated (purity >99?%). The recovery and reuse of the catalyst and the relationship between the structure of the OC and the efficiency of the extraction are discussed. The OC/W system influences the lifetime of the catalysts positively compared to only water. PMID:26676974

  16. Efficient one-pot synthesis of peapod-like hollow carbon nanomaterials for utrahigh drug loading capacity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingxin; Zhang, Haijiao; Geng, Hongya; Mi, Xianqiang; Ding, Guoji; Jiao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, peapod-like hollow carbon nanomaterial was fabricated via an efficient one-pot hydrothermal route. The carbon-silica composite was employed as the precursor and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the morphology-controlled agent. SEM and TEM results indicated that the carbon shell and the silica core in the precursor were not closely linked but rattle-type structure. After removing the silica template, the obtained carbon product had uniform peapod-like morphology, interconnected pores and high specific surface areas (above 800.0 m(2)/g). We found that CTAB played an important role in the formation of the products with peapod-like morphology. The particle sizes of the hollow carbon nanospheres were readily adjusted by varying the dosage of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and the volume ratio of ethanol and water. Based on the experimental results, the formation mechanism of the hollow carbon nanomaterial was also discussed. By virtue of their unique nanostructure and porous properties, the peapod-like hollow carbon nanomaterial exhibited ultrahigh drug loading capacity above 98.4% for doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). PMID:25313471

  17. Efficient bifunctional catalyst lipase/organophosphonic acid-functionalized silica for biodiesel synthesis by esterification of oleic acid with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Chen, Wen; Liu, Wei; Chen, Hou; Qu, Rongjun; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Qinghua; Xu, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    An efficient bifunctional catalyst lipase/organophosphonic acid-functionalized silica (SG-T-P-LS) has been successfully developed, and biodiesel production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) from free fatty acid (FFA) oleic acid with short-chain alcohol ethanol catalyzed by SG-T-P-LS was investigated. The process optimization using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed and the interactions between the operational variables were elucidated, and it was found that the molar ratio of alcohol to acid was the most significant factor. The optimum values for maximum conversion ratio can be obtained by using a Box-Behnken center-united design, and the conversion ratio could reach 89.94 0.42% under the conditions that ethanol/acid molar ratio was 1.05:1 and SG-T-P-LS to FFA weight ratio was 14.9 wt.% at 28.6C. The research results show that SG-T-P and LS-20 could work cooperatively to promote the esterification reaction, and the bifunctional catalyst SG-T-P-LS is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production. PMID:23688666

  18. Facile and economical synthesis of porous activated semi-cokes for highly efficient and fast removal of microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiangmei; Liu, Qianyi; Wang, Xidong; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-12-15

    To mitigate the threat of microcystins on the environment and human health, we demonstrate for the first time that porous activated semi-cokes (ASCs) with average pore diameters of 2-20nm could be used as adsorbents for the fast and efficient removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The surface physicochemical properties of ASCs were carefully investigated and their relations with the adsorption performance were discussed. The results showed that ASCs activated by HNO3 and KOH exhibited excellent adsorption capacities of 4276 and 8430μg/g, respectively, which were nearly 5 times and 10 times higher than that of activated carbon (AC). ASCs also showed a fast adsorption property by over 95% recovery of MC-LR in the initial 10min. The overall adsorption of MC-LR on ASCs might be dominated by both external diffusion and intra-particle diffusion. In addition, ASCs manifested an outstanding reusability and the adsorption of MC-LR was hardly influenced by the coexisting fulvic acid at low concentration. Given the remarkable performance and low cost, activated semi-cokes are expected to present promising potentials for the practical application in removing microcystins from aqueous solutions. PMID:26143195

  19. Synthesis of halogen-doped reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as highly efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Kakaei, Karim; Balavandi, Amin

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate F-, Cl-, Br- and I-doped reduced graphene oxide (XRGO) as metal-free graphene electro-catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. Reduced graphene oxide (GO) is prepared from graphite electrode using electrochemical exfoliation. In situ doping of halide in a graphene film has many problems. In this technique, different halides individually or all of them were mixed with the RGO and ionic liquids precursor at H2SO4 solution. Then we have evaluated the effectiveness of doping and performed electrochemical measurements of the ORR activity on XRGO. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy spectra show a variety of the halogen-containing functional groups. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of doped halogens in RGO. Raman spectroscopy shows a high density of defects in the RGO layer. The electrochemical properties of the XRGO catalysts on carbon paper as a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) are investigated by several electrochemical methods in oxygen saturated alkaline solutions. The catalytic activity of the XRGO and Pt-C electrodes for ORR is 50 and 30mAcm(-2) at -1V in GDEs. This enhanced efficiency is the result of the influence of the nature and percentage of the halogen, especially fluorine presence in the graphene layer. PMID:26513736

  20. Magnesiothermic synthesis of sulfur-doped graphene as an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiacheng; Ma, Ruguang; Zhou, Zhenzhen; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are highly expected in future low-cost energy systems. We have successfully prepared crumpled, sheet-like, sulfur-doped graphene by magnesiothermic reduction of easily available, low-cost, nontoxic CO2 (in the form of Na2CO3) and Na2SO4 as the carbon and sulfur sources, respectively. At high temperature, Mg can reduce not only carbon in the oxidation state of +4 in CO32- to form graphene, but also sulfur in SO42- from its highest (+6) to lowest valence which was hybridized into the carbon sp2 framework. Various characterization results show that sulfur-doped graphene with only few layers has an appropriate sulfur content, hierarchically robust porous structure, large surface area/pore volume, and highly graphitized textures. The S-doped graphene samples exhibit not only a high activity for ORR with a four-electron pathway, but also superior durability and tolerance to MeOH crossover to 40% Pt/C. This is mainly ascribed to the combination of sulfur-related active sites and hierarchical porous textures, facilitating fast diffusion of oxygen molecules and electrolyte to catalytic sites and release of products from the sites.